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1

EFFECTS OF CHLORINATED SEAWATER ON DECAPOD CRUSTACEANS AND 'MULINIA' LARVAE  

EPA Science Inventory

Eggs and larvae of decapod crustaceans and embryos of Mulinia lateralis were exposed to chlorinated seawater for varying periods in continuous flow systems. Mortality, developmental rate, and general behavior were recorded. Panopeus herbstii zoeae were more sensitive to chlorine-...

2

VITELLOGENISIS AND IT'S ENDOCRINE CONTROL IN DECAPOD CRUSTACEANS  

EPA Science Inventory

Vitellogenesis, the production of vitellin (major yolk protein), is controlled in decapod crustaceans by several hormones. With increasing efforts world-wide to successfully culture economically important crustaceans, such as shrimp, there is growing interest in attaining a bette...

3

Warm-water decapods and the trophic amplification of climate in the North Sea  

PubMed Central

A long-term time series of plankton and benthic records in the North Sea indicates an increase in decapods and a decline in their prey species that include bivalves and flatfish recruits. Here, we show that in the southern North Sea the proportion of decapods to bivalves doubled following a temperature-driven, abrupt ecosystem shift during the 1980s. Analysis of decapod larvae in the plankton reveals a greater presence and spatial extent of warm-water species where the increase in decapods is greatest. These changes paralleled the arrival of new species such as the warm-water swimming crab Polybius henslowii now found in the southern North Sea. We suggest that climate-induced changes among North Sea decapods have played an important role in the trophic amplification of a climate signal and in the development of the new North Sea dynamic regime. PMID:20554562

Lindley, J. A.; Beaugrand, G.; Luczak, C.; Dewarumez, J.-M.; Kirby, R. R.

2010-01-01

4

First findings of decapod crustacea in the hadal zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the first major hadal sampling efforts in the 1950s, crustaceans of the order Decapoda have been thought absent from the hadal zone (6000-11,000 m) with no representatives documented >5700 m. A baited video lander deployed at 6007, 6890 and 7966 m in the Kermadec Trench, 8798 and 9729 m in the Tonga Trench (SW Pacific), 6945 and 7703 m in the Japan Trench and 5469 m in the Marianas region (NW Pacific) has now revealed a conspicuous presence of the Benthesicymid prawn Benthesicymus crenatus Bate 1881. Decapods were observed at all sites except at 7966 m in the Kermadec Trench and the two Tonga Trench sites, making the deepest finding 7703 m in the Japan Trench, 2000 m deeper than previously thought. These natantian decapods were readily attracted to fish bait and, rather than feeding on the bait itself, were observed preying upon smaller scavenging amphipods. These are the first observations of predation in the hadal zone. In less than 10 h of bottom time, 12 observations of 10 individuals were documented at 6007 m and 5 observations of 3 individuals were documented at 6890 m in the Kermadec Trench. In the Japan Trench at 6945 m 29 observations of 20 individuals were documented whilst only one individual was seen at 7703 m. Two individuals were observed in the abyssal Marianas Region (5575 m). Also, in the Kermadec Trench, individual caridean prawns ( Acanthephyra spp.) were observed at 6007 and 6890 m, proving categorically that the crustacean order of Decapoda is represented in the hadal zone.

Jamieson, A. J.; Fujii, T.; Solan, M.; Matsumoto, A. K.; Bagley, P. M.; Priede, I. G.

2009-04-01

5

Haemolymph protein composition and copper levels in decapod crustaceans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in haemolymph protein composition and concentration, in copper content and copper distribution in the tissue of decapod crustaceans are reviewed. Haemocyanin is the major haemolymph constituent (> 60%); the remaining proteins (in order of concentration) include coagulogen, apohaemocyanin, hormones and antisomes. Moulting, nutritional state, infection, hypoxia and salinity fluctuations are the major factors affecting the relative proportions and total quantities of the haemolymph proteins. With regard to haemocyanin, the changes in concentration during the moult cycle are principally associated with changes in haemolymph volume, rather than with changes in total haemocyanin content due to synthesis or catabolism. The role of the midgut gland in regulating haemolymph copper and haemocyanin concentration has been re-evaluated. More than 50% of the whole body copper load is stored in the haemolymph. In contrast, less than 3% of the copper load resides in the midgut gland. The latter has little potential for regulating haemolymph copper levels, at least in the short term (hours to a few days), though it may be involved in regulating haemocyanin levels over longer periods (weeks to months). The total copper content of the haemolymph remains within a narrow range, except during starvation when levels may decrease. Consequently, variations in the copper content of soft tissues, which constitute only 20% of decapod dry weight, do not significanlty alter whole body copper concentrations. Evidence that copper released following haemocyanin catabolism becomes bound to metallothionein for later use in the resynthesis of haemocyanin is reviewed and found to be inconclusive. The amount of copper that can be stored in this way is trivial compared with the amount of copper required to permit significant changes in haemolymph haemocyanin concentration. Average tissue copper requirements, calculated during the present study, are approx. 4 times higher than previous theoretical estimates.

Depledge, M. H.; Bjerregaard, P.

1989-06-01

6

Hydrozoans as Pests in Closed-System Culture of Larval Decapod Crustaceans.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three species of hydrozoans, Moerisia lyonsi, Stylactis arge, and Clytia gracilis, were accidentally introduced into closed system culture tanks used for rearing larval decapod crustaceans. The cnidarians were highly successful in competing with prawn and...

P. A. Sandifer, T. I. J. Smith, D. R. Calder

1974-01-01

7

A PRELIMINARY REPORT ON THE DECAPOD CRUSTACEANS IN THE ESTUARINE AREA OF THE TIBER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decapods collected during benthos investigations carried on with dredge and bottom trawl in front of Tiber mouth are reported. Species distribution and association are discussed with reference to their substrate preference and biology.

R. MINERVINI; M. GIANNOTTA; L. FALCIAI

8

A review of gastric processing in decapod crustaceans.  

PubMed

This article reviews the mechanical processes associated with digestion in decapod crustaceans. The decapod crustacean gut is essentially an internal tube that is divided into three functional areas, the foregut, midgut, and hindgut. The foregut houses the gastric mill apparatus which functions in mastication (cutting and grinding) of the ingested food. The processed food passes into the pyloric region of the foregut which controls movement of digesta into the midgut region and hepatopancreas where intracellular digestion takes place. The movements of the foregut muscles and gastric mill are controlled via nerves from the stomatogastric ganglion. Contraction rates of the gastric mill and foregut muscles can be influenced by environmental factors such as salinity, temperature, and oxygen levels. Gut contraction rates depend on the magnitude of the environmental perturbation and the physiological ability of each species. The subsequent transit of the digesta from the foregut into the midgut and through the hindgut has been followed in a wide variety of crustaceans. Transit rates are commonly used as a measure of food processing rates and are keys in understanding strategies of adaptation to trophic conditions. Transit times vary from as little as 30 min in small copepods to over 150 h in larger lobsters. Transit times can be influenced by the size and the type of the meal, the size and activity level of an animal and changes in environmental temperature, salinity and oxygen tension. Ultimately, changes in transit times influence digestive efficiency (the amount of nutrients absorbed across the gut wall). Digestive efficiencies tend to be high for carnivorous crustaceans, but somewhat lower for those that consume plant material. A slowing of the transit rate allows more time for nutrient absorption but this may be confounded by changes in the environment, which may reduce the energy available for active transport processes. Given the large number of articles already published on the stomatogastric ganglion and its control mechanisms, this area will continue to be of interest to scientists. There is also a push towards studying animals in a more natural environment or even in the field and investigation of the energetic costs of the components of digestion under varying biotic and environmental conditions will undoubtedly be an area that expands in the future. PMID:23266655

McGaw, Iain J; Curtis, Daniel L

2013-05-01

9

Pelagic decapods in the northern Benguela upwelling system: Distribution, ecophysiology and contribution to active carbon flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decapods were sampled with a 1 m2 MOCNESS (mainly upper 1000 m) in the northern Benguela Current during three cruises in December 2009, September/October 2010 and February 2011. Although pelagic decapods are abundant members of the micronekton community, information about their ecophysiology is very limited. Species-specific regional distribution limits were detected for various decapod species (e.g. Plesionika carinata, Sergestes arcticus, Pasiphaea semispinosa). Significant diel vertical migration patterns were determined for three caridean and three penaeiodean species. Biomass was variable and ranged from 23 to 2770 mg dry mass m-2 with highest values for P. semispinosa. Fatty acid and stable isotope analyses revealed that the examined decapod species are omnivorous to carnivorous except for the herbivorous to omnivorous species P. carinata. Calanid copepods such as Calanoides carinatus were identified as an important prey item especially for caridean species. Community consumption rates of pelagic decapods derived from respiration rates ranged from 7 mg C m-2 d-1 (23°S) to >20 mg C m-2 d-1 (19°S, 17°S). A potential active respiratory carbon flux was calculated for migrating pelagic decapods with 4.4 mg C m-2 d-1 for the upper 200 m and with 2.6 mg C m-2 d-1 from the base of the euphotic zone to a depth of 600 m. Overall, pelagic decapods apparently play a more prominent role in the northern Benguela Current ecosystem than previously assumed and may exert a substantial predation impact on calanid copepods (up to 13% d-1 of standing stock).

