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Sample records for decapods

  1. VITELLOGENISIS AND IT'S ENDOCRINE CONTROL IN DECAPOD CRUSTACEANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vitellogenesis, the production of vitellin (major yolk protein), is controlled in decapod crustaceans by several hormones. With increasing efforts world-wide to successfully culture economically important crustaceans, such as shrimp, there is growing interest in attaining a bette...

  2. EFFECTS OF CHLORINATED SEAWATER ON DECAPOD CRUSTACEANS AND 'MULINIA' LARVAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eggs and larvae of decapod crustaceans and embryos of Mulinia lateralis were exposed to chlorinated seawater for varying periods in continuous flow systems. Mortality, developmental rate, and general behavior were recorded. Panopeus herbstii zoeae were more sensitive to chlorine-...

  3. Warm-water decapods and the trophic amplification of climate in the North Sea

    PubMed Central

    Lindley, J. A.; Beaugrand, G.; Luczak, C.; Dewarumez, J.-M.; Kirby, R. R.

    2010-01-01

    A long-term time series of plankton and benthic records in the North Sea indicates an increase in decapods and a decline in their prey species that include bivalves and flatfish recruits. Here, we show that in the southern North Sea the proportion of decapods to bivalves doubled following a temperature-driven, abrupt ecosystem shift during the 1980s. Analysis of decapod larvae in the plankton reveals a greater presence and spatial extent of warm-water species where the increase in decapods is greatest. These changes paralleled the arrival of new species such as the warm-water swimming crab Polybius henslowii now found in the southern North Sea. We suggest that climate-induced changes among North Sea decapods have played an important role in the trophic amplification of a climate signal and in the development of the new North Sea dynamic regime. PMID:20554562

  4. Nonlinear ecological processes driving the distribution of marine decapod larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, M.; Carbonell, A.; Tor, A.; Alvarez-Berastegui, D.; Balbín, R.; dos Santos, A.; Alemany, F.

    2015-03-01

    The complexity of the natural processes lead to many nonlinear interacting factors that influence the distribution and survival of marine pelagic species, particularly in their larval phase. The management of these ecosystems requires techniques that unveil those interactions by studying the system globally, including all relevant variables and combining both community and environmental data in a single step. Specifically, we apply an unsupervised neural network, the Self-Organising Map (SOM), to a combined dataset of environmental and decapod larvae community data from the Balearic sea, obtained in two years with contrasting environmental scenarios, as an Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) technique that provides a global and more detailed view of both the environmental processes and their influence on the distribution of such planktonic community. We examine the parental influence on the initial larval distribution by aggregating data by adult habitat, which also increments the signal to noise ratio (mean data patterns over noise due to outliers or measurement errors), and consider the distribution of larvae by development stage (as a proxy of age and hence of potential dispersion). The joined study of parental effect, drifting or concentration events determined by dynamical processes in the whole water column, and lifespan, draws the possible paths followed by larvae, and highlights the more influencing variables in their distribution. Investigation of the different aspects of dynamic height (absolute values, gradients or edges and correlations) clarified the effect of the oceanographic processes on decapods' larvae.

  5. Ontogeny of decapod crustacean hemocyanin: effects of temperature and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Terwilliger, N; Dumler, K

    2001-03-01

    Hemocyanin is present throughout the decapod crustacean's life, usually as one-hexamer and two-hexamer oligomers. Hemocyanins of some decapod crustaceans undergo changes in subunit composition and oxygen affinity during development. Maternal hemocyanin is taken up from the hemolymph via endocytosis by the oocyte. Embryo hemocyanin differs in subunit composition from hemocyanin of oocyte and adult crab and may represent the onset of hemocyanin synthesis. Complex changes in expression of hemocyanin subunits occur through megalopa and early juvenile stages of the crab Cancer magister, culminating in the pattern of adult hemocyanin. The influences of food availability and temperature on development, growth and hemocyanin ontogeny in early juvenile C. magister have been studied. Crabs were raised in warm or cold sea water and fed high or low levels of food for 6 months. While intermolt period was shorter in crabs fed high food levels, especially those raised in warm water, crabs reared in cold water with high food levels attained the largest sizes. Thus increased food availability affects growth more than increased temperature. Adult hemocyanin appeared at about the same number of weeks after the start of the experiment for crabs in the warm water/high food, warm water/low food and cold water/high food groups, even though warm water/low food crabs had molted fewer times. Crabs in the cold water/low food group expressed adult hemocyanin much later than the other groups. Molt stage and maturation from juvenile to adult are not absolutely coupled, and food availability has a greater influence than temperature on hemocyanin ontogeny. PMID:11171424

  6. First findings of decapod crustacea in the hadal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, A. J.; Fujii, T.; Solan, M.; Matsumoto, A. K.; Bagley, P. M.; Priede, I. G.

    2009-04-01

    Since the first major hadal sampling efforts in the 1950s, crustaceans of the order Decapoda have been thought absent from the hadal zone (6000-11,000 m) with no representatives documented >5700 m. A baited video lander deployed at 6007, 6890 and 7966 m in the Kermadec Trench, 8798 and 9729 m in the Tonga Trench (SW Pacific), 6945 and 7703 m in the Japan Trench and 5469 m in the Marianas region (NW Pacific) has now revealed a conspicuous presence of the Benthesicymid prawn Benthesicymus crenatus Bate 1881. Decapods were observed at all sites except at 7966 m in the Kermadec Trench and the two Tonga Trench sites, making the deepest finding 7703 m in the Japan Trench, 2000 m deeper than previously thought. These natantian decapods were readily attracted to fish bait and, rather than feeding on the bait itself, were observed preying upon smaller scavenging amphipods. These are the first observations of predation in the hadal zone. In less than 10 h of bottom time, 12 observations of 10 individuals were documented at 6007 m and 5 observations of 3 individuals were documented at 6890 m in the Kermadec Trench. In the Japan Trench at 6945 m 29 observations of 20 individuals were documented whilst only one individual was seen at 7703 m. Two individuals were observed in the abyssal Marianas Region (5575 m). Also, in the Kermadec Trench, individual caridean prawns ( Acanthephyra spp.) were observed at 6007 and 6890 m, proving categorically that the crustacean order of Decapoda is represented in the hadal zone.

  7. Geographical distribution of pelagic decapod shrimp in the Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Judkins, David C

    2014-01-01

    Ninety-one species of pelagic decapod shrimp were identified in 938 midwater-trawl collections taken between 1963 and 1974 from the North and South Atlantic. Distributional maps are provided for the most frequently occurring species. Nighttime abundance of most species was greatest within the upper 200 m. Degree of geographical overlap was estimated using the geometric mean of the proportion of joint occurrences with a value ≥ 0.5 deemed significant. Geographical distributions tended to be unique, and only 31 species had values ≥ 0.5 with one or more other species. Species within genera and within phylogenetic subgroups of Sergia were generally parapatric or partially overlapping in distribution. Five geographical groupings of co-occurring species across genera were identified: Subpolar-Temperate, Southern Hemisphere, Central, Tropical, Eastern Tropical and Western Tropical. The two species of the Southern Hemisphere group are circumpolar at temperate latitudes. The 12 species of the Central group occurred throughout the subtropical and tropical North and South Atlantic. The eight species of the Tropical group occurred broadly across the equatorial Atlantic and Caribbean with ranges usually extending into the Gulf of Mexico and northward in the Gulf Stream. The two species of the Western Tropical group occurred most often in the western tropics, but there were scattered occurrences at subtropical latitudes. The four species of the Eastern Tropical group were endemic to the Mauritanian Upwelling and the Angola-Benguela Frontal zones off western Africa. Two of the three species in the Subpolar-Temperate group had bipolar distributions, and all three occurred in the Mediterranean and in the Mauritanian Upwelling zone. Most Central, Tropical and Western Tropical species were present in the in the Gulf of Mexico. The 10 species from the Mediterranean were a mixture of Subpolar-Temperate, Central and benthopelagic species. Patterns of distribution in Atlantic pelagic decapods closely parallel those of other pelagic taxa, but myctophid fishes from the same collections appear to partition subtropical regions more finely. PMID:25543573

  8. Cadmium uptake and accumulation by the decapod crustacean Penaeus indicus.

    PubMed

    Nuñez-Nogueira, Gabriel; Rainbow, Philip S

    2005-09-01

    Juveniles of the dendrobranchiate decapod Penaeus indicus take up radiolabelled cadmium from solution over the exposure concentration range of 1.8-31.5 microg L(-1), with an uptake rate constant of 0.090 L g(-1)d(-1) at 15 salinity and 25 degrees C. New cadmium taken up is added to the existing cadmium content of the prawn with no significant excretion, and the rate of accumulation of radiolabelled cadmium is a measure of the absolute cadmium uptake rate from solution. Moulting had no significant effect on the accumulation of cadmium. Newly accumulated cadmium is distributed to all organs with the highest proportions of body content being found in the hepatopancreas, exoskeleton, gills and remaining soft tissues, the hepatopancreas and gills containing the highest labelled cadmium concentrations. Like other crustaceans, penaeid prawns inhabiting anthropogenically contaminated coastal waters with raised cadmium bioavailabilities can be expected to contain raised body concentrations of cadmium. Cadmium concentrations of most field-collected adult penaeids are relatively low, as a probable consequence of the growth dilution of their cadmium contents as a result of the rapid growth rates of penaeid prawns. PMID:15769503

  9. Neocaridina denticulata: A Decapod Crustacean Model for Functional Genomics.

    PubMed

    Mykles, Donald L; Hui, Jerome H L

    2015-11-01

    A decapod crustacean model is needed for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying physiological processes, such as reproduction, sex determination, molting and growth, immunity, regeneration, and response to stress. Criteria for selection are: life-history traits, adult size, availability and ease of culture, and genomics and genetic manipulation. Three freshwater species are considered: cherry shrimp, Neocaridina denticulata; red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii; and redclaw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus. All three are readily available, reproduce year round, and grow rapidly. The crayfish species require more space for culture than does N. denticulata. The transparent cuticle of cherry shrimp provides for direct assessment of reproductive status, stage of molt, and tissue-specific expression of reporter genes, and facilitates screening of mutations affecting phenotype. Moreover, a preliminary genome of N. denticulata is available and efforts toward complete genome sequencing and transcriptome sequencing have been initiated. Neocaridina denticulata possesses the best combination of traits that make it most suitable as a model for functional genomics. The next step is to obtain the complete genome sequence and to develop molecular technologies for the screening of mutants and for manipulating tissue-specific gene expression. PMID:26002561

  10. Heavy metals in zooplankton and decapod crustaceans from the Barents Sea.

    PubMed

    Zauke, G-P; Schmalenbach, I

    2006-04-15

    Trace metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) were analysed in zooplankton samples and decapod crustaceans collected on cruises of "RV Walther Herwig III" to the Barents Sea (Summer 1991, 1994 and 2000). We found a substantial spatial heterogeneity in the decapod crustacean Pandalus borealis, with increasing Cd concentrations from the south (North Cape Bank; 0.7 mg kg(-1) DW) to the north (north of Svalbard; 4.7 mg kg(-1)), supporting the hypothesis that the frequently reported Cd-anomaly in polar crustaceans might be extended to the Barents Sea. Regarding various crustaceans and zooplankton collectives (2000) a distinct interspecific heterogeneity of metals was obvious, with lowest Cd concentrations in euphausiids and chaetognaths and highest ones in decapods and hyperiid amphipods; lowest Cu concentrations in chaetognaths and copepods and highest ones in euphausiids and decapods; and lowest Zn concentrations in euphausiids and decapods and highest ones in some copepods. For Pb many values were below or close to the limit of detection, suggesting that Pb concentrations about 0.4 mg kg(-1) might serve as a regional background value. Results for Cd, Cu and Zn in copepods of this study are largely within the reported range, but high Cd concentrations in copepods from summer in contrast to reported lower ones during winter/spring may be related either to changing accumulation strategies of the copepod species involved or to seasonally changing Cd absorption in copepods from food. PMID:16194562

  11. When did decapods invade hydrothermal vents? Clues from the Western Pacific and Indian Oceans.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-Shu; Lu, Bo; Chen, Dian-Fu; Yu, Yan-Qin; Yang, Fan; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Tsuchida, Shinji; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Yang, Wei-Jun

    2013-02-01

    Hydrothermal vents are typically located in midocean ridges and back-arc basins and are usually generated by the movement of tectonic plates. Life thrives in these environments despite the extreme conditions. In addition to chemoautotrophic bacteria, decapod crustaceans are dominant in many of the hydrothermal vents discovered to date. Contrary to the hypothesis that these species are remnants of relic fauna, increasing evidence supports the notion that hydrothermal vent decapods have diversified in more recent times with previous research attributing the origin of alvinocarid shrimps to the Miocene. This study investigated seven representative decapod species from four hydrothermal vents throughout the Western Pacific and Indian Oceans. A partitioned mix-model phylogenomic analysis of mitochondrial DNA produced a consistent phylogenetic topology of these vent-endemic species. Additionally, molecular dating analysis calibrated using multiple fossils suggested that both bythograeid crabs and alvinocarid shrimps originated in the late Mesozoic and early Cenozoic. Although of limited sampling, our estimates support the extinction/repopulation hypothesis, which postulates recent diversification times for most hydrothermal vent species due to their mass extinction by global deep-water anoxic/dysoxic events during the Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary. The continental-derived property of the West Pacific province is compatible with the possibility that vent decapods diversified from ancestors from shallow-water regions such as cold seeps. Our results move us a step closer toward understanding the evolutionary origin of hydrothermal vent species and their distribution in the Western Pacific-Indian Ocean Region. PMID:23002089

  12. Diel Variation in Decapod Crustacean and Fish Assemblages in New Jersey Polyhaline Marsh Creeks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rountree, Rodney A.; Able, Kenneth W.

    1993-08-01

    Diel variation in fish and decapod crustacean abundance and species assemblages were examined in two studies to determine patterns of subtidal and intertidal marsh creek habitat use in a southern New Jersey estuary. In the first study, two subtidal marsh creeks were sampled with weirs from April-November 1988 ( n = 42) and seines from July-November 1988 ( n = 33), while in the second study two intertidal creeks were sampled with weirs from July-October 1989 ( n = 28). Fish and decapod species assemblages captured in subtidal weir, subtidal seine and intertidal weir, as measured by both relative abundance and canonical discrimination analyses, were all highly affected by diel period. Total abundance and abundances of 15 species of fish and decapods exhibited significant diel differences, some of which were strongly influenced by season and life history stage (i.e. size cohorts). A detailed examination of the most abundant species, Menidia menidia, reveals that adults were more abundant during the day in early summer, suggesting diurnal reproductive movements into the creeks. In contrast, young-of-the-year cohorts were significantly more abundant at night during the late summer and fall, suggesting nocturnal movement into shallow marsh creek habitats. Our observations of strong diel differences in species assemblages point out the need for both day and night sampling in marsh habitats, if the importance of these habitats to fishes and decapods are to be fully understood.

  13. Distributional patterns of decapod crustaceans in the circum-Mediterranean area during the Oligo-Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyžný, Matúš

    2015-04-01

    During the Oligocene and Miocene, the circum-Mediterranean area was a complex network of (mostly) shallow marine basins. Significant biogeographic differentiation of this area has been documented (Harzhauser et al. 2007), mainly during the Miocene, when connections between Proto-Mediterranean, Paratethys and Proto-Indo-West Pacific were intermittently opening and closing. These seaways allowed migration of marine faunas. Distributional patterns has so far been discussed for several different animal groups, especially for molluscs (e.g. Studencka et al. 1998; Harzhauser et al. 2002, 2003, 2007). To test these patterns with decapod crustaceans, a database has been compiled including all previously published Oligocene and Miocene decapod occurrences and newly gathered data from examined material deposited in the institutional collections. Decapod associations have been significant components of marine habitats since the Mesozoic times with ever-increasing importance throughout the Cenozoic. Müller (1979) argued that brachyuran decapods are among the best zoogeographical indicators. Although decapods were used as such indicators before (e.g. Schweitzer 2001; Feldmann & Schweitzer 2006), no detailed analysis of the circum-Mediterranean taxa has been conducted so far. Based on proposed anti-estuarine circulation pattern, decapods originated in the Proto-Mediterranean, and migrated both into the North Sea and the Paratethys. Moreover, during the Early Miocene the Rhine Graben served as a connection between the North Sea and the Paratethys which enabled faunal exchange. The Middle Miocene Proto-Mediterranean and Paratethys decapod assemblages as taken together were relatively homogeneous, although distinct due to increasing rate of endemites in the Paratethys during the Miocene. The research has been supported by FWF: Lise Meitner Program M 1544-B25. References Feldmann R.M. & Schweitzer C.E. 2006: Paleobiogeography of Southern Hemisphere decapod Crustacea. J. Paleontol. 80, 83-103. Harzhauser M., Kroh A., Mandic O., Piller W.E., Göhlich U., Reuter M. & Berning B. 2007: Biogeographic responses to geodynamics: a key study all around the Oligo-Miocene Tethyan Seaway. Zool. Anz. 246, 241-256. Harzhauser M., Mandic O. & Zuschin M. 2003: Changes in Paratethyan marine molluscs at the Early/Middle Miocene transition: diversity, palaeogeography and palaeoclimate. Acta Geol. Pol. 53, 323-339. Harzhauser M., Piller W.E. & Steininger F.F. 2002: Circum-Mediterranean Oligo/Miocene Biogeographic Evolution - the Gastropods' Point of View. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol. 183, 103-133. Müller P. 1979: The Indo-West-Pacific character of the Badenian decapod crustaceans of the Paratethys. In: VII International Congress on Mediterranean Neogene. Athens, September 27-October 2. Ann. Géol. Pays Hellén., Tome hors série 2, 865-869. Schweitzer C.E. 2001: Paleobiogeography of Cretaceous and Tertiary decapod crustaceans of the North Pacific Ocean. J. Paleontol. 75, 808-826. Studencka B., Gontsharova I.A. & Popov S.V. 1998: The bivalve faunas as a basis for reconstruction of the Middle Miocene history of the Paratethys. Acta Geol. Pol. 48, 285-342.

  14. Decapod Crustacea of the Central Paratethyan Ottnangian Stage (middle Burdigalian): implications for systematics and biogeography

    PubMed Central

    HYŽNÝ, MATÚŠ; HARZHAUSER, MATHIAS; DANNINGER, WOLFGANG

    2015-01-01

    Decapod crustaceans from the Ottnangian (middle Burdigalian, Lower Miocene) of the Western and Central Paratethys remain poorly known. In this study, we review and re-describe mud shrimps (Jaxea kuemeli), ghost shrimps (Gourretia sp., Calliax michelottii) and brachyuran crabs of the families Leucosiidae, Polybiidae and Portunidae. A dorsal carapace of the genus Calliax is reported for the first time in the fossil record. Re-examination of the type material of Randallia strouhali (Leucosiidae) and Geryon ottnangensis (Geryonidae) resulted in a transfer of these species into Palaeomyra (Leucosiidae) and Liocarcinus (Polybiidae), respectively. Achelous vindobonensis, originally described as a chela of a portunid crab, probably belongs to a member of Polybiidae and is provisionally treated as Liocarcinus sp. Only two species, J. kuemeli and C. michelottii, are also known from the Karpatian, the succeeding Paratethyan stage. In most cases, the decapod assemblages of the Ottnangian consist of rather shallow-water taxa whereas the assemblages of the Karpatian consist of deep-water taxa from the middle and outer shelf. The Central Paratethyan assemblages show similarities in genus composition to the Proto-Mediterranean and recent Indo-Pacific regions. Gourretia sp. represents the earliest occurrence of the respective genus in the fossil record. The Oligocene–Early Miocene appearance of Palaeomyra and Liocarcinus in the circum-Mediterranean implies that sources of present-day diversity hotspots in the Indo-Pacific trace to the Western Tethys (as for other decapod genera), although coeval decapod assemblages in the Indo-Pacific remain poorly known. PMID:26688670

  15. Seasonal distribution and abundance of fishes and decapod crustaceans in a Cape Cod estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Able, K.W.; Fahay, M.P.; Heck, K.L.; Roman, C.T.; Lazzari, M.A.; Kaiser, S.C.

    2002-01-01

    Sampling in several habitat types (sand/mud, eelgrass, sand, gravel, macroalgae/mud) during all seasons with a variety of gears in Nauset Marsh, Massachusetts during 1985-1987 found a fauna consisting of 35 fish and 10 decapod crustacean species. Although most of the abundant species were found in several habitat types, species richness and habitat use appeared to be highest for vegetated habitats (eelgrass, macroalgae). The fishes and decapods were numerically dominated by cold-water taxa; however, numerous fish species, represented by rare individuals of predominantly southern forms, enriched the fauna. Species composition of Nauset Marsh could be distinguished from estuaries south of Cape Cod and even from the south shore of the cape. Both fishes and decapods were most abundant during the summer, apparently due to the contributions from spring and summer spawning in the estuary and the adjacent Atlantic Ocean. The location of Nauset Marsh and other estuaries on Cape Cod provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the importance of this region as a faunal boundary to estuarine species.

  16. Topographical and typological comparison of the rodlike setae of ambulatory dactylopodites in decapod crustaceans

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    The arrangement and external morphology of the rodlike setae and associated structures located on the dactylopodites of the walking legs of six species of decapod crustaceans are compared. The dactyls of littoral species, represented by the rock crab, Cancer antennarius, and the spiny lobster, Panulirus interruptus, have dense tufts and bands of rodlike setae, as is typical of many decapods, and additionally only a few small plumed setae. The arrangement of setae on the dactyls of the recently discovered Galapagos vent crab. Bythograea thermydron, closely resembles that of C. antennarius. Rodlike and long plumed setae occur in about equal numbers on the dactyls of the pelagic anomuran, Pleuroncodes planipes. The dactyls having the fewest rodlike setae are those of the terrestrial hermit crab, Coenobita perlatus, and those of the kelp crab, Pugettia producta, where flat setae typical of Majidae have replace most rodlike setae. The presence and structures of the terminal pores in rodlike setae vary intra- and interspecifically, possibly as a function of molt stage. Variations in some features of rodlike setae, such as tip acuity and presence of microsetae and surface sculpting, appear to be related to development. Serrated setae occur on the dactyls of megalopal P. producta but not in later stages. The topography and typolgy of setae located on the ambulatory dactyls of decapod crustaceans are considered in light of recent interest in using seta characteristics to determine the sensory functions of sensilla and to clarify the phylogeny of arthropod groups.

  17. Evolution of osmoregulatory patterns and gill ion transport mechanisms in the decapod Crustacea: a review.

    PubMed

    McNamara, John Campbell; Faria, Samuel Coelho

    2012-12-01

    Decapod crustaceans exhibit a wide range of osmoregulatory patterns and capabilities from marine osmoconformers to brackish and freshwater hyperregulators to terrestrial hyporegulators. The principal gill salt transport mechanisms proposed to underlie the ability of the better-known taxa to occupy these specific habitats are examined here. Traditional thinking suggests that a graduated series of successively stronger adaptive mechanisms may have driven the occupation of ever more dilute osmotic niches, culminating in the conquest of freshwater and dry land. However, when habitat and osmoregulatory parameters are analyzed quantitatively against the phylogenies of the taxa examined, as illustrated here using a palaemonid shrimp clade, their association becomes questionable and may hold true only in specific cases. We also propose a putative evolution for gill epithelial ion pump and transporter arrangement in a eubrachyuran crab clade whose lineages occupy distinct osmotic niches. By including the systematics of these selected groups, this review incorporates the notion of a protracted time scale, here termed 'phylophysiology', into decapod osmoregulation, allowing the examination of putative physiological transformations and their underlying evolutionary processes. This approach assumes that species are temporally linked, a factor that can impart phylogenetic structuring, which must be considered in comparative studies. Future experimental models in decapod osmoregulatory physiology should contemplate the phylogenetic relationships among the taxa chosen to better allow comprehension of the transformations arising during their evolution. PMID:22534792

  18. Aspects of Benthic Decapod Diversity and Distribution from Rocky Nearshore Habitat at Geographically Widely Dispersed Sites

    PubMed Central

    Pohle, Gerhard; Iken, Katrin; Clarke, K. Robert; Trott, Thomas; Konar, Brenda; Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Wong, Melisa; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Mead, Angela; Miloslavich, Patricia; Mieszkowska, Nova; Milne, Rebecca; Tamburello, Laura; Knowlton, Ann; Kimani, Edward; Shirayama, Yoshihisa

    2011-01-01

    Relationships of diversity, distribution and abundance of benthic decapods in intertidal and shallow subtidal waters to 10 m depth are explored based on data obtained using a standardized protocol of globally-distributed samples. Results indicate that decapod species richness overall is low within the nearshore, typically ranging from one to six taxa per site (mean = 4.5). Regionally the Gulf of Alaska decapod crustacean community structure was distinguishable by depth, multivariate analysis indicating increasing change with depth, where assemblages of the high and mid tide, low tide and 1 m, and 5 and 10 m strata formed three distinct groups. Univariate analysis showed species richness increasing from the high intertidal zone to 1 m subtidally, with distinct depth preferences among the 23 species. A similar depth trend but with peak richness at 5 m was observed when all global data were combined. Analysis of latitudinal trends, confined by data limitations, was equivocal on a global scale. While significant latitudinal differences existed in community structure among ecoregions, a semi-linear trend in changing community structure from the Arctic to lower latitudes did not hold when including tropical results. Among boreal regions the Canadian Atlantic was relatively species poor compared to the Gulf of Alaska, whereas the Caribbean and Sea of Japan appeared to be species hot spots. While species poor, samples from the Canadian Atlantic were the most diverse at the higher infraordinal level. Linking 11 environmental variables available for all sites to the best fit family-based biotic pattern showed a significant relationship, with the single best explanatory variable being the level of organic pollution and the best combination overall being organic pollution and primary productivity. While data limitations restrict conclusions in a global context, results are seen as a first-cut contribution useful in generating discussion and more in-depth work in the still poorly understood field of biodiversity distribution. PMID:21533220

  19. Aspects of benthic decapod diversity and distribution from rocky nearshore habitat at geographically widely dispersed sites.

    PubMed

    Pohle, Gerhard; Iken, Katrin; Clarke, K Robert; Trott, Thomas; Konar, Brenda; Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Wong, Melisa; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Mead, Angela; Miloslavich, Patricia; Mieszkowska, Nova; Milne, Rebecca; Tamburello, Laura; Knowlton, Ann; Kimani, Edward; Shirayama, Yoshihisa

    2011-01-01

    Relationships of diversity, distribution and abundance of benthic decapods in intertidal and shallow subtidal waters to 10 m depth are explored based on data obtained using a standardized protocol of globally-distributed samples. Results indicate that decapod species richness overall is low within the nearshore, typically ranging from one to six taxa per site (mean = 4.5). Regionally the Gulf of Alaska decapod crustacean community structure was distinguishable by depth, multivariate analysis indicating increasing change with depth, where assemblages of the high and mid tide, low tide and 1 m, and 5 and 10 m strata formed three distinct groups. Univariate analysis showed species richness increasing from the high intertidal zone to 1 m subtidally, with distinct depth preferences among the 23 species. A similar depth trend but with peak richness at 5 m was observed when all global data were combined. Analysis of latitudinal trends, confined by data limitations, was equivocal on a global scale. While significant latitudinal differences existed in community structure among ecoregions, a semi-linear trend in changing community structure from the Arctic to lower latitudes did not hold when including tropical results. Among boreal regions the Canadian Atlantic was relatively species poor compared to the Gulf of Alaska, whereas the Caribbean and Sea of Japan appeared to be species hot spots. While species poor, samples from the Canadian Atlantic were the most diverse at the higher infraordinal level. Linking 11 environmental variables available for all sites to the best fit family-based biotic pattern showed a significant relationship, with the single best explanatory variable being the level of organic pollution and the best combination overall being organic pollution and primary productivity. While data limitations restrict conclusions in a global context, results are seen as a first-cut contribution useful in generating discussion and more in-depth work in the still poorly understood field of biodiversity distribution. PMID:21533220

  20. Nickel uptake and regulation in a copper-tolerant decapod, Cambarus bartoni (Fabricius)

    SciTech Connect

    Alikhan, M.A.; Zia, S.

    1989-01-01

    Large amounts of acid forming sulfur dioxide, and heavy metals including nickel are continuously being released into the environment by mining and smelting operations at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. As a consequence, a number of lakes in this region has become acidic and metal stressed. In the current study the uptake and accumulation of nickel by various tissues of a copper-tolerant crayfish, Cambarus bartoni (Decapod, Crustacea), was monitored for 4 wk in the laboratory to ascertain the dynamic nature (i.e., the pattern in time) of the response of the crayfish to increased levels of this relatively less metabolically essential but toxic metal in the aquatic environment.

  1. Coral-associated decapods (Crustacea) from the Mexican Tropical Pacific coast.

    PubMed

    Hernndez, Luis; Ortiz, Georgina Ramrez; Reyes-Bonilla, Hctor

    2013-01-01

    Our study provides a checklist of 36 crustacean decapods from the Mexican tropical Pacific coastline. Most of the species were previously recorded from coral communities in the Gulf of California. Data were obtained by visual censuses of coral communities and some specimens were collected by extractions of coral branches (approximately eight liters of coral volume). We found new geographic records for three species from the Eastern Pacific and seven species that have extended ranges into Mexican waters. Only one species is documented with a northerly range from Central America to Mexican waters. PMID:24699609

  2. Barremian decapod crustaceans from Serre de Bleyton (Drôme, SE France)

    PubMed Central

    Hyžný, Matúš; Kroh, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Based on mostly small-sized isolated cheliped fingers, a new decapod crustacean assemblage is described from the Barremian of Serre de Bleyton (Drôme, SE France). The assemblage is composed mostly of representatives of the crab family Dynomenidae. In addition, remains of astacidean lobsters, axiidean shrimps, paguroid hermit crabs and brachyurous crabs of the families Necrocarcinidae and ?Cenomanocarcinidae occur in low numbers. Graptocarcinus moosleitneri (Dynomenidae) and ?Paranecrocarcinus schloegli (Necrocarcinidae) are introduced as new species. They both exhibit presence of multi-setal pores on dactyli that are interpreted as parts of a sieving mechanism used in feeding. The stratigraphic range of Graptocarcinus is extended herein to the Barremian. PMID:26097276

  3. Effect of environmental factors on the abundance of decapod crustaceans from soft bottoms off southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Michele; Castilho, Antonio L; Fernandes-Góes, Lissandra C; Fransozo, Vivian; Bertini, Giovana; Costa, Rogério C da

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the importance of variations in environmental factors affecting the abundance patterns of decapods on the southeastern Brazilian coast. Sampling was carried out monthly from January 1998 through December 1999 in Ubatumirim and Mar Virado, Ubatuba region, using a commercial shrimp fishing boat equipped with double-rig nets. Six areas adjacent to rocky shores were chosen. Bottom-water samples were collected using a Nansen bottle, to measure the temperature and salinity. Sediment samples were also obtained by means of a Van Veen grab, for determination of texture and organic-matter content. The association of environmental factors with species abundance was evaluated by Canonical Correspondence Analysis (α = 0.05). Forty-one species of Decapoda were used in the multivariate analysis. The analysis indicated that sediment texture (phi) and bottom temperature were the main factors correlated (p < 0.05) with the spatial and temporal abundance of the species. Considering the study region as faunal transition zone, including a mixture of species of both tropical and subantarctic origin, the species responded differently to environmental factors, mainly temperature. It is conceivable that the decapods adjust their distribution according to their intrinsic physiological limitations, possibly as a result of the available resources. PMID:24141416

  4. Marine snake epibiosis: a review and first report of decapods associated with Pelamis platurus.

    PubMed

    Pfaller, Joseph B; Frick, Michael G; Brischoux, François; Sheehy, Coleman M; Lillywhite, Harvey B

    2012-08-01

    Under circumstances in which area for settlement is limited, the colonization of living substrata may become a highly valuable strategy for survival of marine invertebrates. This phenomenon, termed epibiosis, results in spatially close associations between two or more living organisms. Pelamis platurus, the yellow-bellied sea snake, is the only exclusively pelagic marine snake and its propensity for foraging along ocean slicks facilitates its colonization by pelagic epibionts. Herein, we report epibionts associated with P. platurus inhabiting the waters off the northwestern Pacific coast of Costa Rica. These associations include the first records of decapod epibionts from any marine snake. Decapod epibionts were found on 18.9% of P. platurus, and size of snake (total length) had a significant positive effect on the frequency and intensity of epibiosis. We discuss the spatial and ecological mechanisms that facilitate these interactions, as well as the suite of factors that either promote or deter epibiosis and ultimately dictate the frequency and intensity of these interactions. Finally, we provide a review of marine snake epibiosis. The intention of this review is to (1) provide contemporary researchers with a single, accessible reference to all known reports of epibionts associated with marine snakes and (2) discuss what is currently known with respect to diversity of epibionts from marine snakes. PMID:22505588

  5. The Decapod Crustacean Circulatory System: A Case That Is neither Open nor Closed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGaw, Iain J.

    2005-02-01

    Historically, the decapod crustacean circulatory system has been classed as open. However, recent work on the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, suggests the circulatory system may be more complex than previously described. Corrosion casting techniques were refined and used to map the circulatory system of a variety of crab species (order: Decapoda; family: Cancridae) to determine if the complexity observed in the blue crab was present in other species. Seven arteries arose from the single chambered heart. The anterior aorta, the paired anterolateral arteries, and the paired hepatic arteries exited from the anterior aspect of the heart. The small-diameter posterior aorta exited posteriorly from the heart. Exiting from the ventral surface of the heart, the sternal artery branched to supply the legs and mouthparts of the crab. These arteries were more complex than previously described, with arterioles perfusing all areas of the body. The arterioles split into fine capillary-like vessels. Most of these capillaries were blind ending. However, in several areas (antennal gland, supraesophageal ganglion) complete capillary beds were present. After passing through the capillary-like vessels, blood drained into a series of sinuses. However, rather than being arbitrary spaces as previously described, scanning electron micrographs showed the sinuses to be distinct units. Most of the sinuses formed a series of flattened membrane-bound lacunae. This complexity may qualify the decapod crustacean circulatory system as one that is "partially closed" rather than open.

  6. Selfing in a malacostracan crustacean: why a tanaidacean but not decapods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakui, Keiichi; Hiruta, Chizue

    2013-09-01

    The crustacean class Malacostraca, with over 22,000 species, includes commercially important members, such as crabs, shrimps, and lobsters. A few simultaneous hermaphrodites are known in this group, but self-fertilization was unknown. Here we show, through microscopy and breeding experiments, that the simultaneously hermaphroditic malacostracan Apseudes sp. (order Tanaidacea) can self-fertilize; individuals reared in isolation become hermaphroditic via a male-like phase and produce eggs that develop into fertile adults. Although selfing occurs in crustaceans like the Branchiopoda, in which simultaneous hermaphrodites have the sex ducts united, in decapods the separation of gonadal ducts and gonopores, specialized mating organs, and complex mating behavior appear to have constrained the evolution of selfing. In contrast, in most tanaidaceans, sperm is released externally by a male and reaches the eggs in the female brood pouch, where fertilization occurs. This mode of fertilization permitted Apseudes sp. to achieve selfing without large modifications in morphology or behavior.

  7. Paleozoic-Mesozoic crayfish from Antarctica: Earliest evidence of freshwater decapod crustaceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babcock, Loren E.; Miller, Molly F.; Isbell, John L.; Collinson, James W.; Hasiotis, Stephen T.

    1998-06-01

    Discovery of an Early Permian claw from Antarctica extends the fossil record of crayfish by 65 m.y. and demonstrates that decapod crustaceans had radiated into freshwater habitats by the late Paleozoic. Burrows in Lower Triassic rocks of Antarctica are among the oldest apparently constructed by crayfish. Their morphology is similar to modern crayfish burrows, and this demonstrates that burrowing behavior was established early in the evolution of this group. The new discoveries show that the earliest Permian crayfish were distributed in high paleolatitudes of southernmost Pangea, where they lived in freshwater lakes fed by glacial meltwater. Modern crayfish habitat, used as a guide to crayfish temperature tolerance, indicates that summer temperatures of streams and lakes near the South Pole that supported the crayfish probably reached 10 20 C during Permian-Triassic interglacial intervals.

  8. Do osmoregulators have lower capacity of muscle water regulation than osmoconformers? A study on decapod crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Foster, Clarice; Amado, Enelise M; Souza, Marta M; Freire, Carolina A

    2010-02-01

    Decapod crustaceans occupy various aquatic habitats. In freshwater they are osmoregulators, while marine species are typically osmoconformers. Freshwater crustaceans are derived from marine ancestors. The hypothesis tested here was that osmoregulators, which can rely on salt transport by interface epithelia to prevent extracellular disturbance, would have a lower capacity of tissue water regulation when compared with osmoconformers. Four species of decapod crustaceans (the marine osmoconformer crab Hepatus pudibundus, and three osmoregulators of different habitats) have been exposed in vivo to a salinity challenge, for up to 24 hr. Osmoregulators were: the estuarine shrimp Palaemon pandaliformis, the diadromous freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium acanthurus, and the hololimnetic red crab Dilocarcinus pagei. H. pudibundus displayed hemolymph dilution already after 0.5 hr in 25 per thousand, reaching approximately 30% reduction in osmolality, but its muscle degree of hydration did not increase. To make the different in vivo salinity challenges directly comparable, the ratio between the maximum change in muscle hydration with respect to the control value measured for the species and the maximum change in hemolymph osmolality was calculated (x 1,000): H. pudibundus (25 per thousand, 8.1% kg H(2)O/mOsm x 10(3))>P. pandaliformis (2 per thousand, 9.2)>M. acanthurus (30 per thousand, 12.6)>P. pandaliformis (35 per thousand, 16.7)>D. pagei (7 per thousand, 60.4). Muscle slices submitted in vitro to a 30% osmotic challenge confirmed in vivo results. Thus, the estuarine/freshwater osmoregulators displayed a lower capacity to hold muscle tissue water than the marine osmoconformer, despite undergoing narrower variations in hemolymph osmolality. PMID:19844979

  9. High prevalence of obligate coral-dwelling decapods on dead corals in the Chagos Archipelago, central Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, Catherine E. I.; Bonsall, Michael B.; Koldewey, Heather; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Speight, Martin; Rogers, Alex D.

    2015-09-01

    Small and cryptic organisms that live within the interstices of reef habitats contribute greatly to coral reef biodiversity, but are poorly studied. Many species of cryptofauna have seemingly obligate associations with live coral and are therefore considered to be very vulnerable to coral mortality. Here we report the unanticipated prevalence of obligate coral-dwelling decapod crustaceans on dead colonies of branching corals in the Chagos Archipelago (British Indian Ocean Territory) in the central Indian Ocean. A total of 205 obligate coral-dwelling decapods, including Trapezia crabs, were recorded from 43 (out of 54) dead coral colonies of Acropora and Pocillopora collected across five different atolls. Trapezia individuals found on dead corals were mainly juveniles, and the few adults were almost exclusively male. Among the shrimps (Pontoniinae), however, it was predominantly adult females found on dead corals. Obligate coral-dwelling species that typically occur only on live Pocillopora hosts (e.g., Trapezia spp.) were recorded on dead Acropora. These findings suggests that these obligate coral-dwelling decapods are not simply persisting on coral hosts that have died, but may be explicitly recruiting to or moving to dead coral hosts at certain stages in their life cycle. Variation in the abundance of live coral among sites had no affect on the presence or abundance of obligate coral-dwelling decapods on dead corals. This study shows that habitat associations of obligate coral-dwelling organisms, and their reliance on different habitat types, are complex and further work is required to establish their vulnerability to widespread habitat degradation on coral reefs.

  10. Decapod crustacean larval communities in the Balearic Sea (western Mediterranean): Seasonal composition, horizontal and vertical distribution patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Asvin P.; Dos Santos, Antonina; Balbín, Rosa; Alemany, Francisco; Massutí, Enric; Reglero, Patricia

    2014-10-01

    Decapod crustaceans are the main target species of deep water bottom trawl fisheries in the Balearic Sea but little is known about their larval stages. This work focuses on the species composition of the decapod larval community, describing the main spatio-temporal assemblages and assessing their vertical distribution. Mesozooplankton sampling was carried out using depth-stratified sampling devices at two stations located over the shelf break and the mid slope, in the north-western and southern Mallorca in late autumn 2009 and summer 2010. Differences among decapod larvae communities, in terms of composition, adult's habitat such as pelagic or benthic, and distribution patterns were observed between seasons, areas and station. Results showed that for both seasons most species and developmental stages aggregated within the upper water column (above 75 m depth) and showed higher biodiversity in summer compared to late autumn. Most abundant species were pelagic prawns (e.g., Sergestidae) occurring in both seasons and areas. The larval assemblages' distributions were different between seasonal hydrographic scenarios and during situations of stratified and non-stratified water column. The vertical distribution patterns of different larval developmental stages in respect to the adult's habitat were analyzed in relation to environmental variables. Fluorescence had the highest explanatory power. Four clearly different vertical patterns were identified: two corresponding to late autumn, which were common for all the main larval groups and other two in summer, one corresponding to larvae of coastal benthic and the second to pelagic species larvae.

  11. Hatching rhythms and dispersion of decapod crustacean larvae in a brackish coastal lagoon in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anger, K.; Spivak, E.; Bas, C.; Ismael, D.; Luppi, T.

    1994-12-01

    Mar Chiquita, a brackish coastal lagoon in central Argentina, is inhabited by dense populations of two intertidal grapsid crab species, Cyrtograpsus angulatus and Chasmagnathus granulata. During a preliminary one-year study and a subsequent intensive sampling programme (November December 1992), the physical properties and the occurrence of decapod crustacean larvae in the surface water of the lagoon were investigated. The lagoon is characterized by highly variable physical conditions, with oligohaline waters frequently predominating over extended periods. The adjacent coastal waters show a complex pattern of semidiurnal tides that often do not influence the lagoon, due to the existence of a sandbar across its entrance. Besides frequently occurring larvae (exclusively freshly hatched zoeae and a few megalopae) of the two dominating crab species, those of three other brachyurans ( Plathyxanthus crenulatus, Uca uruguayensis, Pinnixa patagonica) and of one anomuran (the porcellanid Pachycheles haigae) were also found occasionally. Caridean shrimp ( Palaemonetes argentinus) larvae occurred in a moderate number of samples, with a maximum density of 800·m-3. The highest larval abundance was recorded in C. angulatus, with almost 8000°m-3. Significantly more C. angulatus and C. granulata zoeae occurred at night than during daylight conditions, and more larvae (statistically significant only in the former species) during ebb (outflowing) than during flood (inflowing) tides. In consequence, most crab zoeae were observed during nocturnal ebb, the least with diurnal flood tides. Our data suggest that crab larvae do not develop in the lagoon, where the adult populations live, but exhibit an export strategy, probably based upon exogenously coordinated egg hatching rhythms. Zoeal development must take place in coastal marine waters, from where the megalopa eventually returns for settlement and metamorphosis in the lagoon. Significantly higher larval frequency of C. granulata in low salinities (≤12‰) and at a particular sampling site may be related to local distribution patterns of the reproducing adult population. Unlike crab larvae, those of shrimp ( P. argentinus) are retained inside the lagoon, where they develop from hatching through metamorphosis. They significantly prefer low salinity and occur at the lagoon surface more often at night. These patterns cannot be explained by larval release rhythms like those in brachyuran crabs, but may reflect diel vertical migrations to the bottom. It is concluded that osmotic stress as well as predation pressure exerted by visually directed predators (small species or life-cycle stages of estuarine fishes) may be the principal selection factors for the evolution of hatching and migration rhythms in decapod larvae, and that these are characteristics of export or retention mechanisms, respectively.

  12. Movements of marine fish and decapod crustaceans: process, theory and application.

    PubMed

    Pittman, S J; McAlpine, C A

    2003-01-01

    Many marine species have a multi-phase ontogeny, with each phase usually associated with a spatially and temporally discrete set of movements. For many fish and decapod crustaceans that live inshore, a tri-phasic life cycle is widespread, involving: (1) the movement of planktonic eggs and larvae to nursery areas; (2) a range of routine shelter and foraging movements that maintain a home range; and (3) spawning migrations away from the home range to close the life cycle. Additional complexity is found in migrations that are not for the purpose of spawning and movements that result in a relocation of the home range of an individual that cannot be defined as an ontogenetic shift. Tracking and tagging studies confirm that life cycle movements occur across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. This dynamic multi-scale complexity presents a significant problem in selecting appropriate scales for studying highly mobile marine animals. We address this problem by first comprehensively reviewing the movement patterns of fish and decapod crustaceans that use inshore areas and present a synthesis of life cycle strategies, together with five categories of movement. We then examine the scale-related limitations of traditional approaches to studies of animal-environment relationships. We demonstrate that studies of marine animals have rarely been undertaken at scales appropriate to the way animals use their environment and argue that future studies must incorporate animal movement into the design of sampling strategies. A major limitation of many studies is that they have focused on: (1) a single scale for animals that respond to their environment at multiple scales or (2) a single habitat type for animals that use multiple habitat types. We develop a hierarchical conceptual framework that deals with the problem of scale and environmental heterogeneity and we offer a new definition of 'habitat' from an organism-based perspective. To demonstrate that the conceptual framework can be applied, we explore the range of tools that are currently available for both measuring animal movement patterns and for mapping and quantifying marine environments at multiple scales. The application of a hierarchical approach, together with the coordinated integration of spatial technologies offers an unprecedented opportunity for researchers to tackle a range of animal-environment questions for highly mobile marine animals. Without scale-explicit information on animal movements many marine conservation and resource management strategies are less likely to achieve their primary objectives. PMID:12846043

  13. Bioaccumulation kinetics and organ distribution of cadmium and zinc in the freshwater decapod crustacean Macrobrachium australiense.

    PubMed

    Cresswell, Tom; Simpson, Stuart L; Mazumder, Debashish; Callaghan, Paul D; Nguyen, An P

    2015-01-20

    This study used the radioisotopes (109)Cd and (65)Zn to explore the uptake, retention and organ distribution of these nonessential and essential metals from solution by the freshwater decapod crustacean Macrobrachium australiense. Three treatments consisting of cadmium alone, zinc alone, and a mixture of cadmium and zinc were used to determine the differences in uptake and efflux rates of each metal individually and in the metal mixture over a three-week period, followed by depuration for 2 weeks in metal-free water using live-animal gamma-spectrometry. Following exposure, prawns were cryosectioned and the spatial distribution of radionuclides visualized using autoradiography. Metal uptake and efflux rates were the same in the individual and mixed-metal exposures, and efflux rates were close to zero. The majority of cadmium uptake was localized within the gills and hepatopancreas, while zinc accumulated in the antennal gland at concentrations orders of magnitude greater than in other organs. This suggested that M. australiense may process zinc much faster than cadmium by internally transporting the accumulated zinc to the antennal gland. The combination of uptake studies and autoradiography greatly increases our understanding of how metal transport kinetics and internal processing may influence the toxicity of essential and nonessential metals in the environment. PMID:25537180

  14. A Successful Crayfish Invader Is Capable of Facultative Parthenogenesis: A Novel Reproductive Mode in Decapod Crustaceans

    PubMed Central

    Buřič, Miloš; Hulák, Martin; Kouba, Antonín

    2011-01-01

    Biological invasions are impacting biota worldwide, and explaining why some taxa tend to become invasive is of major scientific interest. North American crayfish species, particularly of the family Cambaridae, are prominent invaders in freshwaters, defying the “tens rule” which states that only a minority of species introduced to new regions become established, and only a minority of those become invasive and pests. So far, success of cambarid invaders has largely been attributed to rapid maturation, high reproductive output, aggressiveness, and tolerance to pollution. We provide experimental evidence that females of one cambarid species particularly widespread in Europe, the spiny-cheek crayfish Orconectes limosus, are capable of facultative parthenogenesis. Such reproductive mode has never before been recognized in decapods, the most diverse crustacean order. As shown by analysis of seven microsatellite loci, crayfish females kept physically separated from males produced genetically homogeneous offspring identical with maternal individuals; this suggests they reproduced by apomixis, unlike those females which mated with males and had a diverse offspring. Further research is needed to clarify what environmental conditions are necessary for a switch to parthenogenesis in O. limosus, and what role it plays in natural crayfish populations. However, if such reproductive plasticity is present in other cambarid crayfish species, it may contribute to the overwhelming invasive success of this group. PMID:21655282

  15. The impact of coastal defence structures (tetrapods) on decapod crustaceans in the southern North Sea.

    PubMed

    Wehkamp, Stephanie; Fischer, Philipp

    2013-12-01

    Although the use of coastal defence structures is expected to increase, little is known about the ecological impact of such structures on the natural environment. In particular, the temporal and spatial patterns of communities in association with artificial substrate are still poorly understood. This study examined possible effects of experimental tetrapod fields on the decapod crustacean community in a subtidal hard-bottom area in the southern North Sea. We performed in situ studies in the fields and along transects oriented away from the tetrapod fields. Species composition and abundances were assessed before and after the introduction of the artificial material. The study revealed a significant decrease of smaller, less vagile species (Pisidia longicornis, Pilumnus hirtellus, Galathea squamifera) over the entire study area in the years following the tetrapod introduction. For 2 species, Hyas araneus and Homarus gammarus, the tetrapods appeared to be highly attractive as habitat and shelter because their abundance increased over time. No distinct spatial or temporal effects were observed for mobile predatory crabs, such as Cancer pagurus and Liocarcinus spp. The results of the study demonstrate that possible effects of artificial structures on macro-invertebrates in temperate hard-bottom areas are highly species-specific and depend on the size, lifestyle and ecological requirements of the species. This work highlights the importance of long-term studies. Our findings clearly indicate that more time is needed to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic influences on species distributions. PMID:24041979

  16. Effects of chlordecone on 20-hydroxyecdysone concentration and chitobiase activity in a decapod crustacean, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Lafontaine, Anne; Gismondi, Eric; Boulangé-Lecomte, Céline; Geraudie, Perrine; Dodet, Nathalie; Caupos, Fanny; Lemoine, Soazig; Lagadic, Laurent; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Forget-Leray, Joëlle

    2016-07-01

    Chlordecone (CLD) is an organochlorine insecticide abundant in aquatic environment of the French West Indies. However, few studies have investigated its impact on freshwater invertebrates. Whereas CLD is suspected of inducing endocrine disruption, this work aimed to study the effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of CLD on the 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-HE) hormone concentration and on the chitobiase activity, both having key roles in the molting process of crustaceans. In addition, the bioaccumulation of CLD was measured in the muscle tissue of Macrobrachium rosenbergii to underline potential dose-response relationship. The results have shown that CLD was bioaccumulated in exposed organisms according to a trend to a dose-response relationship. Moreover, it was observed that CLD decreased the 20-HE concentration in exposed prawns when compared to control, whatever the duration of exposure, as well as it inhibited the chitobiase activity after 30days of exposure. The present study indicates that CLD could interfere with molting process of M. rosenbergii by disturbing the 20-HE concentration and the activity of chitobiase, suggesting consequences at the long term on the shrimp development. This study also confirmed that CLD could be an endocrine disruptor in decapod crustaceans, as it was already observed in vertebrates. PMID:27108204

  17. The East African decapod crab Neosarmatium meinerti (de Man) sweeps mangrove floors clean of leaf litter.

    PubMed

    Olafsson, Emil; Buchmayer, Susanne; Skov, Martin W

    2002-12-01

    Leaf litter removal by the abundant mangrove decapod crab Neosarmatium meinerti was studied in series of field and laboratory experiments in East Africa. In the high intertidal Avicennia marina zone crabs buried all leaves placed on the forest floor and consumed on average 67% of them within 2 hrs. High shore crabs in Kenya buried 4 g m(-2) leaf-litter in 1 hr, i.e. approx. twice the daily litter fall. In contrast, in the low shore Sonneratia alba zone, where typical leaf-eating crabs were absent, none of the offered leaves showed signs of herbivory. Leaf choice experiments in the laboratory showed that N. meinerti preferred some species to others. Leaf consumption per gram crab was higher in females than males. The laboratory studies also indicated that crabs could consume substantially more than the average daily litter fall. Video recordings documented frequent fights to gain or retain fallen leaves, suggesting strong competition for leaf litter. Earlier studies indicating that N. meinerti may sweep mangrove forest floors clean of leaf litter are confirmed. In high shore mangroves of East and South Africa where N. meinerti is common, energy flow appears unique: virtually all litter production is retained. PMID:12572824

  18. Trophic transfer of trace metals: Subcellular compartmentalization in a polychaete and assimilation by a decapod crustacean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rainbow, P.S.; Poirier, L.; Smith, B.D.; Brix, K.V.; Luoma, S.N.

    2006-01-01

    The chemical form of accumulated trace metal in prey is important in controlling the bioavailataility of dietary metal to a predator. This study investigated the trophic transfer of radiolabelled Ag, Cd and Zn from the polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor to the decapod crustacean Palaemonetes varians. We used 2 populations of worms with different proportions of accumulated metals in different subcellular fractions as prey, and loaded the worms with radiolabelled metals either from sediment or from solution. Accumulated radiolabelled metals were fractionated into 5 components : metal-rich granules (MRG), cellular debris, organelles, metallothionein-like proteins (MTLP), and other (heat-sensitive) proteins (HSP). Assimilation efficiencies (AE) of the metals by P. varians were measured from the 4 categories of prey (i.e. 2 populations, radiolabelled from sediment or solution). There were significant differences for each metal between the AEs from the different prey categories, confirming that origin of prey and route of uptake of accumulated trace metal will cause intraspecific differences in subsequent metal assimilation. Correlations were sought between AEs and selected fractions or combinations of fractions of metals in the prey-MRG, Trophically Available Metal (TAM = MTLP + HSP + organelles) and total protein (MTLP + HSP). TAM explained 28% of the variance in AEs for Ag, but no consistent relationships emerged between AEs and TAM or total protein when the metals were considered separately. AEs did, however, show significant positive regressions with both TAM and total protein when the 3 metals were considered together, explaining only about 21 % of the variance in each case. A significant negative relationship was observed between MRG and AE for all metals combined. The predator (P. varians) can assimilate dietary metal from a range of the fractions binding metals in the prey (N. diversicolor), with different assimilation efficiencies summated across these fractions. TAM and/or total protein may represent an approximate minimum for trophic availability but neither of these alone is a fully accurate predictor. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  19. Bioaccumulation and retention kinetics of cadmium in the freshwater decapod Macrobrachium australiense.

    PubMed

    Cresswell, Tom; Simpson, Stuart L; Smith, Ross E W; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Mazumder, Debashish; Twining, John

    2014-03-01

    The potential sources and mechanisms of cadmium bioaccumulation by the native freshwater decapods Macrobrachium species in the waters of the highly turbid Strickland River in Papua New Guinea were examined using (109)Cd-labelled water and food sources and the Australian species Macrobrachium australiense as a surrogate. Synthetic river water was spiked with environmentally relevant concentrations of cadmium and animals were exposed for 7 days with daily renewal of test solutions. Dietary assimilation of cadmium was assessed through pulse-chase experiments where prawns were fed separately (109)Cd-labelled fine sediment, filamentous algae and carrion (represented by cephalothorax tissue of water-exposed prawns). M. australiense readily accumulated cadmium from the dissolved phase and the uptake rate increased linearly with increasing exposure concentration. A cadmium uptake rate constant of 0.10 0.05 L/g/d was determined in synthetic river water. During depuration following exposure to dissolved cadmium, efflux rates were low (0.9 5%/d) and were not dependent on exposure concentration. Assimilation efficiencies of dietary sources were comparable for sediment and algae (48-51%), but lower for carrion (28 5%) and efflux rates were low (0.2-2.6%/d) demonstrating that cadmium was well retained by M. australiense. A biokinetic model of cadmium accumulation by M. australiense predicted that for exposures to environmentally relevant cadmium concentrations in the Strickland River, uptake from ingestion of fine sediment and carrion would be the predominant sources of cadmium to the organism. The model predicted the total dietary route would represent 70-80% of bioaccumulated cadmium. PMID:24508761

  20. Physiological stress in decapod crustaceans (Munida rugosa and Liocarcinus depurator) discarded in the Clyde Nephrops fishery.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, M; Taylor, A C.; Geoffrey Moore, P

    2001-05-15

    Crustacean discards experience stress during commercial fishing operations, due to increased exercise while in the trawl and aerial exposure during sorting of the catch. Physiological stress and recovery were assessed following trawling of two ecologically important decapod species, regularly discarded in the Clyde Nephrops fishery. Haemolymph samples taken from trawled swimming crabs, Liocarcinus depurator, and squat lobsters, Munida rugosa, had significantly higher concentrations of ammonia (0.308 and 0.519 mmol l(-1)), D-glucose (0.14 and 0.097 mmol l(-1)) and L-lactate (6.2 and 0.87 mmol l(-1)) compared with controls, indicating an impairment of ammonia excretion and a switch to anaerobic metabolism. Concurrently, the haemolymph pH of trawled squat lobsters was low (7.47) compared with controls (7.75); however, the reverse trend was found in L. depurator. Initially elevated lactate (7.98 mmol l(-1)) and glucose (0.73 mmol l(-1)) concentrations of trawled and emersed (1 h) L. depurator were restored, 4 h after re-immersion along with pH (7.54). Crabs that had been emersed for 1 h had significantly higher concentrations of glucose (0.2 mmol l(-1)) and lactate (5.14 mmol l(-1)), and had more acidic blood (7.64) than L. depurator subject to 1 h of exercise, indicating that anoxia was the main cause of physiological stress. Crabs and squat lobsters lost 7% and 9% of their initial body wet weight following 1 h of emersion, although blood osmolarities did not change significantly. While all animals survived aerial exposure in our experiments, sorting of the catch on commercial boats takes up to 300 min, which could lead to mortality or sub-lethal chronic biochemical changes that could compromise fitness. PMID:11343713

  1. Seasonal bathymetric migrations of deep-sea fishes and decapod crustaceans in the NW Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguzzi, J.; Company, J. B.; Bahamon, N.; Flexas, M. M.; Tecchio, S.; Fernandez-Arcaya, U.; García, J. A.; Mechó, A.; Koenig, S.; Canals, M.

    2013-11-01

    Seasonal variations in the photophase length seem to drive migrations of marine animals, a phenomenon still largely unknown in deep-sea fishes and decapod crustaceans. Here, we report depth-oriented migrations of species living in the continental slope of the NW Mediterranean after repeated trawl sampling between 900 and 1500 m depths in four seasons. To understand the variations in the catchability of animals as a function of water depth, we analysed the relationship between population depth shifts and environmental factors by performing a multiparametric habitat monitoring at sea surface (PAR), in the water column (temperature and salinity), and on the seabed (organic matter flux and total mass flux). Significant connections are studied by NMDS and GAM analyses. Bathymetric changes in most targeted species are identified from winter, when distribution was the deepest, to spring and summer, and finally autumn, when the shallowest distribution was observed prior to a sudden bathymetric retreat. The analysis of size-class frequency distributions (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test) discards an effect of the juvenile recruitment on these bathymetric changes. Which environmental factor imparts seasonality to these depth-oriented migrations has not yet been clarified. A strong connection is found with water temperature and salinity, associated to flow of the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) and the Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW). The studied depth range was affected by seasonal fluctuations of both water masses and the interphase amongst them. LIW showed a stronger seasonal pattern, getting warmer, saltier in autumn and fresher in winter. The migration of most species towards shallower depths in spring, summer and autumn, and the sudden migration to deeper grounds in winter could therefore be related to changes in LIW temperature and salinity.

  2. Dynamics of littoral fishes and decapods along a coastal river-estuarine gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Mark S.; Ross, Stephen T.

    1991-11-01

    We examined community dynamics of nekton along a coastal river-estuarine gradient in Old Fort Bayou Mississippi, U.S.A. Distribution, abundance and similarity of nekton varied spatially and seasonally along the gradient in concert with varying physical-chemical conditions. The tidal freshwater (TFW) and oligohaline (OH) habitats had greater diversity and evenness than the mesohaline (MH) habitat, due to the interfacing of the dominant freshwater and the estuarine/marine faunas. Stepwise multiple regression indicated that water temperature was the most important predictor of species richness within TFW and MH when the entire species complement was considered. However, separation of freshwater and estuarine/marine species suggested that water temperature (positive relationship) and salinity (negative relationship) were the best predictors of freshwater species at TFW while the estuarine/marine species complement was best predicted by salinity and water temperature at TFW and MH. Models based on abundance data indicated that there was a significant negative relationship between salinity and turbidity and freshwater species abundance while a positive relationship was documented between estuarine/marine species abundance and salinity and turbidity. The dynamic nature of saline marsh nekton depends, in part, on the species complement, the salinity, and the rate of salinity fluctuation within various sections along the estuarine gradient. Although it is dogmatic that many estuarine habitats are physiologically 'harsh' due to fluctuating physical-chemical conditions, low-salinity nekton were found to tolerate greater fluctuations in salinity and pH than higher-salinity nekton. These habitats act as conduits between freshwater and estuarine habitats and serve a nursery function for estuarine-dependent fishes and decapods; they are thus functional components of the estuarine system.

  3. Distribution and abundance of decapod crustacean larvae in the southeastern Bering Sea with emphasis on commercial species. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, D.A.; Incze, L.S.; Wencker, D.L.; Armstrong, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    Contents include: Distribution and abundance of king crab larvae, Paralithodes camtschatica and P. platypus in the southeast Bering Sea; Distribution and abundance of the larvae of tanner crabs in the southeastern Bering Sea; Distribution and abundance of other brachyuran larvae in the southeastern Bering Sea with emphasis on Erimacrus isenbeckii; Distribution and abundance of shrimp larvae in the southeastern Bering Sea with emphasis on pandalid species; Distribution and abundance of hermit crabs (Paguridae) in the southeasternBering Sea; Possible oil impacts on decapod larbae in the southeastern Bering Sea with emphesis on the St. George Basin.

  4. AN EARLY MIOCENE DEEP-WATER DECAPOD CRUSTACEAN FAUNULE FROM THE SLOVENIAN PART OF THE STYRIAN BASIN, AND ITS PALAEOENVIRONMENTAL AND PALAEOBIOGEOGRAPHICAL SIGNIFICANCE

    PubMed Central

    GAŠPARIČ, ROK; HYŽNÝ, MATÚŠ

    2015-01-01

    A new decapod crustacean faunule is described from the early Miocene of the Slovenian part of the Styrian Basin. The Ivnik Beds exposed at the Činžat locality contain seven species: Calliax michelottii (Axiidea: Callianassidae), Lepidophthalmus paratethyensis sp. nov. (Axiidea: Callianassidae), Jaxea kuemeli (Gebiidea: Laomediidae), Styrioplax exiguus (Brachyura: Chasmocarcinidae), Goneplax gulderi (Brachyura: Goneplacidae), Neopilumnoplax pohorjensis sp. nov. (Brachyura: Mathildellidae) and Retropluma slovenica sp. nov. (Brachyura: Retroplumidae). Numerous specimens of well-preserved Styrioplax exiguus permitted its redescription and re-assignment of its familial placement to Chasmocarcinidae. Neopilumnoplax pohorjensis sp. nov. constitutes the first fossil occurrence of the genus known to date. The decapod association, as well as other faunal elements, suggests low-energy deep-water depositional environment with epibathyal water depth of more than 125 m. The studied locality is situated in the Ribnica–Selnica graben filled with sediments once deposited in the Central Paratethys sea. Based on the affinities of decapod genera of the Central Paratethys and the Proto-Mediterranean, we conclude that the exchange of decapod faunas between these regions was probably regulated by an anti-estuarine circulation permitting an easier incursion of species from the Proto-Mediterranean into the Paratethys and simultaneous hindering the Paratethyan endemics (Styrioplax) from entering the Mediterranean. PMID:26689949

  5. The decapod fauna (Axiidea, Anomura, Brachyura) from the Late Pleistocene of Trumbacà, Reggio Calabria (Calabria, southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Garassino, Alessandro; Pasini, Giovanni; De Angeli, Antonio; Hyžný, Matúš

    2015-01-01

    We report a rich faunal assemblage from the Tyrrhenian (Late Pleistocene) of Trumbacà, located in the southern area of Reggio Calabria (Calabria, southern Italy). The only brachyuran reported to date from this locality is Ranilia constricta (A. Milne Edwards, 1880) by Vazzana (2008). The studied specimens have been assigned, as follows: ?Corallianassa sp., Dardanus arrosor (Herbst, 1796), Dardanus substriatus (A. Milne Edwards, 1861), Paguristes cf. P. syrtensis de Saint Laurent 1970, Anapagurus sp., Ranilia constricta (A. Milne Edwards, 1880), Ranina propinqua Ristori, 1891, Ebalia cf. E. deshayesi Lucas, 1846, Ilia nucleus (Linnaeus, 1758), Medorippe lanata (Linnaeus, 1767), Calappa granulata (Linnaeus, 1758), Pisa armata (Latreille, 1803), Derilambrus cf. D. angulifrons (Latreille, 1825), Atelecyclus undecimdentatus (Herbst, 1783), Carcinus sp., Pilumnus hirtellus (Linnaeus, 1761), and Xantho cf. X. incisus (Leach, 1814). The studied assemblage enlarges our knowledge on the evolution of the Mediterranean decapod faunas. PMID:26689358

  6. Cadmium concentration of mesopelagic decapods and euphausiids from the north-east Atlantic ocean: possible use as a dietary marker in food-web studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ridout, P.S.; Roe, H.S.J.; Jones, H.R.; Morris, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    A range of mesopelagic decapods and euphausiids, collected from the N.E. Atlantic, analyzed for Cd. The data were compared with previously reported levels of Cd and /sup 210/Po in similar species from the same area. Caridean decapods are active carnivores and generally have higher Cd concentrations than the more detritivorous penaeids. Among the carids, the Cd concentration is highest in shallow migrants and may have resulted from their eating prey that fed upon Cd-enriched phytoplankton. Euphausiids may be such prey, but their Cd concentrations are relatively low and it is suggested that there may be other important links in Cd transfer. The authors suggest that Cd does have potential as a biochemical dietary marker.

  7. Vertical and temporal distribution of pelagic decapod crustaceans over the shelf-break and middle slope in two contrasting zones around Mallorca (western Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simão, Daniela S.; Torres, Asvin P.; Olivar, M. Pilar; Abelló, Pere

    2014-10-01

    The pelagic decapod crustacean fauna of two different zones (Sóller and Cabrera) with different hydrographic dynamics and oligotrophy levels was studied around Mallorca (western Mediterranean), the latter with a higher degree of oligotrophy than the former. Samples were taken with a Pelagic Trawl and an IKMT in the upper 600 m of the water column, targeting larger and middle-sized nektonic species, respectively. Fourteen species were collected: five dendrobranchiate shrimps, eight caridean shrimps and one scyllarid lobster. Some species were restricted to the shelf-break: Chlorotocus crassicornis and Plesionika heterocarpus. Others were exclusive of the middle slope: Pasiphaea multidentata, and Sergia robusta. Pasiphaea sivado and Gennadas elegans occurred in all pelagic strata. Multivariate analyses showed several distinct assemblages related to bathymetry and sampling depth. No significant differences were found concerning zone or sampled seasons. Bathymetrically, Deep Scattering Layers showed the highest diversity. No decapod crustaceans occurred in epipelagic daytime samples. The pelagic decapod community sampled was structured by both the geomorphology (and associated hydrographic characteristics over the shelf-break) and the influence of light in the water column. Size analysis showed species-specific patterns concerning size/age movements into the water column throughout the day-night cycle.

  8. Metabolic rates of benthic deep-sea decapod crustaceans decline with increasing depth primarily due to the decline in temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childress, J. J.; Cowles, D. L.; Favuzzi, J. A.; Mickel, T. J.

    1990-06-01

    The oxygen consumption rates of 11 species of benthic deep-sea decapod crustaceans were measured at a variety of temperatures to test the hypothesis that the metabolic rates of benthic crustaceans decline with increasing depth of occurrence only to the extent explained by the decline in temperature with depth. The species were captured at depths between 150 and 2000m off Southern California using an epibenthic beam trawl equipped with a thermally protecting cod-end to bring the animals to the surface uncontaminated by sediment and at the depth temperature. The data, combined with those for six species of shallower-living crustaceans from California waters, showed a significant decline in oxygen consumption rate with increased species' depths of occurrence, when the measurements were made at temperatures appropriate to each species' depth range. There was no significant relation between wet weight and depth of occurrence in these species. When the data were adjusted to 10°C using a moderate temperature effect factor (corresponding to Q10 values of 2-2.3 depending on the species and temperature range), the significant relationship between oxygen consumption rate and depth was lost, indicating that the observed decline with depth was due to the decline in temperature with depth. When the relationship between metabolic rate and depth of occurrence for the most active (carideans and penaeid) species were compared (ANCOVA) with that for the rest of the species, the active species had significantly higher rates. By combining this data set with data from the literature for a wide variety of shallow-living benthic decapod crustaceans, it was possible to create a data set of 35 species in which the effects of temperature, minimum depth of occurrence and body mass could be separated by multiple linear regression. This demonstrated highly significant effects of size and temperature, but no significant effect of depth for the entire data set and for the data set excluding penaeids and carideans. In contrast, the carideans showed a significant effect of depth on metabolic rate. This is discussed in terms of the adaptive and selective factors responsible for the well-known decline in metabolic rates of midwater crustaceans and fishes, an effect which does exceed the effect of temperature. It is suggested that the typical pattern for deeper living animals may be that metabolic rates on average vary as a function of depth due primarily to variation in temperature, except for the visually orienting pelagic groups (cephalopods, crustaceans and fishes). For those benthic forms which are particularly visually oriented and/or partially pelagic some significant depth-related decline in metabolism beyond that due to the decline in temperature is expected.

  9. Community structure and dynamics of deep-water decapod assemblages from Le Danois Bank (Cantabrian Sea, NE Atlantic): Influence of environmental variables and food availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, Joan E.; Serrano, Alberto; Velasco, Francisco; Parra, Santiago; Sánchez, Francisco

    2007-12-01

    The community structure of the decapod crustaceans inhabiting Le Danois Bank (Cantabrian Sea, NE Atlantic Ocean) was studied on two cruises performed in October 2003 and April 2004. Otter and beam-trawls were used to collect this fauna. At depths ranging between 455 and 1048 m, we found distinct decapod assemblages on the bank summit and deeper in the inner basin (between the bank and the continental shelf). The faunal discontinuity between these groups appeared at around 600 m (e.g. between 612 and 642 m in the basis of species replacement). The summit assemblage was characterized by low diversity (in terms of number and relative abundances of species) and by the dominance of hermit crabs ( Pagurus alatus, Anapagurus laevis, Pagurus excavatus), the crangonid Pontophilus spinosus and the squat lobster Munida sarsi. Species characterizing the deeper assemblage, which was richer in terms of diversity, were Munida tenuimana, Parapagurus pilosimanus, Pontophilus norvegicus, the crab Geryon trispinosus and a number of bathypelagic shrimps ( Sergia robusta, Acanthephyra pelagica and Pasiphaea tarda). Changes in decapod composition characterized by multidimensional scaling analyses were correlated with different variables, e.g. %mud and %organic matter (OM), temperature and salinity close to the bottom. Among those the %OM and %mud in sediments affected decapod distributions the most. The summit of the bank was covered by fine sediments with low proportion of mud (13.9-29.3%) and OM (2.55-3.50%). By contrast, sediment of the inner basin had a higher proportion of OM and mud (64.1-84.2%; 6.26-7.00%, respectively). The low proportion of mud at the summit of Le Danois Bank may explain the absence or scarcity of burrowing species (e.g. the lobster Nephrops norvegicus, the shrimps Calocaris macandreae and Alpheus glaber and the crab Goneplax rhomboides), that are dominant at similar depths (400-500 m) in the upper muddy assemblage on the mainland-continental slope in the Bay of Biscay (44-46°N). The dominance of certain species on the summit of submarine mounts can probably be related to their biology and feeding ecology. For example, pagurids are deposit feeders, even consuming marine snow (e.g. Chl- a identified in guts of Pagurus alatus), and they have low gut fullness (probably indicating a capacity to withstand long periods under starvation), that would favour their adaptability to a rather unpredictable habitat such as Le Danois Bank summit. Regarding prey availability, zooplankton/micronekton and infauna distributed around Le Danois Bank showed different depth-related patterns. Among zooplankton, mesopelagic decapods, mysids, and fishes were absent at the bank summit, while euphausiids exhibited high abundances over the summit. No significant trends with depth were found for infauna abundance, and for instance polychaete densities were similar both at the summit and the inner basin. Therefore, prey availability was lower for summit assemblages regarding zooplankton/micronekton. Patterns in mean size vs. depth were species specific for decapods, and the possible role of the bank summit as a recruitment area was not general for the whole decapod assemblage.

  10. Effects of insect and decapod exclusion and leaf litter species identity on breakdown rates in a tropical headwater stream.

    PubMed

    Rincón, José; Covich, Alan

    2014-04-01

    High species richness of tropical riparian trees influences the diversity of organic detritus entering streams, creating temporal variability in litter quantity and quality. We examined the influence of species of riparian plants and macroinvertebrate exclusion on leaf-litter breakdown in a headwater stream in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. Leaf litter of Dacryodes excelsa (Burseraceae), Guarea guidonia (Meliaceae), Cecropia scheberiana (Moraceae), Manilkara bidentata (Sapotaceae), and Prestoea acuminata (Palmae) were incubated in litter bags in a pool of Quebrada Prieta. Fine mesh bags were used to exclude macroinvertebrates during leaf breakdown, and coarse mesh bags allowed access to decapod crustaceans (juvenile shrimps and crabs) and aquatic insects (mainly mayflies, chironomids, and caddisflies). D. excelsa and G. guidonia (in coarse- and fine-mesh bags) had significantly higher breakdown rates than C. scheberiana, M. bidentata, and P. acuminata. Breakdown rates were significantly faster in coarse-mesh bag treatments for all leaf types, thus indicating a positive contribution of macroinvertebrates in leaf litter breakdown in this headwater stream. After 42 days of incubation, densities of total invertebrates, mayflies and caddisflies, were higher in bags with D. excelsa and G. guidonia, and lower in P. acuminata, C. scheberiana y M. bidentata. Decay rates were positively correlated to insect densities. Our study highlights the importance of leaf identity and macroinvertebrate exclusion on the process of leaf litter breakdown in tropical headwater streams. PMID:25189075

  11. The community of deep-sea decapod crustaceans between 175 and 2600 m in submarine canyons of a volcanic oceanic island (central-eastern Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajuelo, José G.; Triay-Portella, Raül; Santana, José I.; González, José A.

    2015-11-01

    The community structure and faunal composition of deep-sea decapod crustaceans in submarine canyons on the slope off Gran Canaria Island (Canary Islands, central-eastern Atlantic) were investigated. Samples were collected during five research cruises (115 stations) at depths between 175 and 2554 m. A total of 26387 decapod specimens, belonging to 24 families and 38 species, were collected with traps. A cluster analysis of the stations showed four distinct assemblages: (i) in the transition area between shelf and slope (175-302 m); (ii) on the upper slope (361-789 m); (iii) on the middle slope (803-1973 m); and iv) on the lower slope (2011-2554 m). The deep-sea decapod fauna of the Canary Islands is dominated by shrimp of the family Pandalidae, which make up more than 23% of the species. Within the Pandalidae, species of the genus Plesionika stand out as those of greatest abundance on the island slope. The greatest diversity of species was located on the upper slope. The standardized mean abundance and mean biomass for the transition zone between the shelf and slope and for the upper slope were nearly 5 times greater in abundance and 4 times greater in biomass than those estimated for the middle slope, and nearly 53 and 29 times greater for the lower slope, indicating a lower abundance and biomass at the shallower part of the insular slope. The mean weight per individual showed an increasing pattern with depth and an inverse pattern with the bottom temperature and salinity. The existence of depth boundaries around the Canary Islands is known to be closely linked to oceanographic conditions, determined by the water masses present in this archipelago explaining the discontinuities observed at depths of 800 and 2000 m. The boundary observed inside the bathymetric region of the Eastern North Atlantic Central Water can be related with the transition zone between the shelf and the slope of the island.

  12. Trophic transfer of trace metals from the polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor to the polychaete N. virens and the decapod crustacean Palaemonetes varians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rainbow, P.S.; Poirier, L.; Smith, B.D.; Brix, K.V.; Luoma, S.N.

    2006-01-01

    Diet is an important exposure route for the uptake of trace metals by aquatic invertebrates, with trace metal trophic transfer depending on 2 stages - assimilation and subsequent accumulation by the predator. This study investigated the trophic transfer of trace metals from the sediment-dwelling polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor from metal-rich estuarine sediments in southwestern UK to 2 predators - another polychaete N. virens (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Fe) and the decapod crustacean Palaemonetes varians (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Fe, Ag, As, Mn). N. virens showed net accumulation of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd from the prey; accumulation increased with increasing prey concentration, but a coefficient of trophic transfer decreased with increasing prey concentration, probably because a higher proportion of accumulated metal in the prey is bound in less trophically available (insoluble) detoxified forms. The trace metal accumulation patterns of P. varians apparently restricted significant net accumulation of metals from the diet of N. diversicolor to just Cd. There was significant mortality of the decapods fed on the diets of metal-rich worms. Metal-rich invertebrates that have accumulated metals from the rich historical store in the sediments of particular SW England estuaries can potentially pass these metals along food chains, with accumulation and total food chain transfer depending on the metal assimilation efficiencies and accumulation patterns of the animal at each trophic level. This trophic transfer may be significant enough to have ecotoxicological effects. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  13. Monthly variation in crustacean assemblage (decapod and stomatopod) and its relationships with environmental variables in Laizhou Bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiang; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Ruisheng; Jin, Xianshi

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the community structure of crustaceans (decapod and stomatopod) inhabiting the sandy mud bottoms of Laizhou Bay (northeastern China) monthly from May 2011 to April 2012. Investigation was stopped from December 2011 to February 2012 because of the extreme weather and sea ice. A total of 205,057 specimens belonging to 31 species (shrimp, 15; crab, 15; and stomatopod, 1) were collected in 148 hauls. From 2011 to 2012, Oratosquilla oratoria was the dominant biomass species (47.80%), followed by Charybdis japonica (15.49%), Alpheus japonicas (12.61%), Portunus trituberculatus (6.46%), and Crangon spp. (4.19%). Crangon spp. was the most dominant species by individual (32.55%). O. oratoria was the most-frequently encountered species (81.76%), followed by Palaemon gravieri (70.95%), C. japonica (65.54%), A. japonicas (62.16%), and P. trituberculatus (54.73%). The biomass density increased from August to September 2011 and decreased from March 2012 to April 2012. The dynamics of the ecological indices evolve in a similar manner, with high values of diversity and evenness and rich species from May to June 2011 and low values from September to October 2011. O. oratoria, C. japonica, and P. trituberculatus differed by biomass data between groups I (samples obtained from September to October 2011) and II (samples in other months). These species contributed more than 70% to the similarity of the crustacean community structure. Furthermore, the subsets of environmental variables that best matched the crustacean-assemblage structure were as follows: water depth (WD) in summer (June to August); sea surface temperature (SST), dissolved oxygen (DO), and WD in autumn (September to November); and DO, salinity, and WD in spring (March to May). The calculated correlation coefficients and significance level were higher in the period of July to August 2011 than in other months. Comparing 2011 to 2012 with 1982 to 1983, the species composition remained stable. However, the dominant species changed significantly. High value and large species, such as F. chinensis, P. trituberculatus, and T. curvirostris, have been replaced by low value and small species ( i.e., Crangon spp., P. gravieri, and C. japonica).

  14. Metabolic rates and energy content of deep-sea benthic decapod crustaceans in the western Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Company, J. B.; Sardà, F.

    1998-11-01

    A total of 23 species of deep-sea benthic decapod crustaceans were collected in the Catalan Sea (western Mediterranean) at different depths (200-1250 m) but at the same environmental temperature (13°C) in winter 1992 and winter 1993. Studies on oxygen consumption and energy content were carried out on crustaceans exhibiting two life strategies: nektobenthic species (benthic species with a slight locomotory ability) and benthic-endobenthic species (strictly benthic species). The two deep-sea life styles were associated with two different patterns of metabolic rate and energy content. On the whole, metabolic rates, energy contents, and organic matter contents were higher for the nektobenthic life strategy than for the benthic-endobenthic life strategy. When results were related to depth of maximum abundance of the species consid-ered, it appeared that the nektobenthic species in the upper slope community (200-450 m depth) had a significantly lower energy content (as kJ g -1 of ash-free dry mass) than the nektobenthic species in the middle slope community (550-1250 m depth), but no significant trend was found when the energy content was expressed as a function of wet mass. The benthic-endobenthic species exhibited a significant decrease in metabolic rates, an increase in energy content (when expressed as a function of ash-free dry mass), no significant trend in energy content (as a function of wet mass) and a significant increase in water content with increasing depth over the two depth strata considered (200-450 and 550-1250 m). It was concluded that the lower metabolic rates of deeper-living benthic-endobenthic species, when compared to the shallower-living species, were the result of general locomotory reduction. It is likely that the shallower-living species rely more heavily on visual predation than the deeperliving species (light-limited environment), and this fact is discussed as an explanation of the general metabolic reduction for the benthic-endobenthic Mediterranean species along the depth gradient considered in the present study (200-1250 m).

  15. Distribution and biogeographic trends of decapod assemblages from Galicia Bank (NE Atlantic) at depths between 700 and 1800 m, with connexions to regional water masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, J. E.; Papiol, V.; Frutos, I.; Macpherson, E.; González-Pola, C.; Punzón, A.; Valeiras, X.; Serrano, A.

    2014-08-01

    The Galicia Bank (NE Atlantic, 42°67‧N-11°74‧W) is an isolated seamount, near NW Spain, a complex geomorphological and sedimentary structure that receives influences from contrasting water masses of both northern and southern origins. Within the project INDEMARES, three cruises were performed on the bank in 2009 (Ecomarg0709), 2010 (BanGal0810) and 2011 (BanGal0811) all in July-August. Decapods and other macrobenthic crustaceans (eucarids and peracarids) were collected with different sampling systems, mainly beam trawls (BT, 10 mm of mesh size at codend) and a GOC73 otter trawl (20 mm mesh size). Sixty-seven species of decapod crustaceans, 6 euphausiids, 19 peracarids and 1 ostracod were collected at depths between 744 and 1808 m. We found two new species, one a member of the Chirostylidae, Uroptychus cartesi Baba & Macpherson, 2012, the other of the Petalophthalmidae (Mysida) Petalophthalmus sp. A, in addition to a number of new biogeographic species records for European or Iberian waters. An analysis of assemblages showed a generalized species renewal with depth, with different assemblages between 744 and ca. 1400 m (the seamount top assemblage, STA) and between ca. 1500 and 1800 m (the deep-slope assemblage over seamount flanks, DSA). These were respectively associated with Mediterranean outflow waters (MOW) and with Labrador Sea Water (LSW). Another significant factor separating different assemblages over the Galician Bank was the co-occurrence of corals (both colonies of hard corals such as Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata and/or gorgonians) in hauls. Munidopsids (Munidopsis spp.), chirostylids (Uroptychus spp.), and the homolodromiid Dicranodromia mahieuxii formed a part of this coral-associated assemblage. Dominant species at the STA were the pandalid Plesionika martia (a shrimp of subtropical-southern distribution) and the crabs Bathynectes maravigna and Polybius henslowii, whereas dominant species in the DSA were of northern origin, the lithodid Neolithodes grimaldii and the crangonid Glyphocrangon longiristris, likely associated with LSW. The diversity (H and J) of small crustaceans (collected with BT) seemed to be controlled by the phytoplankton blooms (satellite Chl a data) over bank surface 3 months before the samplings, both at the top (Spearman r=0.57, p=0.03) and on the flanks (r=0.74, p=0.02) of Galicia Bank, while no significant relationships with Chl a were found for the larger decapods collected with GOC73, on average they feed at the higher trophic levels than those collected with BT.

