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1

EFFECTS OF CHLORINATED SEAWATER ON DECAPOD CRUSTACEANS AND 'MULINIA' LARVAE  

EPA Science Inventory

Eggs and larvae of decapod crustaceans and embryos of Mulinia lateralis were exposed to chlorinated seawater for varying periods in continuous flow systems. Mortality, developmental rate, and general behavior were recorded. Panopeus herbstii zoeae were more sensitive to chlorine-...

2

VITELLOGENISIS AND IT'S ENDOCRINE CONTROL IN DECAPOD CRUSTACEANS  

EPA Science Inventory

Vitellogenesis, the production of vitellin (major yolk protein), is controlled in decapod crustaceans by several hormones. With increasing efforts world-wide to successfully culture economically important crustaceans, such as shrimp, there is growing interest in attaining a bette...

3

Learning Comprehensible Relational Features to Distinguish Subfossil Decapod  

E-print Network

of morphology. Despite being commonly found in shell-rich fossil assemblages, decapod dactyls (i.e., claw discriminated the dactyls of sibling species and hybrids of the stone crab Menippe [2], closely related species

Goadrich, Mark

4

Predictive modelling and spatial mapping of freshwater fish and decapod assemblages using GIS and neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. We used stream fish and decapod spatial occurrence data extracted from a national database and recent surveys with geospatial landuse data, geomorphologic, climatic, and spatial data in a geographical information system (GIS) to model fish and decapod occurrence in the Wellington Region, New Zealand. 2. To predict the occurrence of each species at a site from a common

Michael K. Joy; Russell G. Death

2004-01-01

5

Relationship of Dorsoventral Eyeshine Distributions to Habitat Depth and Animal Size in Mesopelagic Decapods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eyeshine distribution patterns recorded from the eyes of 19 mesopelagic decapod species were examined and related to the depths at which the species are found. For most species examined, eyeshine was found to be brighter ventrally than dorsally. Deep-water decapod species that do not undergo diel vertical migrations had brighter dorsal eyeshine than migratory species. Eyeshine intensity in- creased with

M. L. JOHNSON; P. M. J. SHELTON; E. GATEN; P. J. HERRING

2000-01-01

6

Warm-water decapods and the trophic amplification of climate in the North Sea.  

PubMed

A long-term time series of plankton and benthic records in the North Sea indicates an increase in decapods and a decline in their prey species that include bivalves and flatfish recruits. Here, we show that in the southern North Sea the proportion of decapods to bivalves doubled following a temperature-driven, abrupt ecosystem shift during the 1980s. Analysis of decapod larvae in the plankton reveals a greater presence and spatial extent of warm-water species where the increase in decapods is greatest. These changes paralleled the arrival of new species such as the warm-water swimming crab Polybius henslowii now found in the southern North Sea. We suggest that climate-induced changes among North Sea decapods have played an important role in the trophic amplification of a climate signal and in the development of the new North Sea dynamic regime. PMID:20554562

Lindley, J A; Beaugrand, G; Luczak, C; Dewarumez, J-M; Kirby, R R

2010-12-23

7

Warm-water decapods and the trophic amplification of climate in the North Sea  

PubMed Central

A long-term time series of plankton and benthic records in the North Sea indicates an increase in decapods and a decline in their prey species that include bivalves and flatfish recruits. Here, we show that in the southern North Sea the proportion of decapods to bivalves doubled following a temperature-driven, abrupt ecosystem shift during the 1980s. Analysis of decapod larvae in the plankton reveals a greater presence and spatial extent of warm-water species where the increase in decapods is greatest. These changes paralleled the arrival of new species such as the warm-water swimming crab Polybius henslowii now found in the southern North Sea. We suggest that climate-induced changes among North Sea decapods have played an important role in the trophic amplification of a climate signal and in the development of the new North Sea dynamic regime. PMID:20554562

Lindley, J. A.; Beaugrand, G.; Luczak, C.; Dewarumez, J.-M.; Kirby, R. R.

2010-01-01

8

Geographical distribution of pelagic decapod shrimp in the Atlantic Ocean.  

PubMed

Ninety-one species of pelagic decapod shrimp were identified in 938 midwater-trawl collections taken between 1963 and 1974 from the North and South Atlantic. Distributional maps are provided for the most frequently occurring species. Nighttime abundance of most species was greatest within the upper 200 m. Degree of geographical overlap was estimated using the geometric mean of the proportion of joint occurrences with a value ? 0.5 deemed significant. Geographical distributions tended to be unique, and only 31 species had values ? 0.5 with one or more other species. Species within genera and within phylogenetic subgroups of Sergia were generally parapatric or partially overlapping in distribution. Five geographical groupings of co-occurring species across genera were identified: Subpolar-Temperate, Southern Hemisphere, Central, Tropical, Eastern Tropical and Western Tropical. The two species of the Southern Hemisphere group are circumpolar at temperate latitudes. The 12 species of the Central group occurred throughout the subtropical and tropical North and South Atlantic. The eight species of the Tropical group occurred broadly across the equatorial Atlantic and Caribbean with ranges usually extending into the Gulf of Mexico and northward in the Gulf Stream. The two species of the Western Tropical group occurred most often in the western tropics, but there were scattered occurrences at subtropical latitudes. The four species of the Eastern Tropical group were endemic to the Mauritanian Upwelling and the Angola-Benguela Frontal zones off western Africa. Two of the three species in the Subpolar-Temperate group had bipolar distributions, and all three occurred in the Mediterranean and in the Mauritanian Upwelling zone. Most Central, Tropical and Western Tropical species were present in the in the Gulf of Mexico. The 10 species from the Mediterranean were a mixture of Subpolar-Temperate, Central and benthopelagic species. Patterns of distribution in Atlantic pelagic decapods closely parallel those of other pelagic taxa, but myctophid fishes from the same collections appear to partition subtropical regions more finely. PMID:25543573

Judkins, David C

2014-01-01

9

Pelagic decapods in the northern Benguela upwelling system: Distribution, ecophysiology and contribution to active carbon flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decapods were sampled with a 1 m2 MOCNESS (mainly upper 1000 m) in the northern Benguela Current during three cruises in December 2009, September/October 2010 and February 2011. Although pelagic decapods are abundant members of the micronekton community, information about their ecophysiology is very limited. Species-specific regional distribution limits were detected for various decapod species (e.g. Plesionika carinata, Sergestes arcticus, Pasiphaea semispinosa). Significant diel vertical migration patterns were determined for three caridean and three penaeiodean species. Biomass was variable and ranged from 23 to 2770 mg dry mass m-2 with highest values for P. semispinosa. Fatty acid and stable isotope analyses revealed that the examined decapod species are omnivorous to carnivorous except for the herbivorous to omnivorous species P. carinata. Calanid copepods such as Calanoides carinatus were identified as an important prey item especially for caridean species. Community consumption rates of pelagic decapods derived from respiration rates ranged from 7 mg C m-2 d-1 (23°S) to >20 mg C m-2 d-1 (19°S, 17°S). A potential active respiratory carbon flux was calculated for migrating pelagic decapods with 4.4 mg C m-2 d-1 for the upper 200 m and with 2.6 mg C m-2 d-1 from the base of the euphotic zone to a depth of 600 m. Overall, pelagic decapods apparently play a more prominent role in the northern Benguela Current ecosystem than previously assumed and may exert a substantial predation impact on calanid copepods (up to 13% d-1 of standing stock).

Schukat, Anna; Bode, Maya; Auel, Holger; Carballo, Rodrigo; Martin, Bettina; Koppelmann, Rolf; Hagen, Wilhelm

2013-05-01

10

Cadmium uptake and accumulation by the decapod crustacean Penaeus indicus.  

PubMed

Juveniles of the dendrobranchiate decapod Penaeus indicus take up radiolabelled cadmium from solution over the exposure concentration range of 1.8-31.5 microg L(-1), with an uptake rate constant of 0.090 L g(-1)d(-1) at 15 salinity and 25 degrees C. New cadmium taken up is added to the existing cadmium content of the prawn with no significant excretion, and the rate of accumulation of radiolabelled cadmium is a measure of the absolute cadmium uptake rate from solution. Moulting had no significant effect on the accumulation of cadmium. Newly accumulated cadmium is distributed to all organs with the highest proportions of body content being found in the hepatopancreas, exoskeleton, gills and remaining soft tissues, the hepatopancreas and gills containing the highest labelled cadmium concentrations. Like other crustaceans, penaeid prawns inhabiting anthropogenically contaminated coastal waters with raised cadmium bioavailabilities can be expected to contain raised body concentrations of cadmium. Cadmium concentrations of most field-collected adult penaeids are relatively low, as a probable consequence of the growth dilution of their cadmium contents as a result of the rapid growth rates of penaeid prawns. PMID:15769503

Nuñez-Nogueira, Gabriel; Rainbow, Philip S

2005-09-01

11

INCUBATION IN BRITISH DECAPOD CRUSTACEA, AND THE EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE ON THE RATE AND SUCCESS OF EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-one species of female decapod Crustacea with gravid ovaries were collected from the field and spawned naturally in the laboratory. Newly spawned eggs and in­ cubating females were kept at temperatures between 3 °C and 24 °C constant at 3 °C increments until the eggs hatched after completing their embryonic development. Observations on developing eggs confirmed that in decapods which

ROBERT G. WEAR

1976-01-01

12

Adult neurogenesis in the decapod crustacean brain: A hematopoietic connection?  

PubMed Central

New neurons are produced and integrated into circuits in the adult brains of many organisms, including crustaceans. In some crustacean species, the 1st- generation neuronal precursors reside in a niche exhibiting characteristics analogous to mammalian neurogenic niches. However, unlike mammalian niches where several generations of neuronal precursors coexist, the lineage of precursor cells in crayfish is spatially separated allowing the influence of environmental and endogenous regulators on specific generations in the neuronal precursor lineage to be defined. Experiments also demonstrate that the 1st-generation neuronal precursors in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii are not self-renewing. A source external to the neurogenic niche must therefore provide cells that replenish the 1st-generation precursor pool, because although these cells divide and produce a continuous efflux of 2nd-generation cells from the niche, the population of 1st-generation niche precursors is not diminished with growth and aging. In vitro studies show that cells extracted from the hemolymph, but not other tissues, are attracted to and incorporated into the neurogenic niche, a phenomenon that appears to involve serotonergic mechanisms. We propose that in crayfish, the hematopoietic system may be a source of cells that replenish the niche cell pool. These and other studies reviewed here establish decapod crustaceans as model systems in which the processes underlying adult neurogenesis, such as stem cell origins and transformation, can be readily explored. Studies in diverse species where adult neurogenesis occurs will result in a broader understanding of fundamental mechanisms and how evolutionary processes may have shaped the vertebrate/mammalian condition. PMID:21929622

Beltz, Barbara S.; Zhang, Yi; Benton, Jeanne L.; Sandeman, David C.

2011-01-01

13

When did decapods invade hydrothermal vents? Clues from the Western Pacific and Indian Oceans.  

PubMed

Hydrothermal vents are typically located in midocean ridges and back-arc basins and are usually generated by the movement of tectonic plates. Life thrives in these environments despite the extreme conditions. In addition to chemoautotrophic bacteria, decapod crustaceans are dominant in many of the hydrothermal vents discovered to date. Contrary to the hypothesis that these species are remnants of relic fauna, increasing evidence supports the notion that hydrothermal vent decapods have diversified in more recent times with previous research attributing the origin of alvinocarid shrimps to the Miocene. This study investigated seven representative decapod species from four hydrothermal vents throughout the Western Pacific and Indian Oceans. A partitioned mix-model phylogenomic analysis of mitochondrial DNA produced a consistent phylogenetic topology of these vent-endemic species. Additionally, molecular dating analysis calibrated using multiple fossils suggested that both bythograeid crabs and alvinocarid shrimps originated in the late Mesozoic and early Cenozoic. Although of limited sampling, our estimates support the extinction/repopulation hypothesis, which postulates recent diversification times for most hydrothermal vent species due to their mass extinction by global deep-water anoxic/dysoxic events during the Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary. The continental-derived property of the West Pacific province is compatible with the possibility that vent decapods diversified from ancestors from shallow-water regions such as cold seeps. Our results move us a step closer toward understanding the evolutionary origin of hydrothermal vent species and their distribution in the Western Pacific-Indian Ocean Region. PMID:23002089

Yang, Jin-Shu; Lu, Bo; Chen, Dian-Fu; Yu, Yan-Qin; Yang, Fan; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Tsuchida, Shinji; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Yang, Wei-Jun

2013-02-01

14

Distribution, abundance, and feeding ecology of decapods in the Arabian Sea, with implications for vertical flux  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrozooplankton and micronekton samples were collected on two cruises in the Arabian Sea conducted during the Spring Intermonsoon period (May) and the SW Monsoon period (August) of 1995. Discrete depth samples were collected down to depths of 1000–1500m. Quantitative gut content analyses were performed on four species of decapod shrimps, Gennadas sordidus, Sergia filictum, Sergia creber, and Eupasiphae gilesii, as

Sarah L. Mincks; Stephen M. Bollens; Laurence P. Madin; Erich Horgan; Mari Butler; Patricia M. Kremer; James E. Craddock

2000-01-01

15

Fishes and decapod crustaceans of Cape Cod eelgrass meadows: Species composition, seasonal abundance patterns and comparison with unvegetated substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bimonthly trawl samples from eelgrass and nearby unvegetated areas on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, showed greater species richness\\u000a in eelgrass meadows relative to unvegetated areas, and greater summer abundance in vegetation for decapod crustaceans and\\u000a fishes. The composition of eelgrass-associated decapods and fishes was dominated by cold-water taxa and was strikingly different\\u000a from that of the better studied eelgrass meadows of

K. L. Heck; K. W. Able; M. P. Fahay; C. T. Roman

1989-01-01

16

Megabenthic decapod crustacean assemblages on the Galician continental shelf and upper slope (north-west Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of megabenthic decapod crustacean assemblages on the Galician (north-west Spain) continental shelf (100 to\\u000a 200 depth) and upper slope (200 to 500 m) was analyzed based on surveys carried out in autumn and spring, from 1980 to 1987.\\u000a Forty species belonging to 19 families were caught. The portunid crab Polybius henslowii, a species with pelagic phases, was the

A. C. Fariña; J. Freire; E. González-Gurriarán

1997-01-01

17

Identification and developmental expression of mRNAs encoding crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) in decapod crustaceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Full-length cDNAs encoding crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) were isolated from several decapod (brachyuran and astacuran) crustaceans: the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, green shore crab Carcinus maenas, European lobster Homarus gamarus and calico crayfish Orconectes immunis. The cDNAs encode open reading frames of 143 (brachyurans) and 139-140 (astacurans) amino acids. Apart from the predicted signal peptides (30-32 amino acids), the conceptually

J. S. Chung; D. C. Wilcockson; N. Zmora; Y. Zohar; H. Dircksen; S. G. Webster

2006-01-01

18

Topographical and typological comparison of the rodlike setae of ambulatory dactylopodites in decapod crustaceans  

SciTech Connect

The arrangement and external morphology of the rodlike setae and associated structures located on the dactylopodites of the walking legs of six species of decapod crustaceans are compared. The dactyls of littoral species, represented by the rock crab, Cancer antennarius, and the spiny lobster, Panulirus interruptus, have dense tufts and bands of rodlike setae, as is typical of many decapods, and additionally only a few small plumed setae. The arrangement of setae on the dactyls of the recently discovered Galapagos vent crab. Bythograea thermydron, closely resembles that of C. antennarius. Rodlike and long plumed setae occur in about equal numbers on the dactyls of the pelagic anomuran, Pleuroncodes planipes. The dactyls having the fewest rodlike setae are those of the terrestrial hermit crab, Coenobita perlatus, and those of the kelp crab, Pugettia producta, where flat setae typical of Majidae have replace most rodlike setae. The presence and structures of the terminal pores in rodlike setae vary intra- and interspecifically, possibly as a function of molt stage. Variations in some features of rodlike setae, such as tip acuity and presence of microsetae and surface sculpting, appear to be related to development. Serrated setae occur on the dactyls of megalopal P. producta but not in later stages. The topography and typolgy of setae located on the ambulatory dactyls of decapod crustaceans are considered in light of recent interest in using seta characteristics to determine the sensory functions of sensilla and to clarify the phylogeny of arthropod groups.

Hamilton, K.A.

1983-01-01

19

Adult neurogenesis: Examples from the decapod crustaceans and comparisons with mammals  

PubMed Central

Defining evolutionary origins is a means of understanding an organism’s position within the integrated web of living beings, and to not only to trace characteristics back in time, but also to project forward in an attempt to reveal relationships with more recently evolved forms. Both the vertebrates and arthropods possess condensed nervous systems, but this is dorsal in the vertbrates and ventral in the arthropods. Also, whereas the nervous system in the vertebrates develops from a neural tube in the embryo, that of the arthropods comes from an ectodermal plate. Despite these apparently fundamental differences, it is now generally accepted that life-long neurogenesis, the generation of functionally integrated neurons from progenitor cells, is a common feature of the adult brains of a variety of organisms, ranging from insects and crustaceans to birds and mammals. Among decapod crustaceans, there is evidence for adult neurogenesis in basal species of the Dendrobranchiata, as well as in more recent terrestrial, marine and fresh-water species. The widespread nature of this phenomenon in decapod species may relate to the importance of the adult-born neurons, although their functional contribution is not yet known. The many similarities between the systems generating neurons in the adult brains of decapod crustaceans and mammals, reviewed in this paper, suggest that adult neurogenesis is governed by common ancestral mechanisms that have been retained in a phylogenetically broad group of species. PMID:21396485

Sandeman, David C.; Bazin, Francois; Beltz, Barbara S.

2011-01-01

20

Seasonal distribution and abundance of fishes and decapod crustaceans in a Cape Cod estuary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sampling in several habitat types (sand/mud, eelgrass, sand, gravel, macroalgae/mud) during all seasons with a variety of gears in Nauset Marsh, Massachusetts during 1985-1987 found a fauna consisting of 35 fish and 10 decapod crustacean species. Although most of the abundant species were found in several habitat types, species richness and habitat use appeared to be highest for vegetated habitats (eelgrass, macroalgae). The fishes and decapods were numerically dominated by cold-water taxa; however, numerous fish species, represented by rare individuals of predominantly southern forms, enriched the fauna. Species composition of Nauset Marsh could be distinguished from estuaries south of Cape Cod and even from the south shore of the cape. Both fishes and decapods were most abundant during the summer, apparently due to the contributions from spring and summer spawning in the estuary and the adjacent Atlantic Ocean. The location of Nauset Marsh and other estuaries on Cape Cod provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the importance of this region as a faunal boundary to estuarine species.

Able, K.W.; Fahay, M.P.; Heck, K.L.; Roman, C.T.; Lazzari, M.A.; Kaiser, S.C.

2002-01-01

21

A comparison of eelgrass, sea lettuce macroalgae, and marsh creeks as habitats for epibenthic fishes and decapods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Densities of epibenthic fishes and decapod crustaceans (excluding xanthids and pagurids) were quantified with daytime throw trap sampling in shallow water habitats of New Jersey estuaries. We compared eelgrass ( Zostera marina), sea lettuce macroalgae ( Ulva lactuca), unvegetated sand/mud substrates adjacent to these vegetation types, and saltmarsh creeks. The highest total density of fishes occurred in marsh creeks, due primarily to high abundances of Menidia menidia. The highest total decapod density was also in a marsh creek, but only slightly surpassed the density in Zostera. Results of apriori comparisons tests for individual species demonstrated that vegetation (either Zostera or Ulva) was superior in quality (based on fish and decapod densities) to adjacent unvegetated substrates. Sites with Zostera as the dominant vegetation had higher densities of most fish species than sites with Ulva as the dominant vegetation, but only one decapod, Hippolyte pleuracanthus, was more abundant at eelgrass sites. Ulva lactuca, therefore, was an important habitat in areas lacking Zostera marina; for the decapods the two vegetation types were comparable in habitat quality, but for fishes Ulva did not provide an equivalent substitute for Zostera. Marsh creeks supported very high densities, but only for a few species that were also common in other habitats. Comparison of recruitment patterns suggested many species do not begin exploiting these estuarine habitats until relatively late in the summer, perhaps as result of peak spawning in mid-summer.

Sogard, Susan M.; Able, Kenneth W.

1991-11-01

22

Aspects of Benthic Decapod Diversity and Distribution from Rocky Nearshore Habitat at Geographically Widely Dispersed Sites  

PubMed Central

Relationships of diversity, distribution and abundance of benthic decapods in intertidal and shallow subtidal waters to 10 m depth are explored based on data obtained using a standardized protocol of globally-distributed samples. Results indicate that decapod species richness overall is low within the nearshore, typically ranging from one to six taxa per site (mean?=?4.5). Regionally the Gulf of Alaska decapod crustacean community structure was distinguishable by depth, multivariate analysis indicating increasing change with depth, where assemblages of the high and mid tide, low tide and 1 m, and 5 and 10 m strata formed three distinct groups. Univariate analysis showed species richness increasing from the high intertidal zone to 1 m subtidally, with distinct depth preferences among the 23 species. A similar depth trend but with peak richness at 5 m was observed when all global data were combined. Analysis of latitudinal trends, confined by data limitations, was equivocal on a global scale. While significant latitudinal differences existed in community structure among ecoregions, a semi-linear trend in changing community structure from the Arctic to lower latitudes did not hold when including tropical results. Among boreal regions the Canadian Atlantic was relatively species poor compared to the Gulf of Alaska, whereas the Caribbean and Sea of Japan appeared to be species hot spots. While species poor, samples from the Canadian Atlantic were the most diverse at the higher infraordinal level. Linking 11 environmental variables available for all sites to the best fit family-based biotic pattern showed a significant relationship, with the single best explanatory variable being the level of organic pollution and the best combination overall being organic pollution and primary productivity. While data limitations restrict conclusions in a global context, results are seen as a first-cut contribution useful in generating discussion and more in-depth work in the still poorly understood field of biodiversity distribution. PMID:21533220

Pohle, Gerhard; Iken, Katrin; Clarke, K. Robert; Trott, Thomas; Konar, Brenda; Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Wong, Melisa; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Mead, Angela; Miloslavich, Patricia; Mieszkowska, Nova; Milne, Rebecca; Tamburello, Laura; Knowlton, Ann; Kimani, Edward; Shirayama, Yoshihisa

2011-01-01

23

Nickel uptake and regulation in a copper-tolerant decapod, Cambarus bartoni (Fabricius)  

SciTech Connect

Large amounts of acid forming sulfur dioxide, and heavy metals including nickel are continuously being released into the environment by mining and smelting operations at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. As a consequence, a number of lakes in this region has become acidic and metal stressed. In the current study the uptake and accumulation of nickel by various tissues of a copper-tolerant crayfish, Cambarus bartoni (Decapod, Crustacea), was monitored for 4 wk in the laboratory to ascertain the dynamic nature (i.e., the pattern in time) of the response of the crayfish to increased levels of this relatively less metabolically essential but toxic metal in the aquatic environment.

Alikhan, M.A.; Zia, S.

1989-01-01

24

Coral-associated decapods (Crustacea) from the Mexican Tropical Pacific coast.  

PubMed

Our study provides a checklist of 36 crustacean decapods from the Mexican tropical Pacific coastline. Most of the species were previously recorded from coral communities in the Gulf of California. Data were obtained by visual censuses of coral communities and some specimens were collected by extractions of coral branches (approximately eight liters of coral volume). We found new geographic records for three species from the Eastern Pacific and seven species that have extended ranges into Mexican waters. Only one species is documented with a northerly range from Central America to Mexican waters. PMID:24699609

Hernández, Luis; Ortiz, Georgina Ramírez; Reyes-Bonilla, Héctor

2013-01-01

25

Cloning and expression study of the lobster (Homarus americanus) vitellogenin: Conservation in gene structure among decapods.  

PubMed

This study reports the molecular characterization of the vitellogenin (Vg) of the lobster, Homarus americanus. Based on the annual collection of female lobsters, vitellogenesis commences in early March and continues through to September of each year. Using an antibody to vitellin of the lobster, H. americanus, several immunoreactive ovarian proteins were initially identified by Western blot analysis. The 80kDa protein contained the amino acid sequence APWGGNTPRC, identified subsequently by cDNA cloning to be identical to the lobster Vg. In common with the shrimp Metapenaeus ensis and crab Charybdis feriatus, the lobster HaVg1 gene comprises 14 introns and 15 exons. The deduced HaVg1 precursor is most similar to the Vg of the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus (57%), followed by M. ensis (40-43% identity) and C. feriatus (38%). The results from genomic and RT-PCR cloning also confirmed the presence of multiple Vg genes in lobster. At early reproductive stages, the hepatopancreas HaVg1 transcript levels are low but increased to a maximum in animals with mature oocytes. The ovary, however, also expressed low levels of HaVg1. Using in vitro explant culture, treatment of hepatopancreas fragments with farnesoic acid or 20-hydroxyecdysone resulted in a significant stimulation in HaVg1 expression. From this study, it appears that Vg gene organization and expression pattern in decapods is highly conserved. Similar endocrine mechanisms may govern the process of vitellogenesis across the decapods. PMID:18992748

Tiu, Shirley Hiu Kwan; Hui, Ho-Lam; Tsukimura, Brian; Tobe, Stephen S; He, Jian-Guo; Chan, Siu-Ming

2009-01-01

26

Effect of environmental factors on the abundance of decapod crustaceans from soft bottoms off southeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study investigated the importance of variations in environmental factors affecting the abundance patterns of decapods on the southeastern Brazilian coast. Sampling was carried out monthly from January 1998 through December 1999 in Ubatumirim and Mar Virado, Ubatuba region, using a commercial shrimp fishing boat equipped with double-rig nets. Six areas adjacent to rocky shores were chosen. Bottom-water samples were collected using a Nansen bottle, to measure the temperature and salinity. Sediment samples were also obtained by means of a Van Veen grab, for determination of texture and organic-matter content. The association of environmental factors with species abundance was evaluated by Canonical Correspondence Analysis (? = 0.05). Forty-one species of Decapoda were used in the multivariate analysis. The analysis indicated that sediment texture (phi) and bottom temperature were the main factors correlated (p < 0.05) with the spatial and temporal abundance of the species. Considering the study region as faunal transition zone, including a mixture of species of both tropical and subantarctic origin, the species responded differently to environmental factors, mainly temperature. It is conceivable that the decapods adjust their distribution according to their intrinsic physiological limitations, possibly as a result of the available resources. PMID:24141416

Furlan, Michele; Castilho, Antonio L; Fernandes-Góes, Lissandra C; Fransozo, Vivian; Bertini, Giovana; Costa, Rogério C da

2013-01-01

27

Marine snake epibiosis: a review and first report of decapods associated with Pelamis platurus.  

PubMed

Under circumstances in which area for settlement is limited, the colonization of living substrata may become a highly valuable strategy for survival of marine invertebrates. This phenomenon, termed epibiosis, results in spatially close associations between two or more living organisms. Pelamis platurus, the yellow-bellied sea snake, is the only exclusively pelagic marine snake and its propensity for foraging along ocean slicks facilitates its colonization by pelagic epibionts. Herein, we report epibionts associated with P. platurus inhabiting the waters off the northwestern Pacific coast of Costa Rica. These associations include the first records of decapod epibionts from any marine snake. Decapod epibionts were found on 18.9% of P. platurus, and size of snake (total length) had a significant positive effect on the frequency and intensity of epibiosis. We discuss the spatial and ecological mechanisms that facilitate these interactions, as well as the suite of factors that either promote or deter epibiosis and ultimately dictate the frequency and intensity of these interactions. Finally, we provide a review of marine snake epibiosis. The intention of this review is to (1) provide contemporary researchers with a single, accessible reference to all known reports of epibionts associated with marine snakes and (2) discuss what is currently known with respect to diversity of epibionts from marine snakes. PMID:22505588

Pfaller, Joseph B; Frick, Michael G; Brischoux, François; Sheehy, Coleman M; Lillywhite, Harvey B

2012-08-01

28

Nuclear DNA content variation associated with muscle fiber hypertrophic growth in decapod crustaceans.  

PubMed

We tested the hypothesis that hypertrophic muscle growth in decapod crustaceans is associated with increases in both the number of nuclei per fiber and nuclear DNA content. The DNA-localizing fluorochrome DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) and chicken erythrocyte standards were used with static microspectrophotometry and image analysis to estimate nuclear DNA content in hemocytes and muscle fibers from eight decapod crustacean species: Farfantepenaeus aztecus, Palaemonetes pugio, Panulirus argus, Homarus americanus, Procambarus clarkii, Cambarus bartonii, Callinectes sapidus, and Menippe mercenaria. Mean diploid (2C) values in hemocytes ranged from 3.6 to 11.7 pg. Hemocyte 2C estimates were used to extrapolate ploidy level in the multinucleated skeletal muscle tissue of juvenile and adult animals. Across all species, mean muscle fiber diameters from adult animals were significantly larger than those in juveniles, and nuclear domains were greater in larger fibers. The number of nuclei per fiber increased with increasing fiber size, as hypothesized. Maximum nuclear DNA content per species in muscle ranged from 4C to 32C, consistent with endopolyploidy. Two patterns of body- and fiber-size-dependent shifts in ploidy were observed: four species had a significantly higher ploidy in the larger fibers of adults, while three species exhibited a significantly lower ploidy in adults than in juveniles. Thus, across species, there was no systematic relationship between nuclear domain size and nuclear DNA content. PMID:20237594

Jimenez, Ana Gabriela; Kinsey, Stephen T; Dillaman, Richard M; Kapraun, Donald F

2010-03-01

29

The Decapod Crustacean Circulatory System: A Case That Is neither Open nor Closed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically, the decapod crustacean circulatory system has been classed as open. However, recent work on the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, suggests the circulatory system may be more complex than previously described. Corrosion casting techniques were refined and used to map the circulatory system of a variety of crab species (order: Decapoda; family: Cancridae) to determine if the complexity observed in the blue crab was present in other species. Seven arteries arose from the single chambered heart. The anterior aorta, the paired anterolateral arteries, and the paired hepatic arteries exited from the anterior aspect of the heart. The small-diameter posterior aorta exited posteriorly from the heart. Exiting from the ventral surface of the heart, the sternal artery branched to supply the legs and mouthparts of the crab. These arteries were more complex than previously described, with arterioles perfusing all areas of the body. The arterioles split into fine capillary-like vessels. Most of these capillaries were blind ending. However, in several areas (antennal gland, supraesophageal ganglion) complete capillary beds were present. After passing through the capillary-like vessels, blood drained into a series of sinuses. However, rather than being arbitrary spaces as previously described, scanning electron micrographs showed the sinuses to be distinct units. Most of the sinuses formed a series of flattened membrane-bound lacunae. This complexity may qualify the decapod crustacean circulatory system as one that is "partially closed" rather than open.

McGaw, Iain J.

2005-02-01

30

INFLUENCE OF SALINITY ON HABITAT UTILIZATION OF OYSTER REEFS BY RESIDENT FISHES AND DECAPOD CRUSTACEANS IN THE CALOOSAHATCHEE ESTUARY, FLORIDA.  

EPA Science Inventory

A spatiotemporal comparison of habitat suitability of oyster reefs for fishes and decapod crustaceans was conducted for the lower Caloosahatchee Estuary, Florida. Lift nets (1-m2) containing 5 liters (volume displacement) of oyster clusters were deployed monthly at three sites al...

31

Acanthaster planci Outbreak: Decline in Coral Health, Coral Size Structure Modification and Consequences for Obligate Decapod Assemblages  

PubMed Central

Although benthic motile invertebrate communities encompass the vast majority of coral reef diversity, their response to habitat modification has been poorly studied. A variety of benthic species, particularly decapods, provide benefits to their coral host enabling them to cope with environmental stressors, and as a result benefit the overall diversity of coral-associated species. However, little is known about how invertebrate assemblages associated with corals will be affected by global perturbations, (either directly or indirectly via their coral host) or their consequences for ecosystem resilience. Analysis of a ten year dataset reveals that the greatest perturbation at Moorea over this time was an outbreak of the corallivorous sea star Acanthaster planci from 2006 to 2009 impacting habitat health, availability and size structure of Pocillopora spp. populations and highlights a positive relationship between coral head size and survival. We then present the results of a mensurative study in 2009 conducted at the end of the perturbation (A. planci outbreak) describing how coral-decapod communities change with percent coral mortality for a selected coral species, Pocillopora eydouxi. The loss of coral tissue as a consequence of A. planci consumption led to an increase in rarefied total species diversity, but caused drastic modifications in community composition driven by a shift from coral obligate to non-obligate decapod species. Our study highlights that larger corals left with live tissue in 2009, formed a restricted habitat where coral obligate decapods, including mutualists, could subsist. We conclude that the size structure of Pocillopora populations at the time of an A. planci outbreak may greatly condition the magnitude of coral mortality as well as the persistence of local populations of obligate decapods. PMID:22530026

Leray, Matthieu; Béraud, Maxime; Anker, Arthur; Chancerelle, Yannick; Mills, Suzanne C.

2012-01-01

32

The evolution of armament strength: evidence for a constraint on the biting performance of claws of durophagous decapods.  

PubMed

Performance data for the claws of six sympatric species of Cancer crabs confirmed a puzzling pattern reported previously for two other decapod crustaceans (stone crabs, Menippe mercenaria, and lobsters, Homarus americanus): Although biting forces increased, maximum muscle stresses (force per unit area) declined with increasing claw size. The negative allometry of muscle stress and the stress at a given claw size were fairly consistent within and among Cancer species despite significant differences in adult body size and relative claw size, but were not consistent among decapod genera. Therefore, claw height can be used as a reliable predictor of maximum biting force for the genus Cancer, but must be used with caution as a predictor of maximum biting force in wider evolutionary and biogeographical comparisons of decapods. The decline in maximum muscle stress with increasing claw size in Cancer crabs contrasts with the pattern in several other claw traits. Significantly, three traits that affect maximal biting force increased intraspecifically with increasing claw size: relative claw size, mechanical advantage, and sarcomere length of the closer muscle. Closer apodeme area and angle of pinnation of the closer muscle fibers varied isometrically with claw size. The concordant behavior of these traits suggests selection for higher biting forces in larger crabs. The contrast between the size dependence of muscle stress (negative allometry) and the remaining claw traits (isometry or positive allometry) strongly suggests that an as yet unidentified constraint impairs muscle performance in larger claws. The negative allometry of muscle stress in two distantly related taxa (stone crabs and lobsters) further suggests this constraint may be widespread in decapod crustaceans. The implications of this performance constraint for the evolution of claw size and the "arms-race" between decapod predators and their hard-shelled prey is discussed. PMID:11327162

Taylor, G M

2001-03-01

33

Selfing in a malacostracan crustacean: why a tanaidacean but not decapods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crustacean class Malacostraca, with over 22,000 species, includes commercially important members, such as crabs, shrimps, and lobsters. A few simultaneous hermaphrodites are known in this group, but self-fertilization was unknown. Here we show, through microscopy and breeding experiments, that the simultaneously hermaphroditic malacostracan Apseudes sp. (order Tanaidacea) can self-fertilize; individuals reared in isolation become hermaphroditic via a male-like phase and produce eggs that develop into fertile adults. Although selfing occurs in crustaceans like the Branchiopoda, in which simultaneous hermaphrodites have the sex ducts united, in decapods the separation of gonadal ducts and gonopores, specialized mating organs, and complex mating behavior appear to have constrained the evolution of selfing. In contrast, in most tanaidaceans, sperm is released externally by a male and reaches the eggs in the female brood pouch, where fertilization occurs. This mode of fertilization permitted Apseudes sp. to achieve selfing without large modifications in morphology or behavior.

Kakui, Keiichi; Hiruta, Chizue

2013-09-01

34

Decapod crustacean larval communities in the Balearic Sea (western Mediterranean): Seasonal composition, horizontal and vertical distribution patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decapod crustaceans are the main target species of deep water bottom trawl fisheries in the Balearic Sea but little is known about their larval stages. This work focuses on the species composition of the decapod larval community, describing the main spatio-temporal assemblages and assessing their vertical distribution. Mesozooplankton sampling was carried out using depth-stratified sampling devices at two stations located over the shelf break and the mid slope, in the north-western and southern Mallorca in late autumn 2009 and summer 2010. Differences among decapod larvae communities, in terms of composition, adult's habitat such as pelagic or benthic, and distribution patterns were observed between seasons, areas and station. Results showed that for both seasons most species and developmental stages aggregated within the upper water column (above 75 m depth) and showed higher biodiversity in summer compared to late autumn. Most abundant species were pelagic prawns (e.g., Sergestidae) occurring in both seasons and areas. The larval assemblages' distributions were different between seasonal hydrographic scenarios and during situations of stratified and non-stratified water column. The vertical distribution patterns of different larval developmental stages in respect to the adult's habitat were analyzed in relation to environmental variables. Fluorescence had the highest explanatory power. Four clearly different vertical patterns were identified: two corresponding to late autumn, which were common for all the main larval groups and other two in summer, one corresponding to larvae of coastal benthic and the second to pelagic species larvae.

Torres, Asvin P.; Dos Santos, Antonina; Balbín, Rosa; Alemany, Francisco; Massutí, Enric; Reglero, Patricia

2014-10-01

35

Seasonal and Spatial Patterns of an Epibenthic Decapod Crustacean Assemblage in North-west Atlantic Continental Shelf Waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To examine seasonal and spatial patterns in a mobile marine assemblage, monthly samples were taken in triplicate with a 2-m beam trawl (6-mm mesh) at three separate stations (landward of the ridge, on the ridge top, and seaward of the ridge). The assemblage was of epibenthic decapod crustaceans, and was situated at a north-west Atlantic continental shelf, sandy ridge site. The assemblage was composed of nine species and was extremely variable over time and space. The sevenspine bay shrimp ( Crangon septemspinosa), the Atlantic rock crab ( Cancer irroratus), the spider crab ( Libinia emarginata) and the lady crab ( Ovalipes ocellatus) were the numerical dominants, comprising >98% of all decapods collected. Three of these species ( C. septemspinosa, C. irroratus, L. emarginata) exhibited marked spatial heterogeneity in abundance, with many fewer found on the ridge top than at either of the other two stations. Ovalipes ocellatuswas not as spatially variable. Crangonshowed two clear peaks, in spring and fall, as did Libinia, but neither appeared to use the site as a nursery area. Ovalipes ocellatusand C. irroratuseach showed a single peak of very small individuals in the summer and appeared to use this site for settlement. Komolgorov-Smirnov tests, analysis of variance and cluster analysis showed much less difference in assemblage structure between the landward and seaward stations than was demonstrated between either station and the ridge top. The presence of the sand ridge had a clear impact on the abundance and distribution of local decapod crustacean populations.

Viscido, S. V.; Stearns, D. E.; Able, K. W.

1997-09-01

36

On some interesting marine decapod crustaceans (Alpheidae, Laomediidae, Strahlaxiidae) from Lombok, Indonesia.  

PubMed

Several rare or uncommon, mostly infaunal decapod crustaceans are reported from intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats of Lombok, Indonesia. The alpheid shrimps Alpheus angustilineatus Nomura & Anker, 2005, Athanas shawnsmithi Anker, 2011, Jengalpheops rufus Anker & Dworschak, 2007, Salmoneus alpheophilus Anker & Marin, 2006, Salmoneus colinorum De Grave, 2004, and the laomediid mud-shrimp Naushonia carinata Dworschak, Marin & Anker, 2006, are reported for the first time since their original descriptions and represent new records for the marine fauna of Indonesia. The alpheid shrimps Alpheus macellarius Chace, 1988, Alpheus platyunguiculatus (Banner, 1953), Athanas japonicus Kubo, 1936, Athanas polymorphus Kemp, 1915, Leptalpheus denticulatus Anker & Marin, 2009, Richalpheus palmeri Anker & Jeng, 2006, Salmoneus gracilipes Miya, 1972, Salmoneus tricristatus Banner, 1959 and the laomediid mudshrimps Laomedia astacina De Haan, 1841 and Naushonia lactoalbida Berggren, 1992 are new records for Indonesian waters. The remaining alpheid shrimps, namely Alpheopsis yaldwyni Banner & Banner, 1973, Alpheus savuensis De Man, 1908, Automate anacanthopus De Man, 1910, Automate dolichognatha De Man, 1888, Salmoneus serratidigitus (Coutière, 1896), and the strahlaxiid mud-shrimp Neaxius glyptocercus (von Martens, 1869), all previously known from Indonesia, are recorded for the first time from Lombok. Colour photographs are provided for all species reported, some shown in colour for the first time.  PMID:25661615

Anker, Arthur; Pratama, Idham Sumarto; Firdaus, Muhammad; Rahayu, Dwi Listyo

2015-01-01

37

A Successful Crayfish Invader Is Capable of Facultative Parthenogenesis: A Novel Reproductive Mode in Decapod Crustaceans  

PubMed Central

Biological invasions are impacting biota worldwide, and explaining why some taxa tend to become invasive is of major scientific interest. North American crayfish species, particularly of the family Cambaridae, are prominent invaders in freshwaters, defying the “tens rule” which states that only a minority of species introduced to new regions become established, and only a minority of those become invasive and pests. So far, success of cambarid invaders has largely been attributed to rapid maturation, high reproductive output, aggressiveness, and tolerance to pollution. We provide experimental evidence that females of one cambarid species particularly widespread in Europe, the spiny-cheek crayfish Orconectes limosus, are capable of facultative parthenogenesis. Such reproductive mode has never before been recognized in decapods, the most diverse crustacean order. As shown by analysis of seven microsatellite loci, crayfish females kept physically separated from males produced genetically homogeneous offspring identical with maternal individuals; this suggests they reproduced by apomixis, unlike those females which mated with males and had a diverse offspring. Further research is needed to clarify what environmental conditions are necessary for a switch to parthenogenesis in O. limosus, and what role it plays in natural crayfish populations. However, if such reproductive plasticity is present in other cambarid crayfish species, it may contribute to the overwhelming invasive success of this group. PMID:21655282

Bu?i?, Miloš; Hulák, Martin; Kouba, Antonín

2011-01-01

38

Mechanical functions of setae from the mouth apparatus of seven species of decapod crustaceans.  

PubMed

The mouthpart setae of seven species of decapods were examined with macro-video recordings and scanning electron microscopy. The general mechanical (nonsensory) functions of the different mouthparts are described and an account of their setation is given. This offers the possibility to determine the mechanical functions of the different types of setae. Pappose setae do not participate in food handling but in general make setal barriers. Plumose setae likewise do not contact food objects but assist in current generation. Papposerrate setae are rare but they were seen to assist in pushing food particles into the mouth. Serrulate setae are very common and mainly participate in gentle food handling and grooming. Serrate setae are used for more rough food manipulation and grooming. The roughest shredding, tearing, and manipulation of prey items are handled by the cuspidate setae. Simple setae seem to be divided into two populations with very different functions. On the maxillipeds of Panulirus argus they are used for shredding, tearing, and holding the food objects, but on the basis of maxilla 2 of three other species they appear to have very little mechanical influence and only when handling small prey items. The functional scheme seems to be consistent within the Decapoda. PMID:15052599

Garm, Anders

2004-04-01

39

The impact of coastal defence structures (tetrapods) on decapod crustaceans in the southern North Sea.  

PubMed

Although the use of coastal defence structures is expected to increase, little is known about the ecological impact of such structures on the natural environment. In particular, the temporal and spatial patterns of communities in association with artificial substrate are still poorly understood. This study examined possible effects of experimental tetrapod fields on the decapod crustacean community in a subtidal hard-bottom area in the southern North Sea. We performed in situ studies in the fields and along transects oriented away from the tetrapod fields. Species composition and abundances were assessed before and after the introduction of the artificial material. The study revealed a significant decrease of smaller, less vagile species (Pisidia longicornis, Pilumnus hirtellus, Galathea squamifera) over the entire study area in the years following the tetrapod introduction. For 2 species, Hyas araneus and Homarus gammarus, the tetrapods appeared to be highly attractive as habitat and shelter because their abundance increased over time. No distinct spatial or temporal effects were observed for mobile predatory crabs, such as Cancer pagurus and Liocarcinus spp. The results of the study demonstrate that possible effects of artificial structures on macro-invertebrates in temperate hard-bottom areas are highly species-specific and depend on the size, lifestyle and ecological requirements of the species. This work highlights the importance of long-term studies. Our findings clearly indicate that more time is needed to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic influences on species distributions. PMID:24041979

Wehkamp, Stephanie; Fischer, Philipp

2013-12-01

40

Setal morphology of the grooming appendages of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonidae) and review of decapod setal classification.  

PubMed

Setae are vital in grooming activities and aiding in the removal of epibionts and sedimentary fouling from the body surfaces of decapod crustaceans. Thus, the setal structures and their arrangement on the grooming appendages and sensory structures of the commercially important shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Macrobrachium rosenbergii is extensively grown in aquaculture and exhibits unique male morphological forms, termed morphotypes. The three male morphotypes are termed blue-clawed males, orange-clawed males, and small-clawed or undifferentiated males and all three differ in their dominance, behavior, body morphology, and reproductive success. Seven setal types, two of which have never been described in the literature, are identified on the grooming appendages (third maxillipeds, first, second, and fifth pereopods) and antennae: simple, serrate, serrulate, spiniform, pappose, crinoid, and spinulate. The latter two setae are newly identified. Certain setal types, such as serrate and serrulate setae were located and associated with specific grooming appendages such as the first pereopods. The types of setae on the grooming appendages varied among females and male morphotypes and the novel setal types (crinoid and spinulate) were found only on two of the male morphotypes. A literature review of terminology related to the structure of setae and setal types in decapod crustaceans is offered as the usage of various terms is ambiguous and conflicting in the literature. The intention of this review is to provide future authors with a comprehensive collection of terms and images that can be used to describe various aspects of setal morphology in decapods. PMID:24500885

Wortham, Jennifer L; Vanmaurik, Lauren N; Wayne Price, W

2014-06-01

41

Distribution and abundance of decapod crustacean larvae in the southeastern Bering Sea with emphasis on commercial species. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Contents include: Distribution and abundance of king crab larvae, Paralithodes camtschatica and P. platypus in the southeast Bering Sea; Distribution and abundance of the larvae of tanner crabs in the southeastern Bering Sea; Distribution and abundance of other brachyuran larvae in the southeastern Bering Sea with emphasis on Erimacrus isenbeckii; Distribution and abundance of shrimp larvae in the southeastern Bering Sea with emphasis on pandalid species; Distribution and abundance of hermit crabs (Paguridae) in the southeasternBering Sea; Possible oil impacts on decapod larbae in the southeastern Bering Sea with emphesis on the St. George Basin.

Armstrong, D.A.; Incze, L.S.; Wencker, D.L.; Armstrong, J.L.

1981-01-01

42

Identification and developmental expression of mRNAs encoding crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) in decapod crustaceans.  

PubMed

Full-length cDNAs encoding crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) were isolated from several decapod (brachyuran and astacuran) crustaceans: the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, green shore crab Carcinus maenas, European lobster Homarus gamarus and calico crayfish Orconectes immunis. The cDNAs encode open reading frames of 143 (brachyurans) and 139-140 (astacurans) amino acids. Apart from the predicted signal peptides (30-32 amino acids), the conceptually translated precursor codes for a single copy of CCAP and four other peptides that are extremely similar in terms of amino acid sequence within these species, but which clearly show divergence into brachyuran and astacuran groups. Expression patterns of CCAP mRNA and peptide were determined during embryonic development in Carcinus using quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry with whole-mount confocal microscopy, and showed that significant mRNA expression (at 50% embryonic development) preceded detectable levels of CCAP in the developing central nervous system (CNS; at 70% development). Subsequent CCAP gene expression dramatically increased during the late stages of embryogenesis (80-100%), coincident with developing immunopositive structures. In adult crabs, CCAP gene expression was detected exclusively in the eyestalk, brain and in particular the thoracic ganglia, in accord with the predominance of CCAP-containing cells in this tissue. Measurement of expression patterns of CCAP mRNA in Carcinus and Callinectes thoracic ganglia throughout the moult cycle revealed only modest changes, indicating that previously observed increases in CCAP peptide levels during premoult were not transcriptionally coupled. Severe hypoxic conditions resulted in rapid downregulation of CCAP transcription in the eyestalk, but not the thoracic ganglia in Callinectes, and thermal challenge did not change CCAP mRNA levels. These results offer the first tantalising glimpses of involvement of CCAP in environmental adaptation to extreme, yet biologically relevant stressors, and perhaps suggest that the CCAP-containing neurones in the eyestalk might be involved in adaptation to environmental stressors. PMID:16985202

Chung, J S; Wilcockson, D C; Zmora, N; Zohar, Y; Dircksen, H; Webster, S G

2006-10-01

43

Physiological stress in decapod crustaceans (Munida rugosa and Liocarcinus depurator) discarded in the Clyde Nephrops fishery.  

PubMed

Crustacean discards experience stress during commercial fishing operations, due to increased exercise while in the trawl and aerial exposure during sorting of the catch. Physiological stress and recovery were assessed following trawling of two ecologically important decapod species, regularly discarded in the Clyde Nephrops fishery. Haemolymph samples taken from trawled swimming crabs, Liocarcinus depurator, and squat lobsters, Munida rugosa, had significantly higher concentrations of ammonia (0.308 and 0.519 mmol l(-1)), D-glucose (0.14 and 0.097 mmol l(-1)) and L-lactate (6.2 and 0.87 mmol l(-1)) compared with controls, indicating an impairment of ammonia excretion and a switch to anaerobic metabolism. Concurrently, the haemolymph pH of trawled squat lobsters was low (7.47) compared with controls (7.75); however, the reverse trend was found in L. depurator. Initially elevated lactate (7.98 mmol l(-1)) and glucose (0.73 mmol l(-1)) concentrations of trawled and emersed (1 h) L. depurator were restored, 4 h after re-immersion along with pH (7.54). Crabs that had been emersed for 1 h had significantly higher concentrations of glucose (0.2 mmol l(-1)) and lactate (5.14 mmol l(-1)), and had more acidic blood (7.64) than L. depurator subject to 1 h of exercise, indicating that anoxia was the main cause of physiological stress. Crabs and squat lobsters lost 7% and 9% of their initial body wet weight following 1 h of emersion, although blood osmolarities did not change significantly. While all animals survived aerial exposure in our experiments, sorting of the catch on commercial boats takes up to 300 min, which could lead to mortality or sub-lethal chronic biochemical changes that could compromise fitness. PMID:11343713

Bergmann, M; Taylor, A C.; Geoffrey Moore, P

2001-05-15

44

Seasonal bathymetric migrations of deep-sea fishes and decapod crustaceans in the NW Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal variations in the photophase length seem to drive migrations of marine animals, a phenomenon still largely unknown in deep-sea fishes and decapod crustaceans. Here, we report depth-oriented migrations of species living in the continental slope of the NW Mediterranean after repeated trawl sampling between 900 and 1500 m depths in four seasons. To understand the variations in the catchability of animals as a function of water depth, we analysed the relationship between population depth shifts and environmental factors by performing a multiparametric habitat monitoring at sea surface (PAR), in the water column (temperature and salinity), and on the seabed (organic matter flux and total mass flux). Significant connections are studied by NMDS and GAM analyses. Bathymetric changes in most targeted species are identified from winter, when distribution was the deepest, to spring and summer, and finally autumn, when the shallowest distribution was observed prior to a sudden bathymetric retreat. The analysis of size-class frequency distributions (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test) discards an effect of the juvenile recruitment on these bathymetric changes. Which environmental factor imparts seasonality to these depth-oriented migrations has not yet been clarified. A strong connection is found with water temperature and salinity, associated to flow of the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) and the Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW). The studied depth range was affected by seasonal fluctuations of both water masses and the interphase amongst them. LIW showed a stronger seasonal pattern, getting warmer, saltier in autumn and fresher in winter. The migration of most species towards shallower depths in spring, summer and autumn, and the sudden migration to deeper grounds in winter could therefore be related to changes in LIW temperature and salinity.

Aguzzi, J.; Company, J. B.; Bahamon, N.; Flexas, M. M.; Tecchio, S.; Fernandez-Arcaya, U.; García, J. A.; Mechó, A.; Koenig, S.; Canals, M.

2013-11-01

45

A map of distal leg motor neurons in the thoracic ganglia of four decapod crustacean species.  

PubMed

We describe the numbers, central positions, and axonal exit routes of the distal leg motor neurons of four decapod species: squat lobsters (Munida quadrispina), spiny sand crabs (Blepharipoda occidentalis), mole sand crabs (Emerita analoga), and signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus). As predicted by previous physiological and anatomical identification of axons at the periphery in crayfish and lobsters, cobalt backfills reveal about seventeen cell bodies, which are found in four areas in the ganglion. By comparing their positions and neurite morphologies with the previously identified neurons, functional identifications could be assigned to most of them. The common inhibitor and stretcher inhibitor are located posterior-medial. An anterior-lateral cluster of about twelve somata includes the opener identical to stretcher excitor, one of two bender excitors (bender excitor alpha), four flexor excitors, and two excitors each to the extensor, reductor, and closer muscles. Three cell bodies are posterior-lateral. Of these, the opener inhibitor and the second bender excitor (bender excitor beta) are on about the same dorsoventral plane. The third posterior-lateral cell, the accessory flexor excitor, is noticeably more dorsal than the other two posterior-lateral cell bodies. The reductor muscle is innervated by at least three neurons: the putative common inhibitor and fast and slow excitors. None of the leg motor neurons project into the contralateral hemiganglion. The most variable feature across species is the nerve through which motor axons exit the ganglion: axons leave the ganglia via different routes in each of the four species examined. These differences in the axons' pathway, however, are insufficient to explain the differences in motor output and behaviour of these four species. PMID:9063594

Faulkes, Z; Paul, D H

1997-01-01

46

Comparing trace metal bioaccumulation characteristics of three freshwater decapods of the genus Macrobrachium.  

PubMed

Potential sources and kinetics of metal bioaccumulation by the three Macrobrachium prawn species M. australiense, M. rosenbergii and M. latidactylus were assessed in laboratory experiments. The prawns were exposed to two scenarios: cadmium in water only; and exposure to metal-rich mine tailings in the same water. The cadmium accumulation from the dissolved exposure during 7 days, followed by depuration in cadmium-free water for 7 days, was compared with predictions from a biokinetic model that had previously been developed for M. australiense. M. australiense and M. latidactylus accumulated significant tissue cadmium during the exposure phase, albeit with different uptake rates. All three species retained >95% of the bioaccumulated cadmium during the depuration phase, indicating very slow efflux rates. Following exposure to tailings, there were significant (p<0.05) differences in tissue arsenic, cadmium, lead and zinc concentrations among species. Cadmium and zinc concentrations were increased relative to controls for all three species but were not different between treatments (direct/indirect contact with tailings), suggesting these metals were primarily accumulated via the dissolved phase. All species bioaccumulated significantly greater arsenic and lead when in direct contact with mine tailings, demonstrating the importance of an ingestion pathway for these metals. Copper was not bioaccumulated above control concentrations for any species. The differences between the metal accumulation of the three prawns indicated that a biokinetic model of cadmium bioaccumulation for M. australiense could potentially be used to describe the metal bioaccumulation of the other two prawn species, albeit with an over-prediction of 3-9 times. Despite these being the same genus of decapod crustacean, the study highlights the issues with using surrogate species, even under controlled laboratory conditions. It is recommended that future studies using surrogate species quantify the metal bioaccumulation characteristics of each species in order to account for any differences between species. PMID:24800868

Cresswell, Tom; Smith, Ross E W; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Simpson, Stuart L

2014-07-01

47

Bioaccumulation and retention kinetics of cadmium in the freshwater decapod Macrobrachium australiense.  

PubMed

The potential sources and mechanisms of cadmium bioaccumulation by the native freshwater decapods Macrobrachium species in the waters of the highly turbid Strickland River in Papua New Guinea were examined using (109)Cd-labelled water and food sources and the Australian species Macrobrachium australiense as a surrogate. Synthetic river water was spiked with environmentally relevant concentrations of cadmium and animals were exposed for 7 days with daily renewal of test solutions. Dietary assimilation of cadmium was assessed through pulse-chase experiments where prawns were fed separately (109)Cd-labelled fine sediment, filamentous algae and carrion (represented by cephalothorax tissue of water-exposed prawns). M. australiense readily accumulated cadmium from the dissolved phase and the uptake rate increased linearly with increasing exposure concentration. A cadmium uptake rate constant of 0.10 ± 0.05 L/g/d was determined in synthetic river water. During depuration following exposure to dissolved cadmium, efflux rates were low (0.9 ± 5%/d) and were not dependent on exposure concentration. Assimilation efficiencies of dietary sources were comparable for sediment and algae (48-51%), but lower for carrion (28 ± 5%) and efflux rates were low (0.2-2.6%/d) demonstrating that cadmium was well retained by M. australiense. A biokinetic model of cadmium accumulation by M. australiense predicted that for exposures to environmentally relevant cadmium concentrations in the Strickland River, uptake from ingestion of fine sediment and carrion would be the predominant sources of cadmium to the organism. The model predicted the total dietary route would represent 70-80% of bioaccumulated cadmium. PMID:24508761

Cresswell, Tom; Simpson, Stuart L; Smith, Ross E W; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Mazumder, Debashish; Twining, John

2014-03-01

48

Descending into the abyss: Bathymetric patterns of diversity in decapod crustaceans shift with taxonomic level and life strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to examine the depth-related changes in the diversity of decapod crustaceans from the intertidal to abyssal zones off Madeira Archipelago, a chain of islands in the subtropical North East Atlantic Ocean. The bathymetric gradient in species richness was evaluated using the reported ranges of 175 out of approximately 186 decapod species known in this archipelago. The depth-related changes at different taxonomic (order, sub-orders and families) and life strategy (pelagic, benthopelagic and benthic) levels were investigated and different ecological hypotheses (species-energy, mid-domain and Rapoport's effects) were tested to explain the observed patterns. No unimodal trend of Decapoda diversity was revealed and, instead, a monotonic decrease towards the abyss was observed, mainly as a consequence of the depth-related changes in the benthic diversity of the suborder Pleocyemata. Nonetheless, all bathymetric gradients of pelagic diversity (at order and suborder levels) displayed parabolic trends. There was also a general increase in bathymetric range towards greater depth, and the major faunal break was identified within the continental shelf area. All species richness-depth patterns were significantly nested, but there was a clear increasing trend in randomness from the benthic to the pelagic realm. The present study shows for the first time that even within the same taxonomic group and geographic region different bathymetric patterns of diversity can be observed, depending on the taxonomic level and, more importantly, on the group's life strategies. Moreover, our analysis supports the species-energy hypothesis, implicating a combination of temperature and food availability as the main causal predictors explaining diversity variation.

Rosa, Rui; Boavida-Portugal, Joana; Trübenbach, Katja; Baptista, Miguel; Araújo, Ricardo; Calado, Ricardo

2012-06-01

49

Cadmium concentration of mesopelagic decapods and euphausiids from the north-east Atlantic ocean: possible use as a dietary marker in food-web studies  

SciTech Connect

A range of mesopelagic decapods and euphausiids, collected from the N.E. Atlantic, analyzed for Cd. The data were compared with previously reported levels of Cd and /sup 210/Po in similar species from the same area. Caridean decapods are active carnivores and generally have higher Cd concentrations than the more detritivorous penaeids. Among the carids, the Cd concentration is highest in shallow migrants and may have resulted from their eating prey that fed upon Cd-enriched phytoplankton. Euphausiids may be such prey, but their Cd concentrations are relatively low and it is suggested that there may be other important links in Cd transfer. The authors suggest that Cd does have potential as a biochemical dietary marker.

Ridout, P.S.; Roe, H.S.J.; Jones, H.R.; Morris, R.J.

1986-01-01

50

Differential distribution of ?-pigment-dispersing hormone (?-PDH)-like immunoreactivity in the stomatogastric nervous system of five species of decapod crustaceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pigment-dispersing hormone (PDH) acts to disperse pigments within the chromatophores of crustaceans. Using an antibody raised against ß-PDH from the fiddler crab Uca pugilator, we characterized the distribution of ß-PDH-like immunoreactivity in the stomatogastric nervous system of five decapod crustaceans: the crabs, Cancer borealis and Cancer antennarius, the lobsters, Panulirus interruptus and Homarus americanus, and the crayfish, Procambarus clarkii. No

Lawrence I. Mortin; Eve Marder

1991-01-01

51

Estimating densities of small fishes and decapod crustaceans in shallow estuarine habitats: A review of sampling design with focus on gear selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shallow estuarine habitats often support large populations of small nekton (fishes and decapod crustaceans), but unique characteristics\\u000a of these habitats make sampling these nekton populations difficult. We discuss development of sampling designs and evaluate\\u000a some commonly used devices for quantitatively sampling nekton populations. Important considerations of the sampling design\\u000a include the size and number of samples, their distribution in time

Lawrence P. Rozas; Thomas J. Minello

1997-01-01

52

Vertical and temporal distribution of pelagic decapod crustaceans over the shelf-break and middle slope in two contrasting zones around Mallorca (western Mediterranean Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pelagic decapod crustacean fauna of two different zones (Sóller and Cabrera) with different hydrographic dynamics and oligotrophy levels was studied around Mallorca (western Mediterranean), the latter with a higher degree of oligotrophy than the former. Samples were taken with a Pelagic Trawl and an IKMT in the upper 600 m of the water column, targeting larger and middle-sized nektonic species, respectively. Fourteen species were collected: five dendrobranchiate shrimps, eight caridean shrimps and one scyllarid lobster. Some species were restricted to the shelf-break: Chlorotocus crassicornis and Plesionika heterocarpus. Others were exclusive of the middle slope: Pasiphaea multidentata, and Sergia robusta. Pasiphaea sivado and Gennadas elegans occurred in all pelagic strata. Multivariate analyses showed several distinct assemblages related to bathymetry and sampling depth. No significant differences were found concerning zone or sampled seasons. Bathymetrically, Deep Scattering Layers showed the highest diversity. No decapod crustaceans occurred in epipelagic daytime samples. The pelagic decapod community sampled was structured by both the geomorphology (and associated hydrographic characteristics over the shelf-break) and the influence of light in the water column. Size analysis showed species-specific patterns concerning size/age movements into the water column throughout the day-night cycle.

Simão, Daniela S.; Torres, Asvin P.; Olivar, M. Pilar; Abelló, Pere

2014-10-01

53

Effects of insect and decapod exclusion and leaf litter species identity on breakdown rates in a tropical headwater stream.  

PubMed

High species richness of tropical riparian trees influences the diversity of organic detritus entering streams, creating temporal variability in litter quantity and quality. We examined the influence of species of riparian plants and macroinvertebrate exclusion on leaf-litter breakdown in a headwater stream in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. Leaf litter of Dacryodes excelsa (Burseraceae), Guarea guidonia (Meliaceae), Cecropia scheberiana (Moraceae), Manilkara bidentata (Sapotaceae), and Prestoea acuminata (Palmae) were incubated in litter bags in a pool of Quebrada Prieta. Fine mesh bags were used to exclude macroinvertebrates during leaf breakdown, and coarse mesh bags allowed access to decapod crustaceans (juvenile shrimps and crabs) and aquatic insects (mainly mayflies, chironomids, and caddisflies). D. excelsa and G. guidonia (in coarse- and fine-mesh bags) had significantly higher breakdown rates than C. scheberiana, M. bidentata, and P. acuminata. Breakdown rates were significantly faster in coarse-mesh bag treatments for all leaf types, thus indicating a positive contribution of macroinvertebrates in leaf litter breakdown in this headwater stream. After 42 days of incubation, densities of total invertebrates, mayflies and caddisflies, were higher in bags with D. excelsa and G. guidonia, and lower in P. acuminata, C. scheberiana y M. bidentata. Decay rates were positively correlated to insect densities. Our study highlights the importance of leaf identity and macroinvertebrate exclusion on the process of leaf litter breakdown in tropical headwater streams. PMID:25189075

Rincón, José; Covich, Alan

2014-04-01

54

Trophic transfer of trace metals from the polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor to the polychaete N. virens and the decapod crustacean Palaemonetes varians  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Diet is an important exposure route for the uptake of trace metals by aquatic invertebrates, with trace metal trophic transfer depending on 2 stages - assimilation and subsequent accumulation by the predator. This study investigated the trophic transfer of trace metals from the sediment-dwelling polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor from metal-rich estuarine sediments in southwestern UK to 2 predators - another polychaete N. virens (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Fe) and the decapod crustacean Palaemonetes varians (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Fe, Ag, As, Mn). N. virens showed net accumulation of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd from the prey; accumulation increased with increasing prey concentration, but a coefficient of trophic transfer decreased with increasing prey concentration, probably because a higher proportion of accumulated metal in the prey is bound in less trophically available (insoluble) detoxified forms. The trace metal accumulation patterns of P. varians apparently restricted significant net accumulation of metals from the diet of N. diversicolor to just Cd. There was significant mortality of the decapods fed on the diets of metal-rich worms. Metal-rich invertebrates that have accumulated metals from the rich historical store in the sediments of particular SW England estuaries can potentially pass these metals along food chains, with accumulation and total food chain transfer depending on the metal assimilation efficiencies and accumulation patterns of the animal at each trophic level. This trophic transfer may be significant enough to have ecotoxicological effects. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

Rainbow, P.S.; Poirier, L.; Smith, B.D.; Brix, K.V.; Luoma, S.N.