Schukat, Anna; Bode, Maya; Auel, Holger; Carballo, Rodrigo; Martin, Bettina; Koppelmann, Rolf; Hagen, Wilhelm

2013-05-01

10

Do Decapod Crustaceans Have Nociceptors for Extreme pH?  

PubMed Central

Background Nociception is the physiological detection of noxious stimuli. Because of its obvious importance, nociception is expected to be widespread across animal taxa and to trigger robust behaviours reliably. Nociception in invertebrates, such as crustaceans, is poorly studied. Methodology/Principal Findings Three decapod crustacean species were tested for nociceptive behaviour: Louisiana red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), white shrimp (Litopenaeus setiferus), and grass shrimp (Palaemonetes sp.). Applying sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, or benzocaine to the antennae caused no change in behaviour in the three species compared to controls. Animals did not groom the stimulated antenna, and there was no difference in movement of treated individuals and controls. Extracellular recordings of antennal nerves in P. clarkii revealed continual spontaneous activity, but no neurons that were reliably excited by the application of concentrated sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid. Conclusions/Significance Previously reported responses to extreme pH are either not consistently evoked across species or were mischaracterized as nociception. There was no behavioural or physiological evidence that the antennae contained specialized nociceptors that responded to pH. PMID:20422026

Puri, Sakshi; Faulkes, Zen

2010-01-01

11

The Oculomotor System of Decapod Cephalopods: Eye Muscles, Eye Muscle Nerves, and the Oculomotor Neurons in the Central Nervous System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen extraocular eye muscles are described in the decapods Loligo and Sepioteuthis, and thirteen in Sepia; they are supplied by four eye muscle nerves. The main action of most of the muscles is a linear movement of the eyeball, only three muscles produce strong rotations. The arrangement, innervation and action of the decapod eye muscles are compared with those of

B. U. Budelmann; J. Z. Young

1993-01-01

12

Adult neurogenesis in the decapod crustacean brain: a hematopoietic connection?  

PubMed

New neurons are produced and integrated into circuits in the adult brains of many organisms, including crustaceans. In some crustacean species, the first-generation neuronal precursors reside in a niche exhibiting characteristics analogous to mammalian neurogenic niches. However, unlike mammalian niches where several generations of neuronal precursors co-exist, the lineage of precursor cells in crayfish is spatially separated allowing the influence of environmental and endogenous regulators on specific generations in the neuronal precursor lineage to be defined. Experiments also demonstrate that the first-generation neuronal precursors in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii are not self-renewing. A source external to the neurogenic niche must therefore provide cells that replenish the first-generation precursor pool, because although these cells divide and produce a continuous efflux of second-generation cells from the niche, the population of first-generation niche precursors is not diminished with growth and aging. In vitro studies show that cells extracted from the hemolymph, but not other tissues, are attracted to and incorporated into the neurogenic niche, a phenomenon that appears to involve serotonergic mechanisms. We propose that, in crayfish, the hematopoietic system may be a source of cells that replenish the niche cell pool. These and other studies reviewed here establish decapod crustaceans as model systems in which the processes underlying adult neurogenesis, such as stem cell origins and transformation, can be readily explored. Studies in diverse species where adult neurogenesis occurs will result in a broader understanding of fundamental mechanisms and how evolutionary processes may have shaped the vertebrate/mammalian condition. PMID:21929622

Beltz, Barbara S; Zhang, Yi; Benton, Jeanne L; Sandeman, David C

2011-09-01

13

Adult neurogenesis in the decapod crustacean brain: A hematopoietic connection?  

PubMed Central

New neurons are produced and integrated into circuits in the adult brains of many organisms, including crustaceans. In some crustacean species, the 1st- generation neuronal precursors reside in a niche exhibiting characteristics analogous to mammalian neurogenic niches. However, unlike mammalian niches where several generations of neuronal precursors coexist, the lineage of precursor cells in crayfish is spatially separated allowing the influence of environmental and endogenous regulators on specific generations in the neuronal precursor lineage to be defined. Experiments also demonstrate that the 1st-generation neuronal precursors in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii are not self-renewing. A source external to the neurogenic niche must therefore provide cells that replenish the 1st-generation precursor pool, because although these cells divide and produce a continuous efflux of 2nd-generation cells from the niche, the population of 1st-generation niche precursors is not diminished with growth and aging. In vitro studies show that cells extracted from the hemolymph, but not other tissues, are attracted to and incorporated into the neurogenic niche, a phenomenon that appears to involve serotonergic mechanisms. We propose that in crayfish, the hematopoietic system may be a source of cells that replenish the niche cell pool. These and other studies reviewed here establish decapod crustaceans as model systems in which the processes underlying adult neurogenesis, such as stem cell origins and transformation, can be readily explored. Studies in diverse species where adult neurogenesis occurs will result in a broader understanding of fundamental mechanisms and how evolutionary processes may have shaped the vertebrate/mammalian condition. PMID:21929622

Beltz, Barbara S.; Zhang, Yi; Benton, Jeanne L.; Sandeman, David C.

2011-01-01

14

Turning Loss Into Opportunity: The Key Deletion of an Escape Circuit in Decapod Crustaceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decapod crustacean escape responses are adaptive behaviors whose neural bases are well understood. The escape circuit is composed of giant neurons. Lateral giant interneurons (LGs) respond to posterior stimuli by generating a somersaulting tailflip; medial giant interneurons (MGs) respond to anterior stimuli with a backwards tailflip. Both sets of interneurons connect to giant fast flexor motor neurons (MoGs). Most features

Zen Faulkes

2008-01-01

15

SPATIAL ECOLOGY OF DECAPODS AND FISHES IN A NORTHERN EVERGLADES WETLAND MOSAIC  

E-print Network

SPATIAL ECOLOGY OF DECAPODS AND FISHES IN A NORTHERN EVERGLADES WETLAND MOSAIC By CARROLL FRANK kept the light burning via stimulating arguments and consumption of fermented grains. The light COMPOSITION IN A NORTHERN EVERGLADES WETLAND MOSAIC 15 Introduction 15 Study Area and Methods 16 Results 20

Jordan, Frank

16

NOTES ON DECAPOD AND EUPHAUSIID CRUSTACEANS, CONTINENTAL MARGIN, WESTERN ATLANTIC, GEORGES BANK  

E-print Network

and 1 species ofeuphausiid are reported from the outer continental shelf. submarine canyons. and nearby. transtridensl. Records of decapod crustaceans from the outer continental shelf, submarine canyons, and nearby continental shelf in the western At- lantic were reviewed by Squires (1965), Williams and Wigley (1977

17

Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Microhabitat Use by Fishes and Decapod Crustaceans in a Louisiana Estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used a 1-m beam trawl to characterize microhabitat use by fishes and decapod crustaceans in monthly samples collected in Vermilion and West Cote Blanche bays in central coastal Louisiana. Randomized sampling within strata characterized the distributions of species, size-classes, and environmental conditions throughout the coastal bays. Microhabitats were characterized by salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, depth, distance from shore, substrate

Donald M. Baltz; Robert F. Jones

2003-01-01

18

A Comparison of Trace Metal Accumulation in Indigenous and Alien Freshwater Macro-Decapods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined in the exoskeleton and hepatopancreas of three freshwater macro-decapods widely distributed in Tuscany, Italy. The species were the indigenous Austropotamobius pallipes (the white-clawed crayfish) and Potamon fluviatile (the river crab) and the alien Procambarus clarkii (the red swamp crayfish, in Italy aquacultured since 1977 and invasive since

Francesca Gherardi; Silvia Barbaresi; Orlando Vaselli; Alberto Bencini

2002-01-01

19

Oxygen and carbon dioxide transporting qualities of hemocyanin in the hemolymph of a natant decapod Palaemon adspersus  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The O2 and CO2 combining properties ofPalaemon adspersus hemolymph is studied, aiming to assess respiratory function and the environmental and metabolic adaptations of hemocyanin of natant decapods where, in contrast to the intensively-studied, larger and predominantly less active reptant decapods, virtually no information is available.2.The hemolymph shows a high O2 carrying capacity (mean=2.8 vol%), a low O2 affinity (at 15

Roy E. Weber; Lars Hagerman

1981-01-01

20

[Distribution of Euphausiid and Decapod larvae in the spring plankton of the southern Barents Sea].  