  16. Deep-Sea decapod crustaceans (Caridea, Polychelida, Anomura and Brachyura) collected from the Nikko Seamounts, Mariana Arc, using a remotely operated vehicle "Hyper-Dolphin".

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Tsuchida, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Samples and images of deep-water benthic decapod crustaceans were collected from the Nikko Seamounts, Mariana Arc, at depths of 520-680 m, by using the remotely operate vehicle "Hyper-Dolphin", equipped with a high definition camera, digital camera, manipulators and slurp gun (suction sampler). The following seven species were collected, of which three are new to science: Plesionika unicolor n. sp. (Caridea: Pandalidae), Homeryon armarium Galil, 2000 (Polychelida: Polychelidae), Eumunida nikko n. sp. (Anomura: Eumunididae), Michelopagurus limatulus (Henderson, 1888) (Anomura: Paguridae), Galilia petricola n. sp. (Brachyura: Leucosiidae), Cyrtomaia micronesica Richer de Forges & Ng, 2007 (Brachyura: Inachidae), and Progeryon mus Ng & Guinot, 1999 (Brachyura: Progeryonidae). Affinities of these three new species are discussed. All but H. armarium are recorded from the Japanese Exclusive Economic Zone for the first time. Brief notes on ecology and/or behavior are given for each species. PMID:24870636

  17. Parasites in the Fossil Record: A Cretaceous Fauna with Isopod-Infested Decapod Crustaceans, Infestation Patterns through Time, and a New Ichnotaxon

    PubMed Central

    Klompmaker, Adiël A.; Artal, Pedro; van Bakel, Barry W. M.; Fraaije, René H. B.; Jagt, John W. M.

    2014-01-01

    Parasites are common in modern ecosystems and are also known from the fossil record. One of the best preserved and easily recognisable examples of parasitism in the fossil record concerns isopod-induced swellings in the branchial chamber of marine decapod crustaceans. However, very limited quantitative data on the variability of infestation percentages at the species, genus, and family levels are available. Here we provide this type of data for a mid-Cretaceous (upper Lower Cretaceous, upper Albian) reef setting at Koskobilo, northern Spain, on the basis of 874 specimens of anomurans and brachyurans. Thirty-seven specimens (4.2%), arranged in ten species, are infested. Anomurans are more heavily infested than brachyurans, variability can be high within genera, and a relationship may exist between the number of specimens and infestation percentage per taxon, possibly suggesting host-specificity. We have also investigated quantitative patterns of infestation through geological time based on 88 infested species (25 anomurans, 55 brachyurans, seven lobsters, and one shrimp), to show that the highest number of infested species can be found in the Late Jurassic, also when corrected for the unequal duration of epochs. The same Late Jurassic peak is observed for the percentage of infested decapod species per epoch. This acme is caused entirely by infested anomurans and brachyurans. Biases (taphonomic and otherwise) and causes of variability with regard to the Koskobilo assemblage and infestation patterns through time are discussed. Finally, a new ichnogenus and -species, Kanthyloma crusta, are erected to accommodate such swellings or embedment structures (bioclaustrations). PMID:24667587

  18. Apolipocrustacein, formerly vitellogenin, is the major egg yolk precursor protein in decapod crustaceans and is homologous to insect apolipophorin II/I and vertebrate apolipoprotein B

    PubMed Central

    Avarre, Jean-Christophe; Lubzens, Esther; Babin, Patrick J

    2007-01-01

    Background In animals, the biogenesis of some lipoprotein classes requires members of the ancient large lipid transfer protein (LLTP) superfamily, including the cytosolic large subunit of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), vertebrate apolipoprotein B (apoB), vitellogenin (Vtg), and insect apolipophorin II/I precursor (apoLp-II/I). In most oviparous species, Vtg, a large glycolipoprotein, is the main egg yolk precursor protein. Results This report clarifies the phylogenetic relationships of LLTP superfamily members and classifies them into three families and their related subfamilies. This means that the generic term Vtg is no longer a functional term, but is rather based on phylogenetic/structural criteria. In addition, we determined that the main egg yolk precursor protein of decapod crustaceans show an overall greater sequence similarity with apoLp-II/I than other LLTP, including Vtgs. This close association is supported by the phylogenetic analysis, i.e. neighbor-joining, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods, of conserved sequence motifs and the presence of three common conserved domains: an N-terminal large lipid transfer module marker for LLTP, a DUF1081 domain of unknown function in their central region exclusively shared with apoLp-II/I and apoB, and a von Willebrand-factor type D domain at their C-terminal end. Additionally, they share a conserved functional subtilisin-like endoprotease cleavage site with apoLp-II/I, in a similar location. Conclusion The structural and phylogenetic data presented indicate that the major egg yolk precursor protein of decapod crustaceans is surprisingly closely related to insect apoLp-II/I and vertebrate apoB and should be known as apolipocrustacein (apoCr) rather than Vtg. These LLTP may arise from an ancient duplication event leading to paralogs of Vtg sequences. The presence of LLTP homologs in one genome may facilitate redundancy, e.g. involvement in lipid metabolism and as egg yolk precursor protein, and neofunctionalization and subfunctionalization, e.g. involvement in clotting cascade and immune response, of extracellular LLTP members. These protein-coding nuclear genes may be used to resolve phylogenetic relationships among the major arthropod groups, especially the Pancrustacea-major splits. PMID:17241455

  19. New evidence on an old question: is the "fight or flight" stage present in the cardiac and respiratory regulation of decapod crustaceans?

    PubMed

    Canero, Eliana M; Hermitte, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    The ability to stay alert to subtle changes in the environment and to freeze, fight or flight in the presence of predators requires integrating sensory information as well as triggering motor output to target tissues, both of which are associated with the autonomic nervous system. These reactions, which are commonly related to vertebrates, are the fundamental physiological responses that allow an animal to survive danger. The circulatory activity in vertebrates changes in opposite phases. The stage where circulatory activity is high is termed the "fight or flight stage", while the stage where circulatory activity slows down is termed the "rest and digest stage". It may be assumed that highly evolved invertebrates possess a comparable response system as they also require rapid cardiovascular and respiratory regulation to be primed when necessary. However, in invertebrates, the body plan may have developed such a system very differently. Since this topic is insufficiently studied, it is necessary to extend studies for a comparative analysis. In the present review, we use our own experimental results obtained in the crab Neohelice granulata and both older and newer findings obtained by other authors in decapod crustaceans as well as in other invertebrates, to compare the pattern of change in circulatory activity, especially in the "fight or flight" stage. We conclude that the main features of neuroautonomic regulation of the cardiac function were already present early in evolution, at least in highly evolved invertebrates, although conspicuous differences are also evident. PMID:25237011

  20. Critical salinity, sensitivity, and commitment of salinity-mediated carbonic anhydrase induction in the gills of two euryhaline species of decapod crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Henry, Raymond P

    2005-01-01

    Two euryhaline species of decapod crustaceans, Carcinus maenas and Callinectes sapidus, were subjected to a series of acute low-salinity challenges, and changes in carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity in the gills were monitored in order to characterize the nature of salinity-sensitive CA induction. CA activity is uniformly low in all gills of both species at high salinity, but at a critical salinity of 27 ppt, CA induction occurs in the posterior, ion-transporting gills, with CA activity approximately doubling. This salinity occurs right at, or slightly above, the point at which these species make the transition from osmoconformity to osmoregulation. The regulatory mechanism that controls the levels of CA expression after the initial induction has occurred is also very sensitive. Changes in CA activity occur in response to changes in salinity as small as 20 milliosmoles. CA induction only occurs after a critical minimum amount of time of exposure to low salinity (48-72 hr in C. maenas and 12 hr in C. sapidus), but once induction is begun, it continues regardless of subsequent salinity changes. The timing is most likely due to the time it takes for changes in gene expression and resultant increases in CA mRNA to occur in response to low-salinity exposure, and the delay in CA induction could be an adaptation to avoid making metabolically expensive responses to potentially short-term environmental changes. PMID:15612006

  1. Impact of hard-bottom substrata on the small-scale distribution of fish and decapods in shallow subtidal temperate waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehkamp, Stephanie; Fischer, Philipp

    2013-03-01

    The micro-scale spatial distribution patterns of a demersal fish and decapod crustacean assemblage were assessed in a hard-bottom kelp environment in the southern North Sea. Using quadrats along line transects, we assessed the in situ fish and crustacean abundance in relation to substratum types (rock, cobbles and large pebbles) and the density of algae. Six fish and four crustacean species were abundant, with Ctenolabrus rupestris clearly dominating the fish community and Galathea squamifera dominating the crustacean community. Differences in the substratum types had an even stronger effect on the micro-scale distribution than the density of the dominating algae species. Kelp had a negative effect on the fish abundances, with significantly lower average densities in kelp beds compared with adjacent open areas. Averaged over all of the substrata, the most attractive substratum for the fish was large pebbles . In contrast, crustaceans did not show a specific substratum affinity. The results clearly indicate that, similar to other complex systems, significant micro-scale species-habitat associations occur in northern hard-bottom environments. However, because of the frequently harsh environmental conditions, these habitats are mainly sampled from ships with sampling gear, and the resulting data cannot be used to resolve small-scale species-habitat associations. A detailed substratum classification and community assessment, often only possible using SCUBA diving, is therefore important to reach a better understanding of the functional relationships between species and their environment in northern temperate waters, knowledge that is very important with respect to the increasing environmental pressure caused by global climate change.

  2. A glycosyl hydrolase family 16 gene is responsible for the endogenous production of β-1,3-glucanases within decapod crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Linton, Stuart M; Cameron, Melissa S; Gray, Michael C; Donald, John A; Saborowski, Reinhard; von Bergen, Martin; Tomm, Janina M; Allardyce, Benjamin J

    2015-09-15

    To identify the gene responsible for the production of a β-1,3-glucanase (laminarinase) within crustacea, a glycosyl hydrolase family 16 (GHF16) gene was sequenced from the midgut glands of the gecarcinid land crab, Gecarcoidea natalis and the freshwater crayfish, Cherax destructor. An open reading frame of 1098 bp for G. natalis and 1095 bp for C. destructor was sequenced from cDNA. For G. natalis and C. destructor respectively, this encoded putative proteins of 365 and 364 amino acids with molecular masses of 41.4 and 41.5 kDa. mRNA for an identical GHF16 protein was also expressed in the haemolymph of C. destructor. These putative proteins contained binding and catalytic domains that are characteristic of a β-1,3-glucanase from glycosyl hydrolase family 16. The amino acid sequences of two short 8-9 amino acid residue peptides from a previously purified β-1,3-glucanase from G. natalis matched exactly that of the putative protein sequence. This plus the molecular masses of the putative proteins matching that of the purified proteins strongly suggests that the sequences obtained encode for a catalytically active β-1,3-glucanase. A glycosyl hydrolase family 16 cDNA was also partially sequenced from the midgut glands of other amphibious (Mictyris platycheles and Paragrapsus laevis) and terrestrial decapod species (Coenobita rugosus, Coenobita perlatus, Coenobita brevimanus and Birgus latro) to confirm that the gene is widely expressed within this group. There are three possible hypothesised functions and thus evolutionary routes for the β-1,3-glucanase: 1) a digestive enzyme which hydrolyses β-1,3-glucans, 2) an enzyme which cleaves β-1,3-glycosidic bonds within cell walls to release cell contents or 3) an immune protein which can hydrolyse the cell walls of potentially pathogenic micro-organisms. PMID:26024589

  3. MitoPhAST, a new automated mitogenomic phylogeny tool in the post-genomic era with a case study of 89 decapod mitogenomes including eight new freshwater crayfish mitogenomes.

    PubMed

    Tan, Mun Hua; Gan, Han Ming; Schultz, Mark B; Austin, Christopher M

    2015-04-01

    The increased rate at which complete mitogenomes are being sequenced and their increasing use for phylogenetic studies have resulted in a bioinformatic bottleneck in preparing and utilising such data for phylogenetic analysis. Hence, we present MitoPhAST, an automated tool that (1) identifies annotated protein-coding gene features and generates a standardised, concatenated and partitioned amino acid alignment directly from complete/partial GenBank/EMBL-format mitogenome flat files, (2) generates a maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree using optimised protein models and (3) reports various mitochondrial genes and sequence information in a table format. To demonstrate the capacity of MitoPhAST in handling a large dataset, we used 81 publicly available decapod mitogenomes, together with eight new complete mitogenomes of Australian freshwater crayfishes, including the first for the genus Gramastacus, to undertake an updated test of the monophyly of the major groups of the order Decapoda and their phylogenetic relationships. The recovered phylogenetic trees using both Bayesian and ML methods support the results of studies using fragments of mtDNA and nuclear markers and other smaller-scale studies using whole mitogenomes. In comparison to the fragment-based phylogenies, nodal support values are generally higher despite reduced taxon sampling suggesting there is value in utilising more fully mitogenomic data. Additionally, the simple table output from MitoPhAST provides an efficient summary and statistical overview of the mitogenomes under study at the gene level, allowing the identification of missing or duplicated genes and gene rearrangements. The finding of new mtDNA gene rearrangements in several genera of Australian freshwater crayfishes indicates that this group has undergone an unusually high rate of evolutionary change for this organelle compared to other major families of decapod crustaceans. As a result, freshwater crayfishes are likely to be a useful model for studies designed to understand the evolution of mtDNA rearrangements. We anticipate that our bioinformatics pipeline will substantially help mitogenome-based studies increase the speed, accuracy and efficiency of phylogenetic studies utilising mitogenome information. MitoPhAST is available for download at https://github.com/mht85/MitoPhAST. PMID:25721538

  4. Studies on decapod crustacea from theIndian River Region of Florida. XI. Community composition, structure, biomass andspecies-areal relationships of seagrass and drift algae-associated macrocrustaceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gore, Robert H.; Gallaher, Edward E.; Scotto, Liberta E.; Wilson, Kim A.

    1981-04-01

    A 1-year study, using six 10 m 2 drop nets at monthly stations, was conducted on the seagrass and drift algae-associated macrocrustaceans (primarily Decapoda) in the Indian River lagoon on the central eastern Florida coast. The macrocrustacean community consisted of 38 species, in 28 genera and 17 families, the majority of which were caridean (grass) shrimp and brachyuran crabs. Two caridean shrimp, a pagurid crab, and a penaeid shrimp were numerically dominant species which, together with 10 less numerous species, were considered to be characteristic representatives of the macrocrustacean community. Both a species-area and individuals-area relationship were demonstrated using a combinatorial statistical method, and a modification of the Fisher species-individuals relationship. The community as a whole responded in numbers of individuals, and in total crustacean biomass, to increases in seagrass and drift algae (as plant biomass g -1 m -2). Macrocrustacean community diversity appeared to be regulated by above-ground plant abundance, and is thus a function of habitat complexity. The consistency of decapod species composition indicated that the community is both predictable and resilient, with resultant stability due, in some measure, to habitat diversity produced by the periodic trimonthly increases in drift algae abundances. Competitive exclusion may be more important than predation on this seagrass bed in regulating the within-habitat diversity of the macrocrustacean community.

  5. Antibacterial activity in four marine crustacean decapods.

    PubMed

    Haug, Tor; Kjuul, Anita K; Stensvåg, Klara; Sandsdalen, Erling; Styrvold, Olaf B

    2002-05-01

    A search for antibacterial activity in different body-parts of Pandalus borealis (northern shrimp), Pagurus bernhardus (hermit crab), Hyas araneus (spider crab) and Paralithodes camtschatica (king crab) was conducted. Dried samples were extracted with 60% (v/v) acetonitrile, containing 0.1% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid, and further extracted and concentrated on C18 cartridges. Eluates from the solid phase extraction were tested for antibacterial, lysozyme and haemolytic activity. Antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Vibrio anguillarum, Corynebacterium glutamicum and Staphylococcus aureus was detected in extracts from several tissues in all species tested, but mainly in the haemolymph and haemocyte extracts. V. anguillarum and C. glutamicum were generally the most sensitive micro-organisms. In P. borealis and P. bernhardus most of the active fractions were not affected by proteinase K treatment, while in H. araneus and P. camtschatica most fractions were sensitive to proteinase K treatment, indicating antibacterial factors of proteinaceous nature. In P. bernhardus the active fractions were generally heat labile, whereas in H. araneus the activities were resistant to heat. Differences between active extracts regarding hydrophobicity and sensitivity for heat and proteinase K treatment indicate that several compounds are responsible for the antibacterial activities detected. Lysozyme-like activity could be detected in some fractions and haemolytic activity against human red blood cells could be detected in haemolymph/haemocyte and exoskeleton extracts from all species tested. PMID:12194450

  6. The impact of pathogens on exploited populations of decapod crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Shields, Jeffrey D

    2012-06-01

    Several crustacean fisheries have experienced significant outbreaks of disease that have damaged their industries. Not only do fisheries suffer from direct losses to pathogens, such as disease-induced mortalities or reduced product value, but they can also incur indirect losses such as stunting, castration, and increased risk of predation. In some cases, the indirect losses can be substantial, yet they are often overlooked by the fishing industry as their primary focus is on recruits to the fishery, and not on the affected juvenile pre-recruits. Low levels of pathogens are to be expected in natural populations of commercial species, but baseline data on the prevalence and intensity of even the most common agents is often lacking. It is important to establish baselines for two reasons. First, it is important to know what pathogens exist in heavily exploited populations so as to gauge their potential to damage the industry; and second, during outbreaks, it is important to know whether an outbreak is a newly emergent event or whether it is a component of a cyclical phenomenon. Pathogens frequently act in concert with environmental stressors, and a variety of stressors have contributed to outbreaks of emerging agents in crustacean fisheries. Pollution, poor water quality, hypoxia, temperature extremes, and overexploitation have all been implicated as stressors in various outbreaks. This review focuses on epidemic diseases of commercially fished crustaceans. Outbreaks in cultured stocks are not covered. Disease epizootics have occurred in fished populations of crayfish and shrimp but they are less well known than the issues arising from extensive aquaculture of these species. PMID:22434001

  7. HORMONAL PROCESSES IN DECAPOD CRUSTACEAN LARVAE AS BIOMARKERS OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Knowledge of endocrine control of the complex larval developmental processes in insects (metamorphosis) has led to the introduction of insect hormones and their analogues as insecticides known as insect growth regulators (IGRs) with the largest group being juvenile hormone analog...

  8. Genomic Sequence and Experimental Tractability of a New Decapod Shrimp Model, Neocaridina denticulata

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, Nathan J.; Sin, Yung Wa; Shen, Xin; Zhe, Qu; Wang, Wei; Chan, Ting Fung; Tobe, Stephen S.; Shimeld, Sebastian M.; Chu, Ka Hou; Hui, Jerome H. L.

    2014-01-01

    The speciose Crustacea is the largest subphylum of arthropods on the planet after the Insecta. To date, however, the only publically available sequenced crustacean genome is that of the water flea, Daphnia pulex, a member of the Branchiopoda. While Daphnia is a well-established ecotoxicological model, previous study showed that one-third of genes contained in its genome are lineage-specific and could not be identified in any other metazoan genomes. To better understand the genomic evolution of crustaceans and arthropods, we have sequenced the genome of a novel shrimp model, Neocaridina denticulata, and tested its experimental malleability. A library of 170-bp nominal fragment size was constructed from DNA of a starved single adult and sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Core eukaryotic genes, the mitochondrial genome, developmental patterning genes (such as Hox) and microRNA processing pathway genes are all present in this animal, suggesting it has not undergone massive genomic loss. Comparison with the published genome of Daphnia pulex has allowed us to reveal 3750 genes that are indeed specific to the lineage containing malacostracans and branchiopods, rather than Daphnia-specific (E-value: 10−6). We also show the experimental tractability of N. denticulata, which, together with the genomic resources presented here, make it an ideal model for a wide range of further aquacultural, developmental, ecotoxicological, food safety, genetic, hormonal, physiological and reproductive research, allowing better understanding of the evolution of crustaceans and other arthropods. PMID:24619275

  9. Odors influencing foraging behavior of the California spiny lobster, Panulirus interruptus, and other decapod crustacea

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmer-Faust, R.K.; Case, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    Trapping experiments were conducted in the More Mesa coastal area of Santa Barbara, California, 4 km east of the U.C. Santa Barbara campus. Live intact and injured prey and excised tissues were placed in traps, in containers allowing odor release but preventing contacts with entering animals. Individuals of six prey species failed to attract lobsters when alive and intact, but some became attractive once injured. Excised tissues were the most effective baits. Abalone and mackerel muscle were attractive to lobsters but relatively nonattractive to crabs, while angel shark muscle was attractive to crabs but not to lobsters. Shrimp cephalothoraces were repellant to lobsters. Naturally occurring attractant and repellent tissues are thus identified and chemosensory abilities of lobsters and sympatric crabs are demonstrated to differ. Abalone muscle increased in attractivity following 1-2 days field exposure. Molecular weights of stimulants released by both weathered and fresh abalone were < 10,000 daltons with evidence suggesting that the 1000-10,000 dalton fraction may contribute significantly to attraction. Concentrations of total primary amines released from abalone muscle failed to differ from background levels, following an initial three (0-3h) period. Primary amines thus appear not to contribute directly to captures of lobsters, since animals were usually caught greater than or equal to 7 h after baits were positioned. Amino acids were the dominant contributors to present measurements of total primary amines, suggesting that these molecules may not direct lobster foraging behavior in the present experiments. 41 references, 4 figures, 8 tables.

  10. Methodical aspects of rearing decapod larvae, Pagurus bernhardus (Paguridae) and Carcinus maenas (Portunidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawirs, R. R.

    1982-12-01

    Improved methods for experimental rearing of Pagurus bernhardus and Carcinus maenas larvae are presented. Isolated maintenance was found essential for reliable statistical evaluation of results obtained from stages older than zoea-1. Only by isolated rearing is it possible to calculate mean values ±95% confidence intervals of stage duration. Mean values (without confidence intervals) can only be given for group-reared larvae if mortality is zero. Compared to group rearing, isolated rearing led to better survival, shorter periods of development and stimulated growth. Due to different swimming behavior P. bernhardus zoeae needed larger water volumes than Carcinus maenas larvae. P. bernhardus zoeae were reared with best results when isolated in Petri dishes (ca. 50 ml). They fed on newly hatched brine shrimp nauplii ( Artemia spp.). P. bernhardus megalopa did not require any gastropod shell or substratum; it developed best in glass vials without any food. C. maenas larvae could be reared most sucessfully in glass vials (ca 20 ml) under a simulated day-night regime (LD 16:8); constant darkness had a detrimental effect on development, leading to prolonged stage-duration times. C. maenas larvae were fed a mixture of newly hatched brine shrimp naupli and rotifers ( Brachionus plicatilis).

  11. Joint effects of salinity and the antidepressant sertraline on the estuarine decapod Carcinus maenas.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Aurélie P; Santos, Lúcia H M L M; Oliva-Teles, Maria Teresa; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Guimarães, Laura

    2014-11-01

    Concurrent exposure of estuarine organisms to man-made and natural stressors has become a common occurrence. Numerous interactions of multiple stressors causing synergistic or antagonistic effects have been described. However, limited information is available on combined effects of emerging pharmaceuticals and natural stressors. This study investigated the joint effects of the antidepressant sertraline and salinity on Carcinus maenas. To improve knowledge about interactive effects and potential vulnerability, experiments were performed with organisms from two estuaries with differing histories of exposure to environmental contamination. Biomarkers related to mode of action of sertraline were employed to assess effects of environmentally realistic concentrations of sertraline at two salinity levels. Synergism and antagonism were identified for biomarkers of cholinergic neurotransmission, energy production, anti-oxidant defences and oxidative damage. Different interactions were found for the two study sites highlighting the need to account for differences in tolerance of local ecological receptors in risk evaluations. PMID:25217761

  12. Copper uptake and regulation in a copper-tolerant decapod Cambarus bartoni (Fabricius)

    SciTech Connect

    Zia, S.; Alikhan, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Large amounts of acid forming sulfur dioxide, and heavy metals including copper, are continuously being released into the environment by mining and smelting operation at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. Consequently, a number of lakes in this region have become acidic and metal stressed. In the current study the uptake and accumulation of copper by various tissues of a copper-tolerant crayfish, Cambarus bartoni, were monitored in the laboratory to ascertain the dynamic nature (i.e., the pattern in time) of responses of crayfish to increased levels of these two metals in the water.

  13. Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (cHH) as a Modulator of Aggression in Crustacean Decapods

    PubMed Central

    Aquiloni, Laura; Giulianini, Piero G.; Mosco, Alessandro; Guarnaccia, Corrado; Ferrero, Enrico; Gherardi, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic amines, particularly serotonin, are recognised to play an important role in controlling the aggression of invertebrates, whereas the effect of neurohormones is still underexplored. The crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (cHH) is a multifunctional member of the eyestalk neuropeptide family. We expect that this neuropeptide influences aggression either directly, by controlling its expression, or indirectly, by mobilizing the energetic stores needed for the increased activity of an animal. Our study aims at testing such an influence and the possible reversion of hierarchies in the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, as a model organism. Three types of pairs of similarly sized males were formed: (1) ‘control pairs’ (CP, n = 8): both individuals were injected with a phosphate saline solution (PBS); (2) ‘reinforced pairs’ (RP, n = 9): the alpha alone was injected with native cHH, and the beta with PBS; (3) ‘inverted pairs’ (IP, n = 9): the opposite of (2). We found that, independently of the crayfish’s prior social experience, cHH injections induced (i) the expression of dominance behaviour, (ii) higher glycemic levels, and (iii) lower time spent motionless. In CP and RP, fight intensity decreased with the establishment of dominance. On the contrary, in IP, betas became increasingly likely to initiate and escalate fights and, consequently, increased their dominance till a temporary reversal of the hierarchy. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that, similarly to serotonin, cHH enhances individual aggression, up to reverse, although transitorily, the hierarchical rank. New research perspectives are thus opened in our intriguing effort of understanding the role of cHH in the modulation of agonistic behaviour in crustaceans. PMID:23166815

  14. PHYSIOLOGICAL DYSFUNCTION IN ESTUARINE MYSIDS AND LARVAL DECAPODS WITH CHRONIC PESTICIDE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A variety of physiological functions was examined in an estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) during life-cycle exposures to four classes of pesticides. Pesticide exposure initially elevated respiration rates of juveniles. These increased metabolic requirements reduced the amount of...

  15. Genomic sequence and experimental tractability of a new decapod shrimp model, Neocaridina denticulata.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Nathan J; Sin, Yung Wa; Shen, Xin; Zhe, Qu; Wang, Wei; Chan, Ting Fung; Tobe, Stephen S; Shimeld, Sebastian M; Chu, Ka Hou; Hui, Jerome H L

    2014-03-01

    The speciose Crustacea is the largest subphylum of arthropods on the planet after the Insecta. To date, however, the only publically available sequenced crustacean genome is that of the water flea, Daphnia pulex, a member of the Branchiopoda. While Daphnia is a well-established ecotoxicological model, previous study showed that one-third of genes contained in its genome are lineage-specific and could not be identified in any other metazoan genomes. To better understand the genomic evolution of crustaceans and arthropods, we have sequenced the genome of a novel shrimp model, Neocaridina denticulata, and tested its experimental malleability. A library of 170-bp nominal fragment size was constructed from DNA of a starved single adult and sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Core eukaryotic genes, the mitochondrial genome, developmental patterning genes (such as Hox) and microRNA processing pathway genes are all present in this animal, suggesting it has not undergone massive genomic loss. Comparison with the published genome of Daphnia pulex has allowed us to reveal 3750 genes that are indeed specific to the lineage containing malacostracans and branchiopods, rather than Daphnia-specific (E-value: 10⁻⁶). We also show the experimental tractability of N. denticulata, which, together with the genomic resources presented here, make it an ideal model for a wide range of further aquacultural, developmental, ecotoxicological, food safety, genetic, hormonal, physiological and reproductive research, allowing better understanding of the evolution of crustaceans and other arthropods. PMID:24619275

  16. High sequence variability among hemocyte-specific Kazal-type proteinase inhibitors in decapod crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Cerenius, Lage; Liu, Haipeng; Zhang, Yanjiao; Rimphanitchayakit, Vichien; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Gunnar Andersson, M; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Söderhäll, Irene

    2010-01-01

    Crustacean hemocytes were found to produce a large number of transcripts coding for Kazal-type proteinase inhibitors (KPIs). A detailed study performed with the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus and the shrimp Penaeus monodon revealed the presence of at least 26 and 20 different Kazal domains from the hemocyte KPIs, respectively. Comparisons with KPIs from other taxa indicate that the sequences of these domains evolve rapidly. A few conserved positions, e.g. six invariant cysteines were present in all domain sequences whereas the position of P1 amino acid, a determinant for substrate specificity, varied highly. A study with a single crayfish animal suggested that even at the individual level considerable sequence variability among hemocyte KPIs produced exist. Expression analysis of four crayfish KPI transcripts in hematopoietic tissue cells and different hemocyte types suggest that some of these KPIs are likely to be involved in hematopoiesis or hemocyte release as they were produced in particular hemocyte types or maturation stages only. PMID:19715720

  17. Rapid assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure in decapod crustaceans by fluorimetric analysis of urine and haemolymph.

    PubMed

    Watson, Giles M; Andersen, Odd-Ketil; Galloway, Tamara S; Depledge, Michael H

    2004-04-14

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous and potentially harmful contaminants of the coastal and marine environment. Studies of their bioavailability, disposition and metabolism in marine organisms are therefore important for environmental monitoring purposes. Detecting PAH compounds in the biological fluids of marine organisms provides a measure of their environmental exposure to PAHs. In the present study, the shore crab Carcinus maenas was exposed to waterborne pyrene for 48h. Urine and haemolymph samples were analysed by direct fluorimetry utilising both fixed wavelength (FF) and synchronous scanning fluorescence (SFS) techniques. Samples from exposed crabs exhibited fluorescence due to 1-OH pyrene equivalents, whilst samples from control crabs did not. Levels of equivalents were exposure dependent. Urine was shown to be a more suitable medium for the analysis of PAH equivalents. In a separate experiment, depuration of pyrene equivalents in urine was monitored over time. Urinary levels reached a maximum 2-4 days after initial exposure and decreased steadily thereafter. No unchanged parent pyrene was detected in samples from exposed crabs. While fluorimetric techniques could discriminate between 1-OH pyrene equivalents and parent pyrene, identification of specific metabolites was only possible with HPLC/F analysis. This revealed crabs had bio-transformed pyrene into 3 major conjugates of 1-OH pyrene, which were excreted in the urine. While such biotransformation of PAH is well documented in fish and several crustaceans, this is the first study to use direct fluorimetry to detect PAH equivalents in exposed crustacean urine. Fluorimetric results correlated well with those obtained by HPLC/F and ELISA techniques. The technique has great potential as a rapid, inexpensive and non-destructive technique for field biomonitoring of PAH exposure in crustaceans. PMID:15003698

  18. Sertraline accumulation and effects in the estuarine decapod Carcinus maenas: importance of the history of exposure to chemical stress.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Aurlie P; Santos, Lcia H M L M; Ramalhosa, Maria Joo; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Guimares, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Sertraline is widely prescribed worldwide and frequently detected in aquatic systems. There is, however, a remarkable gap of information on its potential impact on estuarine and coastal invertebrates. This study investigated sertraline accumulation and effects in Carcinus maenas. Crabs from a moderately contaminated (Lima) and a low-impacted (Minho) estuary were exposed to environmental and high levels of sertraline (0.05, 5, 500 ?g L(-1)). A battery of biomarkers related to sertraline mode of action was employed to assess neurotransmission, energy metabolism, biotransformation and oxidative stress pathways. After a seven-day exposure, sertraline accumulation in crabs' soft tissues was found in Lima (5 ?g L(-1): 15.3 ng L(-1) ww; 500 ?g L(-1): 1010 ng L(-1) ww) and Minho (500 ?g L(-1): 605 ng L(-1) ww) animals. Lima crabs were also more sensitive to sertraline than those from Minho, exhibiting decreased acetylcholinesterase activity, indicative of ventilatory and locomotory dysfunction, inhibition of anti-oxidant enzymes and increased oxidative damage at ? 0.05 ?g L(-1). The Integrated Biomarker Response (IBR) index indicated their low health status. In addition, Minho crabs showed non-monotonic responses of acetylcholinesterase suggestive of hormesis. The results pointed an influence of the exposure history on differential sensitivity to sertraline and the need to perform evaluations with site-specific ecological receptors to increase relevance of risk estimations when extrapolating from laboratory to field conditions. PMID:25305364

  19. Biochemical composition of deep-sea decapod crustaceans with two different benthic life strategies off the Portuguese south coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, R.; Nunes, M. L.

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to characterize the benthic life strategies of Aristeus antennatus (Crustacea: Penaeidea), Parapenaeus longirostris (Crustacea: Penaeidea) and Nephrops norvegicus (Crustacea: Astacidea) on the basis of biochemical composition (proximate chemical composition, total lipids, glycogen and cholesterol contents), and its response to biological and environmental factors (sex, maturation, reproduction, food availability and depth) into account. The specimens were collected at depths between 200 and 600 m off the Portuguese south coast (Algarve). The nektobenthic species ( A. antennatus and P. longirostris) showed higher protein, lipid, cholesterol and glycogen contents, and lower moisture content in the muscle than the benthic-endobenthic species ( N. norvegicus). Consequently, the energy content of the nektobenthic species was also higher. Principal component analyses were used to assess the relationship between the different biochemical contents and to relate them to the biotic and abiotic factors. Depth seems to have the most important role in the observed trends of the biochemical composition. The increase of the ovarian lipid levels occurs as a result of the maturation process. The highest values were obtained in mature N. norvegicus females. The differences can be due to maternal investment (lipid metabolism of the female is geared to the provision of egg lipid), since N. norvegicus produce large lecithotrophic eggs. The biochemical differences observed in the three species did not seem to be due to distinct trophic strategies, but instead were a consequence of depth, which may have a significant interspecific effect on food intake. It was also evident that reproductive cycle has profound effects upon the biochemistry of the three species. Gonadal maturation has large associated energy costs due to the increase in biosynthetic work. Moreover, the biochemical composition would be influenced by or synchronized with seasonal feeding activity or food availability.

  20. An improved taxonomic sampling is a necessary but not sufficient condition for resolving inter-families relationships in Caridean decapods.

    PubMed

    Aznar-Cormano, L; Brisset, J; Chan, T-Y; Corbari, L; Puillandre, N; Utge, J; Zbinden, M; Zuccon, D; Samadi, S

    2015-04-01

    During the past decade, a large number of multi-gene analyses aimed at resolving the phylogenetic relationships within Decapoda. However relationships among families, and even among sub-families, remain poorly defined. Most analyses used an incomplete and opportunistic sampling of species, but also an incomplete and opportunistic gene selection among those available for Decapoda. Here we test in the Caridea if improving the taxonomic coverage following the hierarchical scheme of the classification, as it is currently accepted, provides a better phylogenetic resolution for the inter-families relationships. The rich collections of the Musum National d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris are used for sampling as far as possible at least two species of two different genera for each family or subfamily. All potential markers are tested over this sampling. For some coding genes the amplification success varies greatly among taxa and the phylogenetic signal is highly saturated. This result probably explains the taxon-heterogeneity among previously published studies. The analysis is thus restricted to the genes homogeneously amplified over the whole sampling. Thanks to the taxonomic sampling scheme the monophyly of most families is confirmed. However the genes commonly used in Decapoda appear non-adapted for clarifying inter-families relationships, which remain poorly resolved. Genome-wide analyses, like transcriptome-based exon capture facilitated by the new generation sequencing methods might provide a sounder approach to resolve deep and rapid radiations like the Caridea. PMID:25681232

  1. Acid-base balance and changes in haemolymph properties of the South African rock lobsters, Jasus lalandii, a palinurid decapod, during chronic hypercapnia.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Jarred L; Bridges, Christopher R; Krohn, Janina; Hoffman, Louwrens C; Auerswald, Lutz

    2015-06-01

    Few studies exist reporting on long-term exposure of crustaceans to hypercapnia. We exposed juvenile South African rock lobsters, Jasus lalandii, to hypercapnic conditions of pH 7.3 for 28 weeks and subsequently analysed changes in the extracellular fluid (haemolymph). Results revealed, for the first time, adjustments in the haemolymph of a palinurid crustacean during chronic hypercapnic exposure: 1) acid-base balance was adjusted and sustained by increased bicarbonate and 2) quantity and oxygen binding properties of haemocyanin changed. Compared with lobsters kept under normocapnic conditions (pH 8.0), during prolonged hypercapnia, juvenile lobsters increased bicarbonate buffering of haemolymph. This is necessary to provide optimum pH conditions for oxygen binding of haemocyanin and functioning of respiration in the presence of a strong Bohr Effect. Furthermore, modification of the intrinsic structure of the haemocyanin molecule, and not the presence of molecular modulators, seems to improve oxygen affinity under conditions of elevated pCO2. PMID:25871793

  2. Using biochemical markers to assess the effects of imposed temperature stress on freshwater decapod crustaceans: Cherax quadricarinatus as a test case.

    PubMed

    Bone, J W P; Renshaw, G M C; Furse, J M; Wild, C H

    2015-04-01

    The effects of thermal stress can impact negatively on the abundance and distribution of temperature-sensitive species, particularly freshwater crustaceans. This study investigated the effects of thermal stress on physiological and biochemical parameters at five treatment temperatures resulting in minimal (25 °C), moderate (27, 29 °C) or severe (31, 33 °C) thermal stress in the common tropical freshwater crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus. The aim was to develop a suite of stress-sensitive assays to use on threatened populations of freshwater crustaceans, particularly those restricted to cooler temperatures and only found in high altitude refugia. Significant increases in indicators of oxidative and metabolic stress were observed at 29 °C and were elevated further at 33 °C. After a 50-day acclimation to an imposed temperature stress, significant changes in the level of total glutathione, total lipids, muscular protein, total haemocyte count, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls were observed between treatments while superoxide dismutase activity and haemolymph protein concentrations did not change. The data provided proof of concept that measuring key biochemical responses to high temperature can provide a means of contrasting the level of thermal stress experienced between individuals of the same species adapted to different temperatures. The methods developed are expected to be of use in research on wild populations of other freshwater poikilothermic organisms, particularly those susceptible to increased environmental temperatures associated with climate change. PMID:25528146

  3. Comparative Population Structure of Two Deep-Sea Hydrothermal-Vent-Associated Decapods (Chorocaris sp. 2 and Munidopsis lauensis) from Southwestern Pacific Back-Arc Basins

    PubMed Central

    Thaler, Andrew David; Plouviez, Sophie; Saleu, William; Alei, Freddie; Jacobson, Alixandra; Boyle, Emily A.; Schultz, Thomas F.; Carlsson, Jens; Van Dover, Cindy Lee

    2014-01-01

    Studies of genetic connectivity and population structure in deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystems often focus on endosymbiont-hosting species that are directly dependent on chemical energy extracted from vent effluent for survival. Relatively little attention has been paid to vent-associated species that are not exclusively dependent on chemosynthetic ecosystems. Here we assess connectivity and population structure of two vent-associated invertebrates—the shrimp Chorocaris sp. 2 and the squat lobster Munidopsis lauensis—that are common at deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the western Pacific. While Chorocaris sp. 2 has only been observed at hydrothermal vent sites, M. lauensis can be found throughout the deep sea but occurs in higher abundance around the periphery of active vents We sequenced mitochondrial COI genes and deployed nuclear microsatellite markers for both species at three sites in Manus Basin and either North Fiji Basin (Chorocaris sp. 2) or Lau Basin (Munidopsis lauensis). We assessed genetic differentiation across a range of spatial scales, from approximately 2.5 km to more than 3000 km. Population structure for Chorocaris sp. 2 was comparable to that of the vent-associated snail Ifremeria nautilei, with a single seemingly well-mixed population within Manus Basin that is genetically differentiated from conspecifics in North Fiji Basin. Population structure for Munidopsis lauensis was more complex, with two genetically differentiated populations in Manus Basin and a third well-differentiated population in Lau Basin. The unexpectedly high level of genetic differentiation between M. lauensis populations in Manus Basin deserves further study since it has implications for conservation and management of diversity in deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystems. PMID:24983244

  4. The proteasomes of two marine decapod crustaceans, European lobster (Homarus gammarus) and Edible crab (Cancer pagurus), are differently impaired by heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Gtze, Sandra; Bose, Aneesh; Sokolova, Inna M; Abele, Doris; Saborowski, Reinhard

    2014-05-01

    The intracellular ubiquitin-proteasome system is a key regulator of cellular processes involved in the controlled degradation of short-living or malfunctioning proteins. Certain diseases and cellular dysfunctions are known to arise from the disruption of proteasome pathways. Trace metals are recognized stressors of the proteasome system in vertebrates and plants, but their effects on the proteasome of invertebrates are not well understood. Since marine invertebrates, and particularly benthic crustaceans, can be exposed to high metal levels, we studied the effects of in vitro exposure to Hg(2+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+), and Cd(2+) on the activities of the proteasome from the claw muscles of lobsters (Homarus gammarus) and crabs (Cancer pagurus). The chymotrypsin like activity of the proteasome of these two species showed different sensitivity to metals. In lobsters the activity was significantly inhibited by all metals to a similar extent. In crabs the activities were severely suppressed only by Hg(2+) and Cu(2+) while Zn(2+) had only a moderate effect and Cd(2+) caused almost no inhibition of the crab proteasome. This indicates that the proteasomes of both species possess structural characteristics that determine different susceptibility to metals. Consequently, the proteasome-mediated protein degradation in crab C. pagurus may be less affected by metal pollution than that of the lobster H. gammarus. PMID:24721378

  5. The decapod red pigment-concentrating hormone (Panbo-RPCH) is the first identified neuropeptide of the order Plecoptera and is interpreted as homoplastic character state.

    PubMed

    Gäde, Gerd; Marco, Heather G

    2015-09-15

    This paper presents the first neuropeptide structure, identified by mass spectrometry, in two species of Plectoptera (stoneflies) and in one species of the coleopteran family Lycidae. In all three species, the octapeptide Panbo-RPCH (first identified in Pandalus borealis as a red pigment-concentrating hormone: pGlu-Leu-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Gly-Trp amide) is present. A review of the literature available on invertebrate neuropeptides that are identified or predicted from expressed sequence tags, transcriptome shotgun assemblies, and from fully sequenced genomes, show that Panbo-RPCH is found in Malacostraca (Crustacea) and certain hemipteran Heteroptera (Insecta). To date, Panbo-RPCH has not been shown present in non-Malacostracan crustaceans, nor in basal taxa of the Insecta (Archaeognatha, Zygentoma, Ephemeroptera, Odonata). The present data adds to knowledge on the distribution of Panbo-RPCH, and when taking into account the most accepted, current phylogenetics of the Crustacea-Hexapoda relationship, this distribution of Panbo-RPCH in Malacostraca, Plecoptera, some hemipteran Heteroptera and in Coleoptera (Lycidae) can best be explained by homoplasy, implying parallel evolution. PMID:25733206

  6. Comparative population structure of two deep-sea hydrothermal-vent-associated decapods (Chorocaris sp. 2 and Munidopsis lauensis) from southwestern Pacific back-arc basins.

    PubMed

    Thaler, Andrew David; Plouviez, Sophie; Saleu, William; Alei, Freddie; Jacobson, Alixandra; Boyle, Emily A; Schultz, Thomas F; Carlsson, Jens; Van Dover, Cindy Lee

    2014-01-01

    Studies of genetic connectivity and population structure in deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystems often focus on endosymbiont-hosting species that are directly dependent on chemical energy extracted from vent effluent for survival. Relatively little attention has been paid to vent-associated species that are not exclusively dependent on chemosynthetic ecosystems. Here we assess connectivity and population structure of two vent-associated invertebrates--the shrimp Chorocaris sp. 2 and the squat lobster Munidopsis lauensis--that are common at deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the western Pacific. While Chorocaris sp. 2 has only been observed at hydrothermal vent sites, M. lauensis can be found throughout the deep sea but occurs in higher abundance around the periphery of active vents We sequenced mitochondrial COI genes and deployed nuclear microsatellite markers for both species at three sites in Manus Basin and either North Fiji Basin (Chorocaris sp. 2) or Lau Basin (Munidopsis lauensis). We assessed genetic differentiation across a range of spatial scales, from approximately 2.5 km to more than 3000 km. Population structure for Chorocaris sp. 2 was comparable to that of the vent-associated snail Ifremeria nautilei, with a single seemingly well-mixed population within Manus Basin that is genetically differentiated from conspecifics in North Fiji Basin. Population structure for Munidopsis lauensis was more complex, with two genetically differentiated populations in Manus Basin and a third well-differentiated population in Lau Basin. The unexpectedly high level of genetic differentiation between M. lauensis populations in Manus Basin deserves further study since it has implications for conservation and management of diversity in deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystems. PMID:24983244

  7. Behavioural study of two hydrothermal crustacean decapods: Mirocaris fortunata and Segonzacia mesatlantica, from the Lucky Strike vent field (Mid-Atlantic Ridge)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matabos, M.; Cuvelier, D.; Brouard, J.; Shillito, B.; Ravaux, J.; Zbinden, M.; Barthelemy, D.; Sarradin, P. M.; Sarrazin, J.

    2015-11-01

    Identifying the factors driving community dynamics in hydrothermal vent communities, and in particular biological interactions, is challenged by our ability to make direct observations and the difficulty to conduct experiments in those remote ecosystems. As a result, we have very limited knowledge on species' behaviour and interactions in these communities and how they in turn influence community dynamics. Interactions such as competition or predation significantly affect community structure in vent communities, and video time-series have successfully been used to gain insights in biological interactions and species behaviour, including responses to short-term changes in temperature or feeding strategies. In this study, we combined in situ and ex situ approaches to characterise the behaviour and interactions among two key species encountered along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR): the shrimp Mirocaris fortunata and the crab Segonzacia mesatlantica. In situ, species small-scale distribution, interactions and behaviour were studied using the TEMPO observatory module deployed on the seafloor at the base of the active Eiffel Tower edifice in the Lucky Strike vent field as part of the EMSO-Açores MoMAR observatory. TEMPO sampled 2 min of video four times a day from July 2011 to April 2012. One week of observations per month was used for 'long-term' variations, and a full video data set was analysed for January 2012. In addition, observations of crab and shrimp individuals maintained for the first time under controlled conditions in atmospheric pressure (classic tank) and pressurised (AbyssBox) aquaria allowed better characterisation and description of the different types of behaviour and interactions observed in nature. While the identified in situ spatial distribution pattern was stable over the nine months, both species displayed a significant preference for mussel bed and anhydrite substrata, and preferentially occupied the area located directly in the fluid flow axis. The aggregation behaviour of M. fortunata resulted in the occurrence of numerous intraspecific interactions mainly involving the use of two pairs of sensory organs (antenna/antennule) and fleeing behaviours when in contact or close to individuals of S. mesatlantica. The higher level of passiveness observed in the ex situ artificial environment compared to the in situ environment was attributed to the lack of stimulation related to low densities of congeners and/or of sympatric species compared to the natural environment and the absence of continuous food supply, as both species displayed a significant higher level of activity during feeding time. This result emphasises the role of food supply as a driver of species distribution and behaviour. Direct in situ observations using cameras deployed on deep-sea observatories, combined with experimental set-up in pressurised aquaria, will help investigators understand the factors influencing community dynamics and species biology at vents as well as their underlying mechanisms.

  8. Biochemical analysis and immunohistochemical examination of a GnRH-like immunoreactive peptide in the central nervous system of a decapod crustacean, the kuruma prawn (Marsupenaeus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Amano, Masafumi; Okumura, Takuji; Okubo, Kataaki; Amiya, Noriko; Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Oka, Yoshitaka

    2009-12-01

    We examined whether a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-like peptide exists in the central nervous system (CNS) of the kuruma prawn, Marsupenaeus japonicus, by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (rpHPLC) combined with time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) analysis and by immunohistochemistry. The displacement curve obtained for serially diluted extracts of the kuruma prawn brain paralleled the chicken GnRH-II (cGnRH-II) standard curve obtained by cGnRH-II TR-FIA using the anti-cGnRH-II antibody, which cross-reacts not only with cGnRH-II but also with lamprey GnRH-II (lGnRH-II) and octopus GnRH (octGnRH). Extracts of kuruma prawn brains and eyestalks showed a similar retention time to synthetic lGnRH-II and octGnRH in rpHPLC combined with TR-FIA analysis. Using this antibody, we detected GnRH-like-immunoreactive (ir) cell bodies in the anterior-most part of the supraesophageal ganglion (brain), the protocerebrum. Furthermore, GnRH-like-ir fibers were observed in the protocerebrum and deutocerebrum. In the eyestalk, GnRH-like-ir cell bodies were detected in the medulla interna, and GnRH-like-ir fibers were distributed in the medulla interna, medulla externa, and lamina ganglionalis. In the thoracic ganglion, GnRH-like-ir fibers, but not GnRH-like-ir cell bodies, were detected. No GnRH-like-ir cell bodies or fibers were detected in the abdominal ganglion or ovary. Thus, we have shown the existence and distribution of a GnRH-like peptide in the CNS of the kuruma prawn. PMID:19968471

  9. Production of recombinant insulin-like androgenic gland hormones from three decapod species: In vitro testicular phosphorylation and activation of a newly identified tyrosine kinase receptor from the Eastern spiny lobster, Sagmariasus verreauxi.

    PubMed

    Aizen, Joseph; Chandler, Jennifer C; Fitzgibbon, Quinn P; Sagi, Amir; Battaglene, Stephen C; Elizur, Abigail; Ventura, Tomer

    2016-04-01

    In crustaceans the insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (IAG) is responsible for male sexual differentiation. To date, the biochemical pathways through which IAG exerts its effects are poorly understood and could be elucidated through the production of a functional recombinant IAG (rIAG). We have successfully expressed glycosylated, biologically active IAG using the Pichia pastoris yeast expression system. We co-expressed recombinant single-chain precursor molecules consisting of the B and A chains (the mature hormone) tethered by a flexible linker, producing rIAGs of the following commercially important species: Eastern spiny lobster Sagmariasus verreauxi (Sv), redclaw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus (Cq) and giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr). We then tested the biological activity of each, through the ability to increase phosphorylation in the testis; both Sv and Cq rIAGs significantly elevated phosphorylation specific to their species, and in a dose-dependent manner. Mr rIAG was tested on Macrobrachium australiense (Ma), eliciting a similar response. Moreover, using bioinformatics analyses of the de novo assembled spiny lobster transcriptome, we identified a spiny lobster tyrosine kinase insulin receptor (Sv-TKIR). We validated this discovery with a receptor activation assay in COS-7 cells expressing Sv-TKIR, using a reporter SRE-LUC system designed for RTKs, with each of the rIAG proteins acting as the activation ligand. Using recombinant proteins, we aim to develop specific tools to control sexual development through the administration of IAG within the critical sexual differentiation time window. The biologically active rIAGs generated might facilitate commercially feasible solutions for the long sought techniques for sex-change induction and monosex population culture in crustaceans and shed new light on the physiological mode of action of IAG in crustaceans. PMID:26883686

  10. Identification of tropomyosins as major allergens in antarctic krill and mantis shrimp and their amino acid sequence characteristics.

    PubMed

    Motoyama, Kanna; Suma, Yota; Ishizaki, Shoichiro; Nagashima, Yuji; Lu, Ying; Ushio, Hideki; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    Tropomyosin represents a major allergen of decapod crustaceans such as shrimps and crabs, and its highly conserved amino acid sequence (>90% identity) is a molecular basis of the immunoglobulin E (IgE) cross-reactivity among decapods. At present, however, little information is available about allergens in edible crustaceans other than decapods. In this study, the major allergen in two species of edible crustaceans, Antarctic krill Euphausia superba and mantis shrimp Oratosquilla oratoria that are taxonomically distinct from decapods, was demonstrated to be tropomyosin by IgE-immunoblotting using patient sera. The cross-reactivity of the tropomyosins from both species with decapod tropomyosins was also confirmed by inhibition IgE immunoblotting. Sequences of the tropomyosins from both species were determined by complementary deoxyribonucleic acid cloning. The mantis shrimp tropomyosin has high sequence identity (>90% identity) with decapod tropomyosins, especially with fast-type tropomyosins. On the other hand, the Antarctic krill tropomyosin is characterized by diverse alterations in region 13-42, the amino acid sequence of which is highly conserved for decapod tropomyosins, and hence, it shares somewhat lower sequence identity (82.4-89.8% identity) with decapod tropomyosins than the mantis shrimp tropomyosin. Quantification by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that Antarctic krill contains tropomyosin at almost the same level as decapods, suggesting that its allergenicity is equivalent to decapods. However, mantis shrimp was assumed to be substantially not allergenic because of the extremely low content of tropomyosin. PMID:18521668

  11. Trophic relationships at intrannual spatial and temporal scales of macro and megafauna around a submarine canyon off the Catalonian coast (western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, Joan E.; Fanelli, Emanuela; Papiol, Vanesa; Maynou, Francesc

    2010-04-01

    The spatial and temporal changes of near-bottom macrofauna (suprabenthos and macroplankton) and the trophic relationships of megabenthic decapod crustaceans were analyzed off the Catalonian coasts (western Mediterranean) around Berenguera submarine canyon in four periods (April and December 1991, March and July 1992) and four zones (within Berenguera Canyon at ca. 450 m, and on adjacent slope at ca. 400, 600 m and 1200 m). In March 1992, we found the highest macrofauna abundance and the smallest sizes in the canyon, suggesting a positive effect of river discharges on suprabenthos recruitment. By contrast, macroplankton (decapods, fishes and euphausiids) did not show higher recruitment into canyons. After analyzing the diet of 23 decapod crustaceans, we found a significant segregation between guilds feeding on zooplankton and on benthos. Zooplankton (euphausiids and Pasiphaeidae) and infauna (polychaetes, Calocaris macandreae and ophiuoroids) were consistently the main prey exploited by decapod crustaceans around Berenguera Canyon. We also found some macrophyte ( Posidonia oceanica) consumption, which was higher in periods of water column homogeneity (winter-spring and late autumn). Positive correlations between decapods' gut fullness ( F) and decapod abundance indicate feeding aggregations, while positive correlations were also found between F and Llobregat River (situated ca. 18 km from Berenguera head) flow 1 to 2 months before sampling. Increases in F were delayed only 1 month when zooplankton feeders were analyzed alone, while benthos feeders did not show significant relationships with any environmental variables. That indicates that the response of megabenthic decapods feeding on benthos to environmental shifts is slower than that of zooplankton feeders. The importance of river flows in enhancing food supply of macro- and megabenthos dwelling close to submarine canyons was apparent, with a delay in the fauna response of 0-2 months after river flow peaks.

  12. [Predator damage and shell size on the diadromous snail Neritina virginea (Gastropoda: Neritidae) in the Mameyes River, Puerto Rico].

    PubMed

    Blanco-Libreros, Juan Felipe; Arroyave-Rincón, Andrea

    2009-12-01

    We compared predators' damage with shell size in live individuals and empty shells (n=5066) of the snail Neritina virginea in the Mameyes River (Puerto Rico, Greater Antilles). According to the literature and direct observations, damages on empty shells were attributed to predation by aquatic birds (e.g. Gallinula chloropus) and decapods (e.g. Macrobrachium spp.), while damages on live individuals were due to rasping by co-specifics and erosion. Predation by decapods and birds, as estimated by the proportion of empty shells, was low (2 and 0.36%, respectively). Shell size was significantly different between types of predators (range: decapods: 3.5-15.0mm, birds: 8.1-19.4mm). By comparing sizes of the empty shells and the live individuals, we concluded that decapods specialize on large groups of small migratory juveniles, while birds specialize on the largest resident individuals. Worn shells were highly frequent in both empty shells and live individuals, and sizes did not differ between samples. A comparison by slow-flow and fast-flow habitats showed that predators do not discriminate shell sizes between environments. However, the frequency of damage by birds and decapods was greater under slow-flow conditions. Despite of the little contribution of predation to the population dynamics in this species, predation might be an important driver of size-dependent behavioral responses such as upstream migration and microhabitat selection. PMID:20073335

  13. Dynamics of the bathyal Benthic Boundary Layer in the northwestern Mediterranean: depth and temporal variations in macrofaunal megafaunal communities and their possible connections within deep-sea trophic webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, Joan E.

    1998-01-01

    The distribution patterns of benthopelagic fauna and the macrofauna-megafauna trophic relationships in the Benthic Boundary Layer (BBL) were studied. The study is based on data collected during 6 sampling cruises off the Catalan coast (western Mediterranean) during 1991-1995 at depths ranging from 389-1355 m. Crustaceans were the dominant benthopelagic macrofauna in the BBL level closest to the sea bed (~0-1.5 m above bottom) on the Catalan Sea slope. Copepods and peracarid crustaceans (mysids, amphipods, isopods, and cumaceans) were dominant, whereas euphausiids and natantian decapods, some taxa of gelatinous plankton (siphonophores, medusae, and chaetognaths), and benthopelagic fishes were also well represented groups. Seasonal changes in megafaunal decapod crustaceans abundance seem to be linked to changes in the density and the biological cycle of BBL macrofauna, which constitute an important part of the available food exploited by megafauna. Both the advective and the vertical flow of organic matter in the north-western Mediterranean should simultaneously influence peaks of available food (BBL macrofauna) for bathyal-megafaunal decapods. Recruitment of macrofaunal (suprabenthos and infauna) species at the level of canyons and neighbouring slope zones mainly occurred between late autumn-late winter and would probably be mainly induced by an advective component. However, the macrofaunal sizes consumed by megafaunal decapods are found more abundantly represented in spring and summer populations. In parallel, the vertical fluxes seem to determine maxima in the abundance of planktonic organisms (especially copepods) which also occur in late spring-summer. Size, natatory capability, and energetic value are important factors in the selection of food-resources by megafaunal decapods, which would have a greater availability of food in late spring-summer. This would explain both the seasonal maxima of decapod abundance in summer, and maxima in the catches of some commercial species (i.e. the shrimp Aristeus antennatus) in spring-summer.

  14. Systematic and Evolutionary Insights Derived from mtDNA COI Barcode Diversity in the Decapoda (Crustacea: Malacostraca)

    PubMed Central

    Matzen da Silva, Joana; Creer, Simon; dos Santos, Antonina; Costa, Ana C.; Cunha, Marina R.; Costa, Filipe O.; Carvalho, Gary R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Decapods are the most recognizable of all crustaceans and comprise a dominant group of benthic invertebrates of the continental shelf and slope, including many species of economic importance. Of the 17635 morphologically described Decapoda species, only 5.4% are represented by COI barcode region sequences. It therefore remains a challenge to compile regional databases that identify and analyse the extent and patterns of decapod diversity throughout the world. Methodology/Principal Findings We contributed 101 decapod species from the North East Atlantic, the Gulf of Cadiz and the Mediterranean Sea, of which 81 species represent novel COI records. Within the newly-generated dataset, 3.6% of the species barcodes conflicted with the assigned morphological taxonomic identification, highlighting both the apparent taxonomic ambiguity among certain groups, and the need for an accelerated and independent taxonomic approach. Using the combined COI barcode projects from the Barcode of Life Database, we provide the most comprehensive COI data set so far examined for the Order (1572 sequences of 528 species, 213 genera, and 67 families). Patterns within families show a general predicted molecular hierarchy, but the scale of divergence at each taxonomic level appears to vary extensively between families. The range values of mean K2P distance observed were: within species 0.285% to 1.375%, within genus 6.376% to 20.924% and within family 11.392% to 25.617%. Nucleotide composition varied greatly across decapods, ranging from 30.8 % to 49.4 % GC content. Conclusions/Significance Decapod biological diversity was quantified by identifying putative cryptic species allowing a rapid assessment of taxon diversity in groups that have until now received limited morphological and systematic examination. We highlight taxonomic groups or species with unusual nucleotide composition or evolutionary rates. Such data are relevant to strategies for conservation of existing decapod biodiversity, as well as elucidating the mechanisms and constraints shaping the patterns observed. PMID:21589909

  15. The crustaceans and pycnogonids of the Mariana Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Paulay, Gustav; Kropp, Roy K. ); Ng, Peter K.; Eldredge, Lucius G.

    2003-09-01

    The crustacean and pycnogonid fauna of the Mariana Islands is reviewed, and 829 crustacean and 15 pycnogonid species are documented from the archipelago based on literature records and new collections, including 272 new records. Voucher specimens are listed for 605 and photographic records for 356 species. The bulk of the fauna is marine, including 12 terrestrial and 11 freshwater decapods with marine larvae. Five cladocerans comprise the known freshwater fauna, and 25 peracarids and one copepod are currently documented on land. Coverage reflects a taxonomically uneven effort, and is strongly biased toward macrocrustaceans, with decapods accounting for 80%, and crabs for 50% of the recorded crustacean diversity.

  16. Direct evidence for the function of crustacean insulin-like androgenic gland factor (IAG): total chemical synthesis of IAG.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Hidekazu; Kubota, Nozomi; Hojo, Hironobu; Okada, Ayumi; Kotaka, Sayaka; Tsutsui, Naoaki; Ohira, Tsuyoshi

    2014-11-01

    Insulin-like androgenic gland factor (IAG) is presumed to be a sex differentiation factor so-called androgenic gland hormone (AGH) in decapod crustacean, although the function of IAG peptide has not yet been reported. In this study, we synthesized IAG from the prawn, Marsupenaeus japonicus, and its function was assessed by an in vitro bioassay. As a result, IAG with the insulin-type disulfide bond arrangement showed biological activity, whereas its disulfide isomer did not. These results strongly suggest that the native IAG peptide has an insulin-type disulfide, and it is the decapod AGH. PMID:25270404

  17. Influence of trophic variables on the depth-range distributions and zonation rates of deep-sea megafauna: the case of the Western Mediterranean assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, Joan E.; Carrassón, Maite

    2004-02-01

    We studied in a deep-sea megafaunal community the relationship of different trophic variables to the depth ranges inhabited by and depth zonation of species, after the ordination of fish and decapod crustaceans in feeding guilds. The variables studied included trophic level of species, food sources exploited, mean weight of predators and prey, feeding intensity and dietary diversity of species. We compiled data on the diets of 18 species of fish and 14 species of decapod crustaceans distributed between 862 and 2261 m in the Catalano-Balearic Basin (Western Mediterranean). Feeding guilds were identified for fish and decapods separately and at two depth strata (862-1400 and 1400-2261 m). The zonation rates (degree of depth overlap) between species within each trophic guild differed by guild and taxon (fish and decapods). The three guilds (G1, G2 and G3) of decapod crustaceans showed quite significantly distinct overlap. G1 (plankton feeders) showed the widest overlap (1326-1381 m) and G3 (benthos feeders) the narrowest (330-476 m). Among the four guilds established for fish, G1, comprising larger predators such as sharks, showed the lowest overlap (between 194 and 382 m). Macrourids overlap ranged between 122 and 553 m, the rest of benthopelagic feeders ranged between 423 and 970 m, and G3 (benthos feeders) gave overlaps between 867 and 1067 m. Significant differences were detected between the depth overlap of most feeding guilds excluding the paired comparisons between G1/macrourids, and G2/G3. Among decapods higher zonation rates (=lower depth overlap) were identified in those guilds occupying higher trophic levels (TL), with a similar, though not as general, trend among fish. In the ordination of species in feeding guilds, TL as indicated by δ15N measurements, was significantly correlated with Dimension 1 (D1) of ordination—MDS-analysis, both in fish and decapods at 862-1400 m. However, deeper (at 1400-2261 m), D1 was not significantly correlated with TL but with the mean weight of predator and prey in fish. In general, TL was again the main explanatory variable (accumulated variances, r2, explained by multi-linear regression—MLR-models between 0.54 and 0.69) both of the zonation rates and the depth ranges occupied by megafauna (fish and decapods together) throughout all the depth range studied. Possible relationships between zonation rates /depth distributions and other biological variables (i.e. egg size, fecundity) are also discussed.

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome of the hydrothermal vent ghost shrimp Paraglypturus tonganus (Crustacea, Axiidea, Callianassidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Joo; Kim, Jonguk; Ahn, Dong-Ha; Ju, Se-Jong; Min, Gi-Sik; Kim, Sanghee

    2016-01-01

    Ghost shrimps are burrowing decapods that serve as bioturbators and habitat providers in seafloor environments. The hydrothermal vent ghost shrimp, Paraglypturus tonganus, was collected from a hydrothermal vent in the Tonga Arc. This species has a mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of 15,924 bp in length with an AT content of 66.1%. The mitogenome was identical to the typical gene arrangement and transcriptional polarity of the infraorder Axiidea. Paraglypturus tonganus showed 65.3-70.1% nucleotide similarity with the known mitogenomes of other axiid shrimps. These results are useful for understanding the phylogenetic relationships among the members of Axiidea within the decapods. PMID:24963774

  19. Effects of pollution on freshwater invertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Buikema

    1982-06-01

    The biological effects of acid rain, chlorination, heavy metals and other forms of pollution on freshwater invertebrates are examined in this review. Several methods for evaluating chronic toxicity to pesticide residues and synthetic fuels components are reviewed. The effects of pollutants is reviewed in detail for cladocera, amphipods, isopods, decapods, aquatic insects, molluscs, worms, and protozoa.(KRM)

  20. Outer Continental Shelf environmental assessment program. Final reports of principal investigators. Volume 53

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    Contents include: Baffin Island experimental oil spill and dispersant studies. Hydrocarbon bioaccumulation and histopathological and biochemical responses in marine bivalve molluscs; Feeding ecology of juvenile king and Tanner crab in the southeastern Bering Sea; Distribution of larval and juvenile red king crabs (Paralithodes camtschatica) in Bristol Bay; Distribution and abundance of decapod crustacean larvae in the southeastern Bering Sea with emphasis on commercial species.

  1. GROWTH AND VARIATIONS IN LIPID CLASS AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION DURING LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE STONE CRAB, MENIPPE ADINA WILLIAMS AND FELDER, 1986

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larval development in decapod crustaceans is marked by variable growth patterns and changes in weight and biochemical composition. Larvae of the stone crab, Menippe adina, were mass-reared under laboratory conditions (28|C; 20o/ooS) from hatching to the megalopal stage. Growth in...

  2. GROWTH AND VARIATIONS IN LIPID CLASS AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION DURING LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE STONE CRAB, MENIPPE ADINA WILLIAMS AND FELDER, 1986.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larval development in decapod crustaceans is marked by variable growth patterns and changes in weight and biochemical composition. Larvae of the stone crab, Menippe adina, were mass-reared under laboratory conditions (28?C; 20o/ooS) from hatching to the megalopa stage. Growth in...

  3. Zinc uptake and regulation by the sublittoral prawn Pandalus montagui (Crustacea: Decapoda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugegoda, D.; Rainbow, P. S.

    1988-06-01

    The sublittoral decapod crustacean Pandalus montagui Leach in artificial seawater at 10°C regulates the total body zinc concentration to a constant level in dissolved zinc concentrations up to ca. 22 μg Zn l -1, beyond which there is net accumulation of body zinc. This threshold of zinc regulation breakdown is lower than that in the littoral decapods Palaemon elegans (ca. 93 μg Zn l -1) and Palaemonetes varians (ca. 190 μg Zn l -1) under the same physico-chemical conditions. Correspondingly, zinc uptake rates of the three species of decapods decrease in the order P. montagui > P. elegans > P. varians. It is concluded that regulation of total body zinc concentration is more efficient in decapods adapted to the fluctuating environments of littoral habitats, possibly as a result of changes in permeability of uptake surfaces in combination with improved zinc excretion systems. The moult cycle is important in determining the ability of an individual prawn to regulate zinc. Body zinc in Pandalus montagui consists of at least two pools of zinc exchanging at different rates which the environment. Zinc and copper are not evenly distributed in the tissues of P. montagui.

  4. NURSERY ROLE OF SEAGRASS MEADOWS IN THE UPPER AND LOWER REACHES OF THE CHESAPEAKE BAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A two year trawling and gill-netting study of vegetated and unvegetated bottoms near Parson's Island, Maryland and near the mouth of the York River, Virginia was carried out to assess the nursery function of submerged vegetation for population of fishes and decapod crustaceans in...

  5. In silico prediction of the G-protein coupled receptors expressed during the metamorphic molt of Sagmariasus verreauxi (Crustacea: Decapoda) by mining transcriptomic data: RNA-seq to repertoire.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Sean J; Fitzgibbon, Quinn P; Smith, Gregory G; Ventura, Tomer

    2016-03-01

    Against a backdrop of food insecurity, the farming of decapod crustaceans is a rapidly expanding and globally significant source of food protein. Sagmariasus verreauxi spiny lobster, the subject of this study, are decapods of underdeveloped aquaculture potential. Crustacean neuropeptide G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediate endocrine pathways that are integral to animal fecundity, growth and survival. The potential use of novel biotechnologies to enhance GPCR-mediated physiology may assist in improving the health and productivity of farmed decapod populations. This study catalogues the GPCRs expressed in the early developmental stages, as well as adult tissues, with a view to illuminating key neuropeptide receptors. De novo assembled contiguous sequences generated from transcriptomic reads of metamorphic and post metamorphic S. verreauxi were filtered for seven transmembrane domains, and used as a reference for iterative re-mapping. Subsequent putative GPCR open reading frames (ORFs) were BLAST annotated, categorised, and compared to published orthologues based on phylogenetic analysis. A total of 85 GPCRs were digitally predicted, that represented each of the four arthropod subfamilies. They generally displayed low-level and non-differential metamorphic expression with few exceptions that we examined using RT-PCR and qPCR. Two putative CHH-like neuropeptide receptors were annotated. Three dimensional structural modelling suggests that these receptors exhibit a conserved extracellular ligand binding pocket, providing support to the notion that these receptors co-evolved with their ligands across Decapoda. This perhaps narrows the search for means to increase productivity of farmed decapod populations. PMID:26850661

  6. A molecular method for the detection of sally lightfoot crab larvae (Grapsus grapsus, Brachyura, Grapsidae) in plankton samples.

    PubMed

    Ströher, Patrícia R; Firkowski, Carina R; Freire, Andrea S; Pie, Marcio R

    2011-07-01

    The decapod Grapsus grapsus is commonly found on oceanic islands of the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of the Americas. In this study, a simple, quick and reliable method for detecting its larvae in plankton samples is described, which makes it ideal for large-scale studies of larval dispersal patterns in the species. PMID:21931530

  7. Long-term changes in the composition and diversity of deep-slope megabenthos and trophic webs off Catalonia (western Mediterranean): Are trends related to climatic oscillations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, J. E.; Maynou, F.; Fanelli, E.; Papiol, V.; Lloris, D.

    2009-07-01

    For depths ranging between 650 and 1700 m we have compared recent (2007-2008) to older (from 1988 to 1992) data, searching for long-term changes in the distribution, abundance and composition of deep megafauna (fish and decapods) off the central Catalonian coasts (western Mediterranean). Overall, in the depth interval between 600 and 1100 m, we found higher abundance of fish in 1988-1992 than in 2007, a decrease simultaneous with an increase of decapod crustaceans. Older and more recent haul replicates (after 20 years) had similar assemblage composition in the depth range 1300-1700 m, whereas we found significant changes at 1000 m. Diversity of fish was greater in 1988-1992 than in 2007, while diversity of decapod crustaceans increased between the two periods. Thus, there was a reorganization in benthopelagic communities, rather than a loss of biodiversity. This was in agreement with long-term changes described for diversity of (neritic) zooplankton in the western Mediterranean. We found a dominance of plankton-suprabenthos feeders (e.g. fish such as Lepidion lepidion, Hymenocephalus italicus and Alepocephalus rostratus; the decapods Plesionika spp. and Sergestes arcticus) in 1988-1992. In 2007 by contrast, dominance of plankton-suprabenthos feeders decreased, and assemblages were increasingly composed of benthos-feeding decapods (e.g. Aristeus antennatus, Pontophilus norvegicus and some hermit crabs) preying for instance on polychaetes. These results coincided with low/negative North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAO) in 2007 and in the period immediately before (2004-2006) 2007 (increase of benthos feeders), and with high average NAO in 1988-1992 (decrease of benthos feeders, which in turn may enhance abundance of plankton feeders). The benthic decapod Calocaris macandreae and suprabenthos (small crustaceans, mostly peracarids, living on and just beneath the sediment surface) are key prey in food webs off Catalonian margins, acting as links between surface oceanographic processes and abundance of benthopelagic predators. A conceptual model is presented relating changes in climatic conditions with changes in deep-sea, benthic-suprabenthic food webs. Calocari macandreae was more abundant in 2007, after 3 years of negative NAO. Under negative/low NAO, rainfall and river discharges increase in the NW Mediterranean, which may enhance advective food inputs for macrobenthos. This fits well with the higher abundance of benthos feeders in 2007, as well as with the significant deepening of decapod crustacean assemblages in that same period. Suprabenthos, being short-lived and annual species, were more abundant under positive NAO conditions (1988-1992), probably enhancing the abundance or aggregation of suprabenthic/pelagic feeders.

  8. Characteristic expression patterns of allatostatin-like peptide, FMRFamide-related peptide, orcokinin, tachykinin-related peptide, and SIFamide in the olfactory system of crayfish Procambarus clarkii.

    PubMed

    Yasuda-Kamatani, Yoshimi; Yasuda, Akikazu

    2006-05-01

    The olfactory system plays important roles in various crustacean behaviors. Despite numerous studies on different aspects of the olfactory neural pathway, only the decapod-tachykinin-related peptide (decapod-TRP) has been identified as a neuromodulator in this processing to date. To establish the functions of other related neuropeptides, we initially performed cDNA cloning of FMRFamide-related peptide (FaRP) and allatostatin (AST)-like peptide from the crayfish Procambarus clarkii, followed by in situ hybridization (ISH) analysis of these peptides, along with decapod-TRP, orcokinin, and crustacean-SIFamide. Cloned FaRP cDNA encodes seven copies of C-terminal RN(F/Y)LRFamide-containing peptide, whereas AST-like peptide cDNA comprises 29 copies of AST-like peptide (-YXFGLamide) and three additional putative peptides. ISH analysis of the brain revealed specific expression of crustacean-SIFamide mRNA in most projection neurons (cell cluster 10), and predominant localization of other mRNAs to interneurons. The data suggest that the crustacean-SIFamide neuropeptide is involved in output of the deutocerebrum to the protocerebrum. Double-fluorescence ISH data further disclose that, in cluster 9, orcokinin is coexpressed in decapod-TRP-specific interneurons, whereas AST-like peptide-containing cells do not overlap with orcokinin-expressing cells. On the other hand, FaRP-expressing cells overlap with both orcokinin- and AST-like peptide-specific cells. In cluster 11, where signals for AST-like peptide are absent, a number of interneurons express both decapod-TRP and orcokinin, emphasizing a close relationship between these two factors with regard to olfactory processing, and possibly tactile and/or visual sensory systems. These characteristic expression patterns of neuropeptides support their distinct involvement in the modulation of olfactory processing. PMID:16528723

  9. Semisubmersible oil platforms: understudied and potentially major vectors of biofouling-mediated invasions.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Darren C J; Ahyong, Shane T; Lodge, David M; Ng, Peter K L; Naruse, Tohru; Lane, David J W

    2010-01-01

    Biofouling has long been recognised as a major pathway for the introduction of non-indigenous species. This study records the decapods and stomatopod crustaceans fouling a semisubmersible oil platform dry docked for hull cleaning in Jurong Port, Singapore. Of the 25 species of decapods identified, 13 were non-indigenous and represent new records to Singapore waters. Of these, the crabs Glabropilumnus seminudus and Carupa tenuipes are known to be invasive in other parts of the world. The stomatopod, Gonodactylaceus randalli, is the first mantis shrimp recorded in a biofouling community. The richness and diversity of this fouling community, consisting of many vagile species, highlights the difference between platforms and ships. With the expansion of maritime oil and gas exploration, the threat posed by an expanded fleet of semisubmersible oil platforms translocating non-indigenous fouling communities across biogeographical boundaries is very serious. Scientists, policy-makers, and stakeholders should turn their attention to this growing problem. PMID:19927240

  10. Etisus evamuellerae, a new xanthid crab (Decapoda, Brachyura) from the Middle Miocene of Austria and Hungary

    PubMed Central

    Hyžný, M.; van Bakel, B.W.M.; Guinot, D.

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of several carapaces, a new species of xanthid crab, Etisus evamuellerae, is described from the Middle Miocene of the Vienna (Austria) and Great Hungarian basins. It differs from the coeval xanthids, Xantho moldavicus and Pilodius vulgaris, in having a distinctly protruding front and comparatively longer carapace. Contrary to those two species, the new one makes up for just a small percentage in the decapod crustacean assemblages studied. PMID:25983383

  11. Roles of crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone in ionic and metabolic homeostasis in the Christmas Island blue crab, Discoplax celeste.

    PubMed

    Turner, Lucy M; Webster, Simon G; Morris, Stephen

    2013-04-01

    There is a growing body of evidence implicating the involvement of crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone (CHH) in ionic homeostasis in decapod crustaceans. However, little is known regarding hormonally influenced osmoregulatory processes in terrestrial decapods. As many terrestrial decapods experience opposing seasonal demands upon ionoregulatory physiologies, we reasoned that these would make interesting models in which to study the effect of CHH upon these phenomena. In particular, those (tropical) species that also undergo seasonal migrations might be especially informative, as we know relatively little regarding the nature of CHHs in terrestrial decapods, and hormonally mediated responses to seasonal changes in metabolic demands might also be superimposed or otherwise integrated with those associated with ionic homeostasis. Using Discoplax celeste as a model crab that experiences seasonal extremes in water availability, and exhibits diurnal and migratory activity patterns, we identified two CHHs in the sinus gland. We biochemically characterised (cDNA cloning) one CHH and functionally characterised (in terms of dose-dependent hyperglycaemic responses and glucose-dependent negative feedback loops) both CHHs. Whole-animal in situ branchial chamber (22)NaCl perfusion experiments showed that injection of both CHHs increased gill Na(+) uptake in a seasonally dependent manner, and (51)Cr-EDTA clearance experiments demonstrated that CHH increased urine production by the antennal gland. Seasonal and salinity-dependent differences in haemolymph CHH titre further implicated CHH in osmoregulatory processes. Intriguingly, CHH appeared to have no effect on gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase or V-ATPase activity, suggesting unknown mechanisms of this hormone's action on Na(+) transport across gill epithelia. PMID:23239894

  12. Trophic relationships in the community of the upper Tagus estuary (Portugal): A preliminary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, F.; Assis, C. A.; Almeida, P. R.; Costa, J. L.; Costa, M. J.

    1992-06-01

    The diet of 25 invertebrate and fish species occurring in the upper Tagus estuary are compared. Multivariate methods are used to define trophic groups and identify key prey species, fundamental links in the understanding of the estuarine food web. Four trophic groups are described: microalgae, macroinfauna, mysid and fish and decapod eaters. It was found that the food web of this area heavily relies on the polychaete Nereis diversicolor and the crustacean Crangon crangon.

  13. Environmental and scale-dependent evolutionary trends in the body size of crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Klompmaker, Adiël A; Schweitzer, Carrie E; Feldmann, Rodney M; Kowalewski, Michał

    2015-07-22

    The ecological and physiological significance of body size is well recognized. However, key macroevolutionary questions regarding the dependency of body size trends on the taxonomic scale of analysis and the role of environment in controlling long-term evolution of body size are largely unknown. Here, we evaluate these issues for decapod crustaceans, a group that diversified in the Mesozoic. A compilation of body size data for 792 brachyuran crab and lobster species reveals that their maximum, mean and median body size increased, but no increase in minimum size was observed. This increase is not expressed within lineages, but is rather a product of the appearance and/or diversification of new clades of larger, primarily burrowing to shelter-seeking decapods. This argues against directional selective pressures within lineages. Rather, the trend is a macroevolutionary consequence of species sorting: preferential origination of new decapod clades with intrinsically larger body sizes. Furthermore, body size evolution appears to have been habitat-controlled. In the Cretaceous, reef-associated crabs became markedly smaller than those in other habitats, a pattern that persists today. The long-term increase in body size of crabs and lobsters, coupled with their increased diversity and abundance, suggests that their ecological impact may have increased over evolutionary time. PMID:26156761

  14. Seasonal variability of suprabenthic crustaceans associated with Cymodocea nodosa seagrass meadows off Gran Canaria (eastern Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, A.; Landeira, J. M.; Tuya, F.; Packard, T.; Espino, F.; Gómez, M.

    2014-10-01

    Seagrass meadows are important ecosystems on shallow coastal waters, maintaining a high diversity of species. Mysids are the dominant taxa of suprabenthic organisms associated with seagrass meadows in temperate coastal waters, where they are an important food resource for the coastal fishes. Five meadows of Cymodocea nodosa were sampled off the east and west of Gran Canaria Island in spring and autumn 2011 to describe associated suprabenthos and to determine seasonal changes in the abundance of suprabenthos assemblages. Mysids, decapods and amphipods made up 95% of total suprabenthos abundance, which was more abundant in spring (May) than in autumn (November). A total of 29 species were identified, 12 amphipod, 11 decapod and 6 mysid species. The mysid Leptomysis lingvura did not show seasonal differences, while Anchialina agilis showed greater abundance in May at all localities. For the other mysid species, abundances were higher in May than November, although significant differences varied among localities. The dominant amphipod, Apherusa vexatrix, and the dominant decapod, Hippolyte spp., also showed significant differences in density between seasons, being higher in May at all localities. From these results, we conclude that there is an overlap between the natural life cycle of the seagrass C. nodosa and associated suprabenthos.

  15. Feeding ecology of the deep-water blue-red shrimp Aristeus antennatus (Decapoda: Aristeidae) in the Greek Ionian Sea (E. Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapiris, Kostas; Thessalou-Legaki, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The feeding habits of the deep-sea blue-red shrimp Aristeus antennatus were determined based on the analysis of 1047 stomach contents, sampled in the Greek Ionian Sea (E. Mediterranean). The diet of this economically and biologically important decapod was studied in relation to the season, size class and sex. The diet of A. antennatus consisted of 54 different prey categories, and belonged mainly to smaller crustaceans (e.g. natantian decapods, euphausiids, tanaidaceans), molluscs, polychaetes, chaetognaths and, to a lesser extent, fishes. The above prey categories consisted of 71-82% of the relative abundance and total occurrence for males and 61-81% for females. Females seemed to be better fed than males (stomach fullness, food quality). A. antennatus displayed a highly diversified diet and the different feeding patterns were discussed. Diet composition showed slight seasonal fluctuations. The observed slight differences on A. antennatus diet among the western, central and eastern Mediterranean could be attributed to the more oligotrophic character of the eastern part of the basin. The principal factors driving the changes in the feeding strategy of this decapod among the seasons are the increased energy demands related to sexual requirements and the food availability in the marine environment. The ontogenetic changes in the shrimp's diet were relatively clear. Larger individuals exhibited selecting prey with a good swimming capacity (e.g. fishes), while the smaller individuals consumed prey with low mobility (e.g. copepods, ostracods).

  16. Copper toxicity in the crab, Scylla serrata, copper levels in tissues and regulation after exposure to a copper-rich medium

    SciTech Connect

    Arumugam, M.; Ravindranath, M.H.

    1987-10-01

    In the decapod crustaceans copper is distributed in various tissues. In these animals the tissue copper generally exists in four forms; ionic, bound to proteins, lipids and membrane. In the estuarine crab Scylla serrata, the haemolymph copper exists only in association with proteins, whereas in the hepatopancreas it exists in all the four forms and in gills it exists in all the forms except in combination with lipids. Although food is the major source of copper in decapod crustaceans evidence indicate that copper may be directly obtained from the environment. It was postulated earlier that in Scylla serrata the haemolymph and hepatopancreas may be involved in copper regulation. In the present work the authors have studied the nature and levels of copper in different tissues after exposing the crabs to copper-rich medium. The results indicate the relative importance of various tissues in accumulation an the possible mechanisms of regulation of the environmental copper. Besides, as a pre-requisite for studies of this kind, the toxic levels for different forms of copper were estimated since the form of toxicant is known to influence the toxicity to the decapod crustaceans.