2006-01-01

55

Distribution and biogeographic trends of decapod assemblages from Galicia Bank (NE Atlantic) at depths between 700 and 1800 m, with connexions to regional water masses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Galicia Bank (NE Atlantic, 42°67?N-11°74?W) is an isolated seamount, near NW Spain, a complex geomorphological and sedimentary structure that receives influences from contrasting water masses of both northern and southern origins. Within the project INDEMARES, three cruises were performed on the bank in 2009 (Ecomarg0709), 2010 (BanGal0810) and 2011 (BanGal0811) all in July-August. Decapods and other macrobenthic crustaceans (eucarids and peracarids) were collected with different sampling systems, mainly beam trawls (BT, 10 mm of mesh size at codend) and a GOC73 otter trawl (20 mm mesh size). Sixty-seven species of decapod crustaceans, 6 euphausiids, 19 peracarids and 1 ostracod were collected at depths between 744 and 1808 m. We found two new species, one a member of the Chirostylidae, Uroptychus cartesi Baba & Macpherson, 2012, the other of the Petalophthalmidae (Mysida) Petalophthalmus sp. A, in addition to a number of new biogeographic species records for European or Iberian waters. An analysis of assemblages showed a generalized species renewal with depth, with different assemblages between 744 and ca. 1400 m (the seamount top assemblage, STA) and between ca. 1500 and 1800 m (the deep-slope assemblage over seamount flanks, DSA). These were respectively associated with Mediterranean outflow waters (MOW) and with Labrador Sea Water (LSW). Another significant factor separating different assemblages over the Galician Bank was the co-occurrence of corals (both colonies of hard corals such as Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata and/or gorgonians) in hauls. Munidopsids (Munidopsis spp.), chirostylids (Uroptychus spp.), and the homolodromiid Dicranodromia mahieuxii formed a part of this coral-associated assemblage. Dominant species at the STA were the pandalid Plesionika martia (a shrimp of subtropical-southern distribution) and the crabs Bathynectes maravigna and Polybius henslowii, whereas dominant species in the DSA were of northern origin, the lithodid Neolithodes grimaldii and the crangonid Glyphocrangon longiristris, likely associated with LSW. The diversity (H and J) of small crustaceans (collected with BT) seemed to be controlled by the phytoplankton blooms (satellite Chl a data) over bank surface 3 months before the samplings, both at the top (Spearman r=0.57, p=0.03) and on the flanks (r=0.74, p=0.02) of Galicia Bank, while no significant relationships with Chl a were found for the larger decapods collected with GOC73, on average they feed at the higher trophic levels than those collected with BT.

Cartes, J. E.; Papiol, V.; Frutos, I.; Macpherson, E.; González-Pola, C.; Punzón, A.; Valeiras, X.; Serrano, A.

2014-08-01

56

Molecular analysis of two genes, DD9A and B, which are expressed during the postmolt stage in the decapod crustacean Penaeus japonicus.  

PubMed

In decapod crustaceans, deposition of calcium carbonate crystals (calcification) in the exoskeleton takes place during the postmolt phase of the molt cycle. In an attempt to identify proteins which regulate the calcification process, the differential display technique was used to identify genes which were specifically expressed in the integument during the postmolt stage in the penaeid prawn Penaeus japonicus. One of the genes thus identified, named DD9A, was expressed in the epithelial cells of the tail fan. DD9A encoded a putative precursor of a secreted protein of 113 amino acids which exhibited sequence similarities to a group of crustacean and insect cuticular proteins, suggesting that DD9A was a protein component of the exoskeleton. Another gene, DD9B, which was also transcribed specifically during the postmolt period was identified based on its sequence similarity to DD9A. Potential roles of the DD9A protein in the calcification of the exoskeleton will be discussed. PMID:10840648

Watanabe, T; Persson, P; Endo, H; Kono, M

2000-01-01

57

Parasites in the Fossil Record: A Cretaceous Fauna with Isopod-Infested Decapod Crustaceans, Infestation Patterns through Time, and a New Ichnotaxon  

PubMed Central

Parasites are common in modern ecosystems and are also known from the fossil record. One of the best preserved and easily recognisable examples of parasitism in the fossil record concerns isopod-induced swellings in the branchial chamber of marine decapod crustaceans. However, very limited quantitative data on the variability of infestation percentages at the species, genus, and family levels are available. Here we provide this type of data for a mid-Cretaceous (upper Lower Cretaceous, upper Albian) reef setting at Koskobilo, northern Spain, on the basis of 874 specimens of anomurans and brachyurans. Thirty-seven specimens (4.2%), arranged in ten species, are infested. Anomurans are more heavily infested than brachyurans, variability can be high within genera, and a relationship may exist between the number of specimens and infestation percentage per taxon, possibly suggesting host-specificity. We have also investigated quantitative patterns of infestation through geological time based on 88 infested species (25 anomurans, 55 brachyurans, seven lobsters, and one shrimp), to show that the highest number of infested species can be found in the Late Jurassic, also when corrected for the unequal duration of epochs. The same Late Jurassic peak is observed for the percentage of infested decapod species per epoch. This acme is caused entirely by infested anomurans and brachyurans. Biases (taphonomic and otherwise) and causes of variability with regard to the Koskobilo assemblage and infestation patterns through time are discussed. Finally, a new ichnogenus and -species, Kanthyloma crusta, are erected to accommodate such swellings or embedment structures (bioclaustrations). PMID:24667587

Klompmaker, Adiël A.; Artal, Pedro; van Bakel, Barry W. M.; Fraaije, René H. B.; Jagt, John W. M.

2014-01-01

58

Parasites in the fossil record: a Cretaceous fauna with isopod-infested decapod crustaceans, infestation patterns through time, and a new ichnotaxon.  

PubMed

Parasites are common in modern ecosystems and are also known from the fossil record. One of the best preserved and easily recognisable examples of parasitism in the fossil record concerns isopod-induced swellings in the branchial chamber of marine decapod crustaceans. However, very limited quantitative data on the variability of infestation percentages at the species, genus, and family levels are available. Here we provide this type of data for a mid-Cretaceous (upper Lower Cretaceous, upper Albian) reef setting at Koskobilo, northern Spain, on the basis of 874 specimens of anomurans and brachyurans. Thirty-seven specimens (4.2%), arranged in ten species, are infested. Anomurans are more heavily infested than brachyurans, variability can be high within genera, and a relationship may exist between the number of specimens and infestation percentage per taxon, possibly suggesting host-specificity. We have also investigated quantitative patterns of infestation through geological time based on 88 infested species (25 anomurans, 55 brachyurans, seven lobsters, and one shrimp), to show that the highest number of infested species can be found in the Late Jurassic, also when corrected for the unequal duration of epochs. The same Late Jurassic peak is observed for the percentage of infested decapod species per epoch. This acme is caused entirely by infested anomurans and brachyurans. Biases (taphonomic and otherwise) and causes of variability with regard to the Koskobilo assemblage and infestation patterns through time are discussed. Finally, a new ichnogenus and -species, Kanthyloma crusta, are erected to accommodate such swellings or embedment structures (bioclaustrations). PMID:24667587

Klompmaker, Adiël A; Artal, Pedro; van Bakel, Barry W M; Fraaije, René H B; Jagt, John W M

2014-01-01

59

New evidence on an old question: is the "fight or flight" stage present in the cardiac and respiratory regulation of decapod crustaceans?  

PubMed

The ability to stay alert to subtle changes in the environment and to freeze, fight or flight in the presence of predators requires integrating sensory information as well as triggering motor output to target tissues, both of which are associated with the autonomic nervous system. These reactions, which are commonly related to vertebrates, are the fundamental physiological responses that allow an animal to survive danger. The circulatory activity in vertebrates changes in opposite phases. The stage where circulatory activity is high is termed the "fight or flight stage", while the stage where circulatory activity slows down is termed the "rest and digest stage". It may be assumed that highly evolved invertebrates possess a comparable response system as they also require rapid cardiovascular and respiratory regulation to be primed when necessary. However, in invertebrates, the body plan may have developed such a system very differently. Since this topic is insufficiently studied, it is necessary to extend studies for a comparative analysis. In the present review, we use our own experimental results obtained in the crab Neohelice granulata and both older and newer findings obtained by other authors in decapod crustaceans as well as in other invertebrates, to compare the pattern of change in circulatory activity, especially in the "fight or flight" stage. We conclude that the main features of neuroautonomic regulation of the cardiac function were already present early in evolution, at least in highly evolved invertebrates, although conspicuous differences are also evident. PMID:25237011

Canero, Eliana M; Hermitte, Gabriela

2014-01-01

60

cDNA cloning and transcript distribution of two novel members of the neuroparsin peptide family in a hemipteran insect (Nezara viridula) and a decapod crustacean (Jasus lalandii).  

PubMed

Two novel neuroparsin (NP) precursor cDNAs were cloned: one from the corpora cardiaca of an insect, the green stink bug Nezara viridula, and the other from the X-organ of a decapod crustacean, the spiny lobster Jasus lalandii. The translated NP precursor consists of 106 amino acid residues in N. viridula and 103 amino acid residues in J. lalandii, with 14 and 12 cysteine residues, respectively, in conserved positions when aligned with known NPs. Reverse transcriptase PCR shows that in both arthropods, NP is expressed in some neural tissues: corpora cardiaca, sub-esophageal ganglion and brain of N. viridula; X-organ, brain, sub-esophageal and thoracic ganglion in J. lalandii. Additionally, NP is also expressed in non-neural tissues, such as fat body, leg muscle, flight muscle, reproductive organs and antennae in N. viridula, and heart and ovary in J. lalandii. There are no major differences in the NP transcript expression in mature and immature stink bugs, and also no difference between male and female stink bugs. PMID:24512948

Marco, Heather G; Anders, Lance; Gäde, Gerd

2014-03-01

61

Latitudinal and local variations of the life history characteristics of the thalassinidean decapod, Upogebia yokoyai: A hypothesis based on trophic conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mean total length of the eldest cohort (MTLe) of the thalassinidean decapod, Upogebia yokoyai sampled at 16 sites showed a latitudinal variation from south-west islands of the Ryukyu Archipelago (24° N) to the Seto-Inland Sea of Japan (34° N). Local variations were however also found from sites in the same latitudes. The level of the organic content in each habitat showed a positive correlation with MTLe. We hypothesized that MTLe is strongly affected by the trophic condition, resulting in the local variations. To test this hypothesis, two estuaries with different organic content were compared; Kodono River (Kochi Prefecture, 33° N) which was relatively oligotrophic and Sakata River (Hiroshima Prefecture, 34° N) which was highly eutrophicated. The Kodono River population showed slow growth after settlement, and growth stopped in May to June. This population survived for only one or two years, resulting in small MTLe. On the other hand, the Sakata River population showed fast growth from August to December. This population survived for three years, resulting in large MTLe. Maturation was estimated to occur two years after settlement in both populations. Low salinities may partially affect MTLe. Habitats in the Seto-Inland Sea (33.5-34.8° N) were eutrophicated, but many habitats in the subtropical islands (24-31° N) were relatively oligotrophic. Latitudinal variation of MTLe was reflected by the geographical difference in trophic condition. A negative relationship between population density and growth was found, which was explained in terms of reduced survival of recruits in the eutrophicated habitats.

Yamasaki, Miho; Nanri, Takahiro; Taguchi, Shino; Takada, Yoshitake; Saigusa, Masayuki

2010-04-01

62

Neurogenesis in the central olfactory pathway of adult decapod crustaceans: development of the neurogenic niche in the brains of procambarid crayfish  

PubMed Central

Background In the decapod crustacean brain, neurogenesis persists throughout the animal's life. After embryogenesis, the central olfactory pathway integrates newborn olfactory local and projection interneurons that replace old neurons or expand the existing population. In crayfish, these neurons are the descendants of precursor cells residing in a neurogenic niche. In this paper, the development of the niche was documented by monitoring proliferating cells with S-phase-specific markers combined with immunohistochemical, dye-injection and pulse-chase experiments. Results Between the end of embryogenesis and throughout the first post-embryonic stage (POI), a defined transverse band of mitotically active cells (which we will term 'the deutocerebral proliferative system' (DPS) appears. Just prior to hatching and in parallel with the formation of the DPS, the anlagen of the niche appears, closely associated with the vasculature. When the hatchling molts to the second post-embryonic stage (POII), the DPS differentiates into the lateral (LPZ) and medial (MPZ) proliferative zones. The LPZ and MPZ are characterized by a high number of mitotically active cells from the beginning of post-embryonic life; in contrast, the developing niche contains only very few dividing cells, a characteristic that persists in the adult organism. Conclusions Our data suggest that the LPZ and MPZ are largely responsible for the production of new neurons in the early post-embryonic stages, and that the neurogenic niche in the beginning plays a subordinate role. However, as the neuroblasts in the proliferation zones disappear during early post-embryonic life, the neuronal precursors in the niche gradually become the dominant and only mechanism for the generation of new neurons in the adult brain. PMID:22225949

2012-01-01

63

Impact of hard-bottom substrata on the small-scale distribution of fish and decapods in shallow subtidal temperate waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The micro-scale spatial distribution patterns of a demersal fish and decapod crustacean assemblage were assessed in a hard-bottom kelp environment in the southern North Sea. Using quadrats along line transects, we assessed the in situ fish and crustacean abundance in relation to substratum types (rock, cobbles and large pebbles) and the density of algae. Six fish and four crustacean species were abundant, with Ctenolabrus rupestris clearly dominating the fish community and Galathea squamifera dominating the crustacean community. Differences in the substratum types had an even stronger effect on the micro-scale distribution than the density of the dominating algae species. Kelp had a negative effect on the fish abundances, with significantly lower average densities in kelp beds compared with adjacent open areas. Averaged over all of the substrata, the most attractive substratum for the fish was large pebbles . In contrast, crustaceans did not show a specific substratum affinity. The results clearly indicate that, similar to other complex systems, significant micro-scale species-habitat associations occur in northern hard-bottom environments. However, because of the frequently harsh environmental conditions, these habitats are mainly sampled from ships with sampling gear, and the resulting data cannot be used to resolve small-scale species-habitat associations. A detailed substratum classification and community assessment, often only possible using SCUBA diving, is therefore important to reach a better understanding of the functional relationships between species and their environment in northern temperate waters, knowledge that is very important with respect to the increasing environmental pressure caused by global climate change.

Wehkamp, Stephanie; Fischer, Philipp

2013-03-01

64

Molecular and mass spectral identification of the broadly conserved decapod crustacean neuropeptide pQIRYHQCYFNPISCF: the first PISCF-allatostatin (Manduca sexta- or C-type allatostatin) from a non-insect  

PubMed Central

The PISCF-allatostatins (Manduca sexta- or C-type allatostatins) are a family of pentadecapeptides characterized by a pyroglutamine blocked N-terminus, an unamidated –PISCF C-terminus, and a disulfide bridge between two internal Cys residues. Several isoforms of PISCF-AST are known, all from holometabolous insects. Using a combination of transcriptomics and mass spectrometry, we have identified the first PISCF-type peptides from a non-insect species. In silico analysis of crustacean ESTs identified several Litopenaeus vannamei (infraorder Penaeidea) transcripts encoding putative PISCF-AST precursors. Translation of these ESTs, with subsequent prediction of their putative post-translational processing, revealed the existence of as many as three PISCF-type peptides, including pQIRYHQCYFNPISCF (disulfide bridging between Cys7 and Cys14). Although none of the predicted isoforms was detected by mass spectrometry in L. vannamei, MALDI-FTMS mass profiling identified an m/z signal corresponding to pQIRYHQCYFNPISCF (disulfide bridge present) in neural tissue from 28 other decapods, which included members of six infraorders (Stenopodidea, Astacidea, Thalassinidea, Achelata, Anomura and Brachyura). Further characterization of the peptide using SORI-CID and chemical derivatization/enzymatic digestion supported the theorized structure. In both the crab Cancer borealis and the lobster Homarus americanus, MALDI-based tissue surveys suggest that pQIRYHQCYFNPISCF is broadly distributed in the nervous system; it was also detected in the posterior midgut caecum. Collectively, our data show that members of the PISCF-AST family are not restricted to the holometabolous insects, but instead may be broadly conserved within the Pancrustacea. Moreover, our data suggest that one highly conserved PISCF-type peptide, pQIRYHQCYFNPISCF, is present in decapod crustaceans, functioning as a brain-gut paracrine/hormone. PMID:19467234

Stemmler, Elizabeth A.; Bruns, Emily A.; Cashman, Christopher R.; Dickinson, Patsy S.; Christie, Andrew E.

2009-01-01

65

MitoPhAST, a new automated mitogenomic phylogeny tool in the post-genomic era with a case study of 89 decapod mitogenomes including eight new freshwater crayfish mitogenomes.  

PubMed

The increased rate at which complete mitogenomes are being sequenced and their increasing use for phylogenetic studies have resulted in a bioinformatic bottleneck in preparing and utilising such data for phylogenetic analysis. Hence, we present MitoPhAST, an automated tool that (1) identifies annotated protein-coding gene features and generates a standardised, concatenated and partitioned amino acid alignment directly from complete/partial GenBank/EMBL-format mitogenome flat files, (2) generates a maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree using optimised protein models and (3) reports various mitochondrial genes and sequence information in a table format. To demonstrate the capacity of MitoPhAST in handling a large dataset, we used 81 publicly available decapod mitogenomes, together with eight new complete mitogenomes of Australian freshwater crayfishes, including the first for the genus Gramastacus, to undertake an updated test of the monophyly of the major groups of the order Decapoda and their phylogenetic relationships. The recovered phylogenetic trees using both Bayesian and ML methods support the results of studies using fragments of mtDNA and nuclear markers and other smaller-scale studies using whole mitogenomes. In comparison to the fragment-based phylogenies, nodal support values are generally higher despite reduced taxon sampling suggesting there is value in utilising more fully mitogenomic data. Additionally, the simple table output from MitoPhAST provides an efficient summary and statistical overview of the mitogenomes under study at the gene level, allowing the identification of missing or duplicated genes and gene rearrangements. The finding of new mtDNA gene rearrangements in several genera of Australian freshwater crayfishes indicates that this group has undergone an unusually high rate of evolutionary change for this organelle compared to other major families of decapod crustaceans. As a result, freshwater crayfishes are likely to be a useful model for studies designed to understand the evolution of mtDNA rearrangements. We anticipate that our bioinformatics pipeline will substantially help mitogenome-based studies increase the speed, accuracy and efficiency of phylogenetic studies utilising mitogenome information. MitoPhAST is available for download at https://github.com/mht85/MitoPhAST. PMID:25721538

Tan, Mun Hua; Gan, Han Ming; Schultz, Mark B; Austin, Christopher M

2015-04-01

66

The impact of pathogens on exploited populations of decapod crustaceans.  

PubMed

Several crustacean fisheries have experienced significant outbreaks of disease that have damaged their industries. Not only do fisheries suffer from direct losses to pathogens, such as disease-induced mortalities or reduced product value, but they can also incur indirect losses such as stunting, castration, and increased risk of predation. In some cases, the indirect losses can be substantial, yet they are often overlooked by the fishing industry as their primary focus is on recruits to the fishery, and not on the affected juvenile pre-recruits. Low levels of pathogens are to be expected in natural populations of commercial species, but baseline data on the prevalence and intensity of even the most common agents is often lacking. It is important to establish baselines for two reasons. First, it is important to know what pathogens exist in heavily exploited populations so as to gauge their potential to damage the industry; and second, during outbreaks, it is important to know whether an outbreak is a newly emergent event or whether it is a component of a cyclical phenomenon. Pathogens frequently act in concert with environmental stressors, and a variety of stressors have contributed to outbreaks of emerging agents in crustacean fisheries. Pollution, poor water quality, hypoxia, temperature extremes, and overexploitation have all been implicated as stressors in various outbreaks. This review focuses on epidemic diseases of commercially fished crustaceans. Outbreaks in cultured stocks are not covered. Disease epizootics have occurred in fished populations of crayfish and shrimp but they are less well known than the issues arising from extensive aquaculture of these species. PMID:22434001

Shields, Jeffrey D

2012-06-01

67

Effect of Pressure on the Behaviour of Decapod Larvæ (Crustacea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN an account of experiments with the copepod Calanus finmarchicus (Gunn.), Hardy and Paton1 suggested that the behaviour in vertical migration of this and perhaps other plankton animals might be influenced by the differences in pressure at various depths. The following experiments have been made to test this hypothesis. Two vertical `Perspex' tubes, each 20 in. tall and having an

A. C. Hardy; R. Bainbridge

1951-01-01

68

Utilization of submerged aquatic vegetation habitats by fishes and decapods in the Galvestion Bay Ecosystem, Texas  

E-print Network

, code goby Gobiosoma robustum, and Sciaenops ocellatus in Halodule (site 2); rainwater killifish, Lucania parva, in Ruppia (sites 4 and 6); naked goby, Gobiosoma bose, and bay anchovy, Anchoa mitchilli, in Ruppia (site 4), gulf killifish, Fundulus...

Scott, Elizabeth A.

1998-01-01

69

High sequence variability among hemocyte-specific Kazal-type proteinase inhibitors in decapod crustaceans.  

PubMed

Crustacean hemocytes were found to produce a large number of transcripts coding for Kazal-type proteinase inhibitors (KPIs). A detailed study performed with the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus and the shrimp Penaeus monodon revealed the presence of at least 26 and 20 different Kazal domains from the hemocyte KPIs, respectively. Comparisons with KPIs from other taxa indicate that the sequences of these domains evolve rapidly. A few conserved positions, e.g. six invariant cysteines were present in all domain sequences whereas the position of P1 amino acid, a determinant for substrate specificity, varied highly. A study with a single crayfish animal suggested that even at the individual level considerable sequence variability among hemocyte KPIs produced exist. Expression analysis of four crayfish KPI transcripts in hematopoietic tissue cells and different hemocyte types suggest that some of these KPIs are likely to be involved in hematopoiesis or hemocyte release as they were produced in particular hemocyte types or maturation stages only. PMID:19715720

Cerenius, Lage; Liu, Haipeng; Zhang, Yanjiao; Rimphanitchayakit, Vichien; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Gunnar Andersson, M; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Söderhäll, Irene

2010-01-01

70

A novel Spiroplasma pathogen causing systemic infection in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Crustacea: Decapod), in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel disease of crayfish Procambarus clarkii appeared in the summer of 2004 in freshwater aquaculture in Jiangsu province of China. Light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), molecular biological methods and in vitro culture were used to identify the pathogen. The agent was unique in having a helical morphology and rotary motility as observed by phase-contrast light microscopy and was

Wen Wang; Wei Gu; Zhengfeng Ding; Yalai Ren; Jianxiu Chen; Yayi Hou

2005-01-01

71

Copper uptake and regulation in a copper-tolerant decapod Cambarus bartoni (Fabricius)  

SciTech Connect

Large amounts of acid forming sulfur dioxide, and heavy metals including copper, are continuously being released into the environment by mining and smelting operation at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. Consequently, a number of lakes in this region have become acidic and metal stressed. In the current study the uptake and accumulation of copper by various tissues of a copper-tolerant crayfish, Cambarus bartoni, were monitored in the laboratory to ascertain the dynamic nature (i.e., the pattern in time) of responses of crayfish to increased levels of these two metals in the water.

Zia, S.; Alikhan, M.A.

1989-01-01

72

A study of the seasonal distribution of certain decapod crustaceans of the Louisiana marsh area  

E-print Network

leave the beaches and move into deeper waters, so that the smallest shrimp remain in the nursery areas during the winter. Most of the shriznp derived from the second spawning peak in August and September move into deeper and warmer craters off...- shore. As temperature increases in the spring they move back into the nursery areas where they grow rapidly and become sexually znature, In June they return to the deeper waters of the Gulf to spawn. The present results conforzn to this general...

Haynes, Evan Baxter

1961-01-01

73

Odors influencing foraging behavior of the California spiny lobster, Panulirus interruptus, and other decapod crustacea  

SciTech Connect

Trapping experiments were conducted in the More Mesa coastal area of Santa Barbara, California, 4 km east of the U.C. Santa Barbara campus. Live intact and injured prey and excised tissues were placed in traps, in containers allowing odor release but preventing contacts with entering animals. Individuals of six prey species failed to attract lobsters when alive and intact, but some became attractive once injured. Excised tissues were the most effective baits. Abalone and mackerel muscle were attractive to lobsters but relatively nonattractive to crabs, while angel shark muscle was attractive to crabs but not to lobsters. Shrimp cephalothoraces were repellant to lobsters. Naturally occurring attractant and repellent tissues are thus identified and chemosensory abilities of lobsters and sympatric crabs are demonstrated to differ. Abalone muscle increased in attractivity following 1-2 days field exposure. Molecular weights of stimulants released by both weathered and fresh abalone were < 10,000 daltons with evidence suggesting that the 1000-10,000 dalton fraction may contribute significantly to attraction. Concentrations of total primary amines released from abalone muscle failed to differ from background levels, following an initial three (0-3h) period. Primary amines thus appear not to contribute directly to captures of lobsters, since animals were usually caught greater than or equal to 7 h after baits were positioned. Amino acids were the dominant contributors to present measurements of total primary amines, suggesting that these molecules may not direct lobster foraging behavior in the present experiments. 41 references, 4 figures, 8 tables.

Zimmer-Faust, R.K.; Case, J.F.

1982-01-01

74

HORMONAL PROCESSES IN DECAPOD CRUSTACEAN LARVAE AS BIOMARKERS OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Knowledge of endocrine control of the complex larval developmental processes in insects (metamorphosis) has led to the introduction of insect hormones and their analogues as insecticides known as insect growth regulators (IGRs) with the largest group being juvenile hormone analog...

75

Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (cHH) as a Modulator of Aggression in Crustacean Decapods  

PubMed Central

Biogenic amines, particularly serotonin, are recognised to play an important role in controlling the aggression of invertebrates, whereas the effect of neurohormones is still underexplored. The crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (cHH) is a multifunctional member of the eyestalk neuropeptide family. We expect that this neuropeptide influences aggression either directly, by controlling its expression, or indirectly, by mobilizing the energetic stores needed for the increased activity of an animal. Our study aims at testing such an influence and the possible reversion of hierarchies in the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, as a model organism. Three types of pairs of similarly sized males were formed: (1) ‘control pairs’ (CP, n?=?8): both individuals were injected with a phosphate saline solution (PBS); (2) ‘reinforced pairs’ (RP, n?=?9): the alpha alone was injected with native cHH, and the beta with PBS; (3) ‘inverted pairs’ (IP, n?=?9): the opposite of (2). We found that, independently of the crayfish’s prior social experience, cHH injections induced (i) the expression of dominance behaviour, (ii) higher glycemic levels, and (iii) lower time spent motionless. In CP and RP, fight intensity decreased with the establishment of dominance. On the contrary, in IP, betas became increasingly likely to initiate and escalate fights and, consequently, increased their dominance till a temporary reversal of the hierarchy. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that, similarly to serotonin, cHH enhances individual aggression, up to reverse, although transitorily, the hierarchical rank. New research perspectives are thus opened in our intriguing effort of understanding the role of cHH in the modulation of agonistic behaviour in crustaceans. PMID:23166815

Aquiloni, Laura; Giulianini, Piero G.; Mosco, Alessandro; Guarnaccia, Corrado; Ferrero, Enrico; Gherardi, Francesca

2012-01-01

76

Population and Production Estimates for Decapod Crustaceans in Wetlands of Galveston Bay, Texas  

E-print Network

Farfantepenaeus aztecus, white shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus, and blue crab Callinectes sapidus. Using information patterns. Our study focuses on populations of juvenile brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus aztecus, white shrimp

77

Interactions of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) with benthic crayfish decapods in shallow ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) for aquaculture increased in recent decades. This fish is now established in many new water systems creating interactions with native species. Some of these interactions have been partly understood, but most of them remain unknown. For instance, in shallow ponds of central Mexico, populations of crayfish (Cambarellus montezumae) are reduced with high carp densities,

Demián Hinojosa-Garro; Luis Zambrano

2004-01-01

78

THE FRESHWATER DECAPOD CRUSTACEANS (Pa/aemon/dae, Cambar/dae)  

E-print Network

crayfishes and fre shwater s hrimps) are quite numerous in the drainages of the southeastern United States and r adioactive pollution in freshwater environments. A common problem t o these studi e s is the unc

Georgia, University of

79

POTASSIUM METABOLISM AND THE ACCUMULATION OF CESIUM137 BY DECAPOD CRUSTACEA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study was made of the accumulation and loss of Cs¹³⁷ ; in relation to K metabolism in the lobster Homarus vulgaris, common prawn ; Palaemon serratus, and freshwater crayfish Astacus (Austropotamobius pallipes ; pallipes). In unfed crustacea Cs¹³⁷ taken up and lost far more slowly than ; K⁴². Although all the inactive K in the crustacea can be

G. W. Bryan; E. Ward

1962-01-01

80

Italian freshwater decapods: Exclusion between the crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes (FAXON) and the crab Potamon fluviatile (HERBST)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Italian freshwater systems, the crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes and the crab Potamon fluviatile mainly occur in different geographic areas and, when they are in sympatry, in different streams. Four issues are raised : (1) the two species once coexisted, (2) the two species share the same resources, (3) river crab is behaviorally dominant over crayfish, and (4) crab influences the

S. BARBARESI; F. GHERARDI

1997-01-01

81

Material Structure of a Graded Refractive Index Lens in Decapod Squid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Underwater vision with a camera-type eye that is simultaneously acute and sensitive requires a spherical lens with a graded distribution of refractive index. Squids have this type of lens, and our previous work has shown that its optical properties are likely achieved with radially variable densities of a single protein with multiple isoforms. Here we measure the spatial organization of this novel protein material in concentric layers of the lens and use these data to suggest possible mechanisms of self-assembly of the proteins into a graded refractive index structure. First, we performed small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) to study how the protein is spatially organized. Then, molecular dynamic simulation allowed us to correlate structure to the possible dynamics of the system in different regions of the lens. The combination of simulation and SAXS data in this system revealed the likely protein-protein interactions, resulting material structure and its relationship to the observed and variable optical properties of this graded index system. We believe insights into the material properties of the squid lens system will inform the invention of self-assembling graded index devices.

Cai, Jing; Heiney, Paul; Sweeney, Alison

2013-03-01

82

Genomic Sequence and Experimental Tractability of a New Decapod Shrimp Model, Neocaridina denticulata  

PubMed Central

The speciose Crustacea is the largest subphylum of arthropods on the planet after the Insecta. To date, however, the only publically available sequenced crustacean genome is that of the water flea, Daphnia pulex, a member of the Branchiopoda. While Daphnia is a well-established ecotoxicological model, previous study showed that one-third of genes contained in its genome are lineage-specific and could not be identified in any other metazoan genomes. To better understand the genomic evolution of crustaceans and arthropods, we have sequenced the genome of a novel shrimp model, Neocaridina denticulata, and tested its experimental malleability. A library of 170-bp nominal fragment size was constructed from DNA of a starved single adult and sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Core eukaryotic genes, the mitochondrial genome, developmental patterning genes (such as Hox) and microRNA processing pathway genes are all present in this animal, suggesting it has not undergone massive genomic loss. Comparison with the published genome of Daphnia pulex has allowed us to reveal 3750 genes that are indeed specific to the lineage containing malacostracans and branchiopods, rather than Daphnia-specific (E-value: 10?6). We also show the experimental tractability of N. denticulata, which, together with the genomic resources presented here, make it an ideal model for a wide range of further aquacultural, developmental, ecotoxicological, food safety, genetic, hormonal, physiological and reproductive research, allowing better understanding of the evolution of crustaceans and other arthropods. PMID:24619275

Kenny, Nathan J.; Sin, Yung Wa; Shen, Xin; Zhe, Qu; Wang, Wei; Chan, Ting Fung; Tobe, Stephen S.; Shimeld, Sebastian M.; Chu, Ka Hou; Hui, Jerome H. L.

2014-01-01

83

An improved taxonomic sampling is a necessary but not sufficient condition for resolving inter-families relationships in Caridean decapods.  

PubMed

During the past decade, a large number of multi-gene analyses aimed at resolving the phylogenetic relationships within Decapoda. However relationships among families, and even among sub-families, remain poorly defined. Most analyses used an incomplete and opportunistic sampling of species, but also an incomplete and opportunistic gene selection among those available for Decapoda. Here we test in the Caridea if improving the taxonomic coverage following the hierarchical scheme of the classification, as it is currently accepted, provides a better phylogenetic resolution for the inter-families relationships. The rich collections of the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris are used for sampling as far as possible at least two species of two different genera for each family or subfamily. All potential markers are tested over this sampling. For some coding genes the amplification success varies greatly among taxa and the phylogenetic signal is highly saturated. This result probably explains the taxon-heterogeneity among previously published studies. The analysis is thus restricted to the genes homogeneously amplified over the whole sampling. Thanks to the taxonomic sampling scheme the monophyly of most families is confirmed. However the genes commonly used in Decapoda appear non-adapted for clarifying inter-families relationships, which remain poorly resolved. Genome-wide analyses, like transcriptome-based exon capture facilitated by the new generation sequencing methods might provide a sounder approach to resolve deep and rapid radiations like the Caridea. PMID:25681232

Aznar-Cormano, L; Brisset, J; Chan, T-Y; Corbari, L; Puillandre, N; Utge, J; Zbinden, M; Zuccon, D; Samadi, S

2015-04-01

84

Comparative strategies of heavy metal accumulation by crustaceans: zinc, copper and cadmium in a decapod, an amphipod and a barnacle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the comparative strategies of accumulation under standardised laboratory conditions of the essential metals zinc and copper, and the non-essential metal cadmium by three crustaceans of different taxa; vizPalaemon elegans Rathke (Malacostraca: Eucarida: Decapoda),Echinogammarus pirloti (Sexton & Spooner) (Malacostraca: Peracarida: Amphipoda) and the barnacleElminius modestus Darwin (Cirripedia: Thoracica).

P. S. Rainbow; S. L. White

1989-01-01

85

Sertraline accumulation and effects in the estuarine decapod Carcinus maenas: importance of the history of exposure to chemical stress.  

PubMed

Sertraline is widely prescribed worldwide and frequently detected in aquatic systems. There is, however, a remarkable gap of information on its potential impact on estuarine and coastal invertebrates. This study investigated sertraline accumulation and effects in Carcinus maenas. Crabs from a moderately contaminated (Lima) and a low-impacted (Minho) estuary were exposed to environmental and high levels of sertraline (0.05, 5, 500 ?g L(-1)). A battery of biomarkers related to sertraline mode of action was employed to assess neurotransmission, energy metabolism, biotransformation and oxidative stress pathways. After a seven-day exposure, sertraline accumulation in crabs' soft tissues was found in Lima (5 ?g L(-1): 15.3 ng L(-1) ww; 500 ?g L(-1): 1010 ng L(-1) ww) and Minho (500 ?g L(-1): 605 ng L(-1) ww) animals. Lima crabs were also more sensitive to sertraline than those from Minho, exhibiting decreased acetylcholinesterase activity, indicative of ventilatory and locomotory dysfunction, inhibition of anti-oxidant enzymes and increased oxidative damage at ? 0.05 ?g L(-1). The Integrated Biomarker Response (IBR) index indicated their low health status. In addition, Minho crabs showed non-monotonic responses of acetylcholinesterase suggestive of hormesis. The results pointed an influence of the exposure history on differential sensitivity to sertraline and the need to perform evaluations with site-specific ecological receptors to increase relevance of risk estimations when extrapolating from laboratory to field conditions. PMID:25305364

Rodrigues, Aurélie P; Santos, Lúcia H M L M; Ramalhosa, Maria João; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Guimarães, Laura

2015-02-11

86

Comparative Population Structure of Two Deep-Sea Hydrothermal-Vent-Associated Decapods (Chorocaris sp. 2 and Munidopsis lauensis) from Southwestern Pacific Back-Arc Basins  

PubMed Central

Studies of genetic connectivity and population structure in deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystems often focus on endosymbiont-hosting species that are directly dependent on chemical energy extracted from vent effluent for survival. Relatively little attention has been paid to vent-associated species that are not exclusively dependent on chemosynthetic ecosystems. Here we assess connectivity and population structure of two vent-associated invertebrates—the shrimp Chorocaris sp. 2 and the squat lobster Munidopsis lauensis—that are common at deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the western Pacific. While Chorocaris sp. 2 has only been observed at hydrothermal vent sites, M. lauensis can be found throughout the deep sea but occurs in higher abundance around the periphery of active vents We sequenced mitochondrial COI genes and deployed nuclear microsatellite markers for both species at three sites in Manus Basin and either North Fiji Basin (Chorocaris sp. 2) or Lau Basin (Munidopsis lauensis). We assessed genetic differentiation across a range of spatial scales, from approximately 2.5 km to more than 3000 km. Population structure for Chorocaris sp. 2 was comparable to that of the vent-associated snail Ifremeria nautilei, with a single seemingly well-mixed population within Manus Basin that is genetically differentiated from conspecifics in North Fiji Basin. Population structure for Munidopsis lauensis was more complex, with two genetically differentiated populations in Manus Basin and a third well-differentiated population in Lau Basin. The unexpectedly high level of genetic differentiation between M. lauensis populations in Manus Basin deserves further study since it has implications for conservation and management of diversity in deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystems. PMID:24983244

Thaler, Andrew David; Plouviez, Sophie; Saleu, William; Alei, Freddie; Jacobson, Alixandra; Boyle, Emily A.; Schultz, Thomas F.; Carlsson, Jens; Van Dover, Cindy Lee

2014-01-01

87

The value of salt marsh edge vs interior as a habitat for fish and decapod crustaceans in a Louisiana tidal marsh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flume nets of various lengths and a 3-m seine were used to sample the fishes and macrocrustaceans using a flooded Louisiana\\u000a salt marsh and the adjacent tidal creek. The experiment allowed for species-specific comparisons of the flooded marsh at the\\u000a creek edge versus the interior. Of the 37,667 organisms collected in flume nets from January through November 1989, 89% were

G. W. Peterson; R. E. Turner

1994-01-01

88

The proteasomes of two marine decapod crustaceans, European lobster (Homarus gammarus) and Edible crab (Cancer pagurus), are differently impaired by heavy metals.  

PubMed

The intracellular ubiquitin-proteasome system is a key regulator of cellular processes involved in the controlled degradation of short-living or malfunctioning proteins. Certain diseases and cellular dysfunctions are known to arise from the disruption of proteasome pathways. Trace metals are recognized stressors of the proteasome system in vertebrates and plants, but their effects on the proteasome of invertebrates are not well understood. Since marine invertebrates, and particularly benthic crustaceans, can be exposed to high metal levels, we studied the effects of in vitro exposure to Hg(2+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+), and Cd(2+) on the activities of the proteasome from the claw muscles of lobsters (Homarus gammarus) and crabs (Cancer pagurus). The chymotrypsin like activity of the proteasome of these two species showed different sensitivity to metals. In lobsters the activity was significantly inhibited by all metals to a similar extent. In crabs the activities were severely suppressed only by Hg(2+) and Cu(2+) while Zn(2+) had only a moderate effect and Cd(2+) caused almost no inhibition of the crab proteasome. This indicates that the proteasomes of both species possess structural characteristics that determine different susceptibility to metals. Consequently, the proteasome-mediated protein degradation in crab C. pagurus may be less affected by metal pollution than that of the lobster H. gammarus. PMID:24721378

Götze, Sandra; Bose, Aneesh; Sokolova, Inna M; Abele, Doris; Saborowski, Reinhard

2014-05-01

89

Using biochemical markers to assess the effects of imposed temperature stress on freshwater decapod crustaceans: Cherax quadricarinatus as a test case.  

PubMed

The effects of thermal stress can impact negatively on the abundance and distribution of temperature-sensitive species, particularly freshwater crustaceans. This study investigated the effects of thermal stress on physiological and biochemical parameters at five treatment temperatures resulting in minimal (25 °C), moderate (27, 29 °C) or severe (31, 33 °C) thermal stress in the common tropical freshwater crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus. The aim was to develop a suite of stress-sensitive assays to use on threatened populations of freshwater crustaceans, particularly those restricted to cooler temperatures and only found in high altitude refugia. Significant increases in indicators of oxidative and metabolic stress were observed at 29 °C and were elevated further at 33 °C. After a 50-day acclimation to an imposed temperature stress, significant changes in the level of total glutathione, total lipids, muscular protein, total haemocyte count, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls were observed between treatments while superoxide dismutase activity and haemolymph protein concentrations did not change. The data provided proof of concept that measuring key biochemical responses to high temperature can provide a means of contrasting the level of thermal stress experienced between individuals of the same species adapted to different temperatures. The methods developed are expected to be of use in research on wild populations of other freshwater poikilothermic organisms, particularly those susceptible to increased environmental temperatures associated with climate change. PMID:25528146

Bone, J W P; Renshaw, G M C; Furse, J M; Wild, C H

2015-04-01

90

Biochemical analysis and immunohistochemical examination of a GnRH-like immunoreactive peptide in the central nervous system of a decapod crustacean, the kuruma prawn (Marsupenaeus japonicus).  

PubMed

We examined whether a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-like peptide exists in the central nervous system (CNS) of the kuruma prawn, Marsupenaeus japonicus, by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (rpHPLC) combined with time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) analysis and by immunohistochemistry. The displacement curve obtained for serially diluted extracts of the kuruma prawn brain paralleled the chicken GnRH-II (cGnRH-II) standard curve obtained by cGnRH-II TR-FIA using the anti-cGnRH-II antibody, which cross-reacts not only with cGnRH-II but also with lamprey GnRH-II (lGnRH-II) and octopus GnRH (octGnRH). Extracts of kuruma prawn brains and eyestalks showed a similar retention time to synthetic lGnRH-II and octGnRH in rpHPLC combined with TR-FIA analysis. Using this antibody, we detected GnRH-like-immunoreactive (ir) cell bodies in the anterior-most part of the supraesophageal ganglion (brain), the protocerebrum. Furthermore, GnRH-like-ir fibers were observed in the protocerebrum and deutocerebrum. In the eyestalk, GnRH-like-ir cell bodies were detected in the medulla interna, and GnRH-like-ir fibers were distributed in the medulla interna, medulla externa, and lamina ganglionalis. In the thoracic ganglion, GnRH-like-ir fibers, but not GnRH-like-ir cell bodies, were detected. No GnRH-like-ir cell bodies or fibers were detected in the abdominal ganglion or ovary. Thus, we have shown the existence and distribution of a GnRH-like peptide in the CNS of the kuruma prawn. PMID:19968471

Amano, Masafumi; Okumura, Takuji; Okubo, Kataaki; Amiya, Noriko; Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Oka, Yoshitaka

2009-12-01

91

Comparative population structure of two deep-sea hydrothermal-vent-associated decapods (Chorocaris sp. 2 and Munidopsis lauensis) from southwestern Pacific back-arc basins.  

PubMed

Studies of genetic connectivity and population structure in deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystems often focus on endosymbiont-hosting species that are directly dependent on chemical energy extracted from vent effluent for survival. Relatively little attention has been paid to vent-associated species that are not exclusively dependent on chemosynthetic ecosystems. Here we assess connectivity and population structure of two vent-associated invertebrates--the shrimp Chorocaris sp. 2 and the squat lobster Munidopsis lauensis--that are common at deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the western Pacific. While Chorocaris sp. 2 has only been observed at hydrothermal vent sites, M. lauensis can be found throughout the deep sea but occurs in higher abundance around the periphery of active vents We sequenced mitochondrial COI genes and deployed nuclear microsatellite markers for both species at three sites in Manus Basin and either North Fiji Basin (Chorocaris sp. 2) or Lau Basin (Munidopsis lauensis). We assessed genetic differentiation across a range of spatial scales, from approximately 2.5 km to more than 3000 km. Population structure for Chorocaris sp. 2 was comparable to that of the vent-associated snail Ifremeria nautilei, with a single seemingly well-mixed population within Manus Basin that is genetically differentiated from conspecifics in North Fiji Basin. Population structure for Munidopsis lauensis was more complex, with two genetically differentiated populations in Manus Basin and a third well-differentiated population in Lau Basin. The unexpectedly high level of genetic differentiation between M. lauensis populations in Manus Basin deserves further study since it has implications for conservation and management of diversity in deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystems. PMID:24983244

Thaler, Andrew David; Plouviez, Sophie; Saleu, William; Alei, Freddie; Jacobson, Alixandra; Boyle, Emily A; Schultz, Thomas F; Carlsson, Jens; Van Dover, Cindy Lee

2014-01-01

92

This study describes the kinematics of the tentacular strike in the squid Loligo pealei based on high-speed cin recordings  

E-print Network

on high-speed ciné recordings of prey capture. Previous studies of decapod cephalopods including in decapod cephalopods, the kinematic results from the present study have been used in a separate study of prey capture by decapod cephalopods in the laboratory have been defined: attention, positioning

Kier, William M.

93

Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling genes in decapod crustaceans: cloning and tissue expression of mTOR, Akt, Rheb, and p70 S6 kinase in the green crab, Carcinus maenas, and blackback land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis.  

PubMed

Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) controls global translation of mRNA into protein by phosphorylating p70 S6 kinase (S6K) and eIF4E-binding protein-1. Akt and Rheb, a GTP-binding protein, regulate mTOR protein kinase activity. Molting in crustaceans is regulated by ecdysteroids synthesized by a pair of molting glands, or Y-organs (YOs), located in the cephalothorax. During premolt, the YOs hypertrophy and increase production of ecdysteroids. Rapamycin (1?M) inhibited ecdysteroid secretion in Carcinus maenas and Gecarcinus lateralis YOs in vitro, indicating that ecdysteroidogenesis requires mTOR-dependent protein synthesis. The effects of molting on the expression of four key mTOR signaling genes (mTOR, Akt, Rheb, and S6K) in the YO was investigated. Partial cDNAs encoding green crab (C. maenas) mTOR (4031bp), Akt (855bp), and S6K (918bp) were obtained from expressed sequence tags. Identity/similarity of the deduced amino acid sequence of the C. maenas cDNAs to human orthologs were 72%/81% for Cm-mTOR, 58%/73% for Cm-Akt, and 77%/88% for Cm-S6K. mTOR, Akt, S6K, and elongation factor 2 (EF2) in C. maenas and blackback land crab (G. lateralis) were expressed in all tissues examined. The two species differed in the effects of molting on gene expression in the YO. In G. lateralis, Gl-mTOR, Gl-Akt, and Gl-EF2 mRNA levels were increased during premolt. By contrast, molting had no effect on the expression of Cm-mTOR, Cm-Akt, Cm-S6K, Cm-Rheb, and Cm-EF2. These data suggest that YO activation during premolt involves up regulation of mTOR signaling genes in G. lateralis, but is not required in C. maenas. PMID:24269559

Abuhagr, Ali M; Maclea, Kyle S; Chang, Ernest S; Mykles, Donald L

2014-02-01

94

RAPID COMMUNICATION Sexually Mature Cuttlefish are Attracted  

E-print Network

. Invertebrate . Mollusk Introduction Many species of decapod cephalopods (cuttlefishes, squids) form large, near for Cephalopods, Galveston, Texas). Sexual maturity was determined behaviorally; sex was confirmed by necropsy

Boal, Jean

95

MFR PAPER 1342 Some Protozoan Diseases of  

E-print Network

MFR PAPER 1342 Some Protozoan Diseases of Decapod Crustaceans Thomas K. Sawyer and Sharon A. Mac protozoan parasites of decapod crustaceans into a brief summary of species which are deserving of con a bibliographic overview of the species of protozoans that are included here, but rather to summarize some of our

96

The digestive physiology of herbivorous, omnivorous and carnivorous crustacean larvae: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

While most copepods are holoplanktonic, decapod larvae are meroplanktonic with a pelagic larval development ranging from days (Penaeidae) to weeks (most Palaemonidae, Palinuridae). Reproductive strategies result in either the early release of larvae in large numbers of small planktonic forms (Penaeidae) or smaller numbers of advanced larvae after parental incubation (Brachyura, Palaemonidae, Nephropidae, Palinuridae). Commercially-cultured decapod larvae exhibit a wide

D. A. Jones; M. Kumlu; L. Le Vay; D. J. Fletcher

1997-01-01

97

George R. Sedberry Marine Resources Research Institute  

E-print Network

and pelagic fishes and cephalopods. The diet was diverse but was dominated numeri- cally by planktonic species decapods, fishes, and cephalopods were more important in the diet of larger ver- milion snapper. Vermilion

98

Novel transcriptome assembly and improved annotation of the whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), a dominant crustacean in global seafood mariculture  

E-print Network

of this assembly and the affiliated targeted homology searches greatly enrich the curated transcripts currently available in public databases for this species. Comparison with the model arthropod Daphnia allows some insights into defining characteristics of decapod...

Ghaffari, Noushin; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Ryan, Doan; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D; Chen, Patricia L.; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrian; Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A.; Carrasco, J. Salvador; Hong, Chris; Brieba, Luis G.; Rudino-Pinera, Enrique; Blood, Philip D.; Jason A., Sawyer; Johnson, Charles D.; Dindot, Scott V.; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.; Criscitiello, Michael F.

2014-07-28

99

Who Am I?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online game, learners identify various animals including rabbits, turtles, and squirrels that live in National Parks, National Seashores and National Preserves. Clues introduce learners to organism characteristics such as invertebrate, decomposer, reptile, decapod, and mammal.

2013-05-15

100

[Predator damage and shell size on the diadromous snail Neritina virginea (Gastropoda: Neritidae) in the Mameyes River, Puerto Rico].  

PubMed

We compared predators' damage with shell size in live individuals and empty shells (n=5066) of the snail Neritina virginea in the Mameyes River (Puerto Rico, Greater Antilles). According to the literature and direct observations, damages on empty shells were attributed to predation by aquatic birds (e.g. Gallinula chloropus) and decapods (e.g. Macrobrachium spp.), while damages on live individuals were due to rasping by co-specifics and erosion. Predation by decapods and birds, as estimated by the proportion of empty shells, was low (2 and 0.36%, respectively). Shell size was significantly different between types of predators (range: decapods: 3.5-15.0mm, birds: 8.1-19.4mm). By comparing sizes of the empty shells and the live individuals, we concluded that decapods specialize on large groups of small migratory juveniles, while birds specialize on the largest resident individuals. Worn shells were highly frequent in both empty shells and live individuals, and sizes did not differ between samples. A comparison by slow-flow and fast-flow habitats showed that predators do not discriminate shell sizes between environments. However, the frequency of damage by birds and decapods was greater under slow-flow conditions. Despite of the little contribution of predation to the population dynamics in this species, predation might be an important driver of size-dependent behavioral responses such as upstream migration and microhabitat selection. PMID:20073335

Blanco-Libreros, Juan Felipe; Arroyave-Rincón, Andrea

2009-12-01

101

Systematic and Evolutionary Insights Derived from mtDNA COI Barcode Diversity in the Decapoda (Crustacea: Malacostraca)  

PubMed Central

Background Decapods are the most recognizable of all crustaceans and comprise a dominant group of benthic invertebrates of the continental shelf and slope, including many species of economic importance. Of the 17635 morphologically described Decapoda species, only 5.4% are represented by COI barcode region sequences. It therefore remains a challenge to compile regional databases that identify and analyse the extent and patterns of decapod diversity throughout the world. Methodology/Principal Findings We contributed 101 decapod species from the North East Atlantic, the Gulf of Cadiz and the Mediterranean Sea, of which 81 species represent novel COI records. Within the newly-generated dataset, 3.6% of the species barcodes conflicted with the assigned morphological taxonomic identification, highlighting both the apparent taxonomic ambiguity among certain groups, and the need for an accelerated and independent taxonomic approach. Using the combined COI barcode projects from the Barcode of Life Database, we provide the most comprehensive COI data set so far examined for the Order (1572 sequences of 528 species, 213 genera, and 67 families). Patterns within families show a general predicted molecular hierarchy, but the scale of divergence at each taxonomic level appears to vary extensively between families. The range values of mean K2P distance observed were: within species 0.285% to 1.375%, within genus 6.376% to 20.924% and within family 11.392% to 25.617%. Nucleotide composition varied greatly across decapods, ranging from 30.8 % to 49.4 % GC content. Conclusions/Significance Decapod biological diversity was quantified by identifying putative cryptic species allowing a rapid assessment of taxon diversity in groups that have until now received limited morphological and systematic examination. We highlight taxonomic groups or species with unusual nucleotide composition or evolutionary rates. Such data are relevant to strategies for conservation of existing decapod biodiversity, as well as elucidating the mechanisms and constraints shaping the patterns observed. PMID:21589909

Matzen da Silva, Joana; Creer, Simon; dos Santos, Antonina; Costa, Ana C.; Cunha, Marina R.; Costa, Filipe O.; Carvalho, Gary R.

2011-01-01

102

Direct evidence for the function of crustacean insulin-like androgenic gland factor (IAG): total chemical synthesis of IAG.  

PubMed

Insulin-like androgenic gland factor (IAG) is presumed to be a sex differentiation factor so-called androgenic gland hormone (AGH) in decapod crustacean, although the function of IAG peptide has not yet been reported. In this study, we synthesized IAG from the prawn, Marsupenaeus japonicus, and its function was assessed by an in vitro bioassay. As a result, IAG with the insulin-type disulfide bond arrangement showed biological activity, whereas its disulfide isomer did not. These results strongly suggest that the native IAG peptide has an insulin-type disulfide, and it is the decapod AGH. PMID:25270404

Katayama, Hidekazu; Kubota, Nozomi; Hojo, Hironobu; Okada, Ayumi; Kotaka, Sayaka; Tsutsui, Naoaki; Ohira, Tsuyoshi

2014-11-01

103

Influence of trophic variables on the depth-range distributions and zonation rates of deep-sea megafauna: the case of the Western Mediterranean assemblages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied in a deep-sea megafaunal community the relationship of different trophic variables to the depth ranges inhabited by and depth zonation of species, after the ordination of fish and decapod crustaceans in feeding guilds. The variables studied included trophic level of species, food sources exploited, mean weight of predators and prey, feeding intensity and dietary diversity of species. We compiled data on the diets of 18 species of fish and 14 species of decapod crustaceans distributed between 862 and 2261 m in the Catalano-Balearic Basin (Western Mediterranean). Feeding guilds were identified for fish and decapods separately and at two depth strata (862-1400 and 1400-2261 m). The zonation rates (degree of depth overlap) between species within each trophic guild differed by guild and taxon (fish and decapods). The three guilds (G1, G2 and G3) of decapod crustaceans showed quite significantly distinct overlap. G1 (plankton feeders) showed the widest overlap (1326-1381 m) and G3 (benthos feeders) the narrowest (330-476 m). Among the four guilds established for fish, G1, comprising larger predators such as sharks, showed the lowest overlap (between 194 and 382 m). Macrourids overlap ranged between 122 and 553 m, the rest of benthopelagic feeders ranged between 423 and 970 m, and G3 (benthos feeders) gave overlaps between 867 and 1067 m. Significant differences were detected between the depth overlap of most feeding guilds excluding the paired comparisons between G1/macrourids, and G2/G3. Among decapods higher zonation rates (=lower depth overlap) were identified in those guilds occupying higher trophic levels (TL), with a similar, though not as general, trend among fish. In the ordination of species in feeding guilds, TL as indicated by ?15N measurements, was significantly correlated with Dimension 1 (D1) of ordination—MDS-analysis, both in fish and decapods at 862-1400 m. However, deeper (at 1400-2261 m), D1 was not significantly correlated with TL but with the mean weight of predator and prey in fish. In general, TL was again the main explanatory variable (accumulated variances, r2, explained by multi-linear regression—MLR-models between 0.54 and 0.69) both of the zonation rates and the depth ranges occupied by megafauna (fish and decapods together) throughout all the depth range studied. Possible relationships between zonation rates /depth distributions and other biological variables (i.e. egg size, fecundity) are also discussed.

Cartes, Joan E.; Carrassón, Maite

2004-02-01

104

Utility of arginine kinase for resolution of phylogenetic relationships among brachyuran genera and families  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular phylogenetics of decapod crustaceans has been based on sequence data from a limited number of genes. These have included rapidly evolving mitochondrial genes, which are most appropriate for studies of closely related species, and slowly evolving nuclear ribosomal RNA genes, which have been most useful for resolution of deep branches within the Decapoda. Here we examine the utility

Brian C. Mahon; Joseph E. Neigel

2008-01-01

105

SPECIATION IN ANCIENT LAKES Ecological correlates of species differences in the Lake  

E-print Network

SPECIATION IN ANCIENT LAKES Ecological correlates of species differences in the Lake Tanganyika Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008 Abstract The endemic crabs of Lake Tanganyika include for the maintenance of species diversity in Lake Tanganyika. Keywords Decapod Á Adaptive radiation Á Niche

Loon, E. Emiel van

106

Ancient lakes as evolutionary reservoirs: evidence from the thalassoid gastropods of Lake Tanganyika  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ancient lakes are often collectively viewed as evolutionary hot spots of diversification. East Africa's Lake Tanganyika has long been the subject of scientific interest owing to dramatic levels of endemism in species as diverse as cichlid fishes, paludomid gastropods, decapod and ostracod crustaceans and poriferans. It is the largest and deepest of the African rift lakes, and its endemic fauna

Anthony B. Wilson; Matthias Glaubrecht; Axel Meyer

2004-01-01

107

Comparative studies of crustacean spectral sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectral sensitivity of the lateral eyes of the isopodPorcellio scaber (wood louse) and the decapodsCallinectes sapidus (blue crab),Palaemonetes paludosus (Everglades prawn),Orconectes virilis, andO. immunis (crayfish) have been measured between 300 and 660 nm by determining the reciprocal number of photons required to evoke a constant size retinal action potential.

Timothy H. Goldsmith; Hector R. Fernandez

1968-01-01

108

Interannual variations in the diet of breeding sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diet samples from sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus) were collected during the breeding season at Poutama (Evening) Island (1994 & 1995) and Putauhinu (Hidden) Island (1996–1998), southern New Zealand. Regurgitate samples and whole guts were obtained from chicks harvested by Rakiura M?ori muttonbirders. The relative proportions of six major prey categories (decapod, fish, squid, euphausiid, salp and amphipod) varied markedly between

J. C. Kitson; J. B. Cruz; C. Lalas; J. B. Jillett; J. Newman; P. O'B. Lyver

2000-01-01

109

NURSERY ROLE OF SEAGRASS MEADOWS IN THE UPPER AND LOWER REACHES OF THE CHESAPEAKE BAY  

EPA Science Inventory

A two year trawling and gill-netting study of vegetated and unvegetated bottoms near Parson's Island, Maryland and near the mouth of the York River, Virginia was carried out to assess the nursery function of submerged vegetation for population of fishes and decapod crustaceans in...

110

2001 S.KargerAG,Basel Fax +41 61 306 12 34  

E-print Network

and Maintenance of Social Rank in Crayfish R. Hubera J.B. Pankseppa Z. Yuea A. Delagob P. Moorea a J.P. Scott in crayfish and the importance of aminergic systems in its control. Our results illustrate that agonistic- ments are ruled by well-armed and well-armored crus- taceans. Clawed decapods, such as crayfish

Moore, Paul A.

111

IMMUNOLOCALIZATION OF NA+,K+-ATPASE IN THE BRANCHIAL CAVITY DURING THE EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF THE CRAYFISH ASTACUS  

E-print Network

OF THE CRAYFISH ASTACUS LEPTODACTYLUS (CRUSTACEA, DECAPODA). Jean-Hervé Lignot (1) *, Gregorius Nugroho Susanto (2 in the branchial cavity of embryonic and early postembryonic stages of the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus;INTRODUCTION Crayfish are decapod crustaceans fully adapted to freshwater, where they spend their entire life

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

112

Morphology of the Brain of Crayfish, Crabs, and Spiny Lobsters: A Common Nomenclature for Homologous Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphologies of the cerebral ganglia (brains) of three infraorders of the decapod crustaceans (Astacura-crayfish; Brachyura-crabs; Palinura-spiny lob- sters) are described. A common nomenclature is proposed for homologous nerve roots, brain regions, tracts, com- missures, neuropils, and cell body clusters.

DAVID SANDEMAN; RENATE SANDEMAN; CHARLES DERBY; MANFRED SCHMIDT

113

Diet overlaps and feeding relationships between the year classes in the yellow perch (Perca flavescens)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study of the diets of five year classes of perch in Lake Opinicon showed Year class 0 to be mainly Cladocera feeders, the Year class 11 to take a diversified range of insect larvae, whereas from Year class V onwards Anisoptera nymphs, decapods, and fish dominated the diet. Sizes of the dominant food items changed strikingly with growth,

Allen Keast

1977-01-01

114

Checklist of crustaceans (Decapoda and Stomatopoda), collected during the Victor Hensen Costa Rica expedition (1993/1994).  

PubMed

A checklist of the marine crustaceans (Decapoda and Stomatopoda) from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica collected by trawling during the RV Victor Hensen Cruise (1993-1994) is presented. A total of 117 species were identified, 10 stomatopods and 107 decapods. PMID:9393647

Vargas, R; Jesse, S; Castro, M

1996-12-01

115

Phylogeny of Cephalopods Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sequences of partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase III gene (533 bp) were obtained for 17 species of cephalopods, 14 decapods, 2 octopods, and 1 vampyromorph. This study aimed to: (1) compare partial COII and COIII amino acid sequences of three species of cephalopods with other invertebrates in terms of base composition and phylogenetic relationships. Cephalopod sequences are closer toKatharina tunicatasequences than

Laure Bonnaud; Renata Boucher-Rodoni; Monique Monnerot

1997-01-01

116

Ribosomal DNA Intergenic Spacer of the Swimming Crab, Charybdis japonica  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   We have determined the full sequence of the ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer (IGS) of the swimming crab, Charybdis japonica, by long PCR for the first time in crustacean decapods. The IGS is 5376 bp long and contains two nonrepetitive regions separated\\u000a by one long repetitive region, which is composed mainly of four subrepeats (subrepeats I, II, III, and IV).

Seong Ho Ryu; Yoon Kyung Do; Ui Wook Hwang; Chong Pyo Choe; Won Kim

1999-01-01

117

Diet and morphology through ontogeny of the nonindigenous Mayan cichlid `Cichlasoma (Nandopsis)' urophthalmus (Gu nther 1862)  

E-print Network

by fish and snails, probably due to greater availability. The invasive success of C. urophthalmus does throughout ontogeny. Fish remained the primary prey item throughout ontogeny, but there was a shift from detritus and ostracods among juveniles to algae, gastropods (snails), decapods, Hymenoptera, and adult

Motta, Philip J.

118

Zinc uptake and regulation by the sublittoral prawn Pandalus montagui (Crustacea: Decapoda)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sublittoral decapod crustacean Pandalus montagui Leach in artificial seawater at 10°C regulates the total body zinc concentration to a constant level in dissolved zinc concentrations up to ca. 22 ?g Zn l -1, beyond which there is net accumulation of body zinc. This threshold of zinc regulation breakdown is lower than that in the littoral decapods Palaemon elegans (ca. 93 ?g Zn l -1) and Palaemonetes varians (ca. 190 ?g Zn l -1) under the same physico-chemical conditions. Correspondingly, zinc uptake rates of the three species of decapods decrease in the order P. montagui > P. elegans > P. varians. It is concluded that regulation of total body zinc concentration is more efficient in decapods adapted to the fluctuating environments of littoral habitats, possibly as a result of changes in permeability of uptake surfaces in combination with improved zinc excretion systems. The moult cycle is important in determining the ability of an individual prawn to regulate zinc. Body zinc in Pandalus montagui consists of at least two pools of zinc exchanging at different rates which the environment. Zinc and copper are not evenly distributed in the tissues of P. montagui.

Nugegoda, D.; Rainbow, P. S.