PubMed

New data have been obtained on the spatial distribution of the early developmental stages of Malacostraca in the mesozooplankton of the southern Barents Sea. In spring 2007, the euphausiid stages with the highest abundance (over 80%) were eggs and nauplii. Decapod larvae were represented by zoeae of Paralithodes camtschaticus, Paguruspubescens, and Hyas araneus; their abundance was at most 1.5% of total zooplankton abundance. The larvaton groups dominant by abundance were furciliae of Euphasiacea (14.5 +/- 6.2 mg/m3) and zoeae of P. camtschaticus (32.7 +/- 15.9 mg/m3). The size structure of larval hemipopulations was similar over the studied water area. Comparison with data on the larval body length obtained in other areas of the sea leads to a conclusion on the independence of the decapod groups of Eastern and Western Murman. PMID:21870496

Dvoretski?, V G

2011-01-01

21

Marine snake epibiosis: a review and first report of decapods associated with Pelamis platurus.  

PubMed

Under circumstances in which area for settlement is limited, the colonization of living substrata may become a highly valuable strategy for survival of marine invertebrates. This phenomenon, termed epibiosis, results in spatially close associations between two or more living organisms. Pelamis platurus, the yellow-bellied sea snake, is the only exclusively pelagic marine snake and its propensity for foraging along ocean slicks facilitates its colonization by pelagic epibionts. Herein, we report epibionts associated with P. platurus inhabiting the waters off the northwestern Pacific coast of Costa Rica. These associations include the first records of decapod epibionts from any marine snake. Decapod epibionts were found on 18.9% of P. platurus, and size of snake (total length) had a significant positive effect on the frequency and intensity of epibiosis. We discuss the spatial and ecological mechanisms that facilitate these interactions, as well as the suite of factors that either promote or deter epibiosis and ultimately dictate the frequency and intensity of these interactions. Finally, we provide a review of marine snake epibiosis. The intention of this review is to (1) provide contemporary researchers with a single, accessible reference to all known reports of epibionts associated with marine snakes and (2) discuss what is currently known with respect to diversity of epibionts from marine snakes. PMID:22505588

Pfaller, Joseph B; Frick, Michael G; Brischoux, François; Sheehy, Coleman M; Lillywhite, Harvey B

2012-08-01

22

Technical improvements of a rearing system for the culture of decapod crustacean larvae, with emphasis on marine ornamental species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study compares the efficiency of cylindrico-spherical (CST) and cylindrico-conical tanks (CCT) to culture the larvae of decapod crustaceans, with emphasis to marine ornamental species, and describes a new filter system to flush uneaten preys. The ornamental shrimps Lysmata debelius, Lysmata seticaudata and Stenopus hispidus, the ornamental crab Stenorhynchus seticornis and the ornamental hermit crab Clibanarius erythropus were used

Ricardo Calado; Tânia Pimentel; António Vitorino; Gisela Dionísio; Maria Teresa Dinis

2008-01-01

23

Acanthaster planci Outbreak: Decline in Coral Health, Coral Size Structure Modification and Consequences for Obligate Decapod Assemblages  

PubMed Central

Although benthic motile invertebrate communities encompass the vast majority of coral reef diversity, their response to habitat modification has been poorly studied. A variety of benthic species, particularly decapods, provide benefits to their coral host enabling them to cope with environmental stressors, and as a result benefit the overall diversity of coral-associated species. However, little is known about how invertebrate assemblages associated with corals will be affected by global perturbations, (either directly or indirectly via their coral host) or their consequences for ecosystem resilience. Analysis of a ten year dataset reveals that the greatest perturbation at Moorea over this time was an outbreak of the corallivorous sea star Acanthaster planci from 2006 to 2009 impacting habitat health, availability and size structure of Pocillopora spp. populations and highlights a positive relationship between coral head size and survival. We then present the results of a mensurative study in 2009 conducted at the end of the perturbation (A. planci outbreak) describing how coral-decapod communities change with percent coral mortality for a selected coral species, Pocillopora eydouxi. The loss of coral tissue as a consequence of A. planci consumption led to an increase in rarefied total species diversity, but caused drastic modifications in community composition driven by a shift from coral obligate to non-obligate decapod species. Our study highlights that larger corals left with live tissue in 2009, formed a restricted habitat where coral obligate decapods, including mutualists, could subsist. We conclude that the size structure of Pocillopora populations at the time of an A. planci outbreak may greatly condition the magnitude of coral mortality as well as the persistence of local populations of obligate decapods. PMID:22530026

Leray, Matthieu; Beraud, Maxime; Anker, Arthur; Chancerelle, Yannick; Mills, Suzanne C.

2012-01-01

24

The evolution of armament strength: evidence for a constraint on the biting performance of claws of durophagous decapods.  

PubMed

Performance data for the claws of six sympatric species of Cancer crabs confirmed a puzzling pattern reported previously for two other decapod crustaceans (stone crabs, Menippe mercenaria, and lobsters, Homarus americanus): Although biting forces increased, maximum muscle stresses (force per unit area) declined with increasing claw size. The negative allometry of muscle stress and the stress at a given claw size were fairly consistent within and among Cancer species despite significant differences in adult body size and relative claw size, but were not consistent among decapod genera. Therefore, claw height can be used as a reliable predictor of maximum biting force for the genus Cancer, but must be used with caution as a predictor of maximum biting force in wider evolutionary and biogeographical comparisons of decapods. The decline in maximum muscle stress with increasing claw size in Cancer crabs contrasts with the pattern in several other claw traits. Significantly, three traits that affect maximal biting force increased intraspecifically with increasing claw size: relative claw size, mechanical advantage, and sarcomere length of the closer muscle. Closer apodeme area and angle of pinnation of the closer muscle fibers varied isometrically with claw size. The concordant behavior of these traits suggests selection for higher biting forces in larger crabs. The contrast between the size dependence of muscle stress (negative allometry) and the remaining claw traits (isometry or positive allometry) strongly suggests that an as yet unidentified constraint impairs muscle performance in larger claws. The negative allometry of muscle stress in two distantly related taxa (stone crabs and lobsters) further suggests this constraint may be widespread in decapod crustaceans. The implications of this performance constraint for the evolution of claw size and the "arms-race" between decapod predators and their hard-shelled prey is discussed. PMID:11327162

Taylor, G M

2001-03-01

25

Distribution of centrifugal neurons targeting the soma clusters of the olfactory midbrain among decapod crustaceans.  

PubMed

To determine the distribution of two systems of centrifugal neurons innervating the soma clusters of the olfactory midbrain across decapod crustaceans, brains of the following nine species comprising most infraorders were immunostained with antibodies against dopamine and the neuropeptides substance P and FMRFamide: Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Homarus americanus, Cherax destructor, Orconectes limosus, Procambarus clarkii, Astacus leptodactylus, Carcinus maenas, Eriocheir sinensis and Pagurus bernhardus. One system consisting of several neurons with dopamine-like immunoreactivity that originate in the eyestalk ganglia was present in the four crayfish but not in any other species. These neurons project mainly into the lateral soma clusters (cluster 10) comprising the somata of ascending olfactory projection neurons and innervate very sparsely the medial soma clusters (clusters 9 and 11) containing the somata of local interneurons. In the innervation pattern of the lateral cluster, the dopamine-immunoreactive neurons showed large species-specific differences. The other system comprises a pair of giant neurons with substance P-like immunoreactivity. These neurons have somata in the median protocerebrum of the central brain and major projections into the lateral clusters and the core of the olfactory lobes, the neuropils that are the first synaptic relay in the central olfactory pathway of decapods; minor arborizations are present in the medial clusters. The system of substance P-immunoreactive giant neurons was present and of great morphological similarity in all studied species. Only in one species, the shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii, evidence for co-localization of FMRFamide-like with substance P-like immunoreactivity in these neurons was obtained. These and previously collected data indicate that the centrifugal neurons with dopamine-like immunoreactivity may be associated with the presence of an accessory lobe, a second-order neuropil that receives input from the olfactory lobe and only occurs in spiny lobsters, clawed lobsters and crayfish. The pair of centrifugal giant neurons with substance P-like immunoreactivity, on the other hand, appears to be a constitutive component of the decapod crustacean brain that most likely is functionally associated with the olfactory lobe. Both systems apparently exert modulatory functions on olfactory information processing by preferentially targeting the somata of the projection neurons. Thus, in the olfactory projection neurons, the somata seem to be more directly involved in information processing than in most other neurons of the arthropod CNS. PMID:9106436

Schmidt, M

1997-03-28

26

Interactions between behaviour and physical forcing in the control of horizontal transport of decapod crustacean larvae.  