  17. Trophic relationships, feeding habits and seasonal dietary changes in an intertidal rockpool fish assemblage in the Gulf of Cadiz (NE Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compaire, Jesus C.; Cabrera, Remedios; Gómez-Cama, Carmen; Soriguer, Milagrosa C.

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the use of resources and diet of nine resident fish species in the rocky intertidal zone of the Gulf of Cadiz and examines whether their populations are affected by trophic competition. A stomach content analysis of the nine species revealed that only one was herbivorous (Parablennius sanguinolentus), while the rest were mainly carnivorous (Gobius bucchichi, Gobius cobitis, Gobius paganellus, Zebrus zebrus, Salaria pavo, Lepadogaster lepadogaster, Scorpaena porcus and Tripterygion tripteronotum). The most frequently consumed prey were amphipods, isopods, polychaetes, decapods, chironomids, tanaidaceans, gastropods, copepods, cumaceans and ostracods. In most species, the occurrence of polychaetes and molluscs was higher in the cold season, whereas that of isopods, decapods, chironomids and fish increased in the warm season. In general, larger specimens consumed larger prey, with an increase in the occurrence of isopods, decapods and fish. An analysis of trophic niche breadth defined G. cobitis as generalist, G. bucchichi as opportunist and S. porcus as specialist, whereas the values obtained for the other species did not indicate a clearly defined strategy. Low diet overlap values and the segregation observed in several analyses indicated an adequate distribution of resources.

  18. Resolution of fine biological structure including small narcomedusae across a front in the Southern California Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClatchie, Sam; Cowen, Robert; Nieto, Karen; Greer, Adam; Luo, Jessica Y.; Guigand, Cedric; Demer, David; Griffith, David; Rudnick, Daniel

    2012-04-01

    We sampled a front detected by SST gradient, ocean color imagery, and a Spray glider south of San Nicolas Island in the Southern California Bight between 14 and 18 October 2010. We sampled the front with an unusually extensive array of instrumentation, including the Continuous Underway Fish Egg Sampler (CUFES), the undulating In Situ Ichthyoplankton Imaging System (ISIIS) (fitted with temperature, salinity, oxygen, and fluorescence sensors), multifrequency acoustics, a surface pelagic trawl, a bongo net, and a neuston net. We found higher fluorescence and greater cladoceran, decapod, and euphausiid densities in the front, indicating increased primary and secondary production. Mesopelagic fish were most abundant in oceanic waters to the west of the front, market squid were abundant in the front associated with higher krill and decapod densities, and jack mackerel were most common in the front and on the shoreward side of the front. Egg densities peaked to either side of the front, consistent with both offshore (for oceanic squid and mesopelagic fish) and shelf origins (for white croaker and California halibut). We discovered unusually high concentrations of predatory narcomedusae in the surface layer of the frontal zone. Potential ichthyoplankton predators were more abundant either in the front (decapods, euphausiids, and squid) or shoreward of the front (medusae, chaetognaths, and jack mackerel). For pelagic fish like sardine, which can thrive in less productive waters, the safest place to spawn would be offshore because there are fewer potential predators.

  19. Abbreviation of larval development and extension of brood care as key features of the evolution of freshwater Decapoda.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Günter

    2013-02-01

    The transition from marine to freshwater habitats is one of the major steps in the evolution of life. In the decapod crustaceans, four groups have colonized fresh water at different geological times since the Triassic, the freshwater shrimps, freshwater crayfish, freshwater crabs and freshwater anomurans. Some families have even colonized terrestrial habitats via the freshwater route or directly via the sea shore. Since none of these taxa has ever reinvaded its environment of origin the Decapoda appear particularly suitable to investigate life-history adaptations to fresh water. Evolutionary comparison of marine, freshwater and terrestrial decapods suggests that the reduction of egg number, abbreviation of larval development, extension of brood care and lecithotrophy of the first posthatching life stages are key adaptations to fresh water. Marine decapods usually have high numbers of small eggs and develop through a prolonged planktonic larval cycle, whereas the production of small numbers of large eggs, direct development and extended brood care until the juvenile stage is the rule in freshwater crayfish, primary freshwater crabs and aeglid anomurans. The amphidromous freshwater shrimp and freshwater crab species and all terrestrial decapods that invaded land via the sea shore have retained ocean-type planktonic development. Abbreviation of larval development and extension of brood care are interpreted as adaptations to the particularly strong variations of hydrodynamic parameters, physico-chemical factors and phytoplankton availability in freshwater habitats. These life-history changes increase fitness of the offspring and are obviously favoured by natural selection, explaining their multiple origins in fresh water. There is no evidence for their early evolution in the marine ancestors of the extant freshwater groups and a preadaptive role for the conquest of fresh water. The costs of the shift from relative r- to K-strategy in freshwater decapods are traded-off against fecundity, future reproduction and growth of females and perhaps against size of species but not against longevity of species. Direct development and extension of brood care is associated with the reduction of dispersal and gene flow among populations, which may explain the high degree of speciation and endemism in directly developing freshwater decapods. Direct development and extended brood care also favour the evolution of social systems, which in freshwater decapods range from simple subsocial organization to eusociality. Hermaphroditism and parthenogenesis, which have evolved in some terrestrial crayfish burrowers and invasive open water crayfish, respectively, may enable populations to adapt to restrictive or new environments by spatio-temporal alteration of their socio-ecological characteristics. Under conditions of rapid habitat loss, environmental pollution and global warming, the reduced dispersal ability of direct developers may turn into a severe disadvantage, posing a higher threat of extinction to freshwater crayfish, primary freshwater crabs, aeglids and landlocked freshwater shrimps as compared to amphidromous freshwater shrimps and secondary freshwater crabs. PMID:22891642

  20. Prediction of the neuropeptidomes of members of the Astacidea (Crustacea, Decapoda) using publicly accessible transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) sequence data.

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew E; Chi, Megan

    2015-12-01

    The decapod infraorder Astacidea is comprised of clawed lobsters and freshwater crayfish. Due to their economic importance and their use as models for investigating neurochemical signaling, much work has focused on elucidating their neurochemistry, particularly their peptidergic systems. Interestingly, no astacidean has been the subject of large-scale peptidomic analysis via in silico transcriptome mining, this despite growing transcriptomic resources for members of this taxon. Here, the publicly accessible astacidean transcriptome shotgun assembly data were mined for putative peptide-encoding transcripts; these sequences were used to predict the structures of mature neuropeptides. One hundred seventy-six distinct peptides were predicted for Procambarus clarkii, including isoforms of adipokinetic hormone-corazonin-like peptide (ACP), allatostatin A (AST-A), allatostatin B, allatostatin C (AST-C) bursicon α, bursicon β, CCHamide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH)/ion transport peptide (ITP), diuretic hormone 31 (DH31), eclosion hormone (EH), FMRFamide-like peptide, GSEFLamide, intocin, leucokinin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F, pigment dispersing hormone, pyrokinin, RYamide, short neuropeptide F (sNPF), SIFamide, sulfakinin and tachykinin-related peptide (TRP). Forty-six distinct peptides, including isoforms of AST-A, AST-C, bursicon α, CCHamide, CHH/ITP, DH31, EH, intocin, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, red pigment concentrating hormone, sNPF and TRP, were predicted for Pontastacus leptodactylus, with a bursicon β and a neuroparsin predicted for Cherax quadricarinatus. The identification of ACP is the first from a decapod, while the predictions of CCHamide, EH, GSEFLamide, intocin, neuroparsin and RYamide are firsts for the Astacidea. Collectively, these data greatly expand the catalog of known astacidean neuropeptides and provide a foundation for functional studies of peptidergic signaling in members of this decapod infraorder. PMID:26070255

  1. Mass spectral characterization of peptide transmitters/hormones in the nervous system and neuroendocrine organs of the American lobster Homarus americanus

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Mingming; Chen, Ruibing; Sousa, Gregory L.; Bors, Eleanor K.; Kwiatkowski, Molly; Goiney, Christopher C.; Goy, Michael F.; Christie, Andrew E.; Li, Lingjun

    2008-01-01

    The American lobster Homarus americanus is a decapod crustacean with both high economic and scientific importance. To facilitate physiological investigations of peptide transmitter/hormone function in this species, we have used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTMS), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) and nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS) to elucidate the peptidome present in its nervous system and neuroendocrine organs. In total, 84 peptides were identified, including 27 previously known H. americanus peptides (e.g. VYRKPPFNGSIFamide [Val1-SIFamide]), 23 peptides characterized previously from other decapods, but new to the American lobster (e.g. pQTFQYSRGWTNamide [Arg7-corazonin]), and 34 new peptides de novo sequenced/detected for the first time in this study. Of particular note are a novel B-type allatostatin (TNWNKFQGSWamide) and several novel FMRFamide-related peptides, including an unsulfated analog of sulfakinin (GGGEYDDYGHLRFamide), two myosuppressins (QDLDHVFLRFamide and pQDLDHVFLRFamide), and a collection of short neuropeptide F isoforms (e.g. DTSTPALRLRFamide, and FEPSLRLRFamide). Our data also include the first detection of multiple tachykinin-related peptides in a non-brachyuran decapod, as well as the identification of potential individual-specific variants of orcokinin and orcomyotropin-related peptide. Taken collectively, our results not only expand greatly the number of known H. americanus neuropeptides, but also provide a framework for future studies on the physiological roles played by these molecules in this commercially and scientifically important species. PMID:18304551

  2. Discovery of a novel insulin-like peptide and insulin binding proteins in the Eastern rock lobster Sagmariasus verreauxi.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Jennifer C; Aizen, Joseph; Elizur, Abigail; Hollander-Cohen, Lian; Battaglene, Stephen C; Ventura, Tomer

    2015-05-01

    This study reports, for the first time in any of the commercially important decapod species, the identification of an insulin-like peptide (ILP), distinct from the androgenic gland hormone. Bioinformatics analysis of the de novo assembled spiny lobster, (Sagmariasus verreauxi) transcriptome, allowed identification of Sv-ILP1 as well as eight binding proteins. Binding proteins were termed as Sv-IGFBP, due to homology with the vertebrate insulin-like growth-factor binding protein and Sv-SIBD1-7, single insulin-binding domain protein (SIBD), similar to those identified in other invertebrate species. Sv-ILP1 was found to be expressed in the eyestalk, gonads and antennal gland of both sexes and to a lesser extent in male muscle, androgenic gland and hepatopancreas. The expression profiles of each binding protein were found to vary across tissues, with Sv-SIBD5, 6 and 7 showing higher expression in the gonad, demonstrated by PCR and digital gene expression. Further spatial investigations, using in-situ hybridisation, found Sv-ILP1 to be expressed in the neurosecretory cells of the thoracic ganglia, in keeping with the tissue expression of Drosophila ILP7 (DILP7). This correlative tissue expression, considered with the phylogenetic clustering of Sv-ILP1 and DILP7, suggests Sv-ILP1 to be a DILP7 orthologue. The broad expression of Sv-ILP1 strongly suggests that ILPs have a role beyond that of masculinisation in decapods. The function of these novel peptides may have application in enhancing aquaculture practices in the commercially important decapod species. PMID:25218129

  3. Transcriptome and Peptidome Characterisation of the Main Neuropeptides and Peptidic Hormones of a Euphausiid: The Ice Krill, Euphausia crystallorophias

    PubMed Central

    Toullec, Jean-Yves; Corre, Erwan; Bernay, Benoît; Thorne, Michael A. S.; Cascella, Kévin; Ollivaux, Céline; Henry, Joël; Clark, Melody S.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Ice krill, Euphausia crystallorophias is one of the species at the base of the Southern Ocean food chain. Given their significant contribution to the biomass of the Southern Ocean, it is vitally important to gain a better understanding of their physiology and, in particular, anticipate their responses to climate change effects in the warming seas around Antarctica. Methodology/Principal Findings Illumina sequencing was used to produce a transcriptome of the ice krill. Analysis of the assembled contigs via two different methods, produced 36 new pre-pro-peptides, coding for 61 neuropeptides or peptide hormones belonging to the following families: Allatostatins (A, B et C), Bursicon (α and β), Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormones (CHH and MIH/VIHs), Crustacean Cardioactive Peptide (CCAP), Corazonin, Diuretic Hormones (DH), the Eclosion Hormone (EH), Neuroparsin, Neuropeptide F (NPF), small Neuropeptide F (sNPF), Pigment Dispersing Hormone (PDH), Red Pigment Concentrating Hormone (RPCH) and finally Tachykinin. LC/MS/MS proteomics was also carried out on eyestalk extracts, which are the major site of neuropeptide synthesis in decapod crustaceans. Results confirmed the presence of six neuropeptides and six precursor-related peptides previously identified in the transcriptome analyses. Conclusions This study represents the first comprehensive analysis of neuropeptide hormones in a Eucarida non-decapod Malacostraca, several of which are described for the first time in a non-decapod crustacean. Additionally, there is a potential expansion of PDH and Neuropeptide F family members, which may reflect certain life history traits such as circadian rhythms associated with diurnal migrations and also the confirmation via mass spectrometry of several novel pre-pro-peptides, of unknown function. Knowledge of these essential hormones provides a vital framework for understanding the physiological response of this key Southern Ocean species to climate change and provides a valuable resource for studies into the molecular phylogeny of these organisms and the evolution of neuropeptide hormones. PMID:23990964

  4. The emergence of lobsters: phylogenetic relationships, morphological evolution and divergence time comparisons of an ancient group (decapoda: achelata, astacidea, glypheidea, polychelida).

    PubMed

    Bracken-Grissom, Heather D; Ahyong, Shane T; Wilkinson, Richard D; Feldmann, Rodney M; Schweitzer, Carrie E; Breinholt, Jesse W; Bendall, Matthew; Palero, Ferran; Chan, Tin-Yam; Felder, Darryl L; Robles, Rafael; Chu, Ka-Hou; Tsang, Ling-Ming; Kim, Dohyup; Martin, Joel W; Crandall, Keith A

    2014-07-01

    Lobsters are a ubiquitous and economically important group of decapod crustaceans that include the infraorders Polychelida, Glypheidea, Astacidea and Achelata. They include familiar forms such as the spiny, slipper, clawed lobsters and crayfish and unfamiliar forms such as the deep-sea and "living fossil" species. The high degree of morphological diversity among these infraorders has led to a dynamic classification and conflicting hypotheses of evolutionary relationships. In this study, we estimated phylogenetic relationships among the major groups of all lobster families and 94% of the genera using six genes (mitochondrial and nuclear) and 195 morphological characters across 173 species of lobsters for the most comprehensive sampling to date. Lobsters were recovered as a non-monophyletic assemblage in the combined (molecular + morphology) analysis. All families were monophyletic, with the exception of Cambaridae, and 7 of 79 genera were recovered as poly- or paraphyletic. A rich fossil history coupled with dense taxon coverage allowed us to estimate and compare divergence times and origins of major lineages using two drastically different approaches. Age priors were constructed and/or included based on fossil age information or fossil discovery, age, and extant species count data. Results from the two approaches were largely congruent across deep to shallow taxonomic divergences across major lineages. The origin of the first lobster-like decapod (Polychelida) was estimated in the Devonian (∼409-372 Ma) with all infraorders present in the Carboniferous (∼353-318 Ma). Fossil calibration subsampling studies examined the influence of sampling density (number of fossils) and placement (deep, middle, and shallow) on divergence time estimates. Results from our study suggest including at least 1 fossil per 10 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in divergence dating analyses. [Dating; decapods; divergence; lobsters; molecular; morphology; phylogenetics.]. PMID:24562813

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the hydrothermal vent galatheid crab Shinkaia crosnieri (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura): A novel arrangement and incomplete tRNA suite

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jin-Shu; Yang, Wei-Jun

    2008-01-01

    Background Metazoan mitochondrial genomes usually consist of the same 37 genes. Such genes contain useful information for phylogenetic analyses and evolution modelling. Although complete mitochondrial genomes have been determined for over 1,000 animals to date, hydrothermal vent species have, thus far, remained excluded due to the scarcity of collected specimens. Results The mitochondrial genome of the hydrothermal vent galatheid crab Shinkaia crosnieri is 15,182 bp in length, and is composed of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and only 18 transfer RNA genes. The total AT content of the genome, as is typical for decapods, is 72.9%. We identified a non-coding control region of 327 bp according to its location and AT-richness. This is the smallest control region discovered in crustaceans so far. A mechanism of cytoplasmic tRNA import was addressed to compensate for the four missing tRNAs. The S. crosnieri mitogenome exhibits a novel arrangement of mitochondrial genes. We investigated the mitochondrial gene orders and found that at least six rearrangements from the ancestral pancrustacean (crustacean + hexapod) pattern have happened successively. The codon usage, nucleotide composition and bias show no substantial difference with other decapods. Phylogenetic analyses using the concatenated nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the 13 protein-coding genes prove consistent with the previous classification based upon their morphology. Conclusion The present study will supply considerable data of use for both genomic and evolutionary research on hydrothermal vent ecosystems. The mitochondrial genetic characteristics of decapods are sustained in this case of S. crosnieri despite the absence of several tRNAs and a number of dramatic rearrangements. Our results may provide evidence for the immigrating hypothesis about how vent species originate. PMID:18510775

  6. Insulin and gender: an insulin-like gene expressed exclusively in the androgenic gland of the male crayfish.

    PubMed

    Manor, Rivka; Weil, Simy; Oren, Shirley; Glazer, Lilah; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Ventura, Tomer; Chalifa-Caspi, Vered; Lapidot, Miri; Sagi, Amir

    2007-01-15

    Members of the insulin family of hormones are generally not regarded as gender-specific, although there is sporadic evidence for the possible involvement of insulin pathways in sexual differentiation. In crustaceans, sexual differentiation is controlled by the androgenic gland (AG), an organ unique to males. To date, attempts to identify active AG factors in decapods through either classical purification methods or sequence similarity with isopod AG hormones have proven unsuccessful. In the present study, the first subtractive cDNA library from a decapod AG was constructed from the red-claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus. During library screening, an AG-specific gene, expressed exclusively in males even at early stages of maturation and termed Cq-IAG (C. quadricarinatus insulin-like AG factor), was discovered. In situ hybridization of Cq-IAG confirmed the exclusive localization of its expression to the AG. Following cloning and complete sequencing of the gene, its cDNA was found to contain 1445 nucleotides encoding a deduced translation product of 176 amino acids. The proposed protein sequence encompasses Cys residue and putative cleaved peptide patterns whose linear and 3D organization are similar to those of members of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor/relaxin family and their receptor recognition surface. The identification of Cq-IAG is the first report of a pro-insulin-like gene expressed in a decapod crustacean in a gender-specific manner. Its expression in a male-specific endocrine gland controlling sex differentiation supports the notion that insulin may have evolved in the context of regulating sexual differentiation. PMID:17094989

  7. Analysis of the central nervous system transcriptome of the eastern rock lobster Sagmariasus verreauxi reveals its putative neuropeptidome.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Tomer; Cummins, Scott F; Fitzgibbon, Quinn; Battaglene, Stephen; Elizur, Abigail

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptides have been discovered in many arthropod species including crustaceans. The nature of their biological function is well studied and varies from behavior modulation to physiological regulation of complex biochemical processes such as metabolism, molt and reproduction. Due to their key role in these fundamental processes, neuropeptides are often targeted for modulating these processes to align with market demands in commercially important species. We generated a comprehensive transcriptome of the eyestalk and brain of one of the few commercially important spiny lobster species in the southern Hemisphere, the Eastern rock lobster Sagmariasus verreauxi and mined it for novel neuropeptide and protein hormone-encoding transcripts. We then characterized the predicted mature hormones to verify their validity based on conserved motifs and features known from previously reported hormones. Overall, 37 transcripts which are predicted to encode mature full-length/partial peptides/proteins were identified, representing 21 peptide/protein families/subfamilies. All transcripts had high similarity to hormones that were previously characterized in other decapod crustacean species or, where absent in crustaceans, in other arthropod species. These included, in addition to other proteins previously described in crustaceans, prohormone-3 and prohormone-4 which were previously identified only in insects. A homolog of the crustacean female sex hormone (CFSH), recently found to be female-specific in brachyuran crabs was found to have the same levels of expression in both male and female eyestalks, suggesting that the CFSH female specificity is not conserved throughout decapod crustaceans. Digital gene expression showed that 24 out of the 37 transcripts presented in this study have significant changes in expression between eyestalk and brain. In some cases a trend of difference between males and females could be seen. Taken together, this study provides a comprehensive neuropeptidome of a commercially important crustacean species with novel peptides and protein hormones identified for the first time in decapods. PMID:24819537

  8. Analysis of the Central Nervous System Transcriptome of the Eastern Rock Lobster Sagmariasus verreauxi Reveals Its Putative Neuropeptidome

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, Tomer; Cummins, Scott F.; Fitzgibbon, Quinn; Battaglene, Stephen; Elizur, Abigail

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptides have been discovered in many arthropod species including crustaceans. The nature of their biological function is well studied and varies from behavior modulation to physiological regulation of complex biochemical processes such as metabolism, molt and reproduction. Due to their key role in these fundamental processes, neuropeptides are often targeted for modulating these processes to align with market demands in commercially important species. We generated a comprehensive transcriptome of the eyestalk and brain of one of the few commercially important spiny lobster species in the southern Hemisphere, the Eastern rock lobster Sagmariasus verreauxi and mined it for novel neuropeptide and protein hormone-encoding transcripts. We then characterized the predicted mature hormones to verify their validity based on conserved motifs and features known from previously reported hormones. Overall, 37 transcripts which are predicted to encode mature full-length/partial peptides/proteins were identified, representing 21 peptide/protein families/subfamilies. All transcripts had high similarity to hormones that were previously characterized in other decapod crustacean species or, where absent in crustaceans, in other arthropod species. These included, in addition to other proteins previously described in crustaceans, prohormone-3 and prohormone-4 which were previously identified only in insects. A homolog of the crustacean female sex hormone (CFSH), recently found to be female-specific in brachyuran crabs was found to have the same levels of expression in both male and female eyestalks, suggesting that the CFSH female specificity is not conserved throughout decapod crustaceans. Digital gene expression showed that 24 out of the 37 transcripts presented in this study have significant changes in expression between eyestalk and brain. In some cases a trend of difference between males and females could be seen. Taken together, this study provides a comprehensive neuropeptidome of a commercially important crustacean species with novel peptides and protein hormones identified for the first time in decapods. PMID:24819537

  9. Phase response theory extended to nonoscillatory network components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieling, Fred H.; Archila, Santiago; Hooper, Ryan; Canavier, Carmen C.; Prinz, Astrid A.

    2012-05-01

    New tools for analysis of oscillatory networks using phase response theory (PRT) under the assumption of pulsatile coupling have been developed steadily since the 1980s, but none have yet allowed for analysis of mixed systems containing nonoscillatory elements. This caveat has excluded the application of PRT to most real systems, which are often mixed. We show that a recently developed tool, the functional phase resetting curve (fPRC), provides a serendipitous benefit: it allows incorporation of nonoscillatory elements into systems of oscillators where PRT can be applied. We validate this method in a model system of neural oscillators and a biological system, the pyloric network of crustacean decapods.

  10. Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program. Final reports of principal investigators. Volume 67

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The contents of this study include the following: distribution, abundance, and biology of blue king and Korean hair crabs around the Pribilof Islands; distribution, abundance, and diversity of the epifaunal benthic organisms in Alitak and Ugak bays, Kodiak Island, Alaska; distribution and abundance of some epibenthic invertebrates of the northeastern Gulf of Alaska with notes on the feeding biology of selected species; reproductive success in Dungeness crab (Cancer magister) during long-term exposures to oil-contaminated sediments; and distribution and abundance of decapod larvae of the Kodiak shelf.

  11. Patterns of bathymetric distribution among deep-sea fauna at local spatial scale: comparison of mainland vs. insular areas [review article

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, Joan E.; Maynou, Francesc; Moranta, Joan; Massut, Enric; Lloris, Domnec; Morales-Nin, Beatriz

    2004-01-01

    We have compared the distribution of mesopelagic, benthopelagic and benthic fauna between two areas: one on the continental side of the Catalan Sea (cCS: northwestern Mediterranean) and one to the SW of the Balearic Islands (SWB: southwestern Mediterranean) at depths between 147 and 2266 m. Based on 88 bathyal fish and crustaceans (Decapoda and Peracarida) dominant in these communities, we compared the maximum depth of occurrence (MDO) of (upper) middle-slope species and the minimum depth of occurrence (mDO) of lower-slope dwelling species. Mid-slope fish, decapods, peracarids and, within the latter, amphipods and cumaceans had a deeper MDO in the cCS than in the SWB. Depth differences between MDO of species were significant for all taxa, except isopods. In the same way, lower slope fish and decapods had a shallower mDO in the SWB than in the cCS. Within peracarids, the dominant taxon (amphipods) also followed this trend. Depth differences in mDO of species between the areas were significant for decapods and for amphipods (not for fish, nor all peracarids nor cumaceans). In summary, most taxa showed a deeper depth distribution of middle-slope species in the cCS, and a shallower depth distribution of lower-slope dwelling species in the SWB. This suggests that the whole community, from small detritus-feeders (peracarids) to top predators (fish) have a similar response to a common signal. Much basic information on the biology and possible environmental factors affecting deep-sea species distribution is not available, so causes of the trends demonstrated here cannot be fully evaluated. In spite of these obvious limitations, we have shown that (1) mesopelagic decapods (e.g., Gennadas elegans and Sergia robusta), with a higher dependence upon primary sources of food close to the surface primary production, showed greater differences in their mDO between the areas than benthopelagic (e.g., Acanthephyra eximia, Nematocarcinus exilis) and benthic (e.g., Stereomastis sculpta, Munida tenuimana, Geryon longipes) species, and (2) fish at lower trophic levels, deduced from fractional trophic levels, showed higher differences in the MDO than fish at higher trophic levels. Trophic position of species in food webs seems the most important factor affecting the distributional differences between contrasting areas.

  12. Thalassinoides burrows (decapoda dwelling structures) in lower cretaceous sections of southwestern and central Crimea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanin, B. T.; Baraboshkin, E. Yu.

    2013-05-01

    Burrows of Thalassinoides, which are attributed to the group of dwelling structures, occur in all the marine and coastal facies. The Lower Cretaceous sections of southwestern and central Crimea yielded the representative collection of Thalassinoides burrows belonging to the ichnospecies Th. suevicus (Rieth, 1932), which served as an object for this investigation. The burrows are confined to coarse-grained terrigenous, carbonate, and mixed sediments and contain assemblages of ichnofossils indicating coastal and shallow-water marine Skolithos and Cruziana ichnofacies. In the Mesozoic-Cenozoic, the producers of the Thalassinoides burrows were decapods, confirmed by finds of crayfish Hoploparia in them.

  13. Acute toxicity and accumulation of zinc in the crayfish, Orconectes virilis (Hagen)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    Zinc produces acute toxicity to freshwater organisms over a range of concentrations from 90 to 58, 100..mu..g Zn/L; with the range of acute median effect concentrations being similar for freshwater fish and invertebrates. The capacity to regulate internal zinc concentrations in decapod crustaceans has been described. Studies with the crayfish Austropotambius pallipes suggested a relatively high degree of tolerance to zinc by this animal. The present study is designed to describe the toxicity of zinc to the crayfish Orconectes virilis over a 2-wk exposure period. In addition, whole animal and tissue analyses were performed on the test organisms and compared to previous results.

  14. [Recognition of stem cells in the colonial internae of the Rhizocephala Peltogasterella gracilis and Sacculina polygenea at the parasitic life cycle stage].

    PubMed

    Isaeva, V V; Shukaliuk, A I; Kizilova, E A

    2003-01-01

    The colonial internae of two decapod parasites Peltogasterella gracilis and Sacculina polygenea (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Rhizocephala) were studied in vitro by histological, and histochemical methods. We found stem cells, characterized by basophilic cytoplasm, a large nucleus and nucleolus, and a high alkaline phosphatase activity. The cytochemical manifestation of alkaline phosphatase activity in totipotent stem cells of the colonial rhizocephala is the first evidence of commonality in the functional characteristics of embryonic stem cells in vertebrate and invertebrate animals of such different taxa as the mammals and Crustacea. PMID:15216627

  15. Ocean-bottom krill sex.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, So; Kilpatrick, Robbie; Roberts, Lisa; King, Robert A; Nicol, Stephen

    2011-07-01

    For the first time the entire sequence of the mating behaviour of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) in the wild is captured on underwater video. This footage also provides evidence that mating can take place near the seafloor at depths of 400-700 m. This observation challenges the generally accepted concept of the pelagic lifestyle of krill. The mating behaviour observed most closely resembles the mating behaviour reported for a decapod shrimp (Penaeus). The implications of the new observation are also discussed. PMID:21655471

  16. Use of the confocal laser scanning microscope in studies on the developmental biology of marine crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Buttino, Isabella; Ianora, Adrianna; Carotenuto, Ylenia; Zupo, Valerio; Miralto, Antonio

    2003-03-01

    Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope techniques have been applied to study the developmental biology of marine copepods and decapod larvae. The lipophylic probes DiI and DiOC(6) were used to study both the external and internal morphology of these crustaceans, whereas the same DiOC(6) and the specific nuclear probe Hoechst 33342 were used to study embryonic development of copepods in vivo. To distinguish viable from non-viable copepod embryos, the vital dye dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H(2)DCFDA) was used. Major advantages and difficulties in the use of these non-invasive techniques in studies of the reproductive biology of marine crustaceans are discussed. PMID:12567403

  17. Putative pacemakers in the eyestalk and brain of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii show circadian oscillations in levels of mRNA for crustacean hyperglycemic hormone.

    PubMed

    Nelson-Mora, Janikua; Prieto-Sagredo, Julio; Loredo-Ranjel, Rosaura; Fanjul-Moles, María Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) synthesizing cells in the optic lobe, one of the pacemakers of the circadian system, have been shown to be present in crayfish. However, the presence of CHH in the central brain, another putative pacemaker of the multi-oscillatory circadian system, of this decapod and its circadian transcription in the optic lobe and brain have yet to be explored. Therefore, using qualitative and quantitative PCR, we isolated and cloned a CHH mRNA fragment from two putative pacemakers of the multi-oscillatory circadian system of Procambarus clarkii, the optic lobe and the central brain. This CHH transcript synchronized to daily light-dark cycles and oscillated under dark, constant conditions demonstrating statistically significant daily and circadian rhythms in both structures. Furthermore, to investigate the presence of the peptide in the central brain of this decapod, we used immunohistochemical methods. Confocal microscopy revealed the presence of CHH-IR in fibers and cells of the protocerebral and tritocerebal clusters and neuropiles, particularly in some neurons located in clusters 6, 14, 15 and 17. The presence of CHH positive neurons in structures of P. clarkii where clock proteins have been reported suggests a relationship between the circadian clockwork and CHH. This work provides new insights into the circadian regulation of CHH, a pleiotropic hormone that regulates many physiological processes such as glucose metabolism and osmoregulatory responses to stress. PMID:24391849

  18. Putative Pacemakers in the Eyestalk and Brain of the Crayfish Procambarus clarkii Show Circadian Oscillations in Levels of mRNA for Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone

    PubMed Central

    Nelson-Mora, Janikua; Prieto-Sagredo, Julio; Loredo-Ranjel, Rosaura; Fanjul-Moles, María Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) synthesizing cells in the optic lobe, one of the pacemakers of the circadian system, have been shown to be present in crayfish. However, the presence of CHH in the central brain, another putative pacemaker of the multi-oscillatory circadian system, of this decapod and its circadian transcription in the optic lobe and brain have yet to be explored. Therefore, using qualitative and quantitative PCR, we isolated and cloned a CHH mRNA fragment from two putative pacemakers of the multi-oscillatory circadian system of Procambarus clarkii, the optic lobe and the central brain. This CHH transcript synchronized to daily light-dark cycles and oscillated under dark, constant conditions demonstrating statistically significant daily and circadian rhythms in both structures. Furthermore, to investigate the presence of the peptide in the central brain of this decapod, we used immunohistochemical methods. Confocal microscopy revealed the presence of CHH-IR in fibers and cells of the protocerebral and tritocerebal clusters and neuropiles, particularly in some neurons located in clusters 6, 14, 15 and 17. The presence of CHH positive neurons in structures of P. clarkii where clock proteins have been reported suggests a relationship between the circadian clockwork and CHH. This work provides new insights into the circadian regulation of CHH, a pleiotropic hormone that regulates many physiological processes such as glucose metabolism and osmoregulatory responses to stress. PMID:24391849

  19. Renal organs of cephalopods: a habitat for dicyemids and chromidinids.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Hidetaka; Ota, Mitsunori; Kimura, Ritsuko; Tsuneki, Kazuhiko

    2004-11-01

    The renal organs of 32 species of cephalopods (renal appendage of all cephalopods, and renal and pancreatic appendages in decapods) were examined for parasite fauna and for histological comparison. Two phylogenetically distant organisms, dicyemid mesozoans and chromidinid ciliates, were found in 20 cephalopod species. Most benthic cephalopods (octopus and cuttlefish) were infected with dicyemids. Two pelagic cephalopod species, Sepioteuthis lessoniana and Todarodes pacificus, also harbored dicyemids. Chromidinid ciliates were found only in decapods (squid and cuttlefish). One dicyemid species was found in branchial heart appendages of Rossia pacifica. Dicyemids and chromidinids occasionally occurred simultaneously in Euprymna morsei, Sepia kobiensis, S. peterseni, and T. pacificus. The small-sized cephalopod species, Idiosepius paradoxus and Octopus parvus, harbored no parasites. Comparative histology revealed that the external surface of renal organs varies morphologically in various cephalopod species. The small-sized cephalopod species have a simple external surface. In contrast, the medium- to large-sized cephalopod species have a complex external surface. In the medium- to large-sized cephalopod species, their juveniles have a simple external surface of the renal organs. The external surface subsequently becomes complicated as they grow. Dicyemids and chromidinids attach their heads to epithelia or insert their heads into folds of renal appendages, pancreatic appendages, and branchial heart appendages. The rugged and convoluted external surface provides a foothold for dicyemids and chromidinids with a conical head. They apparently do not harm these tissues of their host cephalopods. PMID:15376274

  20. An Assessment of the Effect of Rotenone on Selected Non-Target Aquatic Fauna

    PubMed Central

    Dalu, Tatenda; Wasserman, Ryan J.; Jordaan, Martine; Froneman, William P.; Weyl, Olaf L. F.

    2015-01-01

    Rotenone, a naturally occurring ketone, is widely employed for the management of invasive fish species. The use of rotenone poses serious challenges to conservation practitioners due to its impacts on non-target organisms including amphibians and macroinvertebrates. Using laboratory studies, we investigated the effects of different rotenone concentrations (0, 12.5, 25, 37.5, 50, 100 μg L-1) on selected invertebrate groups; Aeshnidae, Belostomatids, Decapods, Ephemeroptera, Pulmonata and zooplankton over a period of 18 hours. Based on field observations and body size, we hypothesized that Ephemeropterans and zooplankton would be more susceptible to rotenone than Decapods, Belostomatids and snails. Experimental results supported this hypothesis and mortality and behaviour effects varied considerably between taxa, ranging from no effect (crab Potamonuates sidneyi) to 100% mortality (Daphnia pulex and Paradiaptomus lamellatus). Planktonic invertebrates were particularly sensitive to rotenone even at very low concentrations. Future research should investigate the recovery time of invertebrate communities after the application of rotenone and conduct field assessments assessing the longer term effects of rotenone exposure on the population dynamics of those less sensitive organisms. PMID:26540301

  1. Pinching forces in crayfish and fiddler crabs, and comparisons with the closing forces of other animals.

    PubMed

    Claussen, Dennis L; Gerald, Gary W; Kotcher, John E; Miskell, Courtney A

    2008-03-01

    The pinching forces of crustaceans are in many respects analogous to the biting forces of vertebrates. We examined the effects of body size and chelae size and shape, on the closing forces of the fiddler crab, Uca pugilator, and the crayfish, Procambarus clarkii. We hypothesized that the allometric relationships would be similar among species, and comparable to those reported for other decapod crustaceans. We further hypothesized that the scaling of the closing forces of crustaceans, with respect to body size and with the geometry of the pinching or biting structures, would be similar to that of vertebrates. We found that pinching forces increased with body mass, claw dimensions, and claw mass in U. pugilator, but only with claw height and claw mass in P. clarkii. Contraction time increased with body mass for both species combined, whereas contraction speed decreased. Pooled data for these and 17 other species of decapod crustacean revealed a positive correlation between the pinching force and body mass with a scaling exponent of 0.71. These data are remarkably comparable to the values on closing forces of vertebrate jaws, with the pooled data having a scaling exponent of 0.58, slightly below the value of 0.67 predicted for geometric similarity. Maximum closing forces vary tremendously among both crustaceans and animals in general, with body size and food habits being among the most important determining factors. PMID:18064468

  2. Female Growth and Offspring Quality over Successive Spawnings in a Caridean Shrimp Neocaridina davidi (Decapoda, Atyidae) with Direct Development.

    PubMed

    Tropea, Carolina; López Greco, Laura Susana

    2015-12-01

    This study analyzed the quality of recently spawned eggs and of juveniles over five and six consecutive spawns, respectively, in a caridean shrimp Neocaridina davidi with direct development. The potential energetic antagonism between reproduction and somatic growth was also evaluated. The number of eggs per spawn per female was highest in the first spawn, while the number of recently hatched juveniles per spawn per female declined in the sixth spawn. Lower lipid concentration and energy content were detected in eggs of the fourth and fifth spawns, which may indicate for the first time a decrease in maternal provisioning as a result of multiple spawning in a decapod with direct development. This result had no effect on the size of eggs or of recently hatched juveniles, nor on the growth performance of juveniles during a 30-day period following hatching. Lipids were the most abundant biochemical component of eggs, followed by proteins and glycogen; the relative proportion of each component was probably related to embryonic development type. Egg volume was unsuitable as an indicator of nutrient content, as no correlation was found between these variables. The physiological costs of reproduction were evident from the lower energy content of females that reproduced versus females that remained virgin. The lower body weight of the reproductive females at the end of the experiment showed that allocation of resources to reproduction occurred at the expense of somatic growth. To our knowledge, this is the first empirical demonstration of a decapod with direct development. PMID:26695823

  3. Idiosyncratic species effects confound size-based predictions of responses to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Twomey, Marion; Brodte, Eva; Jacob, Ute; Brose, Ulrich; Crowe, Tasman P.; Emmerson, Mark C.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and predicting the consequences of warming for complex ecosystems and indeed individual species remains a major ecological challenge. Here, we investigated the effect of increased seawater temperatures on the metabolic and consumption rates of five distinct marine species. The experimental species reflected different trophic positions within a typical benthic East Atlantic food web, and included a herbivorous gastropod, a scavenging decapod, a predatory echinoderm, a decapod and a benthic-feeding fish. We examined the metabolism–body mass and consumption–body mass scaling for each species, and assessed changes in their consumption efficiencies. Our results indicate that body mass and temperature effects on metabolism were inconsistent across species and that some species were unable to meet metabolic demand at higher temperatures, thus highlighting the vulnerability of individual species to warming. While body size explains a large proportion of the variation in species' physiological responses to warming, it is clear that idiosyncratic species responses, irrespective of body size, complicate predictions of population and ecosystem level response to future scenarios of climate change. PMID:23007085

  4. Through the stomach of a predator: Regional patterns of forage in the diet of albacore tuna in the California Current System and metrics needed for ecosystem-based management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, Sarah M.; Waechter, Katrina E.; Bransome, Nicole C.

    2015-06-01

    Foraging habits of predators can reveal patterns in prey ecology and guide ecosystem-based management by informing species interactions. This study describes the diet habits of albacore tuna in three regions (north, central, south) of the California Current System (CCS) and estimates the total predation mortality imposed on twenty prey taxa. The northern CCS was defined by predation on decapods, euphausiids, anchovy and hake. The central CCS was defined by predation on squid, hake and Pacific saury. The southern CCS was defined by predation on anchovy. We estimate North Pacific albacore consumed each year, on average, 54,000 mt of decapods and euphausiids, 43,000 mt of cephalopods, 84,000 mt of juvenile hake, 1600 mt of myctophids, 21,000 mt of juvenile sardine, 10,000 mt of juvenile rockfishes, almost 43,000 mt of Pacific saury, and over 107,000 mt of juvenile anchovy. While variability in predation certainly exists, this and prior studies show that diet habits of albacore are fairly stable through time. The northern CCS appears to be a more significant source of energy for albacore. When designing ecosystem-based approaches to the management of CCS-based fisheries, we recommend that the forage contribution of saury, hake and anchovy to the albacore population be considered.

  5. Analysis of food habits of skate Rioraja agassizii (Elasmobranchii, Rajidae) from southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Motta, N S; Della-Fina, N; Souza, C C A; Rodrigues, E S; Amorim, A F

    2016-06-01

    Catches and exports of skate Rioraja agassizii place this species as "vulnerable to extinction" on the IUCN Red List; therefore, biological and ecological knowledge becomes an important instrument for its conservation control. This study described and quantified the diet composition of R. agassizii by means of stomach analysis contents in the periods 2005-2006 and 2012-2013. We analyzed and quantified stomach contents in terms of abundance (%N), weight (%M), frequency of occurrence (% FO), and index of relative importance (IRI). The results showed differences in the food rates between the periods. However, the groups of food items were the same: Teleostei fish, decapods, and mollusks. In 2005-2006, the diet consisted mainly of shrimp, however, in 2012-2013 it consisted of fish, followed by decapods, especially shrimps. The differences in diets may be attributed to shrimp abundance, which do not characterize a change in the eating habits in 2012-2013, because, in addition to fish, shrimps were also important food sources. The presence of a certain prey is more related to its availability rather than the feeding preference of skate. The amount of ingested items is associated to biological and environmental factors, so that further studies relating diet with capture area, seasonality, depth, and other factors should be conducted. PMID:26959951

  6. An Assessment of the Effect of Rotenone on Selected Non-Target Aquatic Fauna.

    PubMed

    Dalu, Tatenda; Wasserman, Ryan J; Jordaan, Martine; Froneman, William P; Weyl, Olaf L F

    2015-01-01

    Rotenone, a naturally occurring ketone, is widely employed for the management of invasive fish species. The use of rotenone poses serious challenges to conservation practitioners due to its impacts on non-target organisms including amphibians and macroinvertebrates. Using laboratory studies, we investigated the effects of different rotenone concentrations (0, 12.5, 25, 37.5, 50, 100 μg L-1) on selected invertebrate groups; Aeshnidae, Belostomatids, Decapods, Ephemeroptera, Pulmonata and zooplankton over a period of 18 hours. Based on field observations and body size, we hypothesized that Ephemeropterans and zooplankton would be more susceptible to rotenone than Decapods, Belostomatids and snails. Experimental results supported this hypothesis and mortality and behaviour effects varied considerably between taxa, ranging from no effect (crab Potamonuates sidneyi) to 100% mortality (Daphnia pulex and Paradiaptomus lamellatus). Planktonic invertebrates were particularly sensitive to rotenone even at very low concentrations. Future research should investigate the recovery time of invertebrate communities after the application of rotenone and conduct field assessments assessing the longer term effects of rotenone exposure on the population dynamics of those less sensitive organisms. PMID:26540301

  7. First complete genome of an Ambidensovirus; Cherax quadricarinatus densovirus, from freshwater crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus.

    PubMed

    Bochow, Shaun; Condon, Kelly; Elliman, Jennifer; Owens, Leigh

    2015-12-01

    In 1999, the causative agent of an epizootic in Cherax quadricarinatus was described, and given the provisional name Cherax quadricarinatus parvovirus-like. Sequencing of the 6334nt genome identified three open-reading frames on the top strand coding NS3 (35.55kDa), NS1 (67.36kDa) and NS2 (35.18kDa) and on the bottom strand a single open reading frame which most likely encodes 4 structural proteins. Motifs characteristic of the Densovirinae were found in the ORFs. Phylogenetic analysis of the amino acids in NS1 places the genome in the genus Ambidensovirus, most closely related to the marine sea star densovirus (75%, E=0.0) and distantly related to Acheta domestica densovirus (44.1%). The virus name is proposed as species Decapod ambidensovirus, variant Cherax quadricarinatus densovirus. This is the first Ambidensovirus to be found in decapod crustaceans and the first of the subfamily Densovirinae to be sequenced from a freshwater crayfish. Cherax quadricarinatus densovirus and sea star densovirus are the first highly related Densovirinae to infect phylogenetically disparate hosts and are thus far, unique among the Densovirinae. PMID:26268797

  8. Age, Growth and Feeding Habits of the Brown Comber Serranus hepatus(Linnaeus, 1758) on the Cretan Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labropoulou, M.; Tserpes, G.; Tsimenides, N.

    1998-05-01

    Forty-five samples of the brown comber Serranus hepatuswere collected during experimental surveys carried out on a monthly basis (August 1990 to August 1992) along the Cretan continental shelf. A total of 1268 specimens 31-140 mm in total length were analysed. Growth was well described by both standard and seasonalized forms of the von Bertalanffy growth model and the computed parameters were L?;=152 mm, k=036, t0=-057. Feeding intensity was high throughout the study period and varied significantly among the age classes of fish examined. Stomach content analysis revealed that S. hepatusis carnivorous, feeding mainly on decapods. Diets did not vary seasonally; decapods were the most important prey throughout the year. However, the composition of the prey consumed varied considerably with predator age coupled with differences in mean prey sizes utilized by each age class. The mean weight of stomach contents increased significantly for older specimens, while the mean number of prey items decreased. Age-specific dietary selection was primarily a function of body size of the predator and appears to reduce intra-specific competition among the members of the different age classes. The results suggest that S. hepatusplays an important trophic role as a macrophagic carnivorous species on the Cretan continental shelf.

  9. Abundance, seasonal patterns and diet of the non-native jellyfish Blackfordia virginica in a Portuguese estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, F.; Chainho, P.; Costa, J. L.; Domingos, I.; Angélico, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    Blackfordia virginica, a non-indigenous hydrozoan introduced in many systems around the world, has been observed in the Mira estuary, southwest of Portugal, since 1984. Monthly sampling (January 2013-January 2014) at a fixed location with high abundance of the medusae confirmed the occurrence of a seasonal cycle associated with temperature and photoperiod. The beginning of the medusa cycle occurred in May immediately after the spring zooplankton bloom during April. Examination of the gut contents of B. virginica medusae revealed that copepods, the most abundant group in the zooplankton community, were highly predated. Barnacle nauplii, decapod crustacean larvae and anchovy eggs were also identified in the guts. The medusae showed positive selection for copepods, and negative selection for barnacle nauplii, decapod crustacean larvae and anchovy eggs. The mortality rate of copepods (used as a model prey group) induced by medusae predation was estimated and showed the potential impact of this species in the ecosystem, ranging between 2.34 d-1 and 0.02 d-1, with a minimum copepod half-life of 0.30 days.

  10. A Comparative Analysis of Feeding and Trophic Level Ecology in Stingrays (Rajiformes; Myliobatoidei) and Electric Rays (Rajiformes: Torpedinoidei)

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Ian P.; Bennett, Mike B.

    2013-01-01

    Standardised diets and trophic level (TL) estimates were calculated for 75 ray species from the suborders Myliobatoidei (67 spp.) and Torpedinoidei (8 spp.). Decapod crustaceans (31.713.92%) and teleost fishes (16.453.43%) made the largest contribution to the standardised diet of the Myliobatoidei. Teleost fishes (37.4016.09%) and polychaete worms (31.9614.22%) were the most prominent prey categories in the standardised diet of the suborder Torpedinoidei. Cluster analysis identified nine major trophic guilds the largest of which were decapod crustaceans (24 species), teleost fishes (11 species) and molluscs (11 species). Trophic level estimates for rays ranged from 3.10 for Potamotrygon falkneri to 4.24 for Gymnura australis, Torpedo marmorata and T. nobiliana. Secondary consumers with a TL <4.00 represented 84% of the species examined, with the remaining 12 species (16%) classified as tertiary consumers (TL ?4.00). Tertiary consumers included electric rays (Torpedo, 3 spp. and Hypnos, 1 sp.), butterfly rays (Gymnura, 4 spp.), stingrays (2 spp.) and Potamotrygonid stingrays (2 spp.). Feeding strategies were identified as the primary factor of influence with respect to Myliobatoidei and Torpedinoidei TL estimates with inter-family comparisons providing the greatest insight into Myliobatoidei and Torpedinoidei relationships. PMID:23936503

  11. Regulation of essential heavy metals (Cu, Cr, and Zn) by the freshwater prawn macrobrachium malcolmsonii (Milne Edwards)

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayram, K.; Geraldine, P.

    1996-02-01

    Despite the low concentrations of heavy metals in the surrounding medium, aquatic organisms take them up and accumulate them in their soft tissues to concentrations several fold higher than those of ambient levels. Knowledge of accumulation patterns of a particular trace metal is a prerequisite for understanding the significance of an observed metal concentration in a particular animal, especially from the aspect of biomonitoring. Many marine invertebrates accumulate heavy metals without any regulation and the accumulation necessarily being associated with mechanisms to store the metals in a detoxified form. Two detoxification mechanisms have been described, both of which may occur in one specimen. Heavy metals can either be bound up in insoluble metalliferous {open_quote}granules{close_quote}, or are bound to soluble metal-binding ligands, such as metallothioneins. Some marine decapod crustaceans have an innate ability to regulate the internal concentrations of essential but potentially toxic metals within a constant level, presumably to meet their metabolic demands. However, at present, there is no such information relating to freshwater decapod crustaceans, especially shrimps which occupy a totally different environment. Macrobrachium malcolmsonii, a potential aquaculture species for freshwater is found in abundance in one of the major Indian rivers, the Cauvery. In the present study, an attempt was made to determine whether the freshwater prawn, M. malcolmsonlii, is able to regulate the three essential elements, copper, chromium and zinc, over a wide range of dissolved concentrations. These three metals were chosen because the Cauvery River receives pollutants containing these metals.

  12. Possible shell disease in 100 million-year-old crabs.

    PubMed

    Klompmaker, Adiël A; Chistoserdov, Andrei Y; Felder, Darryl L

    2016-05-01

    Modern organisms exhibit evidence of many diseases, but recognizing such evidence in fossils remains difficult, thus hampering the study of the evolution of disease. We report on 2 molts of the goniodromitid crabs Distefania incerta and Goniodromites laevis from the mid-Cretaceous (late Albian) of Spain, with both species exhibiting damage to the dorsal carapace in otherwise well-preserved specimens. The subcircular to quadratical holes, found in <0.2% of the specimens, resemble damage caused by bacterial infections on the cuticle of modern decapods in terms of size and shape. Abiotic damage, predation, and encrustation followed by damage to the shell provide less satisfactory explanations, although these agents cannot be completely excluded from a role in shell disease etiology. We hypothesize that the observed fossil lesions are caused primarily by bacterial disease that started prior to molting, with or without other agents of initiation. If correct, this is the only known example of such bacterial infections in decapod crustaceans from the fossil record thus far, pushing back the evolutionary history of this type of shell disease by ~100 million years. PMID:27137067

  13. On the occurrence of Ctenocheles (Decapoda, Axiidea, Ctenochelidae) in the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin

    PubMed Central

    HYŽNÝ, MATÚŠ; VESELSKÁ, MARTINA KOČOVÁ; DVOŘÁK, PAVEL

    2015-01-01

    Because of close morphological affinities, fossil cheliped fragments of the ghost shrimp Ctenocheles (Decapoda, Axiidea, Ctenochelidae) can be easily misidentified as remains of different decapod crustacean taxa. Re-examination of the Cretaceous decapods deposited in the National Museum in Prague revealed that all supposed specimens of the lobster genus Oncopareia found in the Middle Coniacian calcareous claystones of the Březno Formation, including one of the Fritsch’s original specimens of Stenocheles parvulus, actually belong to Ctenocheles. This material together with newly collected specimens from the same locality, allowed for erection of a new species, Ctenocheles fritschi. Its major chela possesses a serrated ischium and ovoid, unarmed merus; therefore, it is considered a close relative of the extant C. collini and C. maorianus. Ctenocheles fritschi sp. nov. represents the first report on the occurrence of the genus from the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin. It is one of the oldest records of Ctenocheles and simultaneously one of the best preserved fossils of the genus reported to date. Confusing taxonomy of S. parvulus is reviewed and shortly discussed. PMID:25983568

  14. Environmental drivers of megafaunal assemblage composition and biomass distribution over mainland and insular slopes of the Balearic Basin (Western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanelli, E.; Cartes, J. E.; Papiol, V.; López-Pérez, C.

    2013-08-01

    The influence of mesoscale physical and trophic variables on deep-sea megafauna, a scale of variation often neglected in deep-sea studies, is crucial for understanding their role in the ecosystem. Drivers of megafaunal assemblage composition and biomass distribution have been investigated in two contrasting areas of the Balearic basin in the NW Mediterranean: on the mainland slope (Catalonian coasts) and on the insular slope (North of Mallorca, Balearic Islands). An experimental bottom trawl survey was carried out during summer 2010, at stations in both sub-areas located between 450 and 2200 m water depth. Environmental data were collected simultaneously: near-bottom physical parameters, and the elemental and isotopic composition of sediments. Initially, data were analysed along the whole depth gradient, and then assemblages from the two areas were compared. Analysis of the trawls showed the existence of one group associated with the upper slope (US=450-690 m), another with the middle slope (MS=1000-1300 m) and a third with the lower slope (LS=1400-2200 m). Also, significant differences in the assemblage composition were found between mainland and insular slopes at MS. Dominance by different species was evident when the two areas were compared by SIMPER analysis. The greatest fish biomass was recorded in both areas at 1000-1300 m, a zone linked to minimum temperature and maximum O2 concentration on the bottom. Near the mainland, fish assemblages were best explained (43% of total variance, DISTLM analysis) by prey availability (gelatinous zooplankton biomass). On the insular slope, trophic webs seemed less complex and were based on vertical input of surface primary production. Decapods, which reached their highest biomass values on the upper slope, were correlated with salinity and temperature in both the areas. However, while hydrographic conditions (temperature and salinity) seemed to be the most important variables over the insular slope, resource availability (gelatinous zooplankton and Calocaris macandreae) predominated and explained 59% of decapod assemblage variation over the mainland slope. Both fish and decapods were linked to net primary production recorded over the mainland 3 months before sampling, while the delay between the input of food from the surface and fish abundance was only 1 month on the insular slope. Our results suggest that trophic relationships over insular slopes probably involve a shorter food chain than over mainland slopes and one that is likely more efficient in terms of energy transfer.

  15. Trophic relay and prey switching - A stomach contents and calorimetric investigation of an ambassid fish and their saltmarsh prey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhee, Jack J.; Platell, Margaret E.; Schreider, Maria J.

    2015-12-01

    Trophic relay is an ecological model that involves the movement of biomass and energy from vegetation, such as saltmarshes, within estuaries to the open sea via a series of predator-prey relationships. Any potential for trophic relay is therefore affected by water movements within an estuary and by the ability of a predator to "switch" prey in response to fluctuating abundances of those prey. Saltmarsh-dwelling grapsid crabs, which feed on saltmarsh-derived detritus and microphytobenthos, release zoeae into ebbing tides that inundate saltmarshes during spring-tide cycles within tidally-dominated estuaries, such as Brisbane Water Estuary, therefore providing an opportunity to examine whether prey-switching and/or trophic relay may occur in fish that feed on those zoeae (such as the highly abundant estuarine ambassid, Ambassis jacksoniensis). This model was examined by sampling A. jacksoniensis near saltmarshes in a large, temperate south-eastern Australian estuary during flood and ebb tides on days of saltmarsh inundation and non-inundation over four spring-tide events in 2012. Stomach fullnesses of A. jacksoniensis were generally highest during ebb tides on days of saltmarsh inundation, implying that feeding was most marked at these times. Caridean decapods dominated diets during flood tides and on days of no saltmarsh inundation, while crab zoeae dominated diets during ebb tides and on days of inundation, suggesting that, when saltmarsh-derived zoeae became abundant, A. jacksoniensis switched to feeding on those prey. Three potential zooplankton prey (calanoid copepods, caridean decapods and crab zoeae) did not differ calorimetrically, indicating that switching of prey by A. jacksoniensis is not directly related to their preying on energetically greater prey, but reflects opportunistic feeding on more abundant and/or less elusive prey. As A. jacksoniensis is able to switch prey from estuarine caridean decapods to saltmarsh-derived crab zoeae, this very abundant ambassid would be well-placed to promote any trophic relay, via further water movements or other predator-prey relationships, to the adjacent marine environment.

  16. Detached macroalgae: Its importance to inshore sandy beach fauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Kyla K.; Wilding, Thomas A.; Horstmeyer, Lena; Weigl, Simon; Heymans, Johanna J.

    2014-10-01

    Kelp forests shed a large proportion of their biomass through storm-mediated defoliation, senescence of kelp blades, and constant erosion of particulate organic matter from the kelp fronds. Much of this detached macroalgae drifts in the water column and is deposited on intertidal zones of beaches. Detached macroalgae may provide inshore sandy beach fauna with refuge and food subsidies in an exposed and bare environment, with limited in situ primary production. We evaluated the relationship between detached macroalgae and the density of inshore fauna, where 'inshore' was the body of water extending from low water seawards for approximately 50 m. Inshore fauna were sampled using a push-net (1 mm mesh) on 11 beaches, and using a beam-trawl (4 mm mesh) on a subset of 8 beaches. On each beach, the density of detached macroalgae in the water column was quantified, together with a suite of physico-chemical beach characteristics. Push-net samples principally comprised omnivorous and detritivorous crustaceans such as gammarid amphipods, mysids and valviferan isopods, which have limited swimming abilities and reside inshore year-round. Beam-trawl fauna were mainly carnivorous decapods and fish, which undergo seasonal inshore-offshore migrations to utilize sandy beaches as nursery habitats. Linear models predicted increases of 11% (95% CI: 3.5-19%) and 2.4% (95% CI: 0.7-4.2%) in the density of push-net and beam-trawl fauna, respectively, with a 1 ℓ.100 m-3 increase in detached macroalgae. This suggests that detached macroalgae is more important in the provision of food and shelter to small, weak-swimming detritivores/omnivores than to larger and more mobile predators. The densities of large predators were mostly explained by physical beach characteristics, which overshadowed the role of macroalgae. Maximum abundances of decapods and fish were found on wide, flat beaches with low wave heights. Large accumulations of macroalgae may inhibit the foraging efficiencies of predatory fauna such as decapods and fish, and restrict their abundance.

  17. Three cDNAs encoding vitellogenin homologs from Antarctic copepod, Tigriopus kingsejongensis: Cloning and transcriptional analysis in different maturation stages, temperatures, and putative reproductive hormones.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Rin; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Ah Ran; Kim, Sanghee; Park, Hyun; Baek, Hea Ja; Kim, Hyun-Woo

    2016-02-01

    Three full-length cDNAs encoding lipoprotein homologs were identified in Tigriopus kingsejongensis, a newly identified copepod from Antarctica. Structural and transcriptional analyses revealed homology with two vitellogenin-like proteins, Tik-Vg1 and Tik-Vg2, which were 1855 and 1795 amino acids in length, respectively, along with a third protein, Tik-MEP, which produced a 1517-residue protein with similarity to a melanin engaging protein (MEP) in insects Phylogenetic analysis showed that Vgs in Maxillopods including two Tik-Vgs belong to the arthropod vitellogenin-like clade, which includes clottable proteins (CPs) in decapod crustaceans and vitellogenins in insects. Tik-MEP clustered together with insect MEPs, which appear to have evolved before the apoB-like and arthropod Vg-like clades. Interestingly, no genes orthologous to those found in the apoB clade were identified in Maxillopoda, suggesting that functions of large lipid transfer proteins (LLTPs) in reproduction and lipid metabolism may be different from those in insect and decapod crustaceans. As suggested by phylogenetic analyses, the two Tik-Vgs belonging to the arthropod Vg-like clade appear to play major roles in oocyte maturation, while Vgs belonging to the apoB clade function primarily in the reproduction of decapod crustaceans. Transcriptional analysis of Tik-Vg expression revealed a 24-fold increase in mature and ovigerous females compared with immature female, whereas expression of Tik-MEP remained low through all reproductive stages. Acute temperature changes did not affect the transcription of Tik-Vg genes, whereas Tik-MEP appeared to be affected by temperature change. Among the three hormones thought to be involved in molting and reproduction in arthropods, only farnesoic acid (FA) induced transcription of the two Tik-Vg genes. Regardless of developmental stage and hormone treatment, Tik-Vg1 and Tik-Vg2 exhibited a strong positive correlation in expression, suggesting that expression of these genes may be regulated by the same transcriptional machinery. PMID:26627129

  18. First report on vertical transmission of a plasmid DNA in freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Labrechai Mog; Gireesh-Babu, P; Pavan-Kumar, A; Suresh Babu, P P; Chaudhari, Aparna

    2014-09-01

    Outbreak of WSSV disease is one of the major stumbling blocks in shrimp aquaculture. DNA vaccines have shown potential for mass scale vaccination owing to their stability, cost effectiveness and easy maintenance. Development of economically feasible delivery strategies remains to be a major challenge. This study demonstrates vertical transmission of a plasmid DNA in a decapod Macrobrachium rosenbergii for the first time. Females at three different maturation stages (immature, matured and berried) and mature males were injected with a plasmid DNA and allowed to spawn with untreated counterparts. Using specific primers the plasmid DNA could be amplified from the offspring of all groups except that of berried females. For this confirmation genomic DNA was isolated from 3 pools of 10 post larvae in each group. This presents an ideal strategy to protect young ones at zero stress. PMID:24933022

  19. Effects of temperature and salinity on the development of the amphipod crustacean Eogammarus sinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Suyan; Fang, Jianguang; Zhang, Jihong; Jiang, Zengjie; Mao, Yuze; Zhao, Fazhen

    2013-09-01

    The amphipod crustacean Eogammarus sinensis has useful features that make it suitable for use in the aquaculture of fish and large decapod crustaceans. In this study, we investigated the effects of temperature and salinity on the development, fecundity, survival, and growth rate of E. sinensis. The results show that temperature significantly affected E. sinensis development, but salinity. As temperature increased, the duration of E. sinensis embryonic development decreased. Fecundity was affected significantly by temperature and the combination of temperature and salinity, but by salinity alone. In addition, high temperatures accelerated E. sinensis juvenile growth rates, whereas high salinity reduced it. Therefore, our data suggest that E. sinensis tolerates a wide range of salinities and that temperature has more significant effects than salinity on the embryonic development, fecundity, and growth of E. sinensis. Our results shall be useful for mass production of this species for use in aquaculture.

  20. Alien shrimps in evidence: new records of the genus Athanas Leach, 1814 on the coast of São Paulo, southern Brazil (Caridea: Alpheidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Alexandre O.; Simões, Sabrina M.; Costa, Rogério C.; Mantelatto, Fernando L.

    2012-12-01

    The occurrence of two alien alpheid shrimps of the genus Athanas Leach, 1814 [in Leach 1813-1814], the Indo-West Pacific A. dimorphus Ortmann, 1894 and the Eastern Atlantic A. nitescens (Leach, 1813 [in Leach 1813-1814]), on the coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, is reported. The presence of A. dimorphus extends the range of this species in the western Atlantic farther to the south in Brazil, whereas A. nitescens is reported for the first time in the western Atlantic, representing the second alien alpheid species on this side of the Atlantic and the twenty-first decapod crustacean introduced in Brazil. We provide morphological accounts of the material examined and illustrate the most important diagnostic characters of both species. An overview of the possible mechanisms of their introduction on the coast of São Paulo is also provided.

  1. Antimicrobial proteins: From old proteins, new tricks.

    PubMed

    Smith, Valerie J; Dyrynda, Elisabeth A

    2015-12-01

    This review describes the main types of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) synthesised by crustaceans, primarily those identified in shrimp, crayfish, crab and lobster. It includes an overview of their range of microbicidal activities and the current landscape of our understanding of their gene expression patterns in different body tissues. It further summarises how their expression might change following various types of immune challenges. The review further considers proteins or protein fragments from crustaceans that have antimicrobial properties but are more usually associated with other biological functions, or are derived from such proteins. It discusses how these unconventional AMPs might be generated at, or delivered to, sites of infection and how they might contribute to crustacean host defence in vivo. It also highlights recent work that is starting to reveal the extent of multi-functionality displayed by some decapod AMPs, particularly their participation in other aspects of host protection. Examples of such activities include proteinase inhibition, phagocytosis, antiviral activity and haematopoiesis. PMID:26320628

  2. Effects of the sandbar breaching on hydrobiological parameters and zooplankton communities in the Senegal River Estuary (West Africa).

    PubMed

    Champalbert, Gisèle; Pagano, Marc; Arfi, Robert; Chevalier, Cristèle

    2014-05-15

    This study describes the changes in hydrology, zooplankton communities and abundance in the Senegal River Estuary (SRE) before and after the breaching of the sandbar in October 2003. Samples were taken in 2003 at 3 stations located upstream (DI), in mid estuary (HY) and downstream (RM), and in 2005 at the same stations (RM becoming Old River Mouth: ORM), plus the new river mouth (NRM) resulting from the morphological evolution of the SRE. The study showed marked seasonal variations that affected the structure and distribution of zooplankton as well as major changes caused by the sandbar opening: increased marine influence throughout the whole SRE, changes in the horizontal gradients, arrival of euryhaline species and increase in meroplankton, in particular decapod larvae, transformation of the ORM area into a slackwater area with limited exchanges and the highest zooplankton numbers during high waters. PMID:24685450

  3. Food of freshwater drum in western Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bur, Michael T.

    1982-01-01

    The abundance of freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) suggests they play an important role in the Lake Erie ecosystem. Our analysis of freshwater drum digestive tracts and macrobenthic samples collected from western Lake Erie indicates that drum were selective feeders. Planktonic cladocerans and larval midges (Chironomidae) were the primary prey organisms eaten by drum. Young-of-the-year fed mostly on cladocerans, while yearling and older drum ate both cladocerans and midge larvae. Decapods, pelecypods, and fish were found only in the digestive tracts of drum longer than 250 mm. While the most abundant organisms in benthic samples were cladocerans (ephippial) and oligochaetes (89.5% by number), they constituted less than 1% of the diet. An evaluation of food selectivity, using Ivlev's index of electivity for benthic organisms, indicated that adult drum preferred midges to any other benthic food.

  4. Feeding Behavior of a Crab According to Cheliped Number.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Diogo Nunes; Christofoletti, Ronaldo Adriano; Barreto, Rodrigo Egydio

    2015-01-01

    Cheliped loss through autotomy is a common reflexive response in decapod crustaceans. Cheliped loss has direct and indirect effects on feeding behavior which can affect population dynamics and the role of species in the community. In this study, we assessed the impact of autotomy (0, 1, or 2 cheliped loss) on feeding behavior in the crab Pachygrapsus transversus, an omnivorous and abundant species that inhabits subtropical intertidal rocky shores along the South Atlantic Ocean. Autotomy altered crab feeding patterns and foraging behavior; however, the time spent foraging on animal prey or algae was not affected. These results indicate a plasticity of feeding behavior in P. transversus, allowing them to maintain feeding when injured. PMID:26682546

  5. Feeding Behavior of a Crab According to Cheliped Number

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Diogo Nunes; Christofoletti, Ronaldo Adriano; Barreto, Rodrigo Egydio

    2015-01-01

    Cheliped loss through autotomy is a common reflexive response in decapod crustaceans. Cheliped loss has direct and indirect effects on feeding behavior which can affect population dynamics and the role of species in the community. In this study, we assessed the impact of autotomy (0, 1, or 2 cheliped loss) on feeding behavior in the crab Pachygrapsus transversus, an omnivorous and abundant species that inhabits subtropical intertidal rocky shores along the South Atlantic Ocean. Autotomy altered crab feeding patterns and foraging behavior; however, the time spent foraging on animal prey or algae was not affected. These results indicate a plasticity of feeding behavior in P. transversus, allowing them to maintain feeding when injured. PMID:26682546

  6. External morphology of eyes and Nebenaugen of caridean decapods–ecological and systematic considerations

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Nicola; De Grave, Sammy

    2015-01-01

    Most caridean decapods have compound eyes of the reflecting superposition kind, and additionally some possess an accessory eye-like organ of unknown function, also referred to as the nebenauge. We examined 308 caridean genera to assess the general morphology of the eye, rostrum length, eye diameter and the presence or absence and, when present, the diameter of the nebenauge. We have attempted to relate these data to ecological and taxonomic considerations. We consider there to be 6 distinct eye types based on the margin between the eyestalk and cornea. The presence of nebenaugen appears to be generally linked to an active lifestyle, as evidenced by the fact that species that have nebenaugen tend to have larger eyes and are more likely to have a distinct rostrum. We suggest that the inconsistencies in its presence/absence under both systematic and ecological lenses may indicate that when present it has various roles relating to behavioural and physiological rhythms. PMID:26312177

  7. Physiological responses of estuarine animals to cadmium pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theede, H.

    1980-03-01

    Toxic effects of cadmium contamination may be observed at all levels of organismic organization. In estuarine areas the sensitivity of euryhaline species to acute Cd toxicity is strongly modified by various abiotic factors, whereas long-term threshold values are less dependent on environmental parameters. Experiments with larval stages of the mollusc Mytilus edulis reveal that Cd effects on life functions such as development and growth are differentially modified by temperature and salinity. High Cd concentrations can be accumulated by adult bivalves of coastal areas without signs of physiological damage. Mechanisms of heavy-metal detoxication in these molluscs seem to be quite different from those known to exist in vertebrates. Among decapod crustaceans, stenoecous species tend to exhibit higher rates of Cd uptake than euryoecous ones. Rates of Cd uptake and of accumulation depend on external and internal factors. In adult Nereis succinea individuals sublethal Cd effects have been recorded on growth and food conversion (in terms of energy content).

  8. Congener-specific accumulation and trophic transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls in spider crab food webs revealed by stable isotope analysis.

    PubMed

    Bodin, N; Le Loc'h, F; Caisey, X; Le Guellec, A-M; Abarnou, A; Loizeau, V; Latrouite, D

    2008-01-01

    Polychlorobiphenyls (PCB) and stable isotopes (delta15N and delta13C) were analyzed in the spider crab (Maja brachydactyla) food web from the Iroise Sea (Western Brittany) and the Seine Bay (Eastern English Channel). PCB concentrations were all significantly higher in organisms from the Seine Bay than those from the Iroise Sea. PCB patterns were strongly related to the feeding mode of the species, and increased influence of higher chlorinated congeners was highlighted with trophic position of the organisms. PCB concentrations (lipid normalized) were significantly related to the isotopically derived trophic level (TL) in spider crab food webs. The highest trophic magnification factors (TMFs) were calculated for the congeners with 2,4,5-substitution, and were lower in the Seine Bay compared to the Iroise Sea. The confrontation of PCB and TL data also revealed biotransformation capacity of decapod crustaceans for specific congeners based on structure-activity relations. PMID:17544187

  9. Extending the southern range of four shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Stenopodidae, Hippolytidae and Alpheidae) in southwestern Atlantic (27o S) and confirming the presence of Mediterranean Stenopus spinosus Risso, 1827 in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Giraldes, Bruno Welter; Freire, Andrea Santarosa

    2015-01-01

    In subtidal zones, certain shrimp species with cryptic behaviour represent a gap in the biodiversity description in many places in the world. This study extends the southern limit of Stenopus hispidus (Oliver, 1811), Alpheus formosus Gibbes, 1850, Alpheus cf. packardii Kingsley, 1880 and Lysmata ankeri Rhyne & Lin, 2006 to Santa Catarina State-Brazil, 27oS. The results also confirm the new occurrence of Stenopus spinosus Risso, 1827 in Brazilian waters. All specimens were collected by scuba diving from rocky islands between 3 and 25 meters depth. We present for each species certain taxonomic features in colour images that will help to identify these decapods in situ in further monitoring programs. PMID:26249501

  10. A new species of Eualus Thallwitz, 1892 and new record of Lebbeus antarcticus (Hale, 1941) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Hippolytidae) from the Scotia Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nye, Verity; Copley, Jonathan T.; Linse, Katrin

    2013-08-01

    Eleven specimens representing two hippolytid genera, EualusThallwitz, 1892 and LebbeusWhite, 1847 were sampled recently from the Scotia Sea (1517-2598 m). Seven specimens are described and illustrated as Eualus amandae sp. nov., and its morphology is compared with those of previously described species. Four female specimens, morphologically consistent with Lebbeus antarcticus (Hale, 1941), are described and illustrated to supplement previous descriptions of this rarely collected bathyal species. Partial COI mtDNA and 18S rDNA sequences were generated for both species. Only limited DNA sequences are available for the Hippolytidae. COI phylogenetic trees are presented to illustrate that the new species is genetically distinct from all other species in GenBank. This record enhances existing knowledge of Antarctic invertebrate biodiversity and species richness of decapod crustaceans in the Southern Ocean.

  11. Suprabenthic biodiversity of Catalan beaches (NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munilla, T.; San Vicente, C.

    2005-03-01

    An analysis of the suprabenthos has been carried out on 13 diverse type beaches in Catalonian coast (NE of Spain). A total of 29 717 specimens, belonging to 145 species and eight different zoological groups (mysids, amphipods, cumaceans, isopods, tanaidaceans, decapods, pycnogonids, and teleostean fishes) were obtained. The suprabenthos of Catalan beaches were characterized by a mean density of 40 ind. m -2, by the abundance of Mysids (75% of the total density) and by the higher diversity of Amphipods (64 species). Five population species were considered as typical of suprabenthic assemblages: Schistomysis assimilis, Mesopodopsis slabberi, Atylus guttatus, Pontocrates altamarinus, and Cumopsis goodsir. Four main types of beaches with different number of suprabenthic species and densities and three main faunistic groups are described and related to environmental physical factors of the analysed beaches (morphodynamics, exposure, etc.). The macrofaunal trend about to that the species richness decrease from dissipative to reflective beaches is confirmed for the suprabenthic communities.

  12. The feeding habits of three Mediterranean sea anemone species, Anemonia viridis (Forskål), Actinia equina (Linnaeus) and Cereus pedunculatus (Pennant)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chintiroglou, Ch.; Koukouras, A.

    1992-03-01

    The feeding habits of the Mediterranean sea anemones Cereus pedunculatus, Actinia equina and Anemonia viridis were examined mainly by analysing their coelenteron contents. The three species are opportunistic omnivorous suspension feeders. Main source of food for A. viridis and C. pedunculatus are crustaceans (mainly amphipods and decapods, respectively), while for the midlittoral species A. equina, it is organic detritus. Using the same method, the temporal and spatial changes in the diet of A. viridis were examined. During the whole year, crustaceans seem to be the main source of food for A. viridis. The diet composition of this species, however, differs remarkably in space, possibly reflecting the different composition of the macrobenthic organismic assemblages in different areas. The data collected are compared with the limited bibliographical information.

  13. Accumulation and regulation effects from the metal mixture of Zn, Pb, and Cd in the tropical shrimp Penaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Nogueira, Gabriel; Fernández-Bringas, Laura; Ordiano-Flores, Alfredo; Gómez-Ponce, Alejandro; de León-Hill, Claudia Ponce; González-Farías, Fernando

    2012-12-01

    Environmental metal pollution is one of the major problems faced by humankind. This type of pollution affects aquatic systems (estuaries, coastal lagoons, etc.), which are very dynamic systems, therefore making the study of the effects on the organisms that inhabit them an essential issue. In this study, the capacity of metal regulation by decapod crustacean Penaeus vannamei juveniles was determined. The effects of zinc, lead, and cadmium were tested individually and as a metal mixture exposure to determine possible synergism. The results showed that juvenile shrimps were capable of regulating zinc and lead, whereas cadmium was accumulated without any excretion, at least within the concentrations studied. It was also proved that under the estuarine conditions tested here, P. vannamei juveniles showed capacity to act as a bioindicator for cadmium. PMID:22945625

  14. Neural Circuit Flexibility in a Small Sensorimotor System

    PubMed Central

    Blitz, Dawn M; Nusbaum, Michael P

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal circuits underlying rhythmic behaviors (central pattern generators: CPGs) can generate rhythmic motor output without sensory input. However, sensory input is pivotal for generating behaviorally relevant CPG output. Here we discuss recent work in the decapod crustacean stomatogastric nervous system (STNS) identifying cellular and synaptic mechanisms whereby sensory inputs select particular motor outputs from CPG circuits. This includes several examples in which sensory neurons regulate the impact of descending projection neurons on CPG circuits. This level of analysis is possible in the STNS due to the relatively unique access to identified circuit, projection, and sensory neurons. These studies are also revealing additional degrees of freedom in sensorimotor integration that underlie the extensive flexibility intrinsic to rhythmic motor systems. PMID:21689926

  15. Sex identification in female crayfish is bimodal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aquiloni, Laura; Massolo, Alessandro; Gherardi, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    Sex identification has been studied in several species of crustacean decapods but only seldom was the role of multimodality investigated in a systematic fashion. Here, we analyse the effect of single/combined chemical and visual stimuli on the ability of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii to identify the sex of a conspecific during mating interactions. Our results show that crayfish respond to the offered stimuli depending on their sex. While males rely on olfaction alone for sex identification, females require the combination of olfaction and vision to do so. In the latter, chemical and visual stimuli act as non-redundant signal components that possibly enhance the female ability to discriminate potential mates in the crowded social context experienced during mating period. This is one of the few clear examples in invertebrates of non-redundancy in a bimodal communication system.

  16. The Toll/NF-κB pathway in cuttlefish symbiotic accessory nidamental gland.

    PubMed

    Cornet, Valérie; Henry, Joël; Corre, Erwan; Le Corguillé, Gildas; Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline

    2015-11-01

    The female genital apparatus of decapod cephalopods contains a symbiotic accessory nidamental gland (ANG) that harbors bacterial symbionts. Although the ANG bacterial consortium is now well described, the impact of symbiosis on Sepia officinalis innate immunity pathways remains unknown. In silico analysis of the de novo transcriptome of ANG highlighted for the first time the existence of the NF-κB pathway in S. officinalis. Several signaling components were identified, i.e. five Toll-like receptors, eight signaling cascade features, and the immune response target gene iNOS, previously described as being involved in the initiation of bacterial symbiosis in a cephalopod gland. This work provides a first key for studying bacterial symbiosis and its impact on innate immunity in S. officinalis ANG. PMID:26143243

  17. Visual observations of the vertical distribution of plankton throughout the water column above Broken Spur vent field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereshchaka, A. L.; Vinogradov, G. M.

    1999-09-01

    Visual observations were made in September 1997 during the 39 cruise of R/V "Akademik Mstislav Keldysh" with 2 deep-sea manned submersibles "Mir" aboard. During 4 dives the following plankton countings were made: 3 vertical throughout the water column during the day, 2 vertical in the upper 1000 m at night, and 1 oblique in the plume area during the day. Biomass profiles are represented for each dive for all abundant animal groups: copepods, euphausiids+decapods+mysids, chaetognaths, medusae, ctenophores, siphonophores, cyclothones, myctophides, radiolarians, and the total zooplankton. Plankton distribution shows 2 aggregations, one within the main pycnocline and the other near the plume; Gelatinous animals and radiolarians dominate in both aggregations by biomass and make a significant contribution to the plankton biomass throughout the water column. Oblique counting indicates the presence of aggregations of animals near the upper and lower borders of the plume and biomass depletion within the plume core.

  18. Population dynamics and parasitation of planktonic and epibenthic crustaceans in the Baltic Schlei fjord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollasch, S.; Zander, C. D.

    1995-03-01

    The planktonic and epibenthic crustacean fauna from two sites of the brackish Schlei fjord, Northern Germany, was investigated over a six-month period. Calanoid and cyclopoid copepods were more abundant in lower salinities, whereas, benthic decapods, isopods and amphipods prevailed in the site of higher salinity. Cestodan larvae were found only in spring which may be due to the timing of the respective life-cycles. Parasites of benthic crustaceans, mostly digenean metacercariae but also cestodans, acanthocephalans and nematodes, appeared from spring to late summer. Decreasing salinities caused lower intensities of the most abundant parasite, Maritrema subdolum; only the true brackish-water species among the hosts were more heavily infested than those found in higher salinities. The correlation of parasite size and host size at infestation became apparent. Therefore, Crangon crangon is an optimal host for the large Podocotyle atomon metacercariae. Coevolutive trends between some hosts and parasites are made evident.

  19. Phylogenetics reveals the crustacean order Amphionidacea to be larval shrimps (Decapoda: Caridea)

    PubMed Central

    De Grave, Sammy; Chan, Tin-Yam; Chu, Ka Hou; Yang, Chien-Hui; Landeira, José M.

    2015-01-01

    We present evidence that the single representative of the crustacean order Amphionidacea is a decapod shrimp and not a distinct order. After reviewing available morphological evidence, it is concluded that Amphionides is a larval form, but with an as yet unknown parentage. Although the most likely adult form is in the family Pandalidae, the limited molecular data available cannot fully resolve its affinity. We therefore propose to treat Amphionides reynaudii as incertae sedis within Caridea, rather than a separate family. In view of the large scale, tropical and subtropical distribution of the taxon, the possibility is discussed that Amphionides is more likely to be a composite taxon at generic level, rather than larvae of a single shrimp species. PMID:26642937

  20. Disease effects on lobster fisheries, ecology, and culture: overview of DAO Special 6.

    PubMed

    Behringer, Donald C; Butler, Mark J; Stentiford, Grant D

    2012-08-27

    Lobsters are prized by commercial and recreational fishermen worldwide, and their populations are therefore buffeted by fishery practices. But lobsters also remain integral members of their benthic communities where predator-prey relationships, competitive interactions, and host-pathogen dynamics push and pull at their population dynamics. Although lobsters have few reported pathogens and parasites relative to other decapod crustaceans, the rise of diseases with consequences for lobster fisheries and aquaculture has spotlighted the importance of disease for lobster biology, population dynamics and ecology. Researchers, managers, and fishers thus increasingly recognize the need to understand lobster pathogens and parasites so they can be managed proactively and their impacts minimized where possible. At the 2011 International Conference and Workshop on Lobster Biology and Management a special session on lobster diseases was convened and this special issue of Diseases of Aquatic Organisms highlights those proceedings with a suite of articles focused on diseases discussed during that session. PMID:23186696

  1. Novel transcriptome assembly and improved annotation of the whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), a dominant crustacean in global seafood mariculture.

    PubMed

    Ghaffari, Noushin; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Doan, Ryan; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D; Chen, Patricia L; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrian; Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A; Carrasco, J Salvador; Hong, Chris; Brieba, Luis G; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Blood, Philip D; Sawyer, Jason E; Johnson, Charles D; Dindot, Scott V; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R; Criscitiello, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    We present a new transcriptome assembly of the Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), the species most farmed for human consumption. Its functional annotation, a substantial improvement over previous ones, is provided freely. RNA-Seq with Illumina HiSeq technology was used to analyze samples extracted from shrimp abdominal muscle, hepatopancreas, gills and pleopods. We used the Trinity and Trinotate software suites for transcriptome assembly and annotation, respectively. The quality of this assembly and the affiliated targeted homology searches greatly enrich the curated transcripts currently available in public databases for this species. Comparison with the model arthropod Daphnia allows some insights into defining characteristics of decapod crustaceans. This large-scale gene discovery gives the broadest depth yet to the annotated transcriptome of this important species and should be of value to ongoing genomics and immunogenetic resistance studies in this shrimp of paramount global economic importance. PMID:25420880

  2. Malaclemys terrapin rhizophorarum (mangrove diamond-backed terrapin)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denton, Mathew J.; Hart, Kristen M.; Oelinik, Anton; Wood, Roger; Baldwin, John N.