1988-06-01

119

Development and connectivity of olfactory pathways in the brain of the lobsterHomarus americanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main output pathways from the olfactory lobes (primary olfactory centers) and accessory lobes (higher-order integrative areas) of decapod crustaceans terminate within both of the main neuropil regions of the lateral protocerebrum: the medulla terminalis and the hemiellipsoid body. The present study examines the morphogenesis of the lateral protocere- bral neuropils of the lobster, Homarus americanus, and the development of

Jeremy M. Sullivan; Barbara S. Beltz

2001-01-01

120

Scaling of Organic Weight and Energy Content of Arthropod Eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among echinoderm species the average energy content (Ee) and organic weight (OW) of eggs scale in direct proportion with average egg volume (Jaeckle, 1995). The scaling of OW and Ee was evaluated for decapod crustacean and arachnid arthropods (26 species) using average values taken from the literature. This data set includes taxa that exhibit a variety of life history strategies

Kimberly Nielsen

1999-01-01

121

Compound eyes and ocular pigments of crustacean larvae (Stomatopoda and decapoda, brachyura)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvae of decapod and stomatopod crustaceans possess paired compound eyes not unlike those of adult crustaceans. However, the visual demands of larval and adult life differ considerably. Furthermore, the eyes of adult stomatopods appear to be far more specialized than those of the larvae. We examined eyes of several stomatopod species just before and after larval metamorphosis. At this time,

Thomas W. Cronin; N. Justin Marshall; Roy L. Caldwell; Dmitriy Pales

1995-01-01

122

Ontogeny of the ventral nerve cord in malacostracan crustaceans: a common plan for neuronal development in Crustacea, Hexapoda and other Arthropoda?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review sets out to summarize our current knowledge on the structural layout of the embryonic ventral nerve cord in decapod crustaceans and its development from stem cell to the mature structure. In Decapoda, neuronal stem cells, the neuroblasts, mostly originate from ectodermal stem cells, the ectoteloblast, via a defined lineage. The neuroblasts undergo repeated asymmetric division and generate ganglion

Steffen Harzsch

2003-01-01

123

GROWTH AND VARIATIONS IN LIPID CLASS AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION DURING LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE STONE CRAB, MENIPPE ADINA WILLIAMS AND FELDER, 1986  

EPA Science Inventory

Larval development in decapod crustaceans is marked by variable growth patterns and changes in weight and biochemical composition. Larvae of the stone crab, Menippe adina, were mass-reared under laboratory conditions (28|C; 20o/ooS) from hatching to the megalopal stage. Growth in...

124

GROWTH AND VARIATIONS IN LIPID CLASS AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION DURING LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE STONE CRAB, MENIPPE ADINA WILLIAMS AND FELDER, 1986.  

EPA Science Inventory

Larval development in decapod crustaceans is marked by variable growth patterns and changes in weight and biochemical composition. Larvae of the stone crab, Menippe adina, were mass-reared under laboratory conditions (28?C; 20o/ooS) from hatching to the megalopa stage. Growth in...

125

INFLUENCE OF FRESHWATER INPUT ON THE HABITAT VALUE OF OYSTER REEFS IN THREE SOUTHWEST FLORIDA ESTUARIES.  

EPA Science Inventory

In order to examine the influence of freshwater input on the habitat value of oyster reefs, a spatiotemporal comparison of reef-resident fishes and decapod crustaceans was conducted during three seasonally dry and three seasonally wet months in three Southwest Florida estuaries: ...

126

THE MECHANISM OF FLUID ABSORPTION AT ECDYSIS IN THE AMERICAN LOBSTER, HOMARUS AMERICANUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. The mechanism of fluid absorption at ecdysis was investigated in the stenohaline marine decapod, Homarus americanus. 2. Sea-water uptake began approximately 1 h before ecdysis, increased rapidly during ecdysis, and was completed 2 h after ecdysis. 3. Increased drinking rates were measured during and just after ecdysis. The quantity of water ingested was equal to the total amount

DONALD L. MYKLES

127

Mar. Fresh. Behav. Physiol., Vol. 35, No. 3, pp. 139148 PREVIOUS EXPERIENCES ALTER THE OUTCOME  

E-print Network

OF AGGRESSIVE INTERACTIONS BETWEEN MALES IN THE CRAYFISH, PROCAMBARUS CLARKII ALISDAIR G. DAWS*, JENNIFER GRILLS in crustacean agonistic encounters. Crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, of different size classes were given a series. The most common factor in determining the outcome of an encounter between decapod crustaceans

Moore, Paul A.

128

Polar Biol (2010) 33:919928 DOI 10.1007/s00300-010-0768-1  

E-print Network

caridean and other shrimp-like deca- pods, amphipods and isopods are highly abundant. DiVering capacities correlated positively with magnesium concentration. The Antarctic caridean decapod as well as the amphipods- ose in the Antarctic today, with over 400 isopod and over 500 amphipod species (Brandt 1999; Gutt et

Dever, Jennifer A.

129

Observations on food remains in faeces of elephant, leopard and crabeater seals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faecal material of leopard, crabeater and elephant seals was collected from the vicinity of Davis station, Antarctica. Very few identifiable remains were found in elephant seal droppings. Fish remains, mainly of Pleuragramma antarcticum, were found in both leopard and crabeater seal droppings. The mysid Antarctomysis maxima was also found in crabeater seal droppings and amphipods and decapod crustaceans in leopard

K. Green; R. Williams

1986-01-01

130

Revisiting the Concept of Identifiable Neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although eutely in nematodes was known, giant neurons in several taxa and unique motor neurons to leg muscles in decapod crustaceans, the idea that many animals have many identifiable neurons with relatively consistent dynamical properties and connections was only slowly established in the late 1960s and early 1970s. This has to be one of the important quiet revolutions in neurobiology.

Theodore Holmes Bullock

2000-01-01

131

Introduction Many coastal marine organisms are benthos associated as  

E-print Network

. There is now strong evidence that at least coral reef fish and decapod larvae acquire swimming capabilities and not fundamentally affect the outcome of dispersal. In contrast, modeling studies have shown that oriented horizontal observations by scuba divers (starting with Leis et al. 1996), in situ fixed experiments using light traps

Paris-Limouzy, Claire B.

132

Olfactory excitation of interneurons in the brain of the spiny lobster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multimodal interneurons descending the circumesophageal connectives from the brain to the lower nervous system in decapod crustaceans respond to stimulation of cephalic sensory structures. Using intracellular recording and staining and backfilling techniques, we have examined the complexity of olfactory stimulants necessary to excite descending interneurons in the spiny lobster, and have characterized the dendritic branching pattern and responsiveness to multimodal

Kathryn A. Hamilton; Barry W. Ache

1983-01-01

133

Effects of pollution on freshwater invertebrates  

SciTech Connect

The biological effects of acid rain, chlorination, heavy metals and other forms of pollution on freshwater invertebrates are examined in this review. Several methods for evaluating chronic toxicity to pesticide residues and synthetic fuels components are reviewed. The effects of pollutants is reviewed in detail for cladocera, amphipods, isopods, decapods, aquatic insects, molluscs, worms, and protozoa.(KRM)

Buikema

1982-06-01

134

FEEDING HABITS OF THE BIGEYE SCAD, SELAR CRUMENOPHTHALMUS (CARANGIDAE), IN LA RÉUNION ISLAND WATERS (SOUTH-WESTERN INDIAN OCEAN) by  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selar crumenophthalmus, the bigeye scad, is a coastal pelagic fish, which feeds mostly at night on large planktonic animals. Young scads prey mostly on crustaceans (euphausiids, decapods) and adults are active predators of fish larvae and early juveniles. The large size of the eyes could be an adaptation to night predation.

Olivier ROUX; François CONAND

2000-01-01

135

Variaciones temporales en la composición y abundancia de cuatro especies de Cancer (Decapoda: Brachyura: Cancridae) capturadas con trampas en bahía San Vicente, Concepción (Chile central)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the composition and distribution of the main brachyuran decapod crustacean species caught by small-scale fishermen in the coastal area off the Hualpén Peninsula (Concepción). These patterns were then compared and related to variations in temperature and extraction depth. The catches throughout the year were basically represented by four Cancer species, especially in autumn 2003, when C. porteri

Carlos A. Muñoz; Luis M. Pardo; Luis A. Henríquez; Álvaro T. Palma

2006-01-01

136

between species, but between different segments on the same animal. They  

E-print Network

, but decapods, such as lobsters and crabs, have a hard calcium carbonate carapace. Both types of exoskeletons lobsters, shrimp and crabs. While these particular animals embody many of the usual crustacean pilings, and usually only see the outer cone-shaped shell. Based partly on this shell structure, early

Patel, Nipam H.

137

Serotonin immunoreactivity in the ventral nerve cord of the primitive crustacean Anaspides tasmaniae closely resembles that of crayfish  

PubMed

Syncarid crustaceans, of which only a few living species remain, have articulated segments with well-developed appendages along the length of the body, an arrangement thought to resemble that of the earliest malacostracan crustaceans. Decapod malacostracans have fused thoracic segments and reduced abdominal appendages. Modern representatives of the two groups are separated by at least 300 million years of evolutionary history. The serotonin immunoreactivity of ganglia and connectives from the ventral nerve cord of the syncarid Anaspides tasmaniae was compared with that of serially homologous ganglia of the crayfish Cherax destructor. Both species show the serotonin-immunoreactive longitudinal fibre bundles described from other decapods and thought to be part of a neuromodulatory network. They also have in common a number of the cell bodies associated with this system. Each species has some serotonergic cells in the region examined that are not present, or that do not stain, in the other species. PMID:9318221

Harrison; Macmillan; Young

1995-01-01

138

Semisubmersible oil platforms: understudied and potentially major vectors of biofouling-mediated invasions.  

PubMed

Biofouling has long been recognised as a major pathway for the introduction of non-indigenous species. This study records the decapods and stomatopod crustaceans fouling a semisubmersible oil platform dry docked for hull cleaning in Jurong Port, Singapore. Of the 25 species of decapods identified, 13 were non-indigenous and represent new records to Singapore waters. Of these, the crabs Glabropilumnus seminudus and Carupa tenuipes are known to be invasive in other parts of the world. The stomatopod, Gonodactylaceus randalli, is the first mantis shrimp recorded in a biofouling community. The richness and diversity of this fouling community, consisting of many vagile species, highlights the difference between platforms and ships. With the expansion of maritime oil and gas exploration, the threat posed by an expanded fleet of semisubmersible oil platforms translocating non-indigenous fouling communities across biogeographical boundaries is very serious. Scientists, policy-makers, and stakeholders should turn their attention to this growing problem. PMID:19927240

Yeo, Darren C J; Ahyong, Shane T; Lodge, David M; Ng, Peter K L; Naruse, Tohru; Lane, David J W

2010-01-01

139

Cryptic assemblages in coral-rubble interstices along a terrestrial-sediment gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assemblage composition of cryptic mobile animals inhabiting coral rubble was sampled using mesh traps containing clean\\u000a coral rubble, and used as indicators of land-based pollution at 14 sites in three coral lagoons at Ishigaki Island, southern\\u000a Japan. Cluster analyses identified three groups of large mobile animal assemblages (molluscs, echinoderms, fishes, decapod\\u000a and stomatopod crustaceans). Using a distance-based redundancy analysis

Y. Takada; O. Abe; T. Shibuno

2008-01-01

140

Seasonal changes of benthic megafauna in the Ría de Muros e Noia (Galicia, North-West Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A community of decapod crustaceans (Brachyura) was sampled seasonally (October 1978–July 1979) from three habitats (raft, middle and beach) in the Ría de Muros e Noia (North-West Spain), with the purpose of studying spatial and temporal changes in the community and comparing with communities in the neighbouring Ría de Arousa, which supports an intense mussel (Mytilus edulis)-raft culture. The Portunidae

E. González-Gurriarán

1986-01-01

141

Roles of crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone in ionic and metabolic homeostasis in the Christmas Island blue crab, Discoplax celeste.  

PubMed

There is a growing body of evidence implicating the involvement of crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone (CHH) in ionic homeostasis in decapod crustaceans. However, little is known regarding hormonally influenced osmoregulatory processes in terrestrial decapods. As many terrestrial decapods experience opposing seasonal demands upon ionoregulatory physiologies, we reasoned that these would make interesting models in which to study the effect of CHH upon these phenomena. In particular, those (tropical) species that also undergo seasonal migrations might be especially informative, as we know relatively little regarding the nature of CHHs in terrestrial decapods, and hormonally mediated responses to seasonal changes in metabolic demands might also be superimposed or otherwise integrated with those associated with ionic homeostasis. Using Discoplax celeste as a model crab that experiences seasonal extremes in water availability, and exhibits diurnal and migratory activity patterns, we identified two CHHs in the sinus gland. We biochemically characterised (cDNA cloning) one CHH and functionally characterised (in terms of dose-dependent hyperglycaemic responses and glucose-dependent negative feedback loops) both CHHs. Whole-animal in situ branchial chamber (22)NaCl perfusion experiments showed that injection of both CHHs increased gill Na(+) uptake in a seasonally dependent manner, and (51)Cr-EDTA clearance experiments demonstrated that CHH increased urine production by the antennal gland. Seasonal and salinity-dependent differences in haemolymph CHH titre further implicated CHH in osmoregulatory processes. Intriguingly, CHH appeared to have no effect on gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase or V-ATPase activity, suggesting unknown mechanisms of this hormone's action on Na(+) transport across gill epithelia. PMID:23239894

Turner, Lucy M; Webster, Simon G; Morris, Stephen

2013-04-01

142

Feeding Habits of Percnon gibbesi (H. Milne Edwards, 1853) in the Sicily Strait  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subtropical grapsid crab Percnon gibbesi (H. Milne Edwards, 1853) is one of the most recent alien decapods found in the Mediterranean, where it was discovered at\\u000a Linosa (Pelagie Islands, Sicily Strait) in summer 1999. At present, the invasion of this species has been recorded in several\\u000a other insular localities. We studied the feeding habits of the crab in an

V. Puccio; M. Relini; E. Azzurro; L. Orsi Relini

2006-01-01

143

Feeding habits of Percnon gibbesi (H. Milne Edwards, 1853) in the Sicily Strait  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subtropical grapsid crab Percnon gibbesi (H. Milne Edwards, 1853) is one of the most recent alien decapods found in the Mediterranean, where it was discovered at\\u000a Linosa (Pelagie Islands, Sicily Strait) in summer 1999. At present, the invasion of this species has been recorded in several\\u000a other insular localities. We studied the feeding habits of the crab in an

V. Puccio; M. Relini; E. Azzurro; L. Orsi Relini

144

Molecular Phylogeny of Eastern Pacific Porcelain Crabs, Genera Petrolisthes and Pachycheles, Based on the mtDNA 16S rDNA Sequence: Phylogeographic and Systematic Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porcelain crabs, genera Petrolisthes and Pachycheles, are diverse and abundant members of the eastern Pacific near-shore decapod crustacean community. Morphology-based taxonomic analyses of these crabs have determined groupings of affiliated species, but phylogenetic relationships remain unknown. We used sequence data from the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene of 46 species of eastern Pacific porcelain crabs to perform phylogenetic analyses by distance

Jonathon H. Stillman; Carol A. Reeb

2001-01-01

145

Summer Foods, Length-Weight Relationship, and Condition Factor of Juvenile Ladyfish, Elops saurus Linnaeus, from Louisiana Coastal Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 295 juvenile ladyfish Elops saurus Linnaeus were collected with surface trawls from Louisiana coastal streams in June 1968 and June 1969. The fish ranged from 45 to 201 mm in fork length. Of the 295 ladyfish stomachs examined, 229 (77.6%) contained food. Fish constituted 94.5% by occurrence of the food organisms and decapod crustaceans 5.5%. Gulf menhaden

Glenn B. Sekavec

1974-01-01

146

Neuronal Pathways of Classical Crustacean Neurohormones in the Central Nervous System of the Woodlouse, Oniscus asellus (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuropeptide-immunoreactive neurons have been mapped by immunocytochemistry in whole-mount preparations and sections of the central nervous system of Oniscus asellus. We tested rabbit antisera against decapod crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), moult inhibiting hormone (MIH), pigment dispersing hormone (PDH) and red pigment concentrating hormone (RPCH). Four CHH- and three PDH-immunoreactive neurons localized in the superior median protocerebrum of the brain constitute

Thomas Nussbaum; Heinrich Dircksen

1995-01-01

147

Early embryonic development of the central nervous system in the Australian crayfish and the Marbled crayfish (Marmorkrebs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sets out to provide a systematic analysis of the development of the primordial central nervous system (CNS) in\\u000a embryos of two decapod crustaceans, the Australian crayfish Cherax destructor (Malacostraca, Decapoda, Astacida) and the parthenogenetic Marbled crayfish (Marmorkrebs, Malacostraca, Decapoda, Astacida)\\u000a by histochemical labelling with phalloidin, a general marker for actin. One goal of our study was to examine

K. Vilpoux; R. Sandeman; S. Harzsch

2006-01-01

148

Role of the olfactory pathway in agonistic behavior of crayfish, Procambarus clarkii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crayfish establish social dominance hierarchies through agonistic interactions, and these hierarchies are maintained through\\u000a assessment of social status. Chemical signals influence several aspects of fighting behavior, but the specific chemosensory\\u000a sensilla involved in detecting these signals in crayfish are unknown. The goal of our study was to examine the importance\\u000a of aesthetasc sensilla—olfactory sensors on the antennules of decapod crustaceans—in

Amy J. Horner; Manfred Schmidt; Donald H. Edwards; Charles D. Derby

2008-01-01

149

Chemical Communication in Crayfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Crayfish are a species rich group of large decapod crustaceans that inhabit freshwater environments. Having served as important\\u000a models for the study of the neural and hormonal control of behavior crayfish were among the first crustacean taxa that were\\u000a reported to use sex pheromones. Decades of research on crayfish chemical communication have, after initial controversies,\\u000a now generated a comprehensive picture

Thomas Breithaupt

150

Stone City and Cook Mountain (middle Eocene) scaphopods from southwest Texas  

E-print Network

- posited in areas subject to waves or tidal currents and, therefore, were well aerated. Intervening clays, on the other hand, are more representative of a mud-flat environment. —0 100 200 300 400 —500 FEET ie,14°o 4 The University of Kansas Paleontological..., and dermal plates of several kinds of fish and teeth and stinging barbs of rays. Remains of decapods, cephalopods, echinoids, ophiuroids, insects, chitons, barnacles, charophytes, sponges, brachiopods, and plants are found more rarely. Trace fossils...

Hodgkinson, K. A.

1974-07-10

151

Effect of dissolved oxygen level on respiratory metabolism, nutritional physiology, and immune condition of southern king crab Lithodes santolla (Molina, 1782) (Decapoda, Lithodidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Episodes of hypoxia are common in the marine environment, and their ecological effects depend, in part, on their severity\\u000a and duration. Many species of decapod crustaceans reside in areas with fluctuating oxygen regimens. Physiological mechanisms\\u000a enhance the ability of these crustaceans to cope with acute episodes of hypoxia. Southern king crab, Lithodes santolla, fishery is important in the south of

Kurt Paschke; Juan Pablo Cumillaf; Sergio Loyola; Paulina Gebauer; Mauricio Urbina; María Eugenia Chimal; Cristina Pascual; Carlos Rosas

2010-01-01

152

Communication in Genomics and Proteomics Insulin and gender: An insulin-like gene expressed exclusively in the androgenic gland of the male crayWsh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the insulin family of hormones are generally not regarded as gender-speciWc, although there is sporadic evidence for the possible involvement of insulin pathways in sexual diVerentiation. In crustaceans, sexual diVerentiation is controlled by the androgenic gland (AG), an organ unique to males. To date, attempts to identify active AG factors in decapods through either classical puriWcation methods or

Rivka Manor; Simy Weil; Shirley Oren; Lilah Glazer; Eliahu D. AXalo; Tomer Ventura; Vered Chalifa-Caspi; Miri Lapidot; Amir Sagi

153

Resolution of fine biological structure including small narcomedusae across a front in the Southern California Bight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We sampled a front detected by SST gradient, ocean color imagery, and a Spray glider south of San Nicolas Island in the Southern California Bight between 14 and 18 October 2010. We sampled the front with an unusually extensive array of instrumentation, including the Continuous Underway Fish Egg Sampler (CUFES), the undulating In Situ Ichthyoplankton Imaging System (ISIIS) (fitted with temperature, salinity, oxygen, and fluorescence sensors), multifrequency acoustics, a surface pelagic trawl, a bongo net, and a neuston net. We found higher fluorescence and greater cladoceran, decapod, and euphausiid densities in the front, indicating increased primary and secondary production. Mesopelagic fish were most abundant in oceanic waters to the west of the front, market squid were abundant in the front associated with higher krill and decapod densities, and jack mackerel were most common in the front and on the shoreward side of the front. Egg densities peaked to either side of the front, consistent with both offshore (for oceanic squid and mesopelagic fish) and shelf origins (for white croaker and California halibut). We discovered unusually high concentrations of predatory narcomedusae in the surface layer of the frontal zone. Potential ichthyoplankton predators were more abundant either in the front (decapods, euphausiids, and squid) or shoreward of the front (medusae, chaetognaths, and jack mackerel). For pelagic fish like sardine, which can thrive in less productive waters, the safest place to spawn would be offshore because there are fewer potential predators.

McClatchie, Sam; Cowen, Robert; Nieto, Karen; Greer, Adam; Luo, Jessica Y.; Guigand, Cedric; Demer, David; Griffith, David; Rudnick, Daniel

2012-04-01

154

Copper toxicity in the crab, Scylla serrata, copper levels in tissues and regulation after exposure to a copper-rich medium  

SciTech Connect

In the decapod crustaceans copper is distributed in various tissues. In these animals the tissue copper generally exists in four forms; ionic, bound to proteins, lipids and membrane. In the estuarine crab Scylla serrata, the haemolymph copper exists only in association with proteins, whereas in the hepatopancreas it exists in all the four forms and in gills it exists in all the forms except in combination with lipids. Although food is the major source of copper in decapod crustaceans evidence indicate that copper may be directly obtained from the environment. It was postulated earlier that in Scylla serrata the haemolymph and hepatopancreas may be involved in copper regulation. In the present work the authors have studied the nature and levels of copper in different tissues after exposing the crabs to copper-rich medium. The results indicate the relative importance of various tissues in accumulation an the possible mechanisms of regulation of the environmental copper. Besides, as a pre-requisite for studies of this kind, the toxic levels for different forms of copper were estimated since the form of toxicant is known to influence the toxicity to the decapod crustaceans.

Arumugam, M.; Ravindranath, M.H.

1987-10-01

155

Seasonal variability of suprabenthic crustaceans associated with Cymodocea nodosa seagrass meadows off Gran Canaria (eastern Atlantic)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seagrass meadows are important ecosystems on shallow coastal waters, maintaining a high diversity of species. Mysids are the dominant taxa of suprabenthic organisms associated with seagrass meadows in temperate coastal waters, where they are an important food resource for the coastal fishes. Five meadows of Cymodocea nodosa were sampled off the east and west of Gran Canaria Island in spring and autumn 2011 to describe associated suprabenthos and to determine seasonal changes in the abundance of suprabenthos assemblages. Mysids, decapods and amphipods made up 95% of total suprabenthos abundance, which was more abundant in spring (May) than in autumn (November). A total of 29 species were identified, 12 amphipod, 11 decapod and 6 mysid species. The mysid Leptomysis lingvura did not show seasonal differences, while Anchialina agilis showed greater abundance in May at all localities. For the other mysid species, abundances were higher in May than November, although significant differences varied among localities. The dominant amphipod, Apherusa vexatrix, and the dominant decapod, Hippolyte spp., also showed significant differences in density between seasons, being higher in May at all localities. From these results, we conclude that there is an overlap between the natural life cycle of the seagrass C. nodosa and associated suprabenthos.

Herrera, A.; Landeira, J. M.; Tuya, F.; Packard, T.; Espino, F.; Gómez, M.

2014-10-01

156

Mass spectral characterization of peptide transmitters/hormones in the nervous system and neuroendocrine organs of the American lobster Homarus americanus  

PubMed Central

The American lobster Homarus americanus is a decapod crustacean with both high economic and scientific importance. To facilitate physiological investigations of peptide transmitter/hormone function in this species, we have used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTMS), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) and nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS) to elucidate the peptidome present in its nervous system and neuroendocrine organs. In total, 84 peptides were identified, including 27 previously known H. americanus peptides (e.g. VYRKPPFNGSIFamide [Val1-SIFamide]), 23 peptides characterized previously from other decapods, but new to the American lobster (e.g. pQTFQYSRGWTNamide [Arg7-corazonin]), and 34 new peptides de novo sequenced/detected for the first time in this study. Of particular note are a novel B-type allatostatin (TNWNKFQGSWamide) and several novel FMRFamide-related peptides, including an unsulfated analog of sulfakinin (GGGEYDDYGHLRFamide), two myosuppressins (QDLDHVFLRFamide and pQDLDHVFLRFamide), and a collection of short neuropeptide F isoforms (e.g. DTSTPALRLRFamide, and FEPSLRLRFamide). Our data also include the first detection of multiple tachykinin-related peptides in a non-brachyuran decapod, as well as the identification of potential individual-specific variants of orcokinin and orcomyotropin-related peptide. Taken collectively, our results not only expand greatly the number of known H. americanus neuropeptides, but also provide a framework for future studies on the physiological roles played by these molecules in this commercially and scientifically important species. PMID:18304551

Ma, Mingming; Chen, Ruibing; Sousa, Gregory L.; Bors, Eleanor K.; Kwiatkowski, Molly; Goiney, Christopher C.; Goy, Michael F.; Christie, Andrew E.; Li, Lingjun

2008-01-01

157

Discovery of a novel insulin-like peptide and insulin binding proteins in the Eastern rock lobster Sagmariasus verreauxi.  

PubMed

This study reports, for the first time in any of the commercially important decapod species, the identification of an insulin-like peptide (ILP), distinct from the androgenic gland hormone. Bioinformatics analysis of the de novo assembled spiny lobster, (Sagmariasus verreauxi) transcriptome, allowed identification of Sv-ILP1 as well as eight binding proteins. Binding proteins were termed as Sv-IGFBP, due to homology with the vertebrate insulin-like growth-factor binding protein and Sv-SIBD1-7, single insulin-binding domain protein (SIBD), similar to those identified in other invertebrate species. Sv-ILP1 was found to be expressed in the eyestalk, gonads and antennal gland of both sexes and to a lesser extent in male muscle, androgenic gland and hepatopancreas. The expression profiles of each binding protein were found to vary across tissues, with Sv-SIBD5, 6 and 7 showing higher expression in the gonad, demonstrated by PCR and digital gene expression. Further spatial investigations, using in-situ hybridisation, found Sv-ILP1 to be expressed in the neurosecretory cells of the thoracic ganglia, in keeping with the tissue expression of Drosophila ILP7 (DILP7). This correlative tissue expression, considered with the phylogenetic clustering of Sv-ILP1 and DILP7, suggests Sv-ILP1 to be a DILP7 orthologue. The broad expression of Sv-ILP1 strongly suggests that ILPs have a role beyond that of masculinisation in decapods. The function of these novel peptides may have application in enhancing aquaculture practices in the commercially important decapod species. PMID:25218129

Chandler, Jennifer C; Aizen, Joseph; Elizur, Abigail; Hollander-Cohen, Lian; Battaglene, Stephen; Ventura, Tomer

2014-09-01

158

Transcriptome and Peptidome Characterisation of the Main Neuropeptides and Peptidic Hormones of a Euphausiid: The Ice Krill, Euphausia crystallorophias  

PubMed Central

Background The Ice krill, Euphausia crystallorophias is one of the species at the base of the Southern Ocean food chain. Given their significant contribution to the biomass of the Southern Ocean, it is vitally important to gain a better understanding of their physiology and, in particular, anticipate their responses to climate change effects in the warming seas around Antarctica. Methodology/Principal Findings Illumina sequencing was used to produce a transcriptome of the ice krill. Analysis of the assembled contigs via two different methods, produced 36 new pre-pro-peptides, coding for 61 neuropeptides or peptide hormones belonging to the following families: Allatostatins (A, B et C), Bursicon (? and ?), Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormones (CHH and MIH/VIHs), Crustacean Cardioactive Peptide (CCAP), Corazonin, Diuretic Hormones (DH), the Eclosion Hormone (EH), Neuroparsin, Neuropeptide F (NPF), small Neuropeptide F (sNPF), Pigment Dispersing Hormone (PDH), Red Pigment Concentrating Hormone (RPCH) and finally Tachykinin. LC/MS/MS proteomics was also carried out on eyestalk extracts, which are the major site of neuropeptide synthesis in decapod crustaceans. Results confirmed the presence of six neuropeptides and six precursor-related peptides previously identified in the transcriptome analyses. Conclusions This study represents the first comprehensive analysis of neuropeptide hormones in a Eucarida non-decapod Malacostraca, several of which are described for the first time in a non-decapod crustacean. Additionally, there is a potential expansion of PDH and Neuropeptide F family members, which may reflect certain life history traits such as circadian rhythms associated with diurnal migrations and also the confirmation via mass spectrometry of several novel pre-pro-peptides, of unknown function. Knowledge of these essential hormones provides a vital framework for understanding the physiological response of this key Southern Ocean species to climate change and provides a valuable resource for studies into the molecular phylogeny of these organisms and the evolution of neuropeptide hormones. PMID:23990964

Toullec, Jean-Yves; Corre, Erwan; Bernay, Benoît; Thorne, Michael A. S.; Cascella, Kévin; Ollivaux, Céline; Henry, Joël; Clark, Melody S.

2013-01-01

159

The emergence of lobsters: phylogenetic relationships, morphological evolution and divergence time comparisons of an ancient group (decapoda: achelata, astacidea, glypheidea, polychelida).  

PubMed

Lobsters are a ubiquitous and economically important group of decapod crustaceans that include the infraorders Polychelida, Glypheidea, Astacidea and Achelata. They include familiar forms such as the spiny, slipper, clawed lobsters and crayfish and unfamiliar forms such as the deep-sea and "living fossil" species. The high degree of morphological diversity among these infraorders has led to a dynamic classification and conflicting hypotheses of evolutionary relationships. In this study, we estimated phylogenetic relationships among the major groups of all lobster families and 94% of the genera using six genes (mitochondrial and nuclear) and 195 morphological characters across 173 species of lobsters for the most comprehensive sampling to date. Lobsters were recovered as a non-monophyletic assemblage in the combined (molecular?+?morphology) analysis. All families were monophyletic, with the exception of Cambaridae, and 7 of 79 genera were recovered as poly- or paraphyletic. A rich fossil history coupled with dense taxon coverage allowed us to estimate and compare divergence times and origins of major lineages using two drastically different approaches. Age priors were constructed and/or included based on fossil age information or fossil discovery, age, and extant species count data. Results from the two approaches were largely congruent across deep to shallow taxonomic divergences across major lineages. The origin of the first lobster-like decapod (Polychelida) was estimated in the Devonian (?409-372 Ma) with all infraorders present in the Carboniferous (?353-318 Ma). Fossil calibration subsampling studies examined the influence of sampling density (number of fossils) and placement (deep, middle, and shallow) on divergence time estimates. Results from our study suggest including at least 1 fossil per 10 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in divergence dating analyses. [Dating; decapods; divergence; lobsters; molecular; morphology; phylogenetics.]. PMID:24562813

Bracken-Grissom, Heather D; Ahyong, Shane T; Wilkinson, Richard D; Feldmann, Rodney M; Schweitzer, Carrie E; Breinholt, Jesse W; Bendall, Matthew; Palero, Ferran; Chan, Tin-Yam; Felder, Darryl L; Robles, Rafael; Chu, Ka-Hou; Tsang, Ling-Ming; Kim, Dohyup; Martin, Joel W; Crandall, Keith A

2014-07-01

160

Analysis of the Central Nervous System Transcriptome of the Eastern Rock Lobster Sagmariasus verreauxi Reveals Its Putative Neuropeptidome  

PubMed Central

Neuropeptides have been discovered in many arthropod species including crustaceans. The nature of their biological function is well studied and varies from behavior modulation to physiological regulation of complex biochemical processes such as metabolism, molt and reproduction. Due to their key role in these fundamental processes, neuropeptides are often targeted for modulating these processes to align with market demands in commercially important species. We generated a comprehensive transcriptome of the eyestalk and brain of one of the few commercially important spiny lobster species in the southern Hemisphere, the Eastern rock lobster Sagmariasus verreauxi and mined it for novel neuropeptide and protein hormone-encoding transcripts. We then characterized the predicted mature hormones to verify their validity based on conserved motifs and features known from previously reported hormones. Overall, 37 transcripts which are predicted to encode mature full-length/partial peptides/proteins were identified, representing 21 peptide/protein families/subfamilies. All transcripts had high similarity to hormones that were previously characterized in other decapod crustacean species or, where absent in crustaceans, in other arthropod species. These included, in addition to other proteins previously described in crustaceans, prohormone-3 and prohormone-4 which were previously identified only in insects. A homolog of the crustacean female sex hormone (CFSH), recently found to be female-specific in brachyuran crabs was found to have the same levels of expression in both male and female eyestalks, suggesting that the CFSH female specificity is not conserved throughout decapod crustaceans. Digital gene expression showed that 24 out of the 37 transcripts presented in this study have significant changes in expression between eyestalk and brain. In some cases a trend of difference between males and females could be seen. Taken together, this study provides a comprehensive neuropeptidome of a commercially important crustacean species with novel peptides and protein hormones identified for the first time in decapods. PMID:24819537

Ventura, Tomer; Cummins, Scott F.; Fitzgibbon, Quinn; Battaglene, Stephen; Elizur, Abigail

2014-01-01

161

Acute toxicity and accumulation of zinc in the crayfish, Orconectes virilis (Hagen)  

SciTech Connect

Zinc produces acute toxicity to freshwater organisms over a range of concentrations from 90 to 58, 100..mu..g Zn/L; with the range of acute median effect concentrations being similar for freshwater fish and invertebrates. The capacity to regulate internal zinc concentrations in decapod crustaceans has been described. Studies with the crayfish Austropotambius pallipes suggested a relatively high degree of tolerance to zinc by this animal. The present study is designed to describe the toxicity of zinc to the crayfish Orconectes virilis over a 2-wk exposure period. In addition, whole animal and tissue analyses were performed on the test organisms and compared to previous results.

Not Available

1986-09-01

162

Thalassinoides burrows (decapoda dwelling structures) in lower cretaceous sections of southwestern and central Crimea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Burrows of Thalassinoides, which are attributed to the group of dwelling structures, occur in all the marine and coastal facies. The Lower Cretaceous sections of southwestern and central Crimea yielded the representative collection of Thalassinoides burrows belonging to the ichnospecies Th. suevicus (Rieth, 1932), which served as an object for this investigation. The burrows are confined to coarse-grained terrigenous, carbonate, and mixed sediments and contain assemblages of ichnofossils indicating coastal and shallow-water marine Skolithos and Cruziana ichnofacies. In the Mesozoic-Cenozoic, the producers of the Thalassinoides burrows were decapods, confirmed by finds of crayfish Hoploparia in them.

Yanin, B. T.; Baraboshkin, E. Yu.

2013-05-01

163

Food web structure and seasonality of slope megafauna in the NW Mediterranean elucidated by stable isotopes: Relationship with available food sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The food-web structure and seasonality of the dominant taxa of benthopelagic megafauna (fishes and decapods) on the middle slope of the Catalan Sea (Balearic Basin, NW Mediterranean) were investigated using the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of 29 species. Macrofauna (infauna, suprabenthos and zooplankton) were also analysed as potential prey. Samples were collected on a seasonal basis from 600 to 1000 m depth between February 2007 and February 2008. The fishes and decapods were classified into feeding groups based on the literature: benthic feeders (including suprabenthos) and zooplankton feeders, the latter further separated into migratory and non-migratory species. Decapods exhibited depleted ?15N and enriched ?13C compared to fishes. Annual mean ?13C of fishes ranged from - 19.15‰ (Arctozenus risso) to - 16.65‰ (Phycis blennoides) and of ?15N from 7.27‰ (Lampanyctus crocodilus) to 11.31‰ (Nezumia aequalis). Annual mean values of ?13C of decapods were from - 18.94‰ (Sergestes arcticus) to - 14.78‰ (Pontophilus norvegicus), and of ?15N from 6.36‰ (Sergia robusta) to 9.72‰ (Paromola cuvieri). Stable isotopes distinguished well amongst the 3 feeding guilds established a priori, pointing to high levels of resource partitioning in deep-sea communities. The trophic structure of the community was a function of the position of predators along the benthic-pelagic gradient, with benthic feeders isotopically enriched relative to pelagic feeders. This difference allowed the identification of two food webs based on pelagic versus benthic consumption. Prey and predator sizes were also important in structuring the community. The most generalised seasonal pattern was ?13C depletion from winter to spring and summer, especially amongst migratory macroplankton feeders. This suggests greater consumption of pelagic prey, likely related with increases in pelagic production or with ontogenic migrations of organisms from mid-water to the Benthic Boundary Layer (BBL). ?15N enrichment was detected in periods of water column stratification, particularly amongst benthic feeder fishes. Megafauna relied on a single source of nutrition after peaks in surface production, presumably marine snow. Conversely, a larger array of food sources, probably from advection, sustained the community in periods of water column stratification. Benthic feeder ?13C values of both taxa were positively correlated with fluorescence measured 5 m above the seabed and negatively correlated with total organic carbon in the sediments, both being food sources for deposit feeding macroinfauna. Macroplankton feeder ?13C values were linked to environmental variables related to vertical transport from surface production, i.e. lipids and chlorophyll and their degradation products, likely due to their stronger reliance on sinking phytodetritus through consumption of planktonic prey.

Papiol, V.; Cartes, J. E.; Fanelli, E.; Rumolo, P.

2013-03-01

164

Ocean-bottom krill sex  

PubMed Central

For the first time the entire sequence of the mating behaviour of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) in the wild is captured on underwater video. This footage also provides evidence that mating can take place near the seafloor at depths of 400–700 m. This observation challenges the generally accepted concept of the pelagic lifestyle of krill. The mating behaviour observed most closely resembles the mating behaviour reported for a decapod shrimp (Penaeus). The implications of the new observation are also discussed. PMID:21655471

Kawaguchi, So; Kilpatrick, Robbie; Roberts, Lisa; King, Robert A.; Nicol, Stephen

2011-01-01

165

The cholesterol and lecithin requirement of the marine shrimp, Penaeus vannamei Boone  

E-print Network

. , The University of Maryland Co-Chairs of Advisory Committee: Dr. Addison Lawrence Dr. Thomas Linton Cholesterol and lecithin are two lipids which have been found to be essential for good growth and survival of various decapod species. Cholesterol is required.... . The requirement for cholesterol was tested using levels of 0%, 0. 5%, 1. 0X, 2. 0X, and 4. 0%. A level of 0. 5% produced good growth similar to higher levels of cholesterol. The test for the lecithin requirement was inconclusive. A series of diets was used...

Emery, Ann Elaine

1987-01-01

166

New Host Range for Hematodinium in Southern Australia and Novel Tools for Sensitive Detection of Parasitic Dinoflagellates  

PubMed Central

Hematodinium is a parasitic dinoflagellate and emerging pathogen of crustaceans. It preferably manifests in haemolymph of marine decapod crustaceans, killing a large variety of genera with significant impacts on fisheries worldwide. There is, however, evidence that some crustacean stocks harbor high prevalence, low intensity infections that may not result in widespread host mortality and are therefore hard to detect. The most widely used methods for detection of Hematodinium are conventional blood smears and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) against ribosomal RNAs. Blood smears demand a trained investigator, are labor intensive and not readily scalable for high-throughput sampling. PCRs only detect parasite DNA and can also suffer from false negatives and positives. In order to develop alternative detection tools for Hematodinium cells in decapod crustaceans we employed an immunological approach against a newly identified, abundant dinoflagellate-specific nuclear protein—Dinoflagellate/Viral NucleoProtein (DVNP). Both immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and Western blot methods against DVNP showed high sensitivity of detection. The Western blot detects Hematodinium parasites to levels of 25 parasites per milliliter of crustacean haemolymph, with the potential for sample pooling and screening of large samples. Using both PCR and these new tools, we have identified Hematodinium cells present in three new host crab taxa, at high prevalence but with no sign of pathogenesis. This extends the known range of Hematodinium to southern Australia. PMID:24324829

Gornik, Sebastian G.; Cranenburgh, Andrea; Waller, Ross F.

2013-01-01

167

Putative Pacemakers in the Eyestalk and Brain of the Crayfish Procambarus clarkii Show Circadian Oscillations in Levels of mRNA for Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone  

PubMed Central

Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) synthesizing cells in the optic lobe, one of the pacemakers of the circadian system, have been shown to be present in crayfish. However, the presence of CHH in the central brain, another putative pacemaker of the multi-oscillatory circadian system, of this decapod and its circadian transcription in the optic lobe and brain have yet to be explored. Therefore, using qualitative and quantitative PCR, we isolated and cloned a CHH mRNA fragment from two putative pacemakers of the multi-oscillatory circadian system of Procambarus clarkii, the optic lobe and the central brain. This CHH transcript synchronized to daily light-dark cycles and oscillated under dark, constant conditions demonstrating statistically significant daily and circadian rhythms in both structures. Furthermore, to investigate the presence of the peptide in the central brain of this decapod, we used immunohistochemical methods. Confocal microscopy revealed the presence of CHH-IR in fibers and cells of the protocerebral and tritocerebal clusters and neuropiles, particularly in some neurons located in clusters 6, 14, 15 and 17. The presence of CHH positive neurons in structures of P. clarkii where clock proteins have been reported suggests a relationship between the circadian clockwork and CHH. This work provides new insights into the circadian regulation of CHH, a pleiotropic hormone that regulates many physiological processes such as glucose metabolism and osmoregulatory responses to stress. PMID:24391849

Nelson-Mora, Janikua; Prieto-Sagredo, Julio; Loredo-Ranjel, Rosaura; Fanjul-Moles, María Luisa

2013-01-01

168

A comparative analysis of feeding and trophic level ecology in stingrays (Rajiformes; Myliobatoidei) and electric rays (Rajiformes: Torpedinoidei).  

PubMed

Standardised diets and trophic level (T L) estimates were calculated for 75 ray species from the suborders Myliobatoidei (67 spp.) and Torpedinoidei (8 spp.). Decapod crustaceans (31.71 ± 3.92%) and teleost fishes (16.45 ± 3.43%) made the largest contribution to the standardised diet of the Myliobatoidei. Teleost fishes (37.40 ± 16.09%) and polychaete worms (31.96 ± 14.22%) were the most prominent prey categories in the standardised diet of the suborder Torpedinoidei. Cluster analysis identified nine major trophic guilds the largest of which were decapod crustaceans (24 species), teleost fishes (11 species) and molluscs (11 species). Trophic level estimates for rays ranged from 3.10 for Potamotrygon falkneri to 4.24 for Gymnura australis, Torpedo marmorata and T. nobiliana. Secondary consumers with a T L <4.00 represented 84% of the species examined, with the remaining 12 species (16%) classified as tertiary consumers (T L ? 4.00). Tertiary consumers included electric rays (Torpedo, 3 spp. and Hypnos, 1 sp.), butterfly rays (Gymnura, 4 spp.), stingrays (2 spp.) and Potamotrygonid stingrays (2 spp.). Feeding strategies were identified as the primary factor of influence with respect to Myliobatoidei and Torpedinoidei T L estimates with inter-family comparisons providing the greatest insight into Myliobatoidei and Torpedinoidei relationships. PMID:23936503

Jacobsen, Ian P; Bennett, Mike B

2013-01-01

169

Spatio-temporal variations in the diversity and abundance of commercially important Decapoda and Stomatopoda in subtropical Hong Kong waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In subtropical Hong Kong, western waters (WW) are strongly influenced by the freshwater input from the Pearl River estuary, especially during summer monsoon, whereas eastern waters (EW) are predominantly influenced by oceanic currents throughout the year. Such hydrographical differences may lead to spatio-temporal differences in biodiversity of benthic communities. This study investigated the diversity and abundance of commercially important decapods and stomatopods in EW (i.e. Tolo Harbour and Channel) and WW (i.e. Tuen Mun and Lantau Island) of Hong Kong using monthly trawl surveys (August 2003-May 2005). In total, 22 decapod and nine stomatopod species were recorded. The penaeid Metapenaeopsis sp. and stomatopod Oratosquillina interrupta were the most abundant and dominant crustaceans in EW and WW, respectively. Both univariate and multivariate analyses showed that WW supported significantly higher abundance, biomass and diversity of crustaceans than EW, although there were significant between-site and within-site variations in community structure. Higher abundance and biomass of crustaceans were recorded in summer than winter. Such spatio-temporal variations could be explained by differences in the hydrography, environmental conditions and anthropogenic impacts between the two areas. Temporal patterns in the abundance-biomass comparison curves and negative W-statistics suggest that the communities have been highly disturbed in both areas, probably due to anthropogenic activities such as bottom trawling and marine pollution.

Lui, Karen K. Y.; Ng, Jasmine S. S.; Leung, Kenneth M. Y.

2007-05-01

170

Environmental drivers of megafaunal assemblage composition and biomass distribution over mainland and insular slopes of the Balearic Basin (Western Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of mesoscale physical and trophic variables on deep-sea megafauna, a scale of variation often neglected in deep-sea studies, is crucial for understanding their role in the ecosystem. Drivers of megafaunal assemblage composition and biomass distribution have been investigated in two contrasting areas of the Balearic basin in the NW Mediterranean: on the mainland slope (Catalonian coasts) and on the insular slope (North of Mallorca, Balearic Islands). An experimental bottom trawl survey was carried out during summer 2010, at stations in both sub-areas located between 450 and 2200 m water depth. Environmental data were collected simultaneously: near-bottom physical parameters, and the elemental and isotopic composition of sediments. Initially, data were analysed along the whole depth gradient, and then assemblages from the two areas were compared. Analysis of the trawls showed the existence of one group associated with the upper slope (US=450-690 m), another with the middle slope (MS=1000-1300 m) and a third with the lower slope (LS=1400-2200 m). Also, significant differences in the assemblage composition were found between mainland and insular slopes at MS. Dominance by different species was evident when the two areas were compared by SIMPER analysis. The greatest fish biomass was recorded in both areas at 1000-1300 m, a zone linked to minimum temperature and maximum O2 concentration on the bottom. Near the mainland, fish assemblages were best explained (43% of total variance, DISTLM analysis) by prey availability (gelatinous zooplankton biomass). On the insular slope, trophic webs seemed less complex and were based on vertical input of surface primary production. Decapods, which reached their highest biomass values on the upper slope, were correlated with salinity and temperature in both the areas. However, while hydrographic conditions (temperature and salinity) seemed to be the most important variables over the insular slope, resource availability (gelatinous zooplankton and Calocaris macandreae) predominated and explained 59% of decapod assemblage variation over the mainland slope. Both fish and decapods were linked to net primary production recorded over the mainland 3 months before sampling, while the delay between the input of food from the surface and fish abundance was only 1 month on the insular slope. Our results suggest that trophic relationships over insular slopes probably involve a shorter food chain than over mainland slopes and one that is likely more efficient in terms of energy transfer.

Fanelli, E.; Cartes, J. E.; Papiol, V.; López-Pérez, C.

2013-08-01

171

Detached macroalgae: Its importance to inshore sandy beach fauna  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kelp forests shed a large proportion of their biomass through storm-mediated defoliation, senescence of kelp blades, and constant erosion of particulate organic matter from the kelp fronds. Much of this detached macroalgae drifts in the water column and is deposited on intertidal zones of beaches. Detached macroalgae may provide inshore sandy beach fauna with refuge and food subsidies in an exposed and bare environment, with limited in situ primary production. We evaluated the relationship between detached macroalgae and the density of inshore fauna, where 'inshore' was the body of water extending from low water seawards for approximately 50 m. Inshore fauna were sampled using a push-net (1 mm mesh) on 11 beaches, and using a beam-trawl (4 mm mesh) on a subset of 8 beaches. On each beach, the density of detached macroalgae in the water column was quantified, together with a suite of physico-chemical beach characteristics. Push-net samples principally comprised omnivorous and detritivorous crustaceans such as gammarid amphipods, mysids and valviferan isopods, which have limited swimming abilities and reside inshore year-round. Beam-trawl fauna were mainly carnivorous decapods and fish, which undergo seasonal inshore-offshore migrations to utilize sandy beaches as nursery habitats. Linear models predicted increases of 11% (95% CI: 3.5-19%) and 2.4% (95% CI: 0.7-4.2%) in the density of push-net and beam-trawl fauna, respectively, with a 1 ?.100 m-3 increase in detached macroalgae. This suggests that detached macroalgae is more important in the provision of food and shelter to small, weak-swimming detritivores/omnivores than to larger and more mobile predators. The densities of large predators were mostly explained by physical beach characteristics, which overshadowed the role of macroalgae. Maximum abundances of decapods and fish were found on wide, flat beaches with low wave heights. Large accumulations of macroalgae may inhibit the foraging efficiencies of predatory fauna such as decapods and fish, and restrict their abundance.

Orr, Kyla K.; Wilding, Thomas A.; Horstmeyer, Lena; Weigl, Simon; Heymans, Johanna J.

2014-10-01

172

Novel transcriptome assembly and improved annotation of the whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), a dominant crustacean in global seafood mariculture  

PubMed Central

We present a new transcriptome assembly of the Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), the species most farmed for human consumption. Its functional annotation, a substantial improvement over previous ones, is provided freely. RNA-Seq with Illumina HiSeq technology was used to analyze samples extracted from shrimp abdominal muscle, hepatopancreas, gills and pleopods. We used the Trinity and Trinotate software suites for transcriptome assembly and annotation, respectively. The quality of this assembly and the affiliated targeted homology searches greatly enrich the curated transcripts currently available in public databases for this species. Comparison with the model arthropod Daphnia allows some insights into defining characteristics of decapod crustaceans. This large-scale gene discovery gives the broadest depth yet to the annotated transcriptome of this important species and should be of value to ongoing genomics and immunogenetic resistance studies in this shrimp of paramount global economic importance. PMID:25420880

Ghaffari, Noushin; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Doan, Ryan; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D.; Chen, Patricia L.; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrian; Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A.; Carrasco, J. Salvador; Hong, Chris; Brieba, Luis G.; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Blood, Philip D.; Sawyer, Jason E.; Johnson, Charles D.; Dindot, Scott V.; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.; Criscitiello, Michael F.

2014-01-01

173

North Sea ecosystem change from swimming crabs to seagulls  

PubMed Central

A recent increase in sea temperature has established a new ecosystem dynamic regime in the North Sea. Climate-induced changes in decapods have played an important role. Here, we reveal a coincident increase in the abundance of swimming crabs and lesser black-backed gull colonies in the North Sea, both in time and in space. Swimming crabs are an important food source for lesser black-backed gulls during the breeding season. Inhabiting the land, but feeding mainly at sea, lesser black-backed gulls provide a link between marine and terrestrial ecosystems, since the bottom-up influence of allochthonous nutrient input from seabirds to coastal soils can structure the terrestrial food web. We, therefore, suggest that climate-driven changes in trophic interactions in the marine food web may also have ensuing ramifications for the coastal ecology of the North Sea. PMID:22764111

Luczak, C.; Beaugrand, G.; Lindley, J. A.; Dewarumez, J-M.; Dubois, P. J.; Kirby, R. R.

2012-01-01

174

The Early Miocene Cape Melville Formation fossil assemblage and the evolution of modern Antarctic marine communities.  

PubMed

The fossil community from the Early Miocene Cape Melville Formation (King George Island, Antarctica) does not show the archaic retrograde nature of modern Antarctic marine communities, despite evidence, such as the presence of dropstones, diamictites and striated rocks, that it was deposited in a glacial environment. Unlike modern Antarctic settings, and the upper units of the Eocene La Meseta Formation on Seymour Island, Antarctica, which are 10 million years older, the Cape Melville Formation community is not dominated by sessile suspension feeding ophiuroids, crinoids or brachiopods. Instead, it is dominated by infaunal bivalves, with a significant component of decapods, similar to present day South American settings. It is possible that the archaic retrograde structure of the modern community did not fully evolve until relatively recently, maybe due to factors such as further cooling and isolation of the continent leading to glaciations, which resulted in a loss of shallow shelf habitats. PMID:24366334

Whittle, Rowan J; Quaglio, Fernanda; Griffiths, Huw J; Linse, Katrin; Crame, J Alistair

2014-01-01

175

Characterization of the cardiac ganglion in the crab Neohelice granulata and immunohistochemical evidence of GABA-like extrinsic regulation.  

PubMed

The aim of the present work is to provide an anatomical description of the cardiac system in the crab Neohelice granulata and evidence of the presence of GABA by means of immunohistochemistry. The ganglionic trunk was found lying on the inner surface of the heart's dorsal wall. After dissection, this structure appeared as a Y-shaped figure with its major axis perpendicular to the major axis of the heart. Inside the cardiac ganglion, we identified four large neurons of 63.7 ?m ± 3.7 in maximum diameter, which were similar to the motor neurons described in other decapods. All the GABA-like immunoreactivity (GABAi) was observed as processes entering mainly the ganglionic trunk and branching in slender varicose fibers, forming a network around the large neurons suggesting that GABAi processes contact them. Our findings strengthen previous results suggesting that the GABAergic system mediates the cardio-inhibitory response upon sensory stimulation. PMID:22986313

Yang, Margarita; Carbó Tano, Martín; Freudenthal, Ramiro; Hermitte, Gabriela

2013-01-01

176

Sex identification in female crayfish is bimodal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sex identification has been studied in several species of crustacean decapods but only seldom was the role of multimodality investigated in a systematic fashion. Here, we analyse the effect of single/combined chemical and visual stimuli on the ability of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii to identify the sex of a conspecific during mating interactions. Our results show that crayfish respond to the offered stimuli depending on their sex. While males rely on olfaction alone for sex identification, females require the combination of olfaction and vision to do so. In the latter, chemical and visual stimuli act as non-redundant signal components that possibly enhance the female ability to discriminate potential mates in the crowded social context experienced during mating period. This is one of the few clear examples in invertebrates of non-redundancy in a bimodal communication system.

Aquiloni, Laura; Massolo, Alessandro; Gherardi, Francesca

2009-01-01

177

Biorecovery of gold  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recovery of ionic and metallic gold (Au) from a wide variety of solutions by selected species of bacteria, yeasts, fungi, algae, and higher plants is documented. Gold accumulations were up to 7.0 g/kg dry weight (DW) in various species of bacteria, 25.0 g/kg DW in freshwater algae, 84.0 g/kg DW in peat, and 100.0 g/kg DW in dried fungus mixed with keratinous material. Mechanisms of accumulation include oxidation, dissolution, reduction, leaching, and sorption. Uptake patterns are significantly modified by the physicochemical milieu. Crab exoskeletons accumulate up to 4.9 g Au/kg DW; however, gold accumulations in various tissues of living teleosts, decapod crustaceans, and bivalve molluscs are negligible.

Eisler, R.

2003-01-01

178

Accumulation and regulation effects from the metal mixture of Zn, Pb, and Cd in the tropical shrimp Penaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Environmental metal pollution is one of the major problems faced by humankind. This type of pollution affects aquatic systems (estuaries, coastal lagoons, etc.), which are very dynamic systems, therefore making the study of the effects on the organisms that inhabit them an essential issue. In this study, the capacity of metal regulation by decapod crustacean Penaeus vannamei juveniles was determined. The effects of zinc, lead, and cadmium were tested individually and as a metal mixture exposure to determine possible synergism. The results showed that juvenile shrimps were capable of regulating zinc and lead, whereas cadmium was accumulated without any excretion, at least within the concentrations studied. It was also proved that under the estuarine conditions tested here, P. vannamei juveniles showed capacity to act as a bioindicator for cadmium. PMID:22945625

Núñez-Nogueira, Gabriel; Fernández-Bringas, Laura; Ordiano-Flores, Alfredo; Gómez-Ponce, Alejandro; de León-Hill, Claudia Ponce; González-Farías, Fernando

2012-12-01

179

Potamalpheops tyrymembe sp. n.: the first southwestern Atlantic species of the shrimp genus Potamalpheops Powell, 1979 (Caridea: Alpheidae).  

PubMed

A new species of the alpheid shrimp genus Potamalpheops Powell, 1979, P. tyrymembe sp. n., is described based on several specimens collected from burrows of the ucidid crab Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763) and other, unknown burrowing decapods, on a mangrove flat between the Baiano and Serra rivers, Povoado de Tremembé, Maraú, state of Bahia, Brazil (14º08'51.9"S, 39º05'04.4"W). The new species belongs to the P. monodi (Sollaud, 1932) species group, based on the presence of two pairs of spiniform setae on the distal margin of the telson and non-enlarged male chelipeds. It is characterized by a short rostrum and absence of setae on the pterygostomial angle of the carapace. PMID:24870108

Soledade, Guidomar O; Santos, Patricia S; Almeida, Alexandre O

2014-01-01

180

Effects of temperature and salinity on the development of the amphipod crustacean Eogammarus sinensis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amphipod crustacean Eogammarus sinensis has useful features that make it suitable for use in the aquaculture of fish and large decapod crustaceans. In this study, we investigated the effects of temperature and salinity on the development, fecundity, survival, and growth rate of E. sinensis. The results show that temperature significantly affected E. sinensis development, but salinity. As temperature increased, the duration of E. sinensis embryonic development decreased. Fecundity was affected significantly by temperature and the combination of temperature and salinity, but by salinity alone. In addition, high temperatures accelerated E. sinensis juvenile growth rates, whereas high salinity reduced it. Therefore, our data suggest that E. sinensis tolerates a wide range of salinities and that temperature has more significant effects than salinity on the embryonic development, fecundity, and growth of E. sinensis. Our results shall be useful for mass production of this species for use in aquaculture.

Xue, Suyan; Fang, Jianguang; Zhang, Jihong; Jiang, Zengjie; Mao, Yuze; Zhao, Fazhen

2013-09-01

181

The complete mitochondrial genome of the American lobster, Homarus americanus (Crustacea, Decapoda).  

PubMed

Although relatively a large number of the complete mitochondrial genome sequences have been determined from various decapod species (29 mtDNA sequences reported so far), the information for the infraorder Astacidea (including lobsters, crayfishes, and their relatives) is very limited and represented by only one complete sequence from the Australian freshwater crayfish species Cherax destructor. In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of Homarus americanus, the first representative of the family Nephropidae to be fully characterized. Comparison of the gene arrangement reveals that H. americanus mtDNA is identical to those of other pancrustacean species but differs from the other astacidean species (C. destructor). Based on these data, it can be assumed that an idiosyncratic gene order discovered in C. destructor mtDNA may be secondarily acquired from the ancestral lineage of the Astacidea. PMID:21740340

Kim, Sanghee; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Park, Mi-Hyun; Choi, Han-Gu; Park, Joong-Ki; Min, Gi-Sik

2011-06-01

182

Patterns of neurogenesis in the midbrain of embryonic lobsters differ from proliferation in the insect and the crustacean ventral nerve cord.  

PubMed

Neurogenesis persists throughout life in the olfactory pathway of many decapod crustaceans. However, the relationships between precursor cells and the temporal characteristics of mitotic events in these midbrain regions have not been examined. We have conducted studies aimed at characterizing the sequence of proliferative events that leads to the production of new deutocerebral projection neurons in embryos of the American lobster, Homarus americanus. In vivo bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling patterns show that three distinct cell types are involved in neurogenesis in this region. Quantitative and temporal analyses suggest that the clearing time for BrdU is 2-3 days in lobster embryos, and that the sequence of proliferative events in the midbrain is significantly different from the stereotypical pattern for the generation of neurons in the ventral nerve cord ganglia of insects and crustaceans. The unusual pattern of proliferation in the crustacean midbrain may be related to the persistence of neurogenesis throughout life in these regions. PMID:12360583

Benton, Jeanne L; Beltz, Barbara S

2002-10-01

183

A 150-million-year-old crab larva and its implications for the early rise of brachyuran crabs.  

PubMed

True crabs (Brachyura) are the most successful group of decapod crustaceans. This success is most likely coupled to their life history, including two specialised larval forms, zoea and megalopa. The group is comparably young, starting to diversify only about 100 million years ago (mya), with a dramatic increase in species richness beginning approximately 50?mya. Early evolution of crabs is still very incompletely known. Here, we report a fossil crab larva, 150?mya, documented with up-to-date imaging techniques. It is only the second find of any fossil crab larva, but the first complete one, the first megalopa, and the oldest one (other fossil ca. 110?mya). Despite its age, the new fossil possesses a very modern morphology, being indistinguishable from many extant crab larvae. Hence, modern morphologies must have been present significantly earlier than formerly anticipated. We briefly discuss the impact of this find on our understanding of early crab evolution. PMID:25751137

Haug, Joachim T; Martin, Joel W; Haug, Carolin

2015-01-01

184

A new species of Eualus Thallwitz, 1892 and new record of Lebbeus antarcticus (Hale, 1941) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Hippolytidae) from the Scotia Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eleven specimens representing two hippolytid genera, EualusThallwitz, 1892 and LebbeusWhite, 1847 were sampled recently from the Scotia Sea (1517-2598 m). Seven specimens are described and illustrated as Eualus amandae sp. nov., and its morphology is compared with those of previously described species. Four female specimens, morphologically consistent with Lebbeus antarcticus (Hale, 1941), are described and illustrated to supplement previous descriptions of this rarely collected bathyal species. Partial COI mtDNA and 18S rDNA sequences were generated for both species. Only limited DNA sequences are available for the Hippolytidae. COI phylogenetic trees are presented to illustrate that the new species is genetically distinct from all other species in GenBank. This record enhances existing knowledge of Antarctic invertebrate biodiversity and species richness of decapod crustaceans in the Southern Ocean.

Nye, Verity; Copley, Jonathan T.; Linse, Katrin

2013-08-01

185

Novel transcriptome assembly and improved annotation of the whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), a dominant crustacean in global seafood mariculture.  

PubMed

We present a new transcriptome assembly of the Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), the species most farmed for human consumption. Its functional annotation, a substantial improvement over previous ones, is provided freely. RNA-Seq with Illumina HiSeq technology was used to analyze samples extracted from shrimp abdominal muscle, hepatopancreas, gills and pleopods. We used the Trinity and Trinotate software suites for transcriptome assembly and annotation, respectively. The quality of this assembly and the affiliated targeted homology searches greatly enrich the curated transcripts currently available in public databases for this species. Comparison with the model arthropod Daphnia allows some insights into defining characteristics of decapod crustaceans. This large-scale gene discovery gives the broadest depth yet to the annotated transcriptome of this important species and should be of value to ongoing genomics and immunogenetic resistance studies in this shrimp of paramount global economic importance. PMID:25420880

Ghaffari, Noushin; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Doan, Ryan; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D; Chen, Patricia L; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrian; Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A; Carrasco, J Salvador; Hong, Chris; Brieba, Luis G; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Blood, Philip D; Sawyer, Jason E; Johnson, Charles D; Dindot, Scott V; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R; Criscitiello, Michael F

2014-01-01

186

Exuviotrophic apostome ciliates from crustaceans of St. Andrew Bay, Florida, and a description of Gymnodinioides kozloffi n. sp.  

PubMed

Gymnodinioides kozloffi n. sp. is described from the eelgrass broken-back shrimp Hippolyte zostericola. The species is distinct from others in the apostome genus Gymnodinioides in that the trophont ciliature has a small group of kinetosomes located to the right of Kinety 9a, and Kinety 1 and 2 are divided. Other apostome morphologies are described from many decapod crustaceans from St. Andrew Bay, Florida, including Gymnodinioides inkystans, Hyalophysa chattoni, and variants of both H. chattoni and G. kozloffi. All of these apostome ciliates are exuviotrophic, found feeding on exuvial fluid within the exoskeleton of the host after ecdysis. The hosts surveyed for this study are the following: Callinectes sapidus, Eurypanopeus depressus, Hippolyte zostericola, Farfantepenaeus spp., Palaemonetes intermedius, Palaemon floridanus, Portunus spp., Tozeuma carolinense, and Sicyonia laevigata, which revealed a number of new host-apostome records. PMID:15666721

Landers, Stephen C

2004-01-01

187

Spatial patterns in suprabenthic communities in the English Channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper was to establish the main characteristics of the suprabenthic communities of the English Channel including those found in a potential aggregate extraction zone located in the central part. Sampling was carried out with a Macer-GIROQ sledge during four periods in 2007. In this offshore site, the suprabenthic faunal composition and abundance were close to those observed in other similar sites in coarse sand to pebbles in the western and eastern parts of the English Channel. But, the species richness was low (65 species). Amphipods were the dominant group in terms of diversity and abundance. Only a few species, mostly amphipods and decapods, showed significant daily migration. Seasonal variations were moderate. Due to the similar suprabenthic fauna having good swimming ability, the aggregate extraction zone in the central part of the Channel could be rapidly colonized after exploitation and thus could rapidly insure a feeding resource for fish, which are attracted by abundant prey.