PubMed

We summarize what is known of the biophysical interactions that control vertical migration and dispersal of decapod larvae, asking the following main questions: How common is vertical migration in decapod crustacean larvae? What is the vertical extent of the migrations? What are the behavioural mechanisms that control vertical migrations? How does vertical migration interact with the physics of the ocean to control the dispersal of larvae? These questions are analysed by first giving a synopsis of the physical processes that are believed to significantly affect horizontal transport, and then by describing migration patterns according to taxon, to ecological category based on the habitat of adults and larvae, and to stage within the larval series. Some kind of vertical migration has been found in larval stages of virtually all species that have been investigated, irrespective of taxonomic or ecological category. Most vertical migration schedules have a cyclic nature that is related to a major environmental cyclic factor. Tidal (ebb or flood) migration and daily (nocturnal and twilight) migration are the two types of cyclic migration that have been identified. In general, all species show some type of daily migration, with nocturnal migration being the most common, whereas tidal migrations have only been identified in species that use estuaries during part of their life cycle. Moreover, there are several examples indicating that the phasing and extent of migration both change throughout ontogeny. Reported ranges of vertical displacement vary between a few metres in estuaries and several tens of metres (sometimes more than 100 m) in shelf and oceanic waters. Vertical movements are controlled by behavioural responses to the main factors of the marine environment. The most important factors in this respect are light, pressure and gravity, but salinity, temperature, turbulence, current and other factors, also influence behaviour. Many of these factors change cyclically, and the larvae respond with cyclic behaviours. The type of response may be endogenous and regulated by an internal clock, as in the case of some tidally synchronised migrations, but in most cases it is a direct response to a change in an environmental variable, as in diel migration. The reaction of the larvae to exogenous cues depends both on the rate of change of the variable and on the absolute amount of change. A series of dispersal types, involving different spatial and temporal scales, have been identified in decapod larvae: retention of the larval series within estuaries; export from estuarine habitats, dispersal over the shelf, and reinvasion of estuaries by the last stage; hatching in shelf waters and immigration to estuaries by late larvae or postlarvae; complete development on the shelf; and hatching in shelf waters, long-range dispersal in the ocean, and return to the shelf by late stages. In all of these cases, vertical migration behaviour and changes of behaviour during the course of larval development have been related to particular physical processes, resulting in conceptual mechanisms that explain dispersal and recruitment. Most decapod larvae are capable of crossing the vertical temperature differences normally found across thermoclines in natural systems. This ability may have significant consequences for horizontal transport within shelf waters, because amplitude and phase differences of the tidal currents across the thermocline may be reflected in different trajectories of the migrating larvae. PMID:15596167

Queiroga, Henrique; Blanton, Jack

2005-01-01

27

Endogenous production of endo-beta-1,4-glucanase by decapod crustaceans.  

PubMed

The potential ability to produce cellulase enzymes endogenously was examined in decapods crustaceans including the herbivorous gecarcinid land crabs Gecarcoidea natalis and Discoplax hirtipes, the amphibious freshwater crab Austrothelphusa transversa, the terrestrial hermit crab, Coenobita variabilis the parastacid crayfish Euastacus, and the crayfish Cherax destructor. The midgut gland of both G. natalis and D. hirtipes contained substantial total cellulase activities and activities of the cellulase enzymes endo-beta-1,4-glucanase and beta-glucosidase. With the exception of total cellulase and beta-glucosidase from D. hirtipes, the enzyme activities within the midgut gland were higher than those within the digestive juice. Hence, the enzyme activities appear to reside predominantly within midgut gland, providing indirect evidence for endogenous synthesis of cellulase enzymes by this tissue. A 900 bp cDNA fragment encoding a portion of the endo-beta-1,4-glucanase amino acid sequence was amplified by RT-PCR using RNA isolated from the midgut gland of C. destructor, Euastacus, A. transversa and C. variabilis. This provided direct evidence for the endogenous production of endo-beta-1,4-glucanase. The 900 bp fragment was also amplified from genomic DNA isolated from the skeletal muscle of G. natalis and D. hirtipes, clearly indicating that the gene encoding endo-beta-1,4-glucanase is also present in these two species. As this group of evolutionary diverse crustacean species possesses and expresses the endo-beta-1,4-glucanase gene it is likely that decapod crustaceans generally produce cellulases endogenously and are able to digest cellulose. PMID:16408228

Linton, Stuart M; Greenaway, Peter; Towle, David W

2006-05-01

28

MISE EN EVIDENCE ET ETUDE CYTOCHIMIQUE D'UNE PROTEINE BASIQUE EXTRANUCLEAIRE DANS LES SPERMATOZOIDES DES CRUSTACES DECAPODES  

PubMed Central

Extranuclear basic proteins have been detected in the capsule of the spermatozoa of three species of decapod crustaceans (Nephrops norvegicus L., Macrura; Eupagurus bernhardus L., Anomura; Carcinus maenas Penn., Brachyura). Their properties have been studied by cytochemical methods. Their position inside the capsule of the spermatozoon has been specified with the aid of the electron microscope. Present in a constant fashion in the three species cited, their relative importance is very variable. In contrast to the refringent cone of the spermatozoon of Ascaris, which contains an acid protein, ascaradine, the capsule of the spermatozoon of the three decapod crustaceans studied contains basic proteins which we propose to designate by the general term "decapodine". PMID:6068078

Chevaillier, Philippe

1967-01-01

29

Simultaneous hermaphroditism in the marine shrimp Lysmata wurdemanni (Caridea: Hippolytidae): an undescribed sexual system in the decapod Crustacea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous hermaphroditism with outcrossing, a previously unconfirmed sexual system in decapod crustaceans, is documented\\u000a in the shrimp Lysmata wurdemanni (Gibbes), using time-lapse video observations on mating in pairs of “female-phase” (FP) individuals. Copulations between\\u000a FPs resulted in successful spawning and development of embryos. However, female-phase hermaphrodites maintained in isolation\\u000a were unable to self-fertilize spawned eggs. All smaller individuals possessed characters

R. T. Bauer; G. J. Holt

1998-01-01

30

Decapod crustacean larval communities in the Balearic Sea (western Mediterranean): Seasonal composition, horizontal and vertical distribution patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decapod crustaceans are the main target species of deep water bottom trawl fisheries in the Balearic Sea but little is known about their larval stages. This work focuses on the species composition of the decapod larval community, describing the main spatio-temporal assemblages and assessing their vertical distribution. Mesozooplankton sampling was carried out using depth-stratified sampling devices at two stations located over the shelf break and the mid slope, in the north-western and southern Mallorca in late autumn 2009 and summer 2010. Differences among decapod larvae communities, in terms of composition, adult's habitat such as pelagic or benthic, and distribution patterns were observed between seasons, areas and station. Results showed that for both seasons most species and developmental stages aggregated within the upper water column (above 75 m depth) and showed higher biodiversity in summer compared to late autumn. Most abundant species were pelagic prawns (e.g., Sergestidae) occurring in both seasons and areas. The larval assemblages' distributions were different between seasonal hydrographic scenarios and during situations of stratified and non-stratified water column. The vertical distribution patterns of different larval developmental stages in respect to the adult's habitat were analyzed in relation to environmental variables. Fluorescence had the highest explanatory power. Four clearly different vertical patterns were identified: two corresponding to late autumn, which were common for all the main larval groups and other two in summer, one corresponding to larvae of coastal benthic and the second to pelagic species larvae.

Torres, Asvin P.; Dos Santos, Antonina; Balbín, Rosa; Alemany, Francisco; Massutí, Enric; Reglero, Patricia

2014-10-01

31

Hatching rhythms and dispersion of decapod crustacean larvae in a brackish coastal lagoon in Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mar Chiquita, a brackish coastal lagoon in central Argentina, is inhabited by dense populations of two intertidal grapsid crab species, Cyrtograpsus angulatus and Chasmagnathus granulata. During a preliminary one-year study and a subsequent intensive sampling programme (November December 1992), the physical properties and the occurrence of decapod crustacean larvae in the surface water of the lagoon were investigated. The lagoon is characterized by highly variable physical conditions, with oligohaline waters frequently predominating over extended periods. The adjacent coastal waters show a complex pattern of semidiurnal tides that often do not influence the lagoon, due to the existence of a sandbar across its entrance. Besides frequently occurring larvae (exclusively freshly hatched zoeae and a few megalopae) of the two dominating crab species, those of three other brachyurans ( Plathyxanthus crenulatus, Uca uruguayensis, Pinnixa patagonica) and of one anomuran (the porcellanid Pachycheles haigae) were also found occasionally. Caridean shrimp ( Palaemonetes argentinus) larvae occurred in a moderate number of samples, with a maximum density of 800·m-3. The highest larval abundance was recorded in C. angulatus, with almost 8000°m-3. Significantly more C. angulatus and C. granulata zoeae occurred at night than during daylight conditions, and more larvae (statistically significant only in the former species) during ebb (outflowing) than during flood (inflowing) tides. In consequence, most crab zoeae were observed during nocturnal ebb, the least with diurnal flood tides. Our data suggest that crab larvae do not develop in the lagoon, where the adult populations live, but exhibit an export strategy, probably based upon exogenously coordinated egg hatching rhythms. Zoeal development must take place in coastal marine waters, from where the megalopa eventually returns for settlement and metamorphosis in the lagoon. Significantly higher larval frequency of C. granulata in low salinities (?12‰) and at a particular sampling site may be related to local distribution patterns of the reproducing adult population. Unlike crab larvae, those of shrimp ( P. argentinus) are retained inside the lagoon, where they develop from hatching through metamorphosis. They significantly prefer low salinity and occur at the lagoon surface more often at night. These patterns cannot be explained by larval release rhythms like those in brachyuran crabs, but may reflect diel vertical migrations to the bottom. It is concluded that osmotic stress as well as predation pressure exerted by visually directed predators (small species or life-cycle stages of estuarine fishes) may be the principal selection factors for the evolution of hatching and migration rhythms in decapod larvae, and that these are characteristics of export or retention mechanisms, respectively.