    2015-01-01

    MALACLEMYS TERRAPIN RHIZOPHORARUM (Mangrove Diamond-backed Terrapin). DIET. Malaclemys terrapin rhizophorarum, one of seven subspecies of M. terrapin, inhabits subtropical mangrove habitats in South Florida, USA. In temperate climates M. terrapin is largely carnivorous, feeding primarily on gastropods, bivalves, and decapod crustaceans (Tucker et. al. 1995. Herpetologica 51:167–181; Butler et. al. 2012. Chelon. Conserv. Biol. 11:124–128). In addition to its preferred prey, M. t. rhizophorarum has also been reported to consume barnacles, fish, and vegetation (Tucker et. al. 1995, op. cit.; Butler et. al. 2012, op. cit.; Tulipani 2013. Ph.D. Dissertation. The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia. 224 pp.). Herein, we report observations regarding the diet of M. t. rhizophorarum from the southernmost extent of their range in the Florida Keys, USA.

  3. Acute toxicity of cadmium to eight species of marine amphipod and isopod crustaceans from southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, J.S.; Reish, D.J.

    1987-11-01

    Amphipods and isopods are important components of the marine intertidal and subtidal fauna where they are found on or in the substrate or among spaces between larger, attached organisms. However, in spite of their abundance and importance, the use of these two endemic marine groups has been limited in comparison to decapods in marine toxicological research. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a single metallic salt, CdCl/sub 2/, on six species of amphipods and two species of isopods under similar experimental conditions. Cadmium was selected as the toxicant in this comparative study since this metal is an important constituent in municipal wastes discharged into southern California marine waters.

  4. Spatial patterns in suprabenthic communities in the English Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauvin, Jean-Claude; Rolet, Céline; Alizier, Sandrine; Ruellet, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to establish the main characteristics of the suprabenthic communities of the English Channel including those found in a potential aggregate extraction zone located in the central part. Sampling was carried out with a Macer-GIROQ sledge during four periods in 2007. In this offshore site, the suprabenthic faunal composition and abundance were close to those observed in other similar sites in coarse sand to pebbles in the western and eastern parts of the English Channel. But, the species richness was low (65 species). Amphipods were the dominant group in terms of diversity and abundance. Only a few species, mostly amphipods and decapods, showed significant daily migration. Seasonal variations were moderate. Due to the similar suprabenthic fauna having good swimming ability, the aggregate extraction zone in the central part of the Channel could be rapidly colonized after exploitation and thus could rapidly insure a feeding resource for fish, which are attracted by abundant prey.

  5. Food web structure and seasonality of slope megafauna in the NW Mediterranean elucidated by stable isotopes: Relationship with available food sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papiol, V.; Cartes, J. E.; Fanelli, E.; Rumolo, P.

    2013-03-01

    The food-web structure and seasonality of the dominant taxa of benthopelagic megafauna (fishes and decapods) on the middle slope of the Catalan Sea (Balearic Basin, NW Mediterranean) were investigated using the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of 29 species. Macrofauna (infauna, suprabenthos and zooplankton) were also analysed as potential prey. Samples were collected on a seasonal basis from 600 to 1000 m depth between February 2007 and February 2008. The fishes and decapods were classified into feeding groups based on the literature: benthic feeders (including suprabenthos) and zooplankton feeders, the latter further separated into migratory and non-migratory species. Decapods exhibited depleted δ15N and enriched δ13C compared to fishes. Annual mean δ13C of fishes ranged from - 19.15‰ (Arctozenus risso) to - 16.65‰ (Phycis blennoides) and of δ15N from 7.27‰ (Lampanyctus crocodilus) to 11.31‰ (Nezumia aequalis). Annual mean values of δ13C of decapods were from - 18.94‰ (Sergestes arcticus) to - 14.78‰ (Pontophilus norvegicus), and of δ15N from 6.36‰ (Sergia robusta) to 9.72‰ (Paromola cuvieri). Stable isotopes distinguished well amongst the 3 feeding guilds established a priori, pointing to high levels of resource partitioning in deep-sea communities. The trophic structure of the community was a function of the position of predators along the benthic-pelagic gradient, with benthic feeders isotopically enriched relative to pelagic feeders. This difference allowed the identification of two food webs based on pelagic versus benthic consumption. Prey and predator sizes were also important in structuring the community. The most generalised seasonal pattern was δ13C depletion from winter to spring and summer, especially amongst migratory macroplankton feeders. This suggests greater consumption of pelagic prey, likely related with increases in pelagic production or with ontogenic migrations of organisms from mid-water to the Benthic Boundary Layer (BBL). δ15N enrichment was detected in periods of water column stratification, particularly amongst benthic feeder fishes. Megafauna relied on a single source of nutrition after peaks in surface production, presumably marine snow. Conversely, a larger array of food sources, probably from advection, sustained the community in periods of water column stratification. Benthic feeder δ13C values of both taxa were positively correlated with fluorescence measured 5 m above the seabed and negatively correlated with total organic carbon in the sediments, both being food sources for deposit feeding macroinfauna. Macroplankton feeder δ13C values were linked to environmental variables related to vertical transport from surface production, i.e. lipids and chlorophyll and their degradation products, likely due to their stronger reliance on sinking phytodetritus through consumption of planktonic prey.

  6. Impact of dam-building on marine life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandian, T. J.

    1980-03-01

    Dam-building across naturally flowing rivers tends to decrease discharge of surplus water into the sea, reduce nutrient concentration in estuaries and coastal waters, and diminish plankton blooms as well as fish landings. Depletion of nutrients and organic matter along with reduced mud and silt deposition affect benthic life on the continental shelf. Reduced mud and silt deposition leads to coastal retreat. Dams, especially those constructed for hydro-electric purposes, hinder migration of fishes and decapods. Discharge from dams can create barriers at high or low flows, cause delays, disrupt normal behavioural routine and change the travel speed of migratory animals. Where all spawners of a given population are frequently kept away from the breeding site, the population faces extinction.

  7. The complete mitogenome of the Chinese swamp shrimp Neocaridina denticulata sinensis Kemp 1918 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Atyidae).

    PubMed

    Yu, Yan-Qin; Yang, Wei-Jun; Yang, Jin-Shu

    2014-06-01

    In this study we determined the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the Chinese swamp shrimp Neocaridina denticulata sinensis Kemp, 1918 (Decapoda, Atyidae). The mitogenome consists of 15,561 bp encoding 37 genes that are involved in mitochondrial protein synthesis as well as respiration chain/oxidative phosphorylation. Besides, a 672-bp putative control region was identified between the small subunit ribosomal RNA and tRNA-Ile genes, the size and AT content of which is moderate within the Decapoda. The gene arrangement of the mitogenome follows the pancrustacean ancestral pattern shared by the decapod subfamily Dendrobranchiata, pleocyematan infrafamilies Caridea and Palinura. Our results will provide important data for various levels of phylogeny and further evolution. PMID:23795841

  8. Biorecovery of gold

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisler, R.

    2003-01-01

    Recovery of ionic and metallic gold (Au) from a wide variety of solutions by selected species of bacteria, yeasts, fungi, algae, and higher plants is documented. Gold accumulations were up to 7.0 g/kg dry weight (DW) in various species of bacteria, 25.0 g/kg DW in freshwater algae, 84.0 g/kg DW in peat, and 100.0 g/kg DW in dried fungus mixed with keratinous material. Mechanisms of accumulation include oxidation, dissolution, reduction, leaching, and sorption. Uptake patterns are significantly modified by the physicochemical milieu. Crab exoskeletons accumulate up to 4.9 g Au/kg DW; however, gold accumulations in various tissues of living teleosts, decapod crustaceans, and bivalve molluscs are negligible.

  9. Novel transcriptome assembly and improved annotation of the whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), a dominant crustacean in global seafood mariculture

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, Noushin; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Doan, Ryan; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D.; Chen, Patricia L.; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrian; Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A.; Carrasco, J. Salvador; Hong, Chris; Brieba, Luis G.; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Blood, Philip D.; Sawyer, Jason E.; Johnson, Charles D.; Dindot, Scott V.; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.; Criscitiello, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new transcriptome assembly of the Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), the species most farmed for human consumption. Its functional annotation, a substantial improvement over previous ones, is provided freely. RNA-Seq with Illumina HiSeq technology was used to analyze samples extracted from shrimp abdominal muscle, hepatopancreas, gills and pleopods. We used the Trinity and Trinotate software suites for transcriptome assembly and annotation, respectively. The quality of this assembly and the affiliated targeted homology searches greatly enrich the curated transcripts currently available in public databases for this species. Comparison with the model arthropod Daphnia allows some insights into defining characteristics of decapod crustaceans. This large-scale gene discovery gives the broadest depth yet to the annotated transcriptome of this important species and should be of value to ongoing genomics and immunogenetic resistance studies in this shrimp of paramount global economic importance. PMID:25420880

  10. Total mitochondrial genome of mantis shrimp, Squilloides leptosquilla (Brooks, 1886) (Crustacea: Stomatopoda: Squillidae) in Korean waters.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hye-Eun; Kim, Jung Nyun; Yoon, Tae-Ho; Park, Kyeong Dong; Park, Won Gyu; Park, Hyun; Kim, Hyun Woo

    2016-07-01

    We characterized the complete mitochondrial genome of Squilloides leptosquilla (Brooks, 1886) collected from the southern waters of Korea, which is newly recorded into the Korean carcinological fauna. The total mitochondrial genome length of S. leptosquilla was 16,376 bp. This circular DNA encodes 13 proteins, two ribosomal RNAs, and 22 transfer RNAs, as well as a putative control region. Compared with other decapod crustacean mitochondrial genomes, the overall A + T content was relatively high (71.1%) as those among other stomatopod species. Nine and four protein-coding genes are encoded on the H-strand and on the L-strand, respectively. The short non-coding region (210 bp) between tRNA(Glu) and tRNA(Phe) may be the good candidate as the molecular marker to discriminate S. leptosequilla from other stomatopods. PMID:26176982

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Japanese ghost shrimp Nihonotrypaea japonica (Crustacea, Decapoda, Axiidea).

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghee; Ahn, Dong-Ha; Park, Joong-Ki; Kim, Se-Joo; Choi, Han-Gu; Min, Gi-Sik

    2013-06-01

    We determined the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence of the Japanese ghost shrimp Nihonotrypaea japonica (Ortmann 1891) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Axiidea). The N. japonica mt genome is first represented in infraorder Axiidea, which, together with infraorder Gebiidea, belonged to infraorder Thalassinidea until recently. The genome sequence of N. japonica is 15,274 bp in size, and the gene arrangement and transcriptional polarity are partially different from that of the Japanese mud shrimp, Upogebia major, which belongs to the infraorder Gebiidea. We present the mt genome of N. japonica, which could provide useful molecular information to construct a stable classification for infraorder Thalassinidea and to better understand the phylogenetic relationship of Thalassinidea with other decapod groups. PMID:23305386

  12. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Ghost shrimp and blue mud shrimp

    SciTech Connect

    Horning, S.; Sterling, A.; Smith, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. The profiles are prepared to assist in environmental impact assessments. The ghost shrimp (Callianassa californiensis) and blue mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis) are common residents of intertidal mudflats of the Pacific Northwest, as well as of the entire West Coast of the contiguous United States. These species are decapod crustaceans, but not true shrimp. They are harvested as bait by recreational and commercial oyster-growing operations. Ghost shrimp larvae develop in summer in nearshore coastal waters and settle to the substrate surface, where they rapidly metamorphose; the life cycle of the blue mud shrimp is presumed to be similar. Both species spend their lives in burrows in the mudflat, where the ghost shrimp is primarily a deposit feeder and the blue mud shrimp is a suspension feeder.

  13. Vertically migrating micronekton and macrozooplankton communities around Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suntsov, Andrey; Domokos, Réka

    2013-01-01

    The distribution, biomass, and assemblages of vertically migrating micronekton/macrozooplankton were studied in relation to oceanographic conditions around Guam and the adjacent Northern Mariana Islands during Spring 2010, using 3-m2 Isaacs-Kidd Midwater Trawl (IKMT). The study area was located within the oligotrophic waters of the westward flowing North Equatorial Current (NEC). However, southern stations of the survey were situated close to the northern boundary of the more productive North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC), where we observed the highest biomass, abundance, species richness, and diversity of pelagic organisms. Overall, we recorded 85 species from 20 families of mostly mesopelagic species in the area, with lanternfishes (Myctophidae-40 species) and dragonfishes (Stomiidae-18 species) being the most taxonomically diverse groups. Three genera of mesopelagic shrimps, Sergestes, Janicella and Sergia, dominated the decapod crustacean component of the micronekton community numerically and by biomass, while the contribution from cephalopods was relatively minor. Assemblages of major micronekton/macrozooplankton groups, based on biomass and abundance showed principal changes with latitude. However, the classification and ordination analysis, based on taxonomically resolved taxa (fishes and decapod shrimps), indicated additional zonal variation, with areas east and west of the island chain showing different community structure. The mean total micronekton biomass for the area near the productive boundary region between the NEC and NECC was 5.8 mg/m3, with a mean biomass of 1.2 mg/m3 obtained for stations in the oligotrophic NEC area. The corresponding biomass of mesopelagic fishes was 0.88 mg/m3 and 0.24 mg/m3 for these two areas, respectively. We reviewed and compared the available information on the quantitative distribution of midwater fish biomass in the western tropical Pacific and outlined major patterns of variation in the equatorial Pacific in general.

  14. Comparison of excitatory currents activated by different transmitters on crustacean muscle. I. Acetylcholine-activated channels.

    PubMed

    Lingle, C; Auerbach, A

    1983-04-01

    The properties of acetylcholine-activated excitatory currents on the gm1 muscle of three marine decapod crustaceans, the spiny lobsters Panulirus argus and interruptus, and the crab Cancer borealis, were examined using either noise analysis, analysis of synaptic current decays, or analysis of the voltage dependence of ionophoretically activated cholinergic conductance increases. The apparent mean channel open time (tau n) obtained from noise analysis at -80 mV and 12 degrees C was approximately 13 ms; tau n was prolonged e-fold for about every 100-mV hyperpolarization in membrane potential; tau n was prolonged e-fold for every 10 degrees C decrease in temperature. Gamma, the single-channel conductance, at 12 degrees C was approximately 18 pS and was not affected by voltage; gamma was increased approximately 2.5-fold for every 10 degrees C increase in temperature. Synaptic currents decayed with a single exponential time course, and at -80 mV and 12 degrees C, the time constant of decay of synaptic currents, tau ejc, was approximately 14-15 ms and was prolonged e-fold about every 140-mV hyperpolarization; tau ejc was prolonged about e-fold for every 10 degrees C decrease in temperature. The voltage dependence of the amplitude of steady-state cholinergic currents suggests that the total conductance increase produced by cholinergic agonists is increased with hyperpolarization. Compared with glutamate channels found on similar decapod muscles (see the following article), the acetylcholine channels stay open longer, conduct ions more slowly, and are more sensitive to changes in the membrane potential. PMID:6133907

  15. Identification, Characterization, and Diel Pattern of Expression of Canonical Clock Genes in Nephrops norvegicus (Crustacea: Decapoda) Eyestalk

    PubMed Central

    Sbragaglia, Valerio; Lamanna, Francesco; M. Mat, Audrey; Rotllant, Guiomar; Joly, Silvia; Ketmaier, Valerio; de la Iglesia, Horacio O.; Aguzzi, Jacopo

    2015-01-01

    The Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus, is a burrowing decapod with a rhythmic burrow emergence (24 h) governed by the circadian system. It is an important resource for European fisheries and its behavior deeply affects its availability. The current knowledge of Nephrops circadian biology is phenomenological as it is currently the case for almost all crustaceans. In attempt to elucidate the putative molecular mechanisms underlying circadian gene regulation in Nephrops, we used a transcriptomics approach on cDNA extracted from the eyestalk, a structure playing a crucial role in controlling behavior of decapods. We studied 14 male lobsters under 12–12 light-darkness blue light cycle. We used the Hiseq 2000 Illumina platform to sequence two eyestalk libraries (under light and darkness conditions) obtaining about 90 millions 100-bp paired-end reads. Trinity was used for the de novo reconstruction of transcriptomes; the size at which half of all assembled bases reside in contigs (N50) was equal to 1796 (light) and 2055 (darkness). We found a list of candidate clock genes and focused our attention on canonical ones: timeless, period, clock and bmal1. The cloning of assembled fragments validated Trinity outputs. The putative Nephrops clock genes showed high levels of identity (blastx on NCBI) with known crustacean clock gene homologs such as Eurydice pulchra (period: 47%, timeless: 59%, bmal1: 79%) and Macrobrachium rosenbergii (clock: 100%). We also found a vertebrate-like cryptochrome 2. RT-qPCR showed that only timeless had a robust diel pattern of expression. Our data are in accordance with the current knowledge of the crustacean circadian clock, reinforcing the idea that the molecular clockwork of this group shows some differences with the established model in Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:26524198

  16. Overwintering of the parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium perezi in dredged blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) from Wachapreague Creek, Virginia.

    PubMed

    Shields, Jeffrey D; Sullivan, Shelley E; Small, Hamish J

    2015-09-01

    Parasitic dinoflagellates in the genus Hematodinium cause disease and mortality in several commercially important marine decapod crustaceans. One species, Hematodinium perezi, occurs in blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, along the eastern seaboard and Gulf coast of the USA. The parasite infects blue crabs, other decapods, and amphipods in the high salinity waters of coastal bays. Epizootics of the parasite often reach prevalence levels of 75-80% during outbreaks with diseased crabs dying from the infection. Prevalence of the parasite is bimodal, with a minor peak in late spring or summer, and a major peak in fall, and declining rapidly to nearly zero in late November and December. The rapid decline in infections in the late fall brings up the question of whether the parasite overwinters in crabs or whether it uses an unidentified resting stage, such as a cyst. We report observations on the prevalence of the parasite from winter dredge surveys undertaken in 2011 and 2012. Crabs were examined via hemolymph smears, histology, and PCR diagnosis for the presence of H. perezi and other pathogens. Active infections were observed from January through March in 2011 and 2012, indicating the parasite can overwinter in blue crabs. However, several crabs that were positive by PCR had presumptive effete infections that were difficult to diagnose in histological slides and hemolymph smears. These infections did not appear to be active and may have been in subsidence. Dredged crabs with light and moderate active infections were held at 15°C to determine if the parasite was capable of rapid progression. In 8 cases, infections exhibited logarithmic growth progressing rapidly over 8-12days. We present evidence that overwintering of H. perezi occurs in the blue crab hosts, that infections are capable of responding rapidly to increases in temperatures, and that overwintering provides a reservoir of infected animals for transmission to occur in the spring. PMID:26232044

  17. The 'ventral organs' of Pycnogonida (Arthropoda) are neurogenic niches of late embryonic and post-embryonic nervous system development.

    PubMed

    Brenneis, Georg; Scholtz, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Early neurogenesis in arthropods has been in the focus of numerous studies, its cellular basis, spatio-temporal dynamics and underlying genetic network being by now comparably well characterized for representatives of chelicerates, myriapods, hexapods and crustaceans. By contrast, neurogenesis during late embryonic and/or post-embryonic development has received less attention, especially in myriapods and chelicerates. Here, we apply (i) immunolabeling, (ii) histology and (iii) scanning electron microscopy to study post-embryonic ventral nerve cord development in Pseudopallene sp., a representative of the sea spiders (Pycnogonida), the presumable sister group of the remaining chelicerates. During early post-embryonic development, large neural stem cells give rise to additional ganglion cell material in segmentally paired invaginations in the ventral ectoderm. These ectodermal cell regions - traditionally designated as 'ventral organs' - detach from the surface into the interior and persist as apical cell clusters on the ventral ganglion side. Each cluster is a post-embryonic neurogenic niche that features a tiny central cavity and initially still houses larger neural stem cells. The cluster stays connected to the underlying ganglionic somata cortex via an anterior and a posterior cell stream. Cell proliferation remains restricted to the cluster and streams, and migration of newly produced cells along the streams seems to account for increasing ganglion cell numbers in the cortex. The pycnogonid cluster-stream-systems show striking similarities to the life-long neurogenic system of decapod crustaceans, and due to their close vicinity to glomerulus-like neuropils, we consider their possible involvement in post-embryonic (perhaps even adult) replenishment of olfactory neurons - as in decapods. An instance of a potentially similar post-embryonic/adult neurogenic system in the arthropod outgroup Onychophora is discussed. Additionally, we document two transient posterior ganglia in the ventral nerve cord of Pseudopallene sp. and evaluate this finding in light of the often discussed reduction of a segmented 'opisthosoma' during pycnogonid evolution. PMID:24736377

  18. Auswirkungen einer Pipeline-Verlegung auf das marine Benthos im Tidebecken von Baltrum-Langeoog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Bernem, K. H.

    1999-12-01

    In order to investigate possible effects on benthic communities resulting from the landfall of the “EU-ROPIPE” gas pipeline in areas of the Wadden Sea National Park of Lower Saxony the following seasonal surveys were carried out by the GKSS-Research-Centre during 1993 1997: a) Assessment of species number and abundance of subtidal and intertidal macrofauna, b) Intertidal documentation of demersal fish and decapod crab stocks, c) Intertidal assessment of species composition and abundance of microalgae. Sublittoral sampling was mainly carried out by bottom-grabs and box-dredges at about 120 locations recorded by GPS. Sediment cores of intertidal benthic communities at 6 locations were processed for macrofauna and microalgae. Species numbers and abundances of sublittoral benthic macrofauna decreased during 1994 as well in those areas directly affected as well as in areas 500 to 1000m removed from the construction activities. Most notably, the relatively high species richness of a hard-bottom community, rare in Wadden Sea areas, was strongly disturbed. During the same period the spatial distribution and abundance of intertidal filter feeders decreased as well as the abundance of vagile predating polychaetes and amphipods at locations situated near low tide level. A local stock of the low dispersive Goby ( Pomatoschistus microps) was nearly totally destroyed. Decreases in the abundances of juvenile Plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa) and decapod crabs ( Crangon crangon, Carcinus maenas) could only be shown during July/October 1994 in those areas of working activities which were directly connected to the tidal migration paths of these species. During 1994/95 numbers and abundances of diatom species prefering fine grained sediments with a high amount of organic material increased significantly. A recovery started immediately after conclusion of the refilling measures in 1995. A complete documentation of the community-resilience, however, was masked by fluctuations following the ice-winter in 1995/96.

  19. Predators alter community organization of coral reef cryptofauna and reduce abundance of coral mutualists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stier, A. C.; Leray, M.

    2014-03-01

    Coral reefs are the most diverse marine systems in the world, yet our understanding of the processes that maintain such extraordinary diversity remains limited and taxonomically biased toward the most conspicuous species. Cryptofauna that live deeply embedded within the interstitial spaces of coral reefs make up the majority of reef diversity, and many of these species provide important protective services to their coral hosts. However, we know very little about the processes governing the diversity and composition of these less conspicuous but functionally important species. Here, we experimentally quantify the role of predation in driving the community organization of small fishes and decapods that live embedded within Pocillopora eydouxi, a structurally complex, reef-building coral found widely across the Indo-Pacific. We use surveys to describe the natural distribution of predators, and then, factorially manipulate two focal predator species to quantify the independent and combined effects of predator density and identity on P. eydouxi-dwelling cryptofauna. Predators reduced abundance (34 %), species richness (20 %), and modified species composition. Rarefaction revealed that observed reductions in species richness were primarily driven by changes in abundance. Additionally, the two predator species uniquely affected the beta diversity and composition of the prey assemblage. Predators reduced the abundance and modified the composition of a number of mutualist fishes and decapods, whose benefit to the coral is known to be both diversity- and density-dependent. We predict that the density and identity of predators present within P. eydouxi may substantially alter coral performance in the face of an increased frequency and intensity of natural and anthropogenic stressors.

  20. Feeding ecology of elasmobranch fishes in coastal waters of the Colombian Eastern Tropical Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Navia, Andrés F; Mejía-Falla, Paola A; Giraldo, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Background Stomach contents of 131 specimens of five elasmobranch species (Mustelus lunulatus, Dasyatis longa, Rhinobatos leucorhynchus, Raja velezi and Zapteryx xyster) caught in the central fishing zone in the Pacific Ocean of Colombia were counted and weighed to describe feeding habits and dietary overlaps. Results Twenty-one prey items belonging to four major groups (stomatopods, decapods, mollusks and fish) were identified. Decapod crustaceans were the most abundant prey found in stomachs. The mantis shrimp Squilla panamensis was the main prey item in the diet of M. lunulatus; tiger shrimp Trachypenaeus sp. was the main prey item in the diet of Rhinobatos leucorhynchus and Raja velezi, and Penaeidae shrimp were the main prey items in the diet of Z. xyster. Furthermore, fish were important in the diet of Raja velezi, Z. xyster and D. longa. The greatest diet breadth corresponded to Z. xyster whereas M. lunulatus was the most specialized predator. Finally, four significant diet overlaps between the five species were found, attributable mainly to Squillidae, Penaeidae and Fish. Conclusion Shrimps (Penaeidae and stomatopods) and benthic fishes were the most important food types in the diet of the elasmobranch species studied. Diet breadth and overlap were relatively low. Determination of food resource partitioning among the batoid species studied was not possible. However, we identified partitions in other niche axes (time of feeding activity and habitat utilization). It is possible to assume that diffuse competition could be exceeding the biunivocal competition among the studied species. Therefore, this assemblage would have a strong tendency to trophic guild formation. PMID:17877796

  1. The ‘Ventral Organs’ of Pycnogonida (Arthropoda) Are Neurogenic Niches of Late Embryonic and Post-Embryonic Nervous System Development

    PubMed Central

    Brenneis, Georg; Scholtz, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Early neurogenesis in arthropods has been in the focus of numerous studies, its cellular basis, spatio-temporal dynamics and underlying genetic network being by now comparably well characterized for representatives of chelicerates, myriapods, hexapods and crustaceans. By contrast, neurogenesis during late embryonic and/or post-embryonic development has received less attention, especially in myriapods and chelicerates. Here, we apply (i) immunolabeling, (ii) histology and (iii) scanning electron microscopy to study post-embryonic ventral nerve cord development in Pseudopallene sp., a representative of the sea spiders (Pycnogonida), the presumable sister group of the remaining chelicerates. During early post-embryonic development, large neural stem cells give rise to additional ganglion cell material in segmentally paired invaginations in the ventral ectoderm. These ectodermal cell regions – traditionally designated as ‘ventral organs’ – detach from the surface into the interior and persist as apical cell clusters on the ventral ganglion side. Each cluster is a post-embryonic neurogenic niche that features a tiny central cavity and initially still houses larger neural stem cells. The cluster stays connected to the underlying ganglionic somata cortex via an anterior and a posterior cell stream. Cell proliferation remains restricted to the cluster and streams, and migration of newly produced cells along the streams seems to account for increasing ganglion cell numbers in the cortex. The pycnogonid cluster-stream-systems show striking similarities to the life-long neurogenic system of decapod crustaceans, and due to their close vicinity to glomerulus-like neuropils, we consider their possible involvement in post-embryonic (perhaps even adult) replenishment of olfactory neurons – as in decapods. An instance of a potentially similar post-embryonic/adult neurogenic system in the arthropod outgroup Onychophora is discussed. Additionally, we document two transient posterior ganglia in the ventral nerve cord of Pseudopallene sp. and evaluate this finding in light of the often discussed reduction of a segmented ‘opisthosoma’ during pycnogonid evolution. PMID:24736377

  2. Central projections of antennular chemosensory and mechanosensory afferents in the brain of the terrestrial hermit crab (Coenobita clypeatus; Coenobitidae, Anomura)

    PubMed Central

    Tuchina, Oksana; Koczan, Stefan; Harzsch, Steffen; Rybak, Jürgen; Wolff, Gabriella; Strausfeld, Nicholas J.; Hansson, Bill S.

    2015-01-01

    The Coenobitidae (Decapoda, Anomura, Paguroidea) is a taxon of hermit crabs that includes two genera with a fully terrestrial life style as adults. Previous studies have shown that Coenobitidae have evolved a sense of spatial odor localization that is behaviorally highly relevant. Here, we examined the central olfactory pathway of these animals by analyzing central projections of the antennular nerve of Coenobita clypeatus, combining backfilling of the nerve with dextran-coupled dye, Golgi impregnations and three-dimensional reconstruction of the primary olfactory center, the antennular lobe. The principal pattern of putative olfactory sensory afferents in C. clypeatus is in many aspects similar to what have been established for aquatic decapod crustaceans, such as the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. However, there are also obvious differences that may, or may not represent adaptations related to a terrestrial lifestyle. In C. clypeatus, the antennular lobe dominates the deutocerebrum, having more than one thousand allantoid-shaped subunits. We observed two distinct patterns of sensory neuron innervation: putative olfactory afferents from the aesthetascs either supply the cap/subcap region of the subunits or they extend through its full depth. Our data also demonstrate that any one sensory axon can supply input to several subunits. Putative chemosensory (non-aesthetasc) and mechanosensory axons represent a different pathway and innervate the lateral and median antennular neuropils. Hence, we suggest that the chemosensory input in C. clypeatus might be represented via a dual pathway: aesthetascs target the antennular lobe, and bimodal sensilla target the lateral antennular neuropil and median antennular neuropil. The present data is compared to related findings in other decapod crustaceans. PMID:26236202

  3. Quantifying vegetation and nekton response to tidal restoration of a New England salt marsh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roman, C.T.; Raposa, K.B.; Adamowicz, S.C.; James-Pirri, M.J.; Catena, J.G.

    2002-01-01

    Tidal flow to salt marshes throughout the northeastern United States is often restricted by roads, dikes, impoundments, and inadequately sized culverts or bridge openings, resulting in altered ecological structure and function. In this study we evaluated the response of vegetation and nekton (fishes and decapod crustaceans) to restoration of full tidal flow to a portion of the Sachuest Point salt marsh, Middletown, Rhode Island. A before, after, control, impact study design was used, including evaluations of the tide-restricted marsh, the same marsh after reintroduction of tidal flow (i.e., tide-restored marsh), and an unrestricted control marsh. Before tidal restoration vegetation of the 3.7-ha tide-restricted marsh was dominated by Phragmites australis and was significantly different from the adjacent 6.3-ha Spartina -dominated unrestricted control marsh (analysis of similarities randomization test, p < 0.001). After one growing season vegetation of the tide-restored marsh had changed from its pre-restoration condition (analysis of similarities randomization test, p < 0.005). Although not similar to the unrestricted control marsh, Spartina patens and S. alterniflora abundance increased and abundance and height of Phragmites significantly declined, suggesting a convergence toward typical New England salt marsh vegetation. Before restoration shallow water habitat (creeks and pools) of the unrestricted control marsh supported a greater density of nekton compared with the tide-restricted marsh (analysis of variance, p < 0.001), but after one season of restored tidal flow nekton density was equivalent. A similar trend was documented for nekton species richness. Nekton density and species richness from marsh surface samples were similar between the tide-restored marsh and unrestricted control marsh. Fundulus heteroclitus and Palaemonetes pugio were the numerically dominant fish and decapod species in all sampled habitats. This study provides an example of a quantitative approach for assessing the response of vegetation and nekton to tidal restoration.

  4. Vertical distribution, composition and migratory patterns of acoustic scattering layers in the Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariza, A.; Landeira, J. M.; Escánez, A.; Wienerroither, R.; Aguilar de Soto, N.; Røstad, A.; Kaartvedt, S.; Hernández-León, S.

    2016-05-01

    Diel vertical migration (DVM) facilitates biogeochemical exchanges between shallow waters and the deep ocean. An effective way of monitoring the migrant biota is by acoustic observations although the interpretation of the scattering layers poses challenges. Here we combine results from acoustic observations at 18 and 38 kHz with limited net sampling in order to unveil the origin of acoustic phenomena around the Canary Islands, subtropical northeast Atlantic Ocean. Trawling data revealed a high diversity of fishes, decapods and cephalopods (152 species), although few dominant species likely were responsible for most of the sound scattering in the region. We identified four different acoustic scattering layers in the mesopelagic realm: (1) at 400-500 m depth, a swimbladder resonance phenomenon at 18 kHz produced by gas-bearing migrant fish such as Vinciguerria spp. and Lobianchia dofleini, (2) at 500-600 m depth, a dense 38 kHz layer resulting primarily from the gas-bearing and non-migrant fish Cyclothone braueri, and to a lesser extent, from fluid-like migrant fauna also inhabiting these depths, (3) between 600 and 800 m depth, a weak signal at both 18 and 38 kHz ascribed either to migrant fish or decapods, and (4) below 800 m depth, a weak non-migrant layer at 18 kHz which was not sampled. All the dielly migrating layers reached the epipelagic zone at night, with the shorter-range migrations moving at 4.6 ± 2.6 cm s - 1 and the long-range ones at 11.5 ± 3.8 cm s - 1. This work reduces uncertainties interpreting standard frequencies in mesopelagic studies, while enhances the potential of acoustics for future research and monitoring of the deep pelagic fauna in the Canary Islands.

  5. An evolutionary analysis of flightin reveals a conserved motif unique and widespread in Pancrustacea.

    PubMed

    Soto-Adames, Felipe N; Alvarez-Ortiz, Pedro; Vigoreaux, Jim O

    2014-01-01

    Flightin is a thick filament protein that in Drosophila melanogaster is uniquely expressed in the asynchronous, indirect flight muscles (IFM). Flightin is required for the structure and function of the IFM and is indispensable for flight in Drosophila. Given the importance of flight acquisition in the evolutionary history of insects, here we study the phylogeny and distribution of flightin. Flightin was identified in 69 species of hexapods in classes Collembola (springtails), Protura, Diplura, and insect orders Thysanura (silverfish), Dictyoptera (roaches), Orthoptera (grasshoppers), Pthiraptera (lice), Hemiptera (true bugs), Coleoptera (beetles), Neuroptera (green lacewing), Hymenoptera (bees, ants, and wasps), Lepidoptera (moths), and Diptera (flies and mosquitoes). Flightin was also found in 14 species of crustaceans in orders Anostraca (water flea), Cladocera (brine shrimp), Isopoda (pill bugs), Amphipoda (scuds, sideswimmers), and Decapoda (lobsters, crabs, and shrimps). Flightin was not identified in representatives of chelicerates, myriapods, or any species outside Pancrustacea (Tetraconata, sensu Dohle). Alignment of amino acid sequences revealed a conserved region of 52 amino acids, referred herein as WYR, that is bound by strictly conserved tryptophan (W) and arginine (R) and an intervening sequence with a high content of tyrosines (Y). This motif has no homologs in GenBank or PROSITE and is unique to flightin and paraflightin, a putative flightin paralog identified in decapods. A third motif of unclear affinities to pancrustacean WYR was observed in chelicerates. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of the conserved motif suggests that paraflightin originated before the divergence of amphipods, isopods, and decapods. We conclude that flightin originated de novo in the ancestor of Pancrustacea > 500 MYA, well before the divergence of insects (~400 MYA) and the origin of flight (~325 MYA), and that its IFM-specific function in Drosophila is a more recent adaptation. Furthermore, we propose that WYR represents a novel myosin coiled-coil binding motif. PMID:24271855

  6. Recovery of floral and faunal communities after placement of dredged material on seagrasses in Laguna Madre, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, P.

    2004-03-01

    The objectives of this project were to determine how long alterations in habitat characteristics and use by fishery and forage organisms were detectable at dredged material placement sites in Laguna Madre, Texas. Water, sediment, seagrass, benthos, and nekton characteristics were measured and compared among newly deposited sediments and nearby and distant seagrasses each fall and spring over three years. Over this period, 75% of the estimated total surface area of the original deposits was either re-vegetated by seagrass or dispersed by winds and currents. Differences in water and sediment characteristics among habitat types were mostly detected early in the study. There were signs of steady seagrass re-colonization in the latter half of the study period, and mean seagrass coverage of deposits had reached 48% approximately three years after dredging. Clovergrass Halophila engelmannii was the initial colonist, but shoalgrass Halodule wrightii predominated after about one year. Densities of annelids and non-decapod crustaceans were generally significantly greater in close and distant seagrass habitats than in dredged material habitat, whereas densities of molluscs were not significantly related to habitat type. Nekton (fish and decapod) densities were almost always significantly greater in the two seagrass habitats than in dredged material deposits. Benthos and nekton communities in dredged material deposits were distinct from those in seagrass habitats. Recovery from dredged material placement was nearly complete for water column and sediment components after 1.5 to 3 years, but recovery of seagrasses, benthos, and nekton was predicted to take 4 to 8 years. The current 2 to 5 years dredging cycle virtually insures no time for ecosystem recovery before being disturbed again. The only way to ensure permanent protection of the high primary and secondary productivity of seagrass beds in Laguna Madre from acute and chronic effects of maintenance dredging, while ensuring navigation capability, is to remove dredged materials from the shallow waters of the ecosystem.

  7. Abundance, distribution, and feeding patterns of juvenile coho salmon ( Oncorhynchus kisutch) in the Juan de Fuca Eddy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pool, Suzan S.; Brodeur, Richard D.; Goodman, N. Lynn; Daly, Elizabeth A.

    2008-10-01

    The Juan de Fuca Eddy is a seasonal, counter-clockwise gyre off the mouth of the Strait of Juan de Fuca between Washington, USA and British Columbia, Canada that may provide favorable feeding habitat for juvenile coho salmon ( Oncorhynchus kisutch) during their early marine existence. In late September 2002, physical and biological sampling was conducted along two transects of the eddy region. Surface rope trawling was conducted to capture juvenile salmon and other nekton, along with bongo and neuston net tows to examine potential mesozooplanktonic salmon prey. Presence of the Juan de Fuca Eddy was confirmed with vertical water profiles. In addition, nutrient and chlorophyll a concentrations collected from 3-m depth were within the range observed in previous studies within the eddy region. In the mesozooplankton community, euphausiids, chaetognaths, and decapod megalopae were common. In the diet of juvenile coho salmon, euphausiids and decapod megalopae were dominant by percent number, and larval and juvenile fish were dominant by percent weight. Feeding intensity (percent body weight) based on stomach contents was variable, but not significantly different among stations. To compare the Juan de Fuca Eddy region with an upwelling area, we sampled along a transect off La Push (LP), Washington, USA which is south of the eddy. The eddy region was found to be less productive than the LP transect. Nutrients were lower, chlorophyll a concentrations were higher, and zooplankton abundance was generally higher along the LP transect than in the eddy region. In addition, more juvenile coho salmon were captured from the LP transect than the eddy region. Prey items in stomachs of salmon from the LP transect were heterogeneous compared to those from the eddy region. Feeding intensity along the LP transect was slightly lower and more variable than in the eddy region, and differences in feeding intensity among LP stations were significant. In addition, feeding intensities among stations nested within regions were significantly different.

  8. Trophic connectivity and basal food sources sustaining tropical aquatic consumers along a mangrove to ocean gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claudino, Marlucy Coelho; Pessanha, André Luiz Machado; Araújo, Francisco Gerson; Garcia, Alexandre Miranda

    2015-12-01

    Variations in the relative importance of autotrophic sources to aquatic consumers along environmental gradients and the trophic role of mangrove-derived detritus to marine coastal food webs are still poorly investigated in tropical systems. In this study, we employed stable isotope analyses to investigate the relative importance of basal food sources to macroconsumers (decapod crustaceans and fishes) in a tropical estuary along an environmental gradient extending from the mangroves to the ocean. Additionally, we evaluated the 'outwelling hypothesis', which hypothesizes that mangrove-derived detritus exported to the adjacent marine area is a food source for marine macroconsumers at open and reef-protected sandy beaches. Primary producers and macroconsumers (62 and 214 samples, respectively) were collected at five locations across the main longitudinal axis of the Mamanguape estuary, a tropical Southwestern Atlantic estuary. There were marked shifts in carbon and nitrogen isotope values for both food sources and consumers along the estuarine-marine gradient, and the mixing model results revealed similar patterns of assimilation of basal food sources by decapod crustaceans and fishes. In the inner section of the estuary, consumers tended to assimilated nutrients derived mainly from mangrove and macroalgae, whereas nearer the mouth of the estuary and in the adjacent marine area they assimilated nutrients derived mainly from macroalgae, seagrass and organic matter in the sediment (SOM). These findings support the hypothesis that the relative importance of basal food sources to macroconsumers in this tropical estuarine system reflects the dominant autochthonous primary production at each location. In contrast, our results did not support the outwelling hypothesis that mangrove-originated detritus, in the form of senescent mangrove leaves, makes a significant contribution as a primary source of carbon to high-order consumers inhabiting adjacent ocean sandy beaches.

  9. Animal Behavior Frozen in Time: Gregarious Behavior of Early Jurassic Lobsters within an Ammonoid Body Chamber

    PubMed Central

    Klompmaker, Adiël A.; Fraaije, René H. B.

    2012-01-01

    Direct animal behavior can be inferred from the fossil record only in exceptional circumstances. The exceptional mode of preservation of ammonoid shells in the Posidonia Shale (Lower Jurassic, lower Toarcian) of Dotternhausen in southern Germany, with only the organic periostracum preserved, provides an excellent opportunity to observe the contents of the ammonoid body chamber because this periostracum is translucent. Here, we report upon three delicate lobsters preserved within a compressed ammonoid specimen of Harpoceras falciferum. We attempt to explain this gregarious behavior. The three lobsters were studied using standard microscopy under low angle light. The lobsters belong to the extinct family of the Eryonidae; further identification was not possible. The organic material of the three small lobsters is preserved more than halfway into the ammonoid body chamber. The lobsters are closely spaced and are positioned with their tails oriented toward each other. The specimens are interpreted to represent corpses rather than molts. The lobsters probably sought shelter in preparation for molting or against predators such as fish that were present in Dotternhausen. Alternatively, the soft tissue of the ammonoid may have been a source of food that attracted the lobsters, or it may have served as a long-term residency for the lobsters (inquilinism). The lobsters represent the oldest known example of gregariousness amongst lobsters and decapods in the fossil record. Gregarious behavior in lobsters, also known for extant lobsters, thus developed earlier in earth's history than previously known. Moreover, this is one of the oldest known examples of decapod crustaceans preserved within cephalopod shells. PMID:22412846

  10. Expression of the male reproduction-related gene in spermatic ducts of the blue swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus, and transfer of modified protein to the sperm acrosome.

    PubMed

    Sroyraya, Morakot; Hanna, Peter J; Changklungmoa, Narin; Senarai, Thanyaporn; Siangcham, Tanapan; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Sobhon, Prasert

    2013-01-01

    Expression of a sex-specific gene in Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr-Mrr), encoding a male reproduction-related (Mrr) protein, has been identified in the spermatic ducts (SDs) and postulated to be involved in sperm maturation processes. M. rosenbergii is the only decapod that the expression and fate of the Mrr protein has been studied. To determine that this protein was conserved in decapods, we firstly used cloning techniques to identify the Mrr gene in two crabs, Portunus pelagicus (Pp-Mrr) and Scylla serrata (Ss-Mrr). We then investigated expression of Pp-Mrr by in situ hybridization, and immunolocalization, as well as phosphorylation and glycosylation modifications, and the fate of the protein in the male reproductive tract. Pp-Mrr was shown to have 632 nucleotides, and a deduced protein of 110 amino acids, with an unmodified molecular weight of 11.79 kDa and a mature protein with molecular weight of 9.16 kDa. In situ hybridization showed that Pp-Mrr is expressed in the epithelium of the proximal, middle, distal SDs, and ejaculatory ducts. In Western blotting, proteins of 10.9 and 17.2 kDa from SDs were all positive using anti-Mrr, antiphosphoserine/threonine, and antiphosphotyrosine. PAS staining showed they were also glycosylated. Immunolocalization studies showed Pp-Mrr in the SD epithelium, lumen, and on the acrosomes of spermatozoa. Immunofluorescence staining indicated the acrosome of spermatozoa contained the Mrr protein, which is phosphorylated with serine/threonine and tyrosine, and also glycosylated. The Mrr is likely to be involved in acrosomal activation during fertilization of eggs. PMID:23108973

  11. Identification, Characterization, and Diel Pattern of Expression of Canonical Clock Genes in Nephrops norvegicus (Crustacea: Decapoda) Eyestalk.

    PubMed

    Sbragaglia, Valerio; Lamanna, Francesco; M Mat, Audrey; Rotllant, Guiomar; Joly, Silvia; Ketmaier, Valerio; de la Iglesia, Horacio O; Aguzzi, Jacopo

    2015-01-01

    The Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus, is a burrowing decapod with a rhythmic burrow emergence (24 h) governed by the circadian system. It is an important resource for European fisheries and its behavior deeply affects its availability. The current knowledge of Nephrops circadian biology is phenomenological as it is currently the case for almost all crustaceans. In attempt to elucidate the putative molecular mechanisms underlying circadian gene regulation in Nephrops, we used a transcriptomics approach on cDNA extracted from the eyestalk, a structure playing a crucial role in controlling behavior of decapods. We studied 14 male lobsters under 12-12 light-darkness blue light cycle. We used the Hiseq 2000 Illumina platform to sequence two eyestalk libraries (under light and darkness conditions) obtaining about 90 millions 100-bp paired-end reads. Trinity was used for the de novo reconstruction of transcriptomes; the size at which half of all assembled bases reside in contigs (N50) was equal to 1796 (light) and 2055 (darkness). We found a list of candidate clock genes and focused our attention on canonical ones: timeless, period, clock and bmal1. The cloning of assembled fragments validated Trinity outputs. The putative Nephrops clock genes showed high levels of identity (blastx on NCBI) with known crustacean clock gene homologs such as Eurydice pulchra (period: 47%, timeless: 59%, bmal1: 79%) and Macrobrachium rosenbergii (clock: 100%). We also found a vertebrate-like cryptochrome 2. RT-qPCR showed that only timeless had a robust diel pattern of expression. Our data are in accordance with the current knowledge of the crustacean circadian clock, reinforcing the idea that the molecular clockwork of this group shows some differences with the established model in Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:26524198

  12. Crayfish fossil burrows, a key tool for identification of terrestrial environments in tide-dominated sequence, Upper Eocene, Sirt Basin, Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abouessa, Ashour; Duringer, Philippe; Schuster, Mathieu; Pelletier, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    The majority of decapod crustaceans are defined as marine organisms. Crayfish are one of the relatively few known exceptions. They are freshwater-environment adapted decapods that build characteristically large, simple and branched cylindrical morphotype traces in fluvial plains. Their burrows bear lots of special features that make them different from other burrows. Consequently, the identification of true crayfish burrows in the sedimentary record is crucial for the interpretation of depositional environment. The studied interval (45 m thick, exposed in the Dur At Talah escarpment southern Sirt Basin; Fig. 1) represents a case-study which is previously believed to be purely tidal. In this interval, the identification of the crayfish burrows provides a reliable tool for distinguishing terrestrial environments. The crayfish burrows of Dur At Talah are characterized by dimensional, morphological, and especially behavioral aspects that combined, cannot be ascribed to another burrow makers. Essential criteria used to attribute these burrows to the crayfish include: Their length (the depth of penetration into the sediments), their regularly circular cross-sectional area, the presence of mid-way enlargement chamber along the burrow vertical axis, as well as the subtle preservation of the burrow chimney. More importantly, these morphological features allow the recognition of some of the crayfish diagnostic behavioral habits. Most significant of these is the one deduced from the interaction of the burrow with the seasonal fluctuation of the paleo groundwater level. Supplementary indications that restrict the studied burrows to terrestrial organism include their occurrences within pedogenically altered strata that bear evident features of prolonged emersion. Of these features, mud cracks and burrows that are filled with continental fossil are the clearest. Few horizons with termite fungus comb are also distinguishable. Although other burrows of the classically known thalassinoide morphotypes are common in the studied outcrop, this article focuses essentially on the relatively (several orders of magnitude) larger cylindrical morphotypes. This study is based on comparing the field data concerning the studied burrows with those morphometrically similar modern and ancient documented cases.

  13. Spider crabs of the Western Atlantic with special reference to fossil and some modern Mithracidae.

    PubMed

    Klompmaker, Adil A; Portell, Roger W; Klier, Aaron T; Prueter, Vanessa; Tucker, Alyssa L

    2015-01-01

    Spider crabs (Majoidea) are well-known from modern oceans and are also common in the western part of the Atlantic Ocean. When spider crabs appeared in the Western Atlantic in deep time, and when they became diverse, hinges on their fossil record. By reviewing their fossil record, we show that (1) spider crabs first appeared in the Western Atlantic in the Late Cretaceous, (2) they became common since the Miocene, and (3) most species and genera are found in the Caribbean region from the Miocene onwards. Furthermore, taxonomic work on some modern and fossil Mithracidae, a family that might have originated in the Western Atlantic, was conducted. Specifically, Maguimithrax gen. nov. is erected to accommodate the extant species Damithrax spinosissimus, while Damithrax cf. pleuracanthus is recognized for the first time from the fossil record (late Pliocene-early Pleistocene, Florida, USA). Furthermore, two new species are described from the lower Miocene coral-associated limestones of Jamaica (Mithrax arawakum sp. nov. and Nemausa windsorae sp. nov.). Spurred by a recent revision of the subfamily, two known species from the same deposits are refigured and transferred to new genera: Mithrax donovani to Nemausa, and Mithrax unguis to Damithrax. The diverse assemblage of decapods from these coral-associated limestones underlines the importance of reefs for the abundance and diversity of decapods in deep time. Finally, we quantitatively show that these crabs possess allometric growth in that length/width ratios drop as specimens grow, a factor that is not always taken into account while describing and comparing among taxa. PMID:26557432

  14. Spider crabs of the Western Atlantic with special reference to fossil and some modern Mithracidae

    PubMed Central

    Portell, Roger W.; Klier, Aaron T.; Prueter, Vanessa; Tucker, Alyssa L.

    2015-01-01

    Spider crabs (Majoidea) are well-known from modern oceans and are also common in the western part of the Atlantic Ocean. When spider crabs appeared in the Western Atlantic in deep time, and when they became diverse, hinges on their fossil record. By reviewing their fossil record, we show that (1) spider crabs first appeared in the Western Atlantic in the Late Cretaceous, (2) they became common since the Miocene, and (3) most species and genera are found in the Caribbean region from the Miocene onwards. Furthermore, taxonomic work on some modern and fossil Mithracidae, a family that might have originated in the Western Atlantic, was conducted. Specifically, Maguimithrax gen. nov. is erected to accommodate the extant species Damithrax spinosissimus, while Damithrax cf. pleuracanthus is recognized for the first time from the fossil record (late Pliocene–early Pleistocene, Florida, USA). Furthermore, two new species are described from the lower Miocene coral-associated limestones of Jamaica (Mithrax arawakum sp. nov. and Nemausa windsorae sp. nov.). Spurred by a recent revision of the subfamily, two known species from the same deposits are refigured and transferred to new genera: Mithrax donovani to Nemausa, and Mithrax unguis to Damithrax. The diverse assemblage of decapods from these coral-associated limestones underlines the importance of reefs for the abundance and diversity of decapods in deep time. Finally, we quantitatively show that these crabs possess allometric growth in that length/width ratios drop as specimens grow, a factor that is not always taken into account while describing and comparing among taxa. PMID:26557432

  15. Identification of putative ecdysteroid and juvenile hormone pathway genes in the shrimp Neocaridina denticulata.

    PubMed

    Sin, Yung Wa; Kenny, Nathan J; Qu, Zhe; Chan, Ka Wo; Chan, Katie W S; Cheong, Sam P S; Leung, Ricky W T; Chan, Ting Fung; Bendena, William G; Chu, Ka Hou; Tobe, Stephen S; Hui, Jerome H L

    2015-04-01

    Although the sesquiterpenoid juvenile hormone (JH) and the steroidal ecdysteroids are of vital importance to the development and reproduction of insects, our understanding of the evolution of these crucial hormonal regulators in other arthropods is limited. To better understand arthropod hormone evolution and regulation, here we describe the hormonal pathway genes (e.g. those involved in hormone biosynthesis, degradation, regulation and signal transduction) of a new decapod model, the shrimp Neocaridina denticulata. The majority of known insect sesquiterpenoid and ecdysteroid pathway genes and their regulators are contained in the N. denticulata genome. In the sesquiterpenoid pathway, these include biosynthetic pathway components: juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT); hormone binding protein: juvenile hormone binding protein (JHBP); and degradation pathway components: juvenile hormone esterase (JHE), juvenile hormone esterase binding protein (JHEBP) and juvenile hormone epoxide hydrolase (JHEH), with the JHBP, JHEBP and JHEH genes being discovered in a crustacean for the first time here. Ecdysteroid biosynthetic pathway genes identified include spook, phantom, disembodied, shadow and CYP18. Potential hormonal regulators and signal transducers such as allatostatins (ASTs), Methoprene-tolerant (Met), Retinoid X receptor (RXR), Ecdysone receptor (EcR), calponin-like protein Chd64, FK509-binding protein (FKBP39), Broad-complex (Br-c), and crustacean hyperglycemic hormone/molt-inhibiting hormone/gonad-inhibiting hormone (CHH/MIH/GIH) genes are all present in the shrimp N. denticulata. To our knowledge, this is the first report of these hormonal pathways and their regulatory genes together in a single decapod, providing a vital resource for further research into development, reproduction, endocrinology and evolution of crustaceans, and arthropods in general. PMID:25101838

  16. The VD1/RPD2 α1-neuropeptide is highly expressed in the brain of cephalopod mollusks.

    PubMed

    Wollesen, Tim; Nishiguchi, Michele K; Seixas, Pedro; Degnan, Bernard M; Wanninger, Andreas

    2012-06-01

    In certain gastropod mollusks, the central neurons VD(1) and RPD(2) express a distinct peptide, the so-called VD(1)/RPD(2) α1-neuropeptide. In order to test whether this peptide is also present in the complex cephalopod central nervous system (CNS), we investigated several octopod and squid species. In the adult decapod squid Idiosepius notoides the α1-neuropeptide is expressed throughout the CNS, with the exception of the vertical lobe and the superior and inferior frontal lobes, by very few immunoreactive elements. Immunoreactive cell somata are particularly abundant in brain lobes and associated organs unique to cephalopods such as the subvertical, optic, peduncle, and olfactory lobes. The posterior basal lobes house another large group of immunoreactive cell somata. In the decapod Idiosepius notoides, the α1-neuropeptide is first expressed in the olfactory organ, while in the octopod Octopus vulgaris it is first detected in the olfactory lobe. In prehatchlings of the sepiolid Euprymna scolopes as well as the squids Sepioteuthis australis and Loligo vulgaris, the α1-neuropeptide is expressed in the periesophageal and posterior subesophageal mass. Prehatchlings of L. vulgaris express the α1-neuropeptide in wide parts of the CNS, including the vertical lobe. α1-neuropeptide expression in the developing CNS does not appear to be evolutionarily conserved across various cephalopod taxa investigated. Strong expression in different brain lobes of the adult squid I. notoides and prehatching L. vulgaris suggests a putative role as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in these species; however, electrophysiological evidence is still missing. PMID:22427117

  17. The eyestalk-androgenic gland-testis endocrine axis in the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus.

    PubMed

    Khalaila, Isam; Manor, Rivka; Weil, Simy; Granot, Yosef; Keller, Rainer; Sagi, Amir

    2002-06-15

    In decapod crustaceans, a number of neurohormones regulating a variety of physiological processes, including reproduction, are to be found in the X-organ-sinus gland complex of the eyestalk. Bilateral eyestalk ablation was thus performed in mature males of the Australian red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus with the aim of studying the role of eyestalk-borne hormones on spermatogenic activity in the testis and on the androgenic gland (AG). The latter gland controls the differentiation and functioning of male sexual characteristics in crustaceans. Eyestalk ablation caused hypertrophy of the AG, as indicated by an increase in gland weight (3.9 +/- 0.44 mg vs < 0.1mg in intact males) and by overexpression of AG polypeptides. In the testes of eyestalk-ablated males, empty spermatogenic lobules were common, while lobules containing primary spermatocytes were infrequent. These findings were reflected in decreased amounts of DNA in these testes and a consequent increase in the relative weights of the sperm ducts. Since it was found that eyestalk ablation affected both the AG and the reproductive system, in vitro experiments were conducted to study the direct effects of the sinus gland on the AG and testes and of the AG on the testes. Sinus gland extracts inhibited by 30% the incorporation of radiolabeled amino acids into AG polypeptides and almost totally inhibited the secretion of radiolabeled AG polypeptides into the culture medium. However, sinus gland extracts had no significant effects on testicular tissue. On the other hand, AG extracts affected the in vitro phosphorylation of a testicular polypeptide (of 28 kDa), in a time- and dose-dependent manner, suggesting a direct effect of AG-borne hormones on the testes. The above findings, together with the evidence for direct inhibition by the sinus gland on the AG, suggest an endocrine axis-like relationship between the sinus gland, the AG, and the male reproductive system in decapod crustaceans. PMID:12383442

  18. Influence of environmental variables on the spatio-temporal dynamics of bentho-pelagic assemblages in the middle slope of the Balearic Basin (NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papiol, V.; Cartes, J. E.; Fanelli, E.; Maynou, F.

    2012-03-01

    The spatio-temporal dynamics of benthic and bentho-pelagic assemblages of megafauna from the middle slope of the Catalan Sea (NW Mediterranean Sea) were studied. Nineteen bottom trawls were performed to collect megafauna on 5 cruises between February 2007 and February 2008. Samples were obtained from three depth strata, including a submarine canyon. Simultaneously, environmental variables were recorded and three levels of bottom-boundary layer macrofauna (infauna, suprabenthos and zooplankton), potential prey of megafauna, were sampled. Fish and decapod assemblages were explored individually. Depth was the main factor structuring megafaunal assemblages, with larger organisms usually observed at greater depths (based on mean individual weight). Nevertheless, in April, coinciding with the reproductive period of the dominant species, larger fish and decapods were observed inside the submarine canyon rather than at greater depths. Assemblages inside and outside the submarine canyons differed in species abundance and biomass, rather than in species composition; larger densities of endobenthic species were found inside the canyon. Also, higher abundance and biomass of megafauna were recorded inside the canyon on all cruises, generally linked to higher prey availability there. A seasonal trend related to size was also observed, associated with the stratification (ΔTsurface-bottom water=8.37±0.33 °C for summer-autumn) versus homogeneity (ΔTsurface-bottom water=2.09±1.76 °C for winter-spring) of the water column. Larger amounts of smaller species feeding at lower trophic levels were found in periods of homogeneity, while assemblages during periods of stratification were characterised by larger species feeding at higher trophic levels. Environmental variables most strongly explaining changes in megafaunal assemblages (from Spearman rank correlation and generalised linear models) were temperature (T) and salinity (S) close to the sea bottom, river discharges and turbidity above the sea bottom. Also, micronekton biomass explained changes in fish assemblages, while Polychaeta biomass and surface primary production were explanatory for decapods. All these variables directly or indirectly affect availability of trophic resources at bathyal depths. T and S are intrinsically related to depth, and are the variables to which organisms may be actually responding. Prey biomass plays an important role in the bathymetric and the topographic distribution of megafauna. T and S are also linked to the stratification or homogeneity of water masses. Peaks of surface primary production (SPP) in February and maximum river discharge in April corresponded to a maximum in megafaunal biomass in summer after ca. 3-5 months. High river discharges, channelled to bathyal depths through submarine canyons, were related to increases in water turbidity, associated with resuspension of organic matter (food for low trophic levels). On the other hand, low turbidity coincided with minimum river discharges, favouring deposition of organic matter in the sediments. Peaks in abundance and biomass of megafauna were observed after peaks in key prey (zooplankton, micronekton and benthic infauna) with a lag of ca. 2 months. Diversity of megafaunal assemblages was coupled to food availability.

  19. Food web structure of deep-sea macrozooplankton and micronekton off the Catalan slope: Insight from stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanelli, E.; Cartes, J. E.; Papiol, V.

    2011-07-01

    Food web structure of the macroplankton/micronekton fauna on the continental slope of the Catalan Sea (Balearic basin, NW Mediterranean) was investigated using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope tracers on a total of 34 taxa. Samples were collected close to Barcelona, Spain, on the middle slope, at a seasonal scale. Mean δ 13C values ranged from - 22.1‰ ( Salpa maxima) to - 16.9‰ (the mysid Eucopia hanseni). Values of δ 15N ranged from 2.5‰ (the hyperiid Vibilia armata) to 9.8‰ (the pelagic polychaete Tomopteris sp.). The stable isotope ratios of this fauna displayed a continuum of values over the δ 15N range of 7‰, confirming a wide spectrum of feeding strategies (from filter feeders to predators). High annual mean δ 15N values were found among carnivorous large zooplankton and micronekton, including species that prey on gelatinous plankton (i.e. salps, siphonophores), euphausiids, natantian decapod crustaceans and fish (i.e. myctophids and stomiiformes). In agreement with the available information on diets of planktonic taxa, the lowest isotope ratios were found for filter feeders ( V. armata, S. maxima, the pteropods Cymbulia peroni and Cavolinia inflexa, ostracods and the thaliacean Pyrosoma atlanticum), all of which feed on particulate organic matter. We found three trophic levels in macroplankton/micronekton food webs based on a 15N-enrichment factor of ~ 2.5‰ per level. The range of δ 13C was particularly wide among carnivores (- 20.7‰ to - 16.6‰), suggesting predation on a variety of prey from gelatinous zooplankton (which displayed more depleted δ 13C signatures) to small fishes and decapods. Correlation between δ 13C-δ 15N was generally weak, likely due to the consumption of different kinds of sinking particles (e.g. marine snow, phytodetritus), some constituted of multiply recycled particulate organic matter (POM). However, higher δ 13C-δ 15N correlations were observed during winter and spring, periods of water column homogenization, suggesting that the planktonic community assimilates pulses of new production from the photic zone (peaking in January-February). Low correlations were observed during periods of water column stratification, particularly in summer, when production is especially low, suggesting that in this period macroplankton-micronekton community rely on sources other than surface primary production such as POM derived from river discharge.

  20. In hot and cold water: differential life-history traits are key to success in contrasting thermal deep-sea environments.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Leigh; Copley, Jonathan T; Tyler, Paul A; Thatje, Sven

    2015-07-01

    Few species of reptant decapod crustaceans thrive in the cold-stenothermal waters of the Southern Ocean. However, abundant populations of a new species of anomuran crab, Kiwa tyleri, occur at hydrothermal vent fields on the East Scotia Ridge. As a result of local thermal conditions at the vents, these crabs are not restricted by the physiological limits that otherwise exclude reptant decapods south of the polar front. We reveal the adult life history of this species by piecing together variation in microdistribution, body size frequency, sex ratio, and ovarian and embryonic development, which indicates a pattern in the distribution of female Kiwaidae in relation to their reproductive development. High-density 'Kiwa' assemblages observed in close proximity to sources of vent fluids are constrained by the thermal limit of elevated temperatures and the availability of resources for chemosynthetic nutrition. Although adult Kiwaidae depend on epibiotic chemosynthetic bacteria for nutrition, females move offsite after extrusion of their eggs to protect brooding embryos from the chemically harsh, thermally fluctuating vent environment. Consequently, brooding females in the periphery of the vent field are in turn restricted by low-temperature physiological boundaries of the deep-water Southern Ocean environment. Females have a high reproductive investment in few, large, yolky eggs, facilitating full lecithotrophy, with the release of larvae prolonged, and asynchronous. After embryos are released, larvae are reliant on locating isolated active areas of hydrothermal flow in order to settle and survive as chemosynthetic adults. Where the cold water restricts the ability of all adult stages to migrate over long distances, these low temperatures may facilitate the larvae in the location of vent sites by extending the larval development period through hypometabolism. These differential life-history adaptations to contrasting thermal environments lead to a disjunct life history among males and females of K. tyleri, which is key to their success in the Southern Ocean vent environment. We highlight the complexity in understanding the importance of life-history biology, in combination with environmental, ecological and physiological factors contributing to the overall global distribution of vent-endemic species. PMID:25732205

  1. Material properties of zooplankton and nekton from the California current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Kaylyn

    This study measured the material properties of zooplankton, Pacific hake (Merluccius productus), Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas), and two species of myctophids (Symbolophorus californiensis and Diaphus theta) collected from the California Current ecosystem. The density contrast (g) was measured for euphausiids, decapods (Sergestes similis), amphipods (Primno macropa, Phronima sp., and Hyperiid spp.), siphonophore bracts, chaetognaths, larval fish, crab megalopae, larval squid, and medusae. Morphometric data (length, width, and height) were collected for these taxa. Density contrasts varied within and between zooplankton taxa. The mean and standard deviation for euphausiid density contrast were 1.059 +/- 0.009. Relationships between zooplankton density contrast and morphometric measurements, geographic location, and environmental conditions were investigated. Site had a significant effect on euphausiid density contrast. Density contrasts of euphausiids collected in the same geographic area approximately 4-10 days apart were significantly higher (p < 0.001). Sound speed contrast (h) was measured for euphausiids and pelagic decapods (S. similis) and it varied between taxa. The mean and standard deviation for euphausiid sound speed were 1.019 +/- 0.009. Euphausiid mass was calculated from density measurements and volume, and a relationship between euphausiid mass and length was produced. We determined that euphausiid from volumes could be accurately estimated two dimensional measurements of animal body shape, and that biomass (or biovolume) could be accurately calculated from digital photographs of animals. Density contrast (g) was measured for zooplankton, pieces of hake flesh, myctophid flesh, and of the following Humboldt squid body parts: mantle, arms, tentacle, braincase, eyes, pen, and beak. The density contrasts varied within and between fish taxa, as well as among squid body parts. Effects of animal length and environmental conditions on nekton density contrast were investigated. The sound speed contrast (h) was measured for Pacific hake flesh, myctophid flesh, Humboldt squid mantle, and Humboldt squid braincase. Sound speed varied within and between nekton taxa. The material properties reported in this study can be used to improve target strength estimates from acoustic scattering models which would increase the accuracy of biomass estimates from acoustic surveys for these zooplankton and nekton.

  2. Changes in deep-sea fish and crustacean communities at 1000-2200 m in the Western Mediterranean after 25 years: Relation to hydro-climatic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, J. E.; Maynou, F.; Fanelli, E.; López-Pérez, C.; Papiol, V.

    2015-03-01

    Long-term changes in the biomass, diversity and composition of deep-living fish and decapods from the Balearic Basin (western Mediterranean) have been compared between two periods, 1985-1992 vs. 2007-2012, based on 106 bottom trawls performed at 1000-2250 m. Relationships have been identified between the changes in community composition and the hydroclimatic conditions (e.g. NAO, temperature, salinity and dissolved O2) of the area. We found a generalized deepening of middle-slope communities (950-1250 m), especially among decapods, which is suggested (from GLM results) to have been a response to the long-term increase in salinity of the Levantine Intermediate Waters (LIW), located above the level sampled to ca. 700 m. Even more pronounced was the shallowing of all of the lower slope species (1600-2250 m), accompanied by a significant decrease of biomass from 1985-1992 to 2007-2012. This last tendency would be done to a combination of factors: long-term decrease of O2 in the bottom-boundary layer, greater degradation of POM arriving on the bottom due to temperature increase in the Western Mediterranean Deep Waters (WMDW) and probably a decrease of Chl a at the surface and, thus, of production. The influence of climatic oscillations (NAO) on differences found between 1985-1992 and 2007-2012 seems secondary, likely because the NAO did not show significant differences between the two periods. Some plankton-feeding species showed an increase of density during high/positive NAO (e.g. Alepocephalus rostratus), while some benthos feeders increased during low/negative NAO (e.g. Aristeus antennatus, mainly juveniles). The increase of rainfall and advective fluxes under low/negative NAO (i.e., in 2007-2012) may increase the formation of the nepheloid layer identified over 1200-1400 m in the area (Cartes et al., 2013a), linked to zooplankton aggregation in that depth range. Greater food availability could explain the generalized migration by both middle and lower slope species toward these intermediate depths that acquired greater trophic resources. Deep-sea Mediterranean fish and invertebrates, including important commercial species, seemed to undergo long-term changes in its distribution and biomass due to changes in hydro-climatic conditions, mainly a decrease of O2 in the bottom-boundary layer.

  3. DIRS1-like retrotransposons are widely distributed among Decapoda and are particularly present in hydrothermal vent organisms

    PubMed Central

    Piednoël, Mathieu; Bonnivard, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Background Transposable elements are major constituents of eukaryote genomes and have a great impact on genome structure and stability. Considering their mutational abilities, TEs can contribute to the genetic diversity and evolution of organisms. Knowledge of their distribution among several genomes is an essential condition to study their dynamics and to better understand their role in species evolution. DIRS1-like retrotransposons are a particular group of retrotransposons according to their mode of transposition that implies a tyrosine recombinase. To date, they have been described in a restricted number of species in comparison with the LTR retrotransposons. In this paper, we determine the distribution of DIRS1-like elements among 25 decapod species, 10 of them living in hydrothermal vents that correspond to particularly unstable environments. Results Using PCR approaches, we have identified 15 new DIRS1-like families in 15 diverse decapod species (shrimps, lobsters, crabs and galatheid crabs). Hydrothermal organisms show a particularly great diversity of DIRS1-like elements with 5 families characterized among Alvinocarididae shrimps and 3 in the galatheid crab Munidopsis recta. Phylogenic analyses show that these elements are divergent toward the DIRS1-like families previously described in other crustaceans and arthropods and form a new clade called AlDIRS1. At larger scale, the distribution of DIRS1-like retrotransposons appears more or less patchy depending on the taxa considered. Indeed, a scattered distribution can be observed in the infraorder Brachyura whereas all the species tested in infraorders Caridea and Astacidea harbor some DIRS1-like elements. Conclusion Our results lead to nearly double both the number of DIRS1-like elements described to date, and the number of species known to harbor these ones. In this study, we provide the first degenerate primers designed to look specifically for DIRS1-like retrotransposons. They allowed for revealing for the first time a widespread distribution of these elements among a large phylum, here the order Decapoda. They also suggest some peculiar features of these retrotransposons in hydrothermal organisms where a great diversity of elements is already observed. Finally, this paper constitutes the first essential step which allows for considering further studies based on the dynamics of the DIRS1-like retrotransposons among several genomes. PMID:19400949

  4. Evolution and phylogeny of the mud shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda) revealed from complete mitochondrial genomes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The evolutionary history and relationships of the mud shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Gebiidea and Axiidea) are contentious, with previous attempts revealing mixed results. The mud shrimps were once classified in the infraorder Thalassinidea. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses, however, suggest separation of the group into two individual infraorders, Gebiidea and Axiidea. Mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence and structure can be especially powerful in resolving higher systematic relationships that may offer new insights into the phylogeny of the mud shrimps and the other decapod infraorders, and test the hypothesis of dividing the mud shrimps into two infraorders. Results We present the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of five mud shrimps, Austinogebia edulis, Upogebia major, Thalassina kelanang (Gebiidea), Nihonotrypaea thermophilus and Neaxius glyptocercus (Axiidea). All five genomes encode a standard set of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a putative control region. Except for T. kelanang, mud shrimp mitochondrial genomes exhibited rearrangements and novel patterns compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern. Each of the two Gebiidea species (A. edulis and U. major) and two Axiidea species (N. glyptocercus and N. thermophiles) share unique gene order specific to their infraorders and analyses further suggest these two derived gene orders have evolved independently. Phylogenetic analyses based on the concatenated nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 13 protein-coding genes indicate the possible polyphyly of mud shrimps, supporting the division of the group into two infraorders. However, the infraordinal relationships among the Gebiidea and Axiidea, and other reptants are poorly resolved. The inclusion of mt genome from more taxa, in particular the reptant infraorders Polychelida and Glypheidea is required in further analysis. Conclusions Phylogenetic analyses on the mt genome sequences and the distinct gene orders provide further evidences for the divergence between the two mud shrimp infraorders, Gebiidea and Axiidea, corroborating previous molecular phylogeny and justifying their infraordinal status. Mitochondrial genome sequences appear to be promising markers for resolving phylogenetic issues concerning decapod crustaceans that warrant further investigations and our present study has also provided further information concerning the mt genome evolution of the Decapoda. PMID:23153176

  5. Variability of coastal suprabenthic assemblages from sandy beaches of the Caribbean coast of Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Ileana; Martín, Alberto; Díaz, Yusbelly J

    2014-06-01

    The suprabenthos or hyperbenthos is the macrofaunal assemblage of small-sized organisms that interact for some time in the benthic boundary layer. Information about the taxonomic composition and role of suprabenthic species, especially in littoral zones, is scarce and scattered. This work attempts to contribute alleviate this problem. We analyze the temporal and spatial variations of suprabenthic assemblages in the swash-zone from four beaches of the littoral coast of Venezuela. For each beach, two sites were chosen, and special attention was given to water and sediment characteristics. 12 environmental variables were measured: Dissolved oxygen, oxygen saturation percentage, pH, salinity, surface temperature, total, organic and inorganic suspended solids, total organic carbon, organic matter in sediment, grain size of sediment, and amount of dragged material of sample. All faunal samples were taken on a monthly basis during 2011; these were extracted using a manual suprabenthic sledge towed parallel to the shoreline. Samples were sorted and identified to their lowest possible taxonomic level. A total of 24 141 specimens (mean abundance: 26.16 +/- 55.35 ind./m2) belonging to 21 taxonomic groups were identified. Analysis suggests that seasonality does not explain observed changes either in fauna or environmental variables. It was found that suprabenthic assemblages, total suprabenthos density, richness and environmental variables changed in a dissimilar fashion between months and beaches. The most frequent groups were amphipods and decapods; and at the species/categories level post-larval shrimp (Penaeidae), Grapsidae crab megalopae and Arenaeus cribarius megalopae were common. Dissimilarity between months in each beach was primarily explained by the abundance of amphipods, ctenophores, decapods and mysids. For particular months and selected beaches very high abundances of ctenophores were found. This group dominated the sample even though it is not usually a representative group in suprabenthos. Samples showed low correlations between suprabenthos and environmental variables. A somewhat stronger correlation could be established between water characteristics and dragged material abundance. The studied suprabenthos assemblage was found to have high taxa richness and very dynamic behaviour at spatial and temporal scale. Further analysis suggested that there is no evident pattern of distribution and that causality can not be directly attributed to temporal variation only. Possibly there is an influence of a synergy of environmentals or biological factors, rather than a single variable. The species Americamysis bahia and Americamysis taironana are reported for the first time in Venezuela. This study represents the first ecological research of the suprabenthos in the Caribbean region. PMID:25102634

  6. Twelve invertebrate and eight fish species new to the marine fauna of Madeira, and a discussion of the zoogeography of the area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirtz, Peter

    1998-06-01

    The benthic ctenophore Vallicula multiformis, a large undescribed flatworm species of the genus Pseudoceros, the prosobranch gastropod Tonna maculosa, the opisthobranch gastropods Placida cf. dendritica, Caloria elegans, Aeolidiella sanguinea, Janolus cristatus, the decapod Balssia gasti, the sea urchin Schizaster canaliferus and the tunicates Clavelina lepadiformis, Clavelina dellavallei and Pycnoclavella taureanensis are recorded from Madeira for the first time. This is the first record of a platyctenid ctenophore in the eastern Atlantic. The teleost fishes Pomatoschistus pictus, Vaneaugobius canariensis, Chromogobius sp., Nerophis ophidion, Hippocampus hippocampus, Acanthocybium solandri, Sphyraena viridensis and Sphyraena barracuda are recorded from Madeira for the first time. The presence of the sea-hare Aplysia dactylomela at Madeira is confirmed; the species has increased tremendously in abundance in the last four years. The crocodile fish Grammoplites gruveli can occasionally be found in the mantle cavity of cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis) sold at the fish market of Funchal, but does not originate from Madeiran waters. An analysis of 100 new records from the coastal fauna of Madeira shows that, while predominantly of lusitanian, mediterranean and mauritanian affinity, Madeira’s shallow water fauna contains a large component of tropical species.

  7. Freshwater scarcity effects on the aquatic macrofauna of a European Mediterranean-climate estuary.

    PubMed

    González-Ortegón, Enrique; Baldó, Francisco; Arias, Alberto; Cuesta, Jose A; Fernández-Delgado, Carlos; Vilas, César; Drake, Pilar

    2015-01-15

    In the Mediterranean-climate zone, recurrent drought events and increasing water demand generally lead to a decrease in freshwater input to estuaries. This water scarcity may alter the proper function of estuaries as nursery areas for marine species and as permanent habitat for estuarine species. A 12-year data set of the aquatic macrofauna (fish, decapod and mysid crustaceans) in a Mediterranean estuary (Guadalquivir estuary, South Spain) was analysed to test if water scarcity favours the nursery function of regional estuaries to the detriment of permanent estuarine inhabitants. Target species typically displayed a salinity-related distribution and estuarine salinisation in dry years resulted in a general upstream community displacement. However, annual densities of marine species were neither consistently higher in dry years nor estuarine species during wet years. Exceptions included the estuarine mysid Neomysis integer and the marine shrimp Crangon crangon, which were more abundant in wet and dry years, respectively. High and persistent turbidity, a collateral effect of water scarcity, altered both the structural (salinity-related pattern) and functional (key prey species and predator density) community characteristics, chiefly after the second drought period of the analysis. The observed high inter-year environmental variability, as well as species-specific effects of water scarcity, suggests that exhaustive and long-term sampling programmes will be required for rigorously monitoring the estuarine communities of the Mediterranean-climate region. PMID:25005237

  8. Deep-sea food web analysis using cross-reacting antisera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feller, Robert J.; Zagursky, Gregory; Day, Elizabeth A.

    1985-04-01

    The high incidence of unrecognizable prey in the stomachs of deep-sea predators prompted the application of serological methods for identification of trophic connections. Antisera to whole-organism extracts of estuarine taxa cross-reacted with antigenic protein extracts of mid-water and deep-sea taxa along phylogenetically correct lines, indicating their potential as tools for gut contents immunoassay. Stomach, intestine, and rectum contents of grenadiers ( Coryphaenoides armatus) trapped at 2500 m in the North Atlantic were analyzed visually and with 32 antisera representing taxa from 10 common deep-sea phyla. While visual analysis only revealed the presence of fluids, parasites, crustacean exoskeletons, and gastropod opercula, the immunoassay indicated the presence of antigenic proteins from holothurian, anemone, gastropod, decapod, and foraminiferan prey in the same samples. This qualitative serological identification of prey at non-specific taxonomic levels provides evidence that benthic predation may be important within deep-sea communities. The immunoassay technique, although not a panacea for elucidating food web dynamics in remote environments, may be useful when other methods fail to identify trophic pathways.

  9. Neuropeptide Action in Insects and Crustaceans*

    PubMed Central

    Mykles, Donald L.; Adams, Michael E.; Gäde, Gerd; Lange, Angela B.; Marco, Heather G.; Orchard, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Physiological processes are regulated by a diverse array of neuropeptides that coordinate organ systems. The neuropeptides, many of which act through G protein–coupled receptors, affect the levels of cyclic nucleotides (cAMP and cGMP) and Ca2+ in target tissues. In this perspective, their roles in molting, osmoregulation, metabolite utilization, and cardiovascular function are highlighted. In decapod crustaceans, inhibitory neuropeptides (molt-inihibiting hormone and crustacean hyperglycemic hormone) suppress the molting gland through cAMP- and cGMP-mediated signaling. In insects, the complex movements during ecdysis are controlled by ecdysis-triggering hormone and a cascade of downstream neuropeptides. Adipokinetic/hypertrehalosemic/hyperprolinemic hormones mobilize energy stores in response to increased locomotory activity. Crustacean cardioacceleratory (cardioactive) peptide, proctolin, and FMRFamide-related peptides act on the heart, accessory pulsatile organs, and excurrent ostia to control hemolymph distribution to tissues. The osmoregulatory challenge of blood gorging in Rhodnius prolixus requires the coordinated release of serotonin and diuretic and antidiuretic hormones acting on the midgut and Malpighian tubules. These studies illustrate how multiple neuropeptides allow for flexibility in response to physiological challenges. PMID:20550437

  10. Astacin Family Metallopeptidases and Serine Peptidase Inhibitors in Spider Digestive Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Foradori, Matthew J.; Tillinghast, Edward K.; Smith, J. Stephen; Townley, Mark A.; Mooney, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    Digestive fluid of the araneid spider Argiope aurantia is known to contain zinc metallopeptidases. Using anion-exchange chromatography, size-exclusion chromatography, sucrose density gradient centrifugation, and gel electrophoresis, we isolated two lower-molecular-mass peptidases, designated p16 and p18. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of p16 (37 residues) and p18 (20 residues) are 85% identical over the first 20 residues and are most similar to the N-terminal sequences of the fully active form of meprin (β subunits) from several vertebrates (47–52% and 50–60% identical, respectively). Meprin is a peptidase in the astacin (M12A) subfamily of the astacin (M12) family. Additionally, a 66-residue internal sequence obtained from p16 aligns with the conserved astacin subfamily domain. Thus, at least some spider digestive peptidases appear related to astacin of decapod crustaceans. However, important differences between spider and crustacean metallopeptidases with regard to isoelectric point and their susceptibility to hemolymph-borne inhibitors are demonstrated. Anomalous behavior of the lower-molecular-mass Argiope peptidases during certain fractionation procedures indicates that these peptidases may take part in reversible associations with each other or with other proteins. A. aurantia digestive fluid also contains inhibitory activity effective against insect digestive peptidases. Here we present evidence for at least thirteen, heat-stable serine peptidase inhibitors ranging in molecular mass from about 15 to 32 kDa. PMID:16458560

  11. Development of a biomimetic underwater ambulatory robot: advantages of matching biomimetic control architecture with biomimetic actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witting, Jan H.; Ayers, Joseph; Safak, Koray

    2000-10-01

    The American Lobster Homarus americanus is a highly mobile marine decapod, ubiquitous to the benthic environment of the eastern North Atlantic. Lobsters occupy a range of subtidal habitats on the continental shelf, and are capable of navigating through spatially complex boulder fields, as well as coping with variable water currents. Given these competencies, we have adopted the lobster as a design model for a biomimetic autonomous underwater vehicle intended for operation in similar environments. A central motor pattern generator model was developed from electromyographic data from lobsters, and is being implemented on an eight-legged ambulatory vehicle. The vehicle uses Nitinol shape-memory alloy wires as linear actuators, physically modeling the antagonistic muscle pairs of a lobster leg. The contraction of the wires is produced by heating them with an electrical current. This produces a change in the crystalline structure of the material from a martensite to an austenite state, resulting in a 5% contraction of the wire. Three pairs of wires are used around three joints to produce a three-degrees-of-freedom walking leg. Current drivers power the actuators, and pulse-width modulation is used to obtain graded contractions from the muscles. The combination of a biologically based control system coupled with a linear actuator sharing many characteristics of invertebrate muscle tissue has enabled us to construct a biomimetic ambulatory robot sharing some of the competencies of the model.

  12. Community response of zooplankton to oceanographic changes (2002-2012) in the central/southern upwelling system of Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medellín-Mora, Johanna; Escribano, Ruben; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    A 10-year time series (2002-2012) at Station 18 off central/southern Chile allowed us to study variations in zooplankton along with interannual variability and trends in oceanographic conditions. We used an automated analysis program (ZooImage) to assess changes in the mesozooplankton size structure and the composition of the taxa throughout the entire community. Oceanographic conditions changed over the decade: the water column became less stratified, more saline, and colder; the mixed layer deepened; and the oxygen minimum zone became shallower during the second half of the time series (2008-2012) in comparison with the first period (2002-2007). Both the size structure and composition of the zooplankton were significantly associated with oceanographic changes. Taxonomic and size diversity of the zooplankton community increased to the more recent period. For the second period, small sized copepods (<1 mm) decreased in abundance, being replaced by larger sized (>1.5 mm) and medium size copepods (1-1.5 mm), whereas euphausiids, decapod larvae, appendicularian and ostracods increased their abundance during the second period. These findings indicated that the zooplankton community structure in this eastern boundary ecosystem was strongly influenced by variability of the upwelling process. Thus, climate-induced forcing of upwelling trends can alter the zooplankton community in this highly productive region with potential consequences for the ecosystem food web.