Dauvin, Jean-Claude; Rolet, Céline; Alizier, Sandrine; Ruellet, Thierry

2011-01-01

188

Acute toxicity of cadmium to eight species of marine amphipod and isopod crustaceans from southern California  

SciTech Connect

Amphipods and isopods are important components of the marine intertidal and subtidal fauna where they are found on or in the substrate or among spaces between larger, attached organisms. However, in spite of their abundance and importance, the use of these two endemic marine groups has been limited in comparison to decapods in marine toxicological research. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a single metallic salt, CdCl/sub 2/, on six species of amphipods and two species of isopods under similar experimental conditions. Cadmium was selected as the toxicant in this comparative study since this metal is an important constituent in municipal wastes discharged into southern California marine waters.

Hong, J.S.; Reish, D.J.

1987-11-01

189

Visual observations of the vertical distribution of plankton throughout the water column above Broken Spur vent field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visual observations were made in September 1997 during the 39 cruise of R/V "Akademik Mstislav Keldysh" with 2 deep-sea manned submersibles "Mir" aboard. During 4 dives the following plankton countings were made: 3 vertical throughout the water column during the day, 2 vertical in the upper 1000 m at night, and 1 oblique in the plume area during the day. Biomass profiles are represented for each dive for all abundant animal groups: copepods, euphausiids+decapods+mysids, chaetognaths, medusae, ctenophores, siphonophores, cyclothones, myctophides, radiolarians, and the total zooplankton. Plankton distribution shows 2 aggregations, one within the main pycnocline and the other near the plume; Gelatinous animals and radiolarians dominate in both aggregations by biomass and make a significant contribution to the plankton biomass throughout the water column. Oblique counting indicates the presence of aggregations of animals near the upper and lower borders of the plume and biomass depletion within the plume core.

Vereshchaka, A. L.; Vinogradov, G. M.

1999-09-01

190

First report on vertical transmission of a plasmid DNA in freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Outbreak of WSSV disease is one of the major stumbling blocks in shrimp aquaculture. DNA vaccines have shown potential for mass scale vaccination owing to their stability, cost effectiveness and easy maintenance. Development of economically feasible delivery strategies remains to be a major challenge. This study demonstrates vertical transmission of a plasmid DNA in a decapod Macrobrachium rosenbergii for the first time. Females at three different maturation stages (immature, matured and berried) and mature males were injected with a plasmid DNA and allowed to spawn with untreated counterparts. Using specific primers the plasmid DNA could be amplified from the offspring of all groups except that of berried females. For this confirmation genomic DNA was isolated from 3 pools of 10 post larvae in each group. This presents an ideal strategy to protect young ones at zero stress. PMID:24933022

Chowdhury, Labrechai Mog; Gireesh-Babu, P; Pavan-Kumar, A; Suresh Babu, P P; Chaudhari, Aparna

2014-09-01

191

Predators alter community organization of coral reef cryptofauna and reduce abundance of coral mutualists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coral reefs are the most diverse marine systems in the world, yet our understanding of the processes that maintain such extraordinary diversity remains limited and taxonomically biased toward the most conspicuous species. Cryptofauna that live deeply embedded within the interstitial spaces of coral reefs make up the majority of reef diversity, and many of these species provide important protective services to their coral hosts. However, we know very little about the processes governing the diversity and composition of these less conspicuous but functionally important species. Here, we experimentally quantify the role of predation in driving the community organization of small fishes and decapods that live embedded within Pocillopora eydouxi, a structurally complex, reef-building coral found widely across the Indo-Pacific. We use surveys to describe the natural distribution of predators, and then, factorially manipulate two focal predator species to quantify the independent and combined effects of predator density and identity on P. eydouxi-dwelling cryptofauna. Predators reduced abundance (34 %), species richness (20 %), and modified species composition. Rarefaction revealed that observed reductions in species richness were primarily driven by changes in abundance. Additionally, the two predator species uniquely affected the beta diversity and composition of the prey assemblage. Predators reduced the abundance and modified the composition of a number of mutualist fishes and decapods, whose benefit to the coral is known to be both diversity- and density-dependent. We predict that the density and identity of predators present within P. eydouxi may substantially alter coral performance in the face of an increased frequency and intensity of natural and anthropogenic stressors.

Stier, A. C.; Leray, M.

2014-03-01

192

A contribution to the life history and distribution of Atlantic species of the deep-sea fish genus Conocara (Alepocephalidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bathyal-abyssal alepocephalid genus Conocara comprises six Atlantic species. These species have broad but spotty distributions. Conocara macropterum and C. murrayi are known only from the Atlantic. The remaining species also occur in other oceans. In Bahamian basins C. macropterum occurs between 1239 and 2166 m. Mean population density between 1300 and 1500 m is 243 fish km -2, mean biomass is 13,396 g km -2. Over its Bahamian depth range of 1363-2404 m, C. fiolenti displays a mean population density of 0.9 fish km -2 and a mean biomass of 3.1 g km -2. Reproduction in C. macropterum appears to be aseasonal. Mature ova are large (6 mm diameter) and fecundity is low (57-490 ova), both typically alepocephalid features. Overall, females outnumber males 1.9:1. Mature C. fiolenti have 5 mm ova, and fecundities of 113-170. Females in C. macropterum attain a larger size than males. Standard length at first maturity in males is 225 mm, in females 268 mm. Maximum length is 368 mm. The length frequency distribution of Bahamian C. macropterum is bimodal. Modes in abundance occur over intervals of 50-150 mm (early juveniles) and 250-350 mm (mature adults). This pattern suggests high juvenile mortality coupled with rapid growth to full adult size. Rapid growth to adult size would be selectively advantageous, both in terms of predator avoidance and efficiency in feeding and locomotion. Species of Conocara have a varied diet. Small C. macropterum consume mostly polychaetes, copepods, and ostracods; large fish feed heavily on decapod crustaceans and teleosts. Salps are consumed by all size classes, and sediment ingestion is frequent. Dietary range in C. fiolenti is similar, except that decapod crustaceans and teleosts are not eaten, and sediment is unimportant. Salps were the dominant food item in C. fiolenti.

Crabtree, Roy E.; Sulak, Kenneth J.

1986-09-01

193

Vertically migrating micronekton and macrozooplankton communities around Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution, biomass, and assemblages of vertically migrating micronekton/macrozooplankton were studied in relation to oceanographic conditions around Guam and the adjacent Northern Mariana Islands during Spring 2010, using 3-m2 Isaacs-Kidd Midwater Trawl (IKMT). The study area was located within the oligotrophic waters of the westward flowing North Equatorial Current (NEC). However, southern stations of the survey were situated close to the northern boundary of the more productive North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC), where we observed the highest biomass, abundance, species richness, and diversity of pelagic organisms. Overall, we recorded 85 species from 20 families of mostly mesopelagic species in the area, with lanternfishes (Myctophidae—40 species) and dragonfishes (Stomiidae—18 species) being the most taxonomically diverse groups. Three genera of mesopelagic shrimps, Sergestes, Janicella and Sergia, dominated the decapod crustacean component of the micronekton community numerically and by biomass, while the contribution from cephalopods was relatively minor. Assemblages of major micronekton/macrozooplankton groups, based on biomass and abundance showed principal changes with latitude. However, the classification and ordination analysis, based on taxonomically resolved taxa (fishes and decapod shrimps), indicated additional zonal variation, with areas east and west of the island chain showing different community structure. The mean total micronekton biomass for the area near the productive boundary region between the NEC and NECC was 5.8 mg/m3, with a mean biomass of 1.2 mg/m3 obtained for stations in the oligotrophic NEC area. The corresponding biomass of mesopelagic fishes was 0.88 mg/m3 and 0.24 mg/m3 for these two areas, respectively. We reviewed and compared the available information on the quantitative distribution of midwater fish biomass in the western tropical Pacific and outlined major patterns of variation in the equatorial Pacific in general.

Suntsov, Andrey; Domokos, Réka

2013-01-01

194

Predation impact of carnivorous macrozooplankton and micronekton in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The composition, biomass, distribution and predation impact of carnivorous zooplankton were investigated along a transect from SANAE to Cape Town during the second cruise of the South African Antarctic Marine Ecosystem Study (SAAMES II) in January-February 1993. The carnivore component of the pelagic community consisted mainly of six groups: amphipods, euphausiids, decapods, fish, chaetognaths and jellyfish. Amongst these, euphausiids (mainly Thysanoessa macrura and Nematoscelis megalops), chaetognaths ( Sagitta gazellae and Eukrohnia hamata) and myctophids were the most prominent groups throughout the transect. Jellyfish were abundant within the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ), while mesopelagic/interzonal decapods exhibited a peak in biomass north of the Subtropical Convergence (STC). Generally, carnivores comprised 10 to 30% of total zooplankton biomass. In frontal regions, such as the Antarctic Polar Front (APF) and the STC, their contribution to total zooplankton biomass decreased to ?6%. Carnivores overwhelmingly dominated the zooplankton stock between the Subantarctic Front (SAF) and the STC, accounting for 42 to 96% of the total. Gut content analysis showed that all the species investigated are opportunistic predators, generally consuming the most abundant mesozooplanktonic groups. Chaetognaths and euphausiids exhibited the highest impact on secondary standing stock along the transect. Total daily predation impact varied considerably along the transect but generally accounted for <5% of mesozooplankton stock. The highest impact, ranging from 6.5 to 20.5% ( x¯=12%) of the total stock, were found in the region between the SAF and the STC, in conjunction with the high densities of chaetognaths. Carnivores may potentially contribute a regional downward flux of faeces equivalent to ?5% of the local mesozooplankton stock per day.

Pakhomov, E. A.; Perissinotto, R.; Froneman, P. W.

1999-02-01

195

The ‘Ventral Organs’ of Pycnogonida (Arthropoda) Are Neurogenic Niches of Late Embryonic and Post-Embryonic Nervous System Development  

PubMed Central

Early neurogenesis in arthropods has been in the focus of numerous studies, its cellular basis, spatio-temporal dynamics and underlying genetic network being by now comparably well characterized for representatives of chelicerates, myriapods, hexapods and crustaceans. By contrast, neurogenesis during late embryonic and/or post-embryonic development has received less attention, especially in myriapods and chelicerates. Here, we apply (i) immunolabeling, (ii) histology and (iii) scanning electron microscopy to study post-embryonic ventral nerve cord development in Pseudopallene sp., a representative of the sea spiders (Pycnogonida), the presumable sister group of the remaining chelicerates. During early post-embryonic development, large neural stem cells give rise to additional ganglion cell material in segmentally paired invaginations in the ventral ectoderm. These ectodermal cell regions – traditionally designated as ‘ventral organs’ – detach from the surface into the interior and persist as apical cell clusters on the ventral ganglion side. Each cluster is a post-embryonic neurogenic niche that features a tiny central cavity and initially still houses larger neural stem cells. The cluster stays connected to the underlying ganglionic somata cortex via an anterior and a posterior cell stream. Cell proliferation remains restricted to the cluster and streams, and migration of newly produced cells along the streams seems to account for increasing ganglion cell numbers in the cortex. The pycnogonid cluster-stream-systems show striking similarities to the life-long neurogenic system of decapod crustaceans, and due to their close vicinity to glomerulus-like neuropils, we consider their possible involvement in post-embryonic (perhaps even adult) replenishment of olfactory neurons – as in decapods. An instance of a potentially similar post-embryonic/adult neurogenic system in the arthropod outgroup Onychophora is discussed. Additionally, we document two transient posterior ganglia in the ventral nerve cord of Pseudopallene sp. and evaluate this finding in light of the often discussed reduction of a segmented ‘opisthosoma’ during pycnogonid evolution. PMID:24736377

Brenneis, Georg; Scholtz, Gerhard

2014-01-01

196

Feeding ecology of elasmobranch fishes in coastal waters of the Colombian Eastern Tropical Pacific  

PubMed Central

Background Stomach contents of 131 specimens of five elasmobranch species (Mustelus lunulatus, Dasyatis longa, Rhinobatos leucorhynchus, Raja velezi and Zapteryx xyster) caught in the central fishing zone in the Pacific Ocean of Colombia were counted and weighed to describe feeding habits and dietary overlaps. Results Twenty-one prey items belonging to four major groups (stomatopods, decapods, mollusks and fish) were identified. Decapod crustaceans were the most abundant prey found in stomachs. The mantis shrimp Squilla panamensis was the main prey item in the diet of M. lunulatus; tiger shrimp Trachypenaeus sp. was the main prey item in the diet of Rhinobatos leucorhynchus and Raja velezi, and Penaeidae shrimp were the main prey items in the diet of Z. xyster. Furthermore, fish were important in the diet of Raja velezi, Z. xyster and D. longa. The greatest diet breadth corresponded to Z. xyster whereas M. lunulatus was the most specialized predator. Finally, four significant diet overlaps between the five species were found, attributable mainly to Squillidae, Penaeidae and Fish. Conclusion Shrimps (Penaeidae and stomatopods) and benthic fishes were the most important food types in the diet of the elasmobranch species studied. Diet breadth and overlap were relatively low. Determination of food resource partitioning among the batoid species studied was not possible. However, we identified partitions in other niche axes (time of feeding activity and habitat utilization). It is possible to assume that diffuse competition could be exceeding the biunivocal competition among the studied species. Therefore, this assemblage would have a strong tendency to trophic guild formation. PMID:17877796

Navia, Andrés F; Mejía-Falla, Paola A; Giraldo, Alan

2007-01-01

197

An evolutionary analysis of flightin reveals a conserved motif unique and widespread in Pancrustacea.  

PubMed

Flightin is a thick filament protein that in Drosophila melanogaster is uniquely expressed in the asynchronous, indirect flight muscles (IFM). Flightin is required for the structure and function of the IFM and is indispensable for flight in Drosophila. Given the importance of flight acquisition in the evolutionary history of insects, here we study the phylogeny and distribution of flightin. Flightin was identified in 69 species of hexapods in classes Collembola (springtails), Protura, Diplura, and insect orders Thysanura (silverfish), Dictyoptera (roaches), Orthoptera (grasshoppers), Pthiraptera (lice), Hemiptera (true bugs), Coleoptera (beetles), Neuroptera (green lacewing), Hymenoptera (bees, ants, and wasps), Lepidoptera (moths), and Diptera (flies and mosquitoes). Flightin was also found in 14 species of crustaceans in orders Anostraca (water flea), Cladocera (brine shrimp), Isopoda (pill bugs), Amphipoda (scuds, sideswimmers), and Decapoda (lobsters, crabs, and shrimps). Flightin was not identified in representatives of chelicerates, myriapods, or any species outside Pancrustacea (Tetraconata, sensu Dohle). Alignment of amino acid sequences revealed a conserved region of 52 amino acids, referred herein as WYR, that is bound by strictly conserved tryptophan (W) and arginine (R) and an intervening sequence with a high content of tyrosines (Y). This motif has no homologs in GenBank or PROSITE and is unique to flightin and paraflightin, a putative flightin paralog identified in decapods. A third motif of unclear affinities to pancrustacean WYR was observed in chelicerates. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of the conserved motif suggests that paraflightin originated before the divergence of amphipods, isopods, and decapods. We conclude that flightin originated de novo in the ancestor of Pancrustacea > 500 MYA, well before the divergence of insects (~400 MYA) and the origin of flight (~325 MYA), and that its IFM-specific function in Drosophila is a more recent adaptation. Furthermore, we propose that WYR represents a novel myosin coiled-coil binding motif. PMID:24271855

Soto-Adames, Felipe N; Alvarez-Ortiz, Pedro; Vigoreaux, Jim O

2014-01-01

198

Changes in cardiac performance during hypoxic exposure in the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY In hearts of higher invertebrates as well as vertebrates, the work performed by the ventricle is a function of both rate and contractility. Decapod crustaceans experience a hypoxia-induced bradycardia that is thought to result in an overall reduction in cardiac work; however, this hypothesis has not yet been tested and is the primary purpose of this study. In the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio, cardiac pressure and area data were obtained simultaneously, and in vivo, under normoxic (20.2 kPa O2) and hypoxic (6.8 or 2.2 kPa O2) conditions and integrated to generate pressure–area (P–A) loops. The area enclosed by the P–A loop provides a measure of stroke work and, when multiplied by the heart rate, provides an estimate of both cardiac work and myocardial O2 consumption. Changes in intra-cardiac pressure (dp/dt) are correlated to the isovolemic contraction phase and provide an indication of stroke work. At both levels of hypoxic exposure, intra-cardiac pressure, dp/dt, stroke work and cardiac work fell significantly. The significant decrease in intra-cardiac pressure provides the primary mechanism for the decrease in stroke work, and, when coupled with the hypoxia-induced bradycardia, it contributes to an overall fall in cardiac work. Compared with normoxic P–A loops, hypoxic P–A loops (at both levels of hypoxia) become curvilinear, indicating a fall in peripheral resistance (which might account for the reduction in intra-cardiac pressure), which would reduce both stroke work and cardiac work and ultimately would serve to reduce myocardial O2 consumption. This is the most direct evidence to date indicating that the hypoxia-induced bradycardia observed in many decapod crustaceans reduces cardiac work and is therefore energetically favorable during acute exposure to conditions of low oxygen. PMID:22071181

Guadagnoli, Jutta A.; Tobita, Kimimasa; Reiber, Carl L.

2011-01-01

199

Identification of A-type allatostatins possessing -YXFGI/Vamide carboxy-termini from the nervous system of the copepod crustacean Calanus finmarchicus.  

PubMed

The copepod crustacean Calanus finmarchicus plays a critical role in the ecology of the Gulf of Maine and other regions of the North Atlantic. To increase our understanding of the physiology of this species, a normalized, whole organism cDNA library was constructed, and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of the clones were generated. Among these ESTs was one with homology to known cDNAs encoding prepro-A-type allatostatins (A-type ASTs), a well-known family of arthropod peptides that regulate juvenile hormone production in insects. Sequence analysis of the clone from which the EST was generated, with subsequent translation of its open reading frame, showed it to encode five novel A-type ASTs, whose mature structures were predicted to be APYGFGIamide, pE/EPYGFGIamide, ALYGFGIamide, pE/EPYNFGIamide, and pQ/QPYNFGVamide. Each of the peptides is present as a single copy within the prepro-hormone with the exception of APYGFGIamide, which is present in three copies. Surprisingly, the organization of the Calanus prepro-A-type AST, specifically the number of encoded A-type peptides, is more similar to those of insects than it is to the known decapod crustacean prepro-hormones. Moreover, the Calanus A-type ASTs possess isoleucine or valine residues at their carboxy (C)-termini rather than leucine, which is present in most other family members. Wholemount immunohistochemistry suggests that six pairs of somata produce the native Calanus A-type ASTs: five in the protocerebrum and one in the suboesophageal region. To the best of our knowledge, our report is the first characterization of a neuropeptidergic system in a copepod, the first identification of A-type ASTs from a non-decapod crustacean, the first report of crustacean A-type ASTs possessing isoleucine C-terminal residues, and the first report from any species of an A-type peptide possessing a valine C-terminal residue. PMID:17950732

Christie, Andrew E; Sousa, Gregory L; Rus, Szymon; Smith, Christine M; Towle, David W; Hartline, Daniel K; Dickinson, Patsy S

2008-02-01

200

Rosette-type tegumental glands associated with aesthetasc sensilla in the olfactory organ of the Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus.  

PubMed

The lateral antennular flagellum of decapod crustaceans bears unique olfactory sensilla, namely the aesthetascs, and other sensilla types. In this study, we identify a new major tissue in the lateral flagellum of the Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, namely "aesthetasc tegumental glands" (ATGs), based on immunostaining with antibodies against CUB serine protease (Csp), in situ hybridization with csp-specific probes, labeling with the F-actin marker phalloidin, labeling with the nuclear marker Hoechst 33258, and staining with methylene blue. Each ATG has 12-20 secretory cells arranged in a rosette. Each secretory cell has a Csp-immunoreactive basal portion and an apical portion containing granular material (metachromatic staining indicative of acid mucopolysaccharides). At the center of each secretory rosette is a phalloidin-positive common locus that gives rise to a main drainage duct projecting toward the cuticle. Scanning electron and light microscopy show that thin ducts traverse the cuticle and connect to "peg pores" proximal to the bases of the aesthetascs, with 3.4 peg pores per aesthetasc. Since the number of common loci is correlated with the number of peg pores, we conclude that each pore represents the outlet of one ATG, and that the secretions are released from them. We conclude further that ATGs and aesthetascs are functionally linked. We hypothesize that ATG secretions have antifouling and/or friction-reducing properties, and that they are spread over the surface of the aesthetascs by antennular grooming. A review of the literature suggests that ATGs are common in decapod crustacean antennules, and that rosette glands and grooming might be functionally coupled in other body areas. PMID:16555053

Schmidt, Manfred; Chien, Hsin; Tadesse, Tizeta; Johns, Malcolm E; Derby, Charles D

2006-08-01

201

Ultrastructure and physiology of the hooded sensillum, a bimodal chemo-mechanosensillum of lobsters.  

PubMed

The antennules of decapod crustaceans are covered with thousands of chemosensilla that mediate odor discrimination and orientation behaviors. Most studies on chemoreception in decapods have focused on the prominent aesthetasc sensilla. However, previous behavioral studies on lobsters following selective sensillar ablation have revealed that input from nonaesthetasc antennular chemosensilla is sufficient for many odor-mediated behaviors. Our earlier examination of the setal types on the antennules of the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus revealed three types of nonaesthetasc chemosensilla. The most abundant and widely distributed of these is the hooded sensillum. The present study describes the detailed ultrastructure of antennular hooded sensilla and the physiological response properties of their receptor neurons. Light and scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine structural characteristics, and electrophysiology was used to examine single-unit responses elicited by focal chemical and mechanical stimulation of antennular hooded sensilla. Hooded sensilla have a porous cuticle and are innervated by 9-10 chemosensory and 3 mechanosensory neurons whose dendrites project to the distal end of the sensillum. Hooded sensillar chemosensory neurons responded to waterborne chemicals, were responsive to only one of the six tested single compounds, and had different specificities. Hooded sensillar mechanosensory neurons were not spontaneously active. They had low sensitivity in that they responded to tactile but not waterborne vibrations, and they responded to sensillar deflection with phasic bursts of activity. These results support the idea that hooded sensilla are bimodal chemo-mechanosensilla and are receptors in an antennular chemosensory pathway that parallels the well-described aesthetasc chemosensory pathway. PMID:11793335

Cate, Holly S; Derby, Charles D

2002-01-21

202

Comparison of excitatory currents activated by different transmitters on crustacean muscle. I. Acetylcholine-activated channels  

PubMed Central

The properties of acetylcholine-activated excitatory currents on the gm1 muscle of three marine decapod crustaceans, the spiny lobsters Panulirus argus and interruptus, and the crab Cancer borealis, were examined using either noise analysis, analysis of synaptic current decays, or analysis of the voltage dependence of ionophoretically activated cholinergic conductance increases. The apparent mean channel open time (tau n) obtained from noise analysis at -80 mV and 12 degrees C was approximately 13 ms; tau n was prolonged e-fold for about every 100-mV hyperpolarization in membrane potential; tau n was prolonged e- fold for every 10 degrees C decrease in temperature. Gamma, the single- channel conductance, at 12 degrees C was approximately 18 pS and was not affected by voltage; gamma was increased approximately 2.5-fold for every 10 degrees C increase in temperature. Synaptic currents decayed with a single exponential time course, and at -80 mV and 12 degrees C, the time constant of decay of synaptic currents, tau ejc, was approximately 14-15 ms and was prolonged e-fold about every 140-mV hyperpolarization; tau ejc was prolonged about e-fold for every 10 degrees C decrease in temperature. The voltage dependence of the amplitude of steady-state cholinergic currents suggests that the total conductance increase produced by cholinergic agonists is increased with hyperpolarization. Compared with glutamate channels found on similar decapod muscles (see the following article), the acetylcholine channels stay open longer, conduct ions more slowly, and are more sensitive to changes in the membrane potential. PMID:6133907

1983-01-01

203

Identification of SYWKQCAFNAVSCFamide: a broadly conserved crustacean C-type allatostatin-like peptide with both neuromodulatory and cardioactive properties  

PubMed Central

Summary The allatostatins comprise three structurally distinct peptide families that regulate juvenile hormone production by the insect corpora allata. A-type family members contain the C-terminal motif –YXFGLamide and have been found in species from numerous arthropod taxa. Members of the B-type family exhibit a –WX6Wamide C-terminus and, like the A-type peptides, appear to be broadly conserved within the Arthropoda. By contrast, members of the C-type family, typified by the unblocked C-terminus –PISCF, a pyroglutamine blocked N-terminus, and a disulfide bridge between two internal Cys residues, have only been found in holometabolous insects, i.e. lepidopterans and dipterans. Here, using transcriptomics, we have identified SYWKQCAFNAVSCFamide (disulfide bridging predicted between the two Cys residues), a known honeybee and water flea C-type-like peptide, from the American lobster Homarus americanus (infraorder Astacidea). Using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTMS), a mass corresponding to that of SYWKQCAFNAVSCFamide was detected in the H. americanus brain, supporting the existence of this peptide and its theorized structure. Furthermore, SYWKQCAFNAVSCFamide was detected by MALDI-FTMS in neural tissues from five additional astacideans as well as 19 members of four other decapod infraorders (i.e. Achelata, Anomura, Brachyura and Thalassinidea), suggesting that it is a broadly conserved decapod peptide. In H. americanus, SYWKQCAFNAVSCFamide is capable of modulating the output of both the pyloric circuit of the stomatogastric nervous system and the heart. This is the first demonstration of bioactivity for this peptide in any species. PMID:19423507

Dickinson, Patsy S.; Wiwatpanit, Teerawat; Gabranski, Emily R.; Ackerman, Rachel J.; Stevens, Jake S.; Cashman, Christopher R.; Stemmler, Elizabeth A.; Christie, Andrew E.

2009-01-01

204

The eyestalk-androgenic gland-testis endocrine axis in the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus.  

PubMed

In decapod crustaceans, a number of neurohormones regulating a variety of physiological processes, including reproduction, are to be found in the X-organ-sinus gland complex of the eyestalk. Bilateral eyestalk ablation was thus performed in mature males of the Australian red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus with the aim of studying the role of eyestalk-borne hormones on spermatogenic activity in the testis and on the androgenic gland (AG). The latter gland controls the differentiation and functioning of male sexual characteristics in crustaceans. Eyestalk ablation caused hypertrophy of the AG, as indicated by an increase in gland weight (3.9 +/- 0.44 mg vs < 0.1mg in intact males) and by overexpression of AG polypeptides. In the testes of eyestalk-ablated males, empty spermatogenic lobules were common, while lobules containing primary spermatocytes were infrequent. These findings were reflected in decreased amounts of DNA in these testes and a consequent increase in the relative weights of the sperm ducts. Since it was found that eyestalk ablation affected both the AG and the reproductive system, in vitro experiments were conducted to study the direct effects of the sinus gland on the AG and testes and of the AG on the testes. Sinus gland extracts inhibited by 30% the incorporation of radiolabeled amino acids into AG polypeptides and almost totally inhibited the secretion of radiolabeled AG polypeptides into the culture medium. However, sinus gland extracts had no significant effects on testicular tissue. On the other hand, AG extracts affected the in vitro phosphorylation of a testicular polypeptide (of 28 kDa), in a time- and dose-dependent manner, suggesting a direct effect of AG-borne hormones on the testes. The above findings, together with the evidence for direct inhibition by the sinus gland on the AG, suggest an endocrine axis-like relationship between the sinus gland, the AG, and the male reproductive system in decapod crustaceans. PMID:12383442

Khalaila, Isam; Manor, Rivka; Weil, Simy; Granot, Yosef; Keller, Rainer; Sagi, Amir

2002-06-15

205

Animal Behavior Frozen in Time: Gregarious Behavior of Early Jurassic Lobsters within an Ammonoid Body Chamber  

PubMed Central

Direct animal behavior can be inferred from the fossil record only in exceptional circumstances. The exceptional mode of preservation of ammonoid shells in the Posidonia Shale (Lower Jurassic, lower Toarcian) of Dotternhausen in southern Germany, with only the organic periostracum preserved, provides an excellent opportunity to observe the contents of the ammonoid body chamber because this periostracum is translucent. Here, we report upon three delicate lobsters preserved within a compressed ammonoid specimen of Harpoceras falciferum. We attempt to explain this gregarious behavior. The three lobsters were studied using standard microscopy under low angle light. The lobsters belong to the extinct family of the Eryonidae; further identification was not possible. The organic material of the three small lobsters is preserved more than halfway into the ammonoid body chamber. The lobsters are closely spaced and are positioned with their tails oriented toward each other. The specimens are interpreted to represent corpses rather than molts. The lobsters probably sought shelter in preparation for molting or against predators such as fish that were present in Dotternhausen. Alternatively, the soft tissue of the ammonoid may have been a source of food that attracted the lobsters, or it may have served as a long-term residency for the lobsters (inquilinism). The lobsters represent the oldest known example of gregariousness amongst lobsters and decapods in the fossil record. Gregarious behavior in lobsters, also known for extant lobsters, thus developed earlier in earth's history than previously known. Moreover, this is one of the oldest known examples of decapod crustaceans preserved within cephalopod shells. PMID:22412846

Klompmaker, Adiël A.; Fraaije, René H. B.

2012-01-01

206

Phylogenetic relationship among genera of Polymorphidae (Acanthocephala), inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequences.  

PubMed

Acanthocephalans of the family Polymorphidae Meyer, 1931 are obligate endoparasites with complex life cycles. These worms use vertebrates (marine mammals, fish-eating birds and waterfowl) as definitive hosts and invertebrates (amphipods, decapods and euphausiids) as intermediate hosts to complete their life cycle. Polymorphidae has a wordwide distribution, containing 12 genera, with approximately 127 species. The family is diagnosed by having a spinose trunk, bulbose proboscis, double-walled proboscis receptacle, and usually four to eight tubular cement glands. To conduct a phylogenetic analysis, in the current study sequences of the small (18S) and large-subunit (28S) ribosomal RNA, and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) were generated for 27 taxa representing 10 of 12 genera of Polymorphidae, plus three additional species of acanthocephalans that were used as outgroups. Maximum likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP), and Bayesian analyses were conducted on a combined nuclear rRNA (18S+28S) data set and on a concatenated dataset of nuclear plus one mitochondrial gene (18S+28S+cox 1). Phylogenetic analyses inferred with the concatenated dataset of three genes support the monophyly of nine genera (Andracantha, Corynosoma, Bolbosoma, Profilicollis, Pseudocorynosoma, Southwellina, Arhythmorhynchus, Hexaglandula and Ibirhynchus). However, the four sampled species of Polymorphus were nested within several clades, indicating that these species do not share a common ancestor, requiring further taxonomic revision using phylogenetic systematics, and reexamination of morphological and ecological data. By mapping definitive and intermediate host association onto the resulting cladogram, we observe that aquatic birds were the ancestral definitive hosts for the family with a secondary colonization and diversification to marine mammals. Whereas amphipods were ancestral intermediate hosts and that the association with decapods represent episodes of secondary colonization that arose several times during the evolutionary history of the family. Our results are useful to start testing hypothesis about the evolutionary history of this highly diverse family of acanthocephalans. PMID:23567022

García-Varela, Martín; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo; Aznar, Francisco J; Nadler, Steven A

2013-08-01

207

Abundance, distribution, and feeding patterns of juvenile coho salmon ( Oncorhynchus kisutch) in the Juan de Fuca Eddy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Juan de Fuca Eddy is a seasonal, counter-clockwise gyre off the mouth of the Strait of Juan de Fuca between Washington, USA and British Columbia, Canada that may provide favorable feeding habitat for juvenile coho salmon ( Oncorhynchus kisutch) during their early marine existence. In late September 2002, physical and biological sampling was conducted along two transects of the eddy region. Surface rope trawling was conducted to capture juvenile salmon and other nekton, along with bongo and neuston net tows to examine potential mesozooplanktonic salmon prey. Presence of the Juan de Fuca Eddy was confirmed with vertical water profiles. In addition, nutrient and chlorophyll a concentrations collected from 3-m depth were within the range observed in previous studies within the eddy region. In the mesozooplankton community, euphausiids, chaetognaths, and decapod megalopae were common. In the diet of juvenile coho salmon, euphausiids and decapod megalopae were dominant by percent number, and larval and juvenile fish were dominant by percent weight. Feeding intensity (percent body weight) based on stomach contents was variable, but not significantly different among stations. To compare the Juan de Fuca Eddy region with an upwelling area, we sampled along a transect off La Push (LP), Washington, USA which is south of the eddy. The eddy region was found to be less productive than the LP transect. Nutrients were lower, chlorophyll a concentrations were higher, and zooplankton abundance was generally higher along the LP transect than in the eddy region. In addition, more juvenile coho salmon were captured from the LP transect than the eddy region. Prey items in stomachs of salmon from the LP transect were heterogeneous compared to those from the eddy region. Feeding intensity along the LP transect was slightly lower and more variable than in the eddy region, and differences in feeding intensity among LP stations were significant. In addition, feeding intensities among stations nested within regions were significantly different.

Pool, Suzan S.; Brodeur, Richard D.; Goodman, N. Lynn; Daly, Elizabeth A.

2008-10-01

208

Identification of putative ecdysteroid and juvenile hormone pathway genes in the shrimp Neocaridina denticulata.  

PubMed

Although the sesquiterpenoid juvenile hormone (JH) and the steroidal ecdysteroids are of vital importance to the development and reproduction of insects, our understanding of the evolution of these crucial hormonal regulators in other arthropods is limited. To better understand arthropod hormone evolution and regulation, here we describe the hormonal pathway genes (e.g. those involved in hormone biosynthesis, degradation, regulation and signal transduction) of a new decapod model, the shrimp Neocaridina denticulata. The majority of known insect sesquiterpenoid and ecdysteroid pathway genes and their regulators are contained in the N. denticulata genome. In the sesquiterpenoid pathway, these include biosynthetic pathway components: juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT); hormone binding protein: juvenile hormone binding protein (JHBP); and degradation pathway components: juvenile hormone esterase (JHE), juvenile hormone esterase binding protein (JHEBP) and juvenile hormone epoxide hydrolase (JHEH), with the JHBP, JHEBP and JHEH genes being discovered in a crustacean for the first time here. Ecdysteroid biosynthetic pathway genes identified include spook, phantom, disembodied, shadow and CYP18. Potential hormonal regulators and signal transducers such as allatostatins (ASTs), Methoprene-tolerant (Met), Retinoid X receptor (RXR), Ecdysone receptor (EcR), calponin-like protein Chd64, FK509-binding protein (FKBP39), Broad-complex (Br-c), and crustacean hyperglycemic hormone/molt-inhibiting hormone/gonad-inhibiting hormone (CHH/MIH/GIH) genes are all present in the shrimp N. denticulata. To our knowledge, this is the first report of these hormonal pathways and their regulatory genes together in a single decapod, providing a vital resource for further research into development, reproduction, endocrinology and evolution of crustaceans, and arthropods in general. PMID:25101838

Sin, Yung Wa; Kenny, Nathan J; Qu, Zhe; Chan, Ka Wo; Chan, Katie W S; Cheong, Sam P S; Leung, Ricky W T; Chan, Ting Fung; Bendena, William G; Chu, Ka Hou; Tobe, Stephen S; Hui, Jerome H L

2014-08-01

209

Influence of environmental variables on the spatio-temporal dynamics of bentho-pelagic assemblages in the middle slope of the Balearic Basin (NW Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatio-temporal dynamics of benthic and bentho-pelagic assemblages of megafauna from the middle slope of the Catalan Sea (NW Mediterranean Sea) were studied. Nineteen bottom trawls were performed to collect megafauna on 5 cruises between February 2007 and February 2008. Samples were obtained from three depth strata, including a submarine canyon. Simultaneously, environmental variables were recorded and three levels of bottom-boundary layer macrofauna (infauna, suprabenthos and zooplankton), potential prey of megafauna, were sampled. Fish and decapod assemblages were explored individually. Depth was the main factor structuring megafaunal assemblages, with larger organisms usually observed at greater depths (based on mean individual weight). Nevertheless, in April, coinciding with the reproductive period of the dominant species, larger fish and decapods were observed inside the submarine canyon rather than at greater depths. Assemblages inside and outside the submarine canyons differed in species abundance and biomass, rather than in species composition; larger densities of endobenthic species were found inside the canyon. Also, higher abundance and biomass of megafauna were recorded inside the canyon on all cruises, generally linked to higher prey availability there. A seasonal trend related to size was also observed, associated with the stratification (?Tsurface-bottom water=8.37±0.33 °C for summer-autumn) versus homogeneity (?Tsurface-bottom water=2.09±1.76 °C for winter-spring) of the water column. Larger amounts of smaller species feeding at lower trophic levels were found in periods of homogeneity, while assemblages during periods of stratification were characterised by larger species feeding at higher trophic levels. Environmental variables most strongly explaining changes in megafaunal assemblages (from Spearman rank correlation and generalised linear models) were temperature (T) and salinity (S) close to the sea bottom, river discharges and turbidity above the sea bottom. Also, micronekton biomass explained changes in fish assemblages, while Polychaeta biomass and surface primary production were explanatory for decapods. All these variables directly or indirectly affect availability of trophic resources at bathyal depths. T and S are intrinsically related to depth, and are the variables to which organisms may be actually responding. Prey biomass plays an important role in the bathymetric and the topographic distribution of megafauna. T and S are also linked to the stratification or homogeneity of water masses. Peaks of surface primary production (SPP) in February and maximum river discharge in April corresponded to a maximum in megafaunal biomass in summer after ca. 3-5 months. High river discharges, channelled to bathyal depths through submarine canyons, were related to increases in water turbidity, associated with resuspension of organic matter (food for low trophic levels). On the other hand, low turbidity coincided with minimum river discharges, favouring deposition of organic matter in the sediments. Peaks in abundance and biomass of megafauna were observed after peaks in key prey (zooplankton, micronekton and benthic infauna) with a lag of ca. 2 months. Diversity of megafaunal assemblages was coupled to food availability.

Papiol, V.; Cartes, J. E.; Fanelli, E.; Maynou, F.

2012-03-01

210

Changes in deep-sea fish and crustacean communities at 1000-2200 m in the Western Mediterranean after 25 years: Relation to hydro-climatic conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term changes in the biomass, diversity and composition of deep-living fish and decapods from the Balearic Basin (western Mediterranean) have been compared between two periods, 1985-1992 vs. 2007-2012, based on 106 bottom trawls performed at 1000-2250 m. Relationships have been identified between the changes in community composition and the hydroclimatic conditions (e.g. NAO, temperature, salinity and dissolved O2) of the area. We found a generalized deepening of middle-slope communities (950-1250 m), especially among decapods, which is suggested (from GLM results) to have been a response to the long-term increase in salinity of the Levantine Intermediate Waters (LIW), located above the level sampled to ca. 700 m. Even more pronounced was the shallowing of all of the lower slope species (1600-2250 m), accompanied by a significant decrease of biomass from 1985-1992 to 2007-2012. This last tendency would be done to a combination of factors: long-term decrease of O2 in the bottom-boundary layer, greater degradation of POM arriving on the bottom due to temperature increase in the Western Mediterranean Deep Waters (WMDW) and probably a decrease of Chl a at the surface and, thus, of production. The influence of climatic oscillations (NAO) on differences found between 1985-1992 and 2007-2012 seems secondary, likely because the NAO did not show significant differences between the two periods. Some plankton-feeding species showed an increase of density during high/positive NAO (e.g. Alepocephalus rostratus), while some benthos feeders increased during low/negative NAO (e.g. Aristeus antennatus, mainly juveniles). The increase of rainfall and advective fluxes under low/negative NAO (i.e., in 2007-2012) may increase the formation of the nepheloid layer identified over 1200-1400 m in the area (Cartes et al., 2013a), linked to zooplankton aggregation in that depth range. Greater food availability could explain the generalized migration by both middle and lower slope species toward these intermediate depths that acquired greater trophic resources. Deep-sea Mediterranean fish and invertebrates, including important commercial species, seemed to undergo long-term changes in its distribution and biomass due to changes in hydro-climatic conditions, mainly a decrease of O2 in the bottom-boundary layer.

Cartes, J. E.; Maynou, F.; Fanelli, E.; López-Pérez, C.; Papiol, V.

2015-03-01

211

Evolution and phylogeny of the mud shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda) revealed from complete mitochondrial genomes  

PubMed Central

Background The evolutionary history and relationships of the mud shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Gebiidea and Axiidea) are contentious, with previous attempts revealing mixed results. The mud shrimps were once classified in the infraorder Thalassinidea. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses, however, suggest separation of the group into two individual infraorders, Gebiidea and Axiidea. Mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence and structure can be especially powerful in resolving higher systematic relationships that may offer new insights into the phylogeny of the mud shrimps and the other decapod infraorders, and test the hypothesis of dividing the mud shrimps into two infraorders. Results We present the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of five mud shrimps, Austinogebia edulis, Upogebia major, Thalassina kelanang (Gebiidea), Nihonotrypaea thermophilus and Neaxius glyptocercus (Axiidea). All five genomes encode a standard set of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a putative control region. Except for T. kelanang, mud shrimp mitochondrial genomes exhibited rearrangements and novel patterns compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern. Each of the two Gebiidea species (A. edulis and U. major) and two Axiidea species (N. glyptocercus and N. thermophiles) share unique gene order specific to their infraorders and analyses further suggest these two derived gene orders have evolved independently. Phylogenetic analyses based on the concatenated nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 13 protein-coding genes indicate the possible polyphyly of mud shrimps, supporting the division of the group into two infraorders. However, the infraordinal relationships among the Gebiidea and Axiidea, and other reptants are poorly resolved. The inclusion of mt genome from more taxa, in particular the reptant infraorders Polychelida and Glypheidea is required in further analysis. Conclusions Phylogenetic analyses on the mt genome sequences and the distinct gene orders provide further evidences for the divergence between the two mud shrimp infraorders, Gebiidea and Axiidea, corroborating previous molecular phylogeny and justifying their infraordinal status. Mitochondrial genome sequences appear to be promising markers for resolving phylogenetic issues concerning decapod crustaceans that warrant further investigations and our present study has also provided further information concerning the mt genome evolution of the Decapoda. PMID:23153176

2012-01-01

212

Material properties of zooplankton and nekton from the California current  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study measured the material properties of zooplankton, Pacific hake (Merluccius productus), Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas), and two species of myctophids (Symbolophorus californiensis and Diaphus theta) collected from the California Current ecosystem. The density contrast (g) was measured for euphausiids, decapods (Sergestes similis), amphipods (Primno macropa, Phronima sp., and Hyperiid spp.), siphonophore bracts, chaetognaths, larval fish, crab megalopae, larval squid, and medusae. Morphometric data (length, width, and height) were collected for these taxa. Density contrasts varied within and between zooplankton taxa. The mean and standard deviation for euphausiid density contrast were 1.059 +/- 0.009. Relationships between zooplankton density contrast and morphometric measurements, geographic location, and environmental conditions were investigated. Site had a significant effect on euphausiid density contrast. Density contrasts of euphausiids collected in the same geographic area approximately 4-10 days apart were significantly higher (p < 0.001). Sound speed contrast (h) was measured for euphausiids and pelagic decapods (S. similis) and it varied between taxa. The mean and standard deviation for euphausiid sound speed were 1.019 +/- 0.009. Euphausiid mass was calculated from density measurements and volume, and a relationship between euphausiid mass and length was produced. We determined that euphausiid from volumes could be accurately estimated two dimensional measurements of animal body shape, and that biomass (or biovolume) could be accurately calculated from digital photographs of animals. Density contrast (g) was measured for zooplankton, pieces of hake flesh, myctophid flesh, and of the following Humboldt squid body parts: mantle, arms, tentacle, braincase, eyes, pen, and beak. The density contrasts varied within and between fish taxa, as well as among squid body parts. Effects of animal length and environmental conditions on nekton density contrast were investigated. The sound speed contrast (h) was measured for Pacific hake flesh, myctophid flesh, Humboldt squid mantle, and Humboldt squid braincase. Sound speed varied within and between nekton taxa. The material properties reported in this study can be used to improve target strength estimates from acoustic scattering models which would increase the accuracy of biomass estimates from acoustic surveys for these zooplankton and nekton.

Becker, Kaylyn

213

Food web structure of deep-sea macrozooplankton and micronekton off the Catalan slope: Insight from stable isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Food web structure of the macroplankton/micronekton fauna on the continental slope of the Catalan Sea (Balearic basin, NW Mediterranean) was investigated using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope tracers on a total of 34 taxa. Samples were collected close to Barcelona, Spain, on the middle slope, at a seasonal scale. Mean ? 13C values ranged from - 22.1‰ ( Salpa maxima) to - 16.9‰ (the mysid Eucopia hanseni). Values of ? 15N ranged from 2.5‰ (the hyperiid Vibilia armata) to 9.8‰ (the pelagic polychaete Tomopteris sp.). The stable isotope ratios of this fauna displayed a continuum of values over the ? 15N range of 7‰, confirming a wide spectrum of feeding strategies (from filter feeders to predators). High annual mean ? 15N values were found among carnivorous large zooplankton and micronekton, including species that prey on gelatinous plankton (i.e. salps, siphonophores), euphausiids, natantian decapod crustaceans and fish (i.e. myctophids and stomiiformes). In agreement with the available information on diets of planktonic taxa, the lowest isotope ratios were found for filter feeders ( V. armata, S. maxima, the pteropods Cymbulia peroni and Cavolinia inflexa, ostracods and the thaliacean Pyrosoma atlanticum), all of which feed on particulate organic matter. We found three trophic levels in macroplankton/micronekton food webs based on a 15N-enrichment factor of ~ 2.5‰ per level. The range of ? 13C was particularly wide among carnivores (- 20.7‰ to - 16.6‰), suggesting predation on a variety of prey from gelatinous zooplankton (which displayed more depleted ? 13C signatures) to small fishes and decapods. Correlation between ? 13C-? 15N was generally weak, likely due to the consumption of different kinds of sinking particles (e.g. marine snow, phytodetritus), some constituted of multiply recycled particulate organic matter (POM). However, higher ? 13C-? 15N correlations were observed during winter and spring, periods of water column homogenization, suggesting that the planktonic community assimilates pulses of new production from the photic zone (peaking in January-February). Low correlations were observed during periods of water column stratification, particularly in summer, when production is especially low, suggesting that in this period macroplankton-micronekton community rely on sources other than surface primary production such as POM derived from river discharge.

Fanelli, E.; Cartes, J. E.; Papiol, V.

2011-07-01

214

Variability of coastal suprabenthic assemblages from sandy beaches of the Caribbean coast of Venezuela.  

PubMed

The suprabenthos or hyperbenthos is the macrofaunal assemblage of small-sized organisms that interact for some time in the benthic boundary layer. Information about the taxonomic composition and role of suprabenthic species, especially in littoral zones, is scarce and scattered. This work attempts to contribute alleviate this problem. We analyze the temporal and spatial variations of suprabenthic assemblages in the swash-zone from four beaches of the littoral coast of Venezuela. For each beach, two sites were chosen, and special attention was given to water and sediment characteristics. 12 environmental variables were measured: Dissolved oxygen, oxygen saturation percentage, pH, salinity, surface temperature, total, organic and inorganic suspended solids, total organic carbon, organic matter in sediment, grain size of sediment, and amount of dragged material of sample. All faunal samples were taken on a monthly basis during 2011; these were extracted using a manual suprabenthic sledge towed parallel to the shoreline. Samples were sorted and identified to their lowest possible taxonomic level. A total of 24 141 specimens (mean abundance: 26.16 +/- 55.35 ind./m2) belonging to 21 taxonomic groups were identified. Analysis suggests that seasonality does not explain observed changes either in fauna or environmental variables. It was found that suprabenthic assemblages, total suprabenthos density, richness and environmental variables changed in a dissimilar fashion between months and beaches. The most frequent groups were amphipods and decapods; and at the species/categories level post-larval shrimp (Penaeidae), Grapsidae crab megalopae and Arenaeus cribarius megalopae were common. Dissimilarity between months in each beach was primarily explained by the abundance of amphipods, ctenophores, decapods and mysids. For particular months and selected beaches very high abundances of ctenophores were found. This group dominated the sample even though it is not usually a representative group in suprabenthos. Samples showed low correlations between suprabenthos and environmental variables. A somewhat stronger correlation could be established between water characteristics and dragged material abundance. The studied suprabenthos assemblage was found to have high taxa richness and very dynamic behaviour at spatial and temporal scale. Further analysis suggested that there is no evident pattern of distribution and that causality can not be directly attributed to temporal variation only. Possibly there is an influence of a synergy of environmentals or biological factors, rather than a single variable. The species Americamysis bahia and Americamysis taironana are reported for the first time in Venezuela. This study represents the first ecological research of the suprabenthos in the Caribbean region. PMID:25102634

Ortega, Ileana; Martín, Alberto; Díaz, Yusbelly J

2014-06-01

215

Crystal structure of the shrimp proliferating cell nuclear antigen: structural complementarity with WSSV DNA polymerase PIP-box.  

PubMed

DNA replication requires processivity factors that allow replicative DNA polymerases to extend long stretches of DNA. Some DNA viruses encode their own replicative DNA polymerase, such as the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) that infects decapod crustaceans but still require host replication accessory factors. We have determined by X-ray diffraction the three-dimensional structure of the Pacific white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (LvPCNA). This protein is a member of the sliding clamp family of proteins, that binds DNA replication and DNA repair proteins through a motif called PIP-box (PCNA-Interacting Protein). The crystal structure of LvPCNA was refined to a resolution of 3 Å, and allowed us to determine the trimeric protein assembly and details of the interactions between PCNA and the DNA. To address the possible interaction between LvPCNA and the viral DNA polymerase, we docked a theoretical model of a PIP-box peptide from the WSSV DNA polymerase within LvPCNA crystal structure. The theoretical model depicts a feasible model of interaction between both proteins. The crystal structure of shrimp PCNA allows us to further understand the mechanisms of DNA replication processivity factors in non-model systems. PMID:24728082

Carrasco-Miranda, Jesus S; Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A; Arvizu-Flores, Aldo A; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D; Stojanoff, Vivian; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Brieba, Luis G; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R

2014-01-01

216

Distribution patterns of macrobenthic fauna communities in Deukryang Bay, one of the environment conservation areas of Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Macrobenthic fauna were collected seasonally at 44 sites in Deukryang Bay from February to November, 2012. The species number of macrobenthic fauna was in the range of 140 to 181, and polychaetes comprised 41.4% of them. The average density of the whole study area changed seasonally from 755 to 1,507 ind. m-2, and the most abundant fauna group was crustaceans which accounted for 55.1% of total abundance. An amphipod species Nippopisella nagatai was the most dominant species and a decapod species Xenophthalmus pinnotheroides, an amphipod species Photis longicaudata, and a polychaete species Paralacydonia paradoxa were also dominant in all seasons. The mean seasonal values of Shannon's diversity index (H') were in the range of 2.2-2.4, and those values for the evenness index and richness index were 0.7-0.7 and 4.6-5.7, respectively. From the cluster analysis, Deukryang Bay could be divided into 3 or 4 station groups with its specific fauna composition. The cluster analysis and an nMDS ordination revealed that local environmental factors such as water depth were related to the spatial delineation of macrobenthic fauna communities in Deukryang Bay.

Seo, Jin-Young; Lim, Hyun-Sig; Choi, Jin-Woo

2014-06-01

217

Reprint of “Deep epibenthic communities in two contrasting areas of the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)”  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epibenthic communities were studied in two areas, off western and southern Mallorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean), which differ in the oceanographic conditions and show different degrees of oligotrophy. Sampling was performed with beam trawl at two seasons (December 2009 and July 2010) and at depths between 228 and 900 m. A total of 199 taxa were identified, of which the most diverse were decapod crustaceans and fishes. Depth was the main factor structuring megafaunal assemblages. In the shelf break the shrimps Plesionika heterocarpus, P. antigai, Processa nouveli and P. canaliculata were dominant. In the upper slope, P. acanthonotus, Boreomysis arctica, Gaidropsarus biscayensis and Aristeus antennatus were the species that most contributed to the group formation, whereas in the middle slope the crustaceans P. acanthonotus and Munida tenuimana dominated. Specific abundances were relatively low everywhere. Diversity H? values ranged from 2.19 to 3.17, being higher in Sóller. Using species abundance data, significant differences were identified concerning both area and season in both shelf break and upper slope strata, while no significant differences were found in the middle slope stratum. The analysis of functional groups showed that both depth and area had a significant effect on their differential distribution.

Ramón, Montserrat; Abelló, Pere; Ordines, Francesc; Massutí, Enric

2014-10-01

218

Ichnofauna from the Harbans Bed of the Badhaura Formation (Sterlitmakian), Rajasthan, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the first ever systematic study of trace fossils from the Badhaura Formation, the authors described a nesting burrow, which they ascribed to a stomatopod. The purpose of this paper is two-fold: primarily, to document ichnofauna from (post-glacial marine late Palaeozoic rocks of peninsular India) the Badhaura Formation (Sterlitmakian) representing marine rocks deposited following the Late Palaeozoic glaciation and secondly to contribute to the data on post-glacial ichnofauna from constituent continents of the Gondwanaland. Trace fossils described here are from the Harbans Bed, the topmost lithounit of the Badhaura Formation. The ichnofauna includes Arenicolites tenuis, Beaconites isp., Curvolithus isp., Cylindrichnus concentricus, Didymaulichnus lyelli, Ophiomorpha isp., Palaeophycus tubularis, Planolites beverleyensis, P. montanus, Rosselia chonoides, R. socialis, Skolithos linearis, Taenidium cameronensis, Thalassinoides paradoxicus, Thalassinoides isp. and a flask-shaped brood chamber assigned to a stomatopod crustacean. This mixed assemblage is assigned to distal Skolithos ichnofacies and is suggestive of a period of relatively quiet, shallow water conditions of deposition. The ichnofauna, when viewed in context of peri-gondwanic ichnofaunas, mainly consisting of simple tracks and trails, from late Palaeozoic post-glacial deposits of other Gondwanan continents, is interesting due to dominance of domichnia. Profusion of brood chambers along with Thalassinoides in the Badhaura Formation validates the concept of pre-Mesozoic Thalassinoides being non-decapod in origin and suggestive of adaptive convergence.

Kulkarni, Kantimati G.; Borkar, Vidyadhar D.

2014-03-01

219

Comparative Ultrastructure and Carbohydrate Composition of Gastroliths from Astacidae, Cambaridae and Parastacidae Freshwater Crayfish (Crustacea, Decapoda)  

PubMed Central

Crustaceans have to cyclically replace their rigid exoskeleton in order to grow.Most of them harden this skeleton by a calcification process. Some decapods (land crabs, lobsters and crayfish) elaborate calcium storage structures as a reservoir of calcium ions in their stomach wall, as so-called gastroliths. For a better understanding of the cyclic elaboration of these calcium deposits, we studied the ultrastructure of gastroliths from freshwater crayfish by using a combination of microscopic and physical techniques. Because sugars are also molecules putatively involved in the elaboration process of these biomineralizations, we also determined their carbohydrate composition. This study was performed in a comparative perspective on crayfish species belonging to the infra-order Astacidea (Decapoda, Malacostraca): three species from the Astacoidea superfamily and one species from the Parastacoidea superfamily. We observed that all the gastroliths exhibit a similar dense network of protein-chitin fibers, from macro- to nanoscale, within which calcium is precipitated as amorphous calcium carbonate. Nevertheless, they are not very similar at the molecular level, notably as regards their carbohydrate composition. Besides glucosamine, the basic carbohydrate component of chitin, we evidenced the presence of other sugars, some of which are species-specific like rhamnose and galacturonic acid whereas xylose and mannose could be linked to proteoglycan components. PMID:24970155

Luquet, Gilles; Fernández, María S.; Badou, Aïcha; Guichard, Nathalie; Roy, Nathalie Le; Corneillat, Marion; Alcaraz, Gérard; Arias, José L.

2012-01-01

220

Crystal Structure of the Shrimp Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Structural Complementarity with WSSV DNA Polymerase PIP-Box  

PubMed Central

DNA replication requires processivity factors that allow replicative DNA polymerases to extend long stretches of DNA. Some DNA viruses encode their own replicative DNA polymerase, such as the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) that infects decapod crustaceans but still require host replication accessory factors. We have determined by X-ray diffraction the three-dimensional structure of the Pacific white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (LvPCNA). This protein is a member of the sliding clamp family of proteins, that binds DNA replication and DNA repair proteins through a motif called PIP-box (PCNA-Interacting Protein). The crystal structure of LvPCNA was refined to a resolution of 3 Å, and allowed us to determine the trimeric protein assembly and details of the interactions between PCNA and the DNA. To address the possible interaction between LvPCNA and the viral DNA polymerase, we docked a theoretical model of a PIP-box peptide from the WSSV DNA polymerase within LvPCNA crystal structure. The theoretical model depicts a feasible model of interaction between both proteins. The crystal structure of shrimp PCNA allows us to further understand the mechanisms of DNA replication processivity factors in non-model systems. PMID:24728082

Carrasco-Miranda, Jesus S.; Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A.; Arvizu-Flores, Aldo A.; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D.; Stojanoff, Vivian; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Brieba, Luis G.; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.

2014-01-01

221

NMDA-like receptors in the nervous system of the crab Neohelice granulata: a neuroanatomical description.  

PubMed

N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are involved in learning and memory processes in vertebrates and invertebrates. In Neohelice granulata, NMDARs are involved in the storage of associative memories (see references in text). The aim of this work was to characterize this type of glutamate receptor in Neohelice and to describe its distribution in the central nervous system (CNS). As a first step, a detailed study of the CNS of N. granulata was performed at the neuropil level, with special focus on one of the main structures involved in this type of memory, the supraesophageal ganglion, called central brain. The characterization of the NMDAR was achieved by identifying the essential subunit of these receptors, the NR1-like subunit. The NR1-like signals were found via western blot and immunohistochemistry techniques in each of the major ganglia: the eyestalk ganglia, the central brain, and the thoracic ganglion. Western blots yielded two bands for the crab NR1-like subunit, at ?88 and ?84 kDa. This subunit is present in all the major ganglia, and shows a strong localization in synaptosomal membranes. NMDARs are distributed throughout the majority of each ganglion but show prominent signal intensity in some distinguishable neuropils and neurons. This is the first general description of the N. granulata nervous system as a whole and the first study of NMDARs in the CNS of decapods. The preferential localization of the receptor in some neuropils and neurons indicates the presence of possible new targets for memory processing and storage. PMID:23238970

Hepp, Yanil; Tano, Martín Carbó; Pedreira, María Eugenia; Freudenthal, Ramiro A M

2013-07-01

222

Metal toxicity, uptake and bioaccumulation in aquatic invertebrates--modelling zinc in crustaceans.  

PubMed

We use published data on the different patterns of the bioaccumulation of zinc by three crustaceans, the caridean decapod Palaemon elegans, the amphipod Orchestia gammarellus and the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite, to construct comparative biodynamic models of the bioaccumulation of zinc into metabolically available and detoxified components of accumulated zinc in each crustacean under both field and laboratory toxicity test conditions. We then link these bioaccumulation models to the onset of toxic effects on exposure of the crustaceans to high dissolved zinc bioavailabilities, using the tenets that toxicity effects are related to the total uptake rate of the toxic metal, and that toxicity is not usually dependent on the total accumulated metal concentration but always on the concentration of accumulated metal that is metabolically available. We dismiss the general concept that there is a critical accumulated body concentration of a metal in an invertebrate at which toxicity ensues, except under specific circumstances involving a rare lack of storage detoxification of accumulated metal. We thus propose a theoretical framework that can be extended to other metals and other aquatic invertebrates (indeed other animals) to explain the variation in the relationship between bioaccumulated body concentrations and toxicity, and subsequently to predict this relationship in many other species for which we have bioaccumulation modelling data. PMID:21872557

Rainbow, P S; Luoma, S N

2011-10-01

223

Scope for activity in the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus.  

PubMed

The scope for activity of the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus was determined between 5 and 30 degrees C (incipient lethal of 33 degrees C). Standard oxygen consumption rate (VO2) ws low (e.g., 17 ml x kg-1 x h-1 at 20 degrees C); and it increased with temperature over the entire range (Q10 = 2.09 for 5-25 degrees C). Active VO2 increased with temperature (Q10 = 1.76) to a maximum at 20 degrees C (VO2 = 176 ml x kg-1 x h-1), and then decreased. Scope for activity likewise showed a maximum at 20 degrees C (VO2 - 158 ml x kg-1 x h-1) and decreased at higher temperatures. Comparison with fish studies indicates these values represent a relatively well-developed oxygen uptake ability in this decapod crustacean. At 20 degrees C crayfish active VO2 is a significant fraction of that shown by highly active VO2 is a significant fraction of that shown by highly active species such as sockeye (29%), and moderately active species such as goldfish (57%), bullhead (62%), and bass (78%); and it is much greater than active VO2 for sluggish species such as gobiids (> 300%). Also, crayfish scope for activity between 5 and 20 degrees C is virtually identical to scopes for bullhead and bass because crayfish have lower standard VO2 than either of these fish. PMID:7457632

Rutledge, P S; Pritchard, A W

1981-01-01

224

Cells from the immune system generate adult-born neurons in crayfish.  

PubMed

Neurogenesis is an ongoing process in the brains of adult decapod crustaceans. However, the first-generation precursors that produce adult-born neurons, which reside in a neurogenic niche, are not self-renewing in crayfish and must be replenished. The source of these neuronal precursors is unknown. Here, we report that adult-born neurons in crayfish can be derived from hemocytes. Following adoptive transfer of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU)-labeled hemocytes, labeled cells populate the neurogenic niche containing the first-generation neuronal precursors. Seven weeks after adoptive transfer, EdU-labeled cells are located in brain clusters 9 and 10 (where adult-born neurons differentiate) and express appropriate neurotransmitters. Moreover, the number of cells composing the neurogenic niche in crayfish is tightly correlated with total hemocyte counts (THCs) and can be manipulated by raising or lowering THC. These studies identify hemocytes as a source of adult-born neurons in crayfish and demonstrate that the immune system is a key contributor to adult neurogenesis. PMID:25117683

Benton, Jeanne L; Kery, Rachel; Li, Jingjing; Noonin, Chadanat; Söderhäll, Irene; Beltz, Barbara S

2014-08-11

225

Identification and characterization of androgenic gland specific insulin-like peptide-encoding transcripts in two spiny lobster species: Sagmariasus verreauxi and Jasus edwardsii.  

PubMed

In this study we describe, for the first time in spiny lobsters, the androgenic gland and its putative hormone. The androgenic gland in crustaceans is the key regulator of crustacean masculinity. The transcript encoding the insulin-like androgenic gland specific factor has recently been identified and characterized in a number of decapod crustacean species including commercially important crabs, crayfish, prawns and shrimps. This insulin-like factor has proven to be the androgenic gland masculinizing hormone, and is absent in females. While the androgenic gland and its putative hormone have been identified in all other commercially valuable groups, none had been identified in lobsters. We identified and characterized the androgenic glands of two spiny lobster species (Sagmariasus verreauxi and Jasus edwardsii) and conducted a transcriptomic analysis of the S. verreauxi androgenic gland. Bioinformatics analysis led to the discovery and characterization of the insulin-like androgenic gland specific factors in both species studied. Changes in androgenic gland cell size and quantity between sub-adult and sexually mature males were evident. The transcriptomic database established for the S. verreauxi androgenic gland might enable to elucidate the mechanisms through which the insulin-like factor is secreted, transported to the target cells and how it triggers the physiological effects of sexual differentiation towards maleness and maintenance of the male gonad. PMID:24997416

Ventura, Tomer; Fitzgibbon, Quinn; Battaglene, Stephen; Sagi, Amir; Elizur, Abigail

2014-07-01

226

Seasonal changes in the demersal nekton community off the Changjiang River estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diversity, community structure and seasonal variation in demersal nekton off the Changjiang (Yangtze) River estuary was evaluated using monthly trawl survey data, collected between December 2008 and November 2009. A total of 95 species (56 teleosts, 11 cephalopods, and 28 decapod crustaceans) from 69 genera, 49 families and 15 orders were collected. These species could be classified into six groups on the basis of temporal distribution patterns. The resident crab Ovalipes punctatus dominated the community, both in number and biomass. A clear seasonal succession was observed in the species composition. Cluster analysis revealed three primary seasonal groups corresponding to the samples collected in winter-spring, late spring-summer and late summer-autumn. The highest biomass and lowest diversity were observed in summer, while the lowest biomass and highest diversity in winter. The abundance-biomass comparison curves and community composition suggested that the investigated community was moderately disturbed. The results suggest that reduction in fishing pressure and in the degree of seasonal hypoxia are essential for sustainable resource management off the Changjiang River estuary.