Anger, K.; Spivak, E.; Bas, C.; Ismael, D.; Luppi, T.

1994-12-01

32

A Successful Crayfish Invader Is Capable of Facultative Parthenogenesis: A Novel Reproductive Mode in Decapod Crustaceans  

PubMed Central

Biological invasions are impacting biota worldwide, and explaining why some taxa tend to become invasive is of major scientific interest. North American crayfish species, particularly of the family Cambaridae, are prominent invaders in freshwaters, defying the “tens rule” which states that only a minority of species introduced to new regions become established, and only a minority of those become invasive and pests. So far, success of cambarid invaders has largely been attributed to rapid maturation, high reproductive output, aggressiveness, and tolerance to pollution. We provide experimental evidence that females of one cambarid species particularly widespread in Europe, the spiny-cheek crayfish Orconectes limosus, are capable of facultative parthenogenesis. Such reproductive mode has never before been recognized in decapods, the most diverse crustacean order. As shown by analysis of seven microsatellite loci, crayfish females kept physically separated from males produced genetically homogeneous offspring identical with maternal individuals; this suggests they reproduced by apomixis, unlike those females which mated with males and had a diverse offspring. Further research is needed to clarify what environmental conditions are necessary for a switch to parthenogenesis in O. limosus, and what role it plays in natural crayfish populations. However, if such reproductive plasticity is present in other cambarid crayfish species, it may contribute to the overwhelming invasive success of this group. PMID:21655282

Buric, Milos; Hulak, Martin; Kouba, Antonin

2011-01-01

33

Distribution of presumptive chemosensory afferents with FMRFamide- or substance P-like immunoreactivity in decapod crustaceans.  

PubMed

In five species of decapod crustaceans--Cherax destructor (crayfish), Carcinus maenas (crab), Homarus americanus (clawed lobster), Eriocheir sinensis (crab), Macrobrachium rosenbergii (shrimp)--immunocytochemical stainings revealed the presence of sensory afferents with FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system. These afferents were extremely thin, very numerous, and innervated all sensory neuropils except the optic and olfactory lobes. In their target neuropils they gave rise to condensed net- or ball-like terminal structures. Only in Homarus americanus but not in any other studied species immunocytochemistry revealed a separate, non-overlapping class of sensory afferents with substance P-like immunoreactivity. Also the afferents with substance P-like immunoreactivity were very thin and numerous, innervated all sensory neuropils except optic and olfactory lobes, and gave rise to condensed terminal structures. From their morphological characteristics it can be concluded that likely both classes of afferents are chemosensory. The substance P-like immunoreactivity suggests a link with the nociceptor afferents of vertebrates, with which both classes of afferents share several other morphological features. PMID:9037486

Schmidt, M

1997-01-23

34

The impact of coastal defence structures (tetrapods) on decapod crustaceans in the southern North Sea.  

PubMed

Although the use of coastal defence structures is expected to increase, little is known about the ecological impact of such structures on the natural environment. In particular, the temporal and spatial patterns of communities in association with artificial substrate are still poorly understood. This study examined possible effects of experimental tetrapod fields on the decapod crustacean community in a subtidal hard-bottom area in the southern North Sea. We performed in situ studies in the fields and along transects oriented away from the tetrapod fields. Species composition and abundances were assessed before and after the introduction of the artificial material. The study revealed a significant decrease of smaller, less vagile species (Pisidia longicornis, Pilumnus hirtellus, Galathea squamifera) over the entire study area in the years following the tetrapod introduction. For 2 species, Hyas araneus and Homarus gammarus, the tetrapods appeared to be highly attractive as habitat and shelter because their abundance increased over time. No distinct spatial or temporal effects were observed for mobile predatory crabs, such as Cancer pagurus and Liocarcinus spp. The results of the study demonstrate that possible effects of artificial structures on macro-invertebrates in temperate hard-bottom areas are highly species-specific and depend on the size, lifestyle and ecological requirements of the species. This work highlights the importance of long-term studies. Our findings clearly indicate that more time is needed to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic influences on species distributions. PMID:24041979

Wehkamp, Stephanie; Fischer, Philipp

2013-12-01

35

Setal morphology of the grooming appendages of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonidae) and review of decapod setal classification.  

PubMed

Setae are vital in grooming activities and aiding in the removal of epibionts and sedimentary fouling from the body surfaces of decapod crustaceans. Thus, the setal structures and their arrangement on the grooming appendages and sensory structures of the commercially important shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Macrobrachium rosenbergii is extensively grown in aquaculture and exhibits unique male morphological forms, termed morphotypes. The three male morphotypes are termed blue-clawed males, orange-clawed males, and small-clawed or undifferentiated males and all three differ in their dominance, behavior, body morphology, and reproductive success. Seven setal types, two of which have never been described in the literature, are identified on the grooming appendages (third maxillipeds, first, second, and fifth pereopods) and antennae: simple, serrate, serrulate, spiniform, pappose, crinoid, and spinulate. The latter two setae are newly identified. Certain setal types, such as serrate and serrulate setae were located and associated with specific grooming appendages such as the first pereopods. The types of setae on the grooming appendages varied among females and male morphotypes and the novel setal types (crinoid and spinulate) were found only on two of the male morphotypes. A literature review of terminology related to the structure of setae and setal types in decapod crustaceans is offered as the usage of various terms is ambiguous and conflicting in the literature. The intention of this review is to provide future authors with a comprehensive collection of terms and images that can be used to describe various aspects of setal morphology in decapods. PMID:24500885

Wortham, Jennifer L; Vanmaurik, Lauren N; Wayne Price, W

2014-06-01

36

Putative neurohemal release zones in the stomatogastric nervous system of decapod crustaceans.  

PubMed

The stomatogastric nervous system (STNS) of decapod crustaceans has long been used to study the modulation of small neural circuits. Profiles in the sheath of the nerves and ganglia of the STNS, which contain only dense-core vesicles, have been described in electron microscopical studies (Friend [1976] Cell Tissue Res. 175:369-380; Kilman and Marder [1997] Soc Neurosci Abstr. 23:477; Skiebe and Ganeshina [2000] J Comp Neurol 420:373-397). These profiles resemble those found in neurohemal organs and suggest the presence of neurohemal release zones in the STNS. To map these putative neurohemal release zones, a combination of two antibodies was used in the present study. A synapsin antibody recognizing vesicle proteins of clear vesicles was combined with a synaptotagmin antibody recognizing vesicle proteins of clear and dense-core vesicles. Exclusive synaptotagmin-like staining, therefore, indicated the regions with only dense-core vesicles. Such a staining was found in a mesh in the perineural sheath of nerves in the STNS of all three species investigated. In the crayfish Cherax destructor and the lobster Homarus americanus, the stained mesh was located in the sheath of nerves connecting all four ganglia of the STNS, whereas in the crab Cancer pagurus it was found on different nerves, which are more directly exposed to the hemolymph in this species. Exclusive synaptotagmin-like staining was also found in a putative neurohemal release zone in the sheath of the circumoesophageal connectives and the postoesophageal commissure in C. destructor. These data suggest that an important source of modulation of the networks and the muscles of the stomach is a compartmentalized release of neurohormones from zones in the STNS. PMID:12378588

Skiebe, Petra; Wollenschläger, Tina

2002-11-18

37

Identification and developmental expression of mRNAs encoding crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) in decapod crustaceans.  