  13. Flow cytometric characterization of freshwater crayfish hemocytes for the examination of physiological status in wild and captive animals.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sean; Landman, Michael J; Ling, Nicholas

    2009-09-01

    Enumeration of invertebrate hemocytes is a potentially powerful tool for the determination of physiological effects of extrinsic stressors, such as hypoxia, disease, and toxicant exposure. A detailed flow cytometric method of broad application was developed for the objective characterization and enumeration of the hemocytes of New Zealand freshwater crayfish Paranephrops planifrons for the purpose of physiological health assessment. Hemocyte populations were isolated by flow cytometric sorting based on differential light scatter properties followed by morphological characterization via light microscopy and software image analysis. Cells were identified as hyaline, semigranular, and granular hemocytes based on established invertebrate hemocyte classification. A characteristic decrease in nuclear size, an increase in granularity between the hyaline and granular cells, and the eccentric location of nuclei in granular cells were also observed. The granulocyte subpopulations were observed to possess varying degrees of granularity. The developed methodology was used to perform total and differential hemocyte counts from three lake populations and between wild and captive crayfish specimens. Differences in total and differential hemocyte counts were not observed among the wild populations. However, specimens held in captivity for 14 d exhibited a significant 63% reduction in total hemocyte count, whereas the relative hemocyte proportions remained the same. These results demonstrate the utility of this method for the investigation of subacute stressor effects in selected decapod crustaceans. PMID:20043407

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Japanese fan lobster Ibacus ciliatus (Crustacea, Achelata, Scyllaridae).

    PubMed

    Ahn, Dong-Ha; Kim, Sanghee; Park, Joong-Ki; Shin, Sook; Min, Gi-Sik

    2016-05-01

    Slipper lobsters are a unique group of decapod crustaceans; they have cylindrical or flattened bodies and belong to the family Scyllaridae. The genus Ibacus (Leach, 1815) (Achelata, Scyllaridae, Ibacinae) consists of eight recognized species to date, all of which occur in the Indo-West Pacific Ocean and are commercially important seafood species. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Japanese fan lobster Ibacus ciliatus (Von Siebold, 1824) is 15,696 bp in size and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs, and a control region of 783 bp. The base composition of I. ciliatus is 35.8% A, 34.7% T, 19.0% C, and 10.5% G, with an overall AT content of 70.5%. The mitogenome of I. ciliatus was found to have gene arrangement and transcriptional polarity identical to that of the American lobster Homarus americanus, showing the pancrustacean ground pattern. Here, we present the complete mitogenome sequence of I. ciliatus; it is the first mitogenome information from the subfamily Ibacinae, and represents the second for the family Scyllaridae. PMID:25329294

  15. Palynology of carcinolites and limestones from the Baunilha Grande Ecofacies of the Pirabas Formation (Miocene of Pará state, northeastern Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonioli, Luzia; de Araújo Távora, Vladimir; Dino, Rodolfo

    2015-10-01

    The Pirabas Formation records important transgressive/regressive marine events in northern Brazil during the Miocene. Here, we present the results of a palynological analysis of four samples from finely stratified gray limestone and associated carbonate concretions bearing decapod crustacean remains. These sampled strata are representatives of the Baunilha Grande Ecofacies, and our analysis enhances the knowledge of local biostratigraphy and paleoecology. The palynoflora is dominated by taxa typical of Neogene tropical areas, such as Zonocostites ramonae (the most common species), together with Retitricolpites and Retitricolporites genera. Commonly represented are the smooth and apiculate trilete/monolete spores (Polypodiisporites, Verrucosisporites, Magnastriatites, and Deltoidospora), in conjunction with some freshwater algae (Ovoidites and Botryococcus). Gymnosperm pollen grains were absent. Marine microplankton (dinoflagellate cysts, acritarchs and foraminiferal test linings) are scarce, although present in all samples. The presence of the index species, Malvacipolloides maristellae and Pachydermites diederixii, co-occurring with Zonocostites ramonae and Lanagiopollis crassa, suggests that these sediments and concretions belong to the "T-13 Malvacipolloides maristellae" palynozone (Jaramillo et al., 2011), considered as late-Early Miocene in age. Palynological and sedimentological evidence further points to a predominantly continental depositional environment with a weak marine influence, as indicated by the persistent presence of sparse dinoflagellate cysts, acritarchs and foraminiferal test linings, typical of a mangrove environment.

  16. Three-dimensional reconstruction of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) spermatozoa using serial block-face scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Feng, Tianyi; Paterson, Brian D; Webb, Robyn; Johnston, Stephen D

    2016-05-01

    Serial Block-Face Scanning Electron Microscopy (SBF-SEM) was used in this study to examine the ultrastructural morphology of Penaeus monodon spermatozoa. SBF-SEM provided a large dataset of sequential electron-microscopic-level images that facilitated comprehensive ultrastructural observations and three-dimensional reconstructions of the sperm cell. Reconstruction divulged a nuclear region of the spermatophoral spermatozoon filled with decondensed chromatin but with two apparent levels of packaging density. In addition, the nuclear region contained, not only numerous filamentous chromatin elements with dense microregions, but also large centrally gathered granular masses. Analysis of the sperm cytoplasm revealed the presence of degenerated mitochondria and membrane-less dense granules. A large electron-lucent vesicle and "arch-like" structures were apparent in the subacrosomal area, and an acrosomal core was found in the acrosomal vesicle. The spermatozoal spike arose from the inner membrane of the acrosomal vesicle, which was slightly bulbous in the middle region of the acrosomal vesicle, but then extended distally into a broad dense plate and to a sharp point proximally. This study has demonstrated that SBF-SEM is a powerful technique for the 3D ultrastructural reconstruction of prawn spermatozoa, that will no doubt be informative for further studies of sperm assessment, reproductive pathology and the spermiocladistics of penaeid prawns, and other decapod crustaceans. J. Morphol. 277:565-574, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26877112

  17. Ichnofabrics of the Capdevila Formation (early Eocene) in the Los Palacios Basin (western Cuba): Paleoenvironmental and paleoecological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villegas-Martín, Jorge; Netto, Renata Guimarães; Lavina, Ernesto Luis Correa; Rojas-Consuegra, Reinaldo

    2014-12-01

    The ichnofabrics present in the early Eocene siliciclastic deposits of the Capdevila Formation exposed in the Pinar del Rio area (Los Palacios Basin, western Cuba) are analyzed in this paper and their paleoecological and paleoenvironmental significance are discussed. Nine ichnofabrics were recognized in the dominantly sandy sedimentary succession: Ophiomorpha, Asterosoma, Thalassinoides, Palaeophycus, Scolicia, Bichordites-Thalassinoides, Rhizocorallium, Scolicia-Thalassinoides and rhizobioturbation. Diversity of ichnofauna is low and burrows made by detritus-feeding organisms in well oxygenated and stenohaline waters predominate. Suites of the Cruziana and Skolithos Ichnofacies lacking their archetypical characteristics were recognized, being impoverished in diversity and presenting dominance of echinoderm and decapods crustacean burrows as a response to the environmental stress caused by the high frequency of deposition. The ichnofabric distribution in the studied succession, its recurrence in the sandstone beds and the presence of a Glossifungites Ichnofacies suite with rhizobioturbation associated reflect a shoaling-upward event with subaerial exposure of the substrate. The integrated analysis of the ichnology and the sedimentary facies suggests deposition in a shallow slope frequently impacted by gravitational flows and high-energy events. The evidence of substrate exposure indicates the occurrence of a forced regression and suggests the existence of a sequence boundary at the top of the Capdevila Formation.

  18. Ichnofauna from the Harbans Bed of the Badhaura Formation (Sterlitmakian), Rajasthan, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Kantimati G.; Borkar, Vidyadhar D.

    2014-03-01

    In the first ever systematic study of trace fossils from the Badhaura Formation, the authors described a nesting burrow, which they ascribed to a stomatopod. The purpose of this paper is two-fold: primarily, to document ichnofauna from (post-glacial marine late Palaeozoic rocks of peninsular India) the Badhaura Formation (Sterlitmakian) representing marine rocks deposited following the Late Palaeozoic glaciation and secondly to contribute to the data on post-glacial ichnofauna from constituent continents of the Gondwanaland. Trace fossils described here are from the Harbans Bed, the topmost lithounit of the Badhaura Formation. The ichnofauna includes Arenicolites tenuis, Beaconites isp., Curvolithus isp., Cylindrichnus concentricus, Didymaulichnus lyelli, Ophiomorpha isp., Palaeophycus tubularis, Planolites beverleyensis, P. montanus, Rosselia chonoides, R. socialis, Skolithos linearis, Taenidium cameronensis, Thalassinoides paradoxicus, Thalassinoides isp. and a flask-shaped brood chamber assigned to a stomatopod crustacean. This mixed assemblage is assigned to distal Skolithos ichnofacies and is suggestive of a period of relatively quiet, shallow water conditions of deposition. The ichnofauna, when viewed in context of peri-gondwanic ichnofaunas, mainly consisting of simple tracks and trails, from late Palaeozoic post-glacial deposits of other Gondwanan continents, is interesting due to dominance of domichnia. Profusion of brood chambers along with Thalassinoides in the Badhaura Formation validates the concept of pre-Mesozoic Thalassinoides being non-decapod in origin and suggestive of adaptive convergence.

  19. Identification and characterization of androgenic gland specific insulin-like peptide-encoding transcripts in two spiny lobster species: Sagmariasus verreauxi and Jasus edwardsii.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Tomer; Fitzgibbon, Quinn; Battaglene, Stephen; Sagi, Amir; Elizur, Abigail

    2015-04-01

    In this study we describe, for the first time in spiny lobsters, the androgenic gland and its putative hormone. The androgenic gland in crustaceans is the key regulator of crustacean masculinity. The transcript encoding the insulin-like androgenic gland specific factor has recently been identified and characterized in a number of decapod crustacean species including commercially important crabs, crayfish, prawns and shrimps. This insulin-like factor has proven to be the androgenic gland masculinizing hormone, and is absent in females. While the androgenic gland and its putative hormone have been identified in all other commercially valuable groups, none had been identified in lobsters. We identified and characterized the androgenic glands of two spiny lobster species (Sagmariasus verreauxi and Jasus edwardsii) and conducted a transcriptomic analysis of the S. verreauxi androgenic gland. Bioinformatics analysis led to the discovery and characterization of the insulin-like androgenic gland specific factors in both species studied. Changes in androgenic gland cell size and quantity between sub-adult and sexually mature males were evident. The transcriptomic database established for the S. verreauxi androgenic gland might enable to elucidate the mechanisms through which the insulin-like factor is secreted, transported to the target cells and how it triggers the physiological effects of sexual differentiation towards maleness and maintenance of the male gonad. PMID:24997416

  20. Olfactory organ of Octopus vulgaris: morphology, plasticity, turnover and sensory characterization.

    PubMed

    Polese, Gianluca; Bertapelle, Carla; Di Cosmo, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The cephalopod olfactory organ was described for the first time in 1844 by von Kölliker, who was attracted to the pair of small pits of ciliated cells on each side of the head, below the eyes close to the mantle edge, in both octopuses and squids. Several functional studies have been conducted on decapods but very little is known about octopods. The morphology of the octopus olfactory system has been studied, but only to a limited extent on post-hatching specimens, and the only paper on adult octopus gives a minimal description of the olfactory organ. Here, we describe the detailed morphology of young male and female Octopus vulgaris olfactory epithelium, and using a combination of classical morphology and 3D reconstruction techniques, we propose a new classification for O. vulgaris olfactory sensory neurons. Furthermore, using specific markers such as olfactory marker protein (OMP) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) we have been able to identify and differentially localize both mature olfactory sensory neurons and olfactory sensory neurons involved in epithelium turnover. Taken together, our data suggest that the O. vulgaris olfactory organ is extremely plastic, capable of changing its shape and also proliferating its cells in older specimens. PMID:27069253

  1. Lethal and sublethal effects of chlorine, phenol, and chlorine-phenol mixtures on the mud crab, Panopeus herbstii

    SciTech Connect

    Key, P.B.; Scott, G.I.

    1986-11-01

    The mud crab, Panopeus herbstii, was acutely exposed (96-hr) to chlorine-produced oxidants (CPO), phenol, and a CPO-phenolic mixture (1:1) to determine lethal and sublethal effects. The 96-hr (LC/sub 50/) values were determined for each individual compound and mixture. Additionally, whole-animal respiration rates were measured following acute exposure to sublethal concentrations of each compound or mixture. Phenol uptake/depuration rates were measured in the phenol and CPO-phenol mixture concentrations. Results indicated 96-hr LC/sub 50/ values of 1.06 mg/L for CPO, 52.8 mg/L for phenol, and 184.7 mg/L total toxicant units (TTU) for the CPO-phenol mixture. Statistical analysis indicated that the acute toxicity of the CPO-phenol mixture was less than additive. Sublethal studies indicated that only acute exposure to sublethal concentrations of CPO caused altered respiration rates. After 96-hr depuration, metabolic rates in all CPO-exposure crabs generally returned to control rates. Uptake/depuration rate studies indicated significantly lower phenol uptake rates in crabs exposed to the CPO-phenol mixture. These findings suggest that the less-than-additive toxicity of the CPO-phenol mixture may result from lowered uptake/depuration rate kinetics and indicate that the discharge of chlorinated-phenolic waste may not result in additive and/or synergistic interactions, but rather in less-than-additive effect on decapod aquatic species.

  2. Analysis of Stomach and Gut Microbiomes of the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) from Coastal Louisiana, USA

    PubMed Central

    King, Gary M.; Judd, Craig; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Smith, Conor

    2012-01-01

    We used high throughput pyrosequencing to characterize stomach and gut content microbiomes of Crassostrea virginica, the Easter oyster, obtained from two sites, one in Barataria Bay (Hackberry Bay) and the other in Terrebonne Bay (Lake Caillou), Louisiana, USA. Stomach microbiomes in oysters from Hackberry Bay were overwhelmingly dominated by Mollicutes most closely related to Mycoplasma; a more rich community dominated by Planctomyctes occurred in Lake Caillou oyster stomachs. Gut communities for oysters from both sites differed from stomach communities, and harbored a relatively diverse assemblage of phylotypes. Phylotypes most closely related to Shewanella and a Chloroflexi strain dominated the Lake Caillou and Hackberry Bay gut microbiota, respectively. While many members of the stomach and gut microbiomes appeared to be transients or opportunists, a putative core microbiome was identified based on phylotypes that occurred in all stomach or gut samples only. The putative core stomach microbiome comprised 5 OTUs in 3 phyla, while the putative core gut microbiome contained 44 OTUs in 12 phyla. These results collectively revealed novel microbial communities within the oyster digestive system, the functions of the oyster microbiome are largely unknown. A comparison of microbiomes from Louisiana oysters with bacterial communities reported for other marine invertebrates and fish indicated that molluscan microbiomes were more similar to each other than to microbiomes of polychaetes, decapods and fish. PMID:23251548

  3. The Role of Road Corridors on Riparian Vegetation and Stream Ecosystem Dynamics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowl, T.; Heartsill-Scalley, T.; Covich, A. P.; Hein, C. L.

    2005-05-01

    Stream ecosystems are dependent on organic material from the riparian zone as a major energy source for the food web. Leaf litter (organic matter) entering streams is processed by a combination of physical and biological mechanisms. In temperate streams, microbial conditioning is important for detrital processing. Much less is known in tropical systems, especially those dominated by large macro-consumers such as decapods. There is also variation among species in terms of processing rates that are explained by nutritional value, chemical defenses and palatability. These traits are a function of plant life history. If riparian species are being significantly altered through invasions by exotic species along road corridors, then we can expect changes in detrital processing rates and ultimately, ecosystem function. As part of a biocomplexity project in Puerto Rico, we are quantifying the changes to species composition and trait-mediated decomposition and foodweb dynamics. Where roads are constructed, exotic invasives include Spathodea, Bambusa, Syzigium and a various grasses. Because of the chemical defenses and their high nutritional value, decomposition rates on these species is much higher than for native riparian species. The increased breakdown rates may `accelerate' ecosystem processes and either enhance or destabilize existing food web linkages.

  4. Road and stream network connectivity and potential: northeastern Puerto Rico, an exploratory analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherrill, K. R.; Laituri, M. J.; Helmer, E. H.; Ramirez, J. A.; Blanco, J. F.; Hein, K.; Pike, A. S.

    2008-07-01

    Interactions between road and stream networks are complex and are influenced by a range of environmental and road design characteristics. These interactions are not clearly understood and are the subjects of current research. To increase understanding of these interactions we explore the concepts of Road and Stream Network Connectivity (R/S Connectivity) and Road and Stream Network Connectivity Potential (RSNCP). Lastly we provide a methodology for study and analysis of R/S connectivity. This study focuses on road induced alterations to sediment and water flow processes, which are important road effects of R/S connectivity. For 25 river road crossings (RRC) in the Rio Mameyes and Rio Espiritu watersheds of Northeastern Puerto Rico, a multi-scale Geographic Information Systems (GIS) database measuring environmental and road characteristic variables was developed specifically to measure variables influencing sediment and water flow. Multivariate analysis methods were used to select the environmental and road characteristic variables which were used in multiple linear regression models for three biota variables (Decapod Richness, Adult Fish Richness, and Total Richness), and four stream habitat geomorphology variables (Median Channel Grain Size, Active Channel Maximum Depth, Pool Volume, and Active Channel Width). Explained variance (R2) from modeling results ranged from 0.22 to 0.86, demonstrating that the GIS derived variables can successfully be used to model important stream biota and geomorphology response variables.

  5. Direct Age Determination of a Subtropical Freshwater Crayfish (Redclaw, Cherax quadricarinatus) Using Ossicular Growth Marks.

    PubMed

    Leland, Jesse C; Bucher, Daniel J; Coughran, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have reported that crustacean age determination is possible. We applied a direct ageing method (i.e. transverse cross sectioning of gastric ossicles) to a subtropical freshwater crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) sourced from an aquaculture population. Growth mark periodicity and the potential for chronological depositions were investigated by staining C. quadricarinatus with calcein and examining their ossicles a year later. Pterocardiac ossicles were superior to other ageing structures (i.e. other ossicles and eyestalks) and produced repeatable between-reader counts (87% were corroborated and 13% varied by ±1). C. quadricarinatus size-at-age data (for an aquaculture population) was described by a von Bertalanffy growth equation (L∞ = 32 mm occipital carapace length; K = 0.64; t0 = -0.18; R2 = 0.81). Ossicular growth marks did not correspond to moult history. The calcein stain was retained over an annual cycle comprising multiple moults, demonstrating that pterocardiac ossicles retain chronological information. The maximum age (3+) corroborated other indirectly-obtained longevity estimates for C. quadricarinatus. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that the growth marks in C. quadricarinatus ossicles are probably deposited annually during winter. The ability to extract age information from subtropical decapods provides substantial opportunities for advancing fisheries and conservation research globally, but further research is needed to provide a definitive validation and elucidate the mechanism governing the accrual of ossicular growth marks. PMID:26309228

  6. Some like it hot: Thermal tolerance and oxygen supply capacity in two eurythermal crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Ern, Rasmus; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Madsen, Peter Teglberg; Wang, Tobias; Bayley, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Thermal sensitivity of the cardiorespiratory oxygen supply capacity has been proposed as the cardinal link underlying the upper boundary of the temperature niche in aquatic ectotherms. Here we examined the evidence for this link in two eurythermal decapods, the Giant tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and the European crayfish (Astacus astacus). We found that both species have a temperature resistant cardiorespiratory system, capable of maintaining oxygen delivery up to their upper critical temperature (Tcrit). In neither species was Tcrit reduced in hypoxia (60% air saturation) and both species showed an exponential increase in heart and gill ventilation rates up to their Tcrit. Further, failure of action potential conduction in preparations of A. astacus motor neurons coincided with Tcrit, indicating that compromised nervous function may provide the underlying determinant for Tcrit rather than oxygen delivery. At high temperatures, absolute aerobic scope was maintained in P. monodon, but reduced in A. astacus. However, A. astacus also displayed reduced exercise intensity indicating that impaired muscle performance with resulting reduced tissue oxygen demand may explain the reduced scope rather than insufficient oxygen supply capacity. This interpretation agrees with early literature on aquatic ectotherms, correlating loss of nervous function with impaired locomotion as temperatures approach Tcrit. PMID:26030412

  7. Morphological and physiological development of anterior thoracic stretch receptors in two isopods, Armadillidium vulgare and Ligia exotica.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Masazumi; Ohata, Ayako; Niida, Akiyoshi

    2007-07-01

    Abdominal muscle receptor organs (MROs) monitor the position and movement of abdomen in crustaceans. Thoracic segments of decapods are fused and immovable. It is speculated that MROs had retrograded simple shape, N-cells that lost receptor muscles, a receptor cell and accessory nerves. We focused on the effect of segmental movement in respect to thoracic N-cells and MROs in isopods that have movable thoracic segments. Armadillidium vulgare rolled up its body segments. Ligia exotica swam by quick movement of the posterior thoracic segments. Both isopods possessed N-cells and MROs in the thorax. N-cells were a simple structure, but N-cells from the second and third thoracic segments of A. vulgare had a muscle strand. MROs(T3-T4) (from the third and fourth thoracic segments) of A. vulgare had two receptor muscles. MROs(T3-T4) of L. exotica had one long receptor muscle. N-cells of both species and MROs of A. vulgare showed slowly adapting stretch-activated discharges. MROs of L. exotica showed both slowly and rapidly adapting discharges. The stretch-activated responses of N-cells and MROs inhibited each other. N-cells or MROs in the thorax of isopods are not related to the segmental structure. The morphology and physiology of N-cells and MROs are specialized to species-specific behaviors. PMID:17473927

  8. Comparison of the feeding apparatus and diet of European sardines Sardina pilchardus of Atlantic and Mediterranean waters: ecological implications.

    PubMed

    Costalago, D; Garrido, S; Palomera, I

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the feeding apparatus (gill rakers, GR) and the diet composition of European sardine Sardina pilchardus populations living in two contrasting environments were compared: the upwelling area off western Iberia and the comparatively less productive region of the north-western Mediterranean Sea. The importance of local adaptations in the trophic ecology of this species was estimated. Sardina pilchardus from the Atlantic Iberian coast and from the north-western Mediterranean Sea have clear differences in the feeding apparatus and diet compositions. Those from the Atlantic Iberian coast have significantly more GRs than S. pilchardus of the same size range in the Mediterranean Sea. While S. pilchardus from the Mediterranean Sea mostly depend on prey ranging between 750-1500 and 3000-4000 µm, corresponding mostly to cladocerans, decapods and copepods, those from the Atlantic depend on smaller prey (50-500 and 1000-1500 µm) that include phytoplankton and copepods, particularly during summer months, and S. pilchardus eggs during the winter. The marked difference between the trophic ecology of S. pilchardus in the two areas studied appears to have originated from different dietary strategies that the two populations have adopted in contrasting feeding environments. These differences are shown to profoundly affect the size and quality of prey consumed, and the effect of cannibalism on the populations. PMID:25846858

  9. Evolution of the central complex in the arthropod brain with respect to the visual system.

    PubMed

    Homberg, Uwe

    2008-09-01

    Modular midline neuropils, termed arcuate body (Chelicerata, Onychophora) or central body (Myriapoda, Crustacea, Insecta), are a prominent feature of the arthropod brain. In insects and crayfish, the central body is connected to a second midline-spanning neuropil, the protocerebral bridge. Both structures are collectively termed central complex. While some investigators have assumed that central and arcuate bodies are homologous, others have questioned this view. Stimulated by recent evidence for a role of the central complex in polarization vision and object recognition, the architectures of midline neuropils and their associations with the visual system were compared across panarthropods. In chelicerates and onychophorans, second-order neuropils subserving the median eyes are associated with the arcuate body. The central complex of decapods and insects, instead, receives indirect input from the lateral (compound) eye visual system, and connections with median eye (ocellar) projections are present. Together with other characters these data are consistent with a common origin of arcuate bodies and central complexes from an ancestral modular midline neuropil but, depending on the choice of characters, the protocerebral bridge or the central body shows closer affinity with the arcuate body. A possible common role of midline neuropils in azimuth-dependent sensory and motor tasks is discussed. PMID:18502176

  10. High genetic diversity and absence of founder effects in a worldwide aquatic invader.

    PubMed

    Lejeusne, Christophe; Saunier, Alice; Petit, Nicolas; Béguer, Mélanie; Otani, Michio; Carlton, James T; Rico, Ciro; Green, Andy J

    2014-01-01

    The introduced oriental shrimp Palaemon macrodactylus has recently become widespread in temperate estuaries worldwide. However, this recent worldwide spread outside of its native range arises after a previous introduction to the US Pacific coast, where it was restricted for more than 30 years. Using a phylogeographic approach, the present work investigates the genetic history of the invasion of this decapod worldwide. Japan acted as the main native source area for worldwide introduced populations, but other native areas (likely South Korea and China) may act as source populations as well. The recently introduced European and NW Atlantic populations result from colonization from both Japan and an unknown area of the native range, although colonization from the NE Pacific could not be ruled out. Most introduced populations had higher haplotypic diversity than most native populations. P. macrodactylus has a strong potential to become one of the most widespread introduced species and may become the dominant estuarine shrimp in Europe. The ecological and economic consequences of this invasion remain to be thoroughly evaluated. PMID:25060780

  11. The timing and pattern of biotic recovery following the end-Permian mass extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Benton, Michael J.

    2012-06-01

    The aftermath of the great end-Permian period mass extinction 252 Myr ago shows how life can recover from the loss of >90% species globally. The crisis was triggered by a number of physical environmental shocks (global warming, acid rain, ocean acidification and ocean anoxia), and some of these were repeated over the next 5-6 Myr. Ammonoids and some other groups diversified rapidly, within 1-3 Myr, but extinctions continued through the Early Triassic period. Triassic ecosystems were rebuilt stepwise from low to high trophic levels through the Early to Middle Triassic, and a stable, complex ecosystem did not re-emerge until the beginning of the Middle Triassic, 8-9 Myr after the crisis. A positive aspect of the recovery was the emergence of entirely new groups, such as marine reptiles and decapod crustaceans, as well as new tetrapods on land, including -- eventually -- dinosaurs. The stepwise recovery of life in the Triassic could have been delayed either by biotic drivers (complex multispecies interactions) or physical perturbations, or a combination of both. This is an example of the wider debate about the relative roles of intrinsic and extrinsic drivers of large-scale evolution.

  12. Ancient lakes as evolutionary reservoirs: evidence from the thalassoid gastropods of Lake Tanganyika.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Anthony B; Glaubrecht, Matthias; Meyer, Axel

    2004-03-01

    Ancient lakes are often collectively viewed as evolutionary hot spots of diversification. East Africa's Lake Tanganyika has long been the subject of scientific interest owing to dramatic levels of endemism in species as diverse as cichlid fishes, paludomid gastropods, decapod and ostracod crustaceans and poriferans. It is the largest and deepest of the African rift lakes, and its endemic fauna has been presented with a stable inland environment for over 10 Myr, offering unique opportunities for within-lake diversification. Although astonishing diversification has been documented in the endemic cichlid fauna of the lake, similar patterns of rapid diversification have long been assumed for other groups. In contrast to this hypothesis of rapid speciation, we show here that there has been no acceleration in the rate of speciation in the thalassoid gastropods of the lake following lake colonization. While limited within-lake speciation has occurred, the dramatic conchological diversity of gastropods presently found within the lake has evolved from at least four major lineages that pre-date its formation by as much as 40 Myr. At the same time, a widespread group of African gastropods appears to have evolved from taxa presently found in the lake. While Lake Tanganyika has been a cradle of speciation for cichlid fishes, it has also been an important evolutionary reservoir of gastropod lineages that have been extirpated outside the basin. PMID:15129964

  13. Evidence of secondary consumption of invertebrate prey by Double-crested Cormorants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J.H.; Ross, R.M.; Smith, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    The piscivorous nature of the Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) is well documented. However, many researchers who have used regurgitated pellets to describe the diet of cormorants report that invertebrates compose a small but consistent portion of the diet. We examined the hypothesis that invertebrates found in pellets are primarily the result of secondary consumption. We used odds ratio analysis to examine associations in 2,846 individual pellets between the presence of specific invertebrate prey and the presence of fish species known to consume those invertebrate taxa. Significant (P < 0.05) relationships occurred between gastropods and pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus) and ictalurids, and between decapods and rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris) and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu). Significant (P < 0.05) relationships were also found between pelecypods and pumpkinseed and ictalurids. We suggest that the invertebrate prey we observed in pellets were present in the digestive tracts of fish that were consumed by Double-crested Cormorants and hence represent secondary consumption by cormorants. We conclude that consumption of invertebrates by Double-crested Cormorants may be overestimated in the literature in instances where the diet was described using pellets.

  14. Seasonal changes in the demersal nekton community off the Changjiang River estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yazhou; Ling, Jianzhong; Li, Jiansheng; Yang, Linlin; Li, Shengfa

    2014-03-01

    The diversity, community structure and seasonal variation in demersal nekton off the Changjiang (Yangtze) River estuary was evaluated using monthly trawl survey data, collected between December 2008 and November 2009. A total of 95 species (56 teleosts, 11 cephalopods, and 28 decapod crustaceans) from 69 genera, 49 families and 15 orders were collected. These species could be classified into six groups on the basis of temporal distribution patterns. The resident crab Ovalipes punctatus dominated the community, both in number and biomass. A clear seasonal succession was observed in the species composition. Cluster analysis revealed three primary seasonal groups corresponding to the samples collected in winter-spring, late spring-summer and late summer-autumn. The highest biomass and lowest diversity were observed in summer, while the lowest biomass and highest diversity in winter. The abundance-biomass comparison curves and community composition suggested that the investigated community was moderately disturbed. The results suggest that reduction in fishing pressure and in the degree of seasonal hypoxia are essential for sustainable resource management off the Changjiang River estuary.

  15. An in vitro screening with emerging contaminants reveals inhibition of carboxylesterase activity in aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Solé, Montserrat; Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan C

    2015-12-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) form part of the new generation of pollutants present in many freshwater and marine ecosystems. Although environmental concentrations of these bioactive substances are low, they cause sublethal effects (e.g., enzyme inhibition) in non-target organisms. However, little is known on metabolism of PPCPs by non-mammal species. Herein, an in vitro enzyme trial was performed to explore sensitivity of carboxylesterase (CE) activity of aquatic organisms to fourteen PPCPs. The esterase activity was determined in the liver of Mediterranean freshwater fish (Barbus meridionalis and Squalius laietanus), coastal marine fish (Dicentrarchus labrax and Solea solea), middle-slope fish (Trachyrhynchus scabrus), deep-sea fish (Alepocephalus rostratus and Cataetix laticeps), and in the digestive gland of a decapod crustacean (Aristeus antennatus). Results showed that 100μM of the lipid regulators simvastatin and fenofibrate significantly inhibited (30-80% of controls) the CE activity of all target species. Among the personal care products, nonylphenol and triclosan were strong esterase inhibitors in most species (36-68% of controls). Comparison with literature data suggests that fish CE activity is as sensitive to inhibition by some PPCPs as that of mammals, although their basal activity levels are lower than in mammals. Pending further studies on the interaction between PPCPs and CE activity, we postulate that this enzyme may act as a molecular sink for certain PPCPs in a comparable way than that described for the organophosphorus pesticides. PMID:26562051

  16. Diet composition of Bathylagus euryops (Osmeriformes: Bathylagidae) along the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweetman, C. J.; Sutton, T. T.; Vecchione, M.; Latour, R. J.

    2014-10-01

    The northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge, from Iceland to the Azores (MAR), is the largest topographical feature in the Atlantic Ocean. Despite its size, few studies have described dietary patterns of pelagic fishes along the MAR. MAR-ECO, a Census of Marine Life field project, aimed to describe the food web structure of abundant fish species along the ridge through a series of research expeditions to the MAR. Among the midwater fishes sampled during the MAR-ECO project, Bathylagus euryops (Osmeriformes: Bathylagidae) was the biomass-dominant pelagic species and ranked third in total abundance. In this paper, we describe the dietary composition of B. euryops along the MAR. Overall, copepods represented the dominant prey group consumed by B. euryops. Multivariate analyses, including a cluster analysis and a canonical correspondence analysis, revealed that fish size significantly influenced the diet of B. euryops with ostracods representing the most important prey group at small sizes (<95 mm) and decapod shrimp and calanoid copepods becoming more important with increasing fish size. Due to the high abundance and biomass observed along the MAR combined with its role as a link for energy transfer between zooplankton and higher trophic level predators, B. euryops appears to be an ecologically important species in the oceanic food web of the North Atlantic Ocean.

  17. Fauna and paleoecological setting of the La Meseta Formation (Eocene), Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Feldmann, R.M.; Wiedman, L.A.; Zinsmeister, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    The La Meseta Formation, an Eocene sandstone from Seymour Island, Palmer Peninsula, Antarctica, has yielded a diverse fossil assemblage of body and trace fossils representative of a cool temperate, littoral to shallow sublittoral habitat. Over 61 taxa of macroinvertebrates, excluding gastropod body fossils, and more than 18 ichnogenera collected from the La Meseta represent the largest, most comprehensive and most diverse assemblage of Paleogene fossils from Antarctica. Included in the body fossil assemblage are species representative of at least 26 taxa of bivales, four taxa of echinoids, two of crinoids, two of ophiuroids, two of asteroids, one inarticulate and four articulate brachiopods, two barnacles, six decapod crustaceans, two cyclostome and two cheilostome bryozoans, a scaphopod and one coral. The traces include several burrow forms characteristic of the Skolithos ichnofacies of Seilacher (1967), several halo and rind burrows, gastropod predation borings, and abundant examples of teredid bivalve borings in lithified wood.Autecological analyses of the preserved organisms and environmental interpretations of the ichnogenera indicate a littoral to very shallow sublittoral environment of deposition, generally above wave base, for the la Meseta Sandstone. Modern congeneric descendants of the body fossils are known to inhabit both deep water and shallow water habitats. Of the 20 extant genera of bivalves reported from the La Meseta, 19 generally occur only in cool temperate habitats. Only one genus is known to occur south of 60/sup 0/. Most of the shallow water forms are known from cool temperate, austral regimes.

  18. Persistence of Reduced Androgenic Glands after Protandric Sex Change Suggests a Basis for Simultaneous Hermaphroditism in a Caridean Shrimp.

    PubMed

    Bortolini, José Luis; Bauer, Raymond T

    2016-04-01

    The caridean shrimp Lysmata wurdemanni is a protandric simultaneous hermaphrodite. These individuals go through a male phase (MP) before changing sex to become female-phase simultaneous hermaphrodites (FPSH). The latter have an externally female phenotype, but retain a reduced male reproductive system and both male and female reproductive function. Previous studies have reported that the androgenic glands (AGs), whose hormones stimulate development of male characteristics in decapod crustaceans, are absent in the female phase of purely protandric species. We tested the hypothesis of androgenic gland persistence in FPSHs of L. wurdemanni by dissection and histology on the ejaculatory ducts. These glands were observed in FPSHs, although in a variably atrophied form. Androgenic glands of L. wurdemanni MPs are compact and replete with well developed cells, with large, deeply stained (hematoxylin-eosin) nuclei, as in males of gonochoric and protandric species. The AGs of simultaneous hermaphrodites were more reticulate in appearance due to the apparent breakdown and loss of cells, resulting in vacuolated areas, or empty spaces in the gland surrounded by connective tissue fibers or cell remnants. However, all FPSHs possessed numerous, or at least some possibly functional cells. The greatest atrophy of AGs was observed in the largest (i.e., oldest) FPSHs. However, the ovotestes of all FPSHs retained a small testicular portion with well developed ejaculatory ducts containing sperm. Our results suggest that the reduced androgenic glands of female-phase simultaneous hermaphrodites of L. wurdemanni allow them to maintain male reproductive function after sex change. PMID:27132133

  19. The food and the feeding habits of the long rough dab, Hippoglossoides platessoides (fabricius 1780) in the north sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntiba, M. J.; Harding, D.

    The type and quantity of food, the feeding intensity as well as the diel feeding pattern of the long rough dab Hippoglossoides platessoides are described. The interaction of the species with the biological environment is also assessed. The North Sea long rough dab feeds throughout the year with a definite maximum from April till August when over 85% of the fish sampled were feeding. It feeds principally on crustaceans (natant decapods), polychaetes, and echinoderms (ophiuroids), but also consumes O-group whitting ( Merlangius merlangus), long rough dab, and gobies (Gobiidae) in the east-central North Sea nursery grounds during the summer months. The species does not complete strongly for food with the other three most abundant pleuronectids, viz. plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa), common dab ( Limanda limanda) and lemon sole ( Microstomus kitt), as shown by a comparison of major prey items in their stomachs and the anatomical structure of their digestive tracts. The differences in the diet between the North Sea population(s) of long rough dab and the population(s) of the species from other North Atlantic areas are probably a manifestation of ecological differences amongst these ecosystems, especially in the availability and the distribution of prey organisms.

  20. The fossil record of ecdysis, and trends in the moulting behaviour of trilobites.

    PubMed

    Daley, Allison C; Drage, Harriet B

    2016-03-01

    Ecdysis, the process of moulting an exoskeleton, is one of the key characters uniting arthropods, nematodes and a number of smaller phyla into Ecdysozoa. The arthropod fossil record, particularly trilobites, eurypterids and decapod crustaceans, yields information on moulting, although the current focus is predominantly descriptive and lacks a broader evolutionary perspective. We here review literature on the fossil record of ecdysis, synthesising research on the behaviour, evolutionary trends, and phylogenetic significance of moulting throughout the Phanerozoic. Approaches vary widely between taxonomic groups, but an overall theme uniting these works suggests that identifying moults in the palaeontological record must take into account the morphology, taphonomy and depositional environment of fossils. We also quantitatively analyse trends in trilobite ecdysis based on a newly generated database of published incidences of moulting behaviour. This preliminary work reveals significant taxonomic and temporal signal in the trilobite moulting fossil record, with free cheek moulting being prevalent across all Orders and throughout the Phanerozoic, and peaks of cephalic moulting in Phacopida during the Ordovician and rostral plate moulting in Redlichiida during the Cambrian. This study and a review of the literature suggest that it is feasible to extract large-scale evolutionary information from the fossil record of moulting. PMID:26431634

  1. Large-field-of-view wide-spectrum artificial reflecting superposition compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chi-Chieh; Wu, Xiudong; Liu, Hewei; Aldalali, Bader; Rogers, John A; Jiang, Hongrui

    2014-08-13

    In nature, reflecting superposition compound eyes (RSCEs) found in shrimps, lobsters and some other decapods are extraordinary imaging systems with numerous optical features such as minimum chromatic aberration, wide-angle field of view (FOV), high sensitivity to light and superb acuity to motion. Here, we present life-sized, large-FOV, wide-spectrum artificial RSCEs as optical imaging devices inspired by the unique designs of their natural counterparts. Our devices can form real, clear images based on reflection rather than refraction, hence avoiding chromatic aberration due to dispersion by the optical materials. Compared to imaging at visible wavelengths using conventional refractive lenses of comparable size, our artificial RSCEs demonstrate minimum chromatic aberration, exceptional FOV up to 165° without distortion, modest aberrations and comparable imaging quality without any post-image processing. Together with an augmenting cruciform pattern surrounding each focused image, our large-FOV, wide-spectrum artificial RSCEs possess enhanced motion-tracking capability ideal for diverse applications in military, security, medical imaging and astronomy. PMID:24764227

  2. Influence of natural settlement cues on the metamorphosis of fiddler crab megalopae, Uca vocator (Decapoda: Ocypodidae).

    PubMed

    Simith, Darlan J B; Diele, Karen; Abrunhosa, Fernando A

    2010-06-01

    Megalopae of many decapod crab species accelerate their development time to metamorphosis (TTM) when exposed to natural physical and/or chemical cues characteristic of the parental habitat. In the present study, the influence of natural settlement cues on the moulting rates and development TTM in megalopae of the fiddler crab Uca vocator was investigated. The effects of mud from different habitats (including well-preserved and degraded-polluted mangrove habitats) and conspecific adult 'odours' (seawater conditioned with crabs) on the induction of metamorphosis were compared with filtered pure seawater (control). 95 to 100% of the megalopae successfully metamorphosed to first juvenile crab stage in all treatments, including the control. However, the development TTM differed significantly among treatments. Settlement cues significantly shortened development, while moulting was delayed in their absence. The fact that megalopae responded to metamorphosis-stimulating cues originating from both adult and non-adult benthic habitats demonstrates that settlement in this species may occur in a wider range of habitats within the mangrove ecosystem, including impacted areas. PMID:20563412

  3. Exoskeletons across the Pancrustacea: Comparative Morphology, Physiology, Biochemistry and Genetics.

    PubMed

    Roer, Robert; Abehsera, Shai; Sagi, Amir

    2015-11-01

    The exoskeletons of pancrustaceans, as typified by decapod crustaceans and insects, demonstrate a high degree of similarity with respect to histology, ultrastructure, function, and composition. The cuticular envelope in insects and the outer epicuticle in crustaceans both serve as the primary barrier to permeability of the exoskeleton, preventing loss of water and ions to the external medium. Prior to and following ecdysis, there is a sequence of expression and synthesis of different proteins by the cuticular epithelium for incorporation into the pre-exuvial and post-exuvial procuticle of insects and the exocuticle and endocuticle of crustaceans. Both exhibit regional differences in cuticular composition, e.g., the articular (intersegmental) membranes of insects and the arthrodial (joint) membranes of crustaceans. The primary difference between these cuticles is the ability to mineralize. Crustaceans' cuticles express a unique suite of proteins that provide for the nucleation and deposition of calcium carbonate. Orthologs of genes discussed in the present review were mined from a recently completed cuticular transcriptome of the crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus, providing new insights into the nature of these proteins. PMID:26136336

  4. Ethological analyses of crayfish behavior: a new invertebrate system for measuring the rewarding properties of psychostimulants

    PubMed Central

    Panksepp, Jules B.; Huber, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Recent investigations in invertebrate neurobiology have opened up a new line of research into the basic behavioral, neurochemical and genomic alterations that accompany psychostimulant drug exposure. However, the extent to which such findings relate to changes in motivational and learning processes, such as those that typify drug addictions, remains unclear. The present study addressed this issue in the crayfish, Orconectes rusticus. The first set of experiments demonstrated that intramuscular injections of cocaine and amphetamine have robust and distinguishable effects on crayfish behavior. In the second part of the study, the reinforcing properties of psychostimulants were tested in a series of conditioned place preference experiments. Amphetamine and, to a lesser extent, cocaine were both found to serve as rewards when their intra-circulatory infusion was coupled to a distinct visual environment. The monoaminergic regulation of behavior has been extensively studied in decapod crustaceans and the present experiments demonstrated that (mammalian) drugs of abuse, capable of interfering with monoamine chemistry, are similarly rewarding to crayfish. Behavioral studies in crayfish can provide a complementary approach to using other invertebrate species in addiction research. PMID:15219718

  5. Identification of androgenic gland microRNA and their target genes to discover sex-related microRNA in the oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense.

    PubMed

    Jin, S B; Fu, H T; Jiang, S F; Xiong, Y W; Qiao, H; Zhang, W Y; Gong, Y S; Wu, Y

    2015-01-01

    The oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, is an important aquaculture species in China. The androgenic gland produces hormones that play crucial roles in the differentiation of crustaceans to the male sex. MicroRNA (miRNA) post-transcriptionally regulates many protein-coding genes, influencing important biological and metabolic processes. However, currently, there is no published data identifying miRNA in M. nipponense. In this study, we identified novel miRNA in the androgenic gland of M. nipponense. Using the high-throughput Illumina Solexa system, 1077 miRNA were identified from small RNA libraries by aligning with the de novo androgenic gland transcriptome of M. nipponense (obtained from RNA-Seq) and the sequences in the miRBase21 database. A total of 8,248, 76,011, and 78,307 target genes were predicted in the EST and SRA sequences provided in the NCBI database, and the androgenic gland transcriptome of M. nipponense, respectively. Some potential sex-related miRNA were identified based on the function of the predicted target genes. The results of our study provide new information regarding the miRNA expression in M. nipponense, which could be the basis for further genetic studies on decapod crustaceans. PMID:26782487

  6. Reversal of a hallmark of brain ageing: lipofuscin accumulation.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, D B; Sheehy, M R J; Blackman, N; Shelton, P M J; Prior, A E

    2005-01-01

    The prospect of removing cellular deposits of lipofuscin is of considerable interest because they may contribute to age related functional decline and disease. Here, we use a decapod crustacean model to circumvent a number of problems inherent in previous studies on lipofuscin loss. We employ (a) validated lipofuscin quantification methods, (b) an in vivo context, (c) essentially natural environmental conditions and (d) a situation without accelerated production of residual material or (e) application of pharmacological compounds. We use a novel CNS biopsy technique that produces both an anti-ageing effect and also permits longitudinal sampling of individuals, thus (f) avoiding conventional purely cross-sectional population data that may suffer from selective mortality biases. We quantitatively demonstrate that lipofuscin, accrued through normal ageing, can be lost from neural tissue. The mechanism of loss probably involves exocytosis and possibly blood transport. If non-disruptive ways to accelerate lipofuscin removal can be found, our results suggest that therapeutic reversal of this most universal manifestation of cellular ageing may be possible. PMID:15585347

  7. Trace metal concentrations in Antarctic sea spiders (Pycnogonida, Pantopoda).

    PubMed

    Jöst, C; Zauke, G-P

    2008-08-01

    Trace metals were analysed in sea spiders collected on two Polarstern cruises in the Weddell Sea. We found a substantial interspecific heterogeneity of Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn, indicating varying accumulation strategies and metabolic demands for essential elements. Means and 95%-confidence intervals for all 44 samples analysed are 26+/-7 mg Cd kg(-1), 38+/-22 mg Cu kg(-1), 62+/-13 mg Ni kg(-1) and 990+/-130 mg Zn kg(-1) DW. Only for Pb do we find values less than 1.0 mg kg(-1) for most collectives analysed, in good agreement with other Antarctic arthropods such as crustaceans. Our study provides further evidence for the frequently reported "Cd anomaly" in many polar arthropods. While Cu concentrations in pantopods are within the reported range for Antarctic amphipods and decapods, Ni concentrations are exceptionally high and might be part of predation defence mechanisms. These possibilities should be investigated in more detail in future studies. PMID:18572199

  8. The organization of the lamina ganglionaris of the prawn, Pandalus borealis (Kröyer).

    PubMed

    Nässel, D R

    1975-11-19

    The Lamina ganglionaris (first optic neuropile) of the decapod crustacean Pandalus borealis has its optic cartridges (synaptic compartments) arranged in horizontal rows. Each optic cartridge contains seven receptor axon terminals and the branching axis fibres of five monopolar second order neurons. Four types of monopolar neurons are classified. Their cell bodies are arranged in two layers. The inner layer contains the cell bodies of exclusively one of these types, and each cartridge is invaded by two neurons of this neuron type (type M 1:a and M 1:b). The outer layer contains the cell bodies of the remaining three types (M 2, M3 and M4). One gives rise to a large radially branched axis fibre in the centre of the cartridge. The other two have wide branches which may make inter-cartridge contacts, one proximally and the other distally in the plexiform layer, which is clearly bistratified. The receptor axons terminate in two levels corresponding to these strata. Two sets of tangenital fibres form networks in the proximal and the mid-portion of the lamina. Both networks have fibres with primary branches in the vertical plane and secondary branches in the horizontal plane. The fibres of the networks are derived from axons that pass from the second optic neuropile, the medulla externa. PMID:1201587

  9. Organization of optic lobes that support motion detection in a semiterrestrial crab

    PubMed Central

    Sztarker, Julieta; Strausfeld, Nicholas J.; Tomsic, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    There is a mismatch between the documentation of the visually guided behaviors and visual physiology of decapods (Malacostraca, Crustacea) and knowledge about the neural architecture of their visual systems. The present study provides a description of the neuroanatomical features of the four visual neuropils of the grapsid crab Chasmagnathus granulatus, which is currently used as a model for investigating the neurobiology of learning and memory. Visual memory in Chasmagnathus is thought to be driven from within deep retinotopic neuropil by large field motion sensitive neurons. Here we describe the neural architecture characterizing the Chasmagnathus lobula, in which such neurons are found. It is shown that unlike the equivalent region of insects, the malacostracan lobula is densely packed with columns, the spacing of which is the same as that of retinotopic units of the lamina. The lobula comprises many levels of strata and columnar afferents that supply systems of tangential neurons. Two of these, which are known to respond to movement across the retina, have orthogonally arranged dendritic fields deep in the lobula. They also show evidence of dye coupling. The present results discuss the significance of commonalties across taxa with respect to the organization of the lamina and medulla and contrasts these with possible taxon-specific arrangements of deeper neuropils that support systems of matched filters. PMID:16261533

  10. Myogenesis in the thoracic limbs of the American lobster.

    PubMed

    Harzsch, Steffen; Kreissl, Sabine

    2010-11-01

    Newly hatched lobster larvae have biramous thoracic limbs composed of an endopodite, which is used for walking in the adult, and an exopodite used for swimming. Several behavioural and physiological aspects of larval locomotion as well the ontogeny of the neuromuscular system have been examined in developing decapod crustaceans. Nevertheless, the cellular basis of embryonic muscle formation in these animals is poorly understood. Therefore, the present report analyses muscle formation in embryos of the American lobster Homarus americanus Milne Edwards, 1837 (Malacostraca, Eucarida, Decapoda, Homarida) using the monoclonal antibody 016C6 that recognizes an isoform of myosin heavy chain. 016C6 labelling at 25% of embryonic development (E25%) revealed that syncytial muscle precursor cells establish the muscles in the endopodites. During subsequent embryogenesis, these muscle precursors subdivide into several distinct units thereby giving rise to pairs of antagonistic primordial muscles in each of the successive podomeres, the layout of which at E45% already resembles the arrangement in the adult thoracopods. The pattern of primordial muscles was also mapped in the exopodites of thoracic limbs three to eight. Immunohistochemistry against acetylated α-tubulin and against presynaptic vesicle-associated phosphoproteins at E45% demonstrated the existence of characteristic neural tracts within the developing limbs as well as putative neuromuscular synapses in both the embryonic exo- and endopodites. The results are compared to muscle development in other Crustacea. PMID:20615480

  11. Reproductive traits of the symbiotic pea crab Austinotheres angelicus (Crustacea, Pinnotheridae) living in Saccostrea palmula (Bivalvia, Ostreidae), Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Salas-Moya, Carolina; Mena, Sebastián; Wehrtmann, Ingo S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Pea crabs of the family Pinnotheridae exhibit a symbiotic life style and live associated with a variety of different marine organisms, especially bivalves. Despite the fact that pea crabs can cause serious problems in bivalve aquaculture, the available information about the ecology of these crabs from Central America is extremely limited. Therefore, the present study aimed to describe different reproductive features of the pinnotherid crab Austinotheres angelicus associated with the oyster Saccostrea palmula in the Golfo de Nicoya, Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Monthly sampling was conducted from April to December 2012. Average carapace width (CW) of the 47 analyzed ovigerous females was 7.62 mm. The species produced on average 2677 ± 1754 recently -extruded embryos with an average volume of 0.020 ± 0.003 mm3; embryo volume increased during embryogenesis by 21%, but did not vary significantly between developmental stages. Brood mass volume varied greatly (between 11.7 and 236.7 mm3), and increased significantly with female CW. Females invested on average 76.7% (minimum: 21.7%; maximum: 162.8%) of their body weight in brood production, which confirms a substantially higher energy allocation for embryo production in pinnotherid crabs compared to free-living decapods. PMID:25561840

  12. Ecdysteriod titers during the molt cycle of the blue crab resemble those of other crustacea

    SciTech Connect

    Soumoff, C.; Skinner, D.M.

    1983-08-01

    Callinectes sapidus is the only true crab (brachyuran) whose pattern of ecdysteroid titers has been described as departing from the pattern seen in other decapods. While ecdysteroids in other crabs reach a peak just prior to ecdysis, those of C. sapidus were claimed to reach their maxima after ecdysis. The data reported here challenge these findings. Ecdysteroids were measured in hemolymph, ovaries, and whole animal extracts of blue crabs using a radioimmunoassay. In hemolymph and whole animals, ecdysteroid levels rose during premolt to a maximum at stage D/sub 3/. Ecdysteroids declined rapidly from late premolt stage D/sub 4/ through postmolt stage A/sub 2/, increased slightly at postmolt stage B, and returned to low levels where they remained during intermolt stage C. Ecdysteroid levels in males and immature females were not significantly different but mature females, having reached a terminal anecdysis, had signifincatly lower ecdysteroid levels. Ovaries of mature females accumulated ecdysteroids during vitellogenesis while the concentration of ecdysteroids in hemolymph was low.

  13. Purification and identification of a clotting protein from the hemolymph of Chinese shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Baojie; Peng, Hongni; Liu, Mei; Jiang, Keyong; Zhang, Guofan; Wang, Lei

    2013-09-01

    The clotting protein (CP) plays important and diverse roles in crustaceans, such as coagulation and lipid transportation. A clotting protein was purified from the hemolymph of Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis (named as Fc-CP) with Q sepharose HP anion-exchange chromatography and phenyl sepharose HP hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Fc-CP was able to form stable clots in vitro in the presence of hemocyte lysate and Ca2+, suggesting that the clotting reaction is catalyzed by a Ca2+-dependent transglutaminase in shrimp hemocytes. The molecular mass of Fc-CP was 380 kDa under non-reducing conditions and 190 kDa under reducing conditions as was determined with SDS-PAGE. CP exists as disulfide-linked homodimers and oligomers. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of Fc-CP was identical to that of shrimps including Penaeus monodon, Farfantepenaeus paulensis and Litopenaeus vannamei; and similar to that of other decapods. The purified Fc-CP was digested with trypsin and verified on an ABI 4700 matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry. Our results will aid to better understanding the coagulation mechanism of shrimp hemolymph.

  14. Moult cycle and growth of the crab Halicarcinus planatus (Brachyura, Hymenosomatidae) in the Beagle Channel, southern tip of South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez, Mariano J.; Lovrich, Gustavo A.

    2013-09-01

    The crab Halicarcinus planatus is the only hymenosomatid crab that inhabits the southern tip of South America and is the only decapod species that reproduces twice a year in the Beagle Channel. In this article, we study the moult cycle in the field (moult frequency, analysis of size frequency distribution) and linked it with growth studied in the laboratory (absolute and per cent growth increment, Hiatt function). Hiatt functions were similar for males and females. Moult frequency was seasonal: in early austral spring and in austral summer. In females, the pubertal moult is the terminal moult, whereas males continue moulting after attaining the size of morphometric maturity. Moult increment was highly variable. The relationship between absolute moult increment and crab size was described by a quadratic function. Per cent growth increment decreased with size, and relationships were different for each sex: linear for females and quadratic for males. Seven and eight modal groups explained the size frequency distributions for females and males from the field, respectively, and revealed the existence of two cohorts of recruits per year. Further modal analysis was mainly hampered by the high variability of size increment that could make any moulting individual fall in its own or one of two following modal groups. The antagonism between growth and reproduction was evident in small males. We hypothesize that the terminal pubertal moult is an advantageous feature that allows females to maximize their investment in reproduction after their terminal moult, which allows this species to have two spawnings per year.

  15. Testing the effect of habitat structure and complexity on nekton assemblages using experimental oyster reefs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Humphries, Austin T.; LaPeyre, Megan K.; Kimball, Matthew E.; Rozas, Lawrence P.

    2011-01-01

    Structurally complex habitats are often associated with more diverse and abundant species assemblages in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Biogenic reefs formed by the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) are complex in nature and are recognized for their potential habitat value in estuarine systems along the US Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Few studies, however, have examined the response of nekton to structural complexity within oyster reefs. We used a quantitative sampling technique to examine how the presence and complexity of experimental oyster reefs influence the abundance, biomass, and distribution of nekton by sampling reefs 4 months and 16 months post-construction. Experimental oyster reefs were colonized immediately by resident fishes and decapod crustaceans, and reefs supported a distinct nekton assemblage compared to mud-bottom habitat. Neither increased reef complexity, nor age of the experimental reef resulted in further changes in nekton assemblages or increases in nekton abundance or diversity. The presence of oyster reefs per se was the most important factor determining nekton usage.

  16. Small but powerful: the oribatid mite Archegozetes longisetosus Aoki (Acari, Oribatida) produces disproportionately high forces.

    PubMed

    Heethoff, Michael; Koerner, Lars

    2007-09-01

    We investigated the holding and pulling forces generated by claws of the microarthropod Archegozetes longisetosus (Chelicerata, Acari, Oribatida) on three substrates with different roughness (R(a)=0.05 microm, 1 microm, 30 microm). Holding forces were measured perpendicular to the substrate using a strain gage force transducer; pulling forces were measured parallel to the substrate using an analytical scale. We found a significant positive correlation of surface roughness and the forces generated. Mites produced holding forces on horizontal rough surfaces (R(a)=30 microm) of up to 1180 times their weight; on vertical rough surfaces (R(a)=30 microm) they can pull with 530 times their weight, effectively involving only two pairs of legs. The relative forces are five times higher than theoretically expected for organisms of this size (<1 mm, 100 microg) and higher than any relative forces reported for insect claws. Muscles involved in claw action produced stresses up to 1170 kN m(-2), a value that is only excelled by decapod crustacean claw closer muscles. Ours is the first study of performance by chelicerate apoteles and claws and also the first to measure forces generated by any microarthropod. PMID:17704078

  17. Predation impact of carnivorous macrozooplankton in the vicinity of the Prince Edward Island archipelago (Southern Ocean) in austral autumn 1998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froneman, P. W.; Pakhomov, E. A.; Gurney, L. J.; Hunt, B. P. V.

    The composition, biomass, feeding and predation impact of carnivorous macrozooplankton (>2 cm) on mesozooplankton (0.2-2 cm) in the sub-Antarctic waters of the southwest Indian Ocean were investigated at 19 stations in austral autumn (April/May) 1998. Zooplankton abundances and biomass ranged from 6.9 to 95.2 ind m -3 and between 1.8 and 18.1 mg Dwt m -3, respectively. Throughout the investigation, mesozooplankton comprising mainly copepods numerically and by biomass dominated net samples. Among the copepods, Calanus simillimus, Clausocalanus brevipes, Ctenocalanus vanus, and Oithona spp. dominated. The carnivore component of the macrozooplankton consisted mainly of five groups: decapods, amphipods, chaetognaths, euphausiids and gelatinous zooplankton. Among these, chaetognaths ( Eukrohnia hamata and Sagitta gazellae) and euphausiids ( Nematoscelis megalops and Euphausia longirostris) were the most prominent. Collectively, the carnivorous macrozooplankton comprised between 11% and 72% of total zooplankton biomass. Total predation impact of the carnivorous macrozooplankton varied considerably but generally accounted for <5% (range 0.7-44%) of the total mesozooplankton standing stock. Tentative calculations suggest that carnivorous macrozooplankton may contribute, via vertical migrations and production of fast sinking faecal pellets, to a downward flux of carbon equivalent to up to 9% of the total mesozooplankton stock per day within the Antarctic Polar Frontal Zone. As a consequence, carnivorous macrozooplankton may increase the localised efficiency of the biological pump.

  18. Changes in caridac output and hemolymph flow during hypoxic exposure in the gravid grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio.

    PubMed

    Guadagnoli, Jutta A; Reiber, Carl L

    2005-07-01

    The cardiovascular response of decapod crustaceans to hypoxic exposure is well documented; however, information is limited concerning the influence of reproductive state on cardiovascular demands during hypoxic exposure. Given the additional metabolic demand of reproduction, we investigated the cardiovascular adjustments employed by gravid grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio to maintain oxygen delivery during hypoxic stress. Cardiac output values were elevated in gravid compared to nongravid grass shrimp. Gravid grass shrimp were exposed to hypoxia and the stroke volume, heart rate, cardiac output and hemolymph flow were determined using video-microscopy and dimensional analysis. Oxygen consumption rates were determined using respirometry. There where no changes in the cardiac output values of gravid females until reaching 6.8 kPa O2, with a significant redistribution of hemolymph flow at 13.7 kPa O2. Flow was significantly decreased to the anterior lateral arteries that supply the ovaries and hepatopancreas, the anterior aorta and the posterior aorta. The redistribution of hemolymph flow away from these vessels results in an enhanced hemolymph flow to the sternal artery that supplies the ventral segmental system, the gills, the buccal apparatus and the ventral nerve cord. The data suggest that during hypoxic stress, gravid females place a priority on survival. PMID:15891889

  19. Distribution patterns of macrobenthic fauna communities in Deukryang Bay, one of the environment conservation areas of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jin-Young; Lim, Hyun-Sig; Choi, Jin-Woo

    2014-06-01

    Macrobenthic fauna were collected seasonally at 44 sites in Deukryang Bay from February to November, 2012. The species number of macrobenthic fauna was in the range of 140 to 181, and polychaetes comprised 41.4% of them. The average density of the whole study area changed seasonally from 755 to 1,507 ind. m-2, and the most abundant fauna group was crustaceans which accounted for 55.1% of total abundance. An amphipod species Nippopisella nagatai was the most dominant species and a decapod species Xenophthalmus pinnotheroides, an amphipod species Photis longicaudata, and a polychaete species Paralacydonia paradoxa were also dominant in all seasons. The mean seasonal values of Shannon's diversity index (H') were in the range of 2.2-2.4, and those values for the evenness index and richness index were 0.7-0.7 and 4.6-5.7, respectively. From the cluster analysis, Deukryang Bay could be divided into 3 or 4 station groups with its specific fauna composition. The cluster analysis and an nMDS ordination revealed that local environmental factors such as water depth were related to the spatial delineation of macrobenthic fauna communities in Deukryang Bay.

  20. Bait-attending fauna of the Kermadec Trench, SW Pacific Ocean: Evidence for an ecotone across the abyssal-hadal transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, A. J.; Kilgallen, N. M.; Rowden, A. A.; Fujii, T.; Horton, T.; Lrz, A.-N.; Kitazawa, K.; Priede, I. G.

    2011-01-01

    The bait-attending fauna of the abyssal-hadal transition zone of the Kermadec Trench, SW Pacific Ocean (4329-7966 m), was investigated using a baited camera and a trap lander. The abyssal stations (4329-6007 m) revealed a typical scavenging fish community comprising macrourids and synaphobranchid eels, as well as natantian decapods. At the hadal depths of 7199 and 7561 m, the endemic liparid Notoliparis kermadecensis was observed aggregating at the bait reaching surprisingly high numbers of 5 and 13, respectively. A total of 3183 invertebrate samples were collected (mean deployment time=16 h) of which 97.8% were of the order Amphipoda (nine families, 16 species). Ten of the amphipod species represent new distributional records for the Kermadec Trench and the New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone; this includes the shallowest known record of the endemic hadal amphipod Hirondellea dubia (6000, 6007 m). Using amphipods to statistically examine the compositional change across the abyssal-hadal boundary, an ecotone between depths <6007 and >6890 m was found, indicating that there is an ecologically distinct bait-attending fauna in this trench.

  1. Dancing for Food in the Deep Sea: Bacterial Farming by a New Species of Yeti Crab

    PubMed Central

    Thurber, Andrew R.; Jones, William J.; Schnabel, Kareen

    2011-01-01

    Vent and seep animals harness chemosynthetic energy to thrive far from the sun's energy. While symbiont-derived energy fuels many taxa, vent crustaceans have remained an enigma; these shrimps, crabs, and barnacles possess a phylogenetically distinct group of chemosynthetic bacterial epibionts, yet the role of these bacteria has remained unclear. We test whether a new species of Yeti crab, which we describe as Kiwa puravida n. sp, farms the epibiotic bacteria that it grows on its chelipeds (claws), chelipeds that the crab waves in fluid escaping from a deep-sea methane seep. Lipid and isotope analyses provide evidence that epibiotic bacteria are the crab's main food source and K. puravida n. sp. has highly-modified setae (hairs) on its 3rd maxilliped (a mouth appendage) which it uses to harvest these bacteria. The ε- and γ- proteobacteria that this methane-seep species farms are closely related to hydrothermal-vent decapod epibionts. We hypothesize that this species waves its arm in reducing fluid to increase the productivity of its epibionts by removing boundary layers which may otherwise limit carbon fixation. The discovery of this new species, only the second within a family described in 2005, stresses how much remains undiscovered on our continental margins. PMID:22140426

  2. Taxonomic Review of the Orders Mysida and Stygiomysida (Crustacea, Peracarida)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The order Mysida (2 families, 178 genera, 1132 species) contains species across a broad range of habitats, such as subterranean, fresh, brackish, coastal, and surface to deep-sea habitats. The Stygiomysida (2 families, 2 genera, 16 species), however, are found primarily in subterranean waters, but always in waters with a marine influence. The Mysida and Stygiomysida body is divided into three main regions: cephalon, thorax, and abdomen. They are shrimp-like in appearance, containing morphological features earlier referred to as defining a "caridoid facies". The shrimp-like morphology was to some extent diagnostic for the historic Decapod taxon Schizopoda, containing the Nebalia, Mysida, Lophogastrida, and Euphausiacea. In 1904 the concept of Schizopoda was abandoned, and the Mysidacea (Mysida and Lophogastrida) along with Cumacea, Amphipoda, Isopoda, and Tanaidacea were placed in a new taxon, the Peracarida. Later discoveries of groundwater mysids led to the establishment of Stygiomysida, but placement to either Lophogastrida or Mysida remained unclear. The presence of oostegites and absence of podobranchiae, coupled with non-statocyst bearing uropods have been used to classify the Stygiomysida as a primitive Mysida family, comparable to Petalophthalmidae. On the other hand, equally suggestive characters, but for a Lophogastrida affiliation, was suggested for the archaic foregut characters and again, non-statocyst bearing uropods. With the inclusion of DNA sequence data of ribosomal genes, sister group relationships between Stygiomysida, Lophogastrida, and Mictacea within the Peracarida are observed, which supports a classification of the Stygiomysida as a separate order removed from the Mysida. PMID:25927358

  3. Suspension feeding in adult Nephrops norvegicus (L.) and Homarus gammarus (L.) (decapoda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loo, Lars-Ove; Pihl Baden, Susanne; Ulmestrand, Mats

    Suspension feeding in adults of the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus (40-74 g) and the European lobster Homarus gammarus (280-350 g) was tested in experiments offering planktonic food items of different sizes from 200 to 600 μm and measuring the clearing capacity. Both lobster species were found to effectively clear water of food particles comprising nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina of about 600 μm in size. These were reduced to 50% of the initial concentration within 5 h and to 90% within 12 h. When N. norvegicus was offered food particles averaging 200 μm, a significant reduction in average size occurred, indicating that the minimum retention size is around 200 μm. Fluorescently dyed Artemia salina were recovered in the stomach and intestine of lobsters proving that the filtered particles are passed to the digestive tract. Results from other experiments, using the blood pigment (haemocyanin) concentration as an index of nutritional state, indicated that the lobsters can get some nutritional advantage from suspension feeding. Suspension feeding in larger decapods has not been described previously, so the significance of this finding is discussed with respect to changes in behavioural and ecological role.

  4. Cryptic assemblages in coral-rubble interstices along a terrestrial-sediment gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Y.; Abe, O.; Shibuno, T.

    2008-09-01

    The assemblage composition of cryptic mobile animals inhabiting coral rubble was sampled using mesh traps containing clean coral rubble, and used as indicators of land-based pollution at 14 sites in three coral lagoons at Ishigaki Island, southern Japan. Cluster analyses identified three groups of large mobile animal assemblages (molluscs, echinoderms, fishes, decapod and stomatopod crustaceans). Using a distance-based redundancy analysis (db-RDA) there was a significant relationship between the assemblage composition and environmental variables. The 1st axis of the db-RDA ordination was regarded as the land-based pollution gradient because of the strong relationship with silicate sediment, turbidity, and salinity, indicating effects of terrestrial-sediment runoff. Species response curves were derived from a plot of the number of individuals against the 1st axis of the db-RDA sites sample score. The response curves of Galathea mauritiana, an indicator species for the intermediate sites, were unimodal along the land-based pollution gradient. This study demonstrates the use of traps containing clean coral rubble for nondestructive quantitative sampling and environmental monitoring in coral lagoons, and their potential for monitoring changes in the reef environment.

  5. A New PCR-Based Method Shows That Blue Crabs (Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun)) Consume Winter Flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Walbaum))

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Jackie L.; Fitzgerald, Sean P.; Hice, Lyndie A.; Frisk, Michael G.; McElroy, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) once supported robust commercial and recreational fisheries in the New York (USA) region, but since the 1990s populations have been in decline. Available data show that settlement of young-of-the-year winter flounder has not declined as sharply as adult abundance, suggesting that juveniles are experiencing higher mortality following settlement. The recent increase of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) abundance in the New York region raises the possibility that new sources of predation may be contributing to juvenile winter flounder mortality. To investigate this possibility we developed and validated a method to specifically detect winter flounder mitochondrial control region DNA sequences in the gut contents of blue crabs. A survey of 55 crabs collected from Shinnecock Bay (along the south shore of Long Island, New York) in July, August, and September of 2011 showed that 12 of 42 blue crabs (28.6%) from which PCR-amplifiable DNA was recovered had consumed winter flounder in the wild, empirically supporting the trophic link between these species that has been widely speculated to exist. This technique overcomes difficulties with visual identification of the often unrecognizable gut contents of decapod crustaceans, and modifications of this approach offer valuable tools to more broadly address their feeding habits on a wide variety of species. PMID:24454797

  6. Differential acid-base regulation in various gills of the green crab Carcinus maenas: Effects of elevated environmental pCO2.

    PubMed

    Fehsenfeld, Sandra; Weihrauch, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Euryhaline decapod crustaceans possess an efficient regulation apparatus located in the gill epithelia, providing a high adaptation potential to varying environmental abiotic conditions. Even though many studies focussed on the osmoregulatory capacity of the gills, acid-base regulatory mechanisms have obtained much less attention. In the present study, underlying principles and effects of elevated pCO(2) on acid-base regulatory patterns were investigated in the green crab Carcinus maenas acclimated to diluted seawater. In gill perfusion experiments, all investigated gills 4-9 were observed to up-regulate the pH of the hemolymph by 0.1-0.2 units. Anterior gills, especially gill 4, were identified to be most efficient in the equivalent proton excretion rate. Ammonia excretion rates mirrored this pattern among gills, indicating a linkage between both processes. In specimen exposed to elevated pCO(2) levels for at least 7 days, mimicking a future ocean scenario as predicted until the year 2300, hemolymph K(+) and ammonia concentrations were significantly elevated, and an increased ammonia excretion rate was observed. A detailed quantitative gene expression analysis revealed that upon elevated pCO(2) exposure, mRNA levels of transcripts hypothesized to be involved in ammonia and acid-base regulation (Rhesus-like protein, membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase) were affected predominantly in the non-osmoregulating anterior gills. PMID:23022520

  7. Biology of three Malacostraca (Decapoda) in a Mediterranean lagoon with particular emphasis on the effect of rapid environmental changes on the activity (catchability) of the species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crivelli, A. J.

    1982-12-01

    The activity of three Malacostraca (Decapoda), Crangon crangon, Carcinus aestuarii and Paleamon squilla, was studied following rapid environmental changes in a Mediterranean lagoon linked temporarily with the sea. Nekton was sampled every 2-3 days using fixed fyke nets. A canonical analysis and a stepwise multiple regression were computed to determine which factor(s) can predict or account for the catch of these three decapods. In spite of rapid environmental changes no exceptional mortality was observed in each of the three species. Temperature is the environmental factor with major impact on the activity of C. crangon. Activity of P. squilla is controlled by water depth. At a depth of less than 20 cm two factors, salinity and phase of the moon, have a significant influence on the activity of this species. At depths deeper than 20 cm the activity is inhibited. There is only a weak relationship between the catch of C. aestuarii and salinity. Additional data on the life cycle of these species are given. The limitations of a monthly sampling period are discussed and the need for more short-term, consecutive sampling periods is stressed in order to understand the dynamics of systems with rapid environmental fluctuations.

  8. Ecology of irregularly flooded salt marshes of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico: a community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, J.P.

    1984-12-01

    The salt marshes of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico are distinguished by irregular flooding, low energy wave and tidal action, and long periods of exposure. The plant community is most often dominated by black needlerush (Juncus roemerianus), the species of focus in this synthesis. Distinct marsh zones include those dominated by Juncus and Spartina alterniflora at low elevations, sparsely vegetated salt flats, and higher elevation salt meadows of Juncus and Spartina patens. A diverse microbial and algal assemblage is also present. A diverse fauna has adapted to the physical rigors of these marshes. Zooplankton are dominated by the larvae of fiddler crabs and other decapods. The meiofauna consist primarily of nematodes and harpacticoid copepods. Macroinvertebrates are represented by crustaceans (especially mollusks and crabs), annelids, and insects. Grass shrimp, blue crabs, and other crustaceans are seasonally abundant in marsh creeks, as are a number of resident and migratory fish species. Birds comprise one of the larger herbivore groups and are also significant at higher tropic levels as top carnivores. Muskrat and nutria are important mammals. 43 figs., 38 tabs.

  9. Feeding habits and ontogenetic diet shifts of Bombay duck, Harpadon nehereus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Jin, Xianshi

    2014-05-01

    Based on two bottom trawl surveys conducted in autumn 2000 and 2001, a total of 1106 stomach samples of Bombay duck Harpadon nehereus between 23-278 mm fork length were collected and analyzed. The results show that Bombay duck prey items consisted of 11 groups or 32 species, of which Apogon lineatus, Leptochela gracilis, Acetes chinensis, and Euphausia pacifi ca were the dominant prey species. Ontogenetic variations were found in feeding habits and feeding activity of Bombay duck. Feeding activity was highest in fish smaller than 50 mm, lowest in fish between 50 and 99 mm, and then increased with increasing size thereafter. As Bombay duck size increased, fish prey increased in importance, whereas euphausiids and decapods decreased in importance. Different trophic guilds were observed in feeding habits across the examined size range. Bombay duck smaller than 50 mm were zooplanktivores, mainly feeding on zooplankton and fish larva; those between 50 and 149 mm were generalist predators, mainly feeding on pelagic shrimps, demersal shrimps and fishes; and those larger than 150 mm were piscivores, mainly feeding on fishes.

  10. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Gulf of Mexico). Black drum. [Pogonias cromis

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter, F.C.; Waller, R.S.; McIlwain, T.D.

    1986-04-01

    Black drum are primarily an estuarine species. The time of black drum spawning depends on location. In Texas waters, heaviest spawning activity occurs during February and March near passes in open bays and estuaries, while in deeper Gulf waters they spawn from November to April. Larvae are transported into the estuarine environment where they grow to the juvenile stage, living in shallow, muddy waters, tolerating a wide range of environmental conditions. Black drum are commercially harvested by a variety of gears, with the majority of US landings taken in Gulf waters off Texas. They are also an important recreational species with more fish caught in the sport catch than harvested commercially. Young black drum feed on invertebrates and small fish, while adults consume mollusks and some decapods. Adults are found in salinities of 9 to 26 ppt and in water temperatures of 12 to 33/sup 0/C. Juveniles are taken over muddy bottoms and adults are usually found over sand or soft bottoms and over oyster reefs or clam shell.

  11. Conservation status of Chinese species: (2) Invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yan; Wang, Sung

    2007-06-01

    A total of 2441 invertebrate species were evaluated using the IUCN Red List Criteria and Regional Guidelines. Approximately 30 experts were involved in this project, which covered a wide range of species, including jellyfish, corals, planarians, snails, mollusks, bivalves, decapods, benthic crustaceans, arachnids (spiders, scorpions), butterflies, moths, beetles, sea cucumbers, sea urchins, sea stars, acorn worms and lancelets. In general, invertebrate species in China were found to be severely threatened, with 0.9% being critically endangered, 13.44% endangered and 20.63% vulnerable. All species of hermatypic corals and planarians are threatened. More than 80% of evaluated species face serious threat due to habitat destruction by coral collection, logging, non-woody vegetation collection, timber plantations, non-timber plantations, extraction and/or livestock. Other threats are intrinsic factors, harvesting by humans, alien invasive species and pollution. The main intrinsic factors contributing to the high levels of threat are limited dispersal and restricted range. No conservation measures have been taken for 70% of the threatened invertebrates evaluated. Existing conservation measures include: strengthening of national and international legislation (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora), increasing public awareness, studying population trends/monitoring, and establishment of protected areas. The major conservation measure employed is strengthening of policies. Relative to the situation worldwide (2006 IUCN Red List), there is little information available about invertebrate extinctions in China. PMID:21396022

  12. Genotype Reconstruction of Paternity in European Lobsters (Homarus gammarus).

    PubMed

    Ellis, Charlie D; Hodgson, David J; André, Carl; Sørdalen, Tonje K; Knutsen, Halvor; Griffiths, Amber G F

    2015-01-01

    Decapod crustaceans exhibit considerable variation in fertilisation strategies, ranging from pervasive single paternity to the near-ubiquitous presence of multiple paternity, and such knowledge of mating systems and behaviour are required for the informed management of commercially-exploited marine fisheries. We used genetic markers to assess the paternity of individual broods in the European lobster, Homarus gammarus, a species for which paternity structure is unknown. Using 13 multiplexed microsatellite loci, three of which are newly described in this study, we genotyped 10 eggs from each of 34 females collected from an Atlantic peninsula in the south-western United Kingdom. Single reconstructed paternal genotypes explained all observed progeny genotypes in each of the 34 egg clutches, and each clutch was fertilised by a different male. Simulations indicated that the probability of detecting multiple paternity was in excess of 95% if secondary sires account for at least a quarter of the brood, and in excess of 99% where additional sire success was approximately equal. Our results show that multiple paternal fertilisations are either absent, unusual, or highly skewed in favour of a single male among H. gammarus in this area. Potential mechanisms upholding single paternal fertilisation are discussed, along with the prospective utility of parentage assignments in evaluations of hatchery stocking and other fishery conservation approaches in light of this finding. PMID:26566271

  13. Effects of logging activities on ecological water quality indicators in the Berasau River, Johor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nor Zaiha, A; Mohd Ismid, M S; Salmiati; Shahrul Azri, M S

    2015-08-01

    Influence of deforestation on biodiversity of aquatic organisms was investigated in a stream in the Ulu Sedili Forest Reserve. The stream was monitored five (5) times from December 2011 until December 2012 with 2-month intervals. Sampling of benthic communities was carried out using rectangular dip net while water quality study using a YSI ProPlus meter and the rest were done in the laboratory. Physicochemical parameters and water quality index (WQI) calculation showed no significant difference among the investigated events. WQI classified the Berasau River between Class II (good) to III (moderate) of river water quality. In total, 603 individuals representing 25 taxa that were recorded with Decapods from genus Macrobrabchium were widely distributed. Several intolerant taxa, especially Ephemeroptera and Odonata, were also observed in this river. According to Pearson's correlation analysis, the richness and diversity indices were generally influenced by water quality parameters represented by WQI (P < 0.01). In conclusion, logging activities have strong attributes for variation in benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage. PMID:26154860

  14. Genotype Reconstruction of Paternity in European Lobsters (Homarus gammarus)

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Charlie D.; Hodgson, David J.; André, Carl; Sørdalen, Tonje K.; Knutsen, Halvor; Griffiths, Amber G. F.

    2015-01-01

    Decapod crustaceans exhibit considerable variation in fertilisation strategies, ranging from pervasive single paternity to the near-ubiquitous presence of multiple paternity, and such knowledge of mating systems and behaviour are required for the informed management of commercially-exploited marine fisheries. We used genetic markers to assess the paternity of individual broods in the European lobster, Homarus gammarus, a species for which paternity structure is unknown. Using 13 multiplexed microsatellite loci, three of which are newly described in this study, we genotyped 10 eggs from each of 34 females collected from an Atlantic peninsula in the south-western United Kingdom. Single reconstructed paternal genotypes explained all observed progeny genotypes in each of the 34 egg clutches, and each clutch was fertilised by a different male. Simulations indicated that the probability of detecting multiple paternity was in excess of 95% if secondary sires account for at least a quarter of the brood, and in excess of 99% where additional sire success was approximately equal. Our results show that multiple paternal fertilisations are either absent, unusual, or highly skewed in favour of a single male among H. gammarus in this area. Potential mechanisms upholding single paternal fertilisation are discussed, along with the prospective utility of parentage assignments in evaluations of hatchery stocking and other fishery conservation approaches in light of this finding. PMID:26566271

  15. Androgenic Gland Implantation Induces Partial Masculinization in Marmorkrebs Procambarus fallax f. virginalis.

    PubMed

    Kato, Miku; Hiruta, Chizue; Tochinai, Shin

    2015-10-01

    The androgenic gland in malacostracan crustacean species produces and secretes androgenic gland hormone, which is responsible for male sexual differentiation, such as the induction and development of male sexual traits, and in turn the suppression of female sexual traits. Marmorkrebs, Procambarus fallax forma virginalis, which was identified as the first parthenogenetic species in decapod crustaceans, produces only female offspring. In this study, in order to reveal whether the Marmorkrebs crayfish is sensitive to androgenic gland hormone, we transplanted an androgenic gland from a related congener, P. clarkii, to P. fallax f. virginalis. In androgenic gland-implanted specimens, partial masculinization was confirmed: the masculinization of several external sexual characteristics (i.e., thickening of the first and second pleopods; formation of reverse spines on the third and fourth pereopods) was detected, whereas that of internal sexual characteristics (e.g., the formation of ovotestes and male gonoducts) was not. Our results imply that P. fallaxf. virginalis still has sensitivity to the androgenic gland hormone and, at least partly, the hormone should be able to induce male characteristics, even in parthenogenetic Marmorkrebs. PMID:26428724

  16. The scope of the crustacean immune system for disease control.

    PubMed

    Hauton, Chris

    2012-06-01

    The culture or wild capture of marine and freshwater shellfish, including crustaceans, is without doubt a key source of protein for a burgeoning world population. Historically the expansion of aquaculture has, however, been accompanied by the increased incidence of economically significant diseases, most notably of viral and bacterial origin. Since the late 1970s great progress has been made in our understanding of the generalized protostome innate immune system. Distinct pathways, pathogen receptor proteins and effector molecules have since been identified that are not ancestral or homologous to those of the deuterostomes, including vertebrates. Within the past decade progress has accelerated with the rapid characterisation of new classes of recognition proteins, immune effectors and regulatory pathways. This paper provides a broad overview of our current understanding of invertebrate immunology, taking the crustacean decapod immune system as its focus. Recent developments in the field are described briefly and their implications and potential considered. These advances offer fundamental new insights in our efforts to understand disease in cultured populations and also to develop knowledge of environmental effects on host/pathogen interactions within a fishery context. Of course, challenges do remain, including the lack of an immortal cell line and the limited publically-available genomic resources. These are considered in this review as priorities for future research effort. With the continued application of more insightful technologies, coupled with associated investment, it is expected that the speed at which some of these issues are resolved will accelerate. PMID:22441033

  17. Histone H2B gene cloning, with implication for its function during nuclear shaping in the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiangli; Mu, Shumei; Guo, Mingshen; Chen, Tingrong; Zhang, Zhaohui; Li, Zhenqiu; Li, Yanqin; Kang, Xianjiang

    2016-01-10

    Spermatogenesis in animals is the process by which male spermatogonia develop into mature spermatozoa. In most taxa, the process involves changes in the basic proteins associated with DNA. Somatic-type histones are partially or totally replaced by transition proteins, which in turn are replaced by protamines producing compact packaging of the genome. Sperm chromatin in the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) has a noncompacted loosely arranged organization. However, its formation during spermatogenesis is not clear. In this study, a cDNA sequence encoding histone H2B was cloned by polymerase chain reaction amplification, and its recombinant protein was expressed and purified. Protein alignment studies demonstrated that this histone H2B had 80.80%, 95.12%, 80.16%, 91.87%, 81.75%, 77.78% and 99.19% identity with its counterparts in zebrafish, fruit fly, human, prawn, mouse, African clawed frog, and crayfish, respectively. Western blotting indicated that the recombinant protein could be recognized by an anti-H2B antibody and confirmed that histone H2B exists in sperm nuclei. Immunofluorescence demonstrated that histone H2B was present in the nuclei of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids, and mature spermatozoa. This is the first report that the mature sperm nucleus of E. sinensis contains histone H2B. This work complements a previous study of sperm histones of this species and provides a basis for further study of the noncondensed sperm nuclei of decapod crustaceans. PMID:26343795

  18. Neuroanatomy of the optic ganglia and central brain of the water flea Daphnia magna (Crustacea, Cladocera).

    PubMed

    Kress, Timm; Harzsch, Steffen; Dircksen, Heinrich

    2016-03-01

    We reveal the neuroanatomy of the optic ganglia and central brain in the water flea Daphnia magna by use of classical neuroanatomical techniques such as semi-thin sectioning and neuronal backfilling, as well as immunohistochemical markers for synapsins, various neuropeptides and the neurotransmitter histamine. We provide structural details of distinct neuropiles, tracts and commissures, many of which were previously undescribed. We analyse morphological details of most neuron types, which allow for unravelling the connectivities between various substructural parts of the optic ganglia and the central brain and of ascending and descending connections with the ventral nerve cord. We identify 5 allatostatin-A-like, 13 FMRFamide-like and 5 tachykinin-like neuropeptidergic neuron types and 6 histamine-immunoreactive neuron types. In addition, novel aspects of several known pigment-dispersing hormone-immunoreactive neurons are re-examined. We analyse primary and putative secondary olfactory pathways and neuronal elements of the water flea central complex, which displays both insect- and decapod crustacean-like features, such as the protocerebral bridge, central body and lateral accessory lobes. Phylogenetic aspects based upon structural comparisons are discussed as well as functional implications envisaging more specific future analyses of ecotoxicological and endocrine disrupting environmental chemicals. PMID:26391274

  19. Ecological effects of ocean acidification and habitat complexity on reef-associated macroinvertebrate communities

    PubMed Central

    Fabricius, K. E.; De'ath, G.; Noonan, S.; Uthicke, S.