Jiang, Yazhou; Ling, Jianzhong; Li, Jiansheng; Yang, Linlin; Li, Shengfa

2014-03-01

227

Tunneling trilobites: Habitual infaunalism in an Ordovician carbonate seafloor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asaphus trilobites preserved in tunnel systems of the trace fossil Thalassinoides from the mid-Ordovician (ca. 465 Ma) Holen Limestone, Sweden, are interpreted as the trace makers, enabled by shallow carbonate firm grounds to construct open tunnel networks and develop habitual infaunal behavior. Their in situ preservation confirms an infaunal ethology inferred for some trilobite taxa from functional morphology. We suggest that predation pressure from large omnivorous nautiloid cephalopods (“Orthoceras” Limestone facies) may have triggered ecologic opportunism. In trilobites well adapted for predatory-scavenging behavior as well as excavation, the tunnel networks functioned primarily for protection, possibly assisting in feeding, breathing, and breeding strategies. Previously, “trilobite burrows” have referred to seafloor traces of locomotion, feeding, and resting (Cruziana, Rusophycus). Infaunal, tunneling trilobites provide new evidence of mid-Ordovician partitioning of the skeletal benthos, adding to an ecologic and trophic tier hitherto interpreted as occupied by soft-bodied organisms. Such trilobites also provide an identity for Thalassinoides tracemakers prior to Devonian evolution of decapod crustaceans.

Cherns, Lesley; Wheeley, James R.; Karis, Lars

2006-08-01

228

Acute toxicity of sodium metabisulphite on mangrove crab Ucides cordatus (Decapoda, Ucididae).  

PubMed

The sodium metabisulphite salt is usually used in shrimp culture to prevent black spot. Unfortunately the toxicological effect of this xenobiotic in decapod crabs is unknown. Thus, the present study aims to investigate the sodium metabisulphite LC(50) - 96 h in the mangrove species Ucides cordatus. Crabs were collected in the tidal creek margins in Bragança estuarine and were submitted to preliminary test (screening) and posterior definitive test. Crabs were exposed in five different concentrations and a control group in five replicates, two crabs per recipient (5 L) during 96 hours. A negative correlation was observed to sodium metabisulphite concentration in relation to dissolved oxygen and pH. At the end of the experiment were obtained the following mortality index in relation to sodium metabisulphite concentrations: 100% in 86.0 mg.L(-1), 74% in 62.0 mg.L(-1), 52% in 52.0 mg.L(-1), 44% in 38.0 mg.L(-1). The value of LC(50) - 96 h for U. cordatus was determinate at 42.58 mg.L(-1)/Na(2)S(2)O(5). The results strongly indicate that sodium metabisulphite is toxic for U. cordatus, and this crab could be used for biomonitoring the environmental impact. PMID:22990601

Pedale, Adriana B; Fujimoto, Rodrigo Y; Santos, Rudã F B; Abrunhosa, Fernando A

2012-12-01

229

Geographical Information System Based Evaluation of Benthic MACRO Fauna in Thondi Coastal Environment, South East Coast of India Rethna Priya. E, Anbuchezhian. R and Ravichandran. S. Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Annamalai University, Portonovo, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal and frequency difference of the macro fauna have been related to variation in the morpho dynamics and the population dynamics of dominant species. The aim of this article is to describe the seasonal and spatial variation of the macro fauna at 12 different samplings stations with distinct environmental conditions in Thondi coastal area. The samples were collected monthly from September 2010 to September 2011. Macro benthic invertebrates are numerically important components of coastal ecosystems and represents indicators of fishery potentials, intertidal ecology and environmental degradation. Sampling stations were fixed by GPS. 54 species were recorded, of this 24 species belonging to gastropods, 15 species of bivalves, 5 species of amphipods, 6 species of decapods and 4 species of echinoderms. In the present study the abdunce of benthic fauna greatly depends on physical and chemical properties of the substratum. The diversity, seasonal variations, dominances, influence of ecological parameters have been studied geographically by using GIS software for a period of one year from September 2010 to September 2011The macro fauna at all sites showed a arresting seasonal variation in density and diversity. Keywords: Macro fauna, GIS software, environmental degradation, morpho dynamics.

Priya, R.; Ramasamy, A.; Ravichandran, R.; Anbuchezhian. E.

2013-05-01

230

[Corals reef of the Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene, of Turrialba, Costa Rica].  

PubMed

The outcrops at Jesús Maria (Turrialba, Cartago Province, Costa Rica) present limestone sequences 12 to 30 m thick (packstones: biolithites, biomicrites; and wackstones: biosparites, biomicrosparites), sandstones and conglomerates of Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene age, correlated to the Punta Pelada Formation. The limestones are characterized by patch reefs with an irregular distribution and a reduced lateral extension (50 m), composed of corals (40%), calcareous algae and foraminiferans (30%), mollusks (20%), and in minor amounts fragments of barnacles, decapods, echinoderms and bryozoans. They consisted of low diversity communities possibly due to diverse geographical, geological and tectonic factors: a narrow continental shelf, very shallow and isolated environments, sea level fluctuations, and exposure to clastic sedimentation associated with intermitent volcanic activity. Equity was also low, with corals making up 40% of all macrofossils, and one species, Antiguastrea cellulosa, as predominant (80% of the corals present). These bioconstructions were developed in an open circulation lagoon environment with transitions, in several occasions, to shallower environments represented by elastic sediments. PMID:15264535

Aguila, T; Cortés, J

2001-12-01

231

Moult cycle and growth of the crab Halicarcinus planatus (Brachyura, Hymenosomatidae) in the Beagle Channel, southern tip of South America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crab Halicarcinus planatus is the only hymenosomatid crab that inhabits the southern tip of South America and is the only decapod species that reproduces twice a year in the Beagle Channel. In this article, we study the moult cycle in the field (moult frequency, analysis of size frequency distribution) and linked it with growth studied in the laboratory (absolute and per cent growth increment, Hiatt function). Hiatt functions were similar for males and females. Moult frequency was seasonal: in early austral spring and in austral summer. In females, the pubertal moult is the terminal moult, whereas males continue moulting after attaining the size of morphometric maturity. Moult increment was highly variable. The relationship between absolute moult increment and crab size was described by a quadratic function. Per cent growth increment decreased with size, and relationships were different for each sex: linear for females and quadratic for males. Seven and eight modal groups explained the size frequency distributions for females and males from the field, respectively, and revealed the existence of two cohorts of recruits per year. Further modal analysis was mainly hampered by the high variability of size increment that could make any moulting individual fall in its own or one of two following modal groups. The antagonism between growth and reproduction was evident in small males. We hypothesize that the terminal pubertal moult is an advantageous feature that allows females to maximize their investment in reproduction after their terminal moult, which allows this species to have two spawnings per year.

Diez, Mariano J.; Lovrich, Gustavo A.

2013-09-01

232

[Distribution and abundance of demersal fishes and of some other marine benthic organisims on the continental shelf (0-60 m) of French Guiana].  

PubMed

In order to establish the distribution and abundance of demersal fishes and of some other benthic organisms on the continental shelf of French Guiana (western central Atlantic), ninety-five bottom trawls were effected at depths ranging from 0 to 60 m in October 1993. A total of one hundred and ten different species were identified including eight decapod crustaceans, two cephalopods, one sea turtle and ninety-nine fishes. Despite the high species richness in benthic macrofauna, most species showed a low count, and only twelve of them comprised more than 80% of total captures. This study has mainly highlighted the existence of a well-pronounced bathymetric zonation. This phenomenon would appear to be linked to environmental factors, especially salinity and substrate granulometry, which are greatly conditioned by fresh water and sediment flowing in large rivers such the Amazon River. The results revealed three distinct faunistic assemblages: a littoral (or shallow-water) community (0-30 m) distributed in coastal estuarine waters characterized by muddy bottoms, a middle-shelf community (30-50 m), and a lower-shelf community (depths > 50 m) distributed in deeper marine waters characterized by sandy bottoms. PMID:11072623

Guéguen, F

2000-09-01

233

Brachyuran and anomuran crabs associated with Schizoporella unicornis (Ectoprocta, Cheilostomata) from southeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

The main goals of this investigation were to describe the community structure of anomuran and brachyuran crabs inhabiting reefs constituted by colonies of Schizoporella unicornis, and to provide a species importance ranking for this community. Collections were carried out on S. unicornis reefs at two-month intervals from May 2003 to May 2004, in the rocky sublittoral of the southeastern Brazilian coast. Relative abundance and occurrence were used to rank these species in the hierarchy importance. A total of 2,018 individuals were obtained, in 11 families, 22 genera and 31 species. Porcellanidae and Pilumnidae were the most abundant families, comprising respectively almost 60% and 15% of individuals sampled. The species ranking indicated four main groups A, B, C and D, with group A subdivided. Subgroup A1 contained 9 species, including the species of greatest ecological importance for community regarding abundance and occurrence. The great abundance of crabs associated with S. unicornis seems to be the result of its recognized importance during the crab developmental cycle, and as shelter and food for some Decapod species. These observations reveal the importance of conserving the areas occupied by these reef colonies, which appear to be an important environment for maintaining local biodiversity. PMID:23538959

Alves, Douglas F R; Barros-Alves, Samara P; Lima, Daniel J M; Cobo, Valter J; Negreiros-Fransozo, Maria Lucia

2013-03-01

234

Comparison of the feeding apparatus and diet of European sardines Sardina pilchardus of Atlantic and Mediterranean waters: ecological implications.  

PubMed

In this study, the feeding apparatus (gill rakers, GR) and the diet composition of European sardine Sardina pilchardus populations living in two contrasting environments were compared: the upwelling area off western Iberia and the comparatively less productive region of the north-western Mediterranean Sea. The importance of local adaptations in the trophic ecology of this species was estimated. Sardina pilchardus from the Atlantic Iberian coast and from the north-western Mediterranean Sea have clear differences in the feeding apparatus and diet compositions. Those from the Atlantic Iberian coast have significantly more GRs than S. pilchardus of the same size range in the Mediterranean Sea. While S. pilchardus from the Mediterranean Sea mostly depend on prey ranging between 750-1500 and 3000-4000?µm, corresponding mostly to cladocerans, decapods and copepods, those from the Atlantic depend on smaller prey (50-500 and 1000-1500?µm) that include phytoplankton and copepods, particularly during summer months, and S. pilchardus eggs during the winter. The marked difference between the trophic ecology of S. pilchardus in the two areas studied appears to have originated from different dietary strategies that the two populations have adopted in contrasting feeding environments. These differences are shown to profoundly affect the size and quality of prey consumed, and the effect of cannibalism on the populations. PMID:25846858

Costalago, D; Garrido, S; Palomera, I

2015-04-01

235

Field distribution and osmoregulatory capacity of shrimps in a temperate European estuary (SW Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial distribution of the six most common crustacean decapods in the benthos and hyperbenthos of the Guadalquivir estuary (SW Spain) has been analysed in relation to their osmoregulatory capacities (at 20 °C). Field densities along the estuarine salinity gradient revealed that, although the species studied showed salinity tolerance ranges in the field that do overlap to some extent, there was a considerable spatial and/or salinity-related segregation between several of them. Concerning their isosmotic points and their osmoregulatory salinity ranges, two main groups of species were distinguished: species with higher isosmotic points and tight ranges in osmoregulation, represented by marine species that entered the estuary from open sea and remained there for only part of the year ( Crangon crangon, Melicertus kerathurus and Palaemon serratus); and those with slightly lower isosmotic points and wide ranges in osmoregulation, represented by estuarine species which completed their life cycle in brackish water ( Palaemon longirostris, Palaemon macrodactylus and Palaemonetes varians). For all the species studied, their field distributions were clearly biased towards the lower end of the salinity ranges within which they osmoregulate. Nevertheless, individuals of the less euryhaline species ( M. kerathurus and P. serratus) were mainly found in less saline water when the estuarine gradient was displaced downstream and low salinities occurred close to the river mouth.

González-Ortegón, Enrique; Pascual, Emilio; Cuesta, Jose A.; Drake, Pilar

2006-03-01

236

Energy expenditure during activity in the American lobster Homarus americanus: Correlations with body acceleration.  

PubMed

How animals manage time and expend energy has implications for survivorship. Being able to measure key metabolic costs of animals under natural conditions is therefore an important tool in behavioral ecology. One method for estimating activity-specific metabolic rate is via derived measures of acceleration, often 'overall dynamic body acceleration' (ODBA), recorded by an instrumented acceleration logger. ODBA has been shown to correlate well with rate of oxygen consumption (V?o2) in a range of species during activity in the laboratory. This study devised a method for attaching acceleration loggers to decapod crustaceans and then correlated ODBA against concurrent respirometry readings to assess accelerometry as a proxy for activity-specific energy expenditure in a model species, the American lobster Homarus americanus. Where the instrumented animals exhibited a sufficient range of activity levels, positive linear relationships were found between V?o2 and ODBA over 20min periods at a range of ambient temperatures (6, 13 and 20°C). Mixed effect linear models based on these data and morphometrics provided reasonably strong predictive power for estimating activity-specific V?o2 from ODBA. These V?o2-ODBA calibrations demonstrate the potential of accelerometry as an effective predictor of behavior-specific metabolic rate of crustaceans in the wild during periods of activity. PMID:23811045

Lyons, G N; Halsey, L G; Pope, E C; Eddington, J D; Houghton, J D R

2013-10-01

237

The complete mitochondrial genome of the Japanese fan lobster Ibacus ciliatus (Crustacea, Achelata, Scyllaridae).  

PubMed

Abstract Slipper lobsters are a unique group of decapod crustaceans; they have cylindrical or flattened bodies and belong to the family Scyllaridae. The genus Ibacus (Leach, 1815) (Achelata, Scyllaridae, Ibacinae) consists of eight recognized species to date, all of which occur in the Indo-West Pacific Ocean and are commercially important seafood species. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Japanese fan lobster Ibacus ciliatus (Von Siebold, 1824) is 15,696?bp in size and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs, and a control region of 783?bp. The base composition of I. ciliatus is 35.8% A, 34.7% T, 19.0% C, and 10.5% G, with an overall AT content of 70.5%. The mitogenome of I. ciliatus was found to have gene arrangement and transcriptional polarity identical to that of the American lobster Homarus americanus, showing the pancrustacean ground pattern. Here, we present the complete mitogenome sequence of I. ciliatus; it is the first mitogenome information from the subfamily Ibacinae, and represents the second for the family Scyllaridae. PMID:25329294

Ahn, Dong-Ha; Kim, Sanghee; Park, Joong-Ki; Shin, Sook; Min, Gi-Sik

2014-10-20

238

Development of a biomimetic underwater ambulatory robot: advantages of matching biomimetic control architecture with biomimetic actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The American Lobster Homarus americanus is a highly mobile marine decapod, ubiquitous to the benthic environment of the eastern North Atlantic. Lobsters occupy a range of subtidal habitats on the continental shelf, and are capable of navigating through spatially complex boulder fields, as well as coping with variable water currents. Given these competencies, we have adopted the lobster as a design model for a biomimetic autonomous underwater vehicle intended for operation in similar environments. A central motor pattern generator model was developed from electromyographic data from lobsters, and is being implemented on an eight-legged ambulatory vehicle. The vehicle uses Nitinol shape-memory alloy wires as linear actuators, physically modeling the antagonistic muscle pairs of a lobster leg. The contraction of the wires is produced by heating them with an electrical current. This produces a change in the crystalline structure of the material from a martensite to an austenite state, resulting in a 5% contraction of the wire. Three pairs of wires are used around three joints to produce a three-degrees-of-freedom walking leg. Current drivers power the actuators, and pulse-width modulation is used to obtain graded contractions from the muscles. The combination of a biologically based control system coupled with a linear actuator sharing many characteristics of invertebrate muscle tissue has enabled us to construct a biomimetic ambulatory robot sharing some of the competencies of the model.

Witting, Jan H.; Ayers, Joseph; Safak, Koray

2000-10-01

239

Molecular immune response of the American lobster (Homarus americanus) to the White Spot Syndrome Virus.  

PubMed

The adult American lobster (Homarus americanus) is susceptible to few naturally occurring pathogens, and no viral pathogen is known to exist. Despite this, relatively little is known about the H. americanus immune system and nothing is known about its potential viral immune response. Hundreds of rural communities in Atlantic Canada rely on the lobster fishery for their economic sustainability and could be devastated by large-scale pathogen-mediated mortality events. The White Spot Syndrome Virus is the most economically devastating viral pathogen to global shrimp aquaculture production and has been proposed to be capable of infecting all decapod crustaceans including the European Lobster. An in vivo WSSV injection challenge was conducted in H. americanus and WSSV was found to be capable of infecting and replicating within lobsters held at 20°C. The in vivo WSSV challenge also generated the first viral disease model of H. americanus and allowed for the high-throughput examination of transcriptomic changes that occur during viral infection. Microarray analysis found 136 differentially expressed genes and the expression of a subset of these genes was verified using RT-qPCR. Anti-lipopolysaccharide isoforms and acute phase serum amyloid protein A expression did not change during WSSV infection, contrary to previous findings during bacterial and parasitic infection of H. americanus. This, along with the differential gene expression of thioredoxin and trypsin isoforms, provides compelling evidence that H. americanus is capable of mounting an immune response specific to infection by different pathogen classes. PMID:24045127

Clark, K Fraser; Greenwood, Spencer J; Acorn, Adam R; Byrne, Philip J

2013-11-01

240

Histological intersex (ovotestis) in the European lobster Homarus gammarus and a commentary on its potential mechanistic basis.  

PubMed

This paper provides the first report of the intersex (ovotestis) condition in the European lobster Homarus gammarus. A single specimen (10% of males sampled) presenting the condition was discovered as part of routine sampling, from the Weymouth Bay region of the English Channel, UK. The lobster presented externally as a male, but upon histological examination was seen to contain an ovotestis, containing elements of both male and female gonadal tissue. Previtellogenic oocytes were present in several otherwise normal seminiferous tubules throughout the testis. The seminiferous tubules were also engaged in the production of apparently normal sperm lineages, and mature spermatozoa were present within the tubule lumens. In some cases, oocytes were in direct contact with mature spermatozoa within the same seminiferous tubules. The significance of this finding is placed into context with a previous observation of elevated intersexuality in the congeneric species H. americanus collected from specific sites in Canadian waters. The potential mechanism for development of intersex in lobsters, which is probably related to a disrupted signalling to the germinal component of the testis from the decapod androgenic gland, may be an effect of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in the marine environment. PMID:23186705

Stentiford, G D

2012-08-27

241

Twelve invertebrate and eight fish species new to the marine fauna of Madeira, and a discussion of the zoogeography of the area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The benthic ctenophore Vallicula multiformis, a large undescribed flatworm species of the genus Pseudoceros, the prosobranch gastropod Tonna maculosa, the opisthobranch gastropods Placida cf. dendritica, Caloria elegans, Aeolidiella sanguinea, Janolus cristatus, the decapod Balssia gasti, the sea urchin Schizaster canaliferus and the tunicates Clavelina lepadiformis, Clavelina dellavallei and Pycnoclavella taureanensis are recorded from Madeira for the first time. This is the first record of a platyctenid ctenophore in the eastern Atlantic. The teleost fishes Pomatoschistus pictus, Vaneaugobius canariensis, Chromogobius sp., Nerophis ophidion, Hippocampus hippocampus, Acanthocybium solandri, Sphyraena viridensis and Sphyraena barracuda are recorded from Madeira for the first time. The presence of the sea-hare Aplysia dactylomela at Madeira is confirmed; the species has increased tremendously in abundance in the last four years. The crocodile fish Grammoplites gruveli can occasionally be found in the mantle cavity of cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis) sold at the fish market of Funchal, but does not originate from Madeiran waters. An analysis of 100 new records from the coastal fauna of Madeira shows that, while predominantly of lusitanian, mediterranean and mauritanian affinity, Madeira’s shallow water fauna contains a large component of tropical species.

Wirtz, Peter

1998-06-01

242

Abundance and instantaneous transport of Petrolisthes armatus (Gibbes, 1850) planktonic larvae in the Catuama inlet, Northeast Brazil.  

PubMed

The influence of tidal and diel changes on the exchange of Petrolisthes armatus planktonic larvae was studied at the Catuama inlet, which represents an intermediate system of marine and estuarine environments in the Northeast Brazil. To characterize the larval abundance and vertical distribution, samplings were carried out in August 2001 at neap tide and 3 stations, with 3 hours interval over 24 hours. Samples were taken at three or two depths at each station, with a plankton pump coupled to a 300 µm mesh size net. Petrolisthes armatus zoea I and II showed a mean of 26.3 ± 83.6 and 12 ± 38.8 ind m-3, respectively. During flood tides, the larvae were more concentrated in the midwater and surface, which avoided the transport to internal regions. In contrast, during ebb tides when the larvae were distributed in the three layers, the higher concentrations were found in the bottom, which avoided a major exportation. The diel dynamic of the larval fluxes was characterized by vertical migration behavior associated to the tidal regime, which suggested that the development of this decapod apparently occurs in the inner shelf (instead of the outer shelf) off this peculiar ecosystem. PMID:22441598

Melo Júnior, Mauro de; Schwamborn, Ralf; Neumann-Leitão, Sigrid; Paranaguá, Maryse N

2012-03-01

243

Abundance and instantaneous transport of Petrolisthes armatus (Gibbes, 1850) planktonic larvae in the Catuama inlet, Northeast Brazil.  

PubMed

The influence of tidal and diel changes on the exchange of Petrolisthes armatus planktonic larvae was studied at the Catuama inlet, which represents an intermediate system of marine and estuarine environments in the Northeast Brazil. To characterize the larval abundance and vertical distribution, samplings were carried out in August 2001 at neap tide and 3 stations, with 3 hours interval over 24 hours. Samples were taken at three or two depths at each station, with a plankton pump coupled to a 300 ?m mesh size net. Petrolisthes armatus zoea I and II showed a mean of 26.3 ± 83.6 and 12 ± 38.8 ind m-3, respectively. During flood tides, the larvae were more concentrated in the midwater and surface, which avoided the transport to internal regions. In contrast, during ebb tides when the larvae were distributed in the three layers, the higher concentrations were found in the bottom, which avoided a major exportation. The diel dynamic of the larval fluxes was characterized by vertical migration behavior associated to the tidal regime, which suggested that the development of this decapod apparently occurs in the inner shelf (instead of the outer shelf) off this peculiar ecosystem. PMID:22344631

Melo Júnior, Mauro de; Schwamborn, Ralf; Neumann-Leitão, Sigrid; Paranaguá, Marsye N

2012-02-16

244

Feeding habits and ontogenetic diet shifts of Bombay duck, Harpadon nehereus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on two bottom trawl surveys conducted in autumn 2000 and 2001, a total of 1106 stomach samples of Bombay duck Harpadon nehereus between 23-278 mm fork length were collected and analyzed. The results show that Bombay duck prey items consisted of 11 groups or 32 species, of which Apogon lineatus, Leptochela gracilis, Acetes chinensis, and Euphausia pacifi ca were the dominant prey species. Ontogenetic variations were found in feeding habits and feeding activity of Bombay duck. Feeding activity was highest in fish smaller than 50 mm, lowest in fish between 50 and 99 mm, and then increased with increasing size thereafter. As Bombay duck size increased, fish prey increased in importance, whereas euphausiids and decapods decreased in importance. Different trophic guilds were observed in feeding habits across the examined size range. Bombay duck smaller than 50 mm were zooplanktivores, mainly feeding on zooplankton and fish larva; those between 50 and 149 mm were generalist predators, mainly feeding on pelagic shrimps, demersal shrimps and fishes; and those larger than 150 mm were piscivores, mainly feeding on fishes.

Zhang, Bo; Jin, Xianshi

2014-05-01

245

Analysis of stomach and gut microbiomes of the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) from coastal Louisiana, USA.  

PubMed

We used high throughput pyrosequencing to characterize stomach and gut content microbiomes of Crassostrea virginica, the Easter oyster, obtained from two sites, one in Barataria Bay (Hackberry Bay) and the other in Terrebonne Bay (Lake Caillou), Louisiana, USA. Stomach microbiomes in oysters from Hackberry Bay were overwhelmingly dominated by Mollicutes most closely related to Mycoplasma; a more rich community dominated by Planctomyctes occurred in Lake Caillou oyster stomachs. Gut communities for oysters from both sites differed from stomach communities, and harbored a relatively diverse assemblage of phylotypes. Phylotypes most closely related to Shewanella and a Chloroflexi strain dominated the Lake Caillou and Hackberry Bay gut microbiota, respectively. While many members of the stomach and gut microbiomes appeared to be transients or opportunists, a putative core microbiome was identified based on phylotypes that occurred in all stomach or gut samples only. The putative core stomach microbiome comprised 5 OTUs in 3 phyla, while the putative core gut microbiome contained 44 OTUs in 12 phyla. These results collectively revealed novel microbial communities within the oyster digestive system, the functions of the oyster microbiome are largely unknown. A comparison of microbiomes from Louisiana oysters with bacterial communities reported for other marine invertebrates and fish indicated that molluscan microbiomes were more similar to each other than to microbiomes of polychaetes, decapods and fish. PMID:23251548

King, Gary M; Judd, Craig; Kuske, Cheryl R; Smith, Conor

2012-01-01

246

Neuronal classification and distribution in the central nervous system of the female mud crab, Scylla olivacea.  

PubMed

The mud crab, Scylla olivacea, is one of the most economically valuable marine species in Southeast Asian countries. However, commercial cultivation is disadvantaged by reduced reproductive capacity in captivity. Therefore, an understanding of the general and detailed anatomy of central nervous system (CNS) is required before investigating the distribution and functions of neurotransmitters, neurohormones, and other biomolecules, involved with reproduction. We found that the anatomical structure of the brain is similar to other crabs. However, the ventral nerve cord (VNC) is unlike other caridian and dendrobrachiate decapods, as the subesophageal (SEG), thoracic and abdominal ganglia are fused, due to the reduction of abdominal segments and the tail. Neurons in clusters within the CNS varied in sizes, and we found that there were five distinct size classes (i.e., very small globuli, small, medium, large, and giant). Clusters in the brain and SEG contained mainly very small globuli and small-sized neurons, whereas, the VNC contained small-, medium-, large-, and giant-sized neurons. We postulate that the different sized neurons are involved in different functions. PMID:24375748

Kornthong, Napamanee; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Khornchatri, Kanjana; Saeton, Jirawat; Magerd, Sirilug; Suwansa-Ard, Saowaros; Kruangkum, Thanapong; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert

2014-03-01

247

Purification and characterization of a cadmium-induced metallothionein from the shore crab Carcinus maenas (L.).  

PubMed Central

Two metallothionein variants were purified from the midgut gland of crabs (Carcinus maenas) exposed to a high cadmium concentration (2 p.p.m.). One of the variants was purified from crabs exposed to a low cadmium concentration (0.5 p.p.m.). The purification method involved acetone precipitation, gel filtration and reversed-phase h.p.l.c. The complete amino acid sequences of both variants have been elucidated by m.s. and automated sequence analysis on S-methylated proteins or fragments produced by cleavage of the S-methylated proteins with Staphylococcus aureus proteinase. The two variants from crabs exposed to the high cadmium concentration differed only by a single residue of methionine at the N-terminus. The single variant isolated from crabs exposed to the low cadmium concentration was the one without the N-terminal methionine, indicating that high cadmium concentrations either inhibit the processing enzymes and/or that the processing enzymes cannot keep pace with the increased metallothionein synthesis when cadmium availability is high. Cadmium-induced metallothionein from C. maenas shows a high degree of structural similarity to metallothioneins from the decapod crustaceans Scylla serrata and Homarus americanus. PMID:8110201

Pedersen, K L; Pedersen, S N; Højrup, P; Andersen, J S; Roepstorff, P; Knudsen, J; Depledge, M H

1994-01-01

248

Role of environmental temperature in aging and longevity: insights from neurolipofuscin.  

PubMed

The available evidence for thermal modulation of neurolipofuscin deposition in poikilotherms is reviewed here and additional data are contributed. Mainly decapod crustacean models are employed and neurolipofuscin is treated as an index of physiological aging. In all cases, neurolipofuscin accumulation rate is positively correlated with environmental temperature but there appears to be lowered sensitivity in the thermal mid-range, an 'optimum' temperature for neurolipofuscin accumulation and possibly age-associated variation. The geographical position of the population within the species' thermal range may determine sensitivity of the response. There is seasonal oscillation of neurolipofuscin accumulation rate, providing preliminary evidence for neurolipofuscin turnover with net loss in winter. Spatial and temporal thermal variations of similar magnitude appear to have comparable effects on neurolipofuscin accumulation rate. Such effects may be extreme, suggesting important implications for physiological aging even in homeotherms. Inter-specific comparisons indicate that species-specific neurolipofuscin accumulation rates are positively correlated with habitat temperature and inversely correlated with maximum lifespan and age at maturity. These findings help explain some well-known bioclimatic trends in maturation- and maximum body size, such as Bergmann's rule. They also highlight the fact that global warming is likely to cause significant changes in life history parameters, population dynamics and responses to exploitation for many species. PMID:14764331

Sheehy, M R J

2002-01-01

249

Reproductive traits of the symbiotic pea crab Austinotheres angelicus (Crustacea, Pinnotheridae) living in Saccostrea palmula (Bivalvia, Ostreidae), Pacific coast of Costa Rica  

PubMed Central

Abstract Pea crabs of the family Pinnotheridae exhibit a symbiotic life style and live associated with a variety of different marine organisms, especially bivalves. Despite the fact that pea crabs can cause serious problems in bivalve aquaculture, the available information about the ecology of these crabs from Central America is extremely limited. Therefore, the present study aimed to describe different reproductive features of the pinnotherid crab Austinotheres angelicus associated with the oyster Saccostrea palmula in the Golfo de Nicoya, Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Monthly sampling was conducted from April to December 2012. Average carapace width (CW) of the 47 analyzed ovigerous females was 7.62 mm. The species produced on average 2677 ± 1754 recently -extruded embryos with an average volume of 0.020 ± 0.003 mm3; embryo volume increased during embryogenesis by 21%, but did not vary significantly between developmental stages. Brood mass volume varied greatly (between 11.7 and 236.7 mm3), and increased significantly with female CW. Females invested on average 76.7% (minimum: 21.7%; maximum: 162.8%) of their body weight in brood production, which confirms a substantially higher energy allocation for embryo production in pinnotherid crabs compared to free-living decapods. PMID:25561840

Salas-Moya, Carolina; Mena, Sebastián; Wehrtmann, Ingo S.

2014-01-01

250

Fine-scale distribution and spatial variability of benthic invertebrate larvae in an open coastal embayment in Nova Scotia, Canada.  

PubMed

This study quantified the fine- scale (0.5 km) of variability in the horizontal distributions of benthic invertebrate larvae and related this variability to that in physical and biological variables, such as density, temperature, salinity, fluorescence and current velocity. Larvae were sampled in contiguous 500-m transects along two perpendicular 10-km transects with a 200-µm plankton ring net (0.75-m diameter) in St. George's Bay, Nova Scotia, Canada, in Aug 2009. Temperature, conductivity, pressure and fluorescence were measured with a CTD cast at each station, and currents were measured with an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler moored at the intersection of the 2 transects. Gastropod, bivalve and, to a lesser extent, bryozoan larvae had very similar spatial distributions, but the distribution of decapod larvae had a different pattern. These findings suggest that taxonomic groups with functionally similar larvae have similar dispersive properties such as distribution and spatial variability, while the opposite is true for groups with functionally dissimilar larvae. The spatial variability in larval distributions was anisotropic and matched the temporal/spatial variability in the current velocity. We postulate that in a system with no strong oceanographic features, the scale of spatially coherent physical forcing (e.g. tidal periodicity) can regulate the formation or maintenance of larval patches; however, swimming ability may modulate it. PMID:25153075

Daigle, Rémi M; Metaxas, Anna; deYoung, Brad

2014-01-01

251

[Feeding changes for three Sphoeroides species (Tetraodontiformes: Tetraodontidae) after Isidore hurricane impact in Carbonera Inlet, Southeastern Gulf of Mexico].  

PubMed

The coexistence of ecologically similar species may occur because of resources distribution, such as prey and habitat type and segregation time, that minimizes the interspecific competition. The changes brought about by Hurricane Isidore in the distribution of food resources by three coexisting fish species of the family Tetraodontidae (Sphoeroides nephelus, S. spengleri and S testudineus), were analyzed at the Carbonera Inlet. Sphoeroides spp. based their food on benthic organisms; principally, they consume mussels (Brachidontes sp.), barnacles (Balanus sp.) and gastropods (Crepidula sp). Before hurricane impact, the three species share the available food resources in different proportions (bivalves, gastropods, barnacles and decapods), according to different strategies that enabled them to coexist and reduce interspecific competition. After the impact, the abundance of available prey decreased and the interespecific competition for food increased, leading to S. testudines and S. nephelus change their trophic spectrum (xiphosurans, amphipods, isopods and detritus) and displacing S. splengleri of the inlet. The distribution of food resources was conditioned by the abundance and diversity of prey, as well as the adaptive response of each species. PMID:21250477

Palacios-Sánchez, Sonia Eugenia; Vega-Cendejas, María Eugenia

2010-12-01

252

The olfactory pathway mediates sheltering behavior of Caribbean spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, to conspecific urine signals.  

PubMed

The "noses" of diverse taxa are organized into different subsystems whose functions are often not well understood. The "nose" of decapod crustaceans is organized into two parallel pathways that originate in different populations of antennular sensilla and project to specific neuropils in the brain-the aesthetasc/olfactory lobe pathway and the non-aesthetasc/lateral antennular neuropil pathway. In this study, we investigated the role of these pathways in mediating shelter selection of Caribbean spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, in response to conspecific urine signals. We compared the behavior of ablated animals and intact controls. Our results show that control and non-aesthetasc ablated lobsters have a significant overall preference for shelters emanating urine over control shelters. Thus the non-aesthetasc pathway does not play a critical role in shelter selection. In contrast, spiny lobsters with aesthetascs ablated did not show a preference for either shelter, suggesting that the aesthetasc/olfactory pathway is important for processing social odors. Our results show a difference in the function of these dual chemosensory pathways in responding to social cues, with the aesthetasc/olfactory lobe pathway playing a major role. We discuss our results in the context of why the noses of many animals contain multiple parallel chemosensory systems. PMID:18057940

Horner, Amy J; Weissburg, Marc J; Derby, Charles D

2008-03-01

253

On the Brain of a Crustacean: A Morphological Analysis of CaMKII Expression and Its Relation to Sensory and Motor Pathways  

PubMed Central

Calcium/calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) is a Ca2+-activated enzyme that is abundant in vertebrate and invertebrate brains. However, its characterization is poorly addressed in the nervous system of crustaceans, and, to our knowledge, no studies have determined the microanatomical location of CaMKII in a crustacean species. In this study, we found labeling of CaMKII in the eyestalk and brain of the prawn Macrobrachium acanthurus, by means of immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Antibodies against neuron (ß tubulin III), glutamate receptor (GluA1), and FMRFamide were used in order to further characterize the CaMKII-labeled cells in the brain. In the eyestalk, strong labeling with CaMKII was observed in the photoreceptors. These cells, especially in the rhabdom, were also reactive to anti-ß tubulin III, whereas the pigment cells were labeled with anti-CaMKII. GluA1 co-located with CaMKII in the photoreceptors. Also, CaMKII appeared in the same sites as FMRFamide in the deutocerebrum, including the olfactory lobe, and in the tritocerebrum, specifically in the antennular neuropil, indicating that the synaptic areas in these regions may be related to sensory-motor processing. In the brain, the identification of cells and regions that express CaMKII contributes to the understanding of the processing of neural connections and the modulating role of CaMKII in decapod crustaceans. PMID:23741406

Ammar, Dib; Nazari, Evelise M.

2013-01-01

254

Loss of escape-related giant neurons in a spiny lobster, Panulirus argus.  

PubMed

When attacked, many decapod crustaceans perform tailflips, which are triggered by a neural circuit that includes lateral giant interneurons, medial giant interneurons, and fast flexor motor giant neurons (MoGs). Slipper lobsters (Scyllaridae) lack these giant neurons, and it has been hypothesized that behavioral (e.g., digging) and morphological (e.g., flattening and armor) specializations in this group caused the loss of escape-related giant neurons. To test this hypothesis, we examined a species of spiny lobster, Panulirus argus. Spiny lobsters belong to the sister taxon of the scyllarids, but they have a more crayfish-like morphology than scyllarids and were predicted to have escape-related giant neurons. Ventral nerve cords of P. argus were examined using paraffin-embedded sections and cobalt backfills. We found no escape-related giant neurons and no large axon profiles in the dorsal region of the nerve cord of P. argus. Cobalt backfills showed one fewer fast flexor motor neuron than in species with MoGs and none of the fast flexor motor neurons show any of the anatomical specializations of MoGs. This suggests that all palinuran species lack this giant escape circuit, and that the loss of rapid escape behavior preceded, and may have driven, alternative predator avoidance and anti-predator strategies in palinurans. PMID:17179382

Espinoza, Sandra Y; Breen, Lana; Varghese, Nisha; Faulkes, Zen

2006-12-01

255

Ultrastructure and functional organization of mouthpart sensory setae of the spiny lobster Panulirus argus: new features of putative mechanoreceptors.  

PubMed

In comparison with other decapods, the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus has little diversity in the external morphology of the setae on the mouth apparatus. In mouthpart areas that frequently touch food items only two types of setae can be distinguished: simple setae and cuspidate setae. Simple setae are by far more numerous. The ultrastructural data presented here show that both types of seta are bimodal, in that they both contain mechano- and chemosensory cells as indicated by morphological features. The morphological features divide the sensory cells into three types: type 1, which has a mechanosensory appearance; type 2, which has a chemosensory appearance; and type 3, which is believed to be a mechanoreceptor due to desmosomal connections to a scolopale. All three cell types were found in all examined setae. In an earlier study the simple setae were found to contain two types of mechanosensors: bend-sensitive cells and displacement-sensitive cells. The morphological arrangement of the outer dendritic segment described in the present study cannot explain this division. Instead, it is suggested that the difference in sensitivity is caused by a differential arrangement of their stretch-sensitive ion channels. This hypothesis also provides an explanation for the earlier observation that only bend cells respond to changes in osmolarity. PMID:16425272

Garm, Anders; Høeg, Jens T

2006-04-01

256

Spiny lobsters detect conspecific blood-borne alarm cues exclusively through olfactory sensilla.  

PubMed

When attacked by predators, diverse animals actively or passively release molecules that evoke alarm and related anti-predatory behavior by nearby conspecifics. The actively released molecules are alarm pheromones, whereas the passively released molecules are alarm cues. For example, many insects have alarm-signaling systems that involve active release of alarm pheromones from specialized glands and detection of these signals using specific sensors. Many crustaceans passively release alarm cues, but the nature of the cues, sensors and responses is poorly characterized. Here we show in laboratory and field experiments that injured Caribbean spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, passively release alarm cues via blood (hemolymph) that induce alarm responses in the form of avoidance and suppression of feeding. These cues are detected exclusively through specific olfactory chemosensors, the aesthetasc sensilla. The alarm cues for Caribbean spiny lobsters are not unique to the species but do show some phylogenetic specificity: P. argus responds primarily with alarm behavior to conspecific blood, but with mixed alarm and appetitive behaviors to blood from the congener Panulirus interruptus, or with appetitive behaviors to blood from the blue crab Callinectes sapidus. This study lays the foundation for future neuroethological studies of alarm cue systems in this and other decapod crustaceans. PMID:18689413

Shabani, Shkelzen; Kamio, Michiya; Derby, Charles D

2008-08-01

257

Transmission of Panulirus argus virus 1 (PaV1) and its effect on the survival of juvenile Caribbean spiny lobster.  

PubMed

The Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus, an important fisheries species, is host to Panulirus argus virus 1 (PaV1), a lethal, unclassified virus--the first found in any species of lobster--prevalent in juvenile lobsters. We describe a series of laboratory experiments aimed at assessing the likely modes of disease transmission, determining the survival of lobsters relative to each transmission pathway and identifying potential alternate hosts. Given evidence for lower prevalence of PaV1 in large lobsters, the effect of lobster size on susceptibility was also examined. Results demonstrated that PaV1 can be transmitted to juvenile lobsters via inoculation, ingestion of diseased tissue, contact with diseased lobsters and--among the smallest juveniles--through water over distances of a few meters. Contact and waterborne transmission, the most likely modes of transmission in the wild, were less efficient than inoculation or ingestion. Nevertheless, about half of the smallest lobsters in contact and waterborne trials contracted the disease and died within 3 mo. Other decapods that co-occur with P. argus (e.g. spotted lobster P. guttatus, stone crab Menippe mercenaria, channel crab Mithrax spinosissimus) did not acquire the disease after inoculation with PaV1-infected hemolymph. Our results confirmed that PaV1 is highly infectious and lethal to juvenile P. argus, particularly early benthic juveniles in the wild, and, hence, is a threat to mariculture. PMID:18589993

Butler, Mark J; Behringer, Donald C; Shields, Jeffrey D

2008-05-01

258

Selective ablation of antennular sensilla on the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus suggests that dual antennular chemosensory pathways mediate odorant activation of searching and localization of food.  

PubMed

In spiny lobsters and other decapod crustaceans, odorant-mediated searching behavior patterns are driven primarily by chemosensory neurons in the antennules. Two groups of antennular chemosensory neurons can be distinguished on the basis of the sensilla that they innervate and their central projections: those that innervate the aesthetasc sensilla on the lateral flagella and project into the glomerularly organized olfactory lobes, and those that innervate other (i.e. non-aesthetasc) sensilla on both lateral and medial flagella and project into the stratified and non-glomerularly organized lateral antennular neuropils. By ablating different groups of antennular sensory neurons or sensilla, we examined the role of aesthetasc and non-aesthetasc chemosensory neurons in regulating local searching behavior of Caribbean spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, for food (squid) in a low-flow environment. The results show that odorant-mediated activation of searching and localization of food under these conditions requires only a subset of functional antennular chemosensory neurons, since neither aesthetasc chemosensory neurons nor non-aesthetasc chemosensory neurons are by themselves necessary for these types of behavior. However, ablation of aesthetasc chemosensory neurons together with subsets of non-aesthetasc chemosensory neurons from either the medial or lateral flagella impairs the ability of lobsters to locate the food. This reveals a large degree of functional redundancy but also some complementary functions between aesthetasc and non-aesthetasc chemosensory neurons, and hence between these dual antennular chemosensory pathways, in odorant-mediated searching behavior of lobsters under these conditions. PMID:11815650

Steullet, P; Dudar, O; Flavus, T; Zhou, M; Derby, C D

2001-12-01

259

Fine-Scale Distribution and Spatial Variability of Benthic Invertebrate Larvae in an Open Coastal Embayment in Nova Scotia, Canada  

PubMed Central

This study quantified the fine- scale (0.5 km) of variability in the horizontal distributions of benthic invertebrate larvae and related this variability to that in physical and biological variables, such as density, temperature, salinity, fluorescence and current velocity. Larvae were sampled in contiguous 500-m transects along two perpendicular 10-km transects with a 200-µm plankton ring net (0.75-m diameter) in St. George’s Bay, Nova Scotia, Canada, in Aug 2009. Temperature, conductivity, pressure and fluorescence were measured with a CTD cast at each station, and currents were measured with an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler moored at the intersection of the 2 transects. Gastropod, bivalve and, to a lesser extent, bryozoan larvae had very similar spatial distributions, but the distribution of decapod larvae had a different pattern. These findings suggest that taxonomic groups with functionally similar larvae have similar dispersive properties such as distribution and spatial variability, while the opposite is true for groups with functionally dissimilar larvae. The spatial variability in larval distributions was anisotropic and matched the temporal/spatial variability in the current velocity. We postulate that in a system with no strong oceanographic features, the scale of spatially coherent physical forcing (e.g. tidal periodicity) can regulate the formation or maintenance of larval patches; however, swimming ability may modulate it. PMID:25153075

Daigle, Rémi M.; Metaxas, Anna; deYoung, Brad

2014-01-01

260

Purification and partial characterization of the plasma clotting protein from the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis.  

PubMed

A clotting protein (CP) was purified from the plasma of the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis by sequential anion-exchange chromatography. The shrimp CP was able to form stable clots in vitro in the presence of hemocyte lysate and Ca2+, suggesting that the clotting reaction is catalyzed by a Ca2+-dependent transglutaminase present in shrimp hemocytes. Dansylcadaverine was incorporated into the shrimp CP in the presence of endogenous transglutaminase (hemocyte lysate), confirming that the shrimp purified CP is the substrate for the transglutaminase enzyme. The molecular mass of the CP was determined by gel filtration to be 341 kDa and 170 kDa by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions. These results suggest that the shrimp CP consists of two identical subunits, covalently linked by disulphide bonds. The amino acid sequence at the N-terminus was 100% identical to that of the penaeids Litopenaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon and 66% to 80% identical to the CPs of other decapods. This is the first report of a CP characterization in an Atlantic penaeid species. Further studies, including a molecular cloning approach would enable to detect which tissues express the gene of the clotting protein. It would be also useful to understand the mechanism by which the coagulation time is delayed in shrimps under stress conditions. PMID:16153866

Perazzolo, Luciane M; Lorenzini, Daniel M; Daffre, Sirlei; Barracco, Margherita A

2005-11-01

261

Evolution of the central complex in the arthropod brain with respect to the visual system.  

PubMed

Modular midline neuropils, termed arcuate body (Chelicerata, Onychophora) or central body (Myriapoda, Crustacea, Insecta), are a prominent feature of the arthropod brain. In insects and crayfish, the central body is connected to a second midline-spanning neuropil, the protocerebral bridge. Both structures are collectively termed central complex. While some investigators have assumed that central and arcuate bodies are homologous, others have questioned this view. Stimulated by recent evidence for a role of the central complex in polarization vision and object recognition, the architectures of midline neuropils and their associations with the visual system were compared across panarthropods. In chelicerates and onychophorans, second-order neuropils subserving the median eyes are associated with the arcuate body. The central complex of decapods and insects, instead, receives indirect input from the lateral (compound) eye visual system, and connections with median eye (ocellar) projections are present. Together with other characters these data are consistent with a common origin of arcuate bodies and central complexes from an ancestral modular midline neuropil but, depending on the choice of characters, the protocerebral bridge or the central body shows closer affinity with the arcuate body. A possible common role of midline neuropils in azimuth-dependent sensory and motor tasks is discussed. PMID:18502176

Homberg, Uwe

2008-09-01

262

Ecological effects of ocean acidification and habitat complexity on reef-associated macroinvertebrate communities.  

PubMed

The ecological effects of ocean acidification (OA) from rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) on benthic marine communities are largely unknown. We investigated in situ the consequences of long-term exposure to high CO2 on coral-reef-associated macroinvertebrate communities around three shallow volcanic CO2 seeps in Papua New Guinea. The densities of many groups and the number of taxa (classes and phyla) of macroinvertebrates were significantly reduced at elevated CO2 (425-1100 µatm) compared with control sites. However, sensitivities of some groups, including decapod crustaceans, ascidians and several echinoderms, contrasted with predictions of their physiological CO2 tolerances derived from laboratory experiments. High CO2 reduced the availability of structurally complex corals that are essential refugia for many reef-associated macroinvertebrates. This loss of habitat complexity was also associated with losses in many macroinvertebrate groups, especially predation-prone mobile taxa, including crustaceans and crinoids. The transition from living to dead coral as substratum and habitat further altered macroinvertebrate communities, with far more taxa losing than gaining in numbers. Our study shows that indirect ecological effects of OA (reduced habitat complexity) will complement its direct physiological effects and together with the loss of coral cover through climate change will severely affect macroinvertebrate communities in coral reefs. PMID:24307670

Fabricius, K E; De'ath, G; Noonan, S; Uthicke, S

2014-01-22

263

Bait-attending fauna of the Kermadec Trench, SW Pacific Ocean: Evidence for an ecotone across the abyssal-hadal transition zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bait-attending fauna of the abyssal-hadal transition zone of the Kermadec Trench, SW Pacific Ocean (4329-7966 m), was investigated using a baited camera and a trap lander. The abyssal stations (4329-6007 m) revealed a typical scavenging fish community comprising macrourids and synaphobranchid eels, as well as natantian decapods. At the hadal depths of 7199 and 7561 m, the endemic liparid Notoliparis kermadecensis was observed aggregating at the bait reaching surprisingly high numbers of 5 and 13, respectively. A total of 3183 invertebrate samples were collected (mean deployment time=16 h) of which 97.8% were of the order Amphipoda (nine families, 16 species). Ten of the amphipod species represent new distributional records for the Kermadec Trench and the New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone; this includes the shallowest known record of the endemic hadal amphipod Hirondellea dubia (6000, 6007 m). Using amphipods to statistically examine the compositional change across the abyssal-hadal boundary, an ecotone between depths <6007 and >6890 m was found, indicating that there is an ecologically distinct bait-attending fauna in this trench.

Jamieson, A. J.; Kilgallen, N. M.; Rowden, A. A.; Fujii, T.; Horton, T.; Lörz, A.-N.; Kitazawa, K.; Priede, I. G.

2011-01-01

264

Rapid scavenging of jellyfish carcasses reveals the importance of gelatinous material to deep-sea food webs.  

PubMed

Jellyfish blooms are common in many oceans, and anthropogenic changes appear to have increased their magnitude in some regions. Although mass falls of jellyfish carcasses have been observed recently at the deep seafloor, the dense necrophage aggregations and rapid consumption rates typical for vertebrate carrion have not been documented. This has led to a paradigm of limited energy transfer to higher trophic levels at jelly falls relative to vertebrate organic falls. We show from baited camera deployments in the Norwegian deep sea that dense aggregations of deep-sea scavengers (more than 1000 animals at peak densities) can rapidly form at jellyfish baits and consume entire jellyfish carcasses in 2.5 h. We also show that scavenging rates on jellyfish are not significantly different from fish carrion of similar mass, and reveal that scavenging communities typical for the NE Atlantic bathyal zone, including the Atlantic hagfish, galatheid crabs, decapod shrimp and lyssianasid amphipods, consume both types of carcasses. These rapid jellyfish carrion consumption rates suggest that the contribution of gelatinous material to organic fluxes may be seriously underestimated in some regions, because jelly falls may disappear much more rapidly than previously thought. Our results also demonstrate that the energy contained in gelatinous carrion can be efficiently incorporated into large numbers of deep-sea scavengers and food webs, lessening the expected impacts (e.g. smothering of the seafloor) of enhanced jellyfish production on deep-sea ecosystems and pelagic-benthic coupling. PMID:25320167

Sweetman, Andrew K; Smith, Craig R; Dale, Trine; Jones, Daniel O B

2014-12-01

265

Ichnofabrics of the Capdevila Formation (early Eocene) in the Los Palacios Basin (western Cuba): Paleoenvironmental and paleoecological implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ichnofabrics present in the early Eocene siliciclastic deposits of the Capdevila Formation exposed in the Pinar del Rio area (Los Palacios Basin, western Cuba) are analyzed in this paper and their paleoecological and paleoenvironmental significance are discussed. Nine ichnofabrics were recognized in the dominantly sandy sedimentary succession: Ophiomorpha, Asterosoma, Thalassinoides, Palaeophycus, Scolicia, Bichordites-Thalassinoides, Rhizocorallium, Scolicia-Thalassinoides and rhizobioturbation. Diversity of ichnofauna is low and burrows made by detritus-feeding organisms in well oxygenated and stenohaline waters predominate. Suites of the Cruziana and Skolithos Ichnofacies lacking their archetypical characteristics were recognized, being impoverished in diversity and presenting dominance of echinoderm and decapods crustacean burrows as a response to the environmental stress caused by the high frequency of deposition. The ichnofabric distribution in the studied succession, its recurrence in the sandstone beds and the presence of a Glossifungites Ichnofacies suite with rhizobioturbation associated reflect a shoaling-upward event with subaerial exposure of the substrate. The integrated analysis of the ichnology and the sedimentary facies suggests deposition in a shallow slope frequently impacted by gravitational flows and high-energy events. The evidence of substrate exposure indicates the occurrence of a forced regression and suggests the existence of a sequence boundary at the top of the Capdevila Formation.

Villegas-Martín, Jorge; Netto, Renata Guimarães; Lavina, Ernesto Luis Correa; Rojas-Consuegra, Reinaldo

2014-12-01

266

The timing and pattern of biotic recovery following the end-Permian mass extinction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aftermath of the great end-Permian period mass extinction 252 Myr ago shows how life can recover from the loss of >90% species globally. The crisis was triggered by a number of physical environmental shocks (global warming, acid rain, ocean acidification and ocean anoxia), and some of these were repeated over the next 5-6 Myr. Ammonoids and some other groups diversified rapidly, within 1-3 Myr, but extinctions continued through the Early Triassic period. Triassic ecosystems were rebuilt stepwise from low to high trophic levels through the Early to Middle Triassic, and a stable, complex ecosystem did not re-emerge until the beginning of the Middle Triassic, 8-9 Myr after the crisis. A positive aspect of the recovery was the emergence of entirely new groups, such as marine reptiles and decapod crustaceans, as well as new tetrapods on land, including -- eventually -- dinosaurs. The stepwise recovery of life in the Triassic could have been delayed either by biotic drivers (complex multispecies interactions) or physical perturbations, or a combination of both. This is an example of the wider debate about the relative roles of intrinsic and extrinsic drivers of large-scale evolution.

Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Benton, Michael J.

2012-06-01

267

Catastrophic extinctions follow deforestation in Singapore.  

PubMed

The looming mass extinction of biodiversity in the humid tropics is a major concern for the future, yet most reports of extinctions in these regions are anecdotal or conjectural, with a scarcity of robust, broad-based empirical data. Here we report on local extinctions among a wide range of terrestrial and freshwater taxa from Singapore (540 km2) in relation to habitat loss exceeding 95% over 183 years. Substantial rates of documented and inferred extinctions were found, especially for forest specialists, with the greatest proportion of extinct taxa (34-87%) in butterflies, fish, birds and mammals. Observed extinctions were generally fewer, but inferred losses often higher, in vascular plants, phasmids, decapods, amphibians and reptiles (5-80%). Forest reserves comprising only 0.25% of Singapore's area now harbour over 50% of the residual native biodiversity. Extrapolations of the observed and inferred local extinction data, using a calibrated species-area model, imply that the current unprecedented rate of habitat destruction in Southeast Asia will result in the loss of 13-42% of regional populations over the next century, at least half of which will represent global species extinctions. PMID:12879068

Brook, Barry W; Sodhi, Navjot S; Ng, Peter K L

2003-07-24

268

Seasonal habitat-use patterns of nekton in a tide-restricted and unrestricted New England salt marsh  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many New England salt marshes remain tide-restricted or are undergoing tidal restoration. Hydrologic manipulation of salt marshes affects marsh biogeochemistry and vegetation patterns, but responses by fishes and decapod crustaceans (nekton) remain unclear, This study examines nekton habitat-use patterns in the tide-restricted Hatches Harbor salt marsh (Provincetown, Massachusetts) relative to a downstream, unrestricted marsh. Nekton assemblages were sampled in tidal creek, marsh pool, and salt marsh surface habitats. Pools and creeks were sampled every two weeks for one year to account for seasonal variability, and the marsh surface was sampled at two-week intervals in summer and fall. Density, richness, and community composition of nekton in creek and marsh surface habitats were similar between the unrestricted and restricted marsh, but use of pools differed drastically on the two sides of the tide-restricting dike. In 95% of the cases tested, restricted marsh habitats provided equal or greater habitat value for nekton than the same habitat in the unrestricted marsh (based on density), suggesting that the restricted marsh did not provide a degraded habitat for most species. For some species, the restricted marsh provided nursery, breeding, and overwintering habitat during different seasons, and tidal restoration of this salt marsh must be approached with care to prevent losses of these valuable marsh functions.

Raposa, K.B.; Roman, C.T.

2001-01-01

269

A KINETIC STUDY OF DNA AND BASIC PROTEIN METABOLISM DURING SPERMATOGENESIS IN THE SAND CRAB, EMERITA ANALOGA  

PubMed Central

Cytochemical and radioautographic techniques define and confirm a staging scheme for developing spermatids of the decapod crab, Emerita analoga. Quantitative photometric data demonstrate that developing spermatids lose a significant proportion of their nuclear proteins, as evidenced by diminishing binding of fluorodinitrobenzene. Photometric results also show that much (but not all) of the spermatid nuclear protein loss is in somatic-type histone, as evidenced by a dramatic fall in the histone/DNA ratio of these cells during a period in which nuclear DNA content remains constant. By the end of spermiogenesis, the sperm nuclear histone and protamine content is approximately zero, whereas some nonbasic protein persists. Loss of spermatid nuclear somatic-type histone is not accompanied by synthesis of gamete-type histone (e.g. protamine or arginine-rich histone), showing that the processes of displacement and synthesis of nuclear basic proteins during histone transition are not subject to obligatory coupling. Labeling studies suggest that nonbasic acrosomal proteins (presumably partly enzymes) are synthesized in the cytoplasm, after which they move into the acrosome. Stainable basic proteins accumulate in the acrosome during precisely the period of nuclear somatic histone loss, suggesting nuclear-cytoplasmic transfer. PMID:4109924

Vaughn, Jack C.; Thomson, Lillian A.

1972-01-01

270

Ecology of irregularly flooded salt marshes of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico: a community profile  

SciTech Connect

The salt marshes of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico are distinguished by irregular flooding, low energy wave and tidal action, and long periods of exposure. The plant community is most often dominated by black needlerush (Juncus roemerianus), the species of focus in this synthesis. Distinct marsh zones include those dominated by Juncus and Spartina alterniflora at low elevations, sparsely vegetated salt flats, and higher elevation salt meadows of Juncus and Spartina patens. A diverse microbial and algal assemblage is also present. A diverse fauna has adapted to the physical rigors of these marshes. Zooplankton are dominated by the larvae of fiddler crabs and other decapods. The meiofauna consist primarily of nematodes and harpacticoid copepods. Macroinvertebrates are represented by crustaceans (especially mollusks and crabs), annelids, and insects. Grass shrimp, blue crabs, and other crustaceans are seasonally abundant in marsh creeks, as are a number of resident and migratory fish species. Birds comprise one of the larger herbivore groups and are also significant at higher tropic levels as top carnivores. Muskrat and nutria are important mammals. 43 figs., 38 tabs.

Stout, J.P.

1984-12-01

271

Global Diversity and Phylogeny of Pelagic Shrimps of the Former Genera Sergestes and Sergia (Crustacea, Dendrobranchiata, Sergestidae), with Definition of Eight New Genera  

PubMed Central

We revise the global diversity of the former genera Sergia and Sergestes which include 71 valid species. The revision is based on examination of more than 37,000 specimens from collections in the Natural History Museum of Denmark and the Museum of Natural History, Paris. We used 72 morphological characters (61 binary, 11 multistate) and Sicyonella antennata as an outgroup for cladistic analysis. There is no support for the genera Sergia and Sergestes as they have been defined until now. We define and diagnose eight genera of the former genus Sergia (Sergia and new genera Gardinerosergia, Phorcosergia, Prehensilosergia, Robustosergia, Scintillosergia, Challengerosergia, and Lucensosergia) and seven genera of the former genus Sergestes (Sergestes, Deosergestes, Eusergestes, Allosergestes, Parasergestes, Neosergestes, and a new genus Cornutosergestes). An identification key is presented for all genera of the family Sergestidae. The phylogeny of Sergestidae is mainly based on three categories of characters related to: (1) general decapod morphology, (2) male copulatory organs, and (3) photophores. Only simultaneous use of all three character types resulted in a resolved tree with minimal Bootstrap support 75 for each clade. Most genera are interzonal mesopelagic migrants, some are benthopelagic (Scintillosergia, Lucensosergia), bathypelagic (Sergia), or epipelagic (Cornutosergestes). Within each of meso- and benthopelagic genera there is one species with panoceanic distribution, while most species ranges are restricted to a single ocean. The genera demonstrate two different strategies expressed both in morphology and behavior: protective (Eusergestes, Sergestes, Cornutosergestes, Prehensilosergia, Scintillosergia, Lucensosergia, Challengerosergia, Gardinerosergia, Robustosergia, Phorcosergia, Sergia) and offensive (Neosergestes, Parasergestes, Allosergestes, Deosergestes). PMID:25409458

Vereshchaka, Alexander L.; Olesen, Jørgen; Lunina, Anastasia A.

2014-01-01

272

Eukaryote DIRS1-like retrotransposons: an overview  

PubMed Central

Background DIRS1-like elements compose one superfamily of tyrosine recombinase-encoding retrotransposons. They have been previously reported in only a few diverse eukaryote species, describing a patchy distribution, and little is known about their origin and dynamics. Recently, we have shown that these retrotransposons are common among decapods, which calls into question the distribution of DIRS1-like retrotransposons among eukaryotes. Results To determine the distribution of DIRS1-like retrotransposons, we developed a new computational tool, ReDoSt, which allows us to identify well-conserved DIRS1-like elements. By screening 274 completely sequenced genomes, we identified more than 4000 DIRS1-like copies distributed among 30 diverse species which can be clustered into roughly 300 families. While the diversity in most species appears restricted to a low copy number, a few bursts of transposition are strongly suggested in certain species, such as Danio rerio and Saccoglossus kowalevskii. Conclusion In this study, we report 14 new species and 8 new higher taxa that were not previously known to harbor DIRS1-like retrotransposons. Now reported in 61 species, these elements appear widely distributed among eukaryotes, even if they remain undetected in streptophytes and mammals. Especially in unikonts, a broad range of taxa from Cnidaria to Sauropsida harbors such elements. Both the distribution and the similarities between the DIRS1-like element phylogeny and conventional phylogenies of the host species suggest that DIRS1-like retrotransposons emerged early during the radiation of eukaryotes. PMID:22185659

2011-01-01

273

Dancing for food in the deep sea: bacterial farming by a new species of Yeti crab.  

PubMed

Vent and seep animals harness chemosynthetic energy to thrive far from the sun's energy. While symbiont-derived energy fuels many taxa, vent crustaceans have remained an enigma; these shrimps, crabs, and barnacles possess a phylogenetically distinct group of chemosynthetic bacterial epibionts, yet the role of these bacteria has remained unclear. We test whether a new species of Yeti crab, which we describe as Kiwa puravida n. sp, farms the epibiotic bacteria that it grows on its chelipeds (claws), chelipeds that the crab waves in fluid escaping from a deep-sea methane seep. Lipid and isotope analyses provide evidence that epibiotic bacteria are the crab's main food source and K. puravida n. sp. has highly-modified setae (hairs) on its 3(rd) maxilliped (a mouth appendage) which it uses to harvest these bacteria. The ?- and ?- proteobacteria that this methane-seep species farms are closely related to hydrothermal-vent decapod epibionts. We hypothesize that this species waves its arm in reducing fluid to increase the productivity of its epibionts by removing boundary layers which may otherwise limit carbon fixation. The discovery of this new species, only the second within a family described in 2005, stresses how much remains undiscovered on our continental margins. PMID:22140426

Thurber, Andrew R; Jones, William J; Schnabel, Kareen

2011-01-01

274

Dancing for Food in the Deep Sea: Bacterial Farming by a New Species of Yeti Crab  

PubMed Central

Vent and seep animals harness chemosynthetic energy to thrive far from the sun's energy. While symbiont-derived energy fuels many taxa, vent crustaceans have remained an enigma; these shrimps, crabs, and barnacles possess a phylogenetically distinct group of chemosynthetic bacterial epibionts, yet the role of these bacteria has remained unclear. We test whether a new species of Yeti crab, which we describe as Kiwa puravida n. sp, farms the epibiotic bacteria that it grows on its chelipeds (claws), chelipeds that the crab waves in fluid escaping from a deep-sea methane seep. Lipid and isotope analyses provide evidence that epibiotic bacteria are the crab's main food source and K. puravida n. sp. has highly-modified setae (hairs) on its 3rd maxilliped (a mouth appendage) which it uses to harvest these bacteria. The ?- and ?- proteobacteria that this methane-seep species farms are closely related to hydrothermal-vent decapod epibionts. We hypothesize that this species waves its arm in reducing fluid to increase the productivity of its epibionts by removing boundary layers which may otherwise limit carbon fixation. The discovery of this new species, only the second within a family described in 2005, stresses how much remains undiscovered on our continental margins. PMID:22140426

Thurber, Andrew R.; Jones, William J.; Schnabel, Kareen

2011-01-01

275

Biological clocks and rhythms in intertidal crustaceans.  