PubMed

Full-length cDNAs encoding crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) were isolated from several decapod (brachyuran and astacuran) crustaceans: the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, green shore crab Carcinus maenas, European lobster Homarus gamarus and calico crayfish Orconectes immunis. The cDNAs encode open reading frames of 143 (brachyurans) and 139-140 (astacurans) amino acids. Apart from the predicted signal peptides (30-32 amino acids), the conceptually translated precursor codes for a single copy of CCAP and four other peptides that are extremely similar in terms of amino acid sequence within these species, but which clearly show divergence into brachyuran and astacuran groups. Expression patterns of CCAP mRNA and peptide were determined during embryonic development in Carcinus using quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry with whole-mount confocal microscopy, and showed that significant mRNA expression (at 50% embryonic development) preceded detectable levels of CCAP in the developing central nervous system (CNS; at 70% development). Subsequent CCAP gene expression dramatically increased during the late stages of embryogenesis (80-100%), coincident with developing immunopositive structures. In adult crabs, CCAP gene expression was detected exclusively in the eyestalk, brain and in particular the thoracic ganglia, in accord with the predominance of CCAP-containing cells in this tissue. Measurement of expression patterns of CCAP mRNA in Carcinus and Callinectes thoracic ganglia throughout the moult cycle revealed only modest changes, indicating that previously observed increases in CCAP peptide levels during premoult were not transcriptionally coupled. Severe hypoxic conditions resulted in rapid downregulation of CCAP transcription in the eyestalk, but not the thoracic ganglia in Callinectes, and thermal challenge did not change CCAP mRNA levels. These results offer the first tantalising glimpses of involvement of CCAP in environmental adaptation to extreme, yet biologically relevant stressors, and perhaps suggest that the CCAP-containing neurones in the eyestalk might be involved in adaptation to environmental stressors. PMID:16985202

Chung, J S; Wilcockson, D C; Zmora, N; Zohar, Y; Dircksen, H; Webster, S G

2006-10-01

38

Seasonal bathymetric migrations of deep-sea fishes and decapod crustaceans in the NW Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal variations in the photophase length seem to drive migrations of marine animals, a phenomenon still largely unknown in deep-sea fishes and decapod crustaceans. Here, we report depth-oriented migrations of species living in the continental slope of the NW Mediterranean after repeated trawl sampling between 900 and 1500 m depths in four seasons. To understand the variations in the catchability of animals as a function of water depth, we analysed the relationship between population depth shifts and environmental factors by performing a multiparametric habitat monitoring at sea surface (PAR), in the water column (temperature and salinity), and on the seabed (organic matter flux and total mass flux). Significant connections are studied by NMDS and GAM analyses. Bathymetric changes in most targeted species are identified from winter, when distribution was the deepest, to spring and summer, and finally autumn, when the shallowest distribution was observed prior to a sudden bathymetric retreat. The analysis of size-class frequency distributions (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test) discards an effect of the juvenile recruitment on these bathymetric changes. Which environmental factor imparts seasonality to these depth-oriented migrations has not yet been clarified. A strong connection is found with water temperature and salinity, associated to flow of the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) and the Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW). The studied depth range was affected by seasonal fluctuations of both water masses and the interphase amongst them. LIW showed a stronger seasonal pattern, getting warmer, saltier in autumn and fresher in winter. The migration of most species towards shallower depths in spring, summer and autumn, and the sudden migration to deeper grounds in winter could therefore be related to changes in LIW temperature and salinity.

Aguzzi, J.; Company, J. B.; Bahamon, N.; Flexas, M. M.; Tecchio, S.; Fernandez-Arcaya, U.; García, J. A.; Mechó, A.; Koenig, S.; Canals, M.

2013-11-01

39

THE CRUSTACEAN DECAPOD COMMUNITIES OF THREE CORAL REEFS FROM THE SOUTHWESTERN CARIBBEAN SEA OF CUBA: SPECIES COMPOSITION, ABUNDANCE AND STRUCTURE OF THE COMMUNITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decapod communities of three coral reefs of the southwestern Caribbean Sea of Cuba (keys Juan Garcia, Cantiles and Diego Perez), at three different ecological levels (the reef lagoon, the reef flat and the outward slope) have been analyzed. A total of 2567 specimens belonging to 216 species were caught. The lagoons have the highest richness. The lower richness found

J. C. Martinez Iglesias; J. E. Garcia Raso

40

Flux of decapod larvae and juveniles at a station in the lower Canal de Mira (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal) during one lunar month  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emigration and immigration of decapod larvae from estuaries depend on timing of larvae occurrence in the water column relative to the tidal, tidal amplitude and day cycles. The phase relation of these natural cycles varies with tidal regime and geographically, resulting in different time-patterns of hatching of first stage larvae and of presence of late stage larvae in the water

FÁBIO PEREIRA; RITA PEREIRA; HENRIQUE QUEIROGA

2000-01-01

41

Vertical and temporal distribution of pelagic decapod crustaceans over the shelf-break and middle slope in two contrasting zones around Mallorca (western Mediterranean Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pelagic decapod crustacean fauna of two different zones (Sóller and Cabrera) with different hydrographic dynamics and oligotrophy levels was studied around Mallorca (western Mediterranean), the latter with a higher degree of oligotrophy than the former. Samples were taken with a Pelagic Trawl and an IKMT in the upper 600 m of the water column, targeting larger and middle-sized nektonic species, respectively. Fourteen species were collected: five dendrobranchiate shrimps, eight caridean shrimps and one scyllarid lobster. Some species were restricted to the shelf-break: Chlorotocus crassicornis and Plesionika heterocarpus. Others were exclusive of the middle slope: Pasiphaea multidentata, and Sergia robusta. Pasiphaea sivado and Gennadas elegans occurred in all pelagic strata. Multivariate analyses showed several distinct assemblages related to bathymetry and sampling depth. No significant differences were found concerning zone or sampled seasons. Bathymetrically, Deep Scattering Layers showed the highest diversity. No decapod crustaceans occurred in epipelagic daytime samples. The pelagic decapod community sampled was structured by both the geomorphology (and associated hydrographic characteristics over the shelf-break) and the influence of light in the water column. Size analysis showed species-specific patterns concerning size/age movements into the water column throughout the day-night cycle.

Simão, Daniela S.; Torres, Asvin P.; Olivar, M. Pilar; Abelló, Pere

2014-10-01

42

Effect of meal size and body size on specific dynamic action and gastric processing in decapod crustaceans.  

PubMed

Meal size and animal size are important factors affecting the characteristics of the specific dynamic action (SDA) response across a variety of taxa. The effects of these two variables on the SDA of decapod crustaceans are based on just a couple of articles, and are not wholly consistent with the responses reported for other aquatic ectotherms. Therefore, the effects of meal size and animal size on the characteristics of SDA response were investigated in a variety of decapod crustaceans from different families. A 6 fold increase in meal size (0.5%-3% body mass) resulted a pronounced increase in the duration of increased oxygen consumption, resulting in an increase in the SDA of Callinectes sapidus, Cancer gracilis, Hemigrapsus nudus, Homarus americanus, Pugettia producta and Procambarus clarkii. Unlike many other aquatic ectotherms a substantial increase between meal sizes was required, with meal size close to their upper feeding limit (3% body mass), before changes were evident. In many organisms increases in both duration and scope contribute to the overall SDA, here changes in scope as a function of meal size were weak, suggesting that a similar amount of energy is required to upregulate gastric processes, regardless of meal size. The SDA characteristics were less likely to be influenced by the size of the animal, and there was no difference in the SDA (kJ) as a function of size in H. americanus or Cancer irroratus when analysed as mass specific values. In several fish species characteristics of the SDA response are more closely related to the transit times of food, rather than the size of a meal. To determine if a similar trend occurred in crustaceans, the transit rates of different sized meals were followed through the digestive system using a fluoroscope. Although there was a trend towards larger meals taking longer to pass through the gut, this was only statistically significant for P. clarkii. There were some changes in transit times as a function of animal size. The foregut clearance times for Cancer magister increased with increasing body size, while smaller Carcinus maenas cleared the hindgut region at a faster rate than larger individuals. Unlike fish there was no clear relationship between transit rates and any of the SDA characteristics. While the fluoroscopy method is useful for assessing foregut activity and food passage, it is limited when inferring connections between nutrient assimilation and post-absorptive processes in crustaceans. Therefore, at least with respect to meal size, transit rates do not make a good proxy for determining the SDA characteristics in crustaceans. PMID:23916818

McGaw, Iain J; Curtis, Daniel L

2013-11-01

43

Community structure and dynamics of deep-water decapod assemblages from Le Danois Bank (Cantabrian Sea, NE Atlantic): Influence of environmental variables and food availability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The community structure of the decapod crustaceans inhabiting Le Danois Bank (Cantabrian Sea, NE Atlantic Ocean) was studied on two cruises performed in October 2003 and April 2004. Otter and beam-trawls were used to collect this fauna. At depths ranging between 455 and 1048 m, we found distinct decapod assemblages on the bank summit and deeper in the inner basin (between the bank and the continental shelf). The faunal discontinuity between these groups appeared at around 600 m (e.g. between 612 and 642 m in the basis of species replacement). The summit assemblage was characterized by low diversity (in terms of number and relative abundances of species) and by the dominance of hermit crabs ( Pagurus alatus, Anapagurus laevis, Pagurus excavatus), the crangonid Pontophilus spinosus and the squat lobster Munida sarsi. Species characterizing the deeper assemblage, which was richer in terms of diversity, were Munida tenuimana, Parapagurus pilosimanus, Pontophilus norvegicus, the crab Geryon trispinosus and a number of bathypelagic shrimps ( Sergia robusta, Acanthephyra pelagica and Pasiphaea tarda). Changes in decapod composition characterized by multidimensional scaling analyses were correlated with different variables, e.g. %mud and %organic matter (OM), temperature and salinity close to the bottom. Among those the %OM and %mud in sediments affected decapod distributions the most. The summit of the bank was covered by fine sediments with low proportion of mud (13.9-29.3%) and OM (2.55-3.50%). By contrast, sediment of the inner basin had a higher proportion of OM and mud (64.1-84.2%; 6.26-7.00%, respectively). The low proportion of mud at the summit of Le Danois Bank may explain the absence or scarcity of burrowing species (e.g. the lobster Nephrops norvegicus, the shrimps Calocaris macandreae and Alpheus glaber and the crab Goneplax rhomboides), that are dominant at similar depths (400-500 m) in the upper muddy assemblage on the mainland-continental slope in the Bay of Biscay (44-46°N). The dominance of certain species on the summit of submarine mounts can probably be related to their biology and feeding ecology. For example, pagurids are deposit feeders, even consuming marine snow (e.g. Chl- a identified in guts of Pagurus alatus), and they have low gut fullness (probably indicating a capacity to withstand long periods under starvation), that would favour their adaptability to a rather unpredictable habitat such as Le Danois Bank summit. Regarding prey availability, zooplankton/micronekton and infauna distributed around Le Danois Bank showed different depth-related patterns. Among zooplankton, mesopelagic decapods, mysids, and fishes were absent at the bank summit, while euphausiids exhibited high abundances over the summit. No significant trends with depth were found for infauna abundance, and for instance polychaete densities were similar both at the summit and the inner basin. Therefore, prey availability was lower for summit assemblages regarding zooplankton/micronekton. Patterns in mean size vs. depth were species specific for decapods, and the possible role of the bank summit as a recruitment area was not general for the whole decapod assemblage.