    2014-01-01

    The ecological effects of ocean acidification (OA) from rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) on benthic marine communities are largely unknown. We investigated in situ the consequences of long-term exposure to high CO2 on coral-reef-associated macroinvertebrate communities around three shallow volcanic CO2 seeps in Papua New Guinea. The densities of many groups and the number of taxa (classes and phyla) of macroinvertebrates were significantly reduced at elevated CO2 (425–1100 µatm) compared with control sites. However, sensitivities of some groups, including decapod crustaceans, ascidians and several echinoderms, contrasted with predictions of their physiological CO2 tolerances derived from laboratory experiments. High CO2 reduced the availability of structurally complex corals that are essential refugia for many reef-associated macroinvertebrates. This loss of habitat complexity was also associated with losses in many macroinvertebrate groups, especially predation-prone mobile taxa, including crustaceans and crinoids. The transition from living to dead coral as substratum and habitat further altered macroinvertebrate communities, with far more taxa losing than gaining in numbers. Our study shows that indirect ecological effects of OA (reduced habitat complexity) will complement its direct physiological effects and together with the loss of coral cover through climate change will severely affect macroinvertebrate communities in coral reefs. PMID:24307670

  20. Energy expenditure during activity in the American lobster Homarus americanus: Correlations with body acceleration.

    PubMed

    Lyons, G N; Halsey, L G; Pope, E C; Eddington, J D; Houghton, J D R

    2013-10-01

    How animals manage time and expend energy has implications for survivorship. Being able to measure key metabolic costs of animals under natural conditions is therefore an important tool in behavioral ecology. One method for estimating activity-specific metabolic rate is via derived measures of acceleration, often 'overall dynamic body acceleration' (ODBA), recorded by an instrumented acceleration logger. ODBA has been shown to correlate well with rate of oxygen consumption (V˙o2) in a range of species during activity in the laboratory. This study devised a method for attaching acceleration loggers to decapod crustaceans and then correlated ODBA against concurrent respirometry readings to assess accelerometry as a proxy for activity-specific energy expenditure in a model species, the American lobster Homarus americanus. Where the instrumented animals exhibited a sufficient range of activity levels, positive linear relationships were found between V˙o2 and ODBA over 20min periods at a range of ambient temperatures (6, 13 and 20°C). Mixed effect linear models based on these data and morphometrics provided reasonably strong predictive power for estimating activity-specific V˙o2 from ODBA. These V˙o2-ODBA calibrations demonstrate the potential of accelerometry as an effective predictor of behavior-specific metabolic rate of crustaceans in the wild during periods of activity. PMID:23811045

  1. The nature and extent of organisms in vessel sea-chests: A protected mechanism for marine bioinvasions.

    PubMed

    Coutts, Ashley D M; Dodgshun, Tim J

    2007-07-01

    A total of 150 different organisms, including one plant species and 12 animal phyla were identified from sea-chests of 42 vessels visiting or operating in New Zealand between May 2000 and November 2004. Forty-nine percent of organisms were sessile, 42% mobile adults and the remaining 9% sedentary. Decapods were the most represented group with 19 species present among 79% of vessels. Forty percent of organisms were indigenous to New Zealand, 15% introduced, 10% non-indigenous, and 35% of unknown origin. Sea-chests have the potential to (1) transfer non-indigenous organisms between countries across oceanic boundaries; and (2) disperse both indigenous and introduced organisms domestically. The occurrence of adult mobile organisms is particularly significant and indicates that sea-chests may be of greater importance than ballast water or hull fouling for dispersing certain marine species. These findings emphasise the need to assess and manage biosecurity risks for entire vessels rather than different mechanisms (i.e., ballast water, hull fouling, sea-chests, etc.) in isolation. PMID:17498747

  2. Distribution of serotonin and dopamine in the central nervous system of the female mud crab, Scylla olivacea (Herbst).

    PubMed

    Khornchatri, Kanjana; Kornthong, Napamanee; Saetan, Jirawat; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Cummins, Scott F; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert

    2015-03-01

    In crustaceans serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) are neurotransmitters that play roles in the modulation of numerous physiological functions, including reproduction. However, in the mud crab, Scylla olivacea, the distributions of 5-HT and DA in the CNS have not yet been investigated. The aim of our study was to map the distributions of these two neurotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNS) of the female of this crab during the late stage of ovarian development. We found 5-HT immunoreactivity (-ir) and DA-ir in many parts of the CNS, including the eyestalk, brain, and thoracic ganglia. In the eyestalk, 5-HT-ir was localized in the medulla terminalis (MT), hemi-ellipsoid body (HB), and protocerebral tract (PT), whereas DA-ir was present in neuronal cluster 1, the LG neuropils, and PT. In the brain, 5-HT-ir and DA-ir were detected in cells and fibers of neuronal clusters 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, and 15. In the ventral nerve cord, 5-HT-ir was present in neurons of the abdominal ganglia, whereas DA was only present in fibers. These spatial distributions of 5-HT and DA suggest that they may be involved in the neuromodulation of important physiological functions, including ovarian maturation, as shown in other non-crab decapods. PMID:25618422

  3. Eukaryote DIRS1-like retrotransposons: an overview

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background DIRS1-like elements compose one superfamily of tyrosine recombinase-encoding retrotransposons. They have been previously reported in only a few diverse eukaryote species, describing a patchy distribution, and little is known about their origin and dynamics. Recently, we have shown that these retrotransposons are common among decapods, which calls into question the distribution of DIRS1-like retrotransposons among eukaryotes. Results To determine the distribution of DIRS1-like retrotransposons, we developed a new computational tool, ReDoSt, which allows us to identify well-conserved DIRS1-like elements. By screening 274 completely sequenced genomes, we identified more than 4000 DIRS1-like copies distributed among 30 diverse species which can be clustered into roughly 300 families. While the diversity in most species appears restricted to a low copy number, a few bursts of transposition are strongly suggested in certain species, such as Danio rerio and Saccoglossus kowalevskii. Conclusion In this study, we report 14 new species and 8 new higher taxa that were not previously known to harbor DIRS1-like retrotransposons. Now reported in 61 species, these elements appear widely distributed among eukaryotes, even if they remain undetected in streptophytes and mammals. Especially in unikonts, a broad range of taxa from Cnidaria to Sauropsida harbors such elements. Both the distribution and the similarities between the DIRS1-like element phylogeny and conventional phylogenies of the host species suggest that DIRS1-like retrotransposons emerged early during the radiation of eukaryotes. PMID:22185659

  4. Field distribution and osmoregulatory capacity of shrimps in a temperate European estuary (SW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzlez-Ortegn, Enrique; Pascual, Emilio; Cuesta, Jose A.; Drake, Pilar

    2006-03-01

    The spatial distribution of the six most common crustacean decapods in the benthos and hyperbenthos of the Guadalquivir estuary (SW Spain) has been analysed in relation to their osmoregulatory capacities (at 20 C). Field densities along the estuarine salinity gradient revealed that, although the species studied showed salinity tolerance ranges in the field that do overlap to some extent, there was a considerable spatial and/or salinity-related segregation between several of them. Concerning their isosmotic points and their osmoregulatory salinity ranges, two main groups of species were distinguished: species with higher isosmotic points and tight ranges in osmoregulation, represented by marine species that entered the estuary from open sea and remained there for only part of the year ( Crangon crangon, Melicertus kerathurus and Palaemon serratus); and those with slightly lower isosmotic points and wide ranges in osmoregulation, represented by estuarine species which completed their life cycle in brackish water ( Palaemon longirostris, Palaemon macrodactylus and Palaemonetes varians). For all the species studied, their field distributions were clearly biased towards the lower end of the salinity ranges within which they osmoregulate. Nevertheless, individuals of the less euryhaline species ( M. kerathurus and P. serratus) were mainly found in less saline water when the estuarine gradient was displaced downstream and low salinities occurred close to the river mouth.

  5. Development and Application of Microsatellites in Carcinus maenas: Genetic Differentiation between Northern and Central Portuguese Populations

    PubMed Central

    Pascoal, Sónia; Creer, Simon; Taylor, Martin I.; Queiroga, Henrique; Carvalho, Gary; Mendo, Sónia

    2009-01-01

    Carcinus maenas, the common shore crab of European coastal waters, has recently gained notoriety due to its globally invasive nature associated with drastic ecological and economic effects. The native ubiquity and worldwide importance of C. maenas has resulted in it becoming one of the best-studied estuarine crustacean species globally. Accordingly, there is significant interest in investigating the population genetic structure of this broadly distributed crab along European and invaded coastlines. Here, we developed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for one dinucleotide and two trinucleotide microsatellite loci, resulting from an enrichment process based on Portuguese populations. Combining these three new markers with six existing markers, we examined levels of genetic diversity and population structure of C. maenas in two coastal regions from Northern and Central Portugal. Genotypes showed that locus polymorphism ranged from 10 to 42 alleles (N = 135) and observed heterozygosity per locus ranged from 0.745 to 0.987 with expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.711 to 0.960; values typical of marine decapods. The markers revealed weak, but significant structuring among populations (global FST = 0.004) across a 450 km (over-water distance) spatial scale. Combinations of these and existing markers will be useful for studying population genetic parameters at a range of spatial scales of C. maenas throughout its expanding species range. PMID:19789651

  6. Biomimicking micropatterned surfaces and their effect on marine biofouling.

    PubMed

    Brzozowska, Agata M; Parra-Velandia, Fernando J; Quintana, Robert; Xiaoying, Zhu; Lee, Serina S C; Chin-Sing, Lim; Jańczewski, Dominik; Teo, Serena L-M; Vancso, Julius G

    2014-08-01

    When synthetic materials are submerged in marine environments, dissolved matter and marine organisms attach to their surfaces by a process known as marine fouling. This phenomenon may lead to diminished material performance with detrimental consequences. Bioinspired surface patterning and chemical surface modifications present promising approaches to the design of novel functional surfaces that can prevent biofouling phenomena. In this study, we report the synergistic effects of surface patterns, inspired by the marine decapod crab Myomenippe hardwickii in combination with chemical surface modifications toward suppressing marine fouling. M. hardwickii is known to maintain a relatively clean carapace although the species occurs in biofouling communities of tropical shallow subtidal coastal waters. Following the surface analysis of selected specimens, we designed hierarchical surface microtopographies that replicate the critical features observed on the crustacean surface. The micropatterned surfaces were modified with zwitterionic polymer brushes or with layer-by-layer deposited polyelectrolyte multilayers to enhance their antifouling and/or fouling-release potential. Chemically modified and unmodified micropatterned surfaces were subjected to extensive fouling tests, including laboratory assays against barnacle settlement and algae adhesion, and field static immersion tests. The results show a statistically significant reduction in settlement on the micropatterned surfaces as well as a synergistic effect when the microtopographies are combined with grafted polymer chains. PMID:25017490

  7. Fossil Crustaceans as Parasites and Hosts.

    PubMed

    Klompmaker, Adiël A; Boxshall, Geoff A

    2015-01-01

    Numerous crustacean lineages have independently moved into parasitism as a mode of life. In modern marine ecosystems, parasitic crustaceans use representatives from many metazoan phyla as hosts. Crustaceans also serve as hosts to a rich diversity of parasites, including other crustaceans. Here, we show that the fossil record of such parasitic interactions is sparse, with only 11 examples, one dating back to the Cambrian. This may be due to the limited preservation potential and small size of parasites, as well as to problems with ascribing traces to parasitism with certainty, and to a lack of targeted research. Although the confirmed stratigraphic ranges are limited for nearly every example, evidence of parasitism related to crustaceans has become increasingly more complete for isopod-induced swellings in decapods so that quantitative analyses can be carried out. Little attention has yet been paid to the origin of parasitism in deep time, but insight can be generated by integrating data on fossils with molecular studies on modern parasites. In addition, there are other traces left by parasites that could fossilize, but have not yet been recognized in the fossil record. PMID:26597069

  8. Variation of prostaglandin E2 concentrations in ovaries and its effects on ovarian maturation and oocyte proliferation in the giant fresh water prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Sumpownon, Chanudporn; Engsusophon, Attakorn; Siangcham, Tanapan; Sugiyama, Eiji; Soonklang, Nantawan; Meeratana, Prasert; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Hanna, Peter J; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Sobhon, Prasert

    2015-11-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) are important bioactive mediators for many physiological functions. In some decapod crustaceans, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been detected in reproductive organs, and may play a role in the control of ovarian maturation. However, in the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the presences of PGE2 and key enzymes for PGE2 biosynthesis, as well as its effects on ovarian maturation have not yet been investigated. In this study we reported the presence of PGE2, cyclooxygenase1 (COX1) and prostaglandin E synthase (PGES) in the ovarian tissues of M. rosenbergii, using immunohistochemistry. Intense immunoreactivities of PGE2 (PGE2-ir), COX1 (Cox1-ir) and PGES (PGES-ir) were detected in previtellogenic oocytes (Oc1 and Oc2), while the immunoreactivities were absent in the late vitellogenic oocytes (Oc4). This finding supports the hypothesis that the PGE2 biosynthesis occurs in the ovary of this prawn. To ascertain this finding we used LC-MS/MS to quantitate PGE2 concentrations during ovarian developmental cycle. The levels of PGE2 were significantly higher in the early ovarian stages (St I and II) than in the late stages (St III and IV). Moreover, we found that administration of PGE2 stimulated the ovarian maturation in this species by shortening the length of the ovarian cycle, increasing ovarian-somatic index, oocyte proliferation, and vitellogenin (Vg) level in the hemolymph. PMID:25963041

  9. Astacin family metallopeptidases and serine peptidase inhibitors in spider digestive fluid.

    PubMed

    Foradori, Matthew J; Tillinghast, Edward K; Smith, J Stephen; Townley, Mark A; Mooney, Robert E

    2006-03-01

    Digestive fluid of the araneid spider Argiope aurantia is known to contain zinc metallopeptidases. Using anion-exchange chromatography, size-exclusion chromatography, sucrose density gradient centrifugation, and gel electrophoresis, we isolated two lower-molecular-mass peptidases, designated p16 and p18. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of p16 (37 residues) and p18 (20 residues) are 85% identical over the first 20 residues and are most similar to the N-terminal sequences of the fully active form of meprin (beta subunits) from several vertebrates (47-52% and 50-60% identical, respectively). Meprin is a peptidase in the astacin (M12A) subfamily of the astacin (M12) family. Additionally, a 66-residue internal sequence obtained from p16 aligns with the conserved astacin subfamily domain. Thus, at least some spider digestive peptidases appear related to astacin of decapod crustaceans. However, important differences between spider and crustacean metallopeptidases with regard to isoelectric point and their susceptibility to hemolymph-borne inhibitors are demonstrated. Anomalous behavior of the lower-molecular-mass Argiope peptidases during certain fractionation procedures indicates that these peptidases may take part in reversible associations with each other or with other proteins. A. aurantia digestive fluid also contains inhibitory activity effective against insect digestive peptidases. Here we present evidence for at least thirteen, heat-stable serine peptidase inhibitors ranging in molecular mass from about 15 to 32 kDa. PMID:16458560

  10. Ghost shrimps (Decapoda: Axiidea: Callianassidae) as producers of an Upper Miocene trace fossil association from sublittoral deposits of Lake Pannon (Vienna Basin, Slovakia)

    PubMed Central

    Hyžný, Matúš; Šimo, Vladimír; Starek, Dušan

    2015-01-01

    Numerous trace fossils are described from the Late Miocene sediments of the Bzenec Formation exposed at the Gbely section (the Vienna Basin, Slovakia). During deposition of the sediments the area was part of the large, long-lived brackish to freshwater Lake Pannon. Most of the trace fossils are attributed herein to Egbellichnus jordidegiberti igen et ispec. nov. and are interpreted as burrows produced by decapod crustaceans, specifically by a ghost shrimp of the family Callianassidae. This interpretation is based on two independent lines of evidence: environmental requirements of large bioturbators and the burrow morphology itself. The new ichnotaxon is distinguished from other related ichnotaxa by a combination of typically inclined (roughly at an angle of 45°) cylindrical burrows, absence of lining, and tunnels making loops or bends at approximately right angles. The burrow systems at Gbely document the survival of ghost shrimp long after the closure of all seaways and the origin of Lake Pannon. As today, no ghost shrimp are known from long-lived brackish lakes. Egbellichnus from Gbely is the only, although indirect, record of ghost shrimp from a brackish lake environment reported so far. PMID:26089575

  11. A new PCR-based method shows that blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun)) consume winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Walbaum)).

    PubMed

    Collier, Jackie L; Fitzgerald, Sean P; Hice, Lyndie A; Frisk, Michael G; McElroy, Anne E

    2014-01-01

    Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) once supported robust commercial and recreational fisheries in the New York (USA) region, but since the 1990s populations have been in decline. Available data show that settlement of young-of-the-year winter flounder has not declined as sharply as adult abundance, suggesting that juveniles are experiencing higher mortality following settlement. The recent increase of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) abundance in the New York region raises the possibility that new sources of predation may be contributing to juvenile winter flounder mortality. To investigate this possibility we developed and validated a method to specifically detect winter flounder mitochondrial control region DNA sequences in the gut contents of blue crabs. A survey of 55 crabs collected from Shinnecock Bay (along the south shore of Long Island, New York) in July, August, and September of 2011 showed that 12 of 42 blue crabs (28.6%) from which PCR-amplifiable DNA was recovered had consumed winter flounder in the wild, empirically supporting the trophic link between these species that has been widely speculated to exist. This technique overcomes difficulties with visual identification of the often unrecognizable gut contents of decapod crustaceans, and modifications of this approach offer valuable tools to more broadly address their feeding habits on a wide variety of species. PMID:24454797

  12. Temporal changes in the structure of a slope suprabenthic community from the Bay of Biscay (NE Atlantic Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorbe, Jean Claude; Elizalde, Marta

    2014-08-01

    The suprabenthic community of the upper slope off Arcachon (site A at about 400 m depth on a muddy sand substratum) was sampled monthly from February 1991 to January 1992 with a suprabenthic sled towed over the sea bottom. The fauna collected in the 0-50 cm water layer above the bottom was classified into 9 major groups and 109 species (56 amphipods, 12 mysids, 10 isopods, 10 decapods, 9 cumaceans, 6 euphausiids, 4 fishes, 1 lophogastrid and 1 tanaid). The total abundance of the community fluctuated between a maximum of 3199 ind./100 m2 in July and a minimum of 82 ind./100 m2 in November, with an annual mean value of 969±601 ind./100 m2. The community structure was mainly affected by the temporal abundance fluctuations of the asellote isopod Munnopsurus atlanticus. This species was numerically dominant during the first part of the year and showed a drastic decrease in August, followed by the dominance of the mysids Erythrops neapolitana or Parapseudomma calloplura in autumn and early winter. Such structural changes in the dominance of major taxa are discussed with respect to the feeding behaviour of species and food availability in the near-bottom environment. We conclude that the population dynamics of M. atlanticus in the upper bathyal was mainly governed by the seasonal development of its major prey, the benthic foraminifers, favoured by the spring phytodetritus deposition on the sea floor.

  13. Geographical Information System Based Evaluation of Benthic MACRO Fauna in Thondi Coastal Environment, South East Coast of India Rethna Priya. E, Anbuchezhian. R and Ravichandran. S. Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Annamalai University, Portonovo, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priya, R.; Ramasamy, A.; Ravichandran, R.; Anbuchezhian. E.

    2013-05-01

    Seasonal and frequency difference of the macro fauna have been related to variation in the morpho dynamics and the population dynamics of dominant species. The aim of this article is to describe the seasonal and spatial variation of the macro fauna at 12 different samplings stations with distinct environmental conditions in Thondi coastal area. The samples were collected monthly from September 2010 to September 2011. Macro benthic invertebrates are numerically important components of coastal ecosystems and represents indicators of fishery potentials, intertidal ecology and environmental degradation. Sampling stations were fixed by GPS. 54 species were recorded, of this 24 species belonging to gastropods, 15 species of bivalves, 5 species of amphipods, 6 species of decapods and 4 species of echinoderms. In the present study the abdunce of benthic fauna greatly depends on physical and chemical properties of the substratum. The diversity, seasonal variations, dominances, influence of ecological parameters have been studied geographically by using GIS software for a period of one year from September 2010 to September 2011The macro fauna at all sites showed a arresting seasonal variation in density and diversity. Keywords: Macro fauna, GIS software, environmental degradation, morpho dynamics.

  14. Zooplankton long-term changes in the NW Mediterranean Sea: Decadal periodicity forced by winter hydrographic conditions related to large-scale atmospheric changes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Comas, Carmen; Stemmann, Lars; Ibanez, Frédéric; Berline, Léo; Mazzocchi, Maria Grazia; Gasparini, Stéphane; Picheral, Marc; Gorsky, Gabriel

    2011-09-01

    Copepod, chaetognath, decapod larva, siphonophore and jellyfish monthly abundances, from 1974 to 2003 at Point B (northwestern Mediterranean), were obtained with the ZooScan. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on zooplankton, and another PCA on local environment. Almost-decadal periods (1974-1982, 1983-1991, 1992-1999, and 2000-2003) were distinguished in the 1st PC of zooplankton, and that of local environment (1974-1980, 1981-1991, 1992-1998, and 1999-2003). The 1st PC of local environment was correlated with winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) until early 1990s. In early 1980s, all groups increased and the majority of the decade abundances were above the long-term average for most groups. In the 1990s, all decreased, and in early 2000s they increased. This synchrony suggests bottom-up control as main mechanism structuring these groups. The 1980s were characterized by low winter temperature and high salinity. We hypothesize that phytoplankton production was favored during that decade due to increased nutrient uprise to surface by strong winter vertical mixing. In the 1990s salinity decreased probably to the detriment of vertical mixing and carrying capacity of the system. These results stress the role of salinity as physical forcing on water-column stability, in the NW Mediterranean, and the importance of winter conditions to determine the state of pelagic ecosystems.

  15. Environmental features and macrofauna of Kahana Estuary, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maciolek, J.A.; Timbol, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    Lack of ecological information on Hawaiian estuaries prompted an intensive 2-year study of a small (5.7 ha) stream-mouth estuary on windward Oahu. Water quality and macrofauna were sampled weekly at seven stations. The water mass was strongly stratified vertically except during freshets. Average values for water column temperature and bottom salinity were 23.2°C and 12‰ at the head to 28.3°C and 28‰ at the mouth. Dissolved oxygen saturation in the water column varied from about 50% at night to 140% in the afternoon. Usually, bottom waters were 3–6°C warmer than surface waters and sometimes showed severe oxygen depletion.Macrofauna, collected primarily by seining, consisted mainly of decapod crustaceans (four species of crabs, seven species of shrimps) and fishes (24 species). Other typical estuarine taxons (mollusks, barnacles, polychaetes) were scarce or absent. Diversity increased seaward from 14 species near the estuary head to 29 species near the mouth. Three species of crustaceans and six of fishes were captured at all stations. Most abundant were the native prawn, Macrobrachium grandimanus, and mullet, Mugil cephalus. Perennially resident adults occurred among crustaceans and gobioid fishes; most other fishes were present as juveniles and sporadic adults. Comparisons with other data suggest that more than 50 species of native fishes may occur in Hawaiian estuaries, and that estuarine macrofaunal diversity on oceanic islands is much lower than on continents at similar latitudes.

  16. Glutamatergic motoneurons in the stomatogastric ganglion of the mantis shrimp Squilla oratoria.

    PubMed

    Chiba, C; Tazaki, K

    1992-07-01

    1. Transmitters of motoneurons in the stomatogastric ganglion (STG) of Squilla were identified by analyzing the excitatory neuromuscular properties of muscles in the posterior cardiac plate (pcp) and pyloric regions. 2. Bath and iontophoretic applications of glutamate produce depolarizations in these muscles. The pharmacological experiments and desensitization of the junctional receptors elucidate the glutamatergic nature of the excitatory junctional potentials (EJPs) evoked in the constrictor and dilator muscles. The reversal potentials for the excitatory junctional current (EJC) and for the glutamate-induced current are almost the same. 3. Some types of dilator muscle show sensitivity to both glutamate and acetylcholine (ACh) exogenously applied. The pharmacological evidence and desensitization of the junctional receptors indicate the glutamatergic nature of neuromuscular junctions in these dually sensitive muscles. The reversal potentials for the EJC and for the ACh-induced current are not identical. 4. Glutamate is a candidate as an excitatory neuro-transmitter at the neuromuscular junctions which the STG motoneurons named PCP, PY, PD, LA and VC make with the identified muscles. Kainic and quisqualic acids which act on glutamate receptors are potent excitants of these muscles. Extrajunctional receptors to ACh are present in two types of the muscle innervated by LA and VC. 5. Neurotransmitters used by the STG motoneurons of stomatopods are compared to those of decapods. PMID:1359128

  17. Rapid scavenging of jellyfish carcasses reveals the importance of gelatinous material to deep-sea food webs

    PubMed Central

    Sweetman, Andrew K.; Smith, Craig R.; Dale, Trine; Jones, Daniel O. B.

    2014-01-01

    Jellyfish blooms are common in many oceans, and anthropogenic changes appear to have increased their magnitude in some regions. Although mass falls of jellyfish carcasses have been observed recently at the deep seafloor, the dense necrophage aggregations and rapid consumption rates typical for vertebrate carrion have not been documented. This has led to a paradigm of limited energy transfer to higher trophic levels at jelly falls relative to vertebrate organic falls. We show from baited camera deployments in the Norwegian deep sea that dense aggregations of deep-sea scavengers (more than 1000 animals at peak densities) can rapidly form at jellyfish baits and consume entire jellyfish carcasses in 2.5 h. We also show that scavenging rates on jellyfish are not significantly different from fish carrion of similar mass, and reveal that scavenging communities typical for the NE Atlantic bathyal zone, including the Atlantic hagfish, galatheid crabs, decapod shrimp and lyssianasid amphipods, consume both types of carcasses. These rapid jellyfish carrion consumption rates suggest that the contribution of gelatinous material to organic fluxes may be seriously underestimated in some regions, because jelly falls may disappear much more rapidly than previously thought. Our results also demonstrate that the energy contained in gelatinous carrion can be efficiently incorporated into large numbers of deep-sea scavengers and food webs, lessening the expected impacts (e.g. smothering of the seafloor) of enhanced jellyfish production on deep-sea ecosystems and pelagic–benthic coupling. PMID:25320167

  18. A year in Barkley Canyon: A time-series observatory study of mid-slope benthos and habitat dynamics using the NEPTUNE Canada network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juniper, S. Kim; Matabos, Marjolaine; Mihály, Steven; Ajayamohan, R. S.; Gervais, Françoise; Bui, Alice O. V.

    2013-08-01

    Understanding long-term trends in species abundance and distribution represents an important challenge for future research in the deep sea, particularly as management of human impacts becomes a more important concern. However, until natural higher frequency variability is better understood, it will be difficult to interpret any long-term trends that may be apparent in data sets. We present here the results of the first year of observations at the NEPTUNE Canada cabled observatory site in Barkley Canyon, off the coast of Vancouver Island, in the northeast Pacific Ocean. Presence/absence and abundance data for 28 faunal groups were extracted from daily video records from an observatory camera. Concurrent CTD and current meter data were collected from co-located instruments. Water mass properties, currents and faunal community composition exhibited notable seasonal trends. Distinct seasonal faunal groupings were observed, together with summer and winter trends in temperature, salinity and current patterns. Variations in abundance of decapod crustaceans and fishes were responsible for most differences between faunal groups. We suggest that faunal composition may have been responding to seasonal variations in food availability, together with direct and indirect physical influences on predator and prey abundance.

  19. Tunneling trilobites: Habitual infaunalism in an Ordovician carbonate seafloor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherns, Lesley; Wheeley, James R.; Karis, Lars

    2006-08-01

    Asaphus trilobites preserved in tunnel systems of the trace fossil Thalassinoides from the mid-Ordovician (ca. 465 Ma) Holen Limestone, Sweden, are interpreted as the trace makers, enabled by shallow carbonate firm grounds to construct open tunnel networks and develop habitual infaunal behavior. Their in situ preservation confirms an infaunal ethology inferred for some trilobite taxa from functional morphology. We suggest that predation pressure from large omnivorous nautiloid cephalopods (“Orthoceras” Limestone facies) may have triggered ecologic opportunism. In trilobites well adapted for predatory-scavenging behavior as well as excavation, the tunnel networks functioned primarily for protection, possibly assisting in feeding, breathing, and breeding strategies. Previously, “trilobite burrows” have referred to seafloor traces of locomotion, feeding, and resting (Cruziana, Rusophycus). Infaunal, tunneling trilobites provide new evidence of mid-Ordovician partitioning of the skeletal benthos, adding to an ecologic and trophic tier hitherto interpreted as occupied by soft-bodied organisms. Such trilobites also provide an identity for Thalassinoides tracemakers prior to Devonian evolution of decapod crustaceans.

  20. Direct Age Determination of a Subtropical Freshwater Crayfish (Redclaw, Cherax quadricarinatus) Using Ossicular Growth Marks

    PubMed Central

    Leland, Jesse C.; Bucher, Daniel J.; Coughran, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have reported that crustacean age determination is possible. We applied a direct ageing method (i.e. transverse cross sectioning of gastric ossicles) to a subtropical freshwater crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) sourced from an aquaculture population. Growth mark periodicity and the potential for chronological depositions were investigated by staining C. quadricarinatus with calcein and examining their ossicles a year later. Pterocardiac ossicles were superior to other ageing structures (i.e. other ossicles and eyestalks) and produced repeatable between-reader counts (87% were corroborated and 13% varied by ±1). C. quadricarinatus size-at-age data (for an aquaculture population) was described by a von Bertalanffy growth equation (L∞ = 32 mm occipital carapace length; K = 0.64; t0 = –0.18; R2 = 0.81). Ossicular growth marks did not correspond to moult history. The calcein stain was retained over an annual cycle comprising multiple moults, demonstrating that pterocardiac ossicles retain chronological information. The maximum age (3+) corroborated other indirectly-obtained longevity estimates for C. quadricarinatus. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that the growth marks in C. quadricarinatus ossicles are probably deposited annually during winter. The ability to extract age information from subtropical decapods provides substantial opportunities for advancing fisheries and conservation research globally, but further research is needed to provide a definitive validation and elucidate the mechanism governing the accrual of ossicular growth marks. PMID:26309228

  1. Morphometric and molecular analyses for populations of Palaemon longirostris and Palaemon garciacidi (Crustacea, Palaemonidae): Evidence for a single species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartaxana, Alexandra

    2015-03-01

    Authors have disagreed on the taxonomic status of the white prawns along the coasts of the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. The present study compares variation in morphology and mtDNA in populations of white prawns, identified as Palaemon longirostris and P. garciacidi, from the United Kingdom, The Netherlands, France, Spain, Portugal, Morocco and Tunisia. Differences in morphology among populations were tested using a multiple discriminant analyses (DA) on morphometric data. In order to resolve variation in mtDNA, 16S and COI mitochondrial (mt) genes were used. The morphometric analyses do not support their separation into distinct species, since individual prawns could not be assigned unequivocally to one of the various studied populations and a geographic pattern could be detected only in females. Molecular data corroborate the morphological analyses, since no geographic structure was found and the levels of sequence divergence observed among haplotypes from distinct populations (0.1-0.8%) are consistent with other 16S and COI intraspecific divergences of decapod crustaceans. Therefore, findings from this study do not support the distinction of P. longirostris and P. garciacidi as different species.

  2. Comparative Ultrastructure and Carbohydrate Composition of Gastroliths from Astacidae, Cambaridae and Parastacidae Freshwater Crayfish (Crustacea, Decapoda)

    PubMed Central

    Luquet, Gilles; Fernández, María S.; Badou, Aïcha; Guichard, Nathalie; Roy, Nathalie Le; Corneillat, Marion; Alcaraz, Gérard; Arias, José L.

    2012-01-01

    Crustaceans have to cyclically replace their rigid exoskeleton in order to grow.Most of them harden this skeleton by a calcification process. Some decapods (land crabs, lobsters and crayfish) elaborate calcium storage structures as a reservoir of calcium ions in their stomach wall, as so-called gastroliths. For a better understanding of the cyclic elaboration of these calcium deposits, we studied the ultrastructure of gastroliths from freshwater crayfish by using a combination of microscopic and physical techniques. Because sugars are also molecules putatively involved in the elaboration process of these biomineralizations, we also determined their carbohydrate composition. This study was performed in a comparative perspective on crayfish species belonging to the infra-order Astacidea (Decapoda, Malacostraca): three species from the Astacoidea superfamily and one species from the Parastacoidea superfamily. We observed that all the gastroliths exhibit a similar dense network of protein-chitin fibers, from macro- to nanoscale, within which calcium is precipitated as amorphous calcium carbonate. Nevertheless, they are not very similar at the molecular level, notably as regards their carbohydrate composition. Besides glucosamine, the basic carbohydrate component of chitin, we evidenced the presence of other sugars, some of which are species-specific like rhamnose and galacturonic acid whereas xylose and mannose could be linked to proteoglycan components. PMID:24970155

  3. Morphology does not predict performance: jaw curvature and prey crushing in durophagous stingrays.

    PubMed

    Kolmann, Matthew A; Crofts, Stephanie B; Dean, Mason N; Summers, Adam P; Lovejoy, Nathan R

    2015-12-01

    All stingrays in the family Myliobatidae are durophagous, consuming bivalves and gastropods, as well as decapod crustaceans. Durophagous rays have rigid jaws, flat teeth that interlock to form pavement-like tooth plates, and large muscles that generate bite forces capable of fracturing stiff biological composites (e.g. mollusk shell). The relative proportion of different prey types in the diet of durophagous rays varies between genera, with some stingray species specializing on particular mollusk taxa, while others are generalists. The tooth plate module provides a curved occlusal surface on which prey is crushed, and this curvature differs significantly among myliobatids. We measured the effect of jaw curvature on prey-crushing success in durophagous stingrays. We milled aluminum replica jaws rendered from computed tomography scans, and crushed live mollusks, three-dimensionally printed gastropod shells, and ceramic tubes with these fabricated jaws. Our analysis of prey items indicate that gastropods were consistently more difficult to crush than bivalves (i.e. were stiffer), but that mussels require the greatest work-to-fracture. We found that replica shells can provide an important proxy for investigations of failure mechanics. We also found little difference in crushing performance between jaw shapes, suggesting that disparate jaws are equally suited for processing different types of shelled prey. Thus, durophagous stingrays exhibit a many-to-one mapping of jaw morphology to mollusk crushing performance. PMID:26567348

  4. Composition and Dynamics of the Black Sea Benthopelagic Plankton and Its Contribution to the Near-Shore Plankton Communities

    PubMed Central

    Vereshchaka, Alexander L.; Anokhina, Ludmila L.

    2014-01-01

    At a shallow (7 m) near-shore sampling site in the Black Sea we analyzed composition, abundance, and biomass of benthopelagic organisms and the contribution these animals make to the total plankton. The site was monitored across several years (1996–2001; 2006–2007) whilst for 1999–2000 the seasonal variations were analysed. A total of 321 samples from Golubaja Bay near Novorossiysk (44°34′31.04″ N, 37°58′45.11″ E) in 1996–2007 were taken with a Judey net. The benthopelagic fauna was represented by 69 taxa, a diversity comparable to similar shelf areas. The benthopelagic component played an important role in near-shore plankton communities in the Black Sea accounting for 50% of the total zooplankton biomass at night during all seasons. Abundance and biomass of the benthopelagic animals showed seasonal fluctuations, the highest biomass being recorded during winter (>75% of the total zooplankton biomass) and early spring due to large amphipods, whilst the highest abundances occur during late summer because of numerous young stages of various taxa. Amphipods, mysids, and decapods are the main contributors to the plankton biomass and abundances. Both night and daytime samples are strongly recommended for the adequate description of the near-shore plankton communities. PMID:24945680

  5. Biodiversity and diel variation of the benthohyponeuston: A case study of the Northeast Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereshchaka, Alexander L.; Anokhina, Ludmila L.

    2015-12-01

    The neustal is a specific habitat of oceans, which significantly differs in abiotic parameters from the waters below. One of the most significant components of the coastal neustonic fauna is the benthohyponeuston migrating diurnally between benthic and neustonic realms. Data on this fauna are fragmentary and contradictory, partly due to lack of the criteria to distinguish benthohyponeuston from other benthopelagic animals diurnally migrating to the bulk water from the seafloor. We propose a criterion to quantify the degree of aggregation/avoidance of the neustal zone, reveal four distinct ecological groups and describe patterns of their overnight dynamics. Benthohyponeuston appears in open water at sunset, its biomass most rapidly increases one hour after sunset. Cumaceans, mysids and polychaetes make significant contribution during first three hours after sunset. Decapods are important around midnight and 3 h later. Amphipods are significant overnight. By analogy with the benthopelagic species, we define the benthohyponeuston as benthic animals, which are associated with the neustal zone at least at one stage of their life cycle. This association is necessary for reproduction, dispersal or feeding - that represent three basic pathways connecting neustonic and benthic/benthopelagic coastal communities below. The data on benthohyponeuston and patterns of its overnight dynamics will help in a better understanding of vertical migrations in the coastal zone and in estimating diurnal fluxes of organic matter.

  6. Involvement of the antioxidant system in differential sensitivity of Carcinus maenas to fenitrothion exposure.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, A P; Gravato, C; Guimarães, L

    2013-10-01

    Carcinus maenas is an invertebrate with worldwide distribution and high ability to adapt to different environments, which is frequently used in environmental monitoring. Despite this, it is not clear how historical exposure to moderate contamination may influence sensitivity to further chemical stress in this important decapod species. This study investigated differential responses to organophosphate fenitrothion of C. maenas from a moderately contaminated estuary and a low impacted one, using in vitro and in vivo biomarker assays. To clarify potential differences in sensitivity, a biochemical characterisation of muscle cholinesterases was first performed. The results indicated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) as the main form present in C. maenas muscle. Exposure assays revealed that crabs from the moderately contaminated site were less sensitive to fenitrothion showing lower AChE inhibition than those from the low impacted site. Other biomarker changes detected in these animals were: increased anaerobic metabolism (muscle lactate dehydrogenase), enhanced phase II biotransformation (glutathione S-transferases in the digestive gland) and antioxidant defences (i.e., activities of glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase, and levels of total glutathiones in the digestive gland). Altogether, the results pointed out a role for the glutathione redox system towards tolerance to fenitrothion exposure. PMID:24056931

  7. Seasonal dynamics of the density of the crab larvae (Decapoda: Brachyura et Anomura) in Minonosok Bay of Pos'eta Bay (Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryeva, N. I.

    2013-03-01

    As the materials for this project, we used data on the distribution of the larvae of the Asian paddle crab Charybdis japonicus (A. Milne-Edwards, 1861); the spider crabs Hyas coarctatus ursinus (= Hyas ursinus) (Rathbun, 1924), Pugettia quadridens (de Haan, 1839), and Pisoides bidentatus (H. Milne-Edwards, 1873); the samurai crab Paradorippe granulata (= Dorippe granulata) (de Haan, 1841); the pea crab Pinnixa rathbuni (Sakai, 1934); and the porcelain crab Pachycheles stevensii (Stimpson, 1858) in Minonosok Bay of Pos'eta Bay obtained during 2000-2002 and in 2004. The planktonic samples were collected from the last third of May to September. The greatest density of the larvae was observed in May, mid-June, late June-early July, and late July-early August. The greatest densities of the crab larvae and the decapod larvae ranged from 20.4 to 48.2 and from 88.4 to 245.3 specimens/m3. The schedule of the crab larvae's occurrence in the plankton is provided for the first time. The distribution of the density showed pronounced patchiness.

  8. Brachyuran and anomuran crabs associated with Schizoporella unicornis (Ectoprocta, Cheilostomata) from southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, Douglas F R; Barros-Alves, Samara P; Lima, Daniel J M; Cobo, Valter J; Negreiros-Fransozo, Maria Lucia

    2013-03-01

    The main goals of this investigation were to describe the community structure of anomuran and brachyuran crabs inhabiting reefs constituted by colonies of Schizoporella unicornis, and to provide a species importance ranking for this community. Collections were carried out on S. unicornis reefs at two-month intervals from May 2003 to May 2004, in the rocky sublittoral of the southeastern Brazilian coast. Relative abundance and occurrence were used to rank these species in the hierarchy importance. A total of 2,018 individuals were obtained, in 11 families, 22 genera and 31 species. Porcellanidae and Pilumnidae were the most abundant families, comprising respectively almost 60% and 15% of individuals sampled. The species ranking indicated four main groups A, B, C and D, with group A subdivided. Subgroup A1 contained 9 species, including the species of greatest ecological importance for community regarding abundance and occurrence. The great abundance of crabs associated with S. unicornis seems to be the result of its recognized importance during the crab developmental cycle, and as shelter and food for some Decapod species. These observations reveal the importance of conserving the areas occupied by these reef colonies, which appear to be an important environment for maintaining local biodiversity. PMID:23538959

  9. Fine-scale distribution and spatial variability of benthic invertebrate larvae in an open coastal embayment in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Daigle, Rémi M; Metaxas, Anna; deYoung, Brad

    2014-01-01

    This study quantified the fine- scale (0.5 km) of variability in the horizontal distributions of benthic invertebrate larvae and related this variability to that in physical and biological variables, such as density, temperature, salinity, fluorescence and current velocity. Larvae were sampled in contiguous 500-m transects along two perpendicular 10-km transects with a 200-µm plankton ring net (0.75-m diameter) in St. George's Bay, Nova Scotia, Canada, in Aug 2009. Temperature, conductivity, pressure and fluorescence were measured with a CTD cast at each station, and currents were measured with an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler moored at the intersection of the 2 transects. Gastropod, bivalve and, to a lesser extent, bryozoan larvae had very similar spatial distributions, but the distribution of decapod larvae had a different pattern. These findings suggest that taxonomic groups with functionally similar larvae have similar dispersive properties such as distribution and spatial variability, while the opposite is true for groups with functionally dissimilar larvae. The spatial variability in larval distributions was anisotropic and matched the temporal/spatial variability in the current velocity. We postulate that in a system with no strong oceanographic features, the scale of spatially coherent physical forcing (e.g. tidal periodicity) can regulate the formation or maintenance of larval patches; however, swimming ability may modulate it. PMID:25153075

  10. Fine-Scale Distribution and Spatial Variability of Benthic Invertebrate Larvae in an Open Coastal Embayment in Nova Scotia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Daigle, Rémi M.; Metaxas, Anna; deYoung, Brad

    2014-01-01

    This study quantified the fine- scale (0.5 km) of variability in the horizontal distributions of benthic invertebrate larvae and related this variability to that in physical and biological variables, such as density, temperature, salinity, fluorescence and current velocity. Larvae were sampled in contiguous 500-m transects along two perpendicular 10-km transects with a 200-µm plankton ring net (0.75-m diameter) in St. George’s Bay, Nova Scotia, Canada, in Aug 2009. Temperature, conductivity, pressure and fluorescence were measured with a CTD cast at each station, and currents were measured with an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler moored at the intersection of the 2 transects. Gastropod, bivalve and, to a lesser extent, bryozoan larvae had very similar spatial distributions, but the distribution of decapod larvae had a different pattern. These findings suggest that taxonomic groups with functionally similar larvae have similar dispersive properties such as distribution and spatial variability, while the opposite is true for groups with functionally dissimilar larvae. The spatial variability in larval distributions was anisotropic and matched the temporal/spatial variability in the current velocity. We postulate that in a system with no strong oceanographic features, the scale of spatially coherent physical forcing (e.g. tidal periodicity) can regulate the formation or maintenance of larval patches; however, swimming ability may modulate it. PMID:25153075

  11. Sound production in the aquatic isopod Cymodoce japonica (Crustacea: Peracarida).

    PubMed

    Nakamachi, Takeru; Ishida, Hideki; Hirohashi, Noritaka

    2015-10-01

    A vast variety of acoustic behaviors and mechanisms occur in arthropods. Sound production, in particular, in insects and decapod crustaceans has been well documented. However, except for a brief, anecdotal statement, there has been no report on the acoustic behavior of aquatic isopods. We present the first empirical evidence in aquatic Isopoda that males of Cymodoce japonica produce sound by stridulation, or the rubbing together of body parts. Sound production was associated with tail-lifting behavior, suggesting that stridulation occurs on thoracic and/or abdominal somites. Acoustic analysis revealed that syllable length was similar throughout the stridulation, at a mode of 2500-3000 Hz. With a scanning electron microscope, we identified file-like structures on the inner surface of the dorsal exoskeleton. Each file consisted of 188 ± 11.1 ridges at about 0.5 μm intervals; the theoretical frequency (number of ridges per syllable length) was estimated to be 2208-3646 Hz. This finding suggests that the stridulation sounds arose from these structures. Laboratory observations show that stridulation may play a role in the threatening of other males in the context of territorial and/or reproductive competitions. PMID:26504157

  12. The presence and distribution of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-liked factor in the central nervous system of the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Ngernsoungnern, Piyada; Ngernsoungnern, Apichart; Kavanaugh, Scott; Sobhon, Prasert; Sower, Stacia A; Sretarugsa, Prapee

    2008-02-01

    The distribution and presence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in the central nervous system (CNS) of Penaeus monodon were examined by immunocytochemistry, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and radioimmunoassay (RIA). We demonstrated the existence of octopus (oct)GnRH-liked immunoreactivity (ir-octGnRH) and lamprey (l)GnRH-III-liked immunoreactivity (ir-lGnRH-III) in cell bodies of medium-sized neurons of the anterior part (protocerebrum) of the supraesophageal ganglion (brain). In addition, only the ir-octGnRH was detected in the nerve fibers located in the brain and segmental ganglia (subesophageal, thoracic, and abdominal ganglia). Moreover, some branches of these fibers also innervated the neurons in the middle (deutrocerebrum), posterior (tritocerebrum) brain and segmental ganglia. There was no ir-lGnRH-I and ir-salmon (s)GnRH detected in the shrimp CNS. The results from HPLC and RIA showed ir-GnRH in the CNS using anti-lGnRH-III, but not with anti-mammalian (m)GnRH. The data from immunocytochemistry, HPLC and RIA suggest that ir-GnRH in shrimp may be more similar to octGnRH and lGnRH-III than the other forms. These findings support the hypothesis that GnRH-liked factor(s) may be an ancient peptide that also exists in this decapod crustacean. PMID:17905251

  13. Histophagous ciliate Pseudocollinia brintoni and bacterial assemblage interaction with krill Nyctiphanes simplex. II. Host responses.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gutiérrez, Jaime; Angel-Rodríguez, Jorge A; Tremblay, Nelly; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Aguilar-Méndez, Mario J; López-Cortés, Alejandro; Robinson, Carlos J

    2015-10-27

    Unlike decapod crustaceans of commercial interest, the krill defense system and its response to parasites and pathogens is virtually unknown. Histophagous ciliates of the genus Pseudocollinia interact with at least 7 krill species in the northeastern Pacific. Although they can cause epizootic events, the physiology of the histophagous ciliate-host interaction and krill (host) defenses remain unknown. From 1 oceanographic survey along the southwestern coast of the Baja California Peninsula near Bahía Magdalena and 2 in the Gulf of California, we investigated parasitoid-host physiological responses (fatty acid and oxidative stress indicators) of the subtropical krill Nyctiphanes simplex infected with the ciliate P. brintoni. All life stages of P. brintoni were associated with opportunistic bacterial assemblages that have not been explicitly investigated in other Pseudocollinia species (P. beringensis, P. oregonensis, and P. similis). Parasitoid ciliates exclusively infected adult females, which showed increased lipid content during gonad development. As the infection progressed, omega-3 eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic fatty acids, which may act as energy sources to produce high numbers of ciliate transmission stages, were quickly depleted. Antioxidant enzymes, components of the crustacean defense system, varied throughout infection, but without inhibiting Pseudocollinia infection, i.e. higher levels of lipid oxidative damage were detected in late stages of infection. The ineffective response of the krill antioxidant defense system against histophagous ciliates and the bacteria associated with the ciliates suggests that Pseudocollinia ciliates are functionally analogous to krill predators and may have a strong influence on the population dynamics of krill. PMID:26503777

  14. Taxonomic review of the orders Mysida and Stygiomysida (crustacea, peracarida).

    PubMed

    Meland, Kenneth; Mees, Jan; Porter, Megan; Wittmann, Karl J

    2015-01-01

    The order Mysida (2 families, 178 genera, 1132 species) contains species across a broad range of habitats, such as subterranean, fresh, brackish, coastal, and surface to deep-sea habitats. The Stygiomysida (2 families, 2 genera, 16 species), however, are found primarily in subterranean waters, but always in waters with a marine influence. The Mysida and Stygiomysida body is divided into three main regions: cephalon, thorax, and abdomen. They are shrimp-like in appearance, containing morphological features earlier referred to as defining a "caridoid facies". The shrimp-like morphology was to some extent diagnostic for the historic Decapod taxon Schizopoda, containing the Nebalia, Mysida, Lophogastrida, and Euphausiacea. In 1904 the concept of Schizopoda was abandoned, and the Mysidacea (Mysida and Lophogastrida) along with Cumacea, Amphipoda, Isopoda, and Tanaidacea were placed in a new taxon, the Peracarida. Later discoveries of groundwater mysids led to the establishment of Stygiomysida, but placement to either Lophogastrida or Mysida remained unclear. The presence of oostegites and absence of podobranchiae, coupled with non-statocyst bearing uropods have been used to classify the Stygiomysida as a primitive Mysida family, comparable to Petalophthalmidae. On the other hand, equally suggestive characters, but for a Lophogastrida affiliation, was suggested for the archaic foregut characters and again, non-statocyst bearing uropods. With the inclusion of DNA sequence data of ribosomal genes, sister group relationships between Stygiomysida, Lophogastrida, and Mictacea within the Peracarida are observed, which supports a classification of the Stygiomysida as a separate order removed from the Mysida. PMID:25927358

  15. Seasonal habitat-use patterns of nekton in a tide-restricted and unrestricted New England salt marsh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raposa, K.B.; Roman, C.T.

    2001-01-01

    Many New England salt marshes remain tide-restricted or are undergoing tidal restoration. Hydrologic manipulation of salt marshes affects marsh biogeochemistry and vegetation patterns, but responses by fishes and decapod crustaceans (nekton) remain unclear, This study examines nekton habitat-use patterns in the tide-restricted Hatches Harbor salt marsh (Provincetown, Massachusetts) relative to a downstream, unrestricted marsh. Nekton assemblages were sampled in tidal creek, marsh pool, and salt marsh surface habitats. Pools and creeks were sampled every two weeks for one year to account for seasonal variability, and the marsh surface was sampled at two-week intervals in summer and fall. Density, richness, and community composition of nekton in creek and marsh surface habitats were similar between the unrestricted and restricted marsh, but use of pools differed drastically on the two sides of the tide-restricting dike. In 95% of the cases tested, restricted marsh habitats provided equal or greater habitat value for nekton than the same habitat in the unrestricted marsh (based on density), suggesting that the restricted marsh did not provide a degraded habitat for most species. For some species, the restricted marsh provided nursery, breeding, and overwintering habitat during different seasons, and tidal restoration of this salt marsh must be approached with care to prevent losses of these valuable marsh functions.

  16. A new genus and new species of Paguridae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura) from shallow subtidal waters in Okinawa Island, the Ryukyu Islands, Japan.

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki

    2015-01-01

    During a survey on decapod crustacean fauna of shallow coral reefs and nearby environments in Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan, four specimens of a small but distinctive undescribed species of pagurid hermit crab, which could not be referred to any known genus, were collected. The new taxon, Eutrichopagurus shirakawai n. gen., n. sp., is described and illustrated herein. The new genus is characterized by the possession of 11 pairs of deeply quadriserial phyllobranchiate gills, the third maxilliped with well-developed crista dentata and one or two accessory teeth on the ischium, the presence of unpaired left gonopore in the female, the absence of paired first pleopods in the female, and the telson with prominent tuft of setae on the lateral margin of the posterior lobes; the male is unknown at present. It appears close to Trichopagurus de Saint Laurent, 1968, but the deeply quadriserial gills immediately distinguish Eutrichopagurus from Trichopagurus. The new genus is also compared with other genera characterized by the possession of 11 pairs of quadriserial phyllobranchiate gills and the lack of paired first pleopods in females. PMID:25781092

  17. Lecithotrophic behaviour in zoea and megalopa larvae of the ghost shrimp Lepidophthalmus siriboia Felder and Rodrigues, 1993 (Decapoda: Callianassidae).

    PubMed

    Abrunhosa, Fernando A; Simith, Darlan J B; Palmeira, Carlos A M; Arruda, Danielle C B

    2008-12-01

    Food supply is considered critical for a successful culturing of decapod larvae. However, some species may present yolk reserve sufficient to complete their larval development without external food supply (known as lecithotrophic larval development). In the present study, two experiments were carried out in order to verify whether the callianassid Lepidophthalmus siriboia have lecithotrophic behaviour or, if they need external food for their larval development: Experiment 1, larvae submitted to an initial feeding period and Experiment 2, larvae submitted to an initial starvation period. High survival rate was observed in both experiments, in which only 2 megalopae and 1 zoea III died. These results strongly suggest that larvae of L. siriboia are lecithotrophic as they have sufficiently large yolk reserve to complete their larval development, while the megalopa stage shows facultative lecithotrophy. The larval periods of each stage of the treatments were quite similar and, despite some significant differences in some larval periods, these can be related probably to larval rearing conditions, abiotic factors or, individual variability of larval health, as well as stress caused to the ovigerous females during embryogenesis. PMID:19039487

  18. The radular apparatus of cephalopods

    PubMed Central

    Messenger, J. B.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the ontogeny, breakdown and absorption of the radular teeth of cephalopods and, for the first time, considers the function of the 'bolsters' or radular support muscles. The radular ribbon, which bears many regularly arranged transverse rows of teeth one behind the other, lies in a radular canal that emerges from the radular sac. Here the radular teeth are formed by a set of elongate cells with microvilli, the odontoblasts. These are organized into two layers, the outer producing the radular membrane and the bases of the teeth, the inner producing the cusps. The odontoblasts also secrete the hyaline shield and the teeth on the lateral buccal palps, when these are present. At the front end of the radular ribbon the teeth become worn in feeding and are replaced from behind by new ones formed continuously in the radular sac, so that the whole ribbon moves forward during ontogeny. Removal of the old teeth is achieved by cells in the radular organs; these cells, which are formed from modified odontoblasts ('odontoclasts'), dissolve the teeth and membranes and absorb them. There is a subradular organ in all cephalopods. In Octopus vulgaris, which bores into mollusc shells and crustacean carapaces, it is especially well-developed and there is also a supraradular organ. A characteristic feature of the cephalopod radular apparatus is the pair of large radular support muscles or 'bolsters'. Their function seems never to have been investigated, but experiments reported here show that when they elongate, the radular teeth become erect at the bending plane and splayed, presumably enhancing their ability to rake food particles into the pharynx. The bolsters of Octopus function as muscular hydrostats: because their volume is fixed, contraction of their powerful transverse muscles causes them to elongate. In decapods and in nautiloids each bolster contains a 'support rod' of semi-fluid material, as well as massive transverse musculature. This rod may elongate to erect the radular teeth. At the extreme front end of the bolsters in Octopus there are many nerve fibres that may constitute a receptor organ signalling the movements of the radula against hard material. Such nerves are absent from decapods and from octopods that do not bore holes. The buccal mass of Nautilus is massive, with heavily calcified tips to the beaks and a wide radular ribbon, with 13 rather than nine elements in each row. Nevertheless all the usual coleoid features are present in the radular apparatus and the teeth are formed and broken down in the same way. However, Nautilus has a unique structure, the radular appendage. This comprises a papillate mass extending over the palate in the mid-line and forming paired lateral masses that are in part secretory. The organ is attached to the front of the radula by muscles and connective tissue. Its function is unknown.

  19. Day-night and depth differences in haemolymph melatonin of the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguzzi, J.; Sanchez-Pardo, J.; García, J. A.; Sardà, F.

    2009-10-01

    Few studies have been conducted to quantify and understand the role of melatonin in invertebrates, and particularly in crustaceans and in deep-sea animals. In this study, we examined day-night differences in haemolymph melatonin of the burrowing decapod crustacean Nephrops norvegicus (L.) during exposure to cycles of monochromatic blue light (480 nm) and darkness cycles of 10 and 0.1 lx. These differential intensity conditions simulate illumination at the depth of the shelf (80-100 m) and of the slope (300-400 m), where these lobster populations are chiefly found in the Western Mediterranean Sea. Our objectives were: (a) to verify the presence of melatonin in the haemolymph of this species using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and fluorescence HPLC (HPLC); and (b) to study the relationship between diel variations in melatonin concentration and locomotor rhythms, in order to examine whether the former influences behaviour. Melatonin was identified in LC-MS/MS by Q1 and Q3 mass peaks at an elution time of 3.7 min, and it was also detected by HPLC. Melatonin concentration was found to be two orders of magnitude higher at 10 lx (4.8±5.3 ng ml -1) than at 0.1 lx (0.06±0.03 ng ml -1). Also, the increase at daytime in 10 lx was absent in 0.1 lx. When the locomotor rhythm of animals exposed to both photoperiod regimes was compared, the diel periodicity was found to be preserved, but the timing of activity shifted from night to day. Extrapolating these data to the field, we interpret our results to mean that locomotor activity preserves its diel character, but not its phase and amplitude, in a bathymetric range where haemolymph melatonin reduces its concentration and rhythmic fluctuation.

  20. Osmoregulation in the Hawaiian anchialine shrimp Halocaridina rubra (Crustacea: Atyidae): expression of ion transporters, mitochondria-rich cell proliferation and hemolymph osmolality during salinity transfers.

    PubMed

    Havird, Justin C; Santos, Scott R; Henry, Raymond P

    2014-07-01

    Studies of euryhaline crustaceans have identified conserved osmoregulatory adaptions allowing hyper-osmoregulation in dilute waters. However, previous studies have mainly examined decapod brachyurans with marine ancestries inhabiting estuaries or tidal creeks on a seasonal basis. Here, we describe osmoregulation in the atyid Halocaridina rubra, an endemic Hawaiian shrimp of freshwater ancestry from the islands' anchialine ecosystem (coastal ponds with subsurface freshwater and seawater connections) that encounters near-continuous spatial and temporal salinity changes. Given this, survival and osmoregulatory responses were examined over a wide salinity range. In the laboratory, H. rubra tolerated salinities of ~0-56‰, acting as both a hyper- and hypo-osmoregulator and maintaining a maximum osmotic gradient of ~868 mOsm kg(-1) H2O in freshwater. Furthermore, hemolymph osmolality was more stable during salinity transfers relative to other crustaceans. Silver nitrate and vital mitochondria-rich cell staining suggest all gills are osmoregulatory, with a large proportion of each individual gill functioning in ion transport (including when H. rubra acts as an osmoconformer in seawater). Additionally, expression of ion transporters and supporting enzymes that typically undergo upregulation during salinity transfer in osmoregulatory gills (i.e. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, carbonic anhydrase, Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter, V-type H(+)-ATPase and arginine kinase) were generally unaltered in H. rubra during similar transfers. These results suggest H. rubra (and possibly other anchialine species) maintains high, constitutive levels of gene expression and ion transport capability in the gills as a means of potentially coping with the fluctuating salinities that are encountered in anchialine habitats. Thus, anchialine taxa represent an interesting avenue for future physiological research. PMID:24744415

  1. Expanding the Crustacean Neuropeptidome using a Multi-Faceted Mass Spectrometric Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Mingming; Wang, Junhua; Chen, Ruibing; Li, Lingjun

    2009-01-01

    Jonah crab Cancer borealis is an excellent model organism long served for many areas of physiology, including the study of endocrinology and neurobiology. Characterizing the neuropeptides present in its nervous system provides the first critical step toward understanding the physiological roles of these complex molecules. Multiple mass spectral techniques were used to comprehensively characterize the neuropeptidome in C. borealis, including matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry (MALDI FTMS), MALDI time of flight (TOF)/TOF MS and nanoflow liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC ESI Q TOF MS/MS). In order to enhance the detection signals and expand the dynamic range, direct tissue analysis, tissue extraction, capillary electrophoresis (CE) and off-line HPLC separation have also been employed. In total, 142 peptides were identified, including 85 previously known C. borealis peptides, 22 peptides characterized previously from other decapods, but new to this species, and 35 new peptides de novo sequenced for the first time in this study. Seventeen neuropeptide families were revealed including RFamide, allatostatin (A and B type), RYamide, orcokinin, orcomyotropin, proctolin, crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP), crustacean hyperglycemic hormone precursor-related peptide (CPRP), crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), corazonin, pigment-dispersing hormone (PDH), tachykinin, pyrokinin, SIFamide, red pigment concentrating hormone (RPCH) and HISGLYRamide. Collectively, our results greatly increase the number and expand the coverage of known C. borealis neuropeptides, and thus provide a stronger framework for future studies on the physiological roles played by these molecules in this important model organism. PMID:19222238

  2. Expanding the Crustacean neuropeptidome using a multifaceted mass spectrometric approach.

    PubMed

    Ma, Mingming; Wang, Junhua; Chen, Ruibing; Li, Lingjun

    2009-05-01

    Jonah crab Cancer borealis is an excellent, long-served model organism for many areas of physiology, including the study of endocrinology and neurobiology. Characterizing the neuropeptides present in its nervous system provides the first critical step toward understanding the physiological roles of these complex molecules. Multiple mass spectral techniques were used to comprehensively characterize the neuropeptidome in C. borealis, including matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTMS), MALDI time-of-flight (TOF)/TOF MS and nanoflow liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-ESI-Q-TOF MS/MS). To enhance the detection signals and expand the dynamic range, direct tissue analysis, tissue extraction, capillary electrophoresis (CE) and off-line HPLC separation have also been employed. In total, 142 peptides were identified, including 85 previously known C. borealis peptides, 22 peptides characterized previously from other decapods, but new to this species, and 35 new peptides de novo sequenced for the first time in this study. Seventeen neuropeptide families were revealed including FMRFamide-related peptide (FaRP), allatostatin (A and B type), RYamide, orcokinin, orcomyotropin, proctolin, crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP), crustacean hyperglycemic hormone precursor-related peptide (CPRP), crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), corazonin, pigment-dispersing hormone (PDH), tachykinin, pyrokinin, SIFamide, red pigment concentrating hormone (RPCH) and HISGLYRamide. Collectively, our results greatly increase the number and expand the coverage of known C. borealis neuropeptides, and thus provide a stronger framework for future studies on the physiological roles played by these molecules in this important model organism. PMID:19222238

  3. Antarctic Crabs: Invasion or Endurance?

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Huw J.; Whittle, Rowan J.; Roberts, Stephen J.; Belchier, Mark; Linse, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Recent scientific interest following the “discovery” of lithodid crabs around Antarctica has centred on a hypothesis that these crabs might be poised to invade the Antarctic shelf if the recent warming trend continues, potentially decimating its native fauna. This “invasion hypothesis” suggests that decapod crabs were driven out of Antarctica 40–15 million years ago and are only now returning as “warm” enough habitats become available. The hypothesis is based on a geographically and spatially poor fossil record of a different group of crabs (Brachyura), and examination of relatively few Recent lithodid samples from the Antarctic slope. In this paper, we examine the existing lithodid fossil record and present the distribution and biogeographic patterns derived from over 16,000 records of Recent Southern Hemisphere crabs and lobsters. Globally, the lithodid fossil record consists of only two known specimens, neither of which comes from the Antarctic. Recent records show that 22 species of crabs and lobsters have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with 12 species found south of 60°S. All are restricted to waters warmer than 0°C, with their Antarctic distribution limited to the areas of seafloor dominated by Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW). Currently, CDW extends further and shallower onto the West Antarctic shelf than the known distribution ranges of most lithodid species examined. Geological evidence suggests that West Antarctic shelf could have been available for colonisation during the last 9,000 years. Distribution patterns, species richness, and levels of endemism all suggest that, rather than becoming extinct and recently re-invading from outside Antarctica, the lithodid crabs have likely persisted, and even radiated, on or near to Antarctic slope. We conclude there is no evidence for a modern-day “crab invasion”. We recommend a repeated targeted lithodid sampling program along the West Antarctic shelf to fully test the validity of the “invasion hypothesis”. PMID:23843974

  4. Sea urchin coelomocytes are resistant to a variety of DNA damaging agents.

    PubMed

    Loram, Jeannette; Raudonis, Renee; Chapman, Jecar; Lortie, Mae; Bodnar, Andrea

    2012-11-15

    Increasing anthropogenic activities are creating environmental pressures that threaten marine ecosystems. Effective environmental health assessment requires the development of rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective tools to predict negative impacts at the individual and ecosystem levels. To this end, a number of biological assays using a variety of cells and organisms measuring different end points have been developed for biomonitoring programs. The sea urchin fertilization/development test has been useful for evaluating environmental toxicology and it has been proposed that sea urchin coelomocytes represent a novel cellular biosensor of environmental stress. In this study we investigated the sensitivity of coelomocytes from the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus to a variety of DNA-damaging agents including ultraviolet (UV) radiation, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), methylmethane sulfonate (MMS) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). LD(50) values determined for coelomocytes after 24h of exposure to these DNA damaging agents indicated a high level of resistance to all treatments. Significant increases in the formation of apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP or abasic) sites in DNA were only detected using high doses of H(2)O(2), MMS and UV radiation. Comparison of sea urchin coelomocytes with hemocytes from the gastropod mollusk Aplysia dactylomela and the decapod crustacean Panulirus argus indicated that sensitivity to different DNA damaging agents varies between species. The high level of resistance to genotoxic agents suggests that DNA damage may not be an informative end point for environmental health assessment using sea urchin coelomocytes however, natural resistance to DNA damaging agents may have implications for the occurrence of neoplastic disease in these animals. PMID:22948035

  5. The insulin-like androgenic gland hormone in crustaceans: From a single gene silencing to a wide array of sexual manipulation-based biotechnologies.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Tomer; Sagi, Amir

    2012-01-01

    Due to the over-harvesting and deterioration of wild populations, the ever-growing crustacean market is increasingly reliant on aquaculture, driving the need for better management techniques. Since most cultured crustacean species exhibit sexually dimorphic growth patterns, the culture of monosex populations (either all-male or all-female) is a preferred approach for gaining higher yields, with the ecological benefit of reducing the risk of invasion by the cultured species. Sexual manipulations may also render sustainable solutions to the environmental problems caused by the presence of invasive crustacean species with detrimental impacts ranging from aggressive competition with native species for food and shelter, to affecting aquaculture facilities and harvests and causing structural damage to river banks. Recent discoveries of androgenic gland (AG)-specific insulin-like peptides (IAGs) in crustaceans and the ability to manipulate them and their encoding transcripts (IAGs) have raised the possibility of sexually manipulating crustacean populations. Sexual manipulation is already a part of sustainable solutions in fish aquaculture and in the bio-control of insect pest species, and attempts are also being made to implement it with crustaceans. As recently exemplified in a commercially important prawn species, IAG silencing, a temporal, non-genetically modifying and non-transmissible intervention, has enabled the production of non-breeding all-male monosex populations that are the progeny of sexually reversed males ('neo-females'). IAG manipulations-based biotechnologies therefore have the potential to radically transform the entire industry. We review here how this proof of concept could be broadened to meet both aquacultural and environmental needs. We include the major cultured decapod crustacean groups and suggest a sustainable solution for the management of invasive and pest crustacean species. We also review the key considerations for devising a biotechnological approach that specifically tailors the molecular technological abilities to the management of each target group. PMID:22561950

  6. Optimizing Hybrid de Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Extending Genomic Resources for Giant Freshwater Prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii): The Identification of Genes and Markers Associated with Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyungtaek; Yoon, Byung-Ha; Kim, Woo-Jin; Kim, Dong-Wook; Hurwood, David A; Lyons, Russell E; Salin, Krishna R; Kim, Heui-Soo; Baek, Ilseon; Chand, Vincent; Mather, Peter B

    2016-01-01

    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, a sexually dimorphic decapod crustacean is currently the world's most economically important cultured freshwater crustacean species. Despite its economic importance, there is currently a lack of genomic resources available for this species, and this has limited exploration of the molecular mechanisms that control the M. rosenbergii sex-differentiation system more widely in freshwater prawns. Here, we present the first hybrid transcriptome from M. rosenbergii applying RNA-Seq technologies directed at identifying genes that have potential functional roles in reproductive-related traits. A total of 13,733,210 combined raw reads (1720 Mbp) were obtained from Ion-Torrent PGM and 454 FLX. Bioinformatic analyses based on three state-of-the-art assemblers, the CLC Genomic Workbench, Trans-ABySS, and Trinity, that use single and multiple k-mer methods respectively, were used to analyse the data. The influence of multiple k-mers on assembly performance was assessed to gain insight into transcriptome assembly from short reads. After optimisation, de novo assembly resulted in 44,407 contigs with a mean length of 437 bp, and the assembled transcripts were further functionally annotated to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeat motifs. Gene expression analysis was also used to compare expression patterns from ovary and testis tissue libraries to identify genes with potential roles in reproduction and sex differentiation. The large transcript set assembled here represents the most comprehensive set of transcriptomic resources ever developed for reproduction traits in M. rosenbergii, and the large number of genetic markers predicted should constitute an invaluable resource for future genetic research studies on M. rosenbergii and can be applied more widely on other freshwater prawn species in the genus Macrobrachium. PMID:27164098

  7. A novel CHH gene from the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was characterized and found highly expressed in gut and less in eyestalk and other extra-eyestalk tissues.

    PubMed

    Ventura-López, Claudia; Gómez-Anduro, Gracia; Arcos, Fabiola G; Llera-Herrera, Raúl; Racotta, Ilie S; Ibarra, Ana M

    2016-05-15

    The crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) family is an important group of neuropeptides involved in controlling growth, reproduction, and stress response in decapod species. In this study, a new gene containing 4 exons-3 introns flanked by canonical 5'-GT-AG-3' intron splice-site junctions was isolated from Litopenaeus vannamei. Two full length transcripts of this CHH were isolated from eyestalk and pericardial tissue of males and females using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Transcripts sequences were 1578bp in length in males pericardial tissues and in males and females eyestalk with 100% identity, but the transcript isolated from females pericardial tissues was shorter (974bp). The differences in transcripts length is a result of two polyadenylation sites present in the 3'UTR resulting in two transcription termination signals. Transcript sequences encoded one unique protein that can be classified as type I CHH subfamily because of the 4 exons and 3 introns structure, although the CPRP region is not-well conserved and there is no amidation in the C-terminal of the deduced amino acid sequence. Furthermore, there is a glycine inserted in the mature peptide not at position 12 as in type II CHHs but after amino acid 31 and the phylogenetic analysis did not group the peptide within type I, but closer to type II CHHs. We demonstrated by endpoint-PCR, qPCR, and in situ hybridization (ISH), that this gene is expressed in neuroendocrine organs known to express CHHs in penaeid shrimp, including X-organ and optic nerve in eyestalk, supraesophageal ganglion (SoG), but it is also expressed in other organs as gill, gut, pericardial cavity, as well as in terminal ampoule or spermatophore and vas deferens of males. PMID:26861611

  8. Reproductive biology and recruitment of the deep-sea fish community from the NW Mediterranean continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Arcaya, U.; Rotllant, G.; Ramirez-Llodra, E.; Recasens, L.; Aguzzi, J.; Flexas, M. M.; Sanchez-Vidal, A.; López-Fernández, P.; García, J. A.; Company, J. B.

    2013-11-01

    Temporal patterns in deep-sea fish reproduction are presently unknown for the majority of deep continental margins. A series of seasonal trawling surveys between depths of 300 to 1750 m in the Blanes submarine canyon and its adjacent open slope (NW Mediterranean) were conducted. The bathymetric size distributions and reproductive cycles of the most abundant species along the NW Mediterranean margin were analyzed to assess the occurrence of (i) temporal patterns in reproduction (i.e., spawning season) along a bathymetric gradient and (ii) preferential depth strata for recruitment. The fish assemblages were grouped in relation to their bathymetric distribution: upper slope, middle slope and lower slope species. Middle-slope species (i.e., 800-1350 m) showed short (i.e., highly seasonal) reproductive activity compared to the upper (300-800 m) and lower (1350-1750 m) ones. Our results, together with those previously published for megabenthic crustacean decapods in the area, suggest a cross-phyla depth-related trend of seasonality in reproduction. In the middle and lower slope species, the reproductive activity reached a maximum in the autumn-winter months and decreased in the spring. The observed seasonal spawning patterns appear to be ultimately correlated with changes in the downward transport of organic particles and with seasonal changes in the physicochemical characteristics of the surrounding water masses. The distribution of juveniles was associated with the bathymetric stratum where intermediate nepheloid layers interact with the continental margins, indicating that this stratum acts as a deep-sea fish nursery area.

  9. Soft-bottom crustacean assemblages in Mediterranean marine caves: the cave of Cerro Gordo (Granada, Spain) as case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro-Barranco, C.; Guerra-García, J. M.; Sánchez-Tocino, L.; García-Gómez, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    Although marine caves are priority conservation areas according to the Directive 92/43/CEE of the European Community, there is a lack of studies dealing with their soft-bottom communities. For a case study, we selected the Cerro Gordo cave at 15 m depth. Three different zones were defined: a semi-dark 25-m long entrance area, a dark intermediate area of 35 m, and the final zone at 90 m from the entrance. Sediment samples were taken from these zones as well as from outside the cave (control) by SCUBA diving. Six rectangular cores of 10 × 250 cm2 were collected in each site for macrofaunal study, and three more replicates were taken to analyze physico-chemical parameters. The granulometry showed a clear gradient from medium sands outside the cave to silt and clay in the inner zone. Measurements of the crustacean assemblages showed that the number of species and abundance were significantly higher outside the cave (30-40 species, >4,000 ind m-2) than inside (5-10 species, <1,000 ind m-2). Multivariate analyses showed a clear difference in species composition between outside and inside the cave. Caprellids, tanaids, cumaceans, and decapods were only found outside the cave, while gammarids and isopods were present both outside and inside the cave. The gammarid Siphonoecetes sabatieri and the tanaid Apseudes latreilli were the dominant species outside the cave, while the gammarids Harpinia pectinata, Harpinia crenulata, and Harpinia ala were dominant inside. The present study represents an increase in depth range and geographic distribution for Kupellonura mediterranea and Monoculodes packardi. This is the first description of soft-bottom crustacean communities from submarine caves of southern Spain.

  10. Defining the Neuropeptidome of the Spiny Lobster Panulirus interruptus Brain Using a Multidimensional Mass Spectrometry-Based Platform.

    PubMed

    Ye, Hui; Wang, Jingxin; Zhang, Zichuan; Jia, Chenxi; Schmerberg, Claire; Catherman, Adam D; Thomas, Paul M; Kelleher, Neil L; Li, Lingjun

    2015-11-01

    Decapod crustaceans are important animal models for neurobiologists due to their relatively simple nervous systems with well-defined neural circuits and extensive neuromodulation by a diverse set of signaling peptides. However, biochemical characterization of these endogenous neuropeptides is often challenging due to limited sequence information about these neuropeptide genes and the encoded preprohormones. By taking advantage of sequence homology in neuropeptides observed in related species using a home-built crustacean neuropeptide database, we developed a semi-automated sequencing strategy to characterize the neuropeptidome of Panulirus interruptus, an important aquaculture species, with few known neuropeptide preprohormone sequences. Our streamlined process searched the high mass accuracy and high-resolution data acquired on a LTQ-Orbitrap with a flexible algorithm in ProSight that allows for sequence discrepancy from reported sequences in our database, resulting in the detection of 32 neuropeptides, including 19 novel ones. We further improved the overall coverage to 51 neuropeptides with our multidimensional platform that employed multiple analytical techniques including dimethylation-assisted fragmentation, de novo sequencing using nanoliquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight (nanoLC-ESI-Q-TOF), direct tissue analysis, and mass spectrometry imaging on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-TOF/TOF. The high discovery rate from this unsequenced model organism demonstrated the utility of our neuropeptide discovery pipeline and highlighted the advantage of utilizing multiple sequencing strategies. Collectively, our study expands the catalog of crustacean neuropeptides and more importantly presents an approach that can be adapted to exploring neuropeptidome from species that possess limited sequence information. PMID:26390183

  11. Morphology and Histochemistry of the Aesthetasc-Associated Epidermal Glands in Terrestrial Hermit Crabs of the Genus Coenobita (Decapoda: Paguroidea)

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Carsten H. G.; Wielsch, Natalie; Hupfer, Yvonne; Svatoš, Aleš; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald; Hansson, Bill S.

    2014-01-01

    Crustaceans have successfully adapted to a variety of environments including fresh- and saltwater as well as land. Transition from an aquatic to a terrestrial lifestyle required adaptations of the sensory equipment of an animal, particularly in olfaction, where the stimulus itself changes from hydrophilic to mainly hydrophobic, air-borne molecules. Hermit crabs Coenobita spp. (Anomura, Coenobitidae) have adapted to a fully terrestrial lifestyle as adults and have been shown to rely on olfaction in order to detect distant food items. We observed that the specialized olfactory sensilla in Coenobita, named aesthetascs, are immersed in a layer of mucous-like substance. We hypothesized that the mucous is produced by antennal glands and affects functioning of the aesthetascs. Using various microscopic and histochemical techniques we proved that the mucous is produced by aesthetasc-associated epidermal glands, which we consider to be modified rosette-type aesthetasc tegumental glands known from aquatic decapods. These epidermal glands in Coenobita are multicellular exocrine organs of the recto-canal type with tubulo-acinar arrangement of the secretory cells. Two distinct populations of secretory cells were clearly distinguishable with light and electron microscopy. At least part of the secretory cells contains specific enzymes, CUB-serine proteases, which are likely to be secreted on the surface of the aesthetasc pad and take part in antimicrobial defense. Proteomic analysis of the glandular tissue corroborates the idea that the secretions of the aesthetasc-associated epidermal glands are involved in immune responses. We propose that the mucous covering the aesthetascs in Coenobita takes part in antimicrobial defense and at the same time provides the moisture essential for odor perception in terrestrial hermit crabs. We conclude that the morphological modifications of the aesthetasc-associated epidermal glands as well as the functional characteristics of their secretions are important adaptations to a terrestrial lifestyle. PMID:24805352

  12. Inorganic carbon fixation by chemosynthetic ectosymbionts and nutritional transfers to the hydrothermal vent host-shrimp Rimicaris exoculata

    PubMed Central

    Ponsard, Julie; Cambon-Bonavita, Marie-Anne; Zbinden, Magali; Lepoint, Gilles; Joassin, André; Corbari, Laure; Shillito, Bruce; Durand, Lucile; Cueff-Gauchard, Valérie; Compère, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The shrimp Rimicaris exoculata dominates several hydrothermal vent ecosystems of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and is thought to be a primary consumer harbouring a chemoautotrophic bacterial community in its gill chamber. The aim of the present study was to test current hypotheses concerning the epibiont's chemoautotrophy, and the mutualistic character of this association. In-vivo experiments were carried out in a pressurised aquarium with isotope-labelled inorganic carbon (NaH13CO3 and NaH14CO3) in the presence of two different electron donors (Na2S2O3 and Fe2+) and with radiolabelled organic compounds (14C-acetate and 3H-lysine) chosen as potential bacterial substrates and/or metabolic by-products in experiments mimicking transfer of small biomolecules from epibionts to host. The bacterial epibionts were found to assimilate inorganic carbon by chemoautotrophy, but many of them (thick filaments of epsilonproteobacteria) appeared versatile and able to switch between electron donors, including organic compounds (heterotrophic acetate and lysine uptake). At least some of them (thin filamentous gammaproteobacteria) also seem capable of internal energy storage that could supply chemosynthetic metabolism for hours under conditions of electron donor deprivation. As direct nutritional transfer from bacteria to host was detected, the association appears as true mutualism. Import of soluble bacterial products occurs by permeation across the gill chamber integument, rather than via the digestive tract. This first demonstration of such capabilities in a decapod crustacean supports the previously discarded hypothesis of transtegumental absorption of dissolved organic matter or carbon as a common nutritional pathway. PMID:22914596

  13. Identification of a calcitonin-like diuretic hormone that functions as an intrinsic modulator of the American lobster, Homarus americanus, cardiac neuromuscular system.