PubMed

Animals with habitats within the intertidal zone are exposed to environmental cycles that include the ebb and flow of tidal waters, changes in tidal levels associated with the lunar month, the light-dark cycle and the alternation of seasons. This intricate temporal environment results in the selection of biological timing systems with endogenous clocks that can oscillate with this wide range of periodicities. Whereas great progress has been made in our understanding of the molecular and neural bases of circadian rhythms, that is, endogenous rhythms synchronized to the solar day, there is little understanding on how circatidal rhythms, namely endogenous rhythms synchronized to tides, are generated. Intertidal crustaceans have been a pivotal group for the demonstration of the endogenous nature of circatidal rhythms and their mechanisms of entrainment. We review here some of the classic work using intertidal crustaceans to unmask basic properties of circatidal systems, as well as work from our laboratory that aims to identify putative chemical signals that could be involved in the circatidal systems of decapod crustaceans. PMID:20515812

de la Iglesia, Horacio O; Hsu, Yun-Wei A

2010-01-01

276

Ecological effects of ocean acidification and habitat complexity on reef-associated macroinvertebrate communities  

PubMed Central

The ecological effects of ocean acidification (OA) from rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) on benthic marine communities are largely unknown. We investigated in situ the consequences of long-term exposure to high CO2 on coral-reef-associated macroinvertebrate communities around three shallow volcanic CO2 seeps in Papua New Guinea. The densities of many groups and the number of taxa (classes and phyla) of macroinvertebrates were significantly reduced at elevated CO2 (425–1100 µatm) compared with control sites. However, sensitivities of some groups, including decapod crustaceans, ascidians and several echinoderms, contrasted with predictions of their physiological CO2 tolerances derived from laboratory experiments. High CO2 reduced the availability of structurally complex corals that are essential refugia for many reef-associated macroinvertebrates. This loss of habitat complexity was also associated with losses in many macroinvertebrate groups, especially predation-prone mobile taxa, including crustaceans and crinoids. The transition from living to dead coral as substratum and habitat further altered macroinvertebrate communities, with far more taxa losing than gaining in numbers. Our study shows that indirect ecological effects of OA (reduced habitat complexity) will complement its direct physiological effects and together with the loss of coral cover through climate change will severely affect macroinvertebrate communities in coral reefs. PMID:24307670

Fabricius, K. E.; De'ath, G.; Noonan, S.; Uthicke, S.

2014-01-01

277

COMBINING MICRODIALYSIS, NANOLC-MS, AND MALDI-TOF/TOF TO DETECT NEUROPEPTIDES SECRETED IN THE CRAB, CANCER BOREALIS  

PubMed Central

Microdialysis is a useful technique for sampling neuropeptides in vivo and decapod crustaceans are important model organisms for studying how these peptides regulate physiological processes. However, to date no microdialysis procedure has been reported for sampling neuropeptides from crustaceans. Here we report the first application of microdialysis to sample neuropeptides from the hemolymph of the crab, Cancer borealis. Microdialysis probes were implanted into the pericardial region of live crabs and the resulting dialysates were desalted, concentrated, and analyzed by LC-ESI-QTOF and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Analysis of in vitro microdialysates of hemolymph revealed more neuropeptides and fewer protein fragments than hemolymph prepared by typical analysis methods. Mass spectra of in vivo dialysates displayed neuropeptides from ten peptide families, including the RFamide, allatostatin, and orcokinin families. In addition, GAHKNYLRFa, SDRNFLRFa, and TNRNFLRFa were sequenced from hemolymph dialysates. The detection of these neuropeptides in the hemolymph suggests that they are functioning as hormones as well as neuromodulators. In vivo microdialysis offers the capability to further study these and other neuropeptides in crustacean hemolymph, complementing current tissue-based studies and extending our knowledge of hormonal regulation of physiological states. PMID:18700782

Behrens, Heidi L.; Chen, Ruibing; Li, Lingjun

2008-01-01

278

Distribution of serotonin and dopamine in the central nervous system of the female mud crab, Scylla olivacea (Herbst).  

PubMed

In crustaceans serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) are neurotransmitters that play roles in the modulation of numerous physiological functions, including reproduction. However, in the mud crab, Scylla olivacea, the distributions of 5-HT and DA in the CNS have not yet been investigated. The aim of our study was to map the distributions of these two neurotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNS) of the female of this crab during the late stage of ovarian development. We found 5-HT immunoreactivity (-ir) and DA-ir in many parts of the CNS, including the eyestalk, brain, and thoracic ganglia. In the eyestalk, 5-HT-ir was localized in the medulla terminalis (MT), hemi-ellipsoid body (HB), and protocerebral tract (PT), whereas DA-ir was present in neuronal cluster 1, the LG neuropils, and PT. In the brain, 5-HT-ir and DA-ir were detected in cells and fibers of neuronal clusters 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, and 15. In the ventral nerve cord, 5-HT-ir was present in neurons of the abdominal ganglia, whereas DA was only present in fibers. These spatial distributions of 5-HT and DA suggest that they may be involved in the neuromodulation of important physiological functions, including ovarian maturation, as shown in other non-crab decapods. PMID:25618422

Khornchatri, Kanjana; Kornthong, Napamanee; Saetan, Jirawat; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Cummins, Scott F; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert

2015-03-01

279

Regulation of muscular contraction. Distribution of actin control and myosin control in the animal kingdom  

PubMed Central

The control systems regulating muscle contraction in approximately 100 organisms have been categorized. Both myosin control and actin control operate simultaneously in the majority of invertebrates tested. These include insects, chelicerates, most crustaceans, annelids, priapulids, nematodes, and some sipunculids. Single myosin control is present in the muscles of molluscs, brachiopods, echinoderms, echiuroids, and nemertine worms. Single actin control was found in the fast muscles of decapods, in mysidacea, in a single sipunculid species, and in vertebrate striated muscles. Classification is based on functional tests that include measurements of the calcium dependence of the actomyosin ATPase activity in the presence and the absence of purified rabbit actin and myosin. In addition, isolated thin filaments and myosins were also analyzed. Molluscs lack actin control since troponin is not present in sufficient quantities. Even though the functional tests indicate the complete lack of myosin control in vertebrate striated muscle, it is difficult to exclude unambiguously the in vivo existence of this regulation. Both control systems have been found in animals from phyla which evolved early. We cannot ascribe any simple correlation between ATPase activity, muscle structure, and regulatory mechanisms. PMID:125778

1975-01-01

280

The nature and extent of organisms in vessel sea-chests: A protected mechanism for marine bioinvasions.  

PubMed

A total of 150 different organisms, including one plant species and 12 animal phyla were identified from sea-chests of 42 vessels visiting or operating in New Zealand between May 2000 and November 2004. Forty-nine percent of organisms were sessile, 42% mobile adults and the remaining 9% sedentary. Decapods were the most represented group with 19 species present among 79% of vessels. Forty percent of organisms were indigenous to New Zealand, 15% introduced, 10% non-indigenous, and 35% of unknown origin. Sea-chests have the potential to (1) transfer non-indigenous organisms between countries across oceanic boundaries; and (2) disperse both indigenous and introduced organisms domestically. The occurrence of adult mobile organisms is particularly significant and indicates that sea-chests may be of greater importance than ballast water or hull fouling for dispersing certain marine species. These findings emphasise the need to assess and manage biosecurity risks for entire vessels rather than different mechanisms (i.e., ballast water, hull fouling, sea-chests, etc.) in isolation. PMID:17498747

Coutts, Ashley D M; Dodgshun, Tim J

2007-07-01

281

Diet composition of Bathylagus euryops (Osmeriformes: Bathylagidae) along the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge, from Iceland to the Azores (MAR), is the largest topographical feature in the Atlantic Ocean. Despite its size, few studies have described dietary patterns of pelagic fishes along the MAR. MAR-ECO, a Census of Marine Life field project, aimed to describe the food web structure of abundant fish species along the ridge through a series of research expeditions to the MAR. Among the midwater fishes sampled during the MAR-ECO project, Bathylagus euryops (Osmeriformes: Bathylagidae) was the biomass-dominant pelagic species and ranked third in total abundance. In this paper, we describe the dietary composition of B. euryops along the MAR. Overall, copepods represented the dominant prey group consumed by B. euryops. Multivariate analyses, including a cluster analysis and a canonical correspondence analysis, revealed that fish size significantly influenced the diet of B. euryops with ostracods representing the most important prey group at small sizes (<95 mm) and decapod shrimp and calanoid copepods becoming more important with increasing fish size. Due to the high abundance and biomass observed along the MAR combined with its role as a link for energy transfer between zooplankton and higher trophic level predators, B. euryops appears to be an ecologically important species in the oceanic food web of the North Atlantic Ocean.

Sweetman, C. J.; Sutton, T. T.; Vecchione, M.; Latour, R. J.

2014-10-01

282

Purification and identification of a clotting protein from the hemolymph of Chinese shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The clotting protein (CP) plays important and diverse roles in crustaceans, such as coagulation and lipid transportation. A clotting protein was purified from the hemolymph of Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis (named as Fc-CP) with Q sepharose HP anion-exchange chromatography and phenyl sepharose HP hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Fc-CP was able to form stable clots in vitro in the presence of hemocyte lysate and Ca2+, suggesting that the clotting reaction is catalyzed by a Ca2+-dependent transglutaminase in shrimp hemocytes. The molecular mass of Fc-CP was 380 kDa under non-reducing conditions and 190 kDa under reducing conditions as was determined with SDS-PAGE. CP exists as disulfide-linked homodimers and oligomers. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of Fc-CP was identical to that of shrimps including Penaeus monodon, Farfantepenaeus paulensis and Litopenaeus vannamei; and similar to that of other decapods. The purified Fc-CP was digested with trypsin and verified on an ABI 4700 matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry. Our results will aid to better understanding the coagulation mechanism of shrimp hemolymph.

Wang, Baojie; Peng, Hongni; Liu, Mei; Jiang, Keyong; Zhang, Guofan; Wang, Lei

2013-09-01

283

Trypsin isozymes in the lobster Panulirus argus (Latreille, 1804): from molecules to physiology.  

PubMed

Trypsin enzymes have been studied in a wide variety of animal taxa due to their central role in protein digestion as well as in other important physiological and biotechnological processes. Crustacean trypsins exhibit a high number of isoforms. However, while differences in properties of isoenzymes are known to play important roles in regulating different physiological processes, there is little information on this aspect for decapod trypsins. The aim of this review is to integrate recent findings at the molecular level on trypsin enzymes of the spiny lobster Panulirus argus, into higher levels of organization (biochemical, organism) and to interpret those findings in relation to the feeding ecology of these crustaceans. Trypsin in lobster is a polymorphic enzyme, showing isoforms that differ in their biochemical features and catalytic efficiencies. Molecular studies suggest that polymorphism in lobster trypsins may be non-neutral. Trypsin isoenzymes are differentially regulated by dietary proteins, and it seems that some isoenzymes have undergone adaptive evolution coupled with a divergence in expression rate to increase fitness. This review highlights important but poorly studied issues in crustaceans in general, such as the relation among trypsin polymorphism, phenotypic (digestive) flexibility, digestion efficiency, and feeding ecology. PMID:25192870

Perera, Erick; Rodríguez-Viera, Leandro; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Montero-Alejo, Vivian; Moyano, Francisco Javier; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Mancera, Juan Miguel

2015-01-01

284

Tyrosine hydroxylase protein expression in ventral nerve cord of Neotropical freshwater crab.  

PubMed

Given the importance of catecholamines in coordinating physiological and behavioral responses in brachyurans, the present study was designed to investigate the distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive cells and fibers in the ventral nerve cord of Dilocarcinus pagei the Neotropical freshwater crab. TH immunoreactivity was visualized in adult crabs of both sexes, during the intermolt period. We found TH-positive cells that have not been previously described in brachyurans. Specifically, we found a pair of TH-positive cells in the ventral region of the thoracic ganglion, and in ventral and dorsal regions of the abdominal (pleonic) ganglion, suggesting catecholaminergic modulation of claws' function and abdominal structures. In addition, great population of TH-positive cells was observed in the subesophageal ganglion, indicating conservation during evolution of catecholamines in this ganglion of decapods. Dopamine is present in cells and fiber tracts of brachyuran ventral nerve cord, projecting to endocrine, cardiac and digestive structures, suggesting widespread modulation and control of physiological functions and behavior. Dopamine plays a central role in movement and psychiatric disorders in humans. Information on dopaminergic function in the nervous system of invertebrates should improve the understanding of its function in more complex systems, such as human beings. PMID:25217291

Ponzoni, Silvia

2014-12-01

285

Seasonal dynamics of the density of the crab larvae (Decapoda: Brachyura et Anomura) in Minonosok Bay of Pos'eta Bay (Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the materials for this project, we used data on the distribution of the larvae of the Asian paddle crab Charybdis japonicus (A. Milne-Edwards, 1861); the spider crabs Hyas coarctatus ursinus (= Hyas ursinus) (Rathbun, 1924), Pugettia quadridens (de Haan, 1839), and Pisoides bidentatus (H. Milne-Edwards, 1873); the samurai crab Paradorippe granulata (= Dorippe granulata) (de Haan, 1841); the pea crab Pinnixa rathbuni (Sakai, 1934); and the porcelain crab Pachycheles stevensii (Stimpson, 1858) in Minonosok Bay of Pos'eta Bay obtained during 2000-2002 and in 2004. The planktonic samples were collected from the last third of May to September. The greatest density of the larvae was observed in May, mid-June, late June-early July, and late July-early August. The greatest densities of the crab larvae and the decapod larvae ranged from 20.4 to 48.2 and from 88.4 to 245.3 specimens/m3. The schedule of the crab larvae's occurrence in the plankton is provided for the first time. The distribution of the density showed pronounced patchiness.

Grigoryeva, N. I.

2013-03-01

286

Four differentially expressed cDNAs in Callinectes sapidus containing the Rebers-Riddiford consensus sequence.  

PubMed

Decapod crustaceans such as Callinectes sapidus, the blue crab, provide unique opportunities to study proteins involved in biomineralization. Subsequent to each molt, the previously deposited soft cuticle is calcified while the postecdysial layers are simultaneously deposited and mineralized. Though the majority of the exoskeleton hardens, morphologically similar cuticle at the joints, called arthrodial membrane, remains flexible. It seems reasonable that hypodermal cells producing these cuticle types should be synthesizing proteins that regulate mineralization. Data presented here are consistent with this hypothesis, showing that transcripts coding for proteins containing the chitin-binding Rebers-Riddiford (RR) consensus sequence (Gx(8)Gx(7)YxAxExGYx(7)Px(2)P) are differentially expressed. Two RR-containing transcripts, CsAMP8.1 and CsAMP6.0, are found only in arthrodial membrane and are expressed uniformly both before and after ecdysis. They have high sequence homology with RR-containing proteins from uncalcified portions of the cuticle of Cancer pagurus, Penaeus japonicus, and Homarus americanus. The other two transcripts, CsCP8.5 and CsCP8.2, are expressed solely in premolt and in hypodermis depositing calcifying cuticle rather than arthrodial membrane. They have high sequence homology with calcification-associated peptides containing the RR sequence obtained from the calcified cuticle of Procambarus clarkii. This suggests possible involvement in the postmolt mineralization of the pre-ecdysial cuticle. PMID:15939643

Wynn, Anna; Shafer, Thomas H

2005-07-01

287

Comparative ultrastructure and carbohydrate composition of gastroliths from astacidae, cambaridae and parastacidae freshwater crayfish (crustacea, decapoda).  

PubMed

Crustaceans have to cyclically replace their rigid exoskeleton in order to grow. Most of them harden this skeleton by a calcification process. Some decapods (land crabs, lobsters and crayfish) elaborate calcium storage structures as a reservoir of calcium ions in their stomach wall, as so-called gastroliths. For a better understanding of the cyclic elaboration of these calcium deposits, we studied the ultrastructure of gastroliths from freshwater crayfish by using a combination of microscopic and physical techniques. Because sugars are also molecules putatively involved in the elaboration process of these biomineralizations, we also determined their carbohydrate composition. This study was performed in a comparative perspective on crayfish species belonging to the infra-order Astacidea (Decapoda, Malacostraca): three species from the Astacoidea superfamily and one species from the Parastacoidea superfamily. We observed that all the gastroliths exhibit a similar dense network of protein-chitin fibers, from macro- to nanoscale, within which calcium is precipitated as amorphous calcium carbonate. Nevertheless, they are not very similar at the molecular level, notably as regards their carbohydrate composition. Besides glucosamine, the basic carbohydrate component of chitin, we evidenced the presence of other sugars, some of which are species-specific like rhamnose and galacturonic acid whereas xylose and mannose could be linked to proteoglycan components. PMID:24970155

Luquet, Gilles; Fernández, María S; Badou, Aïcha; Guichard, Nathalie; Roy, Nathalie Le; Corneillat, Marion; Alcaraz, Gérard; Arias, José L

2012-01-01

288

Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Gulf of Mexico). Black drum. [Pogonias cromis  

SciTech Connect

Black drum are primarily an estuarine species. The time of black drum spawning depends on location. In Texas waters, heaviest spawning activity occurs during February and March near passes in open bays and estuaries, while in deeper Gulf waters they spawn from November to April. Larvae are transported into the estuarine environment where they grow to the juvenile stage, living in shallow, muddy waters, tolerating a wide range of environmental conditions. Black drum are commercially harvested by a variety of gears, with the majority of US landings taken in Gulf waters off Texas. They are also an important recreational species with more fish caught in the sport catch than harvested commercially. Young black drum feed on invertebrates and small fish, while adults consume mollusks and some decapods. Adults are found in salinities of 9 to 26 ppt and in water temperatures of 12 to 33/sup 0/C. Juveniles are taken over muddy bottoms and adults are usually found over sand or soft bottoms and over oyster reefs or clam shell.

Sutter, F.C.; Waller, R.S.; McIlwain, T.D.

1986-04-01

289

Expanding the Crustacean Neuropeptidome using a Multi-Faceted Mass Spectrometric Approach  

PubMed Central

Jonah crab Cancer borealis is an excellent model organism long served for many areas of physiology, including the study of endocrinology and neurobiology. Characterizing the neuropeptides present in its nervous system provides the first critical step toward understanding the physiological roles of these complex molecules. Multiple mass spectral techniques were used to comprehensively characterize the neuropeptidome in C. borealis, including matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry (MALDI FTMS), MALDI time of flight (TOF)/TOF MS and nanoflow liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC ESI Q TOF MS/MS). In order to enhance the detection signals and expand the dynamic range, direct tissue analysis, tissue extraction, capillary electrophoresis (CE) and off-line HPLC separation have also been employed. In total, 142 peptides were identified, including 85 previously known C. borealis peptides, 22 peptides characterized previously from other decapods, but new to this species, and 35 new peptides de novo sequenced for the first time in this study. Seventeen neuropeptide families were revealed including RFamide, allatostatin (A and B type), RYamide, orcokinin, orcomyotropin, proctolin, crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP), crustacean hyperglycemic hormone precursor-related peptide (CPRP), crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), corazonin, pigment-dispersing hormone (PDH), tachykinin, pyrokinin, SIFamide, red pigment concentrating hormone (RPCH) and HISGLYRamide. Collectively, our results greatly increase the number and expand the coverage of known C. borealis neuropeptides, and thus provide a stronger framework for future studies on the physiological roles played by these molecules in this important model organism. PMID:19222238

Ma, Mingming; Wang, Junhua; Chen, Ruibing; Li, Lingjun

2009-01-01

290

Diversity and distribution of deep-sea shrimps in the Ross Sea region of Antarctica.  

PubMed

Although decapod crustaceans are widespread in the oceans, only Natantia (shrimps) are common in the Antarctic. Because remoteness, depth and ice cover restrict sampling in the South Ocean, species distribution modelling is a useful tool for evaluating distributions. We used physical specimen and towed camera data to describe the diversity and distribution of shrimps in the Ross Sea region of Antarctica. Eight shrimp species were recorded: Chorismus antarcticus; Notocrangon antarcticus; Nematocarcinus lanceopes; Dendrobranchiata; Pasiphaea scotiae; Pasiphaea cf. ledoyeri; Petalidium sp., and a new species of Lebbeus. For the two most common species, N. antarcticus and N. lanceopes, we used maximum entropy modelling, based on records of 60 specimens and over 1130 observations across 23 sites in depths from 269 m to 3433 m, to predict distributions in relation to environmental variables. Two independent sets of environmental data layers at 0.05° and 0.5° resolution respectively, showed how spatial resolution affected the model. Chorismus antarcticus and N. antarcticus were found only on the continental shelf and upper slopes, while N. lanceopes, Lebbeus n. sp., Dendrobranchiata, Petalidium sp., Pasiphaea cf. ledoyeri, and Pasiphaea scotiae were found on the slopes, seamounts and abyssal plain. The environmental variables that contributed most to models for N. antarcticus were depth, chlorophyll-a concentration, temperature, and salinity, and for N. lanceopes were depth, ice concentration, seabed slope/rugosity, and temperature. The relative ranking, but not the composition of these variables changed in models using different spatial resolutions, and the predicted extent of suitable habitat was smaller in models using the finer-scale environmental layers. Our modelling indicated that shrimps were widespread throughout the Ross Sea region and were thus likely to play important functional role in the ecosystem, and that the spatial resolution of data needs to be considered both in the use of species distribution models. PMID:25051333

Basher, Zeenatul; Bowden, David A; Costello, Mark J

2014-01-01

291

Detection and Discovery of Crustacean Parasites in Blue Crabs (Callinectes sapidus) by Using 18S rRNA Gene-Targeted Denaturing High-Performance Liquid Chromatography? †  

PubMed Central

Recently, we described a novel denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) approach useful for initial detection and identification of crustacean parasites. Because this approach utilizes general primers targeted to conserved regions of the 18S rRNA gene, a priori genetic sequence information on eukaryotic parasites is not required. This distinction provides a significant advantage over specifically targeted PCR assays that do not allow for the detection of unknown or unsuspected parasites. However, initial field evaluations of the DHPLC assay suggested that because of PCR-biased amplification of dominant host genes it was not possible to detect relatively rare parasite genes in infected crab tissue. Here, we describe the use of a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) PCR hybridization blocking probe in association with DHPLC (PNA-PCR DHPLC) to overcome inherent PCR bias associated with amplification of rare target genes by use of generic primers. This approach was utilized to detect infection of blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) by the parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium sp. Evaluation of 76 crabs caught in Wassaw Sound, GA, indicated a 97% correspondence between detection of the parasite by use of a specific PCR diagnostic assay and that by use of PNA-PCR DHPLC. During these studies, we discovered one crab with an association with a previously undescribed protist symbiont. Phylogenetic analysis of the amplified symbiont 18S rRNA gene indicated that it is most closely related to the free-living kinetoplastid parasite Procryptobia sorokini. To our knowledge, this is the first report of this parasite group in a decapod crab and of this organism exhibiting a presumably parasitic life history. PMID:18502913

Troedsson, Christofer; Lee, Richard F.; Walters, Tina; Stokes, Vivica; Brinkley, Karrie; Naegele, Verena; Frischer, Marc E.

2008-01-01

292

Cloning and characterisation of a prophenoloxidase from the haemocytes of mud crab Scylla serrata.  

PubMed

A prophenoloxidase (proPO) cDNA was cloned from the haemocytes of mud crab Scylla serrata using oligonucleotide primers and RT-PCR. Both 3'- and 5'-regions were isolated by rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) method. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed that the cDNA clone has a full length of 2663bp, with an open reading frame of 2019bp, a 124-bp 5'-untranslated region, and a 520-bp 3'-untranslated region containing a poly A signal. It encodes a protein of 673 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 77.5kDa and with an estimated pI of 5.96. It contains two putative tyrosinase copper-binding motifs with six histidine residues (copper A, 185, 189, 211, and copper B, 346, 350, 386). The proPO has thiol-ester-like motif (GCGWPQHM), which showed similar structural features of proPOs from other decapod crustaceans. It also contains five possible glycosylation sites, and a conserved C-terminal region common to all known proPOs. Sequence comparison showed that the proPO-deduced amino acid of mud crab S. serrata has an overall similarity of 78%, 57%, 56%, 51-55%, 54%, 53%, 52%, 52%, and 52% to that of Dungeness crab Cancer magister, American lobster Homarus americanus, European lobster Homarus gammarus, kuruma prawn Marsupenaeus japonicus, crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, green tiger shrimp Penaeus semisulcatus, and giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, respectively. The proPO was strongly expressed in haemocytes, but not in heart, eyestalk, gill, muscle, ovary, hepatopancreas, stomach, and intestine. The proPO transcript of mud crab S. serrata increased significantly in 12 and 24h post-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection, but returned to the original values in 72h post injection. PMID:16806468

Ko, Chi-Fong; Chiou, Tzu-Ting; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Lu, Jenn-Kan; Chen, Jiann-Chu

2007-01-01

293

SIFamide peptides in clawed lobsters and freshwater crayfish (Crustacea, Decapoda, Astacidea): a combined molecular, mass spectrometric and electrophysiological investigation.  

PubMed

Recently, we identified the peptide VYRKPPFNGSIFamide (Val(1)-SIFamide) in the stomatogastric nervous system (STNS) of the American lobster Homarus americanus using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-Fourier transform mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTMS). Given that H. americanus is the only species thus far shown to possess this peptide, and that a second SIFamide isoform, Gly(1)-SIFamide, is broadly conserved in other decapods, including another astacidean, the crayfish Procambarus clarkii, we became interested both in confirming our identification of Val(1)-SIFamide via molecular methods and in determining the extent to which this isoform is conserved within other members of the infraorder Astacidea. Here, we present the identification and characterization of an H. americanus prepro-SIFamide cDNA that encodes the Val(1) isoform. Moreover, we demonstrate via MALDI-FTMS the presence of Val(1)-SIFamide in a second Homarus species, Homarus gammarus. In contrast, only the Gly(1) isoform was detected in the other astacideans investigated, including the lobster Nephrops norvegicus, a member of the same family as Homarus, and the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus, P. clarkii and Pacifastacus leniusculus, which represent members of each of the extant families of freshwater astacideans. These results suggest that Val(1)-SIFamide may be a genus (Homarus)-specific isoform. Interestingly, both Val(1)- and Gly(1)-SIFamide possess an internal dibasic site, Arg(3)-Lys(4), raising the possibility of the ubiquitously conserved isoform PPFNGSIFamide. However, this octapeptide was not detected via MALDI-FTMS in any of the investigated species, and when applied to the isolated STNS of H. americanus possessed little bioactivity relative to the full-length Val(1) isoform. Thus, it appears that the dodeca-variants Val(1)- and Gly(1)-SIFamide are the sole bioactive isoforms of this peptide family in clawed lobsters and freshwater crayfish. PMID:18308319

Dickinson, Patsy S; Stemmler, Elizabeth A; Cashman, Christopher R; Brennan, Henry R; Dennison, Bobbi; Huber, Kristen E; Peguero, Braulio; Rabacal, Whitney; Goiney, Christopher C; Smith, Christine M; Towle, David W; Christie, Andrew E

2008-04-01

294

Susceptibility to infection and pathogenicity of White Spot Disease (WSD) in non-model crustacean host taxa from temperate regions.  

PubMed

Despite almost two decades since its discovery, White Spot Disease (WSD) caused by White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is still considered the most significant known pathogen impacting the sustainability and growth of the global penaeid shrimp farming industry. Although most commonly associated with penaeid shrimp farmed in tropical regions, the virus is also able to infect, cause disease and kill a wide range of other decapod crustacean hosts from temperate regions, including lobsters, crabs, crayfish and shrimp. For this reason, WSSV has recently been listed in European Community Council Directive 2006/88. Using principles laid down by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) we applied an array of diagnostic approaches to provide a definitive statement on the susceptibility to White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) infection in seven ecologically or economically important crustacean species from Europe. We chose four marine species: Cancer pagurus, Homarus gammarus, Nephrops norvegicus and Carcinus maenas; one estuarine species, Eriocheir sinensis and two freshwater species, Austropotamobius pallipes and Pacifastacus leniusculus. Exposure trials based upon natural (feeding) and artificial (intra-muscular injection) routes of exposure to WSSV revealed universal susceptibility to WSSV infection in these hosts. However, the relative degree of susceptibility (measured by progression of infection to disease, and mortality) varied significantly between host species. In some instances (Type 1 hosts), pathogenesis mimicked that observed in penaeid shrimp hosts whereas in other examples (Types 2 and 3 hosts), infection did not readily progress to disease, even though hosts were considered as infected and susceptible according to accepted principles. Results arising from challenge studies are discussed in relation to the potential risk posed to non-target hosts by the inadvertent introduction of WSSV to European waters via trade. Furthermore, we highlight the potential for susceptible but relatively resistant hosts to serve as models to investigate natural mitigation strategies against WSSV in these hosts. We speculate that these non-model hosts may offer a unique insight into viral handling in crustaceans. PMID:22484233

Bateman, K S; Tew, I; French, C; Hicks, R J; Martin, P; Munro, J; Stentiford, G D

2012-07-01

295

Organization of columnar inputs in the third optic ganglion of a highly visual crab.  

PubMed

Motion information provides essential cues for a wide variety of animal behaviors such as mate, prey, or predator detection. In decapod crustaceans and pterygote insects, visual codification of object motion is associated with visual processing in the third optic neuropile, the lobula. In this neuropile, tangential neurons collect motion information from small field columnar neurons and relay it to the midbrain where behavioral responses would be finally shaped. In highly ordered structures, detailed knowledge of the neuroanatomy can give insight into their function. In spite of the relevance of the lobula in processing motion information, studies on the neuroarchitecture of this neuropile are scant. Here, by applying dextran-conjugated dyes in the second optic neuropile (the medulla) of the crab Neohelice, we mass stained the columnar neurons that convey visual information into the lobula. We found that the arborizations of these afferent columnar neurons lie at four main lobula depths. A detailed examination of serial optical sections of the lobula revealed that these input strata are composed of different number of substrata and that the strata are thicker in the centre of the neuropile. Finally, by staining the different lobula layers composed of tangential processes we combined the present characterization of lobula input strata with the previous characterization of the neuroarchitecture of the crab's lobula based on reduced-silver preparations. We found that the third lobula input stratum overlaps with the dendrites of lobula giant tangential neurons. This suggests that columnar neurons projecting from the medulla can directly provide visual input to the crab's lobula giant neurons. PMID:24929118

Bengochea, Mercedes; Berón de Astrada, Martín

2014-01-01

296

Day-night and depth differences in haemolymph melatonin of the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus (L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Few studies have been conducted to quantify and understand the role of melatonin in invertebrates, and particularly in crustaceans and in deep-sea animals. In this study, we examined day-night differences in haemolymph melatonin of the burrowing decapod crustacean Nephrops norvegicus (L.) during exposure to cycles of monochromatic blue light (480 nm) and darkness cycles of 10 and 0.1 lx. These differential intensity conditions simulate illumination at the depth of the shelf (80-100 m) and of the slope (300-400 m), where these lobster populations are chiefly found in the Western Mediterranean Sea. Our objectives were: (a) to verify the presence of melatonin in the haemolymph of this species using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and fluorescence HPLC (HPLC); and (b) to study the relationship between diel variations in melatonin concentration and locomotor rhythms, in order to examine whether the former influences behaviour. Melatonin was identified in LC-MS/MS by Q1 and Q3 mass peaks at an elution time of 3.7 min, and it was also detected by HPLC. Melatonin concentration was found to be two orders of magnitude higher at 10 lx (4.8±5.3 ng ml -1) than at 0.1 lx (0.06±0.03 ng ml -1). Also, the increase at daytime in 10 lx was absent in 0.1 lx. When the locomotor rhythm of animals exposed to both photoperiod regimes was compared, the diel periodicity was found to be preserved, but the timing of activity shifted from night to day. Extrapolating these data to the field, we interpret our results to mean that locomotor activity preserves its diel character, but not its phase and amplitude, in a bathymetric range where haemolymph melatonin reduces its concentration and rhythmic fluctuation.

Aguzzi, J.; Sanchez-Pardo, J.; García, J. A.; Sardà, F.

2009-10-01

297

Diversity and Distribution of Deep-Sea Shrimps in the Ross Sea Region of Antarctica  

PubMed Central

Although decapod crustaceans are widespread in the oceans, only Natantia (shrimps) are common in the Antarctic. Because remoteness, depth and ice cover restrict sampling in the South Ocean, species distribution modelling is a useful tool for evaluating distributions. We used physical specimen and towed camera data to describe the diversity and distribution of shrimps in the Ross Sea region of Antarctica. Eight shrimp species were recorded: Chorismus antarcticus; Notocrangon antarcticus; Nematocarcinus lanceopes; Dendrobranchiata; Pasiphaea scotiae; Pasiphaea cf. ledoyeri; Petalidium sp., and a new species of Lebbeus. For the two most common species, N. antarcticus and N. lanceopes, we used maximum entropy modelling, based on records of 60 specimens and over 1130 observations across 23 sites in depths from 269 m to 3433 m, to predict distributions in relation to environmental variables. Two independent sets of environmental data layers at 0.05° and 0.5° resolution respectively, showed how spatial resolution affected the model. Chorismus antarcticus and N. antarcticus were found only on the continental shelf and upper slopes, while N. lanceopes, Lebbeus n. sp., Dendrobranchiata, Petalidium sp., Pasiphaea cf. ledoyeri, and Pasiphaea scotiae were found on the slopes, seamounts and abyssal plain. The environmental variables that contributed most to models for N. antarcticus were depth, chlorophyll-a concentration, temperature, and salinity, and for N. lanceopes were depth, ice concentration, seabed slope/rugosity, and temperature. The relative ranking, but not the composition of these variables changed in models using different spatial resolutions, and the predicted extent of suitable habitat was smaller in models using the finer-scale environmental layers. Our modelling indicated that shrimps were widespread throughout the Ross Sea region and were thus likely to play important functional role in the ecosystem, and that the spatial resolution of data needs to be considered both in the use of species distribution models. PMID:25051333

Basher, Zeenatul; Bowden, David A.; Costello, Mark J.

2014-01-01

298

Molecular perspective on the American transisthmian species of Macrobrachium (Caridea, Palaemonidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The closure of the Isthmus of Panama (about 3.1 million years ago) separated previously continuous populations and created two groups of extant species, which live now in the Pacific and Atlantic drainage systems. This relatively recent event was a trigger to diversification of various species in the Neotropics, nonetheless there are exemplars that do not show sufficient morphologic variability to separate them by traditional morphological tools. About 60 years ago, some freshwater decapod species with high morphological similarity were separate by previous researchers, based on geographical distribution, in Pacific and Atlantic and considered as “sister species”. However, the complete isolation of these prawns by this geographical barrier is questionable, and it has generated doubts about the status of the following transisthmian pairs of sibling species: Macrobrachium occidentale × Macrobrachium heterochirus, Macrobrachium americanum × Macrobrachium carcinus, Macrobrachium digueti × Macrobrachium olfersii, Macrobrachium hancocki × Macrobrachium crenulatum, Macrobrachium tenellum × Macrobrachium acanthurus and Macrobrachium panamense × Macrobrachium amazonicum. Here we evaluated the relation among these pairs of sibling species in a molecular phylogenetic context. We generated 95 new sequences: 26 sequences of 16S rDNA, 25 of COI mtDNA and 44 of 18S nDNA. In total, 181 sequences were analyzed by maximum likelihood phylogenetic method, including 12 Macrobrachium transisthmian species, as well as seven other American Macrobrachium species, and two other palaemonids. Our analysis corroborated the morphological proximity of the sibling species. Despite the high degree of morphological similarities and considerable genetic diversification encountered among the transisthmian sister species, our data support the conclusion that all species included in sibling groups studied herein are valid taxonomic entities, but not all pairs of siblings form natural groups. PMID:25561833

Pileggi, Leonardo G.; Rossi, Natália; Wehrtmann, Ingo S.; Mantelatto, Fernando L.

2014-01-01

299

Inorganic carbon fixation by chemosynthetic ectosymbionts and nutritional transfers to the hydrothermal vent host-shrimp Rimicaris exoculata  

PubMed Central

The shrimp Rimicaris exoculata dominates several hydrothermal vent ecosystems of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and is thought to be a primary consumer harbouring a chemoautotrophic bacterial community in its gill chamber. The aim of the present study was to test current hypotheses concerning the epibiont's chemoautotrophy, and the mutualistic character of this association. In-vivo experiments were carried out in a pressurised aquarium with isotope-labelled inorganic carbon (NaH13CO3 and NaH14CO3) in the presence of two different electron donors (Na2S2O3 and Fe2+) and with radiolabelled organic compounds (14C-acetate and 3H-lysine) chosen as potential bacterial substrates and/or metabolic by-products in experiments mimicking transfer of small biomolecules from epibionts to host. The bacterial epibionts were found to assimilate inorganic carbon by chemoautotrophy, but many of them (thick filaments of epsilonproteobacteria) appeared versatile and able to switch between electron donors, including organic compounds (heterotrophic acetate and lysine uptake). At least some of them (thin filamentous gammaproteobacteria) also seem capable of internal energy storage that could supply chemosynthetic metabolism for hours under conditions of electron donor deprivation. As direct nutritional transfer from bacteria to host was detected, the association appears as true mutualism. Import of soluble bacterial products occurs by permeation across the gill chamber integument, rather than via the digestive tract. This first demonstration of such capabilities in a decapod crustacean supports the previously discarded hypothesis of transtegumental absorption of dissolved organic matter or carbon as a common nutritional pathway. PMID:22914596

Ponsard, Julie; Cambon-Bonavita, Marie-Anne; Zbinden, Magali; Lepoint, Gilles; Joassin, André; Corbari, Laure; Shillito, Bruce; Durand, Lucile; Cueff-Gauchard, Valérie; Compère, Philippe

2013-01-01

300

Bioinformatic analyses of the publicly accessible crustacean expressed sequence tags (ESTs) reveal numerous novel neuropeptide-encoding precursor proteins, including ones from members of several little studied taxa.  

PubMed

ESTs have been generated for many crustacean species, providing an invaluable resource for peptide discovery in members of this arthropod subphylum. Here, these data were mined for novel peptide-encoding transcripts, with the mature peptides encoded by them predicted using a combination of online peptide prediction programs and homology to known arthropod sequences. In total, 70 mature full-length/partial peptides representing members of 16 families/subfamilies were predicted, the vast majority being novel; the species from which the peptides were identified included members of the Branchiopoda (Daphnia carinata and Triops cancriformis), Maxillopoda (Caligus clemensi, Caligus rogercresseyi, Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Lernaeocera branchialis) and Malacostraca (Euphausia superba, Marsupenaeus japonicus, Penaeus monodon, Homarus americanus, Petrolisthes cinctipes, Callinectes sapidus and Portunus trituberculatus). Of particular note were the identifications of an intermediate between the insect adipokinetic hormones and crustacean red pigment concentrating hormone and a modified crustacean cardioactive peptide from the daphnid D. carinata; Arg(7)-corazonin was also deduced from this species, the first identification of a corazonin from a non-decapod crustacean. Our data also include the first reports of members of the calcitonin-like diuretic hormone, FMRFamide-related peptide (neuropeptide F subfamily) and orcokinin families from members of the Copepoda. Moreover, the prediction of a bursicon alpha from the euphausid E. superba represents the first peptide identified from any member of the basal eucaridean order Euphausiacea. In addition, large collections of insect eclosion hormone- and neuroparsin-like peptides were identified from a variety of species, greatly expanding the number of known members of these families in crustaceans. PMID:20064519

Christie, Andrew E; Durkin, Christopher S; Hartline, Niko; Ohno, Paul; Lenz, Petra H

2010-05-15

301

Molecular characterization of a cDNA encoding vitellogenin in the coonstriped shrimp, Pandalus hypsinotus and site of vitellogenin mRNA expression.  

PubMed

In order to determine the primary structure of vitellogenin in a protandric species, the coonstriped shrimp Pandalus hypsinotus, we previously purified four vitellin components (designated as VnA, VnB, VnC, and VnD, respectively), and chemically analyzed their partial amino acid sequences. In this study, we subsequently cloned a cDNA encoding vitellogenin in this species based on the N-terminal and internal amino acid sequences of VnA, as well as the N-terminal sequence of VnC. The open reading frame of this cDNA encoded a pro-vitellogenin in which vitellins were arranged as follows: NH2-VnA-VnB-VnC/D-COOH. The deduced amino acid sequence possessed a single consensus cleavage sequence, R-X-K/R-R, along the lines of vitellogenins reported in other crustaceans and insects, and the N-terminal sequence of VnB was immediately preceded by this sequence. The comparison of primary structures revealed the existence of a basic and characteristic structure for the vitellogenin molecule in decapod crustacean species, and phylogenetic analysis reflected the current taxonomic classifications of Crustacea. An approximately 8 kb-long transcript of the vitellogenin gene was detected in the hepatopancreas of female shrimps having a gonadosomatic index higher than 1.0 by Northern blot analysis, but was not observed in the hepatopancreas and gonads of male shrimps and the hepatopancreas of female shrimps having a gonadosomatic index lower than 1.0. These results indicate that the hepatopancreas is responsible for vitellogenin synthesis. PMID:15449343

Tsutsui, Naoaki; Saido-Sakanaka, Hisako; Yang, Wei-Jun; Jayasankar, Vidya; Jasmani, Safiah; Okuno, Atsuro; Ohira, Tsuyoshi; Okumura, Takuji; Aida, Katsumi; Wilder, Marcy N

2004-10-01

302

The reaction of European lobster larvae (Homarus gammarus) to different quality food: effects of ontogenetic shifts and pre-feeding history.  

PubMed

Young larval stages of many organisms represent bottlenecks in the life-history of many species. The high mortality commonly observed in, for example, decapod larvae has often been linked to poor nutrition, with most studies focussing on food quantity. Here, we focus instead on the effects of quality and have investigated its effects on the nutritional condition of lobster larvae. We established a tri-trophic food chain consisting of the cryptophyte Rhodomonas salina, the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa and larvae of the European lobster Homarus gammarus. In a set of experiments, we manipulated the C:N:P stoichiometry of the primary producers, and accordingly those of the primary consumer. In a first experiment, R. salina was grown under N- and P-limitation and the nutrient content of the algae was manipulated by addition of the limiting nutrient to create a food quality gradient. In a second experiment, the effect on lobster larvae of long- and short-term exposure to food of varying quality during ontogenetic development was investigated. The condition of the lobster larvae was negatively affected even by subtle N- and P-nutrient limitations of the algae. Furthermore, younger lobster larvae were more vulnerable to nutrient limitation than older ones, suggesting an ontogenetic shift in the capacity of lobster larvae to cope with low quality food. The results presented here might have substantial consequences for the survival of lobster larvae in the field, as, in the light of future climate change and re-oligotrophication of the North Sea, lobster larvae might face marked changes in temperature and nutrient conditions, thus significantly altering their condition and growth. PMID:24072442

Schoo, Katherina L; Aberle, Nicole; Malzahn, Arne M; Schmalenbach, Isabel; Boersma, Maarten

2014-02-01

303

Molecular perspective on the American transisthmian species of Macrobrachium (Caridea, Palaemonidae).  

PubMed

The closure of the Isthmus of Panama (about 3.1 million years ago) separated previously continuous populations and created two groups of extant species, which live now in the Pacific and Atlantic drainage systems. This relatively recent event was a trigger to diversification of various species in the Neotropics, nonetheless there are exemplars that do not show sufficient morphologic variability to separate them by traditional morphological tools. About 60 years ago, some freshwater decapod species with high morphological similarity were separate by previous researchers, based on geographical distribution, in Pacific and Atlantic and considered as "sister species". However, the complete isolation of these prawns by this geographical barrier is questionable, and it has generated doubts about the status of the following transisthmian pairs of sibling species: Macrobrachiumoccidentale × Macrobrachiumheterochirus, Macrobrachiumamericanum × Macrobrachiumcarcinus, Macrobrachiumdigueti × Macrobrachiumolfersii, Macrobrachiumhancocki × Macrobrachiumcrenulatum, Macrobrachiumtenellum × Macrobrachiumacanthurus and Macrobrachiumpanamense × Macrobrachiumamazonicum. Here we evaluated the relation among these pairs of sibling species in a molecular phylogenetic context. We generated 95 new sequences: 26 sequences of 16S rDNA, 25 of COI mtDNA and 44 of 18S nDNA. In total, 181 sequences were analyzed by maximum likelihood phylogenetic method, including 12 Macrobrachium transisthmian species, as well as seven other American Macrobrachium species, and two other palaemonids. Our analysis corroborated the morphological proximity of the sibling species. Despite the high degree of morphological similarities and considerable genetic diversification encountered among the transisthmian sister species, our data support the conclusion that all species included in sibling groups studied herein are valid taxonomic entities, but not all pairs of siblings form natural groups. PMID:25561833

Pileggi, Leonardo G; Rossi, Natália; Wehrtmann, Ingo S; Mantelatto, Fernando L

2014-01-01

304

Active dendritic properties constrain input-output relationships in neurons of the central olfactory pathway in the crayfish forebrain.  

PubMed

Parasol cells are multimodal sensory interneurons of the hemi-ellipsoid body in the decapod forebrain. In reptant crustaceans, the hemi-ellipsoid body resides in the base of the eyecup, as an appendage to the terminal medulla. Parasol cells exhibit periodic depolarizations at a frequency of 0.5-1.0 Hz. I have investigated the role of these periodic depolarizations and their superimposed impulse bursts in affecting the input/output properties of these neurons. Parasol cells receive input from photic, olfactory, and mechanosensory pathways. Strong stimulation over any one of these pathways can lead to the generation of one or more impulse bursts in a subset of parasol cells, timed to occur at the peak of successive periodic depolarizations. A role for the periodic depolarizations in the function of the parasol cells has yet to be established. I suggest the possibility that they may act as a nonlinear amplifier that boosts spatially-summated excitatory synaptic potentials from strong or appropriate stimuli above threshold for burst generation. Another possibility includes modification of voltage-sensitive ion channels in the dendritic membrane, permitting a more effective spread of excitatory synaptic currents to impulse or burst initiating zones. Impulse bursts may be a highly effective mode of output for these neurons, especially so as they occur synchronously in a subset of cells in response to strong sensory input. Furthermore, backfiring of bursts into the dendritic tree has a brief (2-3 second) but effective suppressive action upon weak sensory input, which can thereby be masked by stronger, burst-generating input. This masking phenomenon is seen in other arthropod sensory interneurons, where its physiological basis appears to be a transient accumulation of intracellular Ca(++) ions that open calcium-sensitive potassium channels. PMID:12539158

Mellon, Deforest

2003-02-15

305

Characterization and analysis of a transcriptome from the boreal spider crab Hyas araneus.  

PubMed

Research investigating the genetic basis of physiological responses has significantly broadened our understanding of the mechanisms underlying organismic response to environmental change. However, genomic data are currently available for few taxa only, thus excluding physiological model species from this approach. In this study we report the transcriptome of the model organism Hyas araneus from Spitsbergen (Arctic). We generated 20,479 transcripts, using the 454 GS FLX sequencing technology in combination with an Illumina HiSeq sequencing approach. Annotation by Blastx revealed 7159 blast hits in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. The comparison between the spider crab H. araneus transcriptome and EST libraries of the European lobster Homarus americanus and the porcelain crab Petrolisthes cinctipes yielded 3229/2581 sequences with a significant hit, respectively. The clustering by the Markov Clustering Algorithm (MCL) revealed a common core of 1710 clusters present in all three species and 5903 unique clusters for H. araneus. The combined sequencing approaches generated transcripts that will greatly expand the limited genomic data available for crustaceans. We introduce the MCL clustering for transcriptome comparisons as a simple approach to estimate similarities between transcriptomic libraries of different size and quality and to analyze homologies within the selected group of species. In particular, we identified a large variety of reverse transcriptase (RT) sequences not only in the H. araneus transcriptome and other decapod crustaceans, but also sea urchin, supporting the hypothesis of a heritable, anti-viral immunity and the proposed viral fragment integration by host-derived RTs in marine invertebrates. PMID:24212285

Harms, Lars; Frickenhaus, Stephan; Schiffer, Melanie; Mark, Felix C; Storch, Daniela; Pörtner, Hans-Otto; Held, Christoph; Lucassen, Magnus

2013-12-01

306

Potential respiration estimated by electron transport system activity in deep-sea suprabenthic crustaceans off Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ETS is an acronym for the activity of the respiratory electron transport system; the ETS assay is a biochemical method for estimating the “potential” respiration (?). We apply this technique to suprabenthic species captured at three depths (250 m, 650 m and 850 m) in two different locations: Cabrera (Algerian subbasin) and Sóller (Balearic subbasin) during the IDEADOS survey during summer 2010. The aim of this study was to compare specific ? between areas and between three depths to identify differences in the suprabenthos physiological state related to nutritional conditions. Specific ?, expressed in unit of ?l O2 h- 1 mg prot- 1 was not significantly different between species. Mean values were for the decapods: Plesionika heterocarpus, 8.4 ± 7.9; Gennadas elegans, 8.3 ± 2.9; and Sergestes arcticus 7.3 ± 4.6. Within the euphausiids specific ? averaged 6.5 ± 4.2 for Thysanopoda aequalis and 9.8 ± 5.1 for Meganyctiphanes norvegica; while for the mysids it ranged from 7.7 ± 4.4 for Boreomysis arctica and 2.1 ± 0.6 for Eucopia unguiculata. The comparison of specific potential respiration (?), with the pooling of the data of all the species, showed differences between the two locations, being higher in Cabrera. However, no significant differences between the different depths of each locality were found. The slope of the log ?-log biomass plot was 0.93 ± 0.09 for Cabrera and 0.64 ± 0.11 in Sóller. We interpret these differences as indicating that the suprabenthos in the Cabrera area, as compared to the Sóller area, has been well-nourished.

Herrera, A.; Gómez, M.; Packard, T. T.; Reglero, P.; Blanco, E.; Barberá-Cebrián, C.

2014-10-01

307

Prediction of the first neuropeptides from a member of the Remipedia (Arthropoda, Crustacea).  

PubMed

The Remipedia is a small, recently described crustacean class that inhabits submerged marine/anchialine cave systems. Phylogenetic and morphological investigations support a sister group relationship between these animals and the hexapods. The recent deposition of numerous (>100,000) transcriptome shotgun assembly sequences for Speleonectes cf. tulumensis provides a unique resource to identify proteins of interest from a member of the Remipedia. Here, this dataset was mined for sequences encoding putative neuropeptide pre/preprohormones, with the mature peptides predicted from the deduced precursors using an established workflow. The structures of 40 mature peptides were obtained via this strategy, including members of 11 well-known arthropod peptide families (adipokinetic hormone/corazonin-like peptide [ACP], allatostatin A, allatostatin C, diuretic hormone 31, eclosion hormone, ion transport peptide/crustacean hyperglycemic hormone, neuropeptide F, proctolin, SIFamide, sulfakinin and tachykinin-related peptide); these are the only peptides thus far described from any member of the Remipedia. Comparison of the Speleonectes isoforms with those from other crustaceans and hexapods revealed the peptidome of this species to have characteristics of both subphyla (e.g. it possesses the stereotypical decapod crustacean SIFamide and tachykinin-related peptide isoforms, while simultaneously being the only crustacean with an insect AKC). Moreover, BLAST searches in which the deduced Speleonectes precursors were compared to the pancrustacean protein database most frequently returned insect homologs as the closest matches. The peptidomic analyses presented here are consistent with the hypothesized phylogenetic position of the Remipedia within the Pancrustacea, and serve as a foundation from which to launch future investigations of peptidergic signaling in remipedes. PMID:24530630

Christie, Andrew E

2014-05-15

308

Development and connectivity of olfactory pathways in the brain of the lobster Homarus americanus.  

PubMed

The main output pathways from the olfactory lobes (primary olfactory centers) and accessory lobes (higher-order integrative areas) of decapod crustaceans terminate within both of the main neuropil regions of the lateral protocerebrum: the medulla terminalis and the hemiellipsoid body. The present study examines the morphogenesis of the lateral protocerebral neuropils of the lobster, Homarus americanus, and the development of their neuronal connections with the paired olfactory and accessory lobes. The medulla terminalis was found to emerge during the initial stages of embryogenesis and to be the target neuropil of the output pathway from the olfactory lobe. In contrast, the hemiellipsoid body is first apparent during mid-embryonic development and is innervated by the output pathway from the accessory lobe. The dye injections used to elucidate these pathways also resulted in the labeling of a previously undescribed pathway linking the olfactory lobe and the ventral nerve cord. To increase our understanding of the morphology of the olfactory pathways in H. americanus we also examined the connectivity of the lateral protocerebral neuropils of embryonic lobsters. These studies identified several interneuronal populations that may be involved in the higher-order processing of olfactory inputs. In addition, we examined the neuroanatomy of ascending pathways from the antenna II and lateral antenna I neuropils (neuropils involved in the processing of chemosensory and tactile inputs). These studies showed that the ascending pathways from these neuropils innervate the same regions of the medulla terminalis and that these regions are different from those innervated by the olfactory lobe output pathway. PMID:11745633

Sullivan, J M; Beltz, B S

2001-12-01

309

Adult neurogenesis in the crayfish brain: proliferation, migration, and possible origin of precursor cells.  

PubMed

The birth of new neurons and their incorporation into functional circuits in the adult brain is a characteristic of many vertebrate and invertebrate organisms, including decapod crustaceans. Precursor cells maintaining life-long proliferation in the brains of crayfish (Procambarus clarkii, Cherax destructor) and clawed lobsters (Homarus americanus) reside within a specialized niche on the ventral surface of the brain; their daughters migrate to two proliferation zones along a stream formed by processes of the niche precursors. Here they divide again, finally producing interneurons in the olfactory pathway. The present studies in P. clarkii explore (1) differential proliferative activity among the niche precursor cells with growth and aging, (2) morphological characteristics of cells in the niche and migratory streams, and (3) aspects of the cell cycle in this lineage. Morphologically symmetrical divisions of neuronal precursor cells were observed in the niche near where the migratory streams emerge, as well as in the streams and proliferation zones. The nuclei of migrating cells elongate and undergo shape changes consistent with nucleokinetic movement. LIS1, a highly conserved dynein-binding protein, is expressed in cells in the migratory stream and neurogenic niche, implicating this protein in the translocation of crustacean brain neuronal precursor cells. Symmetrical divisions of the niche precursors and migration of both daughters raised the question of how the niche precursor pool is replenished. We present here preliminary evidence for an association between vascular cells and the niche precursors, which may relate to the life-long growth and maintenance of the crustacean neurogenic niche. PMID:19294644

Zhang, Yi; Allodi, Silvana; Sandeman, David C; Beltz, Barbara S

2009-06-01

310

Cytoarchitecture and Ultrastructure of Neural Stem Cell Niches and Neurogenic Complexes Maintaining Adult Neurogenesis in the Olfactory Midbrain of Spiny Lobsters, Panulirus argus  

PubMed Central

New interneurons are continuously generated in small proliferation zones within neuronal somata clusters in the olfactory deutocerebrum of adult decapod crustaceans. Each proliferation zone is connected to a clump of cells containing one neural stem cell (i.e., adult neuroblast), thus forming a “neurogenic complex.” Here we provide a detailed analysis of the cytoarchitecture of neurogenic complexes in adult spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, based on transmission electron microscopy and labeling with cell-type-selective markers. The clump of cells is composed of unique bipolar clump-forming cells that collectively completely envelop the adult neuroblast and are themselves ensheathed by a layer of processes of multipolar cell body glia. An arteriole is attached to the clump of cells, but dye perfusion experiments show that hemolymph has no access to the interior of the clump of cells. Thus, the clump of cells fulfills morphological criteria of a protective stem cell niche, with clump-forming cells constituting the adult neuroblast’s microenvironment together with the cell body glia processes separating it from other tissue components. Bromodeoxyuridine pulse-chase experiments with short survival times suggest that adult neuroblasts are not quiescent but rather cycle actively during daytime. We propose a cell lineage model in which an asymmetrically dividing adult neuroblast repopulates the pool of neuronal progenitor cells in the associated proliferation zone. In conclusion, as in mammalian brains, adult neurogenesis in crustacean brains is fueled by neural stem cells that are maintained by stem cell niches that preserve elements of the embryonic microenvironment and contain glial and vascular elements. PMID:21523781

Schmidt, Manfred; Derby, Charles D.

2013-01-01

311

Infaunal community responses to a gradient of trawling disturbance and a long-term Fishery Exclusion Zone in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically the majority of Mediterranean trawl fisheries occur on the continental shelf with a smaller proportion focused on the shelf slope and deep sea areas. Understanding how trawl fisheries affect the wider ecosystem is an important component of the ecosystem-based approach to fisheries management. In this context the current study examined the impact of the otter trawl fishery on the infaunal communities found on the continental shelf and upper slope off the coast of Sicily and Calabria, Italy. A total of thirty six sites were sampled across a gradient of fishing intensity and from within a large bay from which trawling has been excluded for 22 years. Fishing intensities were ascertained post-hoc from vessel monitoring system data. Seabed characteristics of the sites studied were uniform across the continental shelf and slope areas that were studied, such that the only factor that varied was fishing intensity. The density index (DI) and total number of species (S) were significantly higher in the fishery closure area compared with other continental shelf sites. In particular, bioturbating decapod fauna occurred only within the fishery closure area. Fished sites were dominated primarily by burrowing deposit feeding worms, small bivalves and scavenging biota. In contrast, the response to fishing on the upper slope was less clear. This observation was treated with caution as the power to detect fishing effects was lower for the upper slope sites as a result of possible illegal fishing that had compromised two of the four replicate sites within the closed area. While the present study was able to quantify the effect of the demersal trawl fleet on the benthic infauna of the continental shelf, the effects of trawling on the upper shelf slope remain unclear and warrant further study.

Mangano, M. Cristina; Kaiser, Michel J.; Porporato, Erika M. D.; Lambert, Gwladys I.; Rinelli, Paola; Spanò, Nunziacarla

2014-03-01

312

Effects of Cadmium on Lipid Storage and Metabolism in the Freshwater Crab Sinopotamon henanense  

PubMed Central

Since environmental effects of molecular traits are often questioned we analyze here the molecular effects of cadmium (Cd) on lipid pathways and their effects on tissues development. Lipids are an important energy source for the developing embryo, and accumulate in the ovary and hepatopancreas of decapod crustaceans. The extend of Cd affecting lipid storage and metabolism, is studied here with the freshwater crabs Sinopotamon henanense. Crabs were exposed to water-born Cd at 1.45, 2.9, 5.8 mg/l for 10, 15, and 20 days. With significantly increased Cd accumulation in exposed crabs, lipid content in hepatopancreas and ovary showed a time-dependent and concentration-dependent reduction, being at least one of the reasons for a lower ovarian index (OI) and hepatopancreatic index (HI). After 10-day exposure increased triglyceride (TG) level in hemolymph and up-regulation of pancreatic lipase (PL) activity in the hepatopancreas suggested an increased nutritional lipid uptake. However, two processes led to lower lipid levels upon Cd exposure: an increased utilization of lipids and a down-regulated lipoprotein lipase (LPL) led to insufficient lipid transport. 10-day Cd exposure also triggered the production of ?-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide 2'-phosphate reduced tetrasodium salt hydrate (NADPH), as well as to the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and fatty acids. With increasing exposure time, the crabs at 15 and 20-day exposure contained less lipid and TG, suggesting that more energy was consumed during the exposure time. Meanwhile, the level of NADPH, ATP and the activity of PL, LPL, fatty acid synthase (FAS), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) activity was down-regulated suggesting an impairment of the crab metabolism by Cd in addition to causing a lower lipid level. PMID:24130894

Yang, Jian; Liu, Dongmei; Jing, Weixin; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Wang, Lan

2013-01-01

313

Hematodinium sp. and its bacteria-like endosymbiont in European brown shrimp (Crangon crangon)  

PubMed Central

Background Parasitic dinoflagellates of the genus Hematodinium are significant pathogens affecting the global decapod crustacean fishery. Despite this, considerable knowledge gaps exist regarding the life history of the pathogen in vivo, and the role of free living life stages in transmission to naïve hosts. Results In this study, we describe a novel disease in European brown shrimp (Crangon crangon) caused by infection with a parasitic dinoflagellate of the genus Hematodinium. This is the second example host within the Infraorder Caridea (shrimp) and significantly, the first description within the superfamily Crangonoidea. Based upon analysis of the rRNA gene (SSU) and spacers (ITS1), the parasite in C. crangon is the same as that previously described infecting Nephrops norvegicus and Cancer pagurus from European seas, and to the parasite infecting several other commercially important crab species in the Northern Hemisphere. The parasite is however distinct from the type species, H. perezi, found infecting type hosts (Carcinus maenas and Liocarcinus depurator) from nearby sites within Europe. Despite these similarities, the current study has also described for the first time, a bacteria-like endosymbiont within dinospore stages of the parasite infecting shrimp. The endosymbionts were either contained individually within electron lucent vacuoles within the parasite cell cytoplasm, or remained in direct contact with the parasite cytoplasm or in some cases, the nucleoplasm. In all of these cases, no apparent detrimental effects of colonization were observed within the parasite cell. Conclusions The presence of bacteria-like endosymbionts within dinospore life stages presumes that the relationship between the dinoflagellate and the bacteria is extended beyond the period of liberation of spores from the infected host shrimp. In this context, a potential role of endosymbiosis in the survival of free-living stages of the parasite is possible. The finding offers a further intriguing insight into the life history of this enigmatic pathogen of marine crustacean hosts and highlights a potential for mixotrophy in the parasitic dinoflagellates contained within the genus Hematodinium. PMID:22958655

2012-01-01

314

Does sympatry affect trophic resource use in congeneric tidepool fishes? A tale of two gobies Favonigobius lentiginosus and Favonigobius exquisitus.  

PubMed

The feeding ecology of two sympatric gobies, Favonigobius lentiginosus and Favonigobius exquisitus, which inhabit soft substrate pools was studied in Moreton Bay, Australia. Favonigobius spp. and sediment cores were collected from three locations within the bay and fish gut contents were analysed to explore potential competition and ontogenetic dietary shifts. The most abundant prey at all sites was nematodes at 6.33 ± 0.38 cm(-3) at Dunwich, 33.58 ± 0.26 cm(-3) at Manly and 6.36 ± 0.849 cm(-3) (mean ± S.E.) at Godwin Beach. Nevertheless, they were not a dominant component of the diets. Volumetric percent contribution of prey showed that copepods and decapod shrimps dominated F. lentiginosus diets at Dunwich (7.8 and 6.6%, respectively) and Godwin Beach (6.5 and 14.3%, respectively) and the diets of F. exquisitus at Manly (9.2 and 9.5%, respectively) and Godwin Beach (10.4 and 11.8%, respectively). Schoener's index of dietary overlap between the two species, when sympatric, was 0.85 indicating a high similarity. An ontogenetic shift towards larger prey items occurred as Favonigobius spp. reached larger sizes. Gut fullness indices showed significant differences between time of day (two-way ANOVA, P < 0.01) and species (two-way ANOVA, P < 0.05) but Bonferroni's multiple comparison test showed that the only significant difference was between F. lentiginosus at Dunwich and F. exquisitus at Godwin Beach at 1800 hours. Food resource competition and temporal resource partitioning did not appear to be a limiting factor between F. lentiginosus and F. exquisitus despite cohabitation in such restricted environments. PMID:22141899

Chargulaf, C A; Krück, N C; Tibbetts, I R

2011-12-01

315

Mercury in the biotic compartments of Northwest Patagonia lakes, Argentina.  