Cartes, Joan E.; Serrano, Alberto; Velasco, Francisco; Parra, Santiago; Sánchez, Francisco

2007-12-01

44

Trophic transfer of trace metals from the polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor to the polychaete N. virens and the decapod crustacean Palaemonetes varians  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Diet is an important exposure route for the uptake of trace metals by aquatic invertebrates, with trace metal trophic transfer depending on 2 stages - assimilation and subsequent accumulation by the predator. This study investigated the trophic transfer of trace metals from the sediment-dwelling polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor from metal-rich estuarine sediments in southwestern UK to 2 predators - another polychaete N. virens (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Fe) and the decapod crustacean Palaemonetes varians (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Fe, Ag, As, Mn). N. virens showed net accumulation of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd from the prey; accumulation increased with increasing prey concentration, but a coefficient of trophic transfer decreased with increasing prey concentration, probably because a higher proportion of accumulated metal in the prey is bound in less trophically available (insoluble) detoxified forms. The trace metal accumulation patterns of P. varians apparently restricted significant net accumulation of metals from the diet of N. diversicolor to just Cd. There was significant mortality of the decapods fed on the diets of metal-rich worms. Metal-rich invertebrates that have accumulated metals from the rich historical store in the sediments of particular SW England estuaries can potentially pass these metals along food chains, with accumulation and total food chain transfer depending on the metal assimilation efficiencies and accumulation patterns of the animal at each trophic level. This trophic transfer may be significant enough to have ecotoxicological effects. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

Rainbow, P. S.; Poirier, L.; Smith, B. D.; Brix, K. V.; Luoma, S. N.

2006-01-01

45

Distribution and biogeographic trends of decapod assemblages from Galicia Bank (NE Atlantic) at depths between 700 and 1800 m, with connexions to regional water masses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Galicia Bank (NE Atlantic, 42°67?N-11°74?W) is an isolated seamount, near NW Spain, a complex geomorphological and sedimentary structure that receives influences from contrasting water masses of both northern and southern origins. Within the project INDEMARES, three cruises were performed on the bank in 2009 (Ecomarg0709), 2010 (BanGal0810) and 2011 (BanGal0811) all in July-August. Decapods and other macrobenthic crustaceans (eucarids and peracarids) were collected with different sampling systems, mainly beam trawls (BT, 10 mm of mesh size at codend) and a GOC73 otter trawl (20 mm mesh size). Sixty-seven species of decapod crustaceans, 6 euphausiids, 19 peracarids and 1 ostracod were collected at depths between 744 and 1808 m. We found two new species, one a member of the Chirostylidae, Uroptychus cartesi Baba & Macpherson, 2012, the other of the Petalophthalmidae (Mysida) Petalophthalmus sp. A, in addition to a number of new biogeographic species records for European or Iberian waters. An analysis of assemblages showed a generalized species renewal with depth, with different assemblages between 744 and ca. 1400 m (the seamount top assemblage, STA) and between ca. 1500 and 1800 m (the deep-slope assemblage over seamount flanks, DSA). These were respectively associated with Mediterranean outflow waters (MOW) and with Labrador Sea Water (LSW). Another significant factor separating different assemblages over the Galician Bank was the co-occurrence of corals (both colonies of hard corals such as Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata and/or gorgonians) in hauls. Munidopsids (Munidopsis spp.), chirostylids (Uroptychus spp.), and the homolodromiid Dicranodromia mahieuxii formed a part of this coral-associated assemblage. Dominant species at the STA were the pandalid Plesionika martia (a shrimp of subtropical-southern distribution) and the crabs Bathynectes maravigna and Polybius henslowii, whereas dominant species in the DSA were of northern origin, the lithodid Neolithodes grimaldii and the crangonid Glyphocrangon longiristris, likely associated with LSW. The diversity (H and J) of small crustaceans (collected with BT) seemed to be controlled by the phytoplankton blooms (satellite Chl a data) over bank surface 3 months before the samplings, both at the top (Spearman r=0.57, p=0.03) and on the flanks (r=0.74, p=0.02) of Galicia Bank, while no significant relationships with Chl a were found for the larger decapods collected with GOC73, on average they feed at the higher trophic levels than those collected with BT.

Cartes, J. E.; Papiol, V.; Frutos, I.; Macpherson, E.; González-Pola, C.; Punzón, A.; Valeiras, X.; Serrano, A.

2014-08-01

46

Parasites in the Fossil Record: A Cretaceous Fauna with Isopod-Infested Decapod Crustaceans, Infestation Patterns through Time, and a New Ichnotaxon  

PubMed Central

Parasites are common in modern ecosystems and are also known from the fossil record. One of the best preserved and easily recognisable examples of parasitism in the fossil record concerns isopod-induced swellings in the branchial chamber of marine decapod crustaceans. However, very limited quantitative data on the variability of infestation percentages at the species, genus, and family levels are available. Here we provide this type of data for a mid-Cretaceous (upper Lower Cretaceous, upper Albian) reef setting at Koskobilo, northern Spain, on the basis of 874 specimens of anomurans and brachyurans. Thirty-seven specimens (4.2%), arranged in ten species, are infested. Anomurans are more heavily infested than brachyurans, variability can be high within genera, and a relationship may exist between the number of specimens and infestation percentage per taxon, possibly suggesting host-specificity. We have also investigated quantitative patterns of infestation through geological time based on 88 infested species (25 anomurans, 55 brachyurans, seven lobsters, and one shrimp), to show that the highest number of infested species can be found in the Late Jurassic, also when corrected for the unequal duration of epochs. The same Late Jurassic peak is observed for the percentage of infested decapod species per epoch. This acme is caused entirely by infested anomurans and brachyurans. Biases (taphonomic and otherwise) and causes of variability with regard to the Koskobilo assemblage and infestation patterns through time are discussed. Finally, a new ichnogenus and -species, Kanthyloma crusta, are erected to accommodate such swellings or embedment structures (bioclaustrations). PMID:24667587

Klompmaker, Adiel A.; Artal, Pedro; van Bakel, Barry W. M.; Fraaije, Rene H. B.; Jagt, John W. M.

2014-01-01

47

Parasites in the fossil record: a Cretaceous fauna with isopod-infested decapod crustaceans, infestation patterns through time, and a new ichnotaxon.  

PubMed

Parasites are common in modern ecosystems and are also known from the fossil record. One of the best preserved and easily recognisable examples of parasitism in the fossil record concerns isopod-induced swellings in the branchial chamber of marine decapod crustaceans. However, very limited quantitative data on the variability of infestation percentages at the species, genus, and family levels are available. Here we provide this type of data for a mid-Cretaceous (upper Lower Cretaceous, upper Albian) reef setting at Koskobilo, northern Spain, on the basis of 874 specimens of anomurans and brachyurans. Thirty-seven specimens (4.2%), arranged in ten species, are infested. Anomurans are more heavily infested than brachyurans, variability can be high within genera, and a relationship may exist between the number of specimens and infestation percentage per taxon, possibly suggesting host-specificity. We have also investigated quantitative patterns of infestation through geological time based on 88 infested species (25 anomurans, 55 brachyurans, seven lobsters, and one shrimp), to show that the highest number of infested species can be found in the Late Jurassic, also when corrected for the unequal duration of epochs. The same Late Jurassic peak is observed for the percentage of infested decapod species per epoch. This acme is caused entirely by infested anomurans and brachyurans. Biases (taphonomic and otherwise) and causes of variability with regard to the Koskobilo assemblage and infestation patterns through time are discussed. Finally, a new ichnogenus and -species, Kanthyloma crusta, are erected to accommodate such swellings or embedment structures (bioclaustrations). PMID:24667587