    PubMed

    Christie, A E; Stevens, J S; Bowers, M R; Chapline, M C; Jensen, D A; Schegg, K M; Goldwaser, J; Kwiatkowski, M A; Pleasant, T K; Shoenfeld, L; Tempest, L K; Williams, C R; Wiwatpanit, T; Smith, C M; Beale, K M; Towle, D W; Schooley, D A; Dickinson, P S

    2010-01-01

    In insects, a family of peptides with sequence homology to the vertebrate calcitonins has been implicated in the control of diuresis, a process that includes mixing of the hemolymph. Here, we show that a member of the insect calcitonin-like diuretic hormone (CLDH) family is present in the American lobster, Homarus americanus, serving, at least in part, as a powerful modulator of cardiac output. Specifically, during an ongoing EST project, a transcript encoding a putative H. americanus CLDH precursor was identified; a full-length cDNA was subsequently cloned. In silico analyses of the deduced prepro-hormone predicted the mature structure of the encoded CLDH to be GLDLGLGRGFSGSQAAKHLMGLAAANFAGGPamide (Homam-CLDH), which is identical to a known Tribolium castaneum peptide. RT-PCR tissue profiling suggests that Homam-CLDH is broadly distributed within the lobster nervous system, including the cardiac ganglion (CG), which controls the movement of the neurogenic heart. RT-PCR analysis conducted on pacemaker neuron- and motor neuron-specific cDNAs suggests that the motor neurons are the source of the CLDH message in the CG. Perfusion of Homam-CLDH through the isolated lobster heart produced dose-dependent increases in both contraction frequency and amplitude and a dose-dependent decrease in contraction duration, with threshold concentrations for all parameters in the range 10(-11) to 10(-10) mol l(-1) or less, among the lowest for any peptide on this system. This report is the first documentation of a decapod CLDH, the first demonstration of CLDH bioactivity outside the Insecta, and the first detection of an intrinsic neuropeptide transcript in the crustacean CG. PMID:20008368

  14. Diversity and Distribution of Deep-Sea Shrimps in the Ross Sea Region of Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Basher, Zeenatul; Bowden, David A.; Costello, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Although decapod crustaceans are widespread in the oceans, only Natantia (shrimps) are common in the Antarctic. Because remoteness, depth and ice cover restrict sampling in the South Ocean, species distribution modelling is a useful tool for evaluating distributions. We used physical specimen and towed camera data to describe the diversity and distribution of shrimps in the Ross Sea region of Antarctica. Eight shrimp species were recorded: Chorismus antarcticus; Notocrangon antarcticus; Nematocarcinus lanceopes; Dendrobranchiata; Pasiphaea scotiae; Pasiphaea cf. ledoyeri; Petalidium sp., and a new species of Lebbeus. For the two most common species, N. antarcticus and N. lanceopes, we used maximum entropy modelling, based on records of 60 specimens and over 1130 observations across 23 sites in depths from 269 m to 3433 m, to predict distributions in relation to environmental variables. Two independent sets of environmental data layers at 0.05° and 0.5° resolution respectively, showed how spatial resolution affected the model. Chorismus antarcticus and N. antarcticus were found only on the continental shelf and upper slopes, while N. lanceopes, Lebbeus n. sp., Dendrobranchiata, Petalidium sp., Pasiphaea cf. ledoyeri, and Pasiphaea scotiae were found on the slopes, seamounts and abyssal plain. The environmental variables that contributed most to models for N. antarcticus were depth, chlorophyll-a concentration, temperature, and salinity, and for N. lanceopes were depth, ice concentration, seabed slope/rugosity, and temperature. The relative ranking, but not the composition of these variables changed in models using different spatial resolutions, and the predicted extent of suitable habitat was smaller in models using the finer-scale environmental layers. Our modelling indicated that shrimps were widespread throughout the Ross Sea region and were thus likely to play important functional role in the ecosystem, and that the spatial resolution of data needs to be considered both in the use of species distribution models. PMID:25051333

  15. Natural variability of hepatic biomarkers in Mediterranean deep-sea organisms.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Samuel; Sol, Montserrat

    2012-08-01

    Biomarker assays are widely used as proxies for contaminant-induced effects in aquatic organisms. However, in many cases, their intrinsic natural variability due to exogenous and endogenous factors makes the interpretation of biomarker data difficult. In the present study, we investigated the natural fluctuations of six hepatic biomarkers, namely ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) in fish and pentoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (PROD) in crustacea, catalase (CAT), carboxylesterase (CbE), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), total glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR) in two deep-sea fish species, namely Alepocephalus rostratus and Lepidion lepidion and the decapod crustacean Aristeus antennatus. The NW Mediterranean deep-sea environment is characterized by very stable temperature and salinity conditions, allowing the exclusion of these two factors as potential sources of interference with biomarker activities. Biomarker results exhibited a clear influence of reproductive processes on enzyme activities, in particular in A. rostratus, which presented a pronounced seasonal pattern linked to variations in the gonadosomatic index (GSI). In addition, other factors such as food availability may also have influenced the observed variability, in particular in specimens of L. lepidion, which did not exhibit variations in reproductive activity throughout the sampling period. Depth-related variability did not exhibit a clear trend and fluctuations across sampling depths were not attributable to any specific factor. Body size had also a significant influence on some biomarkers, although allometric scaling of certain enzyme activities appears to be species-specific. The present work has thus shown that despite the lack of fluctuations of abiotic parameters such as temperature and salinity, biomarker activities in deep-sea organisms still exhibit significant variability, mainly as a result of reproductive processes and food availability. PMID:22763180

  16. Trophic ecology of the freshwater prawn, Pseudopalaemon bouvieri (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) in Northeastern Argentina, with remarks on population structure.

    PubMed

    Carnevali, Romina Patricia; Collins, Pablo Agustín; Poi de Neiff, Alicia S Guadalupe

    2012-03-01

    Freshwater decapod crustaceans are important components of food webs in these environments, but little is known about the diet of species that live in tropical waters. We studied the feeding ecology of the prawn Pseudopalaemon bouvieri and its population structure in two different areas with six lagoons, with a different composition and abundance of aquatic macrophytes. At each site of macrophytes banks, 18 prawns sample was collected with a hand net (1mm mesh size) from 1m2. In the laboratory, prawns cephalothorax length was measured, sex determined, and a total of 208 stomachs were examined for food items. Our results showed that the population abundance varied between 10 ind/m2 and 1 411 ind/m2. The cephalothorax length ranged between 6mm and 21mm, and the male:female ratio varied between 0.3 and 1.0, with a higher proportion of ovigerous females (21%) in area one than area two. P. bouvieri is omnivorous, and its diet was principally based on algae, plant remains, Protozoa, Rotifera, Oligochaeta, Crustacea, Insecta, detritus and other items. The analysis of the stomach content did not reveal any significant difference in the diet between juveniles and adults, and males and females of both areas consumed a similar diet (Kruskal-Wallis test p=0.8273). We concluded that the dietary items consumed by prawns and the niche breadth were similar between the two areas, although the proportion of items consumed varied between lagoons of both areas. The density of P. bouvieri was different between areas, but the size of cephalothorax (CL) was similar. PMID:22458226

  17. Evolution of pigment-dispersing factor neuropeptides in Panarthropoda: Insights from Onychophora (velvet worms) and Tardigrada (water bears).

    PubMed

    Mayer, Georg; Hering, Lars; Stosch, Juliane M; Stevenson, Paul A; Dircksen, Heinrich

    2015-09-01

    Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) denotes a conserved family of homologous neuropeptides present in several invertebrate groups, including mollusks, nematodes, insects, and crustaceans (referred to here as pigment-dispersing hormone [PDH]). With regard to their encoding genes (pdf, pdh), insects possess only one, nematodes two, and decapod crustaceans up to three, but their phylogenetic relationship is unknown. To shed light on the origin and diversification of pdf/pdh homologs in Panarthropoda (Onychophora + Tardigrada + Arthropoda) and other molting animals (Ecdysozoa), we analyzed the transcriptomes of five distantly related onychophorans and a representative tardigrade and searched for putative pdf homologs in publically available genomes of other protostomes. This revealed only one pdf homolog in several mollusk and annelid species; two in Onychophora, Priapulida, and Nematoda; and three in Tardigrada. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the last common ancestor of Panarthropoda possessed two pdf homologs, one of which was lost in the arthropod or arthropod/tardigrade lineage, followed by subsequent duplications of the remaining homolog in some taxa. Immunolocalization of PDF-like peptides in six onychophoran species, by using a broadly reactive antibody that recognizes PDF/PDH peptides in numerous species, revealed an elaborate system of neurons and fibers in their central and peripheral nervous systems. Large varicose projections in the heart suggest that the PDF neuropeptides functioned as both circulating hormones and locally released transmitters in the last common ancestor of Onychophora and Arthropoda. The lack of PDF-like-immunoreactive somata associated with the onychophoran optic ganglion conforms to the hypothesis that onychophoran eyes are homologous to the arthropod median ocelli. PMID:25722044

  18. Morphology and histochemistry of the aesthetasc-associated epidermal glands in terrestrial hermit crabs of the genus Coenobita (Decapoda: Paguroidea).

    PubMed

    Tuchina, Oksana; Groh, Katrin C; Talarico, Giovanni; Müller, Carsten H G; Wielsch, Natalie; Hupfer, Yvonne; Svatoš, Aleš; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald; Hansson, Bill S

    2014-01-01

    Crustaceans have successfully adapted to a variety of environments including fresh- and saltwater as well as land. Transition from an aquatic to a terrestrial lifestyle required adaptations of the sensory equipment of an animal, particularly in olfaction, where the stimulus itself changes from hydrophilic to mainly hydrophobic, air-borne molecules. Hermit crabs Coenobita spp. (Anomura, Coenobitidae) have adapted to a fully terrestrial lifestyle as adults and have been shown to rely on olfaction in order to detect distant food items. We observed that the specialized olfactory sensilla in Coenobita, named aesthetascs, are immersed in a layer of mucous-like substance. We hypothesized that the mucous is produced by antennal glands and affects functioning of the aesthetascs. Using various microscopic and histochemical techniques we proved that the mucous is produced by aesthetasc-associated epidermal glands, which we consider to be modified rosette-type aesthetasc tegumental glands known from aquatic decapods. These epidermal glands in Coenobita are multicellular exocrine organs of the recto-canal type with tubulo-acinar arrangement of the secretory cells. Two distinct populations of secretory cells were clearly distinguishable with light and electron microscopy. At least part of the secretory cells contains specific enzymes, CUB-serine proteases, which are likely to be secreted on the surface of the aesthetasc pad and take part in antimicrobial defense. Proteomic analysis of the glandular tissue corroborates the idea that the secretions of the aesthetasc-associated epidermal glands are involved in immune responses. We propose that the mucous covering the aesthetascs in Coenobita takes part in antimicrobial defense and at the same time provides the moisture essential for odor perception in terrestrial hermit crabs. We conclude that the morphological modifications of the aesthetasc-associated epidermal glands as well as the functional characteristics of their secretions are important adaptations to a terrestrial lifestyle. PMID:24805352

  19. Re-evaluation of Tellervotrema katadara (Kuramochi, 2001) Kuramochi, 2009 (Opecoelidae: Plagioporinae) and supplementary morphological data for T. beringi (Mamaev, 1965) Gibson & Bray, 1982 with new host and locality.

    PubMed

    Blend, Charles K; Kuramochi, Toshiaki; Dronen, Norman O

    2015-01-01

    The trematode genus Tellervotrema Gibson & Bray, 1982 was erected for Podocotyle-like species that parasitize archybenthal macrourid fishes (also known as grenadiers or rattails) and that possess no vitelline follicles dorsal to the ceca but do have a symmetrical pair of isolated groups of vitelline follicles in the posterior forebody. Tellervotrema katadara (Kuramochi, 2001) Kuramochi, 2009 is resurrected as a valid species based on an examination and re-description of holotype and paratype specimens collected from the intestine of the bathygadine macrourid Gadomus colletti Jordan & Gilbert from 518-582 m depth in Tosa Bay, off the Pacific coast of southern Japan. Tellervotrema beringi (Mamaev, 1965) Gibson & Bray, 1982 is re-described from specimens originally identified as T. katadara, collected from the intestine of the longfin grenadier, Coryphaenoides longifilis Günther, and found at 1,196 m depth off the Pacific coast of the Tōhoku region, northern Honshu, Japan. New host and locality records for T. beringi are presented along with a brief listing of museums housing type and voucher specimens of the three species now recognized in Tellervotrema. A comprehensive listing is given of all parasites reported from the two macrourid species relevant to this study and a key is presented for members of Tellervotrema. Finally, we hypothesize that the life cycles for T. beringi and T. katadara in the deep waters of the North Pacific Ocean off Japan most likely include a gastropod as a first intermediate host, one or more of a variety of invertebrates (amphipods, decapods, mysids) and/or finfish as second intermediate hosts, and the grenadiers, C. longifilis and G. colletti, as definitive hosts, respectively. PMID:26250198

  20. Application of D-Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone Induces Peptidases Transcription and Suppresses Glycolysis-Related Transcripts in the Hepatopancreas of the Crayfish Pontastacus leptodactylus — Results of a Transcriptomic Study

    PubMed Central

    De Moro, Gianluca; Gerdol, Marco; Guarnaccia, Corrado; Mosco, Alessandro; Pallavicini, Alberto; Giulianini, Piero Giulio

    2013-01-01

    The crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (cHH) is a neuropeptide present in many decapods. Two different chiral isomers are simultaneously present in Astacid crayfish and their specific biological functions are still poorly understood. The present study is aimed at better understanding the potentially different effect of each of the isomers on the hepatopancreatic gene expression profile in the crayfish Pontastacus leptodactylus, in the context of short term hyperglycemia. Hence, two different chemically synthesized cHH enantiomers, containing either L- or D-Phe3, were injected to the circulation of intermolt females following removal of their X organ-Sinus gland complex. The effects triggered by the injection of the two alternate isomers were detected after one hour through measurement of circulating glucose levels. Triggered changes of the transcriptome expression profile in the hepatopancreas were analyzed by RNA-seq. A whole transcriptome shotgun sequence assembly provided the assumedly complete transcriptome of P. leptodactylus hepatopancreas, followed by RNA-seq analysis of changes in the expression level of many genes caused by the application of each of the hormone isomers. Circulating glucose levels were much higher in response to the D-isoform than to the L-isoform injection, one hour from injection. Similarly, the RNA-seq analysis confirmed a stronger effect on gene expression following the administration of D-cHH, while just limited alterations were caused by the L-isomer. These findings demonstrated a more prominent short term effect of the D-cHH on the transcription profile and shed light on the effect of the D-isomer on specific functional gene groups. Another contribution of the study is the construction of a de novo assembly of the hepatopancreas transcriptome, consisting of 39,935 contigs, that dramatically increases the molecular information available for this species and for crustaceans in general, providing an efficient tool for studying gene expression patterns in this organ. PMID:23840318

  1. Potential respiration estimated by electron transport system activity in deep-sea suprabenthic crustaceans off Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, A.; Gómez, M.; Packard, T. T.; Reglero, P.; Blanco, E.; Barberá-Cebrián, C.

    2014-10-01

    ETS is an acronym for the activity of the respiratory electron transport system; the ETS assay is a biochemical method for estimating the “potential” respiration (Φ). We apply this technique to suprabenthic species captured at three depths (250 m, 650 m and 850 m) in two different locations: Cabrera (Algerian subbasin) and Sóller (Balearic subbasin) during the IDEADOS survey during summer 2010. The aim of this study was to compare specific Φ between areas and between three depths to identify differences in the suprabenthos physiological state related to nutritional conditions. Specific Φ, expressed in unit of μl O2 h- 1 mg prot- 1 was not significantly different between species. Mean values were for the decapods: Plesionika heterocarpus, 8.4 ± 7.9; Gennadas elegans, 8.3 ± 2.9; and Sergestes arcticus 7.3 ± 4.6. Within the euphausiids specific Φ averaged 6.5 ± 4.2 for Thysanopoda aequalis and 9.8 ± 5.1 for Meganyctiphanes norvegica; while for the mysids it ranged from 7.7 ± 4.4 for Boreomysis arctica and 2.1 ± 0.6 for Eucopia unguiculata. The comparison of specific potential respiration (Φ), with the pooling of the data of all the species, showed differences between the two locations, being higher in Cabrera. However, no significant differences between the different depths of each locality were found. The slope of the log Φ-log biomass plot was 0.93 ± 0.09 for Cabrera and 0.64 ± 0.11 in Sóller. We interpret these differences as indicating that the suprabenthos in the Cabrera area, as compared to the Sóller area, has been well-nourished.

  2. Nekton response to freshwater inputs in a temperate European estuary with regulated riverine inflow.

    PubMed

    González-Ortegón, E; Subida, M D; Arias, A M; Baldó, F; Cuesta, J A; Fernández-Delgado, C; Vilas, C; Drake, P

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this 12-year study was to assess the nekton (fish, decapod crustaceans) response to freshwater inputs (rainfall, dam discharges) in a temperate estuary with regulated riverine inflow. Although interannual variability in river discharges to the Guadalquivir estuary has been extremely high since the construction of a dam in 1930, a significant decreasing trend in the dam's discharges has been observed in the last 80 years. During this study, an alternation of wet, standard and dry years occurred in the estuarine area but no significant long-term trend was observed. River discharge, in turn, showed a considerable interannual variability and a significantly decreasing long-term trend. Freshwater inputs had an immediate effect on estuarine salinity and turbidity, and consequently on prey availability (mysids). Although 124 nektonic species were collected, only 47 of them (adding up to 99.7% of total abundance) were regularly present in the estuary: 32 marine migrants, 13 estuarine species and 2 diadromous species. Well-defined temporal changes in species composition and abundance yielded clear seasonal patterns in the estuarine nektonic community. Considerable intermonth and interannual changes were occasionally observed relating to freshwater inputs, mainly in winter/autumn of wet years. Thus, within each two-month period, some significant interannual differences in the nektonic community were also observed, with marine migrants tending to be more abundant in dry years. However, changes in the studied nektonic community did not show long-term trends. In conclusion, natural and human-controlled freshwater inputs currently play a significant role in determining the physicochemical conditions and the biota of the Guadalquivir estuary. However, although freshwater input seemed to transitorily affect the estuarine nekton, either directly (flushing out) or indirectly (through changes in salinity, turbidity and prey availability), a quick reestablishment of the estuarine nekton (strong resilience) was observed following freshwater inputs together with the recovery of environmental conditions within the estuary. PMID:22795595

  3. Relevance of the Halocline in the Diet of the Troglobic Shrimp T.mitchelli in the Yucatan Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz de La Garza, Y.; Escobar Briones, E.

    2007-05-01

    The anchihaline cave systems are characterized by subsurface connections with the sea and the sinkholes, have polyhaline underground water masses and are locally influenced by the rainforest organic input during the rainy season. The specific physical characteristics of the two water masses (fresh and marine) define the presence of karst fauna and their diet, the halocline represents a physicochemical barrier for many organisms and retains suspended particles creating food source storage along a cline of geochemical reactions. We studied the occurrence of the shrimp Typhatya mitchelli, an endemic Decapod Crustacean from the Yucatan Peninsula anchihaline ecosystems. We analyzed its presence in the two water masses and related its muscle d13C and d15N stable isotopic composition to its diet and specific habitat preference. The presence of specialized setae in P1 and P2 and depleted C and N values (d13C -43.11 min. -21.05 max.; d15N -0.54 min. 9.34 max.) confirm a diet sustained on bacteria with similar signatures as those from chemoautotrophic environments where the dominant morphological structures show that scraping on the cave walls, cave floor and the halocline are the prevailing feeding strategy. The density differences of water masses (rainwater rho 0.996 to 0.997 kg m-3, halocline rho 0.997 to 1.009 kg m-3; marine water rho 1.09 to 1.024 kg m-3) at the halocline allow the species (rho 1.12 to 1.13) to find the interface as a suitable substrate where organic matter can concentrate and sustain a dense population of shrimps.

  4. Transcriptome Analysis of the Oriental River Prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense Using 454 Pyrosequencing for Discovery of Genes and Markers

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Keyi; Qiu, Gaofeng; Feng, Jianbin; Li, Jiale

    2012-01-01

    Background The oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, is an economically and nutritionally important species of the Palaemonidae family of decapod crustaceans. To date, the sequencing of its whole genome is unavailable as a non-model organism. Transcriptomic information is also scarce for this species. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce the first comprehensive expressed sequence tag (EST) dataset for M. nipponense using high-throughput sequencing technologies. Methodology and Principal Findings Total RNA was isolated from eyestalk, gill, heart, ovary, testis, hepatopancreas, muscle, and embryos at the cleavage, gastrula, nauplius and zoea stages. Equal quantities of RNA from each tissue and stage were pooled to construct a cDNA library. Using 454 pyrosequencing technology, we generated a total of 984,204 high quality reads (338.59Mb) with an average length of 344 bp. Clustering and assembly of these reads produced a non-redundant set of 81,411 unique sequences, comprising 42,551 contigs and 38,860 singletons. All of the unique sequences were involved in the molecular function (30,425), cellular component (44,112) and biological process (67,679) categories by GO analysis. Potential genes and their functions were predicted by KEGG pathway mapping and COG analysis. Based on our sequence analysis and published literature, many putative genes involved in sex determination, including DMRT1, FTZ-F1, FOXL2, FEM1 and other potentially important candidate genes, were identified for the first time in this prawn. Furthermore, 6,689 SSRs and 18,107 high-confidence SNPs were identified in this EST dataset. Conclusions The transcriptome provides an invaluable new data for a functional genomics resource and future biological research in M. nipponense. The molecular markers identified in this study will provide a material basis for future genetic linkage and quantitative trait loci analyses, and will be essential for accelerating aquaculture breeding programs with this species. PMID:22745820

  5. Global patterns of freshwater species diversity, threat and endemism

    PubMed Central

    Collen, Ben; Whitton, Felix; Dyer, Ellie E; Baillie, Jonathan E M; Cumberlidge, Neil; Darwall, William R T; Pollock, Caroline; Richman, Nadia I; Soulsby, Anne-Marie; Böhm, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Aim Global-scale studies are required to identify broad-scale patterns in the distributions of species, to evaluate the processes that determine diversity and to determine how similar or different these patterns and processes are among different groups of freshwater species. Broad-scale patterns of spatial variation in species distribution are central to many fundamental questions in macroecology and conservation biology. We aimed to evaluate how congruent three commonly used metrics of diversity were among taxa for six groups of freshwater species. Location Global. Methods We compiled geographical range data on 7083 freshwater species of mammals, amphibians, reptiles, fishes, crabs and crayfish to evaluate how species richness, richness of threatened species and endemism are distributed across freshwater ecosystems. We evaluated how congruent these measures of diversity were among taxa at a global level for a grid cell size of just under 1°. Results We showed that although the risk of extinction faced by freshwater decapods is quite similar to that of freshwater vertebrates, there is a distinct lack of spatial congruence in geographical range between different taxonomic groups at this spatial scale, and a lack of congruence among three commonly used metrics of biodiversity. The risk of extinction for freshwater species was consistently higher than for their terrestrial counterparts. Main conclusions We demonstrate that broad-scale patterns of species richness, threatened-species richness and endemism lack congruence among the six freshwater taxonomic groups examined. Invertebrate species are seldom taken into account in conservation planning. Our study suggests that both the metric of biodiversity and the identity of the taxa on which conservation decisions are based require careful consideration. As geographical range information becomes available for further sets of species, further testing will be warranted into the extent to which geographical variation in the richness of these six freshwater groups reflects broader patterns of biodiversity in fresh water. PMID:26430385

  6. Diversity and distribution of deep-sea shrimps in the Ross Sea region of Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Basher, Zeenatul; Bowden, David A; Costello, Mark J

    2014-01-01

    Although decapod crustaceans are widespread in the oceans, only Natantia (shrimps) are common in the Antarctic. Because remoteness, depth and ice cover restrict sampling in the South Ocean, species distribution modelling is a useful tool for evaluating distributions. We used physical specimen and towed camera data to describe the diversity and distribution of shrimps in the Ross Sea region of Antarctica. Eight shrimp species were recorded: Chorismus antarcticus; Notocrangon antarcticus; Nematocarcinus lanceopes; Dendrobranchiata; Pasiphaea scotiae; Pasiphaea cf. ledoyeri; Petalidium sp., and a new species of Lebbeus. For the two most common species, N. antarcticus and N. lanceopes, we used maximum entropy modelling, based on records of 60 specimens and over 1130 observations across 23 sites in depths from 269 m to 3433 m, to predict distributions in relation to environmental variables. Two independent sets of environmental data layers at 0.05° and 0.5° resolution respectively, showed how spatial resolution affected the model. Chorismus antarcticus and N. antarcticus were found only on the continental shelf and upper slopes, while N. lanceopes, Lebbeus n. sp., Dendrobranchiata, Petalidium sp., Pasiphaea cf. ledoyeri, and Pasiphaea scotiae were found on the slopes, seamounts and abyssal plain. The environmental variables that contributed most to models for N. antarcticus were depth, chlorophyll-a concentration, temperature, and salinity, and for N. lanceopes were depth, ice concentration, seabed slope/rugosity, and temperature. The relative ranking, but not the composition of these variables changed in models using different spatial resolutions, and the predicted extent of suitable habitat was smaller in models using the finer-scale environmental layers. Our modelling indicated that shrimps were widespread throughout the Ross Sea region and were thus likely to play important functional role in the ecosystem, and that the spatial resolution of data needs to be considered both in the use of species distribution models. PMID:25051333

  7. Pharmacophore based approach to design inhibitors in crustaceans: an insight into the molt inhibition response to the receptor guanylyl cyclase.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Sajal; Princy, S Adline

    2014-04-01

    The first set of competitive inhibitors of molt inhibiting hormone (MIH) has been developed using the effective approaches such as Hip-Hop, virtual screening and manual alterations. Moreover, the conserved residues at 71 and 72 positions in the molt inhibiting hormone is known to be significant for selective inhibition of ecdysteroidogenesis; thus, the information from mutation and solution structure were used to generate common pharmacophore features. The geometry of the final six-feature pharmacophore was also found to be consistent with the homology-modeled MIH structures from various other decapod crustaceans. The Hypo-1, comprising six features hypothesis was carefully selected as a best pharmacophore model for virtual screening created on the basis of rank score and cluster processes. The hypothesis was validated and the database was virtually screened using this 3D query and the compounds were then manually altered to enhance the fit value. The hits obtained were further filtered for drug-likeness, which is expressed as physicochemical properties that contribute to favorable ADME/Tox profiles to eliminate the molecules exhibit toxicity and poor pharmacokinetics. In conclusion, the higher fit values of CI-1 (4.6), CI-4 (4.9) and CI-7 (4.2) in conjunction with better pharmacokinetic profile made these molecules practically helpful tool to increase production by accelerating molt in crustaceans. The use of feeding sub-therapeutic dosages of these growth enhancers can be very effectively implemented and certainly turn out to be a vital part of emerging nutritional strategies for economically important crustacean livestock. PMID:24772941

  8. Influence of salinity on the larval development of the fiddler crab Uca vocator (Ocypodidae) as an indicator of ontogenetic migration towards offshore waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jesus de Brito Simith, Darlan; de Souza, Adelson Silva; Maciel, Cristiana Ramalho; Abrunhosa, Fernando Arajo; Diele, Karen

    2012-03-01

    Larvae of many marine decapod crustaceans are released in unpredictable habitats with strong salinity fluctuations during the breeding season. In an experimental laboratory study, we investigated the influence of seven different salinities (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30) on the survival and development time of fiddler crab zoea larvae, Uca vocator, from northern Brazilian mangroves. The species reproduces during the rainy season when estuarine salinity strongly fluctuates and often reaches values below 10 and even 5. Salinity significantly affected the survival rate and development period from hatching to megalopa, while the number of zoeal stages remained constant. In salinities 0 and 5, no larvae reached the second zoeal stage, but they managed to survive for up to 3 (average of 2.3 days) and 7 days (average of 5.1 days), respectively. From salinity 10 onwards, the larvae developed to the megalopal stage. However, the survival rate was significantly lower (5-15%) and development took more time (average of 13.5 days) in salinity 10 than in the remaining salinities (15-30). In the latter, survival ranged from 80-95% and development took 10-11 days. Given the 100% larval mortality in extremely low salinities and their increased survival in intermediate and higher salinities, we conclude that U. vocator has a larval `export' strategy with its larvae developing in offshore waters where salinity conditions are more stable and higher than in mangrove estuaries. Thus, by means of ontogenetic migration, osmotic stress and resulting mortality in estuarine waters can be avoided.

  9. Expression of ionotropic receptors in terrestrial hermit crab's olfactory sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Groh-Lunow, Katrin C.; Getahun, Merid N.; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald; Hansson, Bill S.

    2015-01-01

    Coenobitidae are one out of at least five crustacean lineages which independently succeeded in the transition from water to land. This change in lifestyle required adaptation of the peripheral olfactory organs, the antennules, in order to sense chemical cues in the new terrestrial habitat. Hermit crab olfactory aesthetascs are arranged in a field on the distal segment of the antennular flagellum. Aesthetascs house approximately 300 dendrites with their cell bodies arranged in spindle-like complexes of ca. 150 cell bodies each. While the aesthetascs of aquatic crustaceans have been shown to be the place of odor uptake and previous studies identified ionotropic receptors (IRs) as the putative chemosensory receptors expressed in decapod antennules, the expression of IRs besides the IR co-receptors IR25a and IR93a in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) has not been documented yet. Our goal was to reveal the expression and distribution pattern of non-co-receptor IRs in OSNs of Coenobita clypeatus, a terrestrial hermit crab, with RNA in situ hybridization. We expanded our previously published RNAseq dataset, and revealed 22 novel IR candidates in the Coenobita antennules. We then used RNA probes directed against three different IRs to visualize their expression within the OSN cell body complexes. Furthermore we aimed to characterize ligand spectra of single aesthetascs by recording local field potentials and responses from individual dendrites. This also allowed comparison to functional data from insect OSNs expressing antennal IRs. We show that this orphan receptor subgroup with presumably non-olfactory function in insects is likely the basis of olfaction in terrestrial hermit crabs. PMID:25698921

  10. Inter-annual fluctuations of zooplankton communities in the Bay of Villefranche-sur-mer from 1995 to 2005 (Northern Ligurian Sea, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandromme, P.; Stemmann, L.; Berline, L.; Gasparini, S.; Mousseau, L.; Prejger, F.; Passafiume, O.; Guarini, J.-M.; Gorsky, G.

    2011-11-01

    An integrated analysis of the pelagic ecosystems of the Ligurian Sea is performed combining time series (1995-2005) of several zooplankton groups (one group for copepods smaller than 0.724 mm3 and nine groups for individuals larger than 0.724 mm3, i.e. large copepods, decapod larvæ, other crustaceans, chaetognaths, appendicularians, pteropods, thaliaceans, gelatinous predators and other zooplankton), chlorophyll-a, nutrients, salinity, temperature, density, and local weather at Point B coastal station (Northern Ligurian Sea). From 1995 to 2000 winters were wet and mild resulting in lower winter sea surface density. These years showed lower than average nutrients and zooplankton concentrations while chlorophyll-a biomass was high. After 2000, winters were colder and dryer resulting in higher sea surface density. Nutrients and zooplankton showed higher concentrations while chlorophyll-a was lower than average. The ca. 2000 change was observed for most zooplankton groups with a one-year delay for some groups. Inter-annual variability within each period was also observed. The observed patterns suggest that the pelagic ecosystem trophic state at the studied point is mostly set by the winter forcing on the vertical mixing that upwells nutrients to the surface sustaining primary production. Surprisingly, low chlorophyll-a biomass in high nitrate and zooplankton conditions during the well mixed years suggest that phytoplankton biomass is controlled by grazers. The proposed mechanisms of stronger winter vertical mixing hold for most of the time series, but specific years with contradicting patterns suggest also the possible influence of the summer climate. A review of recent literature suggests that changes in the pelagic ecosystem are not limited to the studied site but concern also the central Ligurian Sea.

  11. Zooplankton communities fluctuations from 1995 to 2005 in the Bay of Villefranche-sur-Mer (Northern Ligurian Sea, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandromme, P.; Stemmann, L.; Berline, L.; Gasparini, S.; Mousseau, L.; Prejger, F.; Passafiume, O.; Guarini, J.-M.; Gorsky, G.

    2010-12-01

    An integrated analysis of the pelagic ecosystems of the Ligurian Sea is performed combining time series of different zooplankton groups (small and large copepods, chaetognaths, appendicularians, pteropods, thaliaceans, decapods larvae, other crustaceans, other gelatinous and other zooplankton), chlorophyll-a and nutrients, seawater salinity, temperature and density and local weather at the Point B coastal station (Northern Ligurian Sea). From January 1995 to December 2005, a shift in most variables occurred ca. 2000. From 1995 to 2000 winters were wet and mild resulting in lower winter sea surface density. These years showed lower than average nutrients and zooplankton concentrations while phytoplankton biomass was higher. After 2000, winters were colder and dryer resulting in higher sea surface density. Nutrients and zooplankton showed higher concentrations while phytoplankton was lower than average. The ca. 2000 shift was observed for most zooplankton groups with a one year delay for certain groups. The observed patterns suggest that the pelagic ecosystem trophic state is mostly set by the winter forcing on the convection that upwells nutrients to the surface sustaining the spring bloom. However, low phytoplankton concentrations in higher nitrate and zooplankton conditions during the well mixed years suggest that phytoplankton is controlled by grazers. The proposed mechanisms of convection regimes hold for most of the time series, but specific years with contradicting patterns needed to be explained by other factors. The limitation of phytoplankton growth by the light availability in spring/summer was then proposed as a secondary driving force that can moderate or even reverse the winter forcing. Finally, the eleven years of observation did not reveal a clear link with the North Atlantic Oscillation, suggesting a more complex dynamics linking large scale climate to Ligurian Sea ecosystems or that the length of the plankton monitoring is not yet sufficient to detect those links.

  12. Spatial structure of the meroplankton community along a Patagonian fjord - The role of changing freshwater inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerhoff, Erika; Tapia, Fabián J.; Castro, Leonardo R.

    2014-12-01

    Freshwater inputs are major drivers of circulation, hydrographic structure, and productivity patterns along estuarine systems. We assessed the degree to which meroplankton community structure in the Baker/Martinez fjord complex (Chilean Patagonia, 47.5°S) responds to spatial and temporal changes in hydrographic conditions driven by seasonal changes in Baker river outflow. Zooplankton and hydrographic measurements were conducted along the fjord in early spring (October) and late summer (February), when river outflow was minimal and maximal, respectively. Major meroplankton groups found on these surveys were larval barnacles, crabs, bivalves and gastropods. There was a clear change in community structure between October and February, explained by a switch in the numerically dominant group from barnacle to bivalve larvae. This change in community structure was related to changes in hydrographic structure along the fjord, which are mainly associated with seasonal changes in the Baker river outflow. A variance partition analysis showed no significant spatial trend that could account for the variation in meroplankton along the Martinez channel, whereas temporal variability and environmental variables accounted for 36.6% and 27.6% of the variance, respectively. When comparing meroplankton among the Baker and Martinez channels in October, changes in environmental variables explained 44.9% of total variance, whereas spatial variability accounted for 23.5%. Early and late-stage barnacle larvae (i.e. nauplii and cyprids) were more abundant in water with lower temperature, and higher dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll-a concentration, whereas bivalve larvae were more strongly associated to warmer waters. The seasonal shift in numerical dominance, from barnacle larvae in early spring to bivalve larvae in late summer, suggests that reproduction of these groups is triggered by substantially different sets of conditions, both in terms of hydrography and food availability. The analysis of a monthly zooplankton time series showed that barnacle nauplii were most abundant in spring, and one order of magnitude more abundant than cyprids. Larvae of decapods were most abundant in summer.

  13. Mesozooplankton community development at elevated CO2 concentrations: results from a mesocosm experiment in an Arctic fjord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niehoff, B.; Knüppel, N.; Daase, M.; Czerny, J.; Boxhammer, T.

    2012-08-01

    The increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere caused by burning fossil fuels leads to increasing pCO2 and decreasing pH in the world oceans. These changes may have severe consequences for marine biota, especially in cold-water ecosystems due to higher solubility of CO2. However, studies on the response of mesozooplankton communities to elevated pCO2 are yet lacking. In order to test whether abundance and taxonomic composition change with pCO2, we have sampled nine mesocosms, which were deployed in Kongsfjorden, an Arctic fjord at Svalbard, and were adjusted to eight CO2 concentrations, initially ranging from 185 μatm to 1420 μatm. Samples were taken weekly over a six-week period with an Apstein net (55 μm mesh size) in all mesocosms and the surrounding fjord. In addition, sediment trap samples, taken every second day in the mesocosms, were analyzed to account for losses due to vertical migration and mortality. The taxonomic analysis revealed that meroplanktonic larvae (cirripeds, polychaetes, bivalves, gastropod, and decapods) dominated in the mesocosms while copepods (Calanus spp., Oithona similis, Acartia longiremis and Microsetella norvegica) were found in lower abundances. In the fjord copepods prevailed for most of our study. With time, abundance and taxonomic composition developed similarly in all mesocosms; the pCO2 had no significant effect on the overall community structure. However, single taxa responded to elevated CO2 concentrations. The ratio of cirripedia nauplii to cypris larvae, the next developmental stage, in the sediment traps averaged over the entire experiment increased with pCO2 and this suggests that increased pCO2 may have delayed their development. Also, the number of bivalves, averaged over the experimental period, decreased significantly with increasing pCO2. The nature of the CO2 effect, either direct or indirect, remains open and needs to be addressed in future.

  14. Phylogeny and evolutionary patterns in the Dwarf crayfish subfamily (Decapoda: Cambarellinae).

    PubMed

    Pedraza-Lara, Carlos; Doadrio, Ignacio; Breinholt, Jesse W; Crandall, Keith A

    2012-01-01

    The Dwarf crayfish or Cambarellinae, is a morphologically singular subfamily of decapod crustaceans that contains only one genus, Cambarellus. Its intriguing distribution, along the river basins of the Gulf Coast of United States (Gulf Group) and into Central México (Mexican Group), has until now lacked of satisfactory explanation. This study provides a comprehensive sampling of most of the extant species of Cambarellus and sheds light on its evolutionary history, systematics and biogeography. We tested the impact of Gulf Group versus Mexican Group geography on rates of cladogenesis using a maximum likelihood framework, testing different models of birth/extinction of lineages. We propose a comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis for the subfamily based on mitochondrial and nuclear loci (3,833 bp) using Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood methods. The phylogenetic structure found two phylogenetic groups associated to the two main geographic components (Gulf Group and Mexican Group) and is partially consistent with the historical structure of river basins. The previous hypothesis, which divided the genus into three subgenera based on genitalia morphology was only partially supported (P = 0.047), resulting in a paraphyletic subgenus Pandicambarus. We found at least two cases in which phylogenetic structure failed to recover monophyly of recognized species while detecting several cases of cryptic diversity, corresponding to lineages not assigned to any described species. Cladogenetic patterns in the entire subfamily are better explained by an allopatric model of speciation. Diversification analyses showed similar cladogenesis patterns between both groups and did not significantly differ from the constant rate models. While cladogenesis in the Gulf Group is coincident in time with changes in the sea levels, in the Mexican Group, cladogenesis is congruent with the formation of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Our results show how similar allopatric divergence in freshwater organisms can be promoted through diverse vicariant factors. PMID:23155379

  15. Exploration of the Canyon-Incised Continental Margin of the Northeastern United States Reveals Dynamic Habitats and Diverse Communities

    PubMed Central

    Quattrini, Andrea M.; Nizinski, Martha S.; Chaytor, Jason D.; Demopoulos, Amanda W. J.; Roark, E. Brendan; France, Scott C.; Moore, Jon A.; Heyl, Taylor; Auster, Peter J.; Kinlan, Brian; Ruppel, Carolyn; Elliott, Kelley P.; Kennedy, Brian R.C.; Lobecker, Elizabeth; Skarke, Adam; Shank, Timothy M.

    2015-01-01

    The continental margin off the northeastern United States (NEUS) contains numerous, topographically complex features that increase habitat heterogeneity across the region. However, the majority of these rugged features have never been surveyed, particularly using direct observations. During summer 2013, 31 Remotely-Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives were conducted from 494 to 3271 m depth across a variety of seafloor features to document communities and to infer geological processes that produced such features. The ROV surveyed six broad-scale habitat features, consisting of shelf-breaching canyons, slope-sourced canyons, inter-canyon areas, open-slope/landslide-scar areas, hydrocarbon seeps, and Mytilus Seamount. Four previously unknown chemosynthetic communities dominated by Bathymodiolus mussels were documented. Seafloor methane hydrate was observed at two seep sites. Multivariate analyses indicated that depth and broad-scale habitat significantly influenced megafaunal coral (58 taxa), demersal fish (69 taxa), and decapod crustacean (34 taxa) assemblages. Species richness of fishes and crustaceans significantly declined with depth, while there was no relationship between coral richness and depth. Turnover in assemblage structure occurred on the middle to lower slope at the approximate boundaries of water masses found previously in the region. Coral species richness was also an important variable explaining variation in fish and crustacean assemblages. Coral diversity may serve as an indicator of habitat suitability and variation in available niche diversity for these taxonomic groups. Our surveys added 24 putative coral species and three fishes to the known regional fauna, including the black coral Telopathes magna, the octocoral Metallogorgia melanotrichos and the fishes Gaidropsarus argentatus, Guttigadus latifrons, and Lepidion guentheri. Marine litter was observed on 81% of the dives, with at least 12 coral colonies entangled in debris. While initial exploration revealed the NEUS region to be both geologically dynamic and biologically diverse, further research into the abiotic conditions and the biotic interactions that influence species abundance and distribution is needed. PMID:26509818

  16. The Fauna Of Two New Discovered Hydrothermal Fields At 5S And 933'S On The Mid-Atlantic-Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stecher, J. E.

    2005-12-01

    Before April 2005 there was a zoogeographical puzzle to solve: Are there any hydrothermal vent communities south of the equator the Atlantic Ocean, and if so, what will be their characteristics? Are they similar with those of the northern Atlantic Ocean or will they differ? Before the cruise 169 of the British "Charles Darwin" research vessel started, no vent site was discovered on the southern Atlantic Ridge. Using an autonomous underwater vehicle from WHOI, the first hydrothermal active vent site was found at 5S in April 2005. With the support by British and American colleagues(Chris German and Tim Shank) the scientific crew of Meteor cruise M64/1 sampled this site at 5 first with the ROV "Quest 4000" from Marum, University Bremen. But far in excess of this success one more vent site was discovered and investigated by the Meteor cruise M64/1: the Lilliput Field at 933S on the Mid-Atlantic-Ridge. Our first results indicate that the identified taxa of the hydrothermal fields at 5S and 933S resemble the northern Logatchev community (Gebruk et al. 2000) in most elements. Remarkable is the missing of following typical hydrothermal taxa: Decapods of the families Alvinocaridae, like Chorocaris, and Galatheidae, echinoderms like Ophiuridae and Ventfishes of the family Zoarcidae. Obviously the Romanch Fracture Zone act only partly as a physical barrier between vent fauna assemblages of the North and South Atlantic Oceans (see Shank 2004). Gebruk, A.V., Chevaldonne, P., Shank, T., Lutz, R.A. & Vrijenhoek, R.C. (2000): Deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities of the Logatchev area (1445'N, Mid-Atlantic Ridge): diverse biotopes and high biomass. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U. K. 80: 383-393. Shank, T. (2004): The evolutionary puzzle of seafloor life. - Oceanus Magazine Vol. 42, No.2 http://oceanusmag.whoi.edu/v42n2/shank.html.

  17. Spatial, temporal and ontogenetic variation in diet of anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicolus) on the Algerian coast (SW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacha, M.; Amara, R.

    2009-11-01

    The diet of anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus was studied in three regions (Béjaia, Bénisaf and Ghazaouet) along the Algerian coast. Ontogenetic, spatial and seasonal variations in anchovy diet were investigated using multivariate analyses and analysed in relation with sea surface temperature and chlorophyll- a. 46 prey taxa of varying size between 0.57 mm ( Euterpina acutifrons) and 6.8 mm (fish larvae) were recorded. Whatever the season, the region or the fish size, anchovy is exclusively zooplanktivorous and copepods were the most present prey, constituting 87% by number of the prey taken and found in 98% of the anchovy stomachs examined. However, their occurrence and number varied according to the different areas, seasons and fish size. During its first year of life, anchovy feeds almost exclusively on copepods (mainly small and medium size prey). As anchovy grows, copepods are gradually substituted by large crustaceans such as decapods and amphipods. Hierarchical cluster analysis, analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) and similarities percentage (SIMPER) indicated a distinct diet of anchovy of the bay of Bejaia from those of the bays of Bénisaf and Ghazaouet probably due to differences in hydrologic conditions. Diet differences also occurred between seasons. Summer and spring have distinct prey assemblages each and showed low diet similarities with the two other seasons. More prey species were found in the diet during winter (36) and autumn (30) and the vacuity index was lower in winter. Temporal variability in satellite-derived chlorophyll- a matched the seasonal variability in the diversity of the anchovy prey and feeding intensity as reflected by the vacuity index, suggesting further investigation of the potential use of satellite-derived chlorophyll- a data as a proxy for anchovy feeding intensity.

  18. Surf Zone Hyperbenthos of Belgian Sandy Beaches: Seasonal Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyst, B.; Buysse, D.; Dewicke, A.; Mees, J.

    2001-12-01

    Since surf zone hyperbenthos, although highly important in local food webs, has often been neglected and very little information is available, a survey of the Belgian sandy beaches was carried out from May 1996 until July 1997. Monthly samples were taken to give a complete record of hyperbenthic organisms occurring in the surf zone of Belgian sandy beaches and to evaluate the intensity by which this surf zone is used. In total 172 species were recorded. The number of species occurring in the surf zone is comparable to that of adjacent areas. As well as true hyperbenthic species, endobenthic and planktonic organisms were sampled. More than 75% of the average total sample composition consisted of mysids, mainly Mesopodopsis slabberi, Schistomysis spiritus and Schistomysis kervillei (holohyperbenthos). Apart from several resident species, active and passive seasonal migration towards the surf zone by a number of species is suggested. A large number of sporadic species adds to the composition of surf zone hyperbenthos. Within the merohyperbenthos, postlarval decapods and fish were the dominant organisms. During the year three recruitment peaks were observed. Average densities per month exceeded 1500 ind. 100 m -2. Yearly biomass averages ranged from 300 to over 3000 mg ADW 100 m -2. Densities of the common species are slightly higher in the surf zone than in other habitats, emphasising the importance of the area. Besides a possible nursery function, the surf zone may also be used as a transient area between different habitats. Finally, the influence of several abiotic factors on the hyperbenthic assemblages was evaluated. The main structuring variables determining the occurrence of most of the organisms are water temperature and hydrodynamic factors such as wave height and turbidity. The influence of wave height seems to be two-fold: several good swimmers such as mysids and some fish species are suggested to be able to actively avoid severe wave conditions, whereas other, more planktonic organisms, are passively transported towards the area if wave height increases.

  19. Estuarine resources use by juvenile Flagfin mojarra ( Eucinostomus melanopterus) in an inverse tropical estuary (Sine Saloum, Senegal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gning, Ndombour; Le Loc'h, François; Thiaw, Omar T.; Aliaume, Catherine; Vidy, Guy

    2010-03-01

    The Flagfin mojarra, Eucinostomus melanopterus, is a marine spawner whose young individuals are common in the Sine Saloum inverse estuary (Senegal). The species offers the opportunity to study both the use of the estuarine nursery resources and the impact of the particular environment of the inverse estuary on these resources. This will lead to a better understanding of the functioning of the nursery. We investigated the resources used by juvenile Flagfin mojarra by coupling stomach contents and stable isotopes methods. Young Flagfin mojarra feed on a wide range of invertebrates. Diet changed from copepods in the smallest size class (10-40 mm), to a range of invertebrates including amphipods, insect larvae, polychaetes and mollusc in the medium size class (up to 60 mm) and mainly polychaetes for individuals >60 mm in size. In mangrove habitats with moderate salinity, the diet was dominated by polychaetes and decapod larvae (crabs) whereas in habitats with higher salinity, diet was dominated by amphipods. In very hypersaline areas with scarce mangroves, diet comprised benthic copepods, chironomid larvae and ostracods. This agreed with a clear change in δ13C measured in fish sampled at downstream or upstream sites. Comparison with signatures of primary producers suggested that the local food web exploited by young Flagfin mojarra is mainly based on phytoplankton in the downstream mangrove area, and mainly on benthic microalgae in the upstream hypersaline area. As in many studies considering the food webs in mangrove, mangrove was not identified as a major contributor to the food web exploited by E. melanopterus. This needs further investigation particularly because the exportation of estuarine materials to the sea is limited in an inverse estuary.

  20. Organization of columnar inputs in the third optic ganglion of a highly visual crab.

    PubMed

    Bengochea, Mercedes; Berón de Astrada, Martín

    2014-01-01

    Motion information provides essential cues for a wide variety of animal behaviors such as mate, prey, or predator detection. In decapod crustaceans and pterygote insects, visual codification of object motion is associated with visual processing in the third optic neuropile, the lobula. In this neuropile, tangential neurons collect motion information from small field columnar neurons and relay it to the midbrain where behavioral responses would be finally shaped. In highly ordered structures, detailed knowledge of the neuroanatomy can give insight into their function. In spite of the relevance of the lobula in processing motion information, studies on the neuroarchitecture of this neuropile are scant. Here, by applying dextran-conjugated dyes in the second optic neuropile (the medulla) of the crab Neohelice, we mass stained the columnar neurons that convey visual information into the lobula. We found that the arborizations of these afferent columnar neurons lie at four main lobula depths. A detailed examination of serial optical sections of the lobula revealed that these input strata are composed of different number of substrata and that the strata are thicker in the centre of the neuropile. Finally, by staining the different lobula layers composed of tangential processes we combined the present characterization of lobula input strata with the previous characterization of the neuroarchitecture of the crab's lobula based on reduced-silver preparations. We found that the third lobula input stratum overlaps with the dendrites of lobula giant tangential neurons. This suggests that columnar neurons projecting from the medulla can directly provide visual input to the crab's lobula giant neurons. PMID:24929118

  1. Molecular perspective on the American transisthmian species of Macrobrachium (Caridea, Palaemonidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pileggi, Leonardo G.; Rossi, Natália; Wehrtmann, Ingo S.; Mantelatto, Fernando L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The closure of the Isthmus of Panama (about 3.1 million years ago) separated previously continuous populations and created two groups of extant species, which live now in the Pacific and Atlantic drainage systems. This relatively recent event was a trigger to diversification of various species in the Neotropics, nonetheless there are exemplars that do not show sufficient morphologic variability to separate them by traditional morphological tools. About 60 years ago, some freshwater decapod species with high morphological similarity were separate by previous researchers, based on geographical distribution, in Pacific and Atlantic and considered as “sister species”. However, the complete isolation of these prawns by this geographical barrier is questionable, and it has generated doubts about the status of the following transisthmian pairs of sibling species: Macrobrachium occidentale × Macrobrachium heterochirus, Macrobrachium americanum × Macrobrachium carcinus, Macrobrachium digueti × Macrobrachium olfersii, Macrobrachium hancocki × Macrobrachium crenulatum, Macrobrachium tenellum × Macrobrachium acanthurus and Macrobrachium panamense × Macrobrachium amazonicum. Here we evaluated the relation among these pairs of sibling species in a molecular phylogenetic context. We generated 95 new sequences: 26 sequences of 16S rDNA, 25 of COI mtDNA and 44 of 18S nDNA. In total, 181 sequences were analyzed by maximum likelihood phylogenetic method, including 12 Macrobrachium transisthmian species, as well as seven other American Macrobrachium species, and two other palaemonids. Our analysis corroborated the morphological proximity of the sibling species. Despite the high degree of morphological similarities and considerable genetic diversification encountered among the transisthmian sister species, our data support the conclusion that all species included in sibling groups studied herein are valid taxonomic entities, but not all pairs of siblings form natural groups. PMID:25561833

  2. Feedback From Peripheral Musculature to Central Pattern Generator in the Neurogenic Heart of the Crab Callinectes sapidus: Role of Mechanosensitive Dendrites

    PubMed Central

    García-Crescioni, Keyla; Fort, Timothy J.; Stern, Estee; Brezina, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    The neurogenic heart of decapod crustaceans is a very simple, self-contained, model central pattern generator (CPG)-effector system. The CPG, the nine-neuron cardiac ganglion (CG), is embedded in the myocardium itself; it generates bursts of spikes that are transmitted by the CG's five motor neurons to the periphery of the system, the myocardium, to produce its contractions. Considerable evidence suggests that a CPG-peripheral loop is completed by a return feedback pathway through which the contractions modify, in turn, the CG motor pattern. One likely pathway is provided by dendrites, presumably mechanosensitive, that the CG neurons project into the adjacent myocardial muscle. Here we have tested the role of this pathway in the heart of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. We performed “de-efferentation” experiments in which we cut the motor neuron axons to the myocardium and “de-afferentation” experiments in which we cut or ligated the dendrites. In the isolated CG, these manipulations had no effect on the CG motor pattern. When the CG remained embedded in the myocardium, however, these manipulations, interrupting either the efferent or afferent limb of the CPG-peripheral loop, decreased contraction amplitude, increased the frequency of the CG motor neuron spike bursts, and decreased the number of spikes per burst and burst duration. Finally, passive stretches of the myocardium likewise modulated the spike bursts, an effect that disappeared when the dendrites were cut. We conclude that feedback through the dendrites indeed operates in this system and suggest that it completes a loop through which the system self-regulates its activity. PMID:19828726

  3. The complete mitochondrial genomes of Umalia orientalis and Lyreidus brevifrons: The phylogenetic position of the family Raninidae within Brachyuran crabs.

    PubMed

    Shi, Guohui; Cui, Zhaoxia; Hui, Min; Liu, Yuan; Chan, Tin-Yam; Song, Chengwen

    2015-06-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences of two primitive crabs, Umalia orientalis and Lyreidus brevifrons (Decapoda: Brachyura: Raninidae) were determined. The mitogenomes of the two species are 15,466 and 16,112bp in length with AT content of 68.0% and 70.6%, respectively. Each genome contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes. The gene arrangement of U. orientalis is the same with those reported for most brachyuran species. Nevertheless, the gene arrangement of L. brevifrons differs from that of U. orientalis in having an additional non-coding region. The newly found non-coding region is located between nad3 and trnA with 641bp in length. Its nucleotide composition and secondary structure are similar to the typical control region. In L. brevifrons, the secondary structures of trnS-AGN and trnI are significantly different from those in U. orientalis and other brachyuran species. The start codon for cox1 is ATG in all reported Eubrachyura mitogenomes, while a common start codon ACG is found in the Podotremata. Phylogenetic analyses for crustacean decapods based on the nucleotide and amino acid of 13 PCGs indicate that Homolidae is more primitive in Brachyura, and Raninidae is a sister group to Eubrachyura. This implies that Raninidae is closer to Eubrachyura than to Homolidae, and Podotremata may be a paraphyletic assemblage. The results also indicate that the subfamily Lyreidinae is closer to Notopodinae than to Ranininae within Raninidae. The novel mitogenome data provides useful information for refining the phylogenetic relationships within Brachyura. PMID:25744934

  4. The Application of DNA Barcodes for the Identification of Marine Crustaceans from the North Sea and Adjacent Regions

    PubMed Central

    Raupach, Michael J.; Barco, Andrea; Steinke, Dirk; Beermann, Jan; Laakmann, Silke; Mohrbeck, Inga; Neumann, Hermann; Kihara, Terue C.; Pointner, Karin; Radulovici, Adriana; Segelken-Voigt, Alexandra; Wesse, Christina; Knebelsberger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    During the last years DNA barcoding has become a popular method of choice for molecular specimen identification. Here we present a comprehensive DNA barcode library of various crustacean taxa found in the North Sea, one of the most extensively studied marine regions of the world. Our data set includes 1,332 barcodes covering 205 species, including taxa of the Amphipoda, Copepoda, Decapoda, Isopoda, Thecostraca, and others. This dataset represents the most extensive DNA barcode library of the Crustacea in terms of species number to date. By using the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD), unique BINs were identified for 198 (96.6%) of the analyzed species. Six species were characterized by two BINs (2.9%), and three BINs were found for the amphipod species Gammarus salinus Spooner, 1947 (0.4%). Intraspecific distances with values higher than 2.2% were revealed for 13 species (6.3%). Exceptionally high distances of up to 14.87% between two distinct but monophyletic clusters were found for the parasitic copepod Caligus elongatus Nordmann, 1832, supporting the results of previous studies that indicated the existence of an overlooked sea louse species. In contrast to these high distances, haplotype-sharing was observed for two decapod spider crab species, Macropodia parva Van Noort & Adema, 1985 and Macropodia rostrata (Linnaeus, 1761), underlining the need for a taxonomic revision of both species. Summarizing the results, our study confirms the application of DNA barcodes as highly effective identification system for the analyzed marine crustaceans of the North Sea and represents an important milestone for modern biodiversity assessment studies using barcode sequences. PMID:26417993

  5. Expression studies on NA+/K(+)-ATPase in gills of Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) acclimated to different salinities.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Aparna; Gireesh-Babu, P; Tripathi, Gayatri; Sabnis, Supriya; Dhamotharan, K; Vardarajan, Remya; Kumari, Kavita; Dasgupta, Subrata; Rajendran, K V

    2015-05-01

    The decapod crustacean Penaeus monodon survives large fluctuations in salinity through osmoregulation in which Na+/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity in the gills plays a central role. Adult P. monodon specimens were gradually acclimatized to 5, 25 and 35 per thousand salinities and maintained for 20 days to observe long-term alterations in NKA expression. Specific NKA activity assayed in gill tissues was found to be 3 folds higher at 5 per thousand compared to 25 per thousand (isosmotic salinity) and 0.48 folds lower at 35 per thousand. The enzyme was immunolocalized in gills using mouse α-5 monoclonal antibody that cross reacts with P. monodon NKA α-subunit. At 5 per thousand the immunopositive cells were distributed on lamellar tips and basal lamellar epithelium of the secondary gill filaments and their number was visibly higher. At both 25 per thousand and 35 per thousand NKA positive cells were observed in the inter-lamellar region but the expression was more pronounced at 25 per thousand. Gill architecture was normal at all salinities. However, the 1.5 fold increase in NKA α-subunit mRNA at 5 per thousand measured by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) using EF1α as reference gene was not statistically significant. The study confirms the osmoregulating ability of P. monodon like other crustaceans at lower salinities. It is likely that significant increase in NKA transcript level happens at an earlier time point. At higher salinities all three methods record only marginal or no change from isosmotic controls confirming the hypothesis that the animal largely osmoconforms in hyperosmotic environment. PMID:26040024

  6. Migrant biomass and respiratory carbon flux by zooplankton and micronekton in the subtropical northeast Atlantic Ocean (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariza, A.; Garijo, J. C.; Landeira, J. M.; Bordes, F.; Hernández-León, S.

    2015-05-01

    Diel Vertical Migration (DVM) in marine ecosystems is performed by zooplankton and micronekton, promoting a poorly accounted export of carbon to the deep ocean. Major efforts have been made to estimate carbon export due to gravitational flux and to a lesser extent, to migrant zooplankton. However, migratory flux by micronekton has been largely neglected in this context, due to its time-consuming and difficult sampling. In this paper, we evaluated gravitational and migratory flux due to the respiration of zooplankton and micronekton in the northeast subtropical Atlantic Ocean (Canary Islands). Migratory flux was addressed by calculating the biomass of migrating components and measuring the electron transfer system (ETS) activity in zooplankton and dominant species representing micronekton (Euphausia gibboides, Sergia splendens and Lobianchia dofleini). Our results showed similar biomass in both components. The main taxa contributing to DVM within zooplankton were juvenile euphausiids, whereas micronekton were mainly dominated by fish, followed by adult euphausiids and decapods. The contribution to respiratory flux of zooplankton (3.4 ± 1.9 mg C m-2 d-1) was similar to that of micronekton (2.9 ± 1.0 mg C m-2 d-1). In summary, respiratory flux accounted for 53% (range 23-71) of the gravitational flux measured at 150 m depth (11.9 ± 5.8 mg C m-2 d-1). However, based on larger migratory ranges and gut clearance rates, micronekton are expected to be the dominant component that contributes to carbon export in deeper waters. Micronekton estimates in this paper as well as those in existing literature, although variable due to regional differences and difficulties in calculating their biomass, suggest that carbon fluxes driven by this community are important for future models of the biological carbon pump.

  7. Pre-partum diet of adult female bearded seals in years of contrasting ice conditions.

    PubMed

    Hindell, Mark A; Lydersen, Christian; Hop, Haakon; Kovacs, Kit M

    2012-01-01

    Changing patterns of sea-ice distribution and extent have measurable effects on polar marine systems. Beyond the obvious impacts of key-habitat loss, it is unclear how such changes will influence ice-associated marine mammals in part because of the logistical difficulties of studying foraging behaviour or other aspects of the ecology of large, mobile animals at sea during the polar winter. This study investigated the diet of pregnant bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) during three spring breeding periods (2005, 2006 and 2007) with markedly contrasting ice conditions in Svalbard using stable isotopes (?(13)C and ?(15)N) measured in whiskers collected from their newborn pups. The ?(15)N values in the whiskers of individual seals ranged from 11.95 to 17.45 , spanning almost 2 full trophic levels. Some seals were clearly dietary specialists, despite the species being characterised overall as a generalist predator. This may buffer bearded seal populations from the changes in prey distributions lower in the marine food web which seems to accompany continued changes in temperature and ice cover. Comparisons with isotopic signatures of known prey, suggested that benthic gastropods and decapods were the most common prey. Bayesian isotopic mixing models indicated that diet varied considerably among years. In the year with most fast-ice (2005), the seals had the greatest proportion of pelagic fish and lowest benthic invertebrate content, and during the year with the least ice (2006), the seals ate more benthic invertebrates and less pelagic fish. This suggests that the seals fed further offshore in years with greater ice cover, but moved in to the fjords when ice-cover was minimal, giving them access to different types of prey. Long-term trends of sea ice decline, earlier ice melt, and increased water temperatures in the Arctic are likely to have ecosystem-wide effects, including impacts on the forage bases of pagophilic seals. PMID:22693616

  8. Infaunal community responses to a gradient of trawling disturbance and a long-term Fishery Exclusion Zone in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangano, M. Cristina; Kaiser, Michel J.; Porporato, Erika M. D.; Lambert, Gwladys I.; Rinelli, Paola; Spanò, Nunziacarla

    2014-03-01

    Historically the majority of Mediterranean trawl fisheries occur on the continental shelf with a smaller proportion focused on the shelf slope and deep sea areas. Understanding how trawl fisheries affect the wider ecosystem is an important component of the ecosystem-based approach to fisheries management. In this context the current study examined the impact of the otter trawl fishery on the infaunal communities found on the continental shelf and upper slope off the coast of Sicily and Calabria, Italy. A total of thirty six sites were sampled across a gradient of fishing intensity and from within a large bay from which trawling has been excluded for 22 years. Fishing intensities were ascertained post-hoc from vessel monitoring system data. Seabed characteristics of the sites studied were uniform across the continental shelf and slope areas that were studied, such that the only factor that varied was fishing intensity. The density index (DI) and total number of species (S) were significantly higher in the fishery closure area compared with other continental shelf sites. In particular, bioturbating decapod fauna occurred only within the fishery closure area. Fished sites were dominated primarily by burrowing deposit feeding worms, small bivalves and scavenging biota. In contrast, the response to fishing on the upper slope was less clear. This observation was treated with caution as the power to detect fishing effects was lower for the upper slope sites as a result of possible illegal fishing that had compromised two of the four replicate sites within the closed area. While the present study was able to quantify the effect of the demersal trawl fleet on the benthic infauna of the continental shelf, the effects of trawling on the upper shelf slope remain unclear and warrant further study.

  9. Diet composition and resource partitioning in two small flatfish species in the German Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schückel, S.; Sell, A.; Kröncke, I.; Reiss, H.

    2011-10-01

    Since the late 1980s, the small-sized non-commercial flatfish species solenette ( Buglossidium luteum) and scaldfish ( Arnoglossus laterna) have increased in abundance in the southern North Sea. Because these species are considered as possible competitors for prey of commercial flatfish, this study aimed at advancing knowledge of their feeding ecology. Between January 2009 and January 2010 stomach contents of solenette and scaldfish and benthic infauna were sampled seasonally in a study area in the German Bight. The objectives were to investigate the seasonal variability of feeding activity and diet composition of both flatfish species related to benthic prey availability. For both flatfish, the highest feeding activity was found in summer, at the same time that the highest prey densities occurred in the study area. A reduced feeding activity was observed during the winter of 2010, but not in the winter of 2009, probably related to higher 2009 water temperatures. In all seasons, diet composition of solenette was dominated by meiofauna, mainly harpacticoid copepods. Macrofauna prey species, namely juveniles of bivalves and echinoderms became important in spring. An increase in amphipods and cumaceans was found in the stomach contents during summer and autumn, simultaneously with their increased abundance in the benthic infauna. In contrast, polychaetes were rarely found in the diet, but dominated the infauna during all seasons. Diet composition of scaldfish was dominated by larger and mobile prey, and, during all seasons, was mainly comprised of crustaceans. Amphipods characterised the diet in both winters, while decapods such as Crangon spp. and Liocarcinus spp. were the dominant prey from spring to autumn. Additionally, juveniles of flatfish (Pleuronectids) and bivalves were found in the scaldfish diet in spring, replaced by cumaceans in summer. No dietary overlap between both flatfish species was found across seasons, indicating partitioning of prey resources between solenette and scaldfish. Their different feeding strategies and prey preferences, in turn were influenced by the seasonal variability of available prey.

  10. Cloning and Functional Analysis of Histones H3 and H4 in Nuclear Shaping during Spermatogenesis of the Chinese Mitten Crab, Eriocheir sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiang-Li; Kang, Xian-Jiang; Guo, Ming-Shen; Mu, Shu-Mei; Zhang, Zhao-Hui

    2015-01-01

    During spermatogenesis in most animals, the basic proteins associated with DNA are continuously changing and somatic-typed histones are partly replaced by sperm-specific histones, which are then successively replaced by transition proteins and protamines. With the replacement of sperm nuclear basic proteins, nuclei progressively undergo chromatin condensation. The Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis) is also known as the hairy crab or river crab (phylum Arthropoda, subphylum Crustacea, order Decapoda, and family Grapsidae). The spermatozoa of this species are aflagellate, and each has a spherical acrosome surrounded by a cup-shaped nucleus, peculiar to brachyurans. An interesting characteristic of the E. sinensis sperm nucleus is its lack of electron-dense chromatin. However, its formation is not clear. In this study, sequences encoding histones H3 and H4 were cloned by polymerase chain reaction amplification. Western blotting indicated that H3 and H4 existed in the sperm nuclei. Immunofluorescence and ultrastructural immunocytochemistry demonstrated that histones H3 and H4 were both present in the nuclei of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and mature spermatozoa. The nuclear labeling density of histone H4 decreased in sperm nuclei, while histone H3 labeling was not changed significantly. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the mRNA expression levels of histones H3 and H4 were higher at mitotic and meiotic stages than in later spermiogenesis. Our study demonstrates that the mature sperm nuclei of E. sinensis contain histones H3 and H4. This is the first report that the mature sperm nucleus of E. sinensis contains histones H3 and H4. This finding extends the study of sperm histones of E. sinensis and provides some basic data for exploring how decapod crustaceans form uncondensed sperm chromatin. PMID:25993499

  11. New Functions of Arthropod Bursicon: Inducing Deposition and Thickening of New Cuticle and Hemocyte Granulation in the Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus

    PubMed Central

    Chung, J. Sook; Katayama, Hidekazu; Dircksen, Heinrich

    2012-01-01

    Arthropod growth requires molt-associated changes in softness and stiffness of the cuticle that protects from desiccation, infection and injury. Cuticle hardening in insects depends on the blood-borne hormone, bursicon (Burs), although it has never been determined in hemolymph. Whilst also having Burs, decapod crustaceans reiterate molting many more times during their longer life span and are encased in a calcified exoskeleton, which after molting undergoes similar initial cuticle hardening processes as in insects. We investigated the role of homologous crustacean Burs in cuticular changes and growth in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. We found dramatic increases in size and number of Burs cells during development in paired thoracic ganglion complex (TGC) neurons with pericardial organs (POs) as neurohemal release sites. A skewed expression of Burs β/Burs α mRNA in TGC corresponds to protein contents of identified Burs β homodimer and Burs heterodimer in POs. In hemolymph, Burs is consistently present at ∼21 pM throughout the molt cycle, showing a peak of ∼89 pM at ecdysis. Since initial cuticle hardness determines the degree of molt-associated somatic increment (MSI), we applied recombinant Burs in vitro to cuticle explants of late premolt or early ecdysis. Burs stimulates cuticle thickening and granulation of hemocytes. These findings demonstrate novel cuticle-associated functions of Burs during molting, while the unambiguous and constant presence of Burs in cells and hemolymph throughout the molt cycle and life stages may implicate further functions of its homo- and heterodimer hormone isoforms in immunoprotective defense systems of arthropods. PMID:23029467

  12. Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase in the gills of two euryhaline crabs, Callinectes sapidus and Carcinus maenas, by heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Skaggs, Hollie S; Henry, Raymond P

    2002-12-01

    Two subcellular fractions of gill tissue, cytoplasm and basolateral membranes, from two species of euryhaline decapod crustaceans, Callinectes sapidus and Carcinus maenas, acclimated to low salinity, were isolated via differential centrifugation. Carbonic anhydrase activity from both fractions was titrated against a variety of heavy metals in vitro. The metals Ag(+), Cd(2+), Cu(2+) and Zn(+) showed inhibitory action against the enzyme. Ki values for these metals against cytoplasmic CA from C. sapidus were in the range of 0.05-0.5 microM (for Ag(+), Cd(2+) and Cu(2+)) and 2-6 microM for Zn(+), some of the highest sensitivities reported for CA from an aquatic organism. The Ki values for these same metals were approximately 2-3 orders of magnitude higher for cytoplasmic CA from C. maenas, indicating that there are significant differences in heavy metal sensitivity in branchial CA from the two species, and that C. maenas possesses a metal-resistant CA isoform. It required concentrations of metals in the millimolar range, however, to inhibit CA activity from the membrane fraction of the gill of both species. There were no effects on either mortality or on hemolymph osmotic and ionic concentrations in C. maenas that were exposed to 10 microM Cd or Zn(+) at 32 per thousand salinity and subsequently transferred to 10 per thousand. The presence of a metal-resistant CA isoform in the gills of C. maenas suggests that this species would not be restricted from its normal estuarine environment by heavy metal pollution. PMID:12458188

  13. Osmoregulation and salinity-induced oxidative stress: is oxidative adaptation determined by gill function?

    PubMed

    Rivera-Ingraham, Georgina A; Barri, Kiam; Boël, Mélanie; Farcy, Emilie; Charles, Anne-Laure; Geny, Bernard; Lignot, Jehan-Hervé

    2016-01-01

    Osmoregulating decapods such as the Mediterranean green crab Carcinus aestuarii possess two groups of spatially segregated gills: anterior gills serve mainly respiratory purposes, while posterior gills contain osmoregulatory structures. The co-existence of similar tissues serving different functions allows the study of differential adaptation, in terms of free radical metabolism, upon salinity change. Crabs were immersed for 2 weeks in seawater (SW, 37 ppt), diluted SW (dSW, 10 ppt) and concentrated SW (cSW, 45 ppt). Exposure to dSW was the most challenging condition, elevating respiration rates of whole animals and free radical formation in hemolymph (assessed fluorometrically using C-H2DFFDA). Further analyses considered anterior and posterior gills separately, and the results showed that posterior gills are the main tissues fueling osmoregulatory-related processes because their respiration rates in dSW were 3.2-fold higher than those of anterior gills, and this was accompanied by an increase in mitochondrial density (citrate synthase activity) and increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation (1.4-fold greater, measured through electron paramagnetic resonance). Paradoxically, these posterior gills showed undisturbed caspase 3/7 activity, used here as a marker for apoptosis. This may only be due to the high antioxidant protection that posterior gills benefit from [superoxide dismutase (SOD) in posterior gills was over 6 times higher than in anterior gills]. In conclusion, osmoregulating posterior gills are better adapted to dSW exposure than respiratory anterior gills because they are capable of controlling the deleterious effects of the ROS production resulting from this salinity-induced stress. PMID:26567341

  14. Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) neuropeptidesfamily: Functions, titer, and binding to target tissues.

    PubMed

    Chung, J Sook; Zmora, N; Katayama, H; Tsutsui, N

    2010-05-01

    The removal of the eyestalk (s) induces molting and reproduction promoted the presence of regulatory substances in the eyestalk (ES), particularly medulla terminalis X-organ and the sinus gland (MTXO-SG). The PCR-based cloning strategies have allowed for isolating a great number of cDNAs sequences of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) neuropeptides family from the eyestalk and non-eyestalk tissues, e.g., pericardial organs and fore- and hindguts. However, the translated corresponding neuropeptides in these tissues, their circulating concentrations, the mode of actions, and specific physiological functions have not been well described. The profiles of CHH neuropeptides present in the MTXO-SG may differ among decapod crustacean species, but they can be largely divided into two sub-groups on the basis of structural homology: (1) CHH and (2) molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH)/mandibular organ-inhibiting hormone (MOIH)/vitellogenesis/gonad-inhibiting hormone (V/GIH). CHH typically elevating the level of circulating glucose from animals under stressful conditions (hyper- and hypothermia, hypoxia, and low salinity) has multiple target tissues and functions such as ecdysteroidogenesis, osmoregulation, and vitellogenesis. Recently, MIH, known for exclusively suppressing ecdysteroidogenesis in Y-organs, is also reported to have an additional role in vitellogenesis of adult female crustacean species, suggesting that some CHH neuropeptides may acquire an extra regulatory role in reproduction at adult stage. This paper reviews the regulatory roles of CHH and MIH at the levels of specific functions, temporal and spatial expression, titers, their binding sites on the target tissues, and second messengers from two crab species: the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, and the European green crab, Carcinus maenas. It further discusses the diverse regulatory roles of these neuropeptides and the functional plasticity of these neuropeptides in regard to life stage and species-specific physiology. PMID:20026335

  15. Tidally rhythmic behaviour of marine animals.

    PubMed

    Naylor, E

    1985-01-01

    The best general hypothesis for the control of 'spontaneous' tidal and daily patterns of behaviour in coastal animals postulates an endogenous physiological pacemaker system which generates approximate periodicity, together with environmental adjustment of the clock(s) to local time. Free-running endogenous rhythms of circatidal, circadian, circasemilunar and circalunar periodicity have been demonstrated in a number of species in constant laboratory conditions, in some cases clarifying hitherto poorly understood aspects of the behavioural repertoire of animals in the sea. Entrainment of circatidal rhythmicity has been demonstrated using cycles of simulated tidal variables such as temperature, hydrostatic pressure, salinity and wave action. The crab Carcinus shows increased locomotor activity after changes of salinity (halokinesis); responses to 34% salinity entrain the endogenous clock, but responses to salinities above or below 34% are purely exogenous and do not persist in constant conditions after entrainment. Phase responsiveness of circatidal rhythms to pulses of tidal variables has been demonstrated in several species; phase response curves show marked differences from those of circadian rhythms. The endogenous basis of tidal and diel behaviour in marine molluscs and crustaceans involves matching spontaneous rhythms of neuroelectrical activity. Also, in decapod crustaceans a peptidic neurodepressing hormone (NDH) modulates neuroelectrical and behavioural rhythmicity. NDH is produced rhythmically in the eyestalk neurosecretory complex, perhaps partly under the control of other clock components elsewhere in the CNS. The physiological basis of circasemilunar, lunar (and annual) rhythms of behaviour has not been studied, but studies of synchronization of these rhythms have been undertaken. In some localities it has been shown experimentally that light intensities equivalent to moonlight are sufficient to entrain such rhythms. In other localities where moonlight is a less reliable cue the relative timing of tidal and daily variables has been shown to be important. So far there is no evidence that synchronization is achieved by absolute differences between tidal variables at neap and spring tides. PMID:3914727

  16. Mercury in the biotic compartments of Northwest Patagonia lakes, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, A; Arcagni, M; Arribére, M A; Bubach, D; Guevara, S Ribeiro

    2011-06-01

    We report on total mercury (THg) concentrations in the principal components of food webs of selected Northern Patagonia Andean Range ultraoligotrophic lakes, Argentina. The THg contents were determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in muscle and liver of four fish species occupying the higher trophic positions (the introduced Salmo trutta, Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salvelinus fontinalis, and the native Percichthys trucha) accounted for eight lakes belonging to Nahuel Huapi and Los Alerces National Parks. We studied the food web components of both the West and East branches of Lake Moreno, including benthic primary producers such as biofilm, mosses, and macrophytes, three plankton fractions, fish, riparian tree leaves, and benthic invertebrates, namely decapods, molluscs, insect larvae, leeches, oligochaetes, and amphipods. Mercury concentrations in fish muscle varied in a wide range, from less than 0.05 to 4 μg g(-1) dry weight (DW), without a distribution pattern among species but showing higher values for P. trucha and S. fontinalis, particularly in Lake Moreno. The THg contents of the food web components of Lake Moreno varied within 4 orders of magnitude, with the lower values ranging from 0.01 to 0.5 μg g(-1) DW in tree leaves, some macrophytes, juvenile salmonids or benthic macroinvertebrates, and reaching concentrations over 200 μg g(-1) DW in the plankton. Juvenile Galaxias maculatus caught in the pelagic area presented the highest THg contents of all fish sampled, reaching 10 μg g(-1) DW, contents that could be associated with the high THg concentrations in plankton since it is their main food source. Although Lake Moreno is a system without local point sources of contamination, situated in a protected area, some benthic organisms presented high THg contents when compared with those from polluted ecosystems. PMID:21421254

  17. Cross-shelf transport of pink shrimp larvae: Interactions of tidal currents, larval vertical migrations and internal tides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Criales, Maria M.; Browder, Joan A.; Mooers, C.N.K.; Robblee, M.B.; Cardenas, H.; Jackson, Thomas L.

    2007-01-01

    Transport and behavior of pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarum larvae were investigated on the southwestern Florida (SWF) shelf of the Gulf of Mexico between the Dry Tortugas spawning grounds and Florida Bay nursery grounds. Stratified plankton samples and hydrographic data were collected at 2 h intervals at 3 stations located on a cross-shelf transect. At the Marquesas station, midway between Dry Tortugas and Florida Bay, internal tides were recognized by anomalously cool water, a shallow thermocline with strong density gradients, strong current shear, and a high concentration of pink shrimp larvae at the shallow thermocline. Low Richardson numbers occurred at the pycnocline depth, indicating vertical shear instability and possible turbulent transport from the lower to the upper layer where myses and postlarvae were concentrated. Analysis of vertically stratified plankton suggested that larvae perform vertical migrations and the specific behavior changes ontogenetically; protozoeae were found deeper than myses, and myses deeper than postlarvae. Relative concentrations of protozoea in the upper, middle and bottom layers were consistent with a diel vertical migration, whereas that of postlarvae and myses were consistent with the semidiurnal tides in phase with the flood tide. Postlarvae, the shallowest dwellers that migrate with a semidiurnal periodicity, experienced the largest net onshore flux and larval concentrations were highly correlated with the cross-shelf current. These results provide the first evidence of an onshore tidal transport (a type of selective tidal stream transport, STST), in decapod larvae migrating in continental shelf waters offshore, ca. 100 km from the coast and at a depth of 20 m, while approaching the coastal nursery grounds. Longer time series would be necessary to establish whether internal tides play any role in the larval onshore transport of this species and determine if the STST is the dominant onshore transport mechanism.

  18. Spatial variability in the structure of intertidal crab and gastropod assemblages within the Seychelles Archipelago (Indian Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smale, Dan A.; Barnes, David K. A.; Barnes, Richard S. K.; Smith, David J.; Suggett, David J.

    2012-04-01

    Tropical nearshore ecosystems represent global hotspots of marine biodiversity and endemism but are often poorly understood and impacted by human activities. The Seychelles Archipelago (Western Indian Ocean) sustains a wealth of marine life, much of which is threatened by rapid development associated with tourism and climate change. Six marine parks exist within the Archipelago, but their biodiversity value and ecological health are poorly known, especially with regards to non-fish and coral species. Here we investigate spatial patterns of littoral biodiversity on 6 islands, 5 of which were granitic and within marine parks, including the first surveys of Curieuse and Ile Cocos. Our surveys formed a nested sampling design, to facilitate an examination of variability in species richness, faunal abundance, taxonomic distinctness and assemblage composition at multiple spatial scales, from islands (> 100 s km) to quadrats (metres). We identified (mostly to species) and enumerated two target taxa, brachyuran decapod crustaceans and gastropod molluscs, and recorded over 8300 individuals belonging to over 150 species. Crabs and gastropods exhibited different patterns of spatial variability, as crab assemblages were generally more distinct between islands, while gastropod assemblages were markedly variable at the smallest spatial scales of 'patch' and 'quadrat'. Intertidal biodiversity was greatest on Curieuse Island and least at Desroches, the latter was being the only coral atoll we surveyed and thereby differing in its geological and ecological context. We discuss likely drivers of these biodiversity patterns and highlight urgently-needed research directions. Our assessment of the status of poorly-known invertebrate assemblages across the Seychelles will complement more extensive surveys of coral and fish assemblages and, in doing so, provide a useful baseline for monitoring the effects of key stressors in the region, such as coastal development and climate change.

  19. Feeder pipes - Expression of the uppermost plumbing system in Oligocene methane-seep deposits, Washington State, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwicker, Jennifer; Smrzka, Daniel; Gier, Susanne; Goedert, James; Peckmann, Jörn

    2015-04-01

    Plumbing systems of methane seeps are complex pathways along which hydrocarbon-rich fluids migrate upward through the marine sedimentary column. Seeps commonly maintain fluid flow over long periods of time, providing a steady supply of methane to shallow sediments and the water column. At greater sediment depths, fluid transport is facilitated by faults and conduits, which enable migration of fluids sourced from deep hydrocarbon reservoirs. In the shallow subsurface, plumbing systems may become successively filled by authigenic carbonates, whose precipitation is partly triggered by sulfate-dependent anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). To expand our knowledge on the uppermost plumbing network of ancient seeps, this work investigates fluid conduits that were mineralized by a distinct succession of authigenic mineral phases. These mineralized conduits, which occur below an Oligocene seep deposit from the Lincoln Creek Formation in Washington State, are referred to as feeder pipes here. The concentrically-zoned feeder pipes are 2 to 3 cm in diameter. The mineral phase that formed first is matrix micrite, making up the outer part of pipes. Toward the center, pipes are filled by clear, banded and botryoidal aragonite cement, which is intercalated with yellow aragonite cement. The innermost portions of the pipes are filled by either pipe-filling micrite, microspar, or brownish calcite. The observed paragenetic sequences archive successions of various biogeochemical processes. Clear and yellow aragonite cements are distinctly depleted in 13C, revealing that their formation was favored by AOM. In contrast, later phases including brownish calcite and microspar are enriched in 13C, pointing to precipitation from fluids affected by methanogenesis. Their size and morphology indicate that the pipes were initially produced by seep-dwelling, burrowing organisms. The burrows subsequently acted as preferred fluid pathways. Possible producers of the burrows include various bivalves and callianassid decapods. Based on petrography and stable isotopes patterns, we conclude that the pipes facilitated seepage of methane-rich fluids to the sediment-water interface.