PubMed

We report on total mercury (THg) concentrations in the principal components of food webs of selected Northern Patagonia Andean Range ultraoligotrophic lakes, Argentina. The THg contents were determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in muscle and liver of four fish species occupying the higher trophic positions (the introduced Salmo trutta, Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salvelinus fontinalis, and the native Percichthys trucha) accounted for eight lakes belonging to Nahuel Huapi and Los Alerces National Parks. We studied the food web components of both the West and East branches of Lake Moreno, including benthic primary producers such as biofilm, mosses, and macrophytes, three plankton fractions, fish, riparian tree leaves, and benthic invertebrates, namely decapods, molluscs, insect larvae, leeches, oligochaetes, and amphipods. Mercury concentrations in fish muscle varied in a wide range, from less than 0.05 to 4 ?g g(-1) dry weight (DW), without a distribution pattern among species but showing higher values for P. trucha and S. fontinalis, particularly in Lake Moreno. The THg contents of the food web components of Lake Moreno varied within 4 orders of magnitude, with the lower values ranging from 0.01 to 0.5 ?g g(-1) DW in tree leaves, some macrophytes, juvenile salmonids or benthic macroinvertebrates, and reaching concentrations over 200 ?g g(-1) DW in the plankton. Juvenile Galaxias maculatus caught in the pelagic area presented the highest THg contents of all fish sampled, reaching 10 ?g g(-1) DW, contents that could be associated with the high THg concentrations in plankton since it is their main food source. Although Lake Moreno is a system without local point sources of contamination, situated in a protected area, some benthic organisms presented high THg contents when compared with those from polluted ecosystems. PMID:21421254

Rizzo, A; Arcagni, M; Arribére, M A; Bubach, D; Guevara, S Ribeiro

2011-06-01

316

Myogenesis of Malacostraca – the “egg-nauplius” concept revisited  

PubMed Central

Background Malacostracan evolutionary history has seen multiple transformations of ontogenetic mode. For example direct development in connection with extensive brood care and development involving planktotrophic nauplius larvae, as well as intermediate forms are found throughout this taxon. This makes the Malacostraca a promising group for study of evolutionary morphological diversification and the role of heterochrony therein. One candidate heterochronic phenomenon is represented by the concept of the ‘egg-nauplius’, in which the nauplius larva, considered plesiomorphic to all Crustacea, is recapitulated as an embryonic stage. Results Here we present a comparative investigation of embryonic muscle differentiation in four representatives of Malacostraca: Gonodactylaceus falcatus (Stomatopoda), Neocaridina heteropoda (Decapoda), Neomysis integer (Mysida) and Parhyale hawaiensis (Amphipoda). We describe the patterns of muscle precursors in different embryonic stages to reconstruct the sequence of muscle development, until hatching of the larva or juvenile. Comparison of the developmental sequences between species reveals extensive heterochronic and heteromorphic variation. Clear anticipation of muscle differentiation in the nauplius segments, but also early formation of longitudinal trunk musculature independently of the teloblastic proliferation zone, are found to be characteristic to stomatopods and decapods, all of which share an egg-nauplius stage. Conclusions Our study provides a strong indication that the concept of nauplius recapitulation in Malacostraca is incomplete, because sequences of muscle tissue differentiation deviate from the chronological patterns observed in the ectoderm, on which the egg-nauplius is based. However, comparison of myogenic sequences between taxa supports the hypothesis of a zoea-like larva that was present in the last common ancestor of Eumalacostraca (Malacostraca without Leptostraca). We argue that much of the developmental sequences of larva muscle patterning were retained in the eumalacostracan lineage despite the reduction of free swimming nauplius larvae, but was severely reduced in the peracaridean clade. PMID:24325906

2013-01-01

317

New Functions of Arthropod Bursicon: Inducing Deposition and Thickening of New Cuticle and Hemocyte Granulation in the Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus  

PubMed Central

Arthropod growth requires molt-associated changes in softness and stiffness of the cuticle that protects from desiccation, infection and injury. Cuticle hardening in insects depends on the blood-borne hormone, bursicon (Burs), although it has never been determined in hemolymph. Whilst also having Burs, decapod crustaceans reiterate molting many more times during their longer life span and are encased in a calcified exoskeleton, which after molting undergoes similar initial cuticle hardening processes as in insects. We investigated the role of homologous crustacean Burs in cuticular changes and growth in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. We found dramatic increases in size and number of Burs cells during development in paired thoracic ganglion complex (TGC) neurons with pericardial organs (POs) as neurohemal release sites. A skewed expression of Burs ?/Burs ? mRNA in TGC corresponds to protein contents of identified Burs ? homodimer and Burs heterodimer in POs. In hemolymph, Burs is consistently present at ?21 pM throughout the molt cycle, showing a peak of ?89 pM at ecdysis. Since initial cuticle hardness determines the degree of molt-associated somatic increment (MSI), we applied recombinant Burs in vitro to cuticle explants of late premolt or early ecdysis. Burs stimulates cuticle thickening and granulation of hemocytes. These findings demonstrate novel cuticle-associated functions of Burs during molting, while the unambiguous and constant presence of Burs in cells and hemolymph throughout the molt cycle and life stages may implicate further functions of its homo- and heterodimer hormone isoforms in immunoprotective defense systems of arthropods. PMID:23029467

Chung, J. Sook; Katayama, Hidekazu; Dircksen, Heinrich

2012-01-01

318

Transcriptome Analysis of the Oriental River Prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense Using 454 Pyrosequencing for Discovery of Genes and Markers  

PubMed Central

Background The oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, is an economically and nutritionally important species of the Palaemonidae family of decapod crustaceans. To date, the sequencing of its whole genome is unavailable as a non-model organism. Transcriptomic information is also scarce for this species. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce the first comprehensive expressed sequence tag (EST) dataset for M. nipponense using high-throughput sequencing technologies. Methodology and Principal Findings Total RNA was isolated from eyestalk, gill, heart, ovary, testis, hepatopancreas, muscle, and embryos at the cleavage, gastrula, nauplius and zoea stages. Equal quantities of RNA from each tissue and stage were pooled to construct a cDNA library. Using 454 pyrosequencing technology, we generated a total of 984,204 high quality reads (338.59Mb) with an average length of 344 bp. Clustering and assembly of these reads produced a non-redundant set of 81,411 unique sequences, comprising 42,551 contigs and 38,860 singletons. All of the unique sequences were involved in the molecular function (30,425), cellular component (44,112) and biological process (67,679) categories by GO analysis. Potential genes and their functions were predicted by KEGG pathway mapping and COG analysis. Based on our sequence analysis and published literature, many putative genes involved in sex determination, including DMRT1, FTZ-F1, FOXL2, FEM1 and other potentially important candidate genes, were identified for the first time in this prawn. Furthermore, 6,689 SSRs and 18,107 high-confidence SNPs were identified in this EST dataset. Conclusions The transcriptome provides an invaluable new data for a functional genomics resource and future biological research in M. nipponense. The molecular markers identified in this study will provide a material basis for future genetic linkage and quantitative trait loci analyses, and will be essential for accelerating aquaculture breeding programs with this species. PMID:22745820

Ma, Keyi; Qiu, Gaofeng; Feng, Jianbin; Li, Jiale

2012-01-01

319

The insulin-like androgenic gland hormone in crustaceans: From a single gene silencing to a wide array of sexual manipulation-based biotechnologies.  

PubMed

Due to the over-harvesting and deterioration of wild populations, the ever-growing crustacean market is increasingly reliant on aquaculture, driving the need for better management techniques. Since most cultured crustacean species exhibit sexually dimorphic growth patterns, the culture of monosex populations (either all-male or all-female) is a preferred approach for gaining higher yields, with the ecological benefit of reducing the risk of invasion by the cultured species. Sexual manipulations may also render sustainable solutions to the environmental problems caused by the presence of invasive crustacean species with detrimental impacts ranging from aggressive competition with native species for food and shelter, to affecting aquaculture facilities and harvests and causing structural damage to river banks. Recent discoveries of androgenic gland (AG)-specific insulin-like peptides (IAGs) in crustaceans and the ability to manipulate them and their encoding transcripts (IAGs) have raised the possibility of sexually manipulating crustacean populations. Sexual manipulation is already a part of sustainable solutions in fish aquaculture and in the bio-control of insect pest species, and attempts are also being made to implement it with crustaceans. As recently exemplified in a commercially important prawn species, IAG silencing, a temporal, non-genetically modifying and non-transmissible intervention, has enabled the production of non-breeding all-male monosex populations that are the progeny of sexually reversed males ('neo-females'). IAG manipulations-based biotechnologies therefore have the potential to radically transform the entire industry. We review here how this proof of concept could be broadened to meet both aquacultural and environmental needs. We include the major cultured decapod crustacean groups and suggest a sustainable solution for the management of invasive and pest crustacean species. We also review the key considerations for devising a biotechnological approach that specifically tailors the molecular technological abilities to the management of each target group. PMID:22561950

Ventura, Tomer; Sagi, Amir

2012-01-01

320

Spiny lobsters use urine-borne olfactory signaling and physical aggressive behaviors to influence social status of conspecifics.  

PubMed

Decapod crustaceans, like many other animals, engage in agonistic behaviors that enhance their ability to compete for resources with conspecifics. These agonistic behaviors include the release of chemical signals as well as physical aggressive and submissive behaviors. In this study, we report that Caribbean spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, use both urine-borne chemical signaling and physical aggressive behaviors during interactions with conspecifics, and that these agonistic behaviors can influence the behavior and eventual social status of the interactants. Spiny lobsters that engaged primarily in physical aggressive behaviors became dominant, whereas spiny lobsters that received these physical aggressive behaviors responded with avoidance behaviors and became subordinates. Dominant animals frequently released urine during social interactions, more than when they were not in contact with subordinates and more than when they were not paired with another animal. Subordinates released urine significantly less often than dominants, and no more than when not paired. Preventing release of urine by catheterizing the animals resulted in an increase in the number and duration of physical interactions, and this increase was primarily driven by dominants initiating interactions through physical aggressive behaviors. Introducing urine from one of the catheterized animals into an aquarium reduced physical aggressive behavior by dominant animals to normal levels. Urine-borne signals alone were capable of inducing avoidance behaviors from solitary spiny lobsters in both laboratory and field conditions. We conclude that urine serves as a chemical signal that communicates social status to the interactants. Ablation experiments showed that that these urine signals are detected primarily by aesthetasc sensilla of the olfactory pathway. PMID:19617440

Shabani, Shkelzen; Kamio, Michiya; Derby, Charles D

2009-08-01

321

Identification of putative neuroblasts at the base of adult neurogenesis in the olfactory midbrain of the spiny lobster, Panulirus argus.  

PubMed

Continuous neurogenesis persists during adulthood in the olfactory midbrain of decapod crustaceans, including spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus. This encompasses generation of projection and local interneurons, whose somata are in the lateral soma cluster (LC) and medial soma cluster (MC), respectively. Both neuronal types originate from immediate precursors labeled by a single injection of BrdU and located in a small proliferation zone within each cluster. The aim of this study was to identify neuroblasts as a source of the dividing cells by multiple injections of BrdU over 2 days. All animals receiving multiple injections had one or a few 'extra' BrdU-positive nuclei near the proliferation zones, and these nuclei were significantly larger than nuclei of neurons or BrdU-positive cells in the proliferation zones. Since the defining morphological feature of neuroblasts in preadult neurogenesis in arthropods is being larger than their progeny, these large extra BrdU-positive nuclei represent "putative adult neuroblasts." Multiple BrdU-injections revealed a clump of small cells enclosing the putative adult neuroblasts in LC and MC, and these cells shared morphological characteristics with newly identified putative glial cells in the soma clusters and perivascular cells in the walls of arterioles. These results on P. argus suggest that adult neurogenesis is based on one adult neuroblast per soma cluster, adult neurogenesis appears to be a continuation of embryonic and larval neurogenesis, and the newly identified clumps of cells surrounding the putative adult neuroblasts might provide them with specific microenvironments necessary for their unusual lifelong proliferative and self-renewal capacity. PMID:17480012

Schmidt, Manfred

2007-07-01

322

Sea urchin coelomocytes are resistant to a variety of DNA damaging agents.  

PubMed

Increasing anthropogenic activities are creating environmental pressures that threaten marine ecosystems. Effective environmental health assessment requires the development of rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective tools to predict negative impacts at the individual and ecosystem levels. To this end, a number of biological assays using a variety of cells and organisms measuring different end points have been developed for biomonitoring programs. The sea urchin fertilization/development test has been useful for evaluating environmental toxicology and it has been proposed that sea urchin coelomocytes represent a novel cellular biosensor of environmental stress. In this study we investigated the sensitivity of coelomocytes from the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus to a variety of DNA-damaging agents including ultraviolet (UV) radiation, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), methylmethane sulfonate (MMS) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). LD(50) values determined for coelomocytes after 24h of exposure to these DNA damaging agents indicated a high level of resistance to all treatments. Significant increases in the formation of apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP or abasic) sites in DNA were only detected using high doses of H(2)O(2), MMS and UV radiation. Comparison of sea urchin coelomocytes with hemocytes from the gastropod mollusk Aplysia dactylomela and the decapod crustacean Panulirus argus indicated that sensitivity to different DNA damaging agents varies between species. The high level of resistance to genotoxic agents suggests that DNA damage may not be an informative end point for environmental health assessment using sea urchin coelomocytes however, natural resistance to DNA damaging agents may have implications for the occurrence of neoplastic disease in these animals. PMID:22948035

Loram, Jeannette; Raudonis, Renee; Chapman, Jecar; Lortie, Mae; Bodnar, Andrea

2012-11-15

323

Non-olfactory chemoreceptors in asymmetric setae activate antennular grooming behavior in the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus.  

PubMed

In the spiny lobster Panulirus argus the antennules carrying olfactory sensilla called aesthetascs and several types of other non-olfactory sensilla accompanying them are frequently groomed by the third maxillipeds in a stereotyped behavioral pattern. This behavior can be elicited by chemical stimulation with l-glutamate. Using selective sensillar ablations, we tested whether this behavior is driven by the numerous aesthetascs, which have been implicated as mediating this chemically elicited antennular grooming behavior in a previous investigation, or other, less numerous sensilla called asymmetric setae, which are tightly associated with aesthetascs. The selective sensilla ablations showed that the asymmetric setae are necessary and sufficient for driving chemically elicited antennular grooming. Bilateral elimination of the ca. 160 asymmetric setae almost completely abolished the behavior, whereas bilateral elimination of the ca. 2600 aesthetascs or of another type of sensilla associated with them (guard setae) did not cause a reduction in chemically elicited antennular grooming. Microscopical analysis of the morphological properties of the asymmetric setae revealed the presence of a terminal pore at the tip of the seta and a phalloidin-positive scolopale below its base. Since these structures have been identified in decapod crustaceans as modality-specific structures of bimodal chemo- and mechanosensory sensilla, we conclude that the asymmetric setae belong to this type of sensilla and thus have the appropriate features to function as chemoreceptors in the elicitation of antennular grooming. The identification of asymmetric setae and not aesthetascs as the drivers of chemically elicited antennular grooming suggests that it is not the olfactory pathway in the brain but a parallel pathway, constituted mainly by the lateral antennular neuropils, that is the neuronal substrate of this behavior. The lateral antennular neuropils receive non-olfactory sensory input from the antennule and contain the major arborizations of antennular motoneurons, allowing that direct sensory-motor coupling is involved in mediating the chemical elicitation of antennular grooming behavior. PMID:15634843

Schmidt, Manfred; Derby, Charles D

2005-01-01

324

Revisiting the reticulum: feedforward and feedback contributions to motor program parameters in the crab cardiac ganglion microcircuit  

PubMed Central

The neurogenic heartbeat of crustaceans is controlled by the cardiac ganglion (CG), a central pattern generator (CPG) microcircuit composed of nine neurons. In most decapods, five “large” motor neurons (MNs) project from the CG to the myocardium, where their excitatory synaptic signals generate the rhythmic heartbeat. The processes of four “small” premotor neurons (PMNs) are confined to the CG, where they provide excitatory drive to the MNs via impulse-mediated chemical signals and electrotonic coupling. This study explored feedforward and feedback interactions between the PMNs and the MNs in the CG of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus). Three methods were used to compare the activity of the MNs and the PMNs in the integrated CG to their autonomous firing patterns: 1) ligatures were tightened on the ganglion trunk that connects the PMNs and MNs; 2) TTX was applied focally to suppress selectively PMN or MN activity; and 3) sucrose pools were devised to block reversibly PMN or MN impulse conduction. With all treatments, the PMNs and MNs continued to produce autonomous rhythmic bursting following disengagement. Removal of PMN influence resulted in a significantly reduced MN duty cycle that was mainly attributable to a lower autonomous burst frequency. Conversely, after removal of MN feedback, the PMN duty cycle was increased, primarily due to a prolonged burst duration. Application of sucrose to block impulse conduction without eliminating PMN oscillations disclosed significant contributions of spike-mediated PMN-to-MN signals to the initiation and prolongation of the MN burst. Together, these observations support a view of the Callinectes CG composed of two classes of spontaneously bursting neurons with distinct endogenous rhythms. Compartmentalized feedforward and feedback signaling endow this microcircuit with syncytial properties such that the intrinsic attributes of the PMNs and MNs both contribute to shaping all parameters of the motor patterns transmitted to the myocardium. PMID:21775716

García-Crescioni, Keyla

2011-01-01

325

Cytoarchitecture and ultrastructure of neural stem cell niches and neurogenic complexes maintaining adult neurogenesis in the olfactory midbrain of spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus.  

PubMed

New interneurons are continuously generated in small proliferation zones within neuronal somata clusters in the olfactory deutocerebrum of adult decapod crustaceans. Each proliferation zone is connected to a clump of cells containing one neural stem cell (i.e., adult neuroblast), thus forming a "neurogenic complex." Here we provide a detailed analysis of the cytoarchitecture of neurogenic complexes in adult spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, based on transmission electron microscopy and labeling with cell-type-selective markers. The clump of cells is composed of unique bipolar clump-forming cells that collectively completely envelop the adult neuroblast and are themselves ensheathed by a layer of processes of multipolar cell body glia. An arteriole is attached to the clump of cells, but dye perfusion experiments show that hemolymph has no access to the interior of the clump of cells. Thus, the clump of cells fulfills morphological criteria of a protective stem cell niche, with clump-forming cells constituting the adult neuroblast's microenvironment together with the cell body glia processes separating it from other tissue components. Bromodeoxyuridine pulse-chase experiments with short survival times suggest that adult neuroblasts are not quiescent but rather cycle actively during daytime. We propose a cell lineage model in which an asymmetrically dividing adult neuroblast repopulates the pool of neuronal progenitor cells in the associated proliferation zone. In conclusion, as in mammalian brains, adult neurogenesis in crustacean brains is fueled by neural stem cells that are maintained by stem cell niches that preserve elements of the embryonic microenvironment and contain glial and vascular elements. PMID:21523781

Schmidt, Manfred; Derby, Charles D

2011-08-15

326

Histological and Histochemical Study of the Hepatopancreas of Two Estuarine Crab Species, Cyrtograpsus angulatus and Neohelice granulata (Grapsoidea, Varunidae): Influence of Environmental Salinity.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to analyze the histology and the histochemical distribution of glycoproteins (GPs) and lipids of the hepatopancreas of Cyrtograpsus angulatus and Neohelice granulata acclimated to salinities of 10 psu (hyperregulation) and 35 psu (osmoconformation). Sections of the hepatopancreas of adult male crabs were treated with hematoxylin-eosin; Masson trichrome; Alcian Blue (pHs 2.8, 1.0, 0.5); Toluidine Blue (pHs 5.6, 4.2); periodic acid Schiff; Sudan Black and Red. At salinity 35 psu, the hepatopancreas of both species exhibited typical histological features, whereas at salinity 10 psu, detachment of the basal lamina, desquamated epithelium, disrupted brush border, loss of intercellular cohesion, hypertrophied tubular lumen, and hemolymph infiltration between cells were observed in some zones. Resorptive cells (R-cells) and vacuoles of blister-like cells (B-cells) of both species show a higher glycogen content at 35 psu than at 10 psu. At lower salinities, the cytoplasm of the different cell types evidence higher contents of carboxylated GPs in N. granulata and of su If at ed GPs in C. angulatus. At both salinities, and at the two pHs in N. granulata and at pH 5.6 in C. angulatus, the brush border, the vacuoles of B-cells and the peritrophic membrane show metachromasia. R-cell vacuoles and the cytoplasm of all cell types -except for the E-cells-at all salinities in both species show abundant lipid droplets. The results of the present study contribute significant data to the histophysiology of crustacean decapods, favoring the comprehension of the complex adjustment mechanisms facing saline stress in euryhaline crabs. PMID:25826065

Longo, María Victoria; Díaz, Alcira Ofelia

2015-04-01

327

The Global Diversity of Parasitic Isopods Associated with Crustacean Hosts (Isopoda: Bopyroidea and Cryptoniscoidea)  

PubMed Central

Parasitic isopods of Bopyroidea and Cryptoniscoidea (commonly referred to as epicarideans) are unique in using crustaceans as both intermediate and definitive hosts. In total, 795 epicarideans are known, representing ?7.7% of described isopods. The rate of description of parasitic species has not matched that of free-living isopods and this disparity will likely continue due to the more cryptic nature of these parasites. Distribution patterns of epicarideans are influenced by a combination of their definitive (both benthic and pelagic species) and intermediate (pelagic copepod) host distributions, although host specificity is poorly known for most species. Among epicarideans, nearly all species in Bopyroidea are ectoparasitic on decapod hosts. Bopyrids are the most diverse taxon (605 species), with their highest diversity in the North West Pacific (139 species), East Asian Sea (120 species), and Central Indian Ocean (44 species). The diversity patterns of Cryptoniscoidea (99 species, endoparasites of a diverse assemblage of crustacean hosts) are distinct from bopyrids, with the greatest diversity of cryptoniscoids in the North East Atlantic (18 species) followed by the Antarctic, Mediterranean, and Arctic regions (13, 12, and 8 species, respectively). Dajidae (54 species, ectoparasites of shrimp, mysids, and euphausids) exhibits highest diversity in the Antarctic (7 species) with 14 species in the Arctic and North East Atlantic regions combined. Entoniscidae (37 species, endoparasites within anomuran, brachyuran and shrimp hosts) show highest diversity in the North West Pacific (10 species) and North East Atlantic (8 species). Most epicarideans are known from relatively shallow waters, although some bopyrids are known from depths below 4000 m. Lack of parasitic groups in certain geographic areas is likely a sampling artifact and we predict that the Central Indian Ocean and East Asian Sea (in particular, the Indo-Malay-Philippines Archipelago) hold a wealth of undescribed species, reflecting our knowledge of host diversity patterns. PMID:22558143

Williams, Jason D.; Boyko, Christopher B.

2012-01-01

328

Diversity and vertical distribution of mesozooplankton in the Arctic's Canada Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The composition and biomass of the zooplankton community within the Canada Basin down to 3000 m was studied during July 2005 at 12 stations. A total of 111 species including 74 species of crustaceans (55 species of copepods, 2 euphausiids, 11 amphipods, 1 decapod, 5 ostracods), 17 cnidarians (12 hydromedusae, 1 scyphomedusae, 4 siphonophora), 1 foraminifera, 4 ctenophores, 2 pteropods, 4 larvaceans, 4 chaetognaths, and 5 polychaetes were identified. Most of the species observed are typical of the Arctic waters, with the notable exception of several Pacific expatriate copepod species, suggesting no zoogeographical barrier between the Canadian and Eurasian basins. Overall species inventories appear unchanged over the past 50 years, and were similar to the Eurasian Basins. Zooplankton biomass averaged 3.6±0.23 g DW m -2, with ˜50% of the biomass concentrated within the upper 100 m; nonetheless significant biomass and the majority of species diversity occurred below 100 m. Copepods represented 91% of the community numerically, followed by pteropods (2.6%), larvacean (1.8%) and shelled protists (1.5%), with other groups each contributing 1% or less. While copepods represented 85% of the total biomass, chaetognaths represented 13% on average (ca. 50% of non-copepod biomass), followed by cnidarians plus ctenophores (4.6%), ostracods (3.6%), and other groups (˜2% or less). Species-specific depth preferences and ranges resulted in statistically distinct communities in different depth strata and showed an orderly departure in similarity with increasing distance between strata. In Arctic waters, because temperature varies relatively little over the water column, so should respiratory rates; hence deep-water species are likely to play a greater role in the transfer or recycling of surface production than is typical of other deep ocean communities.

Kosobokova, Ksenia N.; Hopcroft, Russell R.

2010-01-01

329

Estuarine resources use by juvenile Flagfin mojarra ( Eucinostomus melanopterus) in an inverse tropical estuary (Sine Saloum, Senegal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Flagfin mojarra, Eucinostomus melanopterus, is a marine spawner whose young individuals are common in the Sine Saloum inverse estuary (Senegal). The species offers the opportunity to study both the use of the estuarine nursery resources and the impact of the particular environment of the inverse estuary on these resources. This will lead to a better understanding of the functioning of the nursery. We investigated the resources used by juvenile Flagfin mojarra by coupling stomach contents and stable isotopes methods. Young Flagfin mojarra feed on a wide range of invertebrates. Diet changed from copepods in the smallest size class (10-40 mm), to a range of invertebrates including amphipods, insect larvae, polychaetes and mollusc in the medium size class (up to 60 mm) and mainly polychaetes for individuals >60 mm in size. In mangrove habitats with moderate salinity, the diet was dominated by polychaetes and decapod larvae (crabs) whereas in habitats with higher salinity, diet was dominated by amphipods. In very hypersaline areas with scarce mangroves, diet comprised benthic copepods, chironomid larvae and ostracods. This agreed with a clear change in ?13C measured in fish sampled at downstream or upstream sites. Comparison with signatures of primary producers suggested that the local food web exploited by young Flagfin mojarra is mainly based on phytoplankton in the downstream mangrove area, and mainly on benthic microalgae in the upstream hypersaline area. As in many studies considering the food webs in mangrove, mangrove was not identified as a major contributor to the food web exploited by E. melanopterus. This needs further investigation particularly because the exportation of estuarine materials to the sea is limited in an inverse estuary.

Gning, Ndombour; Le Loc'h, François; Thiaw, Omar T.; Aliaume, Catherine; Vidy, Guy

2010-03-01

330

Soft-bottom crustacean assemblages in Mediterranean marine caves: the cave of Cerro Gordo (Granada, Spain) as case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although marine caves are priority conservation areas according to the Directive 92/43/CEE of the European Community, there is a lack of studies dealing with their soft-bottom communities. For a case study, we selected the Cerro Gordo cave at 15 m depth. Three different zones were defined: a semi-dark 25-m long entrance area, a dark intermediate area of 35 m, and the final zone at 90 m from the entrance. Sediment samples were taken from these zones as well as from outside the cave (control) by SCUBA diving. Six rectangular cores of 10 × 250 cm2 were collected in each site for macrofaunal study, and three more replicates were taken to analyze physico-chemical parameters. The granulometry showed a clear gradient from medium sands outside the cave to silt and clay in the inner zone. Measurements of the crustacean assemblages showed that the number of species and abundance were significantly higher outside the cave (30-40 species, >4,000 ind m-2) than inside (5-10 species, <1,000 ind m-2). Multivariate analyses showed a clear difference in species composition between outside and inside the cave. Caprellids, tanaids, cumaceans, and decapods were only found outside the cave, while gammarids and isopods were present both outside and inside the cave. The gammarid Siphonoecetes sabatieri and the tanaid Apseudes latreilli were the dominant species outside the cave, while the gammarids Harpinia pectinata, Harpinia crenulata, and Harpinia ala were dominant inside. The present study represents an increase in depth range and geographic distribution for Kupellonura mediterranea and Monoculodes packardi. This is the first description of soft-bottom crustacean communities from submarine caves of southern Spain.

Navarro-Barranco, C.; Guerra-García, J. M.; Sánchez-Tocino, L.; García-Gómez, J. C.

2012-12-01

331

Diet composition and resource partitioning in two small flatfish species in the German Bight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the late 1980s, the small-sized non-commercial flatfish species solenette ( Buglossidium luteum) and scaldfish ( Arnoglossus laterna) have increased in abundance in the southern North Sea. Because these species are considered as possible competitors for prey of commercial flatfish, this study aimed at advancing knowledge of their feeding ecology. Between January 2009 and January 2010 stomach contents of solenette and scaldfish and benthic infauna were sampled seasonally in a study area in the German Bight. The objectives were to investigate the seasonal variability of feeding activity and diet composition of both flatfish species related to benthic prey availability. For both flatfish, the highest feeding activity was found in summer, at the same time that the highest prey densities occurred in the study area. A reduced feeding activity was observed during the winter of 2010, but not in the winter of 2009, probably related to higher 2009 water temperatures. In all seasons, diet composition of solenette was dominated by meiofauna, mainly harpacticoid copepods. Macrofauna prey species, namely juveniles of bivalves and echinoderms became important in spring. An increase in amphipods and cumaceans was found in the stomach contents during summer and autumn, simultaneously with their increased abundance in the benthic infauna. In contrast, polychaetes were rarely found in the diet, but dominated the infauna during all seasons. Diet composition of scaldfish was dominated by larger and mobile prey, and, during all seasons, was mainly comprised of crustaceans. Amphipods characterised the diet in both winters, while decapods such as Crangon spp. and Liocarcinus spp. were the dominant prey from spring to autumn. Additionally, juveniles of flatfish (Pleuronectids) and bivalves were found in the scaldfish diet in spring, replaced by cumaceans in summer. No dietary overlap between both flatfish species was found across seasons, indicating partitioning of prey resources between solenette and scaldfish. Their different feeding strategies and prey preferences, in turn were influenced by the seasonal variability of available prey.

Schückel, S.; Sell, A.; Kröncke, I.; Reiss, H.

2011-10-01

332

The Fauna Of Two New Discovered Hydrothermal Fields At 5°S And 9°33'S On The Mid-Atlantic-Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Before April 2005 there was a zoogeographical puzzle to solve: Are there any hydrothermal vent communities south of the equator the Atlantic Ocean, and if so, what will be their characteristics? Are they similar with those of the northern Atlantic Ocean or will they differ? Before the cruise 169 of the British "Charles Darwin" research vessel started, no vent site was discovered on the southern Atlantic Ridge. Using an autonomous underwater vehicle from WHOI, the first hydrothermal active vent site was found at 5°S in April 2005. With the support by British and American colleagues(Chris German and Tim Shank) the scientific crew of Meteor cruise M64/1 sampled this site at 5° first with the ROV "Quest 4000" from Marum, University Bremen. But far in excess of this success one more vent site was discovered and investigated by the Meteor cruise M64/1: the Lilliput Field at 9°33S on the Mid-Atlantic-Ridge. Our first results indicate that the identified taxa of the hydrothermal fields at 5°S and 9°33S resemble the northern Logatchev community (Gebruk et al. 2000) in most elements. Remarkable is the missing of following typical hydrothermal taxa: Decapods of the families Alvinocaridae, like Chorocaris, and Galatheidae, echinoderms like Ophiuridae and Ventfishes of the family Zoarcidae. Obviously the Romanch Fracture Zone act only partly as a physical barrier between vent fauna assemblages of the North and South Atlantic Oceans (see Shank 2004). Gebruk, A.V., Chevaldonne, P., Shank, T., Lutz, R.A. & Vrijenhoek, R.C. (2000): Deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities of the Logatchev area (14°45'N, Mid-Atlantic Ridge): diverse biotopes and high biomass. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U. K. 80: 383-393. Shank, T. (2004): The evolutionary puzzle of seafloor life. - Oceanus Magazine Vol. 42, No.2 http://oceanusmag.whoi.edu/v42n2/shank.html.

Stecher, J. E.

2005-12-01

333

Temperature effects on zoeal morphometric traits and intraspecific variability in the hairy crab Cancer setosus across latitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenotypic plasticity is an important but often ignored ability that enables organisms, within species-specific physiological limits, to respond to gradual or sudden extrinsic changes in their environment. In the marine realm, the early ontogeny of decapod crustaceans is among the best known examples to demonstrate a temperature-dependent phenotypic response. Here, we present morphometric results of larvae of the hairy crab Cancer setosus, the embryonic development of which took place at different temperatures at two different sites (Antofagasta, 23°45' S; Puerto Montt, 41°44' S) along the Chilean Coast. Zoea I larvae from Puerto Montt were significantly larger than those from Antofagasta, when considering embryonic development at the same temperature. Larvae from Puerto Montt reared at 12 and 16°C did not differ morphometrically, but sizes of larvae from Antofagasta kept at 16 and 20°C did, being larger at the colder temperature. Zoea II larvae reared in Antofagasta at three temperatures (16, 20, and 24°C) showed the same pattern, with larger larvae at colder temperatures. Furthermore, larvae reared at 24°C, showed deformations, suggesting that 24°C, which coincides with temperatures found during strong EL Niño events, is indicative of the upper larval thermal tolerance limit. C. setosus is exposed to a wide temperature range across its distribution range of about 40° of latitude. Phenotypic plasticity in larval offspring does furthermore enable this species to locally respond to the inter-decadal warming induced by El Niño. Morphological plasticity in this species does support previously reported energetic trade-offs with temperature throughout early ontogeny of this species, indicating that plasticity may be a key to a species’ success to occupy a wide distribution range and/or to thrive under highly variable habitat conditions.

Weiss, Monika; Thatje, Sven; Heilmayer, Olaf

2010-06-01

334

Modeling prey consumption by native and non-native piscivorous fishes: implications for competition and impacts on shared prey in an ultraoligotrophic lake in Patagonia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined trophic interactions of the nonnative salmonids Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, Brown Trout Salmo trutta, and Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalisand the main native predator Creole Perch Percichthys trucha in Lake Nahuel Huapi (Patagonia, Argentina) to determine the relative impact of each predator on their forage base and to evaluate the potential vulnerability of each predator to competitive impacts by the others. Using bioenergetics simulations, we demonstrated the overall importance of galaxiids and decapods to the energy budgets of nonnative salmonids and Creole Perch. Introduced salmonids, especially Rainbow Trout, exerted considerably heavier predatory demands on shared resources than did the native Creole Perch on both a per capita basis and in terms of relative population impacts. Rainbow Trout consumed higher quantities and a wider size range of Small Puyen (also known as Inanga) Galaxias maculatus than the other predators, including early pelagic life stages of that prey; as such, this represents an additional source of mortality for the vulnerable early life stages of Small Puyen before and during their transition from pelagic to benthic habitats. All predators were generally feeding at high feeding rates (above 40% of their maximum physiological rates), suggesting that competition for prey does not currently limit either Creole Perch or the salmonids in this lake. This study highlights the importance of keystone prey for the coexistence of native species with nonnative top predators. It provides new quantitative and qualitative evidence of the high predation pressure exerted on Small Puyen, the keystone prey species, during the larval to juvenile transition from pelagic to littoral-benthic habitat in Patagonian lakes. This study also emphasizes the importance of monitoring salmonid and Creole Perch population dynamics in order to detect signs of potential impacts through competition and shows the need to carefully consider the rationale behind any additional trout stocking.

Juncos, Romina; Beauchamp, David A.; Viglianoc, Pablo H.

2013-01-01

335

N-glycan moieties of the crustacean egg yolk protein and their glycosylation sites.  

PubMed

Vitellogenin (Vg) is the precursor of the egg yolk glycoprotein of crustaceans. In the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Vg is synthesized in the hepatopancreas, secreted to the hemolymph, and taken up by means of receptor-mediated endocytosis into the oocytes. The importance of glycosylation of Vg lies in its putative role in the folding, processing and transport of this protein to the egg yolk and in the fact that the N-glycan moieties could provide a source of carbohydrate during embryogenesis. The present study describes, for the first time, the structure of the glycan moieties and their sites of attachment to the Vg of M. rosenbergii. Bioinformatics analysis revealed seven putative N-glycosylation sites in M. rosenbergii Vg; two of these glycosylation sites are conserved throughout the Vgs of decapod crustaceans from the Pleocyemata suborder (N 159 and N 660). The glycosylation of six putative sites of M. rosenbergii Vg (N 151, N 159, N ,168 N ,614 N 660 and N 2300) was confirmed; three of the confirmed glycosylation sites are localized around the N-terminally conserved N-glycosylation site N 159. From a theoretical three-dimensional structure, these three N-glycosylated sites N 151, N 159, and N 168 were localized on the surface of the Vg consensus sequence. In addition, an uncommon high mannose N-linked oligosaccharide structure with a glucose cap (Glc1Man9GlcNAc2) was characterized in the secreted Vg. These findings thus make a significant contribution to the structural elucidating of the crustacean Vg glycan moieties, which may shed light on their role in protein folding and transport and in recognition between Vg and its target organ, the oocyte. PMID:19921429

Roth, Ziv; Parnes, Shmuel; Wiel, Simy; Sagi, Amir; Zmora, Nili; Chung, J Sook; Khalaila, Isam

2010-01-01

336

Cross-shelf transport of pink shrimp larvae: Interactions of tidal currents, larval vertical migrations and internal tides  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Transport and behavior of pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarum larvae were investigated on the southwestern Florida (SWF) shelf of the Gulf of Mexico between the Dry Tortugas spawning grounds and Florida Bay nursery grounds. Stratified plankton samples and hydrographic data were collected at 2 h intervals at 3 stations located on a cross-shelf transect. At the Marquesas station, midway between Dry Tortugas and Florida Bay, internal tides were recognized by anomalously cool water, a shallow thermocline with strong density gradients, strong current shear, and a high concentration of pink shrimp larvae at the shallow thermocline. Low Richardson numbers occurred at the pycnocline depth, indicating vertical shear instability and possible turbulent transport from the lower to the upper layer where myses and postlarvae were concentrated. Analysis of vertically stratified plankton suggested that larvae perform vertical migrations and the specific behavior changes ontogenetically; protozoeae were found deeper than myses, and myses deeper than postlarvae. Relative concentrations of protozoea in the upper, middle and bottom layers were consistent with a diel vertical migration, whereas that of postlarvae and myses were consistent with the semidiurnal tides in phase with the flood tide. Postlarvae, the shallowest dwellers that migrate with a semidiurnal periodicity, experienced the largest net onshore flux and larval concentrations were highly correlated with the cross-shelf current. These results provide the first evidence of an onshore tidal transport (a type of selective tidal stream transport, STST), in decapod larvae migrating in continental shelf waters offshore, ca. 100 km from the coast and at a depth of 20 m, while approaching the coastal nursery grounds. Longer time series would be necessary to establish whether internal tides play any role in the larval onshore transport of this species and determine if the STST is the dominant onshore transport mechanism. ?? Inter-Research 2007 .

Criales, M.M.; Browder, J.A.; Mooers, C.N.K.; Robblee, M.B.; Cardenas, H.; Jackson, T.L.

2007-01-01

337

DNA barcoding of Arctic Ocean holozooplankton for species identification and recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zooplankton species diversity and distribution are important measures of environmental change in the Arctic Ocean, and may serve as 'rapid-responders' of climate-induced changes in this fragile ecosystem. The scarcity of taxonomists hampers detailed and up-to-date monitoring of these patterns for the rarer and more problematic species. DNA barcodes (short DNA sequences for species recognition and discovery) provide an alternative approach to accurate identification of known species, and can speed routine analysis of zooplankton samples. During 2004-2008, zooplankton samples were collected during cruises to the central Arctic Ocean and Chukchi Sea. A ˜700 base-pair region of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) gene was amplified and sequenced for 82 identified specimens of 41 species, including cnidarians (six hydrozoans, one scyphozoan), arthropod crustaceans (five amphipods, 24 copepods, one decapod, and one euphausiid); two chaetognaths; and one nemertean. Phylogenetic analysis used the Neighbor-Joining algorithm with Kimura-2-Parameter (K-2-P) distances, with 1000-fold bootstrapping. K-2-P genetic distances between individuals of the same species ranged from 0.0 to 0.2; genetic distances between species ranged widely from 0.1 to 0.7. The mtCOI gene tree showed monophyly (at 100% bootstrap value) for each of the 26 species for which more than one individual was analyzed. Of seven genera for which more than one species was analyzed, four were shown to be monophyletic; three genera were not resolved. At higher taxonomic levels, only the crustacean order Copepoda was resolved, with bootstrap value of 83%. The mtCOI barcodes accurately discriminated and identified known species of 10 taxonomic groups of Arctic Ocean holozooplankton. A comprehensive DNA barcode database for the estimated 300 described species of Arctic holozooplankton will allow rapid assessment of species diversity and distribution in this climate-vulnerable ocean ecosystem.

Bucklin, Ann; Hopcroft, Russell R.; Kosobokova, Ksenia N.; Nigro, Lisa M.; Ortman, Brian D.; Jennings, Robert M.; Sweetman, Christopher J.

2010-01-01

338

Antarctic Crabs: Invasion or Endurance?  

PubMed Central

Recent scientific interest following the “discovery” of lithodid crabs around Antarctica has centred on a hypothesis that these crabs might be poised to invade the Antarctic shelf if the recent warming trend continues, potentially decimating its native fauna. This “invasion hypothesis” suggests that decapod crabs were driven out of Antarctica 40–15 million years ago and are only now returning as “warm” enough habitats become available. The hypothesis is based on a geographically and spatially poor fossil record of a different group of crabs (Brachyura), and examination of relatively few Recent lithodid samples from the Antarctic slope. In this paper, we examine the existing lithodid fossil record and present the distribution and biogeographic patterns derived from over 16,000 records of Recent Southern Hemisphere crabs and lobsters. Globally, the lithodid fossil record consists of only two known specimens, neither of which comes from the Antarctic. Recent records show that 22 species of crabs and lobsters have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with 12 species found south of 60°S. All are restricted to waters warmer than 0°C, with their Antarctic distribution limited to the areas of seafloor dominated by Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW). Currently, CDW extends further and shallower onto the West Antarctic shelf than the known distribution ranges of most lithodid species examined. Geological evidence suggests that West Antarctic shelf could have been available for colonisation during the last 9,000 years. Distribution patterns, species richness, and levels of endemism all suggest that, rather than becoming extinct and recently re-invading from outside Antarctica, the lithodid crabs have likely persisted, and even radiated, on or near to Antarctic slope. We conclude there is no evidence for a modern-day “crab invasion”. We recommend a repeated targeted lithodid sampling program along the West Antarctic shelf to fully test the validity of the “invasion hypothesis”. PMID:23843974

Griffiths, Huw J.; Whittle, Rowan J.; Roberts, Stephen J.; Belchier, Mark; Linse, Katrin

2013-01-01

339

Spatial variability in the structure of intertidal crab and gastropod assemblages within the Seychelles Archipelago (Indian Ocean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical nearshore ecosystems represent global hotspots of marine biodiversity and endemism but are often poorly understood and impacted by human activities. The Seychelles Archipelago (Western Indian Ocean) sustains a wealth of marine life, much of which is threatened by rapid development associated with tourism and climate change. Six marine parks exist within the Archipelago, but their biodiversity value and ecological health are poorly known, especially with regards to non-fish and coral species. Here we investigate spatial patterns of littoral biodiversity on 6 islands, 5 of which were granitic and within marine parks, including the first surveys of Curieuse and Ile Cocos. Our surveys formed a nested sampling design, to facilitate an examination of variability in species richness, faunal abundance, taxonomic distinctness and assemblage composition at multiple spatial scales, from islands (> 100 s km) to quadrats (metres). We identified (mostly to species) and enumerated two target taxa, brachyuran decapod crustaceans and gastropod molluscs, and recorded over 8300 individuals belonging to over 150 species. Crabs and gastropods exhibited different patterns of spatial variability, as crab assemblages were generally more distinct between islands, while gastropod assemblages were markedly variable at the smallest spatial scales of 'patch' and 'quadrat'. Intertidal biodiversity was greatest on Curieuse Island and least at Desroches, the latter was being the only coral atoll we surveyed and thereby differing in its geological and ecological context. We discuss likely drivers of these biodiversity patterns and highlight urgently-needed research directions. Our assessment of the status of poorly-known invertebrate assemblages across the Seychelles will complement more extensive surveys of coral and fish assemblages and, in doing so, provide a useful baseline for monitoring the effects of key stressors in the region, such as coastal development and climate change.

Smale, Dan A.; Barnes, David K. A.; Barnes, Richard S. K.; Smith, David J.; Suggett, David J.

2012-04-01

340

Nitric oxide production and sequestration in the sinus gland of the green shore crab Carcinus maenas.  

PubMed

Molting in decapod crustaceans is regulated by molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH), a neuropeptide produced in the X-organ (XO)/sinus gland (SG) complex of the eyestalk ganglia (ESG). Pulsatile release of MIH from the SG suppresses ecdysteroidogenesis by the molting gland or Y-organ (YO). The hypothesis is that nitric oxide (NO), a neuromodulator that controls neurotransmitter release at presynaptic membranes, depresses the frequency and/or amount of MIH pulses to induce molting. NO synthase (NOS) mRNA was present in Carcinus maenas ESG and other tissues and NOS protein was present in the SG. A copper based ligand (CuFL), which reacts with NO to form a highly fluorescent product (NO-FL), was used to image NO in the ESG and SG and quantify the effects of NO scavenger (cPTIO), NOS inhibitor (l-NAME), and sodium azide (NaN3) on NO production in the SG. Pre-incubation with cPTIO prior to CuFL loading decreased NO-FL fluorescence ~30%; including l-NAME had no additional effect. Incubating SG with l-NAME during pre-incubation and loading decreased NO-FL fluorescence ~40%, indicating that over half of the NO release was not directly dependent on NOS activity. Azide, which reacts with NO-binding metal groups in proteins, reduced NO-FL fluorescence to near background levels without extensive cell death. Spectral shift analysis showed that azide displaced NO from a soluble protein in SG extract. These data suggest that the SG contains NO-binding protein(s) that sequester NO and releases it over a prolonged period. This NO release may modulate neuropeptide secretion from the axon termini in the SG. PMID:25452501

Pitts, Natalie L; Mykles, Donald L

2015-02-01

341

Characterization of a Prawn OA/TA Receptor in Xenopus Oocytes Suggests Functional Selectivity between Octopamine and Tyramine  

PubMed Central

Here we report the characterization of an octopamine/tyramine (OA/TA or TyrR1) receptor (OA/TAMac) cloned from the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, an animal used in the study of agonistic social behavior. The invertebrate OA/TA receptors are seven trans-membrane domain G-protein coupled receptors that are related to vertebrate adrenergic receptors. Behavioral studies in arthropods indicate that octopaminergic signaling systems modulate fight or flight behaviors with octopamine and/or tyramine functioning in a similar way to the adrenalins in vertebrate systems. Despite the importance of octopamine signaling in behavioral studies of decapod crustaceans there are no functional data available for any of their octopamine or tyramine receptors. We expressed OA/TAMac in Xenopus oocytes where agonist-evoked trans-membrane currents were used as readouts of receptor activity. The currents were most effectively evoked by tyramine but were also evoked by octopamine and dopamine. They were effectively blocked by yohimbine. The electrophysiological approach we used enabled the continuous observation of complex dynamics over time. Using voltage steps, we were able to simultaneously resolve two types of endogenous currents that are affected over different time scales. At higher concentrations we observe that octopamine and tyramine can produce different and opposing effects on both of these currents, presumably through the activity of the single expressed receptor type. The pharmacological profile and apparent functional-selectivity are consistent with properties first observed in the OA/TA receptor from the insect Drosophila melanogaster. As the first functional data reported for any crustacean OA/TA receptor, these results suggest that functional-selectivity between tyramine and octopamine is a feature of this receptor type that may be conserved among arthropods. PMID:25350749

Jezzini, Sami H.; Reyes-Colón, Dalynés; Sosa, María A.

2014-01-01

342

Resistance to the crayfish plague pathogen, Aphanomyces astaci, in two freshwater shrimps.  

PubMed

Aphanomyces astaci, the causal agent of the crayfish plague, has recently been confirmed to infect also freshwater-inhabiting crabs. We experimentally tested the resistance of freshwater shrimps, another important decapod group inhabiting freshwaters, to this pathogen. We exposed individuals of two Asian shrimp species, Macrobrachium dayanum and Neocaridina davidi, to zoospores of the pathogen strain isolated from Procambarus clarkii, a known A. astaci carrier likely to get into contact with shrimps. The shrimps were kept in separate vessels up to seven weeks; exuviae and randomly chosen individuals were sampled throughout the experiment. Shrimp bodies and exuviae were tested for A. astaci presence by a species-specific quantitative PCR. The results were compared with amounts of A. astaci DNA in an inert substrate to distinguish potential pathogen growth in live specimens from persisting spores or environmental DNA attached to their surface. In contrast to susceptible crayfish Astacus astacus, we did not observe mortality of shrimps. The amount of detected pathogen DNA was decreasing steadily in the inert substrate, but it was still detectable several weeks after zoospore addition, which should be considered in studies relying on molecular detection of A. astaci. Probably due to moulting, the amount of A. astaci DNA was decreasing in N. davidi even faster than in the inert substrate. In contrast, high pathogen DNA levels were detected in some non-moulting individuals of M. dayanum, suggesting that A. astaci growth may be possible in tissues of this species. Further experiments are needed to test for the potential of long-term A. astaci persistence in freshwater shrimp populations. PMID:25064254

Svoboda, J; Mruga?a, A; Kozubíková-Balcarová, E; Kouba, A; Diéguez-Uribeondo, J; Petrusek, A

2014-09-01

343

Modifications to the bottomless lift net for sampling nekton in tidal mangrove forests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sampling fishes in vegetated intertidal wetlands is logistically challenging. We modified the 2 ?? 3-m2 bottomless lift net developed for sampling nekton (fish and decapod crustaceans) on the surface of salt marshes for use in tidal mangrove forests with a woody (as opposed to herbaceous) underground root system. As originally designed (Rozas, Mar Ecol Prog Ser 89:287-292, 1992), the lift net was buried directly in the marsh substrate. The net was raised at slack high tide thereby encircling nekton within the enclosed area. A chain-line on the net bottom prevented escape under the net once deployed. However, when we used this same design in tidal mangrove forests, the extensive woody roots and occasional slumping sediments resulted in uneven trenches that could not be cleared effectively during sample recovery. We made 3 modifications to the original net design: (i) lined the peat trenches with aluminum channels of uniform width and depth; (ii) replaced the previous chain-line with Velcro closures that directly attached the net to the inner face of the outer wall of the aluminum channel; and (iii) removed the subtidal pan previously used for concentrating the enclosed nekton at low tide, and filled in those depressions with on-site peat. In the modified version, the aluminum trench became the only subtidal refuge available to nekton, and it was from here that we collected the sample after the forest drained. These modifications permitted high clearing efficiency (93-100%) of fin-clipped individuals of two common species of estuarine resident fishes, Kryptolebias marmoratus (mangrove rivulus) and Bathygobius soporator (frillfin goby). Additionally, the density estimates of grass shrimp (Palaemonetes spp.) increased 10-fold post-modification. ?? 2010 US Government.

McIvor, C.C.; Silverman, N.L.

2010-01-01

344

The role of pelagic swarm fish (Myctophidae: Teleostei) in the oceanic life cycle of Anisakis sibling species at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Central Atlantic.  

PubMed

First information is provided on the parasitation and feeding ecology of the myctophid fish species Myctophum punctatum and Notoscopelus kroyeri from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), Central Atlantic. Four different parasite species were found in both fish with a similar high prevalence and intensity of infestation. The digeneans Gonocerca phycidis and Lethadena sp. were isolated as adults from the stomach, larval tetraphyllidean cestodes (Scolex pleuronectis) from the intestine, and genetically identified larval anisakid nematodes of Anisakis simplex (s.s.) from the body cavity. No further Anisakis sibling species could be identified. Both myctophids had small pelagic crustaceans, mainly copepods and hyperiids, within their stomach contents. Ostracods, euphausiids, decapods, and amphipods were minor food components, demonstrating the pelagic environment for both fish. The recorded parasites including the anisakid A. simplex (s.s.) perform pelagic life cycles within the region, benefiting from extensive diurnal vertical migrations of their fish hosts. Comparison of the host range among the anisakis sibling species suggests that the A. simplex complex has low host specificity, infecting toothed and baleen whales on their extensive oceanic migrations. This contrasts the Anisakis physeteris complex that is restricted to toothed whales of the families Kogiidae and Physeteridae. Specificity in the teleost intermediate hosts for both complexes seems to be low, and sympatric occurrence of different siblings within the same intermediate hosts is likely. Myctophid swarm fish as important copepod feeders at the MAR significantly contribute to the oceanic anisakid nematode life cycle, especially considering the 100% prevalence and high intensity of infestation. Further genetic identification of Anisakis nematodes is needed in order to understand the sibling species distribution, along the MAR and within other oceanic environments. PMID:18758825

Klimpel, Sven; Kellermanns, Esra; Palm, Harry W

2008-12-01

345

Biodiversity of the Deep-Sea Continental Margin Bordering the Gulf of Maine (NW Atlantic): Relationships among Sub-Regions and to Shelf Systems  

PubMed Central

Background In contrast to the well-studied continental shelf region of the Gulf of Maine, fundamental questions regarding the diversity, distribution, and abundance of species living in deep-sea habitats along the adjacent continental margin remain unanswered. Lack of such knowledge precludes a greater understanding of the Gulf of Maine ecosystem and limits development of alternatives for conservation and management. Methodology/Principal Findings We use data from the published literature, unpublished studies, museum records and online sources, to: (1) assess the current state of knowledge of species diversity in the deep-sea habitats adjacent to the Gulf of Maine (39–43°N, 63–71°W, 150–3000 m depth); (2) compare patterns of taxonomic diversity and distribution of megafaunal and macrofaunal species among six distinct sub-regions and to the continental shelf; and (3) estimate the amount of unknown diversity in the region. Known diversity for the deep-sea region is 1,671 species; most are narrowly distributed and known to occur within only one sub-region. The number of species varies by sub-region and is directly related to sampling effort occurring within each. Fishes, corals, decapod crustaceans, molluscs, and echinoderms are relatively well known, while most other taxonomic groups are poorly known. Taxonomic diversity decreases with increasing distance from the continental shelf and with changes in benthic topography. Low similarity in faunal composition suggests the deep-sea region harbours faunal communities distinct from those of the continental shelf. Non-parametric estimators of species richness suggest a minimum of 50% of the deep-sea species inventory remains to be discovered. Conclusions/Significance The current state of knowledge of biodiversity in this deep-sea region is rudimentary. Our ability to answer questions is hampered by a lack of sufficient data for many taxonomic groups, which is constrained by sampling biases, life-history characteristics of target species, and the lack of trained taxonomists. PMID:21124960

Kelly, Noreen E.; Shea, Elizabeth K.; Metaxas, Anna; Haedrich, Richard L.; Auster, Peter J.

2010-01-01

346

Climate Change and Trophic Response of the Antarctic Bottom Fauna  

PubMed Central

Background As Earth warms, temperate and subpolar marine species will increasingly shift their geographic ranges poleward. The endemic shelf fauna of Antarctica is especially vulnerable to climate-mediated biological invasions because cold temperatures currently exclude the durophagous (shell-breaking) predators that structure shallow-benthic communities elsewhere. Methodology/Principal Findings We used the Eocene fossil record from Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula, to project specifically how global warming will reorganize the nearshore benthos of Antarctica. A long-term cooling trend, which began with a sharp temperature drop ?41 Ma (million years ago), eliminated durophagous predators—teleosts (modern bony fish), decapod crustaceans (crabs and lobsters) and almost all neoselachian elasmobranchs (modern sharks and rays)—from Antarctic nearshore waters after the Eocene. Even prior to those extinctions, durophagous predators became less active as coastal sea temperatures declined from 41 Ma to the end of the Eocene, ?33.5 Ma. In response, dense populations of suspension-feeding ophiuroids and crinoids abruptly appeared. Dense aggregations of brachiopods transcended the cooling event with no apparent change in predation pressure, nor were there changes in the frequency of shell-drilling predation on venerid bivalves. Conclusions/Significance Rapid warming in the Southern Ocean is now removing the physiological barriers to shell-breaking predators, and crabs are returning to the Antarctic Peninsula. Over the coming decades to centuries, we predict a rapid reversal of the Eocene trends. Increasing predation will reduce or eliminate extant dense populations of suspension-feeding echinoderms from nearshore habitats along the Peninsula while brachiopods will continue to form large populations, and the intensity of shell-drilling predation on infaunal bivalves will not change appreciably. In time the ecological effects of global warming could spread to other portions of the Antarctic coast. The differential responses of faunal components will reduce the endemic character of Antarctic subtidal communities, homogenizing them with nearshore communities at lower latitudes. PMID:19194490

Aronson, Richard B.; Moody, Ryan M.; Ivany, Linda C.; Blake, Daniel B.; Werner, John E.; Glass, Alexander

2009-01-01

347

Structure and dynamics of food webs in the water column on shelf and slope grounds of the western Mediterranean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Benthic-pelagic coupling is an important process connecting species throughout the water column, particularly, in deep-sea systems where faunal assemblages can be dense if indirectly sustained by production from the above. Through stable isotope analyses, this study explored the sources of production, trophic structure, and bentho-pelagic coupling in two locations with contrasting oceanographic conditions from the western Mediterranean, in the Balearic (BsB) and the Algerian (AsB) sub-basins. The samples of 89 dominant species (23 decapods, 19 cephalopods, 33 fishes, among the other taxa), inhabiting the hyperbenthic and pelagic domains, from the shelf break (250 m), upper slope (650 m), and middle slope (850 m) were analyzed. Results suggested long food webs of approximately four trophic levels (TrLs) that were sustained by planktonic source material in shallower waters and degraded particulate organic matter of planktonic origin in deeper waters. Most of the collected species (70%) occupied intermediate trophic positions between the 3rd and 4th TrLs. The species ?15N and ?13C values exhibited a broad range, consistent with the high diversity that might be attributed to the oligotrophic conditions. As the depth increased, stronger segregation occurred between the trophic groups, and spatial differences were found among consumers of the two locations. Species in the AsB always had consistently higher ?15N values than in the BsB, which could possibly be attributed to the basal ?15N that was present through the food web. Despite the contrasting basin characteristics, a similarly close bentho-pelagic coupling pattern was observed at both locations, except at the deepest ground, especially at the AsB, where the mean ?13C values from the hyperbenthic and pelagic compartments were more distant. This could be related to the higher degree of reworking of organic matter in the AsB. Overall, these findings suggested the need for a depth-stratified approach to analyze deep-sea food webs in the study site in future studies.

Valls, M.; Sweeting, C. J.; Olivar, M. P.; Fernández de Puelles, M. L.; Pasqual, C.; Polunin, N. V. C.; Quetglas, A.

2014-10-01

348

Molt regulation in green and red color morphs of the crab Carcinus maenas: gene expression of molt-inhibiting hormone signaling components.  

PubMed

In decapod crustaceans, regulation of molting is controlled by the X-organ/sinus gland complex in the eyestalks. The complex secretes molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH), which suppresses production of ecdysteroids by the Y-organ (YO). MIH signaling involves nitric oxide and cGMP in the YO, which expresses nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (GC-I). Molting can generally be induced by eyestalk ablation (ESA), which removes the primary source of MIH, or by multiple leg autotomy (MLA). In our work on Carcinus maenas, however, ESA has limited effects on hemolymph ecdysteroid titers and animals remain in intermolt at 7 days post-ESA, suggesting that adults are refractory to molt induction techniques. Consequently, the effects of ESA and MLA on molting and YO gene expression in C. maenas green and red color morphotypes were determined at intermediate (16 and 24 days) and long-term (~90 days) intervals. In intermediate-interval experiments, ESA of intermolt animals caused transient twofold to fourfold increases in hemolymph ecdysteroid titers during the first 2 weeks. In intermolt animals, long-term ESA increased hemolymph ecdysteroid titers fourfold to fivefold by 28 days post treatment, but there was no late premolt peak (>400 pg ?l(-1)) characteristic of late premolt animals and animals did not molt by 90 days post-ESA. There was no effect of ESA or MLA on the expression of Cm-elongation factor 2 (EF2), Cm-NOS, the beta subunit of GC-I (Cm-GC-I?), a membrane receptor GC (Cm-GC-II) and a soluble NO-insensitive GC (Cm-GC-III) in green morphs. Red morphs were affected by prolonged ESA and MLA treatments, as indicated by large decreases in Cm-EF2, Cm-GC-II and Cm-GC-III mRNA levels. ESA accelerated the transition of green morphs to the red phenotype in intermolt animals. ESA delayed molting in premolt green morphs, whereas intact and MLA animals molted by 30 days post treatment. There were significant effects on YO gene expression in intact animals: Cm-GC-I? mRNA increased during premolt and Cm-GC-III mRNA decreased during premolt and increased during postmolt. Cm-MIH transcripts were detected in eyestalk ganglia, the brain and the thoracic ganglion from green intermolt animals, suggesing that MIH in the brain and thoracic ganglion prevents molt induction in green ESA animals. PMID:24198255

Abuhagr, Ali M; Blindert, Jennifer L; Nimitkul, Sukkrit; Zander, Ian A; Labere, Stefan M; Chang, Sharon A; Maclea, Kyle S; Chang, Ernest S; Mykles, Donald L

2014-03-01

349

Across-slope relations between the biological populations, the euphotic zone and the oxygen minimum layer off the coast of Oman during the southwest monsoon (August, 1994)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An area some 120×70 km off the eastern coast of Oman (containing the UK JGOFS Arabesque station) was intensively studied over a 17 day period in August 1994, with the objective of determining the relationships between the biological populations, the oxygen minimum layer and the dynamic hydrography of the euphotic zone. The outer margin of the area was delimited by a rectangle of 15 full depth CTD casts and the hydrography was further defined by two Seasoar surveys within the box. Midwater trawls were used to sample the populations at three stations, oceanic, slope and shelf edge respectively. Day and night samples of macroplankton and micronekton were taken at each station to determine the extent of diel vertical migration and the effect of the hypoxic region on these migrations. Concurrent ADCP data were used to follow the migrations and spatial changes in real time. Despite the limited area studied the patterns of upwelling and their temporal and spatial changes were complex. Coastal upwelling was observed directly only at the southwestern edge of the area during both Seasoar surveys. Persian Gulf Water was a consistent but spatially discrete feature of the region at depths of 200-300 m. Arabian Sea Surface Water was present at the eastern margin of the first survey. Between these two water masses was a large area with small horizontal gradients and variable silicate and chlorophyll levels. Satellite data suggest that this water may have been advected as a filament from a more northerly coastal source. Very marked changes took place in the hydrography and in the phytoplankton composition and abundance at the reference station at 19°N 59°E over the 16 day period between visits. The highest biomass of plankton and micronekton (expressed as wet volume or as carbon) occurred in the upper 100 m, closely correlated with the relatively high oxygen levels at these depths. Gelatinous animals predominated in these layers, with additional swarms of swimming crabs. Quite large populations of myctophid and photichthyid fishes and of decapod crustaceans were present below the oxycline by day. Most of these migrated into the surface layers at night, leaving minimal biomass behind, with the result that the ADCP backscatter data from beneath the oxycline at night were often below instrument resolution. Daytime ADCP data, on the other hand, showed multiple fine layering, some of which correlated with salinity differences. At the base of the oxygen minimum layer there was a large increase in biomass, marking the presence of a more typical bathypelagic fauna.

Herring, P. J.; Fasham, M. J. R.; Weeks, A. R.; Hemmings, J. C. P.; Roe, H. S. J.; Pugh, P. R.; Holley, S.; Crisp, N. A.; Angel, M. V.

1998-01-01

350

Automated Image Analysis for the Detection of Benthic Crustaceans and Bacterial Mat Coverage Using the VENUS Undersea Cabled Network  

PubMed Central

The development and deployment of sensors for undersea cabled observatories is presently biased toward the measurement of habitat variables, while sensor technologies for biological community characterization through species identification and individual counting are less common. The VENUS cabled multisensory network (Vancouver Island, Canada) deploys seafloor camera systems at several sites. Our objective in this study was to implement new automated image analysis protocols for the recognition and counting of benthic decapods (i.e., the galatheid squat lobster, Munida quadrispina), as well as for the evaluation of changes in bacterial mat coverage (i.e., Beggiatoa spp.), using a camera deployed in Saanich Inlet (103 m depth). For the counting of Munida we remotely acquired 100 digital photos at hourly intervals from 2 to 6 December 2009. In the case of bacterial mat coverage estimation, images were taken from 2 to 8 December 2009 at the same time frequency. The automated image analysis protocols for both study cases were created in MatLab 7.1. Automation for Munida counting incorporated the combination of both filtering and background correction (Median- and Top-Hat Filters) with Euclidean Distances (ED) on Red-Green-Blue (RGB) channels. The Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) features and Fourier Descriptors (FD) of tracked objects were then extracted. Animal classifications were carried out with the tools of morphometric multivariate statistic (i.e., Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis; PLSDA) on Mean RGB (RGBv) value for each object and Fourier Descriptors (RGBv+FD) matrices plus SIFT and ED. The SIFT approach returned the better results. Higher percentages of images were correctly classified and lower misclassification errors (an animal is present but not detected) occurred. In contrast, RGBv+FD and ED resulted in a high incidence of records being generated for non-present animals. Bacterial mat coverage was estimated in terms of Percent Coverage and Fractal Dimension. A constant Region of Interest (ROI) was defined and background extraction by a Gaussian Blurring Filter was performed. Image subtraction within ROI was followed by the sum of the RGB channels matrices. Percent Coverage was calculated on the resulting image. Fractal Dimension was estimated using the box-counting method. The images were then resized to a dimension in pixels equal to a power of 2, allowing subdivision into sub-multiple quadrants. In comparisons of manual and automated Percent Coverage and Fractal Dimension estimates, the former showed an overestimation tendency for both parameters. The primary limitations on the automatic analysis of benthic images were habitat variations in sediment texture and water column turbidity. The application of filters for background corrections is a required preliminary step for the efficient recognition of animals and bacterial mat patches. PMID:22346657

Aguzzi, Jacopo; Costa, Corrado; Robert, Katleen; Matabos, Marjolaine; Antonucci, Francesca; Juniper, S. Kim; Menesatti, Paolo

2011-01-01

351

Mercury bioaccumulation in cartilaginous fishes from Southern New England coastal waters: contamination from a trophic ecology and human health perspective.  