Klompmaker, Adiël A; Artal, Pedro; van Bakel, Barry W M; Fraaije, René H B; Jagt, John W M

2014-01-01

48

Apolipocrustacein, formerly vitellogenin, is the major egg yolk precursor protein in decapod crustaceans and is homologous to insect apolipophorin II/I and vertebrate apolipoprotein B  

PubMed Central

Background In animals, the biogenesis of some lipoprotein classes requires members of the ancient large lipid transfer protein (LLTP) superfamily, including the cytosolic large subunit of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), vertebrate apolipoprotein B (apoB), vitellogenin (Vtg), and insect apolipophorin II/I precursor (apoLp-II/I). In most oviparous species, Vtg, a large glycolipoprotein, is the main egg yolk precursor protein. Results This report clarifies the phylogenetic relationships of LLTP superfamily members and classifies them into three families and their related subfamilies. This means that the generic term Vtg is no longer a functional term, but is rather based on phylogenetic/structural criteria. In addition, we determined that the main egg yolk precursor protein of decapod crustaceans show an overall greater sequence similarity with apoLp-II/I than other LLTP, including Vtgs. This close association is supported by the phylogenetic analysis, i.e. neighbor-joining, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods, of conserved sequence motifs and the presence of three common conserved domains: an N-terminal large lipid transfer module marker for LLTP, a DUF1081 domain of unknown function in their central region exclusively shared with apoLp-II/I and apoB, and a von Willebrand-factor type D domain at their C-terminal end. Additionally, they share a conserved functional subtilisin-like endoprotease cleavage site with apoLp-II/I, in a similar location. Conclusion The structural and phylogenetic data presented indicate that the major egg yolk precursor protein of decapod crustaceans is surprisingly closely related to insect apoLp-II/I and vertebrate apoB and should be known as apolipocrustacein (apoCr) rather than Vtg. These LLTP may arise from an ancient duplication event leading to paralogs of Vtg sequences. The presence of LLTP homologs in one genome may facilitate redundancy, e.g. involvement in lipid metabolism and as egg yolk precursor protein, and neofunctionalization and subfunctionalization, e.g. involvement in clotting cascade and immune response, of extracellular LLTP members. These protein-coding nuclear genes may be used to resolve phylogenetic relationships among the major arthropod groups, especially the Pancrustacea-major splits. PMID:17241455

Avarre, Jean-Christophe; Lubzens, Esther; Babin, Patrick J

2007-01-01

49

cDNA cloning and transcript distribution of two novel members of the neuroparsin peptide family in a hemipteran insect (Nezara viridula) and a decapod crustacean (Jasus lalandii).  

PubMed

Two novel neuroparsin (NP) precursor cDNAs were cloned: one from the corpora cardiaca of an insect, the green stink bug Nezara viridula, and the other from the X-organ of a decapod crustacean, the spiny lobster Jasus lalandii. The translated NP precursor consists of 106 amino acid residues in N. viridula and 103 amino acid residues in J. lalandii, with 14 and 12 cysteine residues, respectively, in conserved positions when aligned with known NPs. Reverse transcriptase PCR shows that in both arthropods, NP is expressed in some neural tissues: corpora cardiaca, sub-esophageal ganglion and brain of N. viridula; X-organ, brain, sub-esophageal and thoracic ganglion in J. lalandii. Additionally, NP is also expressed in non-neural tissues, such as fat body, leg muscle, flight muscle, reproductive organs and antennae in N. viridula, and heart and ovary in J. lalandii. There are no major differences in the NP transcript expression in mature and immature stink bugs, and also no difference between male and female stink bugs. PMID:24512948

Marco, Heather G; Anders, Lance; Gäde, Gerd

2014-03-01

50

Neurogenesis in the central olfactory pathway of adult decapod crustaceans: development of the neurogenic niche in the brains of procambarid crayfish  

PubMed Central

Background In the decapod crustacean brain, neurogenesis persists throughout the animal's life. After embryogenesis, the central olfactory pathway integrates newborn olfactory local and projection interneurons that replace old neurons or expand the existing population. In crayfish, these neurons are the descendants of precursor cells residing in a neurogenic niche. In this paper, the development of the niche was documented by monitoring proliferating cells with S-phase-specific markers combined with immunohistochemical, dye-injection and pulse-chase experiments. Results Between the end of embryogenesis and throughout the first post-embryonic stage (POI), a defined transverse band of mitotically active cells (which we will term 'the deutocerebral proliferative system' (DPS) appears. Just prior to hatching and in parallel with the formation of the DPS, the anlagen of the niche appears, closely associated with the vasculature. When the hatchling molts to the second post-embryonic stage (POII), the DPS differentiates into the lateral (LPZ) and medial (MPZ) proliferative zones. The LPZ and MPZ are characterized by a high number of mitotically active cells from the beginning of post-embryonic life; in contrast, the developing niche contains only very few dividing cells, a characteristic that persists in the adult organism. Conclusions Our data suggest that the LPZ and MPZ are largely responsible for the production of new neurons in the early post-embryonic stages, and that the neurogenic niche in the beginning plays a subordinate role. However, as the neuroblasts in the proliferation zones disappear during early post-embryonic life, the neuronal precursors in the niche gradually become the dominant and only mechanism for the generation of new neurons in the adult brain. PMID:22225949

2012-01-01

51

High sequence variability among hemocyte-specific Kazal-type proteinase inhibitors in decapod crustaceans.  

PubMed

Crustacean hemocytes were found to produce a large number of transcripts coding for Kazal-type proteinase inhibitors (KPIs). A detailed study performed with the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus and the shrimp Penaeus monodon revealed the presence of at least 26 and 20 different Kazal domains from the hemocyte KPIs, respectively. Comparisons with KPIs from other taxa indicate that the sequences of these domains evolve rapidly. A few conserved positions, e.g. six invariant cysteines were present in all domain sequences whereas the position of P1 amino acid, a determinant for substrate specificity, varied highly. A study with a single crayfish animal suggested that even at the individual level considerable sequence variability among hemocyte KPIs produced exist. Expression analysis of four crayfish KPI transcripts in hematopoietic tissue cells and different hemocyte types suggest that some of these KPIs are likely to be involved in hematopoiesis or hemocyte release as they were produced in particular hemocyte types or maturation stages only. PMID:19715720

Cerenius, Lage; Liu, Haipeng; Zhang, Yanjiao; Rimphanitchayakit, Vichien; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Gunnar Andersson, M; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Söderhäll, Irene

2010-01-01

52

Odors influencing foraging behavior of the California spiny lobster, Panulirus interruptus, and other decapod crustacea  

SciTech Connect

Trapping experiments were conducted in the More Mesa coastal area of Santa Barbara, California, 4 km east of the U.C. Santa Barbara campus. Live intact and injured prey and excised tissues were placed in traps, in containers allowing odor release but preventing contacts with entering animals. Individuals of six prey species failed to attract lobsters when alive and intact, but some became attractive once injured. Excised tissues were the most effective baits. Abalone and mackerel muscle were attractive to lobsters but relatively nonattractive to crabs, while angel shark muscle was attractive to crabs but not to lobsters. Shrimp cephalothoraces were repellant to lobsters. Naturally occurring attractant and repellent tissues are thus identified and chemosensory abilities of lobsters and sympatric crabs are demonstrated to differ. Abalone muscle increased in attractivity following 1-2 days field exposure. Molecular weights of stimulants released by both weathered and fresh abalone were < 10,000 daltons with evidence suggesting that the 1000-10,000 dalton fraction may contribute significantly to attraction. Concentrations of total primary amines released from abalone muscle failed to differ from background levels, following an initial three (0-3h) period. Primary amines thus appear not to contribute directly to captures of lobsters, since animals were usually caught greater than or equal to 7 h after baits were positioned. Amino acids were the dominant contributors to present measurements of total primary amines, suggesting that these molecules may not direct lobster foraging behavior in the present experiments. 41 references, 4 figures, 8 tables.

Zimmer-Faust, R.K.; Case, J.F.

1982-01-01

53

Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (cHH) as a modulator of aggression in crustacean decapods.  

PubMed

Biogenic amines, particularly serotonin, are recognised to play an important role in controlling the aggression of invertebrates, whereas the effect of neurohormones is still underexplored. The crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (cHH) is a multifunctional member of the eyestalk neuropeptide family. We expect that this neuropeptide influences aggression either directly, by controlling its expression, or indirectly, by mobilizing the energetic stores needed for the increased activity of an animal. Our study aims at testing such an influence and the possible reversion of hierarchies in the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, as a model organism. Three types of pairs of similarly sized males were formed: (1) 'control pairs' (CP, n = 8): both individuals were injected with a phosphate saline solution (PBS); (2) 'reinforced pairs' (RP, n = 9): the alpha alone was injected with native cHH, and the beta with PBS; (3) 'inverted pairs' (IP, n = 9): the opposite of (2). We found that, independently of the crayfish's prior social experience, cHH injections induced (i) the expression of dominance behaviour, (ii) higher glycemic levels, and (iii) lower time