  20. New insights into mercury bioaccumulation in deep-sea organisms from the NW Mediterranean and their human health implications.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Samuel; Solé, Montserrat; Fernández-Gómez, Cristal; Díez, Sergi

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have found high levels of mercury (Hg) in deep-sea organisms throughout the world's oceans, but the underlying causes are not clear as there is no consensus on the origin and cycling of Hg in the ocean. Recent findings suggested that Hg accumulation may increase with increasing forage depth and pointed to the deep-water column as the origin of most Hg in marine biota, especially its organic methylmercury (MeHg) form. In the present study, we determined the total mercury (THg) levels in 12 deep-sea fish species and a decapod crustacean and investigated their relationship with the species' nitrogen stable isotope ratio (δ(15)N) as an indicator of their trophic level, average weight and habitat depth. THg levels ranged from 0.27 to 4.42 μg/g w.w. and exceeded in all, except one species, the recommended 0.5 μg/g w.w. guideline value. While THg levels exhibited a strong relationship with δ(15)N values and to a lesser extent with weight, the habitat depth, characterized as the species' depth of maximum abundance (DMA), had also a significant effect on Hg accumulation. The fish species with a shallower depth range exhibited lower THg values than predicted by their trophic level (δ(15)N) and body mass, while measured THg values were higher than predicted in deeper-dwelling fish. Overall, the present results point out a potential risk for human health from the consumption of deep-sea fish. In particular, for both, the red shrimp Aristeus antennatus, which is one of the most valuable fishing resources of the Mediterranean, as well as the commercially exploited fish Mora moro, THg levels considerably exceeded the recommended 0.5μg/g w.w. limit and should be consumed with caution. PMID:23178837

  1. Morphology of First Zoeal Stage of Four Genera of Alvinocaridid Shrimps from Hydrothermal Vents and Cold Seeps: Implications for Ecology, Larval Biology and Phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Ávila, Iván; Cambon-Bonavita, Marie-Anne; Pradillon, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Alvinocaridid shrimps are endemic species inhabiting hydrothermal vents and/or cold seeps. Although indirect evidences (genetic and lipid markers) suggest that their larval stages disperse widely and support large scale connectivity, larval life and mechanisms underlying dispersal are unknown in alvinocaridids. Here we provide for the first time detailed descriptions of the first larval stage (zoea I) of four alvinocaridid species: Rimicaris exoculata and Mirocaris fortunata from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Alvinocaris muricola from the Congo Basin and Nautilocaris saintlaurentae from the Western Pacific. The larvae were obtained from onboard hatching of brooding females (either at atmospheric pressure or at habitat pressure in hyperbaric chambers) and from the water column near adult habitats, sampled with plankton pumps or sediment traps. Major characteristics of the alvinocaridid larvae include undeveloped mandible and almost complete absence of setation in the inner margin of the mouth parts and maxillipeds. Although the larvae are very similar between the four species studied, some morphological features could be used for species identification. In addition, undeveloped mouthparts and the large amount of lipid reserves strongly support the occurrence of primary lecithotrophy in the early stage of alvinocaridids. Although lecithotrophy in decapod crustaceans is usually associated with abbreviated larval development, as a mechanism of larval retention, morphological and physiological evidences suggest the occurrence of an extended and lecithotrophic larval stage in the Alvinocarididae. These traits permit the colonization of widely dispersed and fragmented environments of hydrothermal vents and cold seeps. Distribution of larval traits along the phylogenetic reconstruction of the Alvinocarididae and related families suggest that lecithotrophy/planktotrophy and extended/abbreviated development have evolved independently along related families in all potential combinations. However, the Alvinocarididae is the only taxa with a combination of lecithotrophy and extended larval development. PMID:26710075

  2. Twilight vertical migrations of zooplankton in a Chilean fjord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valle-Levinson, Arnoldo; Castro, Leonardo; Cáceres, Mario; Pizarro, Oscar

    2014-12-01

    Time series of acoustic backscatter and vertical velocity profiles were obtained at three sites along a Chilean fjord with the purpose of determining dominant structures of vertical migrations of the sound scattering layer. Ancillary data obtained with stratified net samples indicated that the sound scattering layer may have been dominated by euphausiids and decapods. Therefore, distributions of acoustic backscatter anomalies and vertical velocities were attributed to vertical migrations of predominantly these organisms. Migration patterns were dominated by twilight excursions in which organisms swam toward the water surface at sunset, spent <0.5 h at a depth near the pycnocline (∼10 m) and then swam downward to depths between ∼20 and ∼60 m. After congregating at those depths during night-time, organisms swam upward again toward the pycnocline at sunrise, spent <1 h near the pycnocline and swam downward to their day-time depths (>100 m). This migration strategy can also be termed 'semidiel migration' as two double excursions were linked to light levels. The reasons for this twilight migration remain uncertain. But it is possible that the up and down motion around sunset was related to predation avoidance, hunger-satiation state, ontogeny, seaward transport evasion, or reaction to the environmental shock from the pycnocline, or a combination of all or some of them. In contrast, the sunrise double excursion was probably linked to feeding requirements by organisms that need to spend the day at great depth with no food available. This study demonstrated the existence of semidiel patterns throughout the fjord and through prolonged periods. In addition, identification of this pattern by acoustic backscatter was complemented by direct vertical velocity measurements. It is proposed that twilight vertical migration is a common strategy in Chilean fjords.

  3. Nitric oxide production and sequestration in the sinus gland of the green shore crab Carcinus maenas.

    PubMed

    Pitts, Natalie L; Mykles, Donald L

    2015-02-01

    Molting in decapod crustaceans is regulated by molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH), a neuropeptide produced in the X-organ (XO)/sinus gland (SG) complex of the eyestalk ganglia (ESG). Pulsatile release of MIH from the SG suppresses ecdysteroidogenesis by the molting gland or Y-organ (YO). The hypothesis is that nitric oxide (NO), a neuromodulator that controls neurotransmitter release at presynaptic membranes, depresses the frequency and/or amount of MIH pulses to induce molting. NO synthase (NOS) mRNA was present in Carcinus maenas ESG and other tissues and NOS protein was present in the SG. A copper based ligand (CuFL), which reacts with NO to form a highly fluorescent product (NO-FL), was used to image NO in the ESG and SG and quantify the effects of NO scavenger (cPTIO), NOS inhibitor (l-NAME), and sodium azide (NaN3) on NO production in the SG. Pre-incubation with cPTIO prior to CuFL loading decreased NO-FL fluorescence ~30%; including l-NAME had no additional effect. Incubating SG with l-NAME during pre-incubation and loading decreased NO-FL fluorescence ~40%, indicating that over half of the NO release was not directly dependent on NOS activity. Azide, which reacts with NO-binding metal groups in proteins, reduced NO-FL fluorescence to near background levels without extensive cell death. Spectral shift analysis showed that azide displaced NO from a soluble protein in SG extract. These data suggest that the SG contains NO-binding protein(s) that sequester NO and releases it over a prolonged period. This NO release may modulate neuropeptide secretion from the axon termini in the SG. PMID:25452501

  4. Constructing and random sequencing analysis of normalized cDNA library of testis tissue from oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense).

    PubMed

    Qiao, Hui; Fu, Hongtuo; Jin, Shubo; Wu, Yan; Jiang, Sufei; Gong, Yongsheng; Xiong, Yiwei

    2012-09-01

    The oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, is an important aquaculture species in China. Sexual precocity is a serious problem because of genetic retrogression, which has negative effects on product quality and dramatically affects price. Culture of all-male populations of this species would be economically advantageous, as the males grow faster and reach a much larger size than females. Developing such a culture scheme will require discovery of sex- or reproduction-related genes that affect sexual maturity and sex determination. In this study, a high-quality normalized testis cDNA library was constructed to identify novel transcripts. Of the 5280 successful sequencing reaction yields, 5202 expressed tagged sequences (ESTs) with an average length of 954 bp. Ultimately, 3677 unique sequences, including 891 contigs and 2786 singletons, were identified based on cluster and assembly analyses. Sixteen hundred (43.5%) genes were novel based on the NCBI protein database, thus these unidentified genes may improve basic molecular knowledge about M. nipponense. Of the novel unigenes, 34.4% (715/2077) were homologous to insects, such as Tribolium castaneum, Drosophila spp. and Apis mellifera. Fifty-two genes were identified as sex- or reproduction-related based on Gene Ontology classification and sequence comparison with data from other publications. These genes can be classified into groups based on different functions, including 10 sex-determination related genes, 8 male-reproductive genes, 5 cathepsin-related genes, 20 ubiquitin-related genes, 5 ferritin-related genes, and 4 LRR genes. The results of this study provide new sequence information about M. nipponense, which will be the basis for further genetic studies of this species and other decapods crustaceans. PMID:22632994

  5. Phylogeny and Evolutionary Patterns in the Dwarf Crayfish Subfamily (Decapoda: Cambarellinae)

    PubMed Central

    Pedraza-Lara, Carlos; Doadrio, Ignacio; Breinholt, Jesse W.; Crandall, Keith A.

    2012-01-01

    The Dwarf crayfish or Cambarellinae, is a morphologically singular subfamily of decapod crustaceans that contains only one genus, Cambarellus. Its intriguing distribution, along the river basins of the Gulf Coast of United States (Gulf Group) and into Central México (Mexican Group), has until now lacked of satisfactory explanation. This study provides a comprehensive sampling of most of the extant species of Cambarellus and sheds light on its evolutionary history, systematics and biogeography. We tested the impact of Gulf Group versus Mexican Group geography on rates of cladogenesis using a maximum likelihood framework, testing different models of birth/extinction of lineages. We propose a comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis for the subfamily based on mitochondrial and nuclear loci (3,833 bp) using Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood methods. The phylogenetic structure found two phylogenetic groups associated to the two main geographic components (Gulf Group and Mexican Group) and is partially consistent with the historical structure of river basins. The previous hypothesis, which divided the genus into three subgenera based on genitalia morphology was only partially supported (P = 0.047), resulting in a paraphyletic subgenus Pandicambarus. We found at least two cases in which phylogenetic structure failed to recover monophyly of recognized species while detecting several cases of cryptic diversity, corresponding to lineages not assigned to any described species. Cladogenetic patterns in the entire subfamily are better explained by an allopatric model of speciation. Diversification analyses showed similar cladogenesis patterns between both groups and did not significantly differ from the constant rate models. While cladogenesis in the Gulf Group is coincident in time with changes in the sea levels, in the Mexican Group, cladogenesis is congruent with the formation of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Our results show how similar allopatric divergence in freshwater organisms can be promoted through diverse vicariant factors. PMID:23155379

  6. The role of an ancestral hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated K+ channel in branchial acid-base regulation in the green crab, Carcinus maenas.

    PubMed

    Fehsenfeld, Sandra; Weihrauch, Dirk

    2016-03-15

    Numerous electrophysiological studies on branchial K(+) transport in brachyuran crabs have established an important role for potassium channels in osmoregulatory ion uptake and ammonia excretion in the gill epithelium of decapod crustaceans. However, hardly anything is known of the actual nature of these channels in crustaceans. In the present study, the identification of a hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated potassium channel (HCN) in the transcriptome of the green crab Carcinus maenas and subsequent performance of quantitative real-time PCR revealed the ubiquitous expression of this channel in this species. Even though mRNA expression levels in the cerebral ganglion were found to be approximately 10 times higher compared with all other tissues, posterior gills still expressed significant levels of HCN, indicating an important role for this transporter in branchial ion regulation. The relatively unspecific K(+)-channel inhibitor Ba(2+), as well as the HCN-specific blocker ZD7288, as applied in gill perfusion experiments and electrophysiological studies employing the split gill lamellae revealed the presence of at least two different K(+)/NH4 (+)-transporting structures in the branchial epithelium of C. maenas. Furthermore, HCN mRNA levels in posterior gill 7 decreased significantly in response to the respiratory or metabolic acidosis that was induced by acclimation of green crabs to high environmental PCO2  and ammonia, respectively. Consequently, the present study provides first evidence that HCN-promoted NH4 (+) epithelial transport is involved in both branchial acid-base and ammonia regulation in an invertebrate. PMID:26787479

  7. Mobile demersal megafauna at artificial structures in the German Bight - Likely effects of offshore wind farm development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krone, R.; Gutow, L.; Brey, T.; Dannheim, J.; Schröder, A.

    2013-07-01

    Within the next few decades, large underwater structures of thousands of wind turbines in the northern European shelf seas will substantially increase the amount of habitat available for mobile demersal megafauna. As a first indication of the possible effects of this large scale habitat creation on faunal stocks settling on hard substrata, we compared selected taxa of the mobile demersal megafauna (decapods and fish) associated with the foundation of an offshore research platform (a wind-power foundation equivalent) with those of five shipwrecks and different areas of soft bottoms in the southern German Bight, North Sea. When comparing the amount of approximately 5000 planned wind-power foundations (covering 5.1 × 106 m2 of bottom area) with the existing number of at least 1000 shipwrecks (covering 1.2 × 106 m2 of bottom area), it becomes clear that the southern North Sea will provide about 4.3 times more available artificial hard substratum habitats than currently available. With regard to the fauna found on shipwrecks, on soft substrata and on the investigated wind-power foundation, we predict that the amount of added hard substrata will allow the stocks of substrata-limited mobile demersal hard bottom species to increase by 25-165% in that area. The fauna found at the offshore platform foundations is very similar to that at shipwrecks. Megafauna abundances at the foundations, however, are lower compared to those at the highly fractured wrecks and are irregularly scattered over the foundations. The upper regions of the platform construction (5 and 15 m depth) were only sparsely colonized by mobile fauna, the anchorages, however, more densely. The faunal assemblages from the shipwrecks and the foundations, respectively, as well as from the soft bottoms clearly differed from each other. We predict that new wind-power foundations will support the spread of hard bottom fauna into soft bottom areas with low wreck densities.

  8. Middle Triassic biostromes from the Liard Formation, British Columbia, Canada: oldest examples from the Mesozoic of NW Pangea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zonneveld, John-Paul

    2001-12-01

    Mesozoic carbonate accumulations are rare in northwestern Pangea. This is due, initially to the demise of many carbonate-secreting organisms during the terminal Permian biotic crisis and subsequently, to increased siliciclastic sedimentation resulting from the tectonic development of western North America. Ecological voids resulting from the extinction, however, resulted in new opportunities for surviving taxa. Terebratulid brachiopod-echinoderm dominated biostromes within the primarily siliciclastic Liard Formation (Middle Triassic, Ladinian) of northeastern British Columbia provide a unique example. The Liard biostromes are composed primarily of whole and unabraded terebratulid brachiopods ( Aulacothyroides liardensis), articulate crinoid elements ( Isocrinus sp.) and cidaroid echinoid spines and interambulacral plates ( Miocidaris sp.). Many of the terebratulid brachiopods are characterized by the pedicle attachment trace fossil Podichnus. Other organisms which occupied the biostromes include discinid (cf. Orbiculoidea sp.) and spiriferid ( Spiriferina abichi) brachiopods, bivalves (including oysters), and gastropods, as well as rare bryozoans and possibly scleractinian corals. Sedimentary units deposited on the margins of the biostromes are characterized by an abundance of body fossils (decapod crustaceans, bivalves and ophiuroids) and trace fossils ( Asterosoma, Cylindrichnus, Palaeophycus, Rosselia, Teichichnus and Thalassinoides). This trace fossil assemblage contains a mix of dwelling traces, horizontal deposit feeding traces, and vertical suspension feeding traces, consistent with deposition in a lower shoreface setting. Hiatal surfaces and laterally restricted bioclastic sandstone layers and lenses within these features suggest that frequent turnover of infaunal and epifaunal communities occurred at the edges of the Liard brachiopod-echinoderm biostromes. Development of the Liard brachiopod-echinoderm biostromes depended on initial storm-induced concentration of shell material to create patches or zones of stable substrate, promoting colonization by terebratulid brachiopods, discinid brachiopods, crinoids and cidaroid echinoids.

  9. Neuroendocrine disruption in the shore crab Carcinus maenas: Effects of serotonin and fluoxetine on chh- and mih-gene expression, glycaemia and ecdysteroid levels.

    PubMed

    Robert, Alexandrine; Monsinjon, Tiphaine; Delbecque, Jean-Paul; Olivier, Stéphanie; Poret, Agnès; Foll, Frank Le; Durand, Fabrice; Knigge, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Serotonin, a highly conserved neurotransmitter, controls many biological functions in vertebrates, but also in invertebrates. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), such as fluoxetine, are commonly used in human medication to ease depression by affecting serotonin levels. Their residues and metabolites can be detected in the aquatic environment and its biota. They may also alter serotonin levels in aquatic invertebrates, thereby perturbing physiological functions. To investigate whether such perturbations can indeed be expected, shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) were injected either with serotonin, fluoxetine or a combination of both. Dose-dependent effects of fluoxetine ranging from 250 to 750nM were investigated. Gene expression of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (chh) as well as moult inhibiting hormone (mih) was assessed by RT-qPCR at 2h and 12h after injection. Glucose and ecdysteroid levels in the haemolymph were monitored in regular intervals until 12h. Serotonin led to a rapid increase of chh and mih expression. On the contrary, fluoxetine only affected chh and mih expression after several hours, but kept expression levels significantly elevated. Correspondingly, serotonin rapidly increased glycaemia, which returned to normal or below normal levels after 12h. Fluoxetine, however, resulted in a persistent low-level increase of glycaemia, notably during the period when negative feedback regulation reduced glycaemia in the serotonin treated animals. Ecdysteroid levels were significantly decreased by serotonin and fluoxetine, with the latter showing less pronounced and less rapid, but longer lasting effects. Impacts of fluoxetine on glycaemia and ecdysteroids were mostly observed at higher doses (500 and 750nM) and affected principally the response dynamics, but not the amplitude of glycaemia and ecdysteroid-levels. These results suggest that psychoactive drugs are able to disrupt neuroendocrine control in decapod crustaceans, as they interfere with the normal regulation of the serotonergic system. PMID:27060239

  10. Pre-Partum Diet of Adult Female Bearded Seals in Years of Contrasting Ice Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hindell, Mark A.; Lydersen, Christian; Hop, Haakon; Kovacs, Kit M.

    2012-01-01

    Changing patterns of sea-ice distribution and extent have measurable effects on polar marine systems. Beyond the obvious impacts of key-habitat loss, it is unclear how such changes will influence ice-associated marine mammals in part because of the logistical difficulties of studying foraging behaviour or other aspects of the ecology of large, mobile animals at sea during the polar winter. This study investigated the diet of pregnant bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) during three spring breeding periods (2005, 2006 and 2007) with markedly contrasting ice conditions in Svalbard using stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) measured in whiskers collected from their newborn pups. The δ15N values in the whiskers of individual seals ranged from 11.95 to 17.45 ‰, spanning almost 2 full trophic levels. Some seals were clearly dietary specialists, despite the species being characterised overall as a generalist predator. This may buffer bearded seal populations from the changes in prey distributions lower in the marine food web which seems to accompany continued changes in temperature and ice cover. Comparisons with isotopic signatures of known prey, suggested that benthic gastropods and decapods were the most common prey. Bayesian isotopic mixing models indicated that diet varied considerably among years. In the year with most fast-ice (2005), the seals had the greatest proportion of pelagic fish and lowest benthic invertebrate content, and during the year with the least ice (2006), the seals ate more benthic invertebrates and less pelagic fish. This suggests that the seals fed further offshore in years with greater ice cover, but moved in to the fjords when ice-cover was minimal, giving them access to different types of prey. Long-term trends of sea ice decline, earlier ice melt, and increased water temperatures in the Arctic are likely to have ecosystem-wide effects, including impacts on the forage bases of pagophilic seals. PMID:22693616

  11. Behavioural Response Thresholds in New Zealand Crab Megalopae to Ambient Underwater Sound

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Jenni A.; Radford, Craig A.; Jeffs, Andrew G.

    2011-01-01

    A small number of studies have demonstrated that settlement stage decapod crustaceans are able to detect and exhibit swimming, settlement and metamorphosis responses to ambient underwater sound emanating from coastal reefs. However, the intensity of the acoustic cue required to initiate the settlement and metamorphosis response, and therefore the potential range over which this acoustic cue may operate, is not known. The current study determined the behavioural response thresholds of four species of New Zealand brachyuran crab megalopae by exposing them to different intensity levels of broadcast reef sound recorded from their preferred settlement habitat and from an unfavourable settlement habitat. Megalopae of the rocky-reef crab, Leptograpsus variegatus, exhibited the lowest behavioural response threshold (highest sensitivity), with a significant reduction in time to metamorphosis (TTM) when exposed to underwater reef sound with an intensity of 90 dB re 1 µPa and greater (100, 126 and 135 dB re 1 µPa). Megalopae of the mud crab, Austrohelice crassa, which settle in soft sediment habitats, exhibited no response to any of the underwater reef sound levels. All reef associated species exposed to sound levels from an unfavourable settlement habitat showed no significant change in TTM, even at intensities that were similar to their preferred reef sound for which reductions in TTM were observed. These results indicated that megalopae were able to discern and respond selectively to habitat-specific acoustic cues. The settlement and metamorphosis behavioural response thresholds to levels of underwater reef sound determined in the current study of four species of crabs, enables preliminary estimation of the spatial range at which an acoustic settlement cue may be operating, from 5 m to 40 km depending on the species. Overall, these results indicate that underwater sound is likely to play a major role in influencing the spatial patterns of settlement of coastal crab species. PMID:22163314

  12. The reaction of European lobster larvae (Homarus gammarus) to different quality food: effects of ontogenetic shifts and pre-feeding history.

    PubMed

    Schoo, Katherina L; Aberle, Nicole; Malzahn, Arne M; Schmalenbach, Isabel; Boersma, Maarten

    2014-02-01

    Young larval stages of many organisms represent bottlenecks in the life-history of many species. The high mortality commonly observed in, for example, decapod larvae has often been linked to poor nutrition, with most studies focussing on food quantity. Here, we focus instead on the effects of quality and have investigated its effects on the nutritional condition of lobster larvae. We established a tri-trophic food chain consisting of the cryptophyte Rhodomonas salina, the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa and larvae of the European lobster Homarus gammarus. In a set of experiments, we manipulated the C:N:P stoichiometry of the primary producers, and accordingly those of the primary consumer. In a first experiment, R. salina was grown under N- and P-limitation and the nutrient content of the algae was manipulated by addition of the limiting nutrient to create a food quality gradient. In a second experiment, the effect on lobster larvae of long- and short-term exposure to food of varying quality during ontogenetic development was investigated. The condition of the lobster larvae was negatively affected even by subtle N- and P-nutrient limitations of the algae. Furthermore, younger lobster larvae were more vulnerable to nutrient limitation than older ones, suggesting an ontogenetic shift in the capacity of lobster larvae to cope with low quality food. The results presented here might have substantial consequences for the survival of lobster larvae in the field, as, in the light of future climate change and re-oligotrophication of the North Sea, lobster larvae might face marked changes in temperature and nutrient conditions, thus significantly altering their condition and growth. PMID:24072442

  13. The Involvement of Hemocyte Prophenoloxidase in the Shell-Hardening Process of the Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Javier V.; Chung, J. Sook

    2015-01-01

    Cuticular structures of arthropods undergo dramatic molt-related changes from being soft to becoming hard. The shell-hardening process of decapod crustaceans includes sclerotization and mineralization. Hemocyte PPO plays a central role in melanization and sclerotization particularly in wound healing in crustaceans. However, little is known about its role in the crustacean initial shell-hardening process. The earlier findings of the aggregation of heavily granulated hemocytes beneath the hypodermis during ecdysis imply that the hemocytes may be involved in the shell-hardening process. In order to determine if hemocytes and hemocyte PPO have a role in the shell-hardening of crustaceans, a knockdown study using specific CasPPO-hemo-dsRNA was carried out with juvenile blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus. Multiple injections of CasPPO-hemo-dsRNA reduce specifically the levels of CasPPO-hemo expression by 57% and PO activity by 54% in hemocyte lysate at the postmolt, while they have no effect on the total hemocyte numbers. Immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry analysis using a specific antiserum generated against CasPPO show granulocytes, semigranulocytes and hyaline cells as the cellular sources for PPO at the postmolt. Interestingly, the type of hemocytes, as the cellular sources of PPO, varies by molt stage. The granulocytes always contain PPO throughout the molt cycle. However, semigranulocytes and hyaline cells become CasPPO immune-positive only at early premolt and postmolt, indicating that PPO expression in these cells may be involved in the shell-hardening process of C. sapidus. PMID:26393802

  14. Trophodynamics and distribution of silver in a Patagonia mountain lake.

    PubMed

    Revenga, J E; Campbell, L M; Kyser, K; Klassen, K; Arribére, M A; Ribeiro Guevara, S

    2011-04-01

    Silver (Ag) ions are among the most toxic metallic ions to aquatic biota. In southern Argentina, fish from Patagonian lakes have liver Ag concentrations [Ag] among the highest ever reported globally. Silver concentration in phytoplankton from Lake Moreno (1.82±3.00μgg(-1) dry weight, DW) was found to be significantly higher than [Ag] in zooplankton (0.25±0.13μgg(-1)). Values in snails and decapods (0.60±0.28μgg(-1) and 0.47±0.03μgg(-1) respectively), were higher than in insect larvae (0.28±0.39μgg(-1) for Trichoptera). We examined trophic transfer of Ag in the biota using stable nitrogen and carbon isotopes ratios (δ(15)N and δ(13)C respectively). Silver concentrations in the biota of Lake Moreno were not associated with any particular C source, as assessed by δ(13)C. Hepatic [Ag] significantly increased with trophic position, as measured by δ(15)N, within the brook trout sample set. Biodilution of Ag was observed between primary producers and small forage fish when whole body [Ag] was analyzed. Nevertheless, when considering whole food web biomagnification and hepatic [Ag] of top predator fish, a significant positive regression was found between [Ag] and trophic position, as measured by δ(15)N. The importance of species-specific and tissue-specific considerations to obtain more information on Ag trophodynamics than that usually presented in the literature is shown. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in assessing Ag trophodynamics and tissue-specific biomagnification in a whole freshwater food web. PMID:21216430

  15. Epi-benthic megafaunal zonation across an oxygen minimum zone at the Indian continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, William R.; Oguri, Kazumasa; Kitazato, Hiroshi; Ansari, Zakir A.; Witte, Ursula

    2011-06-01

    The Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) impinges upon the Indian continental margin at bathyal depths (150-1500 m) producing changes in ambient oxygen availability and sediment geochemistry across the seafloor. The influence of these environmental changes upon the epi-benthic megafaunal assemblage was investigated by video survey at six stations spanning the OMZ core (540 m), lower boundary (800-1100 m) and below the OMZ (2000 m), between September and November 2008. Structural changes in the megafaunal assemblage were observed across the six stations, through changes in both megafaunal abundance and lebensspuren (biogenic traces). Most megafauna were absent in the OMZ core (540 m), where the assemblage was characterised by low densities of fishes (0.02-0.03 m -2). In the lower OMZ boundary, megafaunal abundance peaked at 800 m, where higher densities of ophiuroids (0.20-0.44 m -2) and decapods (0.11-0.15 m -2) were present. Total abundance declined with depth between 800 and 2000 m, as the number of taxa increased. Changes in the megafaunal assemblage were predicted by changes in abundance of seven taxonomic groups, correlated to both oxygen availability and sediment organic matter quality. Lebensspuren densities were highest in the OMZ boundary (800-1100 m) but traces of large infauna (e.g., echiurans and enteropneusts) were only observed between 1100 and 2000 m station, where the influence of the OMZ was reduced. Thus, changes in the megafaunal assemblage across the Indian margin OMZ reflect the responses of specific taxa to food availability and oxygen limitation.

  16. Optimizing Hybrid de Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Extending Genomic Resources for Giant Freshwater Prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii): The Identification of Genes and Markers Associated with Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyungtaek; Yoon, Byung-Ha; Kim, Woo-Jin; Kim, Dong-Wook; Hurwood, David A.; Lyons, Russell E.; Salin, Krishna R.; Kim, Heui-Soo; Baek, Ilseon; Chand, Vincent; Mather, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, a sexually dimorphic decapod crustacean is currently the world’s most economically important cultured freshwater crustacean species. Despite its economic importance, there is currently a lack of genomic resources available for this species, and this has limited exploration of the molecular mechanisms that control the M. rosenbergii sex-differentiation system more widely in freshwater prawns. Here, we present the first hybrid transcriptome from M. rosenbergii applying RNA-Seq technologies directed at identifying genes that have potential functional roles in reproductive-related traits. A total of 13,733,210 combined raw reads (1720 Mbp) were obtained from Ion-Torrent PGM and 454 FLX. Bioinformatic analyses based on three state-of-the-art assemblers, the CLC Genomic Workbench, Trans-ABySS, and Trinity, that use single and multiple k-mer methods respectively, were used to analyse the data. The influence of multiple k-mers on assembly performance was assessed to gain insight into transcriptome assembly from short reads. After optimisation, de novo assembly resulted in 44,407 contigs with a mean length of 437 bp, and the assembled transcripts were further functionally annotated to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeat motifs. Gene expression analysis was also used to compare expression patterns from ovary and testis tissue libraries to identify genes with potential roles in reproduction and sex differentiation. The large transcript set assembled here represents the most comprehensive set of transcriptomic resources ever developed for reproduction traits in M. rosenbergii, and the large number of genetic markers predicted should constitute an invaluable resource for future genetic research studies on M. rosenbergii and can be applied more widely on other freshwater prawn species in the genus Macrobrachium. PMID:27164098

  17. DNA barcoding of Arctic Ocean holozooplankton for species identification and recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucklin, Ann; Hopcroft, Russell R.; Kosobokova, Ksenia N.; Nigro, Lisa M.; Ortman, Brian D.; Jennings, Robert M.; Sweetman, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Zooplankton species diversity and distribution are important measures of environmental change in the Arctic Ocean, and may serve as 'rapid-responders' of climate-induced changes in this fragile ecosystem. The scarcity of taxonomists hampers detailed and up-to-date monitoring of these patterns for the rarer and more problematic species. DNA barcodes (short DNA sequences for species recognition and discovery) provide an alternative approach to accurate identification of known species, and can speed routine analysis of zooplankton samples. During 2004-2008, zooplankton samples were collected during cruises to the central Arctic Ocean and Chukchi Sea. A ˜700 base-pair region of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) gene was amplified and sequenced for 82 identified specimens of 41 species, including cnidarians (six hydrozoans, one scyphozoan), arthropod crustaceans (five amphipods, 24 copepods, one decapod, and one euphausiid); two chaetognaths; and one nemertean. Phylogenetic analysis used the Neighbor-Joining algorithm with Kimura-2-Parameter (K-2-P) distances, with 1000-fold bootstrapping. K-2-P genetic distances between individuals of the same species ranged from 0.0 to 0.2; genetic distances between species ranged widely from 0.1 to 0.7. The mtCOI gene tree showed monophyly (at 100% bootstrap value) for each of the 26 species for which more than one individual was analyzed. Of seven genera for which more than one species was analyzed, four were shown to be monophyletic; three genera were not resolved. At higher taxonomic levels, only the crustacean order Copepoda was resolved, with bootstrap value of 83%. The mtCOI barcodes accurately discriminated and identified known species of 10 taxonomic groups of Arctic Ocean holozooplankton. A comprehensive DNA barcode database for the estimated 300 described species of Arctic holozooplankton will allow rapid assessment of species diversity and distribution in this climate-vulnerable ocean ecosystem.

  18. Association of helminth infections and food consumption in common eiders Somateria mollissima in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skirnisson, Karl

    2015-10-01

    Common eider Somateria mollissima L. 1758, subsp. borealis, is widely distributed along the coasts of Iceland. In this study association of parasite infections and food composition was studied among 40 females and 38 males (66 adults, 12 subadults), shot under license on four occasions within the same year (February; before egg-laying in May; after the breeding period in late June; and in November) in Skerjafjörður, SW Iceland. Parasitological examinations revealed 31 helminth species (11 digeneans, ten cestodes, seven nematodes, and three acanthocephalans). Distinct digenean species parasitized the gallbladder, kidney and bursa of Fabricius, whereas other helminths parasitized the gastrointestinal tract. Thirty-six invertebrate prey species were identified as food; waste and bread fed by humans, were also consumed by some birds. Amidostomum acutum was the only parasite found with a direct life cycle, whereas other species were food transmitted and ingested with different invertebrate prey. Opposite to females male birds rarely utilized periwinkles and gammarids as a food source. As a result, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities were low except in February, when subadult males were responsible for an infection peak. Females caring for young increased their consumption of periwinkles close to the littoral zone in June; during pre-breeding, females also increased their gammarid intake. As a consequence, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities temporarily peaked. Increased food intake (including Mytilus edulis) of females before the egg-laying period resulted in twofold higher Gymnophallus bursicola infection intensity than observed for males. Profilicollis botulus infection reflected seasonal changes in decapod consumption in both genders. Different life history strategies of males and females, especially before and during the breeding season and caring of young, and during molting in distinct feeding areas in summer, promote differences in consumption of prey-transmitted parasites that result in distinct infection patterns of the genders.

  19. The Global Diversity of Parasitic Isopods Associated with Crustacean Hosts (Isopoda: Bopyroidea and Cryptoniscoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jason D.; Boyko, Christopher B.

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic isopods of Bopyroidea and Cryptoniscoidea (commonly referred to as epicarideans) are unique in using crustaceans as both intermediate and definitive hosts. In total, 795 epicarideans are known, representing ∼7.7% of described isopods. The rate of description of parasitic species has not matched that of free-living isopods and this disparity will likely continue due to the more cryptic nature of these parasites. Distribution patterns of epicarideans are influenced by a combination of their definitive (both benthic and pelagic species) and intermediate (pelagic copepod) host distributions, although host specificity is poorly known for most species. Among epicarideans, nearly all species in Bopyroidea are ectoparasitic on decapod hosts. Bopyrids are the most diverse taxon (605 species), with their highest diversity in the North West Pacific (139 species), East Asian Sea (120 species), and Central Indian Ocean (44 species). The diversity patterns of Cryptoniscoidea (99 species, endoparasites of a diverse assemblage of crustacean hosts) are distinct from bopyrids, with the greatest diversity of cryptoniscoids in the North East Atlantic (18 species) followed by the Antarctic, Mediterranean, and Arctic regions (13, 12, and 8 species, respectively). Dajidae (54 species, ectoparasites of shrimp, mysids, and euphausids) exhibits highest diversity in the Antarctic (7 species) with 14 species in the Arctic and North East Atlantic regions combined. Entoniscidae (37 species, endoparasites within anomuran, brachyuran and shrimp hosts) show highest diversity in the North West Pacific (10 species) and North East Atlantic (8 species). Most epicarideans are known from relatively shallow waters, although some bopyrids are known from depths below 4000 m. Lack of parasitic groups in certain geographic areas is likely a sampling artifact and we predict that the Central Indian Ocean and East Asian Sea (in particular, the Indo-Malay-Philippines Archipelago) hold a wealth of undescribed species, reflecting our knowledge of host diversity patterns. PMID:22558143

  20. Land use effects on leaf litter breakdown in low-order streams draining a rapidly developing tropical watershed in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Torres, Pedro J; Ramrez, Alonso

    2014-04-01

    Land use has an important role influencing stream ecosystem processes, such as leaf litter breakdown. Here, we assessed rates of leaf litter breakdown in low-order tropical streams draining forest, agriculture, and urban land uses in Puerto Rico. To measure leaf breakdown rates, we placed litter bags made of coarse mesh in nine streams, three for each land use type. At each stream, we measured changes in leaf mass over time, leaf breakdown rates, macroinvertebrate assemblages, and stream physicochemistry. Streams differed in their water physicochemistry, with urban streams showing high values for most variables. Stream physical habitat was evaluated using a visual assessment protocol, which indicated that agricultural and urban streams were more degraded than forested streams. Leaf breakdown rates were fast in all streams (k values ranging 0.006-0.024). Breakdown rates were significantly related to the physical conditions of the stream channel (e.g., visual protocol scores), with fastest rates in forested streams. Invertebrates colonizing leaves were mainly mayflies (Leptophlebiidae, Baetidae, and Caenidae), dipterans (Chironomidae), caddisflies (Polycentropodidae), and beetles (Elmidae and Gyrinidae). Our streams lacked large decapod populations, contrasting with other Puerto Rican streams. We found little evidence for an insect effect on leaf breakdown. Results suggest that land use is an important factor affecting leaf litter processing in streams. In contrast to studies in temperate regions, we found little evidence for a positive nutrient related effect of agricultural land use on decomposition rates. Changes in the physical characteristics of streams appear to be the main drivers behind observed decomposition patterns. PMID:25189074

  1. Growth, inter- and intraspecific variation, palaeobiogeography, taphonomy and systematics of the Cenozoic ghost shrimp Glypturus

    PubMed Central

    Klompmaker, Adiël A.; Hyžný, Matúš; Portell, Roger W.; Kowalewski, Michał

    2015-01-01

    Studies in systematic palaeontology are greatly aided when numerous, well-preserved specimens are available so that quantitative methods can be used to substantiate qualitative observations. This is often not the case for fossil decapod crustaceans due to their relatively low preservation potential. Here, we examined primarily two large collections of the well-preserved ghost shrimp Glypturus from the Holo-Pleistocene of Panama and the late Miocene of Florida. Using descriptive, bivariate, multivariate and geometric morphometric methods, two new species are described based on appendage material: Glypturus panamacanalensis sp. nov. and G. sikesi sp. nov. New characters are identified, and size-related and intraspecific variation are assessed for these taxa and modern G. acanthochirus. Taxonomic placement of single specimens from other localities was confirmed by multivariate methods. Furthermore, Glypturus is revised, especially with regard to Western Atlantic species that inhabited both carbonate and siliciclastic environments. Callianassa anguillensis, C. latidigata, and Neocallichirus? quisquellanus are referred to as Glypturus sp. until more material is available to determine the validity of these species. Diversity within Glypturus may thus be underestimated, thereby also impacting the assessment of phylogenetic relationships. Minor propodi appear under-represented relative to major propodi, suggesting a taphonomic bias. Single specimens of interest include a specimen of G. panamacanalensis sp. nov. exhibiting a peculiar swelling in the fixed finger and another showing damage on the propodal upper margin, suggesting failed predation or antagonistic behaviour. Glypturus is first found in the Oligocene in the Western Atlantic and may have expanded its palaeobiogeographical range since the Miocene. The genus was still present on the Pacific side of the Isthmus of Panama in the Holo-Pleistocene, but is only known from the Western Atlantic today, suggesting a relatively recent extinction on the Pacific side. PMID:26819570

  2. An insulin-like growth factor found in hepatopancreas implicates carbohydrate metabolism of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus.

    PubMed

    Chung, J Sook

    2014-04-01

    Hyperglycemia that is caused by the release of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) from the sinus gland to hemolymph is one of the hallmark physiological phenomena, occurring in decapod crustaceans experiencing stressful conditions. However, the mechanism(s) by which such elevated glucose levels return to resting levels is still unknown. Interestingly, noted is a difference in the clearance rate of hemolymph glucose between adult females and adult males of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus: the former with more rapid clearance than the latter. The presence of an endogenous-insulin-like molecule is suggested in C. sapidus because an injection of bovine insulin, significantly reduces the levels of hemolymph glucose that were previously elevated by emersion stress or the glucose injection. Using 5' and 3' RACE, the full-length cDNA of an insulin-like molecule is isolated from the hepatopancreas of an adult female C. sapidus and shows the same putative sequence of an insulin-like androgenic gland factor (IAG) but differs in 5' and 3' UTR sequences. A knock-down study using five injections of double-stranded RNA of CasIAG-hep (dsRNA-CasIAG-hep, 10μg/injection) over a 10-day period reduces CasIAG-hep expression by ∼50%. The levels of hemolymph glucose are also kept higher in dsRNA-CasIAG-hep injected group than those treated with dsRNA-green fluorescent protein (dsRNA-IAG-hep) or saline. Most importantly, the hepatopancreas of dsRNA-CasIAG-hep injected animals contains amounts of carbohydrate (glucose, trehalose, and glycogen) significantly lower than those of control groups, indicating that the function of CasIAG-hep in carbohydrate metabolism in crustaceans is similar to carbohydrate metabolism in vertebrates. PMID:24503150

  3. The Involvement of Hemocyte Prophenoloxidase in the Shell-Hardening Process of the Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Javier V; Chung, J Sook

    2015-01-01

    Cuticular structures of arthropods undergo dramatic molt-related changes from being soft to becoming hard. The shell-hardening process of decapod crustaceans includes sclerotization and mineralization. Hemocyte PPO plays a central role in melanization and sclerotization particularly in wound healing in crustaceans. However, little is known about its role in the crustacean initial shell-hardening process. The earlier findings of the aggregation of heavily granulated hemocytes beneath the hypodermis during ecdysis imply that the hemocytes may be involved in the shell-hardening process. In order to determine if hemocytes and hemocyte PPO have a role in the shell-hardening of crustaceans, a knockdown study using specific CasPPO-hemo-dsRNA was carried out with juvenile blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus. Multiple injections of CasPPO-hemo-dsRNA reduce specifically the levels of CasPPO-hemo expression by 57% and PO activity by 54% in hemocyte lysate at the postmolt, while they have no effect on the total hemocyte numbers. Immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry analysis using a specific antiserum generated against CasPPO show granulocytes, semigranulocytes and hyaline cells as the cellular sources for PPO at the postmolt. Interestingly, the type of hemocytes, as the cellular sources of PPO, varies by molt stage. The granulocytes always contain PPO throughout the molt cycle. However, semigranulocytes and hyaline cells become CasPPO immune-positive only at early premolt and postmolt, indicating that PPO expression in these cells may be involved in the shell-hardening process of C. sapidus. PMID:26393802

  4. Histological and Histochemical Study of the Hepatopancreas of Two Estuarine Crab Species, Cyrtograpsus angulatus and Neohelice granulata (Grapsoidea, Varunidae): Influence of Environmental Salinity.

    PubMed

    Longo, María Victoria; Díaz, Alcira Ofelia

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the histology and the histochemical distribution of glycoproteins (GPs) and lipids of the hepatopancreas of Cyrtograpsus angulatus and Neohelice granulata acclimated to salinities of 10 psu (hyperregulation) and 35 psu (osmoconformation). Sections of the hepatopancreas of adult male crabs were treated with hematoxylin-eosin; Masson trichrome; Alcian Blue (pHs 2.8, 1.0, 0.5); Toluidine Blue (pHs 5.6, 4.2); periodic acid Schiff; Sudan Black and Red. At salinity 35 psu, the hepatopancreas of both species exhibited typical histological features, whereas at salinity 10 psu, detachment of the basal lamina, desquamated epithelium, disrupted brush border, loss of intercellular cohesion, hypertrophied tubular lumen, and hemolymph infiltration between cells were observed in some zones. Resorptive cells (R-cells) and vacuoles of blister-like cells (B-cells) of both species show a higher glycogen content at 35 psu than at 10 psu. At lower salinities, the cytoplasm of the different cell types evidence higher contents of carboxylated GPs in N. granulata and of su If at ed GPs in C. angulatus. At both salinities, and at the two pHs in N. granulata and at pH 5.6 in C. angulatus, the brush border, the vacuoles of B-cells and the peritrophic membrane show metachromasia. R-cell vacuoles and the cytoplasm of all cell types -except for the E-cells-at all salinities in both species show abundant lipid droplets. The results of the present study contribute significant data to the histophysiology of crustacean decapods, favoring the comprehension of the complex adjustment mechanisms facing saline stress in euryhaline crabs. PMID:25826065

  5. Characterization of a Prawn OA/TA Receptor in Xenopus Oocytes Suggests Functional Selectivity between Octopamine and Tyramine

    PubMed Central

    Jezzini, Sami H.; Reyes-Coln, Dalyns; Sosa, Mara A.

    2014-01-01

    Here we report the characterization of an octopamine/tyramine (OA/TA or TyrR1) receptor (OA/TAMac) cloned from the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, an animal used in the study of agonistic social behavior. The invertebrate OA/TA receptors are seven trans-membrane domain G-protein coupled receptors that are related to vertebrate adrenergic receptors. Behavioral studies in arthropods indicate that octopaminergic signaling systems modulate fight or flight behaviors with octopamine and/or tyramine functioning in a similar way to the adrenalins in vertebrate systems. Despite the importance of octopamine signaling in behavioral studies of decapod crustaceans there are no functional data available for any of their octopamine or tyramine receptors. We expressed OA/TAMac in Xenopus oocytes where agonist-evoked trans-membrane currents were used as readouts of receptor activity. The currents were most effectively evoked by tyramine but were also evoked by octopamine and dopamine. They were effectively blocked by yohimbine. The electrophysiological approach we used enabled the continuous observation of complex dynamics over time. Using voltage steps, we were able to simultaneously resolve two types of endogenous currents that are affected over different time scales. At higher concentrations we observe that octopamine and tyramine can produce different and opposing effects on both of these currents, presumably through the activity of the single expressed receptor type. The pharmacological profile and apparent functional-selectivity are consistent with properties first observed in the OA/TA receptor from the insect Drosophila melanogaster. As the first functional data reported for any crustacean OA/TA receptor, these results suggest that functional-selectivity between tyramine and octopamine is a feature of this receptor type that may be conserved among arthropods. PMID:25350749

  6. Transcriptome analysis of the molting gland (Y-organ) from the blackback land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis.

    PubMed

    Das, Sunetra; Pitts, Natalie L; Mudron, Megan R; Durica, David S; Mykles, Donald L

    2016-03-01

    In decapod crustaceans, arthropod steroid hormones or ecdysteroids regulate molting. These hormones are synthesized and released from a pair of molting glands called the Y-organs (YO). Cyclic nucleotide, mTOR, and TGFβ/Smad signaling pathways mediate molt cycle-dependent phase transitions in the YO. To further identify the genes involved in the regulation of molting, a YO transcriptome was generated from three biological replicates of intermolt blackback land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis. Illumina sequencing of cDNA libraries generated 227,811,829 100-base pair (bp) paired-end reads; following trimming, 90% of the reads were used for further analyses. The trimmed reads were assembled de novo using Trinity software to generate 288,673 contigs with a mean length of 872bp and a median length of 1842bp. Redundancy among contig sequences was reduced by CD-HIT-EST, and the output constituted the baseline transcriptome database. Using Bowtie2, 92% to 93% of the reads were mapped back to the transcriptome. Individual contigs were annotated using BLAST, HMMER, TMHMM, SignalP, and Trinotate, resulting in assignments of 20% of the contigs. Functional and pathway annotations were carried out via gene ontology (GO) and KEGG orthology (KO) analyses; 58% and 44% of the contigs with BLASTx hits were assigned to GO and KO terms, respectively. The gene expression profile was similar to a crayfish YO transcriptome database, and the relative abundance of each contig was highly correlated among the three G. lateralis replicates. Signal transduction pathway orthologs were well represented, including those in the mTOR, TGFβ, cyclic nucleotide, MAP kinase, calcium, VEGF, phosphatidylinositol, ErbB, Wnt, Hedgehog, Jak-STAT, and Notch pathways. PMID:26689334

  7. Characterization of a prawn OA/TA receptor in Xenopus oocytes suggests functional selectivity between octopamine and tyramine.

    PubMed

    Jezzini, Sami H; Reyes-Colón, Dalynés; Sosa, María A

    2014-01-01

    Here we report the characterization of an octopamine/tyramine (OA/TA or TyrR1) receptor (OA/TAMac) cloned from the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, an animal used in the study of agonistic social behavior. The invertebrate OA/TA receptors are seven trans-membrane domain G-protein coupled receptors that are related to vertebrate adrenergic receptors. Behavioral studies in arthropods indicate that octopaminergic signaling systems modulate fight or flight behaviors with octopamine and/or tyramine functioning in a similar way to the adrenalins in vertebrate systems. Despite the importance of octopamine signaling in behavioral studies of decapod crustaceans there are no functional data available for any of their octopamine or tyramine receptors. We expressed OA/TAMac in Xenopus oocytes where agonist-evoked trans-membrane currents were used as readouts of receptor activity. The currents were most effectively evoked by tyramine but were also evoked by octopamine and dopamine. They were effectively blocked by yohimbine. The electrophysiological approach we used enabled the continuous observation of complex dynamics over time. Using voltage steps, we were able to simultaneously resolve two types of endogenous currents that are affected over different time scales. At higher concentrations we observe that octopamine and tyramine can produce different and opposing effects on both of these currents, presumably through the activity of the single expressed receptor type. The pharmacological profile and apparent functional-selectivity are consistent with properties first observed in the OA/TA receptor from the insect Drosophila melanogaster. As the first functional data reported for any crustacean OA/TA receptor, these results suggest that functional-selectivity between tyramine and octopamine is a feature of this receptor type that may be conserved among arthropods. PMID:25350749

  8. Ecology of mangroves in the Jewfish Chain, Exuma, Bahamas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilcox, L. V.; Yocom, Thomas G.; Forbes, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    The structure and function of mangrove communities in the Jewfish Chain, Exumas, Bahamas, were investigated for 3-1/2 years. Mangrove vegetation in the Jewfish Chain is similar to that in all the Caribbean-Florida area; Rhizophora mangle L. dominates and is interspersed with Avicennia germinans (L.) Lamk. and Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gaertn. There is no apparent zonation of these three species. The mangrove communities in the Jewfish Chain occur only where they are protected from prevailing winds, storms, and tides, although all are periodically devastated by hurricanes. We found little or no evidence of coast building within these protected locations. The importance of the mangroves appears to be in providing protection and food for other flora and fauna within this unique ecosystem. Twenty-four species of algae were found in the mangroves, 9 of which had not previously been reported from the Bahamas. Distribution of these algae appears to be correlated to incident solar radiation, desiccation, and tide level. A total of 56 species of fish were found in the mangroves, 2 of which were not previously known from the Bahamas. Many fish taken were juveniles, suggesting that mangroves are a nursery ground for numerous species. Nine species of molluscs were found. Each species had a distinct distribution pattern relative to distance from the seaward edge of the mangroves, as well as a distinct vertical distribution pattern. Seventeen species of decapod crustaceans were recorded. Though several species of birds were noted in the mangroves, three species were most abundant: the white-crowned pigeon (Columba leucocephala) uses the mangrove for nesting but feeds in nearby shrub-thorn communities; the gray kingbird (Tyrannus dominicensis) and green heron (Butorides virescens) nest and feed in the mangroves. Our data do not completely describe a stereotyped mangrove community in the Bahamas, but they do give an indication of community structure and suggest several aspects of function.

  9. An antibody to recombinant crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone of Nephrops norvegicus cross-reacts with neuroendocrine organs of several taxa of malacostracan Crustacea.

    PubMed

    Giulianini, P G; Pandolfelli, N; Lorenzon, S; Ferrero, E A; Edomi, P

    2002-02-01

    The crustacean hyperglycaemic hormones (cHHs) are multifunctional neuropeptides that play a central role in the physiology of crustaceans. A partial cDNA coding for cHH of the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus, was cloned; this cDNA was fused to glutathione- S-transferase (GST) to obtain a recombinant fusion protein that was used to raise a rabbit antiserum and to perform a biological assay. The specificity of the purified antibody was demonstrated by means of Western blotting. To validate the specificity of the purified antibody to the cHH of N. norvegicus and its cross-reactivity with other species, we performed standard immunocytochemistry of the eyestalk on: (1) paraffin sections of the decapod species N. norvegicus, Munida rugosa and Astacus leptodactylus and of the stomatopod Squilla mantis; (2) semithin resin sections of N. norvegicus and Palaemon elegans; (3) ultrathin sections of N. norvegicus sinus gland (transmission electron microscopy studies). The pattern of immunoreactivity shown by N. norvegicus eyestalk sections conforms to distribution, relative amount and ultrastructural features of cHH-containing neurons and nerve endings as reported in the previous literature. In all the crustacean species examined, the antibody marks precisely the X organ-sinus gland complex and unspecific staining is completely lacking. In addition, its specific cross-reaction by immunoprecipitation depletes shrimp eyestalk extract of hyperglycaemic activity in an in vivo bioassay. The results obtained show a cHH-specific molecular recognition despite the fact that the species tested belong to systematic groups increasingly remote in the phylogenetic tree. The antibody could be used for advancing our knowledge on cHH activity in a variety of crustacean species, e.g. for monitoring reproductive and stress conditions. PMID:11845331

  10. Exploration of the Canyon-Incised Continental Margin of the Northeastern United States Reveals Dynamic Habitats and Diverse Communities.

    PubMed

    Quattrini, Andrea M; Nizinski, Martha S; Chaytor, Jason D; Demopoulos, Amanda W J; Roark, E Brendan; France, Scott C; Moore, Jon A; Heyl, Taylor; Auster, Peter J; Kinlan, Brian; Ruppel, Carolyn; Elliott, Kelley P; Kennedy, Brian R C; Lobecker, Elizabeth; Skarke, Adam; Shank, Timothy M

    2015-01-01

    The continental margin off the northeastern United States (NEUS) contains numerous, topographically complex features that increase habitat heterogeneity across the region. However, the majority of these rugged features have never been surveyed, particularly using direct observations. During summer 2013, 31 Remotely-Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives were conducted from 494 to 3271 m depth across a variety of seafloor features to document communities and to infer geological processes that produced such features. The ROV surveyed six broad-scale habitat features, consisting of shelf-breaching canyons, slope-sourced canyons, inter-canyon areas, open-slope/landslide-scar areas, hydrocarbon seeps, and Mytilus Seamount. Four previously unknown chemosynthetic communities dominated by Bathymodiolus mussels were documented. Seafloor methane hydrate was observed at two seep sites. Multivariate analyses indicated that depth and broad-scale habitat significantly influenced megafaunal coral (58 taxa), demersal fish (69 taxa), and decapod crustacean (34 taxa) assemblages. Species richness of fishes and crustaceans significantly declined with depth, while there was no relationship between coral richness and depth. Turnover in assemblage structure occurred on the middle to lower slope at the approximate boundaries of water masses found previously in the region. Coral species richness was also an important variable explaining variation in fish and crustacean assemblages. Coral diversity may serve as an indicator of habitat suitability and variation in available niche diversity for these taxonomic groups. Our surveys added 24 putative coral species and three fishes to the known regional fauna, including the black coral Telopathes magna, the octocoral Metallogorgia melanotrichos and the fishes Gaidropsarus argentatus, Guttigadus latifrons, and Lepidion guentheri. Marine litter was observed on 81% of the dives, with at least 12 coral colonies entangled in debris. While initial exploration revealed the NEUS region to be both geologically dynamic and biologically diverse, further research into the abiotic conditions and the biotic interactions that influence species abundance and distribution is needed. PMID:26509818

  11. Does the Phaeocystis bloom affect the diel migration of the suprabenthos community?

    PubMed

    Dauvin, Jean-Claude; Desroy, Nicolas; Denis, Lionel; Ruellet, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    The suprabenthos comprises all bottom-dependent animals, mainly crustaceans (including decapods and peracarids), which perform--with varying amplitude, intensity and regularity--seasonal or daily vertical migrations above the sea floor. The presence of organisms in the Benthic Boundary Layer is determined by two general factors: (1) organism behaviour, which depends on the light penetration in the water column and (2) boundary-layer hydrodynamics. In the coastal zone of the eastern English Channel, during the spring Phaeocystis bloom, the presence of gelatinous colonies modifies the penetration of light in the water column, which may seriously affect the abundance and/or the behaviour of the suprabenthos community. To clarify this point, 19 suprabenthic hauls were taken with a modified Macer-GIROQ sledge both during the day and during the night, from March to June 2002 (i.e., before, during and after the bloom). Two sites, located in the coastal and offshore areas of the Ophelia medium sand macrobenthic community were investigated. The bloom had no effect on species richness and abundance in either site. However, the diel migrations of some dominant species--such as the cumaceans Pseudocuma longicornis and Pseudocuma similis, the mysid Gastrosaccus spinifer and the amphipod Stenothoe marina--were modified. During the bloom, diurnal and nocturnal suprabenthic abundances were similar, and in the absence of bloom, species remained benthic during the day. The permanent presence of suprabenthic species in the Benthic Boundary Layer could have a consequence on their predation by fish (mainly juveniles which preferentially consume small crustaceans in their diet), unless fish behaviour and predation efficiency--especially for visual predators--are also disturbed by changes in light intensity. PMID:18023458

  12. High-density linkage mapping aided by transcriptomics documents ZW sex determination system in the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis.

    PubMed

    Cui, Z; Hui, M; Liu, Y; Song, C; Li, X; Li, Y; Liu, L; Shi, G; Wang, S; Li, F; Zhang, X; Liu, C; Xiang, J; Chu, K H

    2015-09-01

    The sex determination system in crabs is believed to be XY-XX from karyotypy, but centromeres could not be identified in some chromosomes and their morphology is not completely clear. Using quantitative trait locus mapping of the gender phenotype, we revealed a ZW-ZZ sex determination system in Eriocheir sinensis and presented a high-density linkage map covering ~98.5% of the genome, with 73 linkage groups corresponding to the haploid chromosome number. All sex-linked markers in the family we used were located on a single linkage group, LG60, and sex linkage was confirmed by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Forty-six markers detected by GWAS were heterozygous and segregated only in the female parent. The female LG60 was thus the putative W chromosome, with the homologous male LG60 as the Z chromosome. The putative Z and W sex chromosomes were identical in size and carried many homologous loci. Sex ratio (5:1) skewing towards females in induced triploids using unrelated animals also supported a ZW-ZZ system. Transcriptome data were used to search for candidate sex-determining loci, but only one LG60 gene was identified as an ankyrin-2 gene. Double sex- and mab3-related transcription factor 1 (Dmrt1), a Z-linked gene in birds, was located on a putative autosome. With complete genome sequencing and transcriptomic data, more genes on putative sex chromosomes will be characterised, thus leading towards a comprehensive understanding of the sex determination and differentiation mechanisms of E. sinensis, and decapod crustaceans in general. PMID:25873149

  13. Modeling prey consumption by native and non-native piscivorous fishes: implications for competition and impacts on shared prey in an ultraoligotrophic lake in Patagonia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juncos, Romina; Beauchamp, David A.; Viglianoc, Pablo H.

    2013-01-01

    We examined trophic interactions of the nonnative salmonids Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, Brown Trout Salmo trutta, and Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalisand the main native predator Creole Perch Percichthys trucha in Lake Nahuel Huapi (Patagonia, Argentina) to determine the relative impact of each predator on their forage base and to evaluate the potential vulnerability of each predator to competitive impacts by the others. Using bioenergetics simulations, we demonstrated the overall importance of galaxiids and decapods to the energy budgets of nonnative salmonids and Creole Perch. Introduced salmonids, especially Rainbow Trout, exerted considerably heavier predatory demands on shared resources than did the native Creole Perch on both a per capita basis and in terms of relative population impacts. Rainbow Trout consumed higher quantities and a wider size range of Small Puyen (also known as Inanga) Galaxias maculatus than the other predators, including early pelagic life stages of that prey; as such, this represents an additional source of mortality for the vulnerable early life stages of Small Puyen before and during their transition from pelagic to benthic habitats. All predators were generally feeding at high feeding rates (above 40% of their maximum physiological rates), suggesting that competition for prey does not currently limit either Creole Perch or the salmonids in this lake. This study highlights the importance of keystone prey for the coexistence of native species with nonnative top predators. It provides new quantitative and qualitative evidence of the high predation pressure exerted on Small Puyen, the keystone prey species, during the larval to juvenile transition from pelagic to littoral-benthic habitat in Patagonian lakes. This study also emphasizes the importance of monitoring salmonid and Creole Perch population dynamics in order to detect signs of potential impacts through competition and shows the need to carefully consider the rationale behind any additional trout stocking.

  14. Myogenesis of Malacostraca – the “egg-nauplius” concept revisited

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malacostracan evolutionary history has seen multiple transformations of ontogenetic mode. For example direct development in connection with extensive brood care and development involving planktotrophic nauplius larvae, as well as intermediate forms are found throughout this taxon. This makes the Malacostraca a promising group for study of evolutionary morphological diversification and the role of heterochrony therein. One candidate heterochronic phenomenon is represented by the concept of the ‘egg-nauplius’, in which the nauplius larva, considered plesiomorphic to all Crustacea, is recapitulated as an embryonic stage. Results Here we present a comparative investigation of embryonic muscle differentiation in four representatives of Malacostraca: Gonodactylaceus falcatus (Stomatopoda), Neocaridina heteropoda (Decapoda), Neomysis integer (Mysida) and Parhyale hawaiensis (Amphipoda). We describe the patterns of muscle precursors in different embryonic stages to reconstruct the sequence of muscle development, until hatching of the larva or juvenile. Comparison of the developmental sequences between species reveals extensive heterochronic and heteromorphic variation. Clear anticipation of muscle differentiation in the nauplius segments, but also early formation of longitudinal trunk musculature independently of the teloblastic proliferation zone, are found to be characteristic to stomatopods and decapods, all of which share an egg-nauplius stage. Conclusions Our study provides a strong indication that the concept of nauplius recapitulation in Malacostraca is incomplete, because sequences of muscle tissue differentiation deviate from the chronological patterns observed in the ectoderm, on which the egg-nauplius is based. However, comparison of myogenic sequences between taxa supports the hypothesis of a zoea-like larva that was present in the last common ancestor of Eumalacostraca (Malacostraca without Leptostraca). We argue that much of the developmental sequences of larva muscle patterning were retained in the eumalacostracan lineage despite the reduction of free swimming nauplius larvae, but was severely reduced in the peracaridean clade. PMID:24325906

  15. Warming Ocean Conditions Relate to Increased Trophic Requirements of Threatened and Endangered Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Elizabeth A.; Brodeur, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    The trophic habits, size and condition of yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) caught early in their marine residence were examined during 19 survey years (1981–1985; 1998–2011). Juvenile salmon consumed distinct highly piscivorous diets in cold and warm ocean regimes with major differences between ocean regimes driven by changes in consumption of juvenile rockfishes, followed by several other fish prey, adult euphausiids and decapod larvae. Notable, Chinook salmon consumed 30% more food in the warm versus cold ocean regime in both May and June. Additionally, there were about 30% fewer empty stomachs in the warm ocean regime in May, and 10% fewer in warm June periods. The total prey energy density consumed during the warmer ocean regime was also significantly higher than in cold. Chinook salmon had lower condition factor and were smaller in fork length during the warm ocean regime, and were longer and heavier for their size during the cold ocean regime. The significant increase in foraging during the warm ocean regime occurred concurrently with lower available prey biomass. Adult return rates of juvenile Chinook salmon that entered the ocean during a warm ocean regime were lower. Notably, our long term data set contradicts the long held assertion that juvenile salmon eat less in a warm ocean regime when low growth and survival is observed, and when available prey are reduced. Comparing diet changes between decades under variable ocean conditions may assist us in understanding the effects of projected warming ocean regimes on juvenile Chinook salmon and their survival in the ocean environment. Bioenergetically, the salmon appear to require more food resources during warm ocean regimes. PMID:26675673

  16. Resistance to the crayfish plague pathogen, Aphanomyces astaci, in two freshwater shrimps.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, J; Mrugała, A; Kozubíková-Balcarová, E; Kouba, A; Diéguez-Uribeondo, J; Petrusek, A

    2014-09-01

    Aphanomyces astaci, the causal agent of the crayfish plague, has recently been confirmed to infect also freshwater-inhabiting crabs. We experimentally tested the resistance of freshwater shrimps, another important decapod group inhabiting freshwaters, to this pathogen. We exposed individuals of two Asian shrimp species, Macrobrachium dayanum and Neocaridina davidi, to zoospores of the pathogen strain isolated from Procambarus clarkii, a known A. astaci carrier likely to get into contact with shrimps. The shrimps were kept in separate vessels up to seven weeks; exuviae and randomly chosen individuals were sampled throughout the experiment. Shrimp bodies and exuviae were tested for A. astaci presence by a species-specific quantitative PCR. The results were compared with amounts of A. astaci DNA in an inert substrate to distinguish potential pathogen growth in live specimens from persisting spores or environmental DNA attached to their surface. In contrast to susceptible crayfish Astacus astacus, we did not observe mortality of shrimps. The amount of detected pathogen DNA was decreasing steadily in the inert substrate, but it was still detectable several weeks after zoospore addition, which should be considered in studies relying on molecular detection of A. astaci. Probably due to moulting, the amount of A. astaci DNA was decreasing in N. davidi even faster than in the inert substrate. In contrast, high pathogen DNA levels were detected in some non-moulting individuals of M. dayanum, suggesting that A. astaci growth may be possible in tissues of this species. Further experiments are needed to test for the potential of long-term A. astaci persistence in freshwater shrimp populations. PMID:25064254

  17. The Application of DNA Barcodes for the Identification of Marine Crustaceans from the North Sea and Adjacent Regions.

    PubMed

    Raupach, Michael J; Barco, Andrea; Steinke, Dirk; Beermann, Jan; Laakmann, Silke; Mohrbeck, Inga; Neumann, Hermann; Kihara, Terue C; Pointner, Karin; Radulovici, Adriana; Segelken-Voigt, Alexandra; Wesse, Christina; Knebelsberger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    During the last years DNA barcoding has become a popular method of choice for molecular specimen identification. Here we present a comprehensive DNA barcode library of various crustacean taxa found in the North Sea, one of the most extensively studied marine regions of the world. Our data set includes 1,332 barcodes covering 205 species, including taxa of the Amphipoda, Copepoda, Decapoda, Isopoda, Thecostraca, and others. This dataset represents the most extensive DNA barcode library of the Crustacea in terms of species number to date. By using the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD), unique BINs were identified for 198 (96.6%) of the analyzed species. Six species were characterized by two BINs (2.9%), and three BINs were found for the amphipod species Gammarus salinus Spooner, 1947 (0.4%). Intraspecific distances with values higher than 2.2% were revealed for 13 species (6.3%). Exceptionally high distances of up to 14.87% between two distinct but monophyletic clusters were found for the parasitic copepod Caligus elongatus Nordmann, 1832, supporting the results of previous studies that indicated the existence of an overlooked sea louse species. In contrast to these high distances, haplotype-sharing was observed for two decapod spider crab species, Macropodia parva Van Noort & Adema, 1985 and Macropodia rostrata (Linnaeus, 1761), underlining the need for a taxonomic revision of both species. Summarizing the results, our study confirms the application of DNA barcodes as highly effective identification system for the analyzed marine crustaceans of the North Sea and represents an important milestone for modern biodiversity assessment studies using barcode sequences. PMID:26417993

  18. Identification and Characterization of an Insulin-Like Receptor Involved in Crustacean Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Sharabi, O; Manor, R; Weil, S; Aflalo, E D; Lezer, Y; Levy, T; Aizen, J; Ventura, T; Mather, P B; Khalaila, I; Sagi, A

    2016-02-01

    Sexual differentiation and maintenance of masculinity in crustaceans has been suggested as being regulated by a single androgenic gland (AG) insulin-like peptide (IAG). However, downstream elements involved in the signaling cascade remain unknown. Here we identified and characterized a gene encoding an insulin-like receptor in the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr-IR), the first such gene detected in a decapod crustacean. In mining for IRs and other insulin signaling-related genes, we constructed a comprehensive M. rosenbergii transcriptomic library from multiple sources. In parallel we sequenced the complete Mr-IR cDNA, confirmed in the wide transcriptomic library. Mr-IR expression was detected in most tissues in both males and females, including the AG and gonads. To study Mr-IR function, we performed long-term RNA interference (RNAi) silencing in young male prawns. Although having no effect on growth, Mr-IR silencing advanced the appearance of a male-specific secondary trait. The most noted effects of Mr-IR silencing were hypertrophy of the AG and the associated increased production of Mr-IAG, with an unusual abundance of immature sperm cells being seen in the distal sperm duct. A ligand blot assay using de novo recombinant Mr-IAG confirmed the existence of a ligand-receptor interaction. Whereas these results suggest a role for Mr-IR in the regulation of the AG, we did not see any sexual shift after silencing of Mr-IR, as occurred when the ligand-encoding Mr-IAG gene was silenced. This suggests that sexual differentiation in crustaceans involve more than a single Mr-IAG receptor, emphasizing the complexity of sexual differentiation and maintenance. PMID:26677879

  19. Morphology of First Zoeal Stage of Four Genera of Alvinocaridid Shrimps from Hydrothermal Vents and Cold Seeps: Implications for Ecology, Larval Biology and Phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ávila, Iván; Cambon-Bonavita, Marie-Anne; Pradillon, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Alvinocaridid shrimps are endemic species inhabiting hydrothermal vents and/or cold seeps. Although indirect evidences (genetic and lipid markers) suggest that their larval stages disperse widely and support large scale connectivity, larval life and mechanisms underlying dispersal are unknown in alvinocaridids. Here we provide for the first time detailed descriptions of the first larval stage (zoea I) of four alvinocaridid species: Rimicaris exoculata and Mirocaris fortunata from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Alvinocaris muricola from the Congo Basin and Nautilocaris saintlaurentae from the Western Pacific. The larvae were obtained from onboard hatching of brooding females (either at atmospheric pressure or at habitat pressure in hyperbaric chambers) and from the water column near adult habitats, sampled with plankton pumps or sediment traps. Major characteristics of the alvinocaridid larvae include undeveloped mandible and almost complete absence of setation in the inner margin of the mouth parts and maxillipeds. Although the larvae are very similar between the four species studied, some morphological features could be used for species identification. In addition, undeveloped mouthparts and the large amount of lipid reserves strongly support the occurrence of primary lecithotrophy in the early stage of alvinocaridids. Although lecithotrophy in decapod crustaceans is usually associated with abbreviated larval development, as a mechanism of larval retention, morphological and physiological evidences suggest the occurrence of an extended and lecithotrophic larval stage in the Alvinocarididae. These traits permit the colonization of widely dispersed and fragmented environments of hydrothermal vents and cold seeps. Distribution of larval traits along the phylogenetic reconstruction of the Alvinocarididae and related families suggest that lecithotrophy/planktotrophy and extended/abbreviated development have evolved independently along related families in all potential combinations. However, the Alvinocarididae is the only taxa with a combination of lecithotrophy and extended larval development. PMID:26710075

  20. Expression of the reproductive female-specific vitellogenin gene in endocrinologically induced male and intersex Cherax quadricarinatus crayfish.

    PubMed

    Shechter, Asaf; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Davis, Claytus; Sagi, Amir

    2005-07-01

    In oviparous females, the synthesis of the yolk precursor vitellogenin is an important step in ovarian maturation and oocyte development. In decapod Crustacea, including the red-claw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus), this reproductive process is regulated by inhibitory neurohormones secreted by the endocrine X-organ-sinus gland (XO-SG) complex. In males, the C. quadricarinatus vitellogenin gene (CqVg), although present, is not expressed under normal conditions. We show here that endocrine manipulation by removal of the XO-SG complex from male animals induced CqVg transcription. The CqVg gene was expressed differentially during the molt cycle in these induced males: no expression was seen in the intermolt stages, but expression was occasionally detected in the premolt stages and always detected in the early postmolt stages. Relative quantitation with a real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction showed that expression of CqVg in induced early postmolt males was an order of magnitude lower than that in reproductive females, a finding that was consistent with RNA in situ hybridization results. The SDS-PAGE of high-density lipoproteins from the hemolymph of endocrinologically induced early postmolt males did not show the typical vitellogenin-related polypeptide profile found in reproductive females. On the other hand, removal of the XO-SG complex from intersex individuals, which are chromosomally female but functionally male and possess an arrested female reproductive system, induced the expression, translation, and release of CqVg products into the hemolymph, as was the case for vitellogenic females. The expression of CqVg in endocrinologically manipulated molting males and intersex animals provides an inducible model for the investigation and understanding of the endocrine regulation of CqVg expression and translation in Crustacea as well as the relationship between the endocrine axes regulating molt and reproduction. PMID:15744019

  1. An androgenic gland membrane-anchored gene associated with the crustacean insulin-like androgenic gland hormone.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Ohad; Manor, Rivka; Weil, Simy; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Bakhrat, Anna; Abdu, Uri; Sagi, Amir

    2013-06-01

    Crustacean male sexual differentiation is governed by the androgenic gland (AG) and specifically by the secreted insulin-like AG hormone (IAG), thus far identified in several decapod species including the Australian red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus (termed Cq-IAG). While a few insulin-like AG genes have been identified in crustaceans, other AG-specific genes have not been documented until now. In the present study, we describe the recent identification of a non-IAG AG-specific transcript obtained from the C. quadricarinatus AG cDNA library. This transcript, termed C. quadricarinatus membrane-anchored AG-specific factor (Cq-MAG), was fully sequenced and found to encode a putative product of 189 amino acids including a signal anchoring peptide. Expression of a recombinant GFP fusion protein lacking the signal anchor encoding sequence dramatically affected recombinant protein localization pattern. While the expression of the deleterious fusion protein was observed throughout most of the cell, the native GFP::Cq-MAG fusion protein was observed mainly surrounding the periphery of the nucleus, demonstrating an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-like localization pattern. Moreover, co-expression of the wild-type Cq-MAG (fused to GFP) and the Cq-IAG hormone revealed that these peptides indeed co-localize. This study is the first to report a protein specifically associated with the insulin-like AG hormone in addition to the finding of another AG-specific transcript in crustaceans. Previous knowledge suggests that insulin/insulin-like factor secretion involves tissue-specific transcripts and membrane-anchored proteins. In this regard, Cq-MAG's tissue specificity, anchoring properties and intracellular co-localization with Cq-IAG suggest that it may play a role in the processing and secretion of this insulin-like AG hormone. PMID:23470660

  2. Exploration of the canyon-incised continental margin of the northeastern United States reveals dynamic habitats and diverse communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quattrini, Andrea; Nizinski, Martha S.; Chaytor, Jason; Demopoulos, Amanda; Roark, E. Brendan; France, Scott; Moore, Jon A.; Heyl, Taylor P.; Auster, Peter J.; Ruppel, Carolyn; Elliott, Kelley P.; Kennedy, Brian R.C.; Lobecker, Elizabeth A.; Skarke, Adam; Shank, Timothy M.

    2015-01-01

    The continental margin off the northeastern United States (NEUS) contains numerous, topographically complex features that increase habitat heterogeneity across the region. However, the majority of these rugged features have never been surveyed, particularly using direct observations. During summer 2013, 31 Remotely-Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives were conducted from 494 to 3271 m depth across a variety of seafloor features to document communities and to infer geological processes that produced such features. The ROV surveyed six broad-scale habitat features, consisting of shelf-breaching canyons, slope-sourced canyons, inter-canyon areas, open-slope/landslide-scar areas, hydrocarbon seeps, and Mytilus Seamount. Four previously unknown chemosynthetic communities dominated by Bathymodiolus mussels were documented. Seafloor methane hydrate was observed at two seep sites. Multivariate analyses indicated that depth and broad-scale habitat significantly influenced megafaunal coral (58 taxa), demersal fish (69 taxa), and decapod crustacean (34 taxa) assemblages. Species richness of fishes and crustaceans significantly declined with depth, while there was no relationship between coral richness and depth. Turnover in assemblage structure occurred on the middle to lower slope at the approximate boundaries of water masses found previously in the region. Coral species richness was also an important variable explaining variation in fish and crustacean assemblages. Coral diversity may serve as an indicator of habitat suitability and variation in available niche diversity for these taxonomic groups. Our surveys added 24 putative coral species and three fishes to the known regional fauna, including the black coral Telopathes magna, the octocoral Metallogorgia melanotrichosand the fishes Gaidropsarus argentatus, Guttigadus latifrons, and Lepidion guentheri. Marine litter was observed on 81% of the dives, with at least 12 coral colonies entangled in debris. While initial exploration revealed the NEUS region to be both geologically dynamic and biologically diverse, further research into the abiotic conditions and the biotic interactions that influence species abundance and distribution is needed.

  3. Diversity and vertical distribution of mesozooplankton in the Arctic's Canada Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosobokova, Ksenia N.; Hopcroft, Russell R.

    2010-01-01

    The composition and biomass of the zooplankton community within the Canada Basin down to 3000 m was studied during July 2005 at 12 stations. A total of 111 species including 74 species of crustaceans (55 species of copepods, 2 euphausiids, 11 amphipods, 1 decapod, 5 ostracods), 17 cnidarians (12 hydromedusae, 1 scyphomedusae, 4 siphonophora), 1 foraminifera, 4 ctenophores, 2 pteropods, 4 larvaceans, 4 chaetognaths, and 5 polychaetes were identified. Most of the species observed are typical of the Arctic waters, with the notable exception of several Pacific expatriate copepod species, suggesting no zoogeographical barrier between the Canadian and Eurasian basins. Overall species inventories appear unchanged over the past 50 years, and were similar to the Eurasian Basins. Zooplankton biomass averaged 3.6±0.23 g DW m -2, with ˜50% of the biomass concentrated within the upper 100 m; nonetheless significant biomass and the majority of species diversity occurred below 100 m. Copepods represented 91% of the community numerically, followed by pteropods (2.6%), larvacean (1.8%) and shelled protists (1.5%), with other groups each contributing 1% or less. While copepods represented 85% of the total biomass, chaetognaths represented 13% on average (ca. 50% of non-copepod biomass), followed by cnidarians plus ctenophores (4.6%), ostracods (3.6%), and other groups (˜2% or less). Species-specific depth preferences and ranges resulted in statistically distinct communities in different depth strata and showed an orderly departure in similarity with increasing distance between strata. In Arctic waters, because temperature varies relatively little over the water column, so should respiratory rates; hence deep-water species are likely to play a greater role in the transfer or recycling of surface production than is typical of other deep ocean communities.

  4. Modifications to the bottomless lift net for sampling nekton in tidal mangrove forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McIvor, C.C.; Silverman, N.L.

    2010-01-01

    Sampling fishes in vegetated intertidal wetlands is logistically challenging. We modified the 2 ?? 3-m2 bottomless lift net developed for sampling nekton (fish and decapod crustaceans) on the surface of salt marshes for use in tidal mangrove forests with a woody (as opposed to herbaceous) underground root system. As originally designed (Rozas, Mar Ecol Prog Ser 89:287-292, 1992), the lift net was buried directly in the marsh substrate. The net was raised at slack high tide thereby encircling nekton within the enclosed area. A chain-line on the net bottom prevented escape under the net once deployed. However, when we used this same design in tidal mangrove forests, the extensive woody roots and occasional slumping sediments resulted in uneven trenches that could not be cleared effectively during sample recovery. We made 3 modifications to the original net design: (i) lined the peat trenches with aluminum channels of uniform width and depth; (ii) replaced the previous chain-line with Velcro closures that directly attached the net to the inner face of the outer wall of the aluminum channel; and (iii) removed the subtidal pan previously used for concentrating the enclosed nekton at low tide, and filled in those depressions with on-site peat. In the modified version, the aluminum trench became the only subtidal refuge available to nekton, and it was from here that we collected the sample after the forest drained. These modifications permitted high clearing efficiency (93-100%) of fin-clipped individuals of two common species of estuarine resident fishes, Kryptolebias marmoratus (mangrove rivulus) and Bathygobius soporator (frillfin goby). Additionally, the density estimates of grass shrimp (Palaemonetes spp.) increased 10-fold post-modification. ?? 2010 US Government.

  5. Ontogenetic changes in biochemical composition during larval and early postlarval development of Lepidophthalmus louisianensis, a ghost shrimp with abbreviated development.

    PubMed

    Nates, S F; McKenney, C L

    2000-12-01

    Changes in growth and biochemical composition during the transition from egg through zoea to decapodid in the ghost shrimp, Lepidophthalmus louisianensis (Schmitt, 1935), were documented in terms of dry weight, lipid classes, fatty acid composition, and carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratios. Larvae of the ghost shrimp were mass-reared in the laboratory (28 degrees C; 20% S) from hatching to the decapodid stage. latroscan lipid class analysis revealed that major lipid classes in recently produced eggs were phospholipids (80.8 +/- 1.3%) and triglycerides (16.0 +/- 1.1%), which decreased during the incubation period. Polar lipids (zoea 1: 77.4 +/- 1.7%; zoea II: 77.5 +/- 2.1%; decapodid: 80.0 +/- 1.7%) and neutral lipids, of which free fatty acids (zoea I: 10.5 +/- 2.7%; zoea II: 13.1 +/- 5.2%; decapodid: 7.8 +/- 2.1%) were dominant, represented the major lipid classes in the zoeal and decapodid stages. Triglycerides were present in small amounts. The predominant fatty acids of L. louisianensis eggs, zoeae and decapodids were palmitic (16:0), stearic (18:0), eicosapentaenoic (20:5omega3), oleic (18:1omega9), and arachidonic (20:4omega6). Elemental composition of eggs, larvae, and the decapodid stage revealed conspicuous changes in the C:N ratio, with N being relatively stable during larval development but C decreasing during the decapodid stage. These data suggest independence of newly hatched L. louisianensis on external energy resources. This combined with the ability to incorporate saturated fatty acids into polar lipids provides a selective advantage for fast development of new tissue and growth, characteristic of decapod crustacean larvae with lecithotrophic development. PMID:11281263

  6. Automated image analysis for the detection of benthic crustaceans and bacterial mat coverage using the VENUS undersea cabled network.

    PubMed

    Aguzzi, Jacopo; Costa, Corrado; Robert, Katleen; Matabos, Marjolaine; Antonucci, Francesca; Juniper, S Kim; Menesatti, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The development and deployment of sensors for undersea cabled observatories is presently biased toward the measurement of habitat variables, while sensor technologies for biological community characterization through species identification and individual counting are less common. The VENUS cabled multisensory network (Vancouver Island, Canada) deploys seafloor camera systems at several sites. Our objective in this study was to implement new automated image analysis protocols for the recognition and counting of benthic decapods (i.e., the galatheid squat lobster, Munida quadrispina), as well as for the evaluation of changes in bacterial mat coverage (i.e., Beggiatoa spp.), using a camera deployed in Saanich Inlet (103 m depth). For the counting of Munida we remotely acquired 100 digital photos at hourly intervals from 2 to 6 December 2009. In the case of bacterial mat coverage estimation, images were taken from 2 to 8 December 2009 at the same time frequency. The automated image analysis protocols for both study cases were created in MatLab 7.1. Automation for Munida counting incorporated the combination of both filtering and background correction (Median- and Top-Hat Filters) with Euclidean Distances (ED) on Red-Green-Blue (RGB) channels. The Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) features and Fourier Descriptors (FD) of tracked objects were then extracted. Animal classifications were carried out with the tools of morphometric multivariate statistic (i.e., Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis; PLSDA) on Mean RGB (RGBv) value for each object and Fourier Descriptors (RGBv+FD) matrices plus SIFT and ED. The SIFT approach returned the better results. Higher percentages of images were correctly classified and lower misclassification errors (an animal is present but not detected) occurred. In contrast, RGBv+FD and ED resulted in a high incidence of records being generated for non-present animals. Bacterial mat coverage was estimated in terms of Percent Coverage and Fractal Dimension. A constant Region of Interest (ROI) was defined and background extraction by a Gaussian Blurring Filter was performed. Image subtraction within ROI was followed by the sum of the RGB channels matrices. Percent Coverage was calculated on the resulting image. Fractal Dimension was estimated using the box-counting method. The images were then resized to a dimension in pixels equal to a power of 2, allowing subdivision into sub-multiple quadrants. In comparisons of manual and automated Percent Coverage and Fractal Dimension estimates, the former showed an overestimation tendency for both parameters. The primary limitations on the automatic analysis of benthic images were habitat variations in sediment texture and water column turbidity. The application of filters for background corrections is a required preliminary step for the efficient recognition of animals and bacterial mat patches. PMID:22346657

  7. Are deep-sea organisms dwelling within a submarine canyon more at risk from anthropogenic contamination than those from the adjacent open slope? A case study of Blanes canyon (NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Samuel; Fernández, Pilar; Company, Joan B.; Huertas, David; Solé, Montserrat

    2013-11-01

    Due to their geomorphological structure and proximity to the coastline, submarine canyons may act as natural conduit routes for anthropogenic contaminants that are transported from surface waters to the deep-sea. Organisms dwelling in these canyon environments might thus be at risk of experiencing adverse health effects due to higher pollution exposure. To address this question, chemical and biochemical analyses were conducted on two of the most abundant deep-sea fish species in the study area, namely Alepocephalus rostratus and Lepidion lepidion, and the most abundant deep-sea commercial decapod crustacean Aristeus antennatus sampled inside Blanes canyon (BC) and on the adjacent open slope (OS). Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) levels, including polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and derivatives, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in muscle tissue of selected samples from 900 m and 1500 m depth. Potential effects resulting from contaminant exposure were determined using hepatic biomarkers such as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), pentoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (PROD), catalase (CAT), carboxylesterase (CbE), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), total glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide-dismutase (SOD) enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels (LP). L. lepidion and A. antennatus tissues exhibited higher POP levels inside BC compared to the OS at 900 m depth. These findings were consistent with biomarker data (i.e. enzymatic response to presence of contaminant agents). Elevated xenobiotic-metabolizing (EROD and PROD) and antioxidant enzymes (CAT and GPX) indicated higher contaminant exposure in both species caught within BC. No difference in POP accumulation between sites was observed in L. lepidion at 1500 m depth, nor in biomarker data, suggesting that the pollution gradient was less pronounced at greater depths. This trend was further corroborated by the results obtained for A. rostratus at 1500 m depth. Hence, the present findings suggest the, at least temporary, existence of a pollution gradient between Blanes canyon and the open slope at shallower depths and this resulted in alterations of the physiology of deep-sea organisms dwelling within this area.

  8. Metabarcoding di