PubMed

This study examined total mercury (Hg) concentrations in cartilaginous fishes from Southern New England coastal waters, including smooth dogfish (Mustelus canis), spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias), little skate (Leucoraja erinacea), and winter skate (Leucoraja ocellata). Total Hg in dogfish and skates were positively related to their respective body size and age, indicating Hg bioaccumulation in muscle tissue. There were also significant inter-species differences in Hg levels (mean ± 1 SD, mg Hg/kg dry weight, ppm): smooth dogfish (3.3 ± 2.1 ppm; n = 54) > spiny dogfish (1.1 ± 0.7 ppm; n = 124) > little skate (0.4 ± 0.3 ppm; n = 173) ? winter skate (0.3 ± 0.2 ppm; n = 148). The increased Hg content of smooth dogfish was attributed to its upper trophic level status, determined by stable nitrogen (?(15)N) isotope analysis (mean ?(15)N = 13.2 ± 0.7‰), and the consumption of high Hg prey, most notably cancer crabs (0.10 ppm). Spiny dogfish had depleted ?(15)N signatures (11.6 ± 0.8‰), yet demonstrated a moderate level of contamination by foraging on pelagic prey with a range of Hg concentrations, e.g., in order of dietary importance, butterfish (Hg = 0.06 ppm), longfin squid (0.17 ppm), and scup (0.11 ppm). Skates were low trophic level consumers (?(15)N = 11.9-12.0‰) and fed mainly on amphipods, small decapods, and polychaetes with low Hg concentrations (0.05-0.09 ppm). Intra-specific Hg concentrations were directly related to ?(15)N and carbon (?(13)C) isotope signatures, suggesting that Hg biomagnifies across successive trophic levels and foraging in the benthic trophic pathway increases Hg exposure. From a human health perspective, 87% of smooth dogfish, 32% of spiny dogfish, and <2% of skates had Hg concentrations exceeding the US Environmental Protection Agency threshold level (0.3 ppm wet weight). These results indicate that frequent consumption of smooth dogfish and spiny dogfish may adversely affect human health, whereas skates present minimal risk. PMID:25081850

Taylor, David L; Kutil, Nicholas J; Malek, Anna J; Collie, Jeremy S

2014-08-01

352

Role of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) in the environmental stressor-exposed intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus.  

PubMed

To identify and characterize CHH (TJ-CHH) gene in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus, we analyzed the full-length cDNA sequence, genomic structure, and promoter region. The full-length TJ-CHH cDNA was 716 bp in length, encoding 136 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequences of TJ-CHH showed a high similarity of the CHH mature domain to other crustaceans. Six conserved cysteine residues and five conserved structural motifs in the CHH mature peptide domain were also observed. The genomic structure of the TJ-CHH gene contained three exons and two introns in its open reading frame (ORF), and several transcriptional elements were detected in the promoter region of the TJ-CHH gene. To investigate transcriptional change of TJ-CHH under environmental stress, T. japonicus were exposed to heat treatment, UV-B radiation, heavy metals, and water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of Iranian crude oil. Upon heat stress, TJ-CHH transcripts were elevated at 30 °C and 35 °C for 96 h in a time-course experiment. UV-B radiation led to a decreased pattern of the TJ-CHH transcript 48 h and more after radiation (12 kJ/m(2)). After exposure of a fixed dose (12 kJ/m(2)) in a time-course experiment, TJ-CHH transcript was down-regulated in time-dependent manner with a lowest value at 12h. However, the TJ-CHH transcript level was increased in response to five heavy metal exposures for 96 h. Also, the level of the TJ-CHH transcript was significantly up-regulated at 20% of WAFs after exposure to WAFs for 48 h and then remarkably reduced in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that the enhanced TJ-CHH transcript level is associated with a cellular stress response of the TJ-CHH gene as shown in decapod crustaceans. This study is also helpful for a better understanding of the detrimental effects of environmental changes on the CHH-triggered copepod metabolism. PMID:23797038

Kim, Bo-Mi; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Han, Jeonghoon; Kim, Il-Chan; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong

2013-09-01

353

Transcriptome Analysis of Androgenic Gland for Discovery of Novel Genes from the Oriental River Prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, Using Illumina Hiseq 2000  

PubMed Central

Background The oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, is an important aquaculture species in China, even in whole of Asia. The androgenic gland produces hormones that play crucial roles in sexual differentiation to maleness. This study is the first de novo M. nipponense transcriptome analysis using cDNA prepared from mRNA isolated from the androgenic gland. Illumina/Solexa was used for sequencing. Methodology and Principal Finding The total volume of RNA sample was more than 5 ug. We generated 70,853,361 high quality reads after eliminating adapter sequences and filtering out low-quality reads. A total of 78,408 isosequences were obtained by clustering and assembly of the clean reads, producing 57,619 non-redundant transcripts with an average length of 1244.19 bp. In total 70,702 isosequences were matched to the Nr database, additional analyses were performed by GO (33,203), KEGG (17,868), and COG analyses (13,817), identifying the potential genes and their functions. A total of 47 sex-determination related gene families were identified from the M. nipponense androgenic gland transcriptome based on the functional annotation of non-redundant transcripts and comparisons with the published literature. Furthermore, a total of 40 candidate novel genes were found, that may contribute to sex-determination based on their extremely high expression levels in the androgenic compared to other sex glands,. Further, 437 SSRs and 65,535 high-confidence SNPs were identified in this EST dataset from which 14 EST-SSR markers have been isolated. Conclusion Our study provides new sequence information for M. nipponense, which will be the basis for further genetic studies on decapods crustaceans. More importantly, this study dramatically improves understanding of sex-determination mechanisms, and advances sex-determination research in all crustacean species. The huge number of potential SSR and SNP markers isolated from the transcriptome may shed the lights on research in many fields, including the evolution and molecular ecology of Macrobrachium species. PMID:24204682

Jin, Shubo; Fu, Hongtuo; Zhou, Qiao; Sun, Shengming; Jiang, Sufei; Xiong, Yiwei; Gong, Yongsheng; Qiao, Hui; Zhang, Wenyi

2013-01-01

354

Viral diseases of marine invertebrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approximately 40 viruses are known from marine sponges; turbellarian and monogenetic flatworms; cephalopod, bivalve, and gastropod mollusks; nereid polychaetes; and isopod and decapod crustaceans. Most of the viruses can be tentatively assigned to the Herpesviridae, Baculoviridae, Iridoviridae, Adenoviridae, Papovaviridae, Reoviridae, “Birnaviridae”, Bunyaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, and Picornaviridae. Viruslike particles found in oysters might be representatives of the Togaviridae and Retroviridae. Enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses from crustaceans have developmental and morphological characteristics intermediate between families, and some show evidence of relationships to the Paramyxoviridae as well as the Bunyaviridae or Rhabdoviridae. Certain small viruses of shrimp cannot be assigned, even tentatively, to a particular family. Some viruses cause disease in wild and captive hosts, others are associated with disease states but may not be primary instigators, and many occur in apparently normal animals. The frequency of viral disease in natural populations of marine invertebrates is unknown. Several viruses that cause disease in captive animals, with or without experimental intervention, have also been found in diseased wild hosts, including herpeslike viruses of crabs and oysters, iridovirus of octopus, and reolike and bunyalike viruses of crabs. Iridolike viruses have been implicated in massive mortalities of cultured oysters. Baculoviruses, and IHHN virus, which is of uncertain affinities, cause economically damaging diseases in cultured penaeid shrimp. Double or multiple viral infection is common in crabs. For example, a reolike virus and associated rhabdolike virus act synergistically to cause paralytic and fatal disease in Callinectes sapidus. Information on host range, most susceptible stage, and viral latency is available only for viruses of shrimp. One baculovirus attacks five species of New World penaeid shrimp. IHHN virus infects three species of Penaeus and causes catastrophic mortalities in P. stylirostris, but usually exhibits only inapparent infection in P. vannamei. Some shrimp viruses apparently are latent in larvae, causing disease only when shrimp have reached the postlarval or juvenile stages. Others are equally or more pathogenic in larvae. Studies of shrimp viruses and iridovirus-associated disease in cultured oysters point up the need for rapid and accurate diagnostic methods. Until appropriate cell cultures from marine invertebrates are devised, the viral identifications necessary for understanding of epizootiology, rapid containment of epizootics in cultured animals, and decisions regarding introductions of exotic species will be difficult or impossible.

Johnson, P. T.

1984-03-01

355

Neuronal differentiation and long-term survival of newly generated cells in the olfactory midbrain of the adult spiny lobster, Panulirus argus.  

PubMed

The fate of continuously generated cells in the soma clusters of the olfactory midbrain of adult spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, was investigated by in vivo pulse-chase experiments with the proliferation marker 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) combined with immunostainings for neuropeptides of mature neurons. A BrdU injection after a survival time (ST) of 14 h labeled about 100 nuclei in the lateral soma clusters (LC), comprised of projection neurons, and about 30 nuclei in the medial soma clusters (MC), comprised of local interneurons. The BrdU-positive nuclei were confined to small regions at the inside of these clusters, which also contain nuclei in different phases of mitosis and thus represent proliferative zones. After STs of 2 weeks or 3 months, the number of BrdU-positive nuclei was doubled, indicating a mitosis of all originally labeled cells. Dependent on ST, the BrdU-positive nuclei were translocated from the proliferative zones towards the outside of the clusters, where somata of mature neurons reside. Immunostainings with antibodies to the neuropeptides FMRFamide and substance P, both of which label a large portion of somata in the MC and a pair of giant neurons projecting into the LC, revealed that in both clusters the proliferative zones are surrounded by, but are themselves devoid of, labeling. In the MC, some BrdU-positive somata were double-labeled by the FMRFamide antibody after an ST of 3 months, and by the substance P antibody after STs of 6 and 11/14 months, but not after 3 months. In the LC, BrdU-positive somata after an ST of 3 months partially and after 6 and 11/14 months widely overlapped with the arborizations of the giant neurons, indicating the establishment of synaptic input. The experiments show that cells generated in proliferative zones in the LC and MC of adult spiny lobsters after a final mitosis differentiate into neurons within months, survive for at least 1 year, and are integrated into the circuitry of the olfactory midbrain. A new hypothesis about the mechanism of adult neurogenesis in the central olfactory pathway of decapod crustaceans is developed, linking it to neurogenesis during embryonic and larval development. PMID:11466706

Schmidt, M

2001-09-01

356

Food utilisation by coastal fish assemblages in rocky and soft bottoms on the Swedish west coast: Inference for identification of essential fish habitats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of essential fish habitats (EFHs) is widely accepted for conservational and management purposes. EFHs are often considered as high quality habitats for fisheries species and subsequently of high values for society. In this study, fish and Substrate-Associated Prey (SAP) were sampled during the productive summer season 1998 (fish) and 2003 and 2004 (SAP) in shallow coastal rocky- and soft-bottom habitats on the Swedish west coast. The aim was to study the spatial and monthly variation of SAP as well as abundance and biomass of fish, and to examine if food items found in the diet of the fish assemblage were derived from SAP. We also examined if the diet of Ctenolabrus rupestris, a resident and abundant fish species in the shallow coastal habitats, and the diet of four seasonally abundant and commercially important fish species ( Gadus morhua, Pleuronectes platessa, Salmo trutta and Scomber scombrus) were derived from SAP. There were significantly higher mean species number and abundance of the SAP assemblage on rocky compared to soft bottoms and the highest values were found on the rocky bottoms in August and in the shallowest (0-3 m) depth strata. There were no significant differences in number of fish species caught in the two habitats, although mean number of fish and mean biomass were significantly higher on rocky bottoms. Both habitats showed the same seasonal variation and the highest values of number of fish species, abundance and biomass were observed in June. On rocky bottoms, gastropods and amphipods were the most frequent food items in the diet of the entire fish assemblage and these items were also the most abundant SAP in this habitat. The dominant food items of the soft-bottom fish assemblage were decapods and fish, which were not common SAP. However, except for S. scombrus, the diet of the selected fish species showed a strong association to the SAP availability. Gadus morhua displayed the strongest association to SAP on rocky bottoms and P. platessa and C. rupestris to SAP on soft bottoms. Further, for C. rupestris, multivariate statistical analysis showed a significant association to the SAP assemblage on both rocky and soft bottoms. These results provide vital new information for the management and conservation of Essential Fish Habitats on the Swedish west coast.

Stål, Johan; Pihl, Leif; Wennhage, Håkan

2007-02-01

357

Influence of starvation on the larval development of Hyas araneus (Decapoda, Majidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of starvation on larval development of the spider crab Hyas araneus (L.) was studied in laboratory experiments. No larval stage suffering from continual lack of food had sufficient energy reserves to reach the next instar. Maximal survival times were observed at four different constant temperatures (2°, 6°, 12° and 18 °C). In general, starvation resistance decreased as temperatures increased: from 72 to 12days in the zoea-1, from 48 to 18 days in the zoea-2, and from 48 to 15 days in the megalopa stage. The length of maximal survival is of the same order of magnitude as the duration of each instar at a given temperature. “Sublethal limits” of early starvation periods were investigated at 12 °C: Zoea larvae must feed right from the beginning of their stage (at high food concentration) and for more than one fifth, approximately, of that stage to have at least some chance of surviving to the next instar, independent of further prey availability. The minimum time in which enough reserves are accumulated for successfully completing the instar without food is called “point-of-reserve-saturation” (PRS). If only this minimum period of essential initial feeding precedes starvation, development in both zoeal stages is delayed and mortality is greater, when compared to the fed control. Starvation periods beginning right after hatching of the first zoea cause a prolongation of this instar and, surprisingly, a slight shortening of the second stage. The delay in the zoea-1 increases proportionally to the length of the initial fasting period. If more than approximately 70 % of the maximum possible survival time has elapsed without food supply, the larvae become unable to recover and to moult to the second stage even when re-fed (“point-of-no-return”, PNR). The conclusion, based on own observations and on literature data, is that initial feeding is of paramount importance in the early development of planktotrophic decapod larvae. Taking into account hormonal and other developmental processes during the first moult cycle, a general hypothesis is proposed to explain the key role of first food uptake as well as the response pattern of the zoea-1 stage to differential starvation periods.

Anger, K.; Dawirs, R. R.

1981-09-01

358

Effect of hypoxia and anoxia on invertebrate behaviour: ecological perspectives from species to community level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal hypoxia and anoxia have become a global key stressor to marine ecosystems, with almost 500 dead zones recorded wordwide. By triggering cascading effects from the individual organism to the community and ecosystem-level, oxygen depletions threat marine biodiversity and can alter ecosystem structure and function. By integrating both physiological function and ecological processes, animal behaviour is ideal for assessing the stress state of benthic macrofauna to low dissolved oxygen. The initial response of organisms can serve as an early-warning signal, while the successive behavioural reactions of key species indicate hypoxia levels and help assess community degradation. Here we document the behavioural responses of a representative spectrum of benthic macrofauna in the natural setting in the Northern Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean. We experimentally induced small-scale anoxia with a benthic chamber in 24 m depth to overcome the difficulties in predicting the onset of hypoxia, which often hinders full documentation in the field. The behavioural reactions were documented with a time-lapse camera. Oxygen depletion elicited significant and repeatable changes in general (visibility, locomotion, body movement and posture, location) and species-specific reactions in virtually all organisms (302 individuals from 32 species and 2 species groups). Most atypical (stress) behaviours were associated with specific oxygen thresholds: arm-tipping in the ophiuroid Ophiothrix quinquemaculata, for example, with the onset of mild hypoxia (< 2 mL O2 L-1), the emergence of polychates on the sediment surface with moderate hypoxia (< 1 mL O2 L-1), the emergence of the infaunal sea urchin Schizaster canaliferus on the sediment with severe hypoxia (< 0.5 mL O2 L-1) and heavy body rotations in sea anemones with anoxia. Other species changed their activity patterns, i.e. circadian rhythm in the hermit crab Paguristes eremita or the bioherm-associated crab Pisidia longimana. Intra- and interspecific reactions were weakened or changed: decapods ceased defensive and territorial behaviour, and predator-prey interactions and relationships shifted. This nuanced scale of resolution is a useful tool to interpret present benthic community status (behaviour) and past mortalities (community composition, e.g. survival of tolerant species). This information on the sensitivity (onset of stress response), tolerance (mortality, survival), and characteristics (i.e. life habit, functional role) of key species also helps predict potential future changes in benthic structure and ecosystem functioning. This integrated approach can transport complex ecological processes to the public and decision-makers and help define specific monitoring, assessment and conservation plans.

Riedel, B.; Pados, T.; Pretterebner, K.; Schiemer, L.; Steckbauer, A.; Haselmair, A.; Zuschin, M.; Stachowitsch, M.

2013-08-01

359

Effect of hypoxia and anoxia on invertebrate behaviour: ecological perspectives from species to community level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal hypoxia and anoxia have become a global key stressor to marine ecosystems, with almost 500 dead zones recorded worldwide. By triggering cascading effects from the individual organism to the community- and ecosystem level, oxygen depletions threaten marine biodiversity and can alter ecosystem structure and function. By integrating both physiological function and ecological processes, animal behaviour is ideal for assessing the stress state of benthic macrofauna to low dissolved oxygen. The initial response of organisms can serve as an early warning signal, while the successive behavioural reactions of key species indicate hypoxia levels and help assess community degradation. Here we document the behavioural responses of a representative spectrum of benthic macrofauna in the natural setting in the Northern Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean). We experimentally induced small-scale anoxia with a benthic chamber in 24 m depth to overcome the difficulties in predicting the onset of hypoxia, which often hinders full documentation in the field. The behavioural reactions were documented with a time-lapse camera. Oxygen depletion elicited significant and repeatable changes in general (visibility, locomotion, body movement and posture, location) and species-specific reactions in virtually all organisms (302 individuals from 32 species and 2 species groups). Most atypical (stress) behaviours were associated with specific oxygen thresholds: arm-tipping in the ophiuroid Ophiothrix quinquemaculata, for example, with the onset of mild hypoxia (< 2 mL O2 L-1), the emergence of polychaetes on the sediment surface with moderate hypoxia (< 1 mL O2 L-1), the emergence of the infaunal sea urchin Schizaster canaliferus on the sediment with severe hypoxia (< 0.5 mL O2 L-1) and heavy body rotations in sea anemones with anoxia. Other species changed their activity patterns, for example the circadian rhythm in the hermit crab Paguristes eremita or the bioherm-associated crab Pisidia longimana. Intra- and interspecific reactions were weakened or changed: decapods ceased defensive and territorial behaviour, and predator-prey interactions and relationships shifted. This nuanced scale of resolution is a useful tool to interpret present benthic community status (behaviour) and past mortalities (community composition, e.g. survival of tolerant species). This information on the sensitivity (onset of stress response), tolerance (mortality, survival), and characteristics (i.e. life habit, functional role) of key species also helps predict potential future changes in benthic structure and ecosystem functioning. This integrated approach can transport complex ecological processes to the public and decision-makers and help define specific monitoring, assessment and conservation plans.

Riedel, B.; Pados, T.; Pretterebner, K.; Schiemer, L.; Steckbauer, A.; Haselmair, A.; Zuschin, M.; Stachowitsch, M.

2014-03-01

360

Geomorphological, trophic and human influences on the bamboo coral Isidella elongata assemblages in the deep Mediterranean: To what extent does Isidella form habitat for fish and invertebrates?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed what are the best ecological conditions for megafauna associated with the bamboo coral Isidella elongata based on the geomorphological, physical and trophic information taken in 3 stations (St1, St2, St3) off the southern Catalonian coasts at 620 m depth in June 2011. Results were compared with assemblage compositions recorded in past cruises (May 1992, 1994) at the same 3 stations. St1 was in a fishing ground exploited since the 1940s over a relatively wide slope at ca. 22 km from the nearest canyon head; St2 and St3 were on a narrower slope closer to canyon heads and to the Ebro river mouth than St1. I. elongata had formed (to May 1994, at least) a dense coral forest at St2-St3 (to ca. 255 colonies/ha at St3), and some isolated colonies (to ca. 0.9 colonies/ha) were still collected in 2011. Fish and invertebrate communities significantly differed between St1 and St2/St3, with two macrourid fishes (Trachrhynchus trachyrhynchus and Nezumia aequalis) and two decapods (Plesionika martia and Plesionika acanthonotus) more abundant at St2/St3. The following ecological indicators imply better food conditions for megafauna at St2-St3 and for I. elongata itself: (i) greater density of zooplankton (copepods, euphausiids, and others) as potential prey for planktivores (including I. elongata); (ii) greater biomass and mean weight of epifaunal and infaunal deposit feeders; (iii) higher feeding intensity, F, at St3 for benthos feeders (Phycis blennoides, N. aequalis and Aristeus antennatus). Also, at St2-St3 we found higher near-bottom turbidity (indicating particle resuspension: food for suspension feeders) and finer and more reduced (Eh) sediments. The results let us suggest that corals and accompanying fauna preferently found optimal ecological conditions in the same habitat, while habitat-forming capacity by I. elongata seemed weak to generate these conditions. Coral forests may enhance detritus accumulations around them, improving habitat conditions for benthos feeders (e.g. macrourid fish). At St3 our side-scan sonar recorded three types of tracks produced by trawler doors, which match with three identified vessels occasionally operating in the area. After this low fishing activity off the Ebro Delta since the mid-1990s, almost all colonies of I. elongata has been removed. However, this impact has hardly altered fish and invertebrate composition without any significant loss of diversity, pointing also toward a rather low capacity of I. elongata facies in forming habitat for megafauna on muddy bottoms of the Mediterranean slope.

Cartes, J. E.; LoIacono, C.; Mamouridis, V.; López-Pérez, C.; Rodríguez, P.

2013-06-01

361

The dynamics and scaling of force production during the tail-flip escape response of the California spiny lobster Panulirus interruptus.  

PubMed

The tail-flip escape behavior is a stereotypical motor pattern of decapod crustaceans in which swift adduction of the tail to the thorax causes the animal to rotate, move vertically into the water column and accelerate rapidly backwards. Previous predictions that a strong jet force is produced during the flip as the tail adducts to the body are not supported by our simultaneous measurements of force production (using a transducer) and the kinematics (using high-speed video) of tail-flipping by the California spiny lobster Panulirus interruptus. Maximum force production occurred when the tail was positioned approximately normal to the body. Resultant force values dropped to approximately 15% of maximum during the last third of the flip and continued to decline as the tail closed against the body. In addition, maximum acceleration of the body of free-swimming animals occurs when the tail is positioned approximately normal to the body, and acceleration declines steadily to negative values as the tail continues to close. Thus, the tail appears to act largely as a paddle. Full flexion of the tail to the body probably increases the gliding distance by reducing drag and possibly by enhancing fluid circulation around the body. Morphological measurements indicate that Panulirus interruptus grows isometrically. However, measurements of tail-flip force production for individuals with a body mass (Mb) ranging from 69 to 412 g indicate that translational force scales as Mb0.83. This result suggests that force production scales at a rate greater than that predicted by the isometric scaling of muscle cross-sectional area (Mb2/3), which supports previously published data showing that the maximum accelerations of the tail and body of free-swimming animals are size-independent. Torque (tau) scaled as Mb1.29, which is similar to the hypothesized scaling relationship of Mb4/3. Given that tau is proportional to Mb1.29, one would predict rotational acceleration of the body (alpha) to decrease with increasing size as Mb(-0.37), which agrees with previously published kinematic data showing a decrease in alpha with increased Mb. PMID:11316502

Nauen, J C; Shadwick, R E

2001-05-01

362

The Gela Basin pockmark field in the strait of Sicily (Mediterranean Sea): chemosymbiotic faunal and carbonate signatures of postglacial to modern cold seepage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geo-biological exploration of a pockmark field located at ca. -800 m in the Gela basin (Strait of Sicily, Central Mediterranean) provided a relatively diverse chemosymbiotic community and methane-imprinted carbonates. To date, this is the first occurrence of such type of specialized deep-water cold-seep communities recorded from this key region, before documented in the Mediterranean as rather disjunct findings in its eastern and westernmost basins. The thiotrophic chemosymbiotic organisms recovered from this area include empty tubes of the vestimentiferan Lamellibrachia sp., loose and articulated shells of lucinids (Lucinoma kazani, Myrtea amorpha), vesicomyids (Isorropodon perplexum), and gastropods (Taranis moerchi). A callianassid decapod (Calliax sp.) was consistently found alive in large numbers in the pockmark mud. Their post-mortem calcified parts mixed with molluscs and subordinately miliolid foraminifers form a distinct type of skeletal assemblage (named DECAMOL). Carbonate concretions display ?13C values as low as -40 ‰ PDB suggesting the occurrence of light hydrocarbons in the seeping fluids. Since none of the truly chemosymbiotic organisms was found alive, although their skeletal parts appear at times very fresh, some specimens have been AMS-14C dated to shed light on the historical evolution of this site. Lamellibrachia and Lucinoma are two of the most significant chemosymbiotic taxa reported from various Mediterranean cold seep sites (Alboran Sea and Eastern basin). Specimens from station MEDCOR78 (pockmark#1, Lat 36°46´10.18´´ N, Long 14°01´31.59´´ E, -815 m) provided ages of 11 736 ± 636 yr cal BP (Lamellibrachia sp.), and 9609.5 ± 153.5 yr cal BP (L. kazani). One shell of M. amorpha in core MEDCOR81 (pockmark#6, Lat 36°45´38.89´´ N, Long 14°00´07.58´´ E, -822 m) provided a sub-modern age of 484 ± 54 yr cal BP. These ages document that fluid seepage at this pockmark site has been episodically sustaining thiotrophic macrobenthic communities since the end of the Younger Dryas stadial up to sub-recent times.

Taviani, M.; Angeletti, L.; Ceregato, A.; Foglini, F.; Froglia, C.; Trincardi, F.

2013-01-01

363

The Gela Basin pockmark field in the strait of Sicily (Mediterranean Sea): chemosymbiotic faunal and carbonate signatures of postglacial to modern cold seepage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geo-biological exploration of a pockmark field located at ca. 800 m below sea level in the Gela basin (Strait of Sicily, Central Mediterranean) provided a relatively diverse chemosymbiotic community and methane-imprinted carbonates. To date, this is the first occurrence of such a type of specialised deep-water cold-seep communities recorded from this key region, before documented in the Mediterranean as rather disjunct findings in its eastern and westernmost basins. The thiotrophic chemosymbiotic organisms recovered from this area include empty tubes of the vestimentiferan Lamellibrachia sp., loose and articulated shells of lucinids (Lucinoma kazani, Myrtea amorpha), vesicomyids (Isorropodon perplexum), and gastropods (Taranis moerchii). A callianassid decapod (Calliax sp.) was consistently found alive in large numbers in the pockmark mud. Their post-mortem calcified parts mixed with molluscs and subordinately miliolid foraminifers form a distinct type of skeletal assemblage. Carbonate concretions display ?13C values as low as -40‰ PDB suggesting the occurrence of light hydrocarbons in the seeping fluids. Since none of the truly chemosymbiotic organisms was found alive, although their skeletal parts appear at times very fresh, some specimens have been AMS-14C dated to shed light on the historical evolution of this site. Lamellibrachiav and Lucinoma are two of the most significant chemosymbiotic taxa reported from various Mediterranean cold seep sites (Alboran Sea and Eastern basin). Specimens from station MEDCOR78 (pockmark #1, Lat. 36°46´10.18" N, Long. 14°01´31.59" E, 815 m below sea level) provided ages of 11736 ± 636 yr cal BP (Lamellibrachia sp.), and 9609.5 ± 153.5 yr cal BP (L. kazani). One shell of M. amorpha in core MEDCOR81 (pockmark #6, Lat 36°45´38.89" N, Long 14°00´07.58" E, 822 m below sea level) provided a sub-modern age of 484 ± 54 yr cal BP. These ages document that fluid seepage at this pockmark site has been episodically sustaining thiotrophic macrobenthic communities since the end of the Younger Dryas stadial up to sub-recent times.

Taviani, M.; Angeletti, L.; Ceregato, A.; Foglini, F.; Froglia, C.; Trincardi, F.

2013-07-01

364

Trophodynamics of suprabenthic fauna on coastal muddy bottoms of the southern Tyrrhenian Sea (western Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The trophodynamics of suprabenthic fauna were analyzed in the Gulf of Castellammare (North-western Sicily, Italy) at depths ranging between 40 and 80 m. Variations in species abundance and biomass together with changes in nitrogen and carbon stable isotope composition were explored at a seasonal scale, from November 2004 to June 2005. Suprabenthos showed maximum biomass and abundance from late winter to summer, while minimum values were found in autumn. The highest abundances of mysids and copepods occurred in March, 1 month after the peak of primary production. Amphipod abundance was higher in summer, likely due to a relative increase in organic matter in the sediments. Statistical analysis provided evidence for separation of sample abundances as a function of season. The best match between suprabenthos abundance and environmental variables was found with Chlorophyll a recorded 3 months before the sampling. Stable isotope analyses suggest a relatively complex food web in the Gulf of Castellammare with several potential food sources. Some suprabenthic species (i.e. mysids and copepods) exhibited depleted values of ?13C, indicating a planktonic source of nutrition. Cumaceans and amphipods displayed more enriched ?13C values, pointing to more detritivorous behaviour. A third group with intermediate ?13C values comprised species with a mixed diet (e.g. Ampelisca spp., Apherusa vexatrix and Harpinia spp.). Assuming a 15N-enrichment of ca. 2.54‰ between consumers and their diet, at least two trophic levels can be distinctly identified: (1) filter feeders/grazers (mysids, copepods), suspension/deposit feeders ( Ampelisca spp., A. vexatrix, small Goneplax rhomboides) and omnivores, alternatively feeding on detritus and small invertebrates such as meiobenthos (the cumacean Leucon mediterraneus or the amphipod Westwoodilla rectirostris); (2) carnivores on small crustaceans and zooplankton (the amphipod Harpinia spp., the gobiid fish Lesuerigobius suerii and the decapod Philocheras bispinosus). Seasonal changes in isotopic composition occurred for the dominant suprabenthic species. This may result from diet shifts associated with changes in the availability of different food sources and/or from change in the primary sources of organic matter that are particularly variable in coastal environments.

Fanelli, E.; Cartes, J. E.; Badalamenti, F.; Rumolo, P.; Sprovieri, M.

2009-02-01

365

Deep-sea suprabenthos assemblages (Crustacea) off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean): Mesoscale variability in diversity and production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The composition of suprabenthic crustacean assemblages, their diversity, production (P) and production/biomass (P/B) ratios, were analyzed at species level along two transects situated to the north (N) and south (S) of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean) at depths between 134 m and 760 m, based on a ca. bi-monthly sampling performed between August 2003 and June 2004. Differences with depth and season in assemblage composition and diversity were analyzed as a function of the contrasting environmental features (e.g. water mass dynamics) of the two areas. We identified 187 species (18 decapods, 5 euphausiids, 16 mysids, 76 gammaridean amphipods, 13 hyperiids, 1 caprellid, 21 isopods and 37 cumaceans). Substantial mesoscale variability in the deep-sea suprabenthic assemblages coupled with diversity trends between the N and S transects were found. Seasonality was the most important gradient influencing the dynamics of suprabenthos over the upper (350 m) and middle (650-750 m) slope in the N area. Conversely, the S area appeared to be more stable temporally with depth as the main gradient inducing assemblage differences. Different depth-related patterns were observed both for diversity and P/B. To the north diversity was very low at the shelf-break, increasing on the upper-slope ( H' > 3.00) and then decreasing again on the middle-slope. To the south diversity increased smoothly downward, reaching the highest values on the middle-slope. Regarding productivity, P/B was highest at intermediate depths to the north (over ca. 450-500 m), while to the south highest P/Bs were found deeper (over ca. 600-650 m). The higher P/B at intermediate depths found along N are likely due to higher % of organic matter (OM) in sediments, a product of oceanographic frontal systems. In particular, P/B was higher along N among omnivores and detritus feeders (e.g. Andaniexis mimonectes, Lepechinella manco and combined cumaceans), coupled to enriched OM in sediments, while along S mesoplanktonic carnivores ( Rhachotropis spp.) had higher P/Bs. We conclude that on the north slope the influence of frontal systems and more active flow dynamics of different water masses (WIW and LIW) increases natural disturbance in the area, increasing productivity and diversity of suprabenthic peracarids in the Benthic Boundary Layer. Also, species showed a displacement of their average distributions (their Centres of Gravity, CoG) to shallower depths along N, which is another indicator of more favorable habitat conditions for suprabenthos in the 400-500 m range at N.

Cartes, J. E.; Mamouridis, V.; Fanelli, E.

2011-04-01

366

Analysis of neurotransmitter distribution in brain development of benthic and pelagic octopod cephalopods.  

PubMed

The database on neurotransmitter distribution during central nervous system development of cephalopod mollusks is still scarce. We describe the ontogeny of serotonergic (5-HT-ir) and FMRFamide-like immunoreactive (Fa-lir) neurons in the central nervous system of the benthic Octopus vulgaris and Fa-lir distribution in the pelagic Argonauta hians. Comparing our data to previous studies, we aim at revealing shared immunochemical domains among coleoid cephalopods, i.e., all cephalopods except nautiluses. During development of O. vulgaris, 5-HT-ir and Fa-lir elements occur relatively late, namely during stage XII, when the brain neuropils are already highly differentiated. In stage XII-XX individuals, Fa-lir cell somata are located in the middle and posterior subesophageal mass and in the optic, posterior basal, and superior buccal lobes. 5-HT is predominately expressed in cell somata of the superior buccal, anterior basal, and optic lobes, as well as in the subesophageal mass. The overall population of Fa-lir neurons is larger than the one expressing 5-HT. Fa-lir elements are distributed throughout homologous brain areas of A. hians and O. vulgaris. We identified neuronal subsets with similar cell number and immunochemical phenotype in coleoids. These are located in corresponding brain regions of developmental stages and adults of O. vulgaris, A. hians, and the decapod squid Idiosepius notoides. O. vulgaris and I. notoides exhibit numerous 5-HT-ir cell somata in the superior buccal lobes but none or very few in the inferior buccal lobes. The latter have previously been homologized to the gastropod buccal ganglia, which also lack 5-HT-ir cell somata in euthyneuran gastropods. Among coleoids, 5-HT-ir neuronal subsets, which are located ventrally to the lateral anterior basal lobes and in the anterior middle subesophageal mass, are candidates for homologous subsets. Contrary to I. notoides, octopods exhibit Fa-lir cell somata ventrally to the brachial lobes and 5-HT-ir cell somata close to the stellate ganglia. PMID:22461086

Wollesen, Tim; Sukhsangchan, Charuay; Seixas, Pedro; Nabhitabhata, Jaruwat; Wanninger, Andreas

2012-07-01

367

Effects of Mg2+ on Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle fibres from yabby (crustacean) and rat  

PubMed Central

The role of myoplasmic [Mg2+] on Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) was examined in the two major types of crustacean muscle fibres, the tonic, long sarcomere fibres and the phasic, short sarcomere fibres of the fresh water decapod crustacean Cherax destructor (yabby) and in the fast-twitch rat muscle fibres using the mechanically skinned muscle fibre preparation.A robust Ca2+-induced Ca2+-release (CICR) mechanism was present in both long and short sarcomere fibres and 1 mm Mg2+ exerted a strong inhibitory action on the SR Ca2+ release in both fibre types.The SR displayed different properties with respect to Ca2+ loading in the long and the short sarcomere fibres and marked functional differences were identified with respect to Mg2+ inhibition between the two crustacean fibre types. Thus, in long sarcomere fibres, the submaximally loaded SR was able to release Ca2+ when [Mg2+] was lowered from 1 to 0.01 mm in the presence of 8 mm ATPtotal and in the virtual absence of Ca2+ (< 5 nM) even when the CICR was suppressed. In contrast, negligible Ca2+ was released from the submaximally loaded SR of short sarcomere yabby fibres when [Mg2+] was lowered from 1 to 0.01 mm under the same conditions as for the long sarcomere fibres. Nevertheless, the rate of SR Ca2+ release in short sarcomere fibres increased markedly when [Mg2+] was lowered in the presence of [Ca2+] approaching the normal resting levels (50-100 nM).Rat fibres were able to release SR Ca2+ at a faster rate than the long sarcomere yabby fibres when [Mg2+] was lowered from 1 to 0.01 mm in the virtual absence of Ca2+ but, unlike with yabby fibres, the net rate of Ca2+ release was actually increased for conditions that were considerably less favourable to CICR.In summary, it is concluded that crustacean skeletal muscles have more that one functional type of Ca2+-release channels, that these channels display properties that are intermediate between those of mammalian skeletal and cardiac isoforms, that the inhibition exerted by Mg2+ at rest on the crustacean SR Ca2+-release channels must be removed during excitation-contraction coupling and that, unlike in crustacean fibres, CICR cannot play the major role in the activation of SR Ca2+-release channels in the rat skeletal muscle. PMID:10896719

Launikonis, Bradley S; Stephenson, D George

2000-01-01

368

a Study of the Bioluminescence of Larger Zooplankton and the Effects of Low-Level Light Changes on Their Behavior.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A bio-optical study was undertaken to quantify the relationships which exist between counter-illuminating organisms and the downwelling spectral light field in which they exist. The basic hypothesis behind counter-illumination is that the animal emits light using ventrally-oriented photophores to disrupt or eliminate the shadowed area on ventral surfaces. An organism lacking photophores sharply silhouettes against the highly directional downwelling irradiance, whereas by distributing photophores over the ventral surface of the body and closely matching the spectral and intensity characteristics of the downwelling light, this silhouette is obscured. Analysis carried out on changes in vertical distribution patterns in response to low-level intensity changes in ambient surface light suggested that diel migrating organisms begin to shift vertically in the water column when surface scalar irradiance decreased below or increased above 1.0 times10^{-2} muEin m^{-2} sec^ {-1}. Maximum aggregations of organisms, as defined by MOCNESS net sampling or single-frequency acoustic backscatter, appeared to remain within definable in situ blue-green isolume ranges varying less than a factor of ten throughout each night. Comparisons made between organism counter-illumination capacity and modeled in situ downwelling irradiance levels suggested that euphausiids, decapods and myctophids use between 1-10 percent of their maximum counter-illumination capacity to match the ambient downwelling light conditions. Modeling also suggested that up to 40 percent of the maximum measured bioluminescence output is required to match ambient irradiance in the shallower surface zones where aggregations of copepods, potential food sources, were commonly found at night. An optical study to quantify the radiative transfer of bioluminescence from a point source revealed that non -isotropic point sources produce radiance patterns that cannot be simply explained by inverse square losses. Therefore simple inverse-square estimates of bioluminescent propagation loss rates from organisms in the ocean are an oversimplification of the radiative transfer processes that occur when these emissions occur. Additionally, in evaluating counter-illumination, the distance of the receptor, such as the eyes of a potential predator, is critical in determining the effectiveness of the organisms in matching the uniform light field of their surrounding environment and ultimately avoiding detection and predation.

van Keuren, Jeffrey Robert

369

Automated image analysis for the detection of benthic crustaceans and bacterial mat coverage using the VENUS undersea cabled network.  

PubMed

The development and deployment of sensors for undersea cabled observatories is presently biased toward the measurement of habitat variables, while sensor technologies for biological community characterization through species identification and individual counting are less common. The VENUS cabled multisensory network (Vancouver Island, Canada) deploys seafloor camera systems at several sites. Our objective in this study was to implement new automated image analysis protocols for the recognition and counting of benthic decapods (i.e., the galatheid squat lobster, Munida quadrispina), as well as for the evaluation of changes in bacterial mat coverage (i.e., Beggiatoa spp.), using a camera deployed in Saanich Inlet (103 m depth). For the counting of Munida we remotely acquired 100 digital photos at hourly intervals from 2 to 6 December 2009. In the case of bacterial mat coverage estimation, images were taken from 2 to 8 December 2009 at the same time frequency. The automated image analysis protocols for both study cases were created in MatLab 7.1. Automation for Munida counting incorporated the combination of both filtering and background correction (Median- and Top-Hat Filters) with Euclidean Distances (ED) on Red-Green-Blue (RGB) channels. The Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) features and Fourier Descriptors (FD) of tracked objects were then extracted. Animal classifications were carried out with the tools of morphometric multivariate statistic (i.e., Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis; PLSDA) on Mean RGB (RGBv) value for each object and Fourier Descriptors (RGBv+FD) matrices plus SIFT and ED. The SIFT approach returned the better results. Higher percentages of images were correctly classified and lower misclassification errors (an animal is present but not detected) occurred. In contrast, RGBv+FD and ED resulted in a high incidence of records being generated for non-present animals. Bacterial mat coverage was estimated in terms of Percent Coverage and Fractal Dimension. A constant Region of Interest (ROI) was defined and background extraction by a Gaussian Blurring Filter was performed. Image subtraction within ROI was followed by the sum of the RGB channels matrices. Percent Coverage was calculated on the resulting image. Fractal Dimension was estimated using the box-counting method. The images were then resized to a dimension in pixels equal to a power of 2, allowing subdivision into sub-multiple quadrants. In comparisons of manual and automated Percent Coverage and Fractal Dimension estimates, the former showed an overestimation tendency for both parameters. The primary limitations on the automatic analysis of benthic images were habitat variations in sediment texture and water column turbidity. The application of filters for background corrections is a required preliminary step for the efficient recognition of animals and bacterial mat patches. PMID:22346657

Aguzzi, Jacopo; Costa, Corrado; Robert, Katleen; Matabos, Marjolaine; Antonucci, Francesca; Juniper, S Kim; Menesatti, Paolo

2011-01-01

370

Traceability of aquatic animals.  

PubMed

Effective methods of traceability are urgently required for use in research as well as in different types of aquaculture operations and to control trade in aquatic animals and products. In regard to the marking of fish, many different tagging methods have been described and the method to be used depends on the purpose and need for tagging. In contrast, for molluscs and crustaceans, only a few methods of marking such animals have been described, due to the practical difficulties. The authors first describe the different methods for tracing fish and fishery products, by means of external tags, such as Floy tags, Carlin tags and passive integrated transponder tags; chemical marking using inorganic substances such as silver nitrate or potassium nitrate, pigments, oxytetracycline, etc.; and several different types of electronic devices in which basic information such as the strain of fish, farm of origin or weight can be stored. Genetic traceability using deoxyribonucleic acid profiling is developing quite rapidly for cultured brood stocks and wild populations. This technique may be used with very high degrees of confidence to assign to or exclude animals or products from their claimed origin, paternity or strain, and may be used as evidence in court proceedings. The second section of this paper describes the traceability of live molluscs for restocking and for human consumption. In these applications, genetic markers have been demonstrated to be suitable. Mechanical tagging on a small scale for research purposes has also been used. Otherwise, the only means of tracing live molluscs are the movement documents and the labelling on boxes that certifies the origin of the commodity. The third section describes the methods available for tracing live and dead crustaceans. A large variety of physical tagging methods for decapod crustaceans is described, such as the injection of biological stains (fast green, Niagara sky blue, trypan red and blue) and external tags such as coloured streamer tags, wire tags and a variety of anchor tags. Furthermore, a number of different internal coding methods, such as the coded micro-wire tags and injected elastomer tags are discussed in detail. As is the case for fish, genetic molecular techniques are also applied in population studies of crustaceans; some of the molecular genetic methods are described. Prawns for human consumption are most frequently packed whole or as tails after the necessary sorting, washing and freezing and the only way of performing a traceback is through documents relating to movement, invoices, health certificates and labelling of the boxes. The minimum requirements for labelling would be the content of the packages, i.e. species, quantity, identification of the manufacturer (name and address), packing place, importer/exporter or vendor of the product, in addition to the loading bill number. PMID:11548527

Håstein, T; Hill, B J; Berthe, F; Lightner, D V

2001-08-01

371

Climate-dependent evolution of Antarctic ectotherms: An integrative analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper explores the climate-dependent evolution of marine Antarctic fauna and tries to identify key mechanisms involved as well as the driving forces that have caused the physiological and life history characteristics observed today. In an integrative approach it uses the recent concept of oxygen and capacity limited thermal tolerance to identify potential links between molecular, cellular, whole-organism, and ecological characteristics of marine animal life in the Antarctic. As a generalized pattern, minimization of baseline energy costs, for the sake of maximized growth in the cold, appears as one over-arching principle shaping the evolution and functioning of Antarctic marine ectotherms. This conclusion is supported by recent comparisons with (sub-) Arctic ectotherms, where elevated levels of energy turnover result at unstable, including cold temperatures, and are related to wide windows of thermal tolerance and associated metabolic features. At biochemical levels, metabolic regulation at low temperatures in general, is supported by the cold compensation of enzyme kinetic parameters like substrate affinities and turnover numbers, through minute structural modifications of the enzyme molecule. These involve a shift in protein folding, sometimes supported by the replacement of individual amino acids. The hypothesis is developed that efficient metabolic regulation at low rates in Antarctic marine stenotherms occurs through high mitochondrial densities at low capacities and possibly enhanced levels of Arrhenius activation energies or activation enthalpies. This contrasts the more costly patterns of metabolic regulation at elevated rates in cold-adapted eurytherms. Energy savings in Antarctic ectotherms, largely exemplified in fish, typically involve low-cost, diffusive oxygen distribution due to high density of lipid membranes, loss of haemoglobin, myoglobin and the heat shock response, reduced anaerobic capacity, large myocytes with low ion exchange activities, and the use of lipid body stores for neutral buoyancy. Important trade-offs result from obligatory energy savings in the permanent cold: low metabolic rates support cold-compensated growth but imply narrow windows of thermal tolerance and reduced scopes for activity. The degree of thermal specialization is not uniformly defined by cold temperature but varies with life style characteristics and activity levels and associated aerobic scope. Trade-offs for the sake of cold compensated growth parallel reduced capacities for exercise performance, exacerbated by the effect of high haemolymph magnesium levels in crustaceans and, possibly, other invertebrates. High magnesium levels likely exclude the group of reptant decapod crustaceans from Antarctic waters below 0 °C. The hypothesis is developed that energy savings imposed by the permanent cold bear specific life history consequences. Due to effects of allometry, energy savings are exacerbated at small body size, favouring passive lecithotrophic larvae. At all stages of life history, reduced energy turnover for the sake of growth causes delays and low rates in other higher functions, with the result of late maturity, fecundity and offspring release, as well as extended development. As a consequence, extended life spans evolved due to life history requirements. At the same time, polar gigantism is enabled by a combination of elevated oxygen levels in cold waters, of reduced metabolism and of extended periods of growth at slow developmental rates.

Pörtner, Hans O.

2006-04-01

372

Rheb, an activator of target of rapamycin, in the blackback land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis: cloning and effects of molting and unweighting on expression in skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

Molt-induced claw muscle atrophy in decapod crustaceans facilitates exuviation and is coordinated by ecdysteroid hormones. There is a 4-fold reduction in mass accompanied by remodeling of the contractile apparatus, which is associated with an 11-fold increase in myofibrillar protein synthesis by the end of the premolt period. Loss of a walking limb or claw causes a loss of mass in the associated thoracic musculature; this unweighting atrophy occurs in intermolt and is ecdysteroid independent. Myostatin (Mstn) is a negative regulator of muscle growth in mammals; it suppresses protein synthesis, in part, by inhibiting the insulin/metazoan target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. Signaling via mTOR activates translation by phosphorylating ribosomal S6 kinase (s6k) and 4E-binding protein 1. Rheb (Ras homolog enriched in brain), a GTP-binding protein, is a key activator of mTOR and is inhibited by Rheb-GTPase-activating protein (GAP). Akt protein kinase inactivates Rheb-GAP, thus slowing Rheb-GTPase activity and maintaining mTOR in the active state. We hypothesized that the large increase in global protein synthesis in claw muscle was due to regulation of mTOR activity by ecdysteroids, caused either directly or indirectly via Mstn. In the blackback land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis, a Mstn-like gene (Gl-Mstn) is downregulated as much as 17-fold in claw muscle during premolt and upregulated 3-fold in unweighted thoracic muscle during intermolt. Gl-Mstn expression in claw muscle is negatively correlated with hemolymph ecdysteroid level. Full-length cDNAs encoding Rheb orthologs from three crustacean species (G. lateralis, Carcinus maenas and Homarus americanus), as well as partial cDNAs encoding Akt (Gl-Akt), mTOR (Gl-mTOR) and s6k (Gl-s6k) from G. lateralis, were cloned. The effects of molting on insulin/mTOR signaling components were quantified in claw closer, weighted thoracic and unweighted thoracic muscles using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Gl-Rheb mRNA levels increased 3.4-fold and 3.9-fold during premolt in claw muscles from animals induced to molt by eyestalk ablation (ESA) and multiple leg autotomy (MLA), respectively, and mRNA levels were positively correlated with hemolymph ecdysteroids. There was little or no effect of molting on Gl-Rheb expression in weighted thoracic muscle and no correlation of Gl-Rheb mRNA with ecdysteroid titer. There were significant changes in Gl-Akt, Gl-mTOR and Gl-s6k expression with molt stage. These changes were transient and were not correlated with hemolymph ecdysteroids. The two muscles differed in terms of the relationship between Gl-Rheb and Gl-Mstn expression. In thoracic muscle, Gl-Rheb mRNA was positively correlated with Gl-Mstn mRNA in both ESA and MLA animals. By contrast, Gl-Rheb mRNA in claw muscle was negatively correlated with Gl-Mstn mRNA in ESA animals, and no correlation was observed in MLA animals. Unweighting increased Gl-Rheb expression in thoracic muscle at all molt stages; the greatest difference (2.2-fold) was observed in intermolt animals. There was also a 1.3-fold increase in Gl-s6k mRNA level in unweighted thoracic muscle. These data indicate that the mTOR pathway is upregulated in atrophic muscles. Gl-Rheb, in particular, appears to play a role in the molt-induced increase in protein synthesis in the claw muscle. PMID:22279066

MacLea, Kyle S; Abuhagr, Ali M; Pitts, Natalie L; Covi, Joseph A; Bader, Brandon D; Chang, Ernest S; Mykles, Donald L

2012-02-15

373

The leg depressor and levator muscles in the squat lobster Munida quadrispina (Galatheidae) and the crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Astacidae) have multiple heads with potentially different functions.  

PubMed

The proximal leg muscles of decapod crustaceans, controlling movements at the first two joints, are anatomically more complex than the better-studied distal leg muscles. Despite extensive research on their involvement in diverse behaviors, no complete descriptions of the anatomy and innervation of these muscles for any species have been published. We describe the anatomy and innervation of the depressor muscle in the second leg of the squat lobster Munida quadrispina and compare its anatomy with that of its homologue in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii and its antagonist, the levator, in both species. Of the six anatomically distinct heads comprising M. quadrispina's depressor muscle, one arises in the coxa (coxal head) and five are bi-articular (cross two joints), arising from widely dispersed sites on the thoracic endophragmal skeleton (dorsal, sternal, caudal, ventral-rostral, ventral-caudal heads). The heads' widely divergent force vectors are accommodated by the depressor apodeme's bifurcation at a thin flexible point. In total, eighteen neurons with central somata were backfilled from nerve branches to the heads. The common inhibitor and at least one neuron of unknown function with rostro-lateral soma and extremely sparse neurites innervate all heads. The sixteen excitatory motoneurons' somata are clustered in two locations, five rostral and eleven caudal to the neuropil. Rostral motoneurons innervate the two ventral heads (rostral and caudal). Their integrating segments lie rostral to those of the caudal group motoneurons and are straight or 'Y'-shaped, the latter longer and larger in diameter. Both morphological types have one prominent medial neurite that crosses the midline and could allow direct interaction between bilateral pairs of rostral motoneurons. The caudal motoneurons provide partially shared innervation to the remaining four heads. Six provide exclusive innervation, one to the caudal head, two to the sternal head, and three to the bi-articular dorsal head and uni-articular coxal head which share innervation. Of the remaining five caudal motoneurons, two are shared by the caudal head and the dorsal-coxal pair of heads and three are shared by the caudal and sternal heads. P. clarkii has two depressor muscles; the rostral depressor has a single head morphologically similar to the ventral rostral head in M. quadrispina; the caudal depressor muscle has four heads (dorsal, coxal, caudal, sternal) that insert on the large caudal depressor apodeme. The overall organization of depressor muscle heads in P. clarkii and M. quadrispina is similar, taking into consideration the different internal and external thoracic anatomies and the different resting stances, horizontal and tilted, respectively. As in other species, M. quadrispina and P. clarkii have two levator muscles, each with an apodeme of complex structure attributable to the levators' role in leg autotomy. The caudal levator arises in the coxa; it has two heads in M. quadrispina, but only one in P. clarkii. In both species the rostral levator has three heads all arising within the thorax. Divergent force vectors and partially independent innervation of different heads composing complex musculature at single joints constitute an anatomical level of organization that neural mechanisms must accommodate to produce adaptive movements. PMID:11111134

Antonse, B L; Pau, D H

2000-08-01

374

? 13C values of lipids from phototrophic zone microplankton and bathypelagic shrimps at the Azores sector of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lipid composition and ? 13C values of phototrophic zone microplankton, and species of bathypelagic shrimp that are not associated with hydrothermal vents, were determined for samples collected from the water column above the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. These analyses were compared with similar previously published data for vent bresiliid shrimp to address the hypothesis that deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystems are reliant on specific dietary nutrients produced by photosynthetic organisms. Microplankton (<200 ?m) sampled from the surface layer (˜4 m deep) and from the region of maximum light scattering (LSM, 48-75 m deep) were analysed to determine ? 13C values of individual fatty acids in particulate matter. The distributions of fatty acids in total lipid from the surface layer and from the LSM were very similar, with high levels (˜45% of the total) of saturated fatty acids, particularly 14 : 0, 16 : 0 and 18 : 0, and moderate amounts (˜31% of the total) of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), dominated by 22 : 6(n-3). ? 13C values of fatty acids from the surface layer and LSM were also very similar (mean values of -27.6 and -28.8‰, respectively), with a range of values from -25.0 to -32.2‰ and PUFA being somewhat depleted in 13C relative to saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Total lipid of abdominal muscle from three species of bathypelagic decapod shrimp, Ephyrina bidentata, Parapasiphaea sulcatifrons and Sergia japonicus collected from 2000 m contained 18 : 1(n-9), 16 : 0, 22 : 6(n-3) and 20 : 5(n-3) as major fatty acids in all cases. The fatty acids in total lipid from the wax ester-rich hepatopancreas of all three shrimps were dominated (˜50% of the total) by 18 : 1(n-9) and contained substantially lower levels of PUFA than muscle lipid. Total lipids from the hepatopancreas of E. bidentata and S. japonicus contained high levels of 22 : 1 alcohols and 16 : 0 alcohol, respectively, whereas total hepatopancreatic lipid from P. sulcatifrons contained mainly 18 : 1 alcohols and 16 : 0 alcohol. ? 13C values for the fatty acids in the three species ranged from -22.4 to -30.7‰ for muscle (mean value -25.7‰) and from -23.9 to -31.9‰ for hepatopancreas (mean value -26.1‰), with PUFA again being depleted in 13C relative to saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. ? 13C values for the fatty alcohols in the three species ranged from -25.7 to -29.5‰ (mean value -27.1‰). These lipid analytical and ? 13C data are consistent with PUFAs in bathypelagic shrimps originating unmodified from PUFAs in the photic zone and wax esters in bathypelagic shrimps originating substantially from animal biosynthetic activity.

Pond, D. W.; Sargent, J. R.; Fallick, A. E.; Allen, C.; Bell, M. V.; Dixon, D. R.

2000-01-01

375

Food-web structure and trophodynamics of mesopelagic-suprabenthic bathyal macrofauna of the Algerian Basin based on stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The trophodynamics of mesopelagic (macrozooplankton/micronekton) and benthic boundary layer (suprabenthos=hyperbenthos) faunas from the Algerian Basin were characterized on a seasonal scale through stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic analyses of a total of 34 species and two broad taxa (Copepoda and Cumacea). This is the first study simultaneously focused on trophodynamics of deep-sea zooplankton and suprabenthos. Samples were collected southeast of Mallorca (Algerian Basin, Western Mediterranean), on the continental slope close to Cabrera Archipelago, at 650-780 m depths, ca. bi-monthly between August 2003 and June 2004. Mean ? 13C values of suprabenthos ranged from -21.1‰ ( Munnopsurus atlanticus) to -16.7‰ ( Cyclaspis longicaudata). Values of ? 15N ranged from 2.8‰ ( Lepechinella manco) to 9.9‰ (larvae of Gnathia sp.). The stable isotope ratios of suprabenthic fauna displayed a continuum of values, confirming a wide spectrum of feeding guilds (from filter feeders/surface deposit feeders to predators). According to the available information on diets for suprabenthic species, the highest annual mean ? 15N values were found for the hematophagous isopod Gnathia sp. parasite on fish (represented by Praniza larvae) and carnivorous amphipods (e.g. Rhachotropis spp., Nicippe tumida) consuming copepods, and the lowest ? 15N values were found for two cumaceans ( Cyclaspis longicaudata and Platysympus typicus) feeding on detritus. Assuming a 15N-enrichment factor of 2.5‰ and deposit feeders as baseline, we found three trophic levels in suprabenthic food webs. ? 13C ranges were particularly wide among deposit feeders (ranging from -21.8% to -17.3‰) and omnivores (from -20.5% to -18.8‰), suggesting exploitation of particulate organic matter (POM) of different characteristics. Our isotopic analyses revealed lower ranges of ? 13C and ? 15N for macrozooplankton/micronekton, compared with suprabenthos. ? 13C values of zooplankton taxa ranged from -21.1‰ (the hyperiid Phrosina semilunata) to -19.9‰ (the decapod Pasiphaea multidentata), while ? 15N values ranged from 3.9‰ ( P. semilunata) to 7.5‰ ( P. multidentata). Among zooplankton, more enriched ? 15N values were found among carnivores (e.g. the fish Cyclothone spp. and Pasiphaea multidentata) preying on copepods, hyperiids, euphausiids and small fish. The lowest ? 15N values were found for hyperiids that feed on the mucus nets of salps (e.g. Vibilia armata). After contrasting isotope analysis with dietary data, we conclude there were two trophic levels among zooplankton/micronekton. Strong correlation between the mean annual ? 15N and ? 13C values was found for zooplankton ( R2=0.7), but not for suprabenthos, which suggests a single source of carbon for plankton. We found a general seasonal trend for ? 13C enrichment from late autumn (November) to late winter-spring (February-April) for both suprabenthos and zooplankton. The ? 13C enrichment in February-April was correlated in zooplankton with higher surface chlorophyll a concentration 1 month before sampling. As evidenced by ? 13C-? 15N correlations, the response of zooplankton to the peak of surface primary production was almost immediate (an increase of ? 13C-? 15N correlations in February), and stronger than for suprabenthos. The response among suprabenthos was weak, with slight increase in ? 13C-? 15N relationships in April-June.

Fanelli, E.; Cartes, J. E.; Rumolo, P.; Sprovieri, M.

2009-09-01

376

Brain architecture of the largest living land arthropod, the Giant Robber Crab Birgus latro (Crustacea, Anomura, Coenobitidae): evidence for a prominent central olfactory pathway?  

PubMed Central

Background Several lineages within the Crustacea conquered land independently during evolution, thereby requiring physiological adaptations for a semi-terrestrial or even a fully terrestrial lifestyle. Birgus latro Linnaeus, 1767, the giant robber crab or coconut crab (Anomura, Coenobitidae), is the largest land-living arthropod and inhabits Indo-Pacific islands such as Christmas Island. B. latro has served as a model in numerous studies of physiological aspects related to the conquest of land by crustaceans. From an olfactory point of view, a transition from sea to land means that molecules need to be detected in gas phase instead of in water solution. Previous studies have provided physiological evidence that terrestrial hermit crabs (Coenobitidae) such as B. latro have a sensitive and well differentiated sense of smell. Here we analyze the brain, in particular the olfactory processing areas of B. latro, by morphological analysis followed by 3 D reconstruction and immunocytochemical studies of synaptic proteins and a neuropeptide. Results The primary and secondary olfactory centers dominate the brain of B. latro and together account for ca. 40% of the neuropil volume in its brain. The paired olfactory neuropils are tripartite and composed of more than 1,000 columnar olfactory glomeruli, which are radially arranged around the periphery of the olfactory neuropils. The glomeruli are innervated ca. 90,000 local interneurons and ca. 160,000 projection neurons per side. The secondary olfactory centers, the paired hemiellipsoid neuropils, are targeted by the axons of these olfactory projection neurons. The projection neuron axonal branches make contact to ca. 250.000 interneurons (per side) associated with the hemiellipsoid neuropils. The hemiellipsoid body neuropil is organized into parallel neuropil lamellae, a design that is quite unusual for decapod crustaceans. The architecture of the optic neuropils and areas associated with antenna two suggest that B. latro has visual and mechanosensory skills that are comparable to those of marine Crustacea. Conclusions In parallel to previous behavioral findings that B. latro has aerial olfaction, our results indicate that their central olfactory pathway is indeed most prominent. Similar findings from the closely related terrestrial hermit crab Coenobita clypeatus suggest that in Coenobitidae, olfaction is a major sensory modality processed by the brain, and that for these animals, exploring the olfactory landscape is vital for survival in their terrestrial habitat. Future studies on terrestrial members of other crustacean taxa such as Isopoda, Amphipoda, Astacida, and Brachyura will shed light on how frequently the establishment of an aerial sense of olfaction evolved in Crustacea during the transition from sea to land. Amounting to ca. 1,000,000, the numbers of interneurons that analyse the olfactory input in B. latro brains surpasses that in other terrestrial arthropods, as e.g. the honeybee Apis mellifera or the moth Manduca sexta, by two orders of magnitude suggesting that B. latro in fact is a land-living arthropod that has devoted a substantial amount of nervous tissue to the sense of smell. PMID:20831795

2010-01-01

377

Growth patterns, chemical composition and oxygen consumption in early juvenile Hyas araneus (Decapoda: Majidae) reared in the laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early (instar I and II) juveniles of the spider crab Hyas araneus were reared under constant conditions (12 °C, 32‰S) in the laboratory, and their growth, biochemical composition, and respiration were studied. Every second day, dry weight (W), ash-free dry weight (AFW), and contents of ash, organic and inorganic carbon (C), nitrogen (N), hydrogen (H), protein, chitin, lipid, and carbohydrates were measured, as well as oxygen consumption. Changes in the absolute amounts of W. AFW, and C, N, and H during the moulting cycle are described with various regression equations as functions of age within a given instar. These patterns of growth differ in part from those that have been observed during previous studies in larval stages of the same and some other decapod species, possibly indicating different growth strategies in larvae and juveniles. There were clear periodic changes in ash (% of W) and inorganic C (as % of total C), with initially very low and then steeply increasing values in postmoult, a maximum in intermoult, and decreasing figures during the premoult phase of each moulting cycle. Similar patterns were observed in the chitin fraction, reaching a maximum of 16% of W (31% of AFW). Ash, inorganic C, and chitin represent the major components of the exoskeleton and hence, changes in their amounts are associated with the formation and loss of cuticle material. Consequently, a high percentage of mineral matter was lost with the exuvia (76% of the late premoult [LPM] ash content, 74% of inorganic C), but relatively small fractions of LPM organic matter (15% of AFW, 11% of organic C, 5 6% of N and H). These cyclic changes in the cuticle caused an inverse pattern of variation in the percentage values (% of W) of AFW, organic C, N, H, and biochemical constituents other than chitin. When these measures of living biomass were related to, exclusively, the organic body fraction (AFM), much less variation was found during individual moulting cycles, with values of about 43 52% in organic C, 9 10% in N, 6 9% H, 31 49% of AFW in protein, 3 10% in lipid, and <1% in carbohydrates. All these constituents showed, on the average, a decreasing tendency during the first two crab instars, whereas N remained fairly constant. It cannot be explained at present, what other elements and biochemical compounds, respectively, might replace these decreasing components of AFW. Decreasing tendencies during juvenile growth were observed also in the organic C/N and in the lipid/protein weight ratios, both indicating that the proportion of lipid decreased at a higher rate than that of protein. Changes were observed also in the composition of inorganic matter, with significantly lower inorganic C in early postmoult (2 4% of ash) than in later stages of the moult cycle (about 9%). This reflected probably an increase in the degree of calcification, i.e. in the calcium carbonate content of the exoskeleton. As a fraction of total C, inorganic C reached maximum values of 17 and 20% in the crab I and II instars, respectively. The energy content of juvenile spider crabs was estimated independently from organic C and biochemical constituents, with a significant correlation between these values. However, the former estimates of energy were, on the average, significantly lower than the latter (slope of the regression ?1). Since organic C should be a reliable integrator of organic substances, but the sum of protein, lipid, chitin, and carbohydrates amounted to only 60 91% of AFW, it is concluded that the observed discrepancy between these two estimates of energy was caused by energy from biochemical constituents that had not been determined in our analyses. Thus, energy values obtained from these biochemical fractions alone may underestimate the actual amount of organic matter and energy. Respiration per individual in juvenile spider crabs was higher than that in larval stages of the same species (previous studies), but their W-specific values of oxygen consumption (QO2) were lower than in conspecific larvae (0.6 2?g O2·[mg W]-1). QO2 showed a consiste

Anger, K.; Harms, J.; Christiansen, M. E.; Süsens, U.; Wilmes, B.

1992-03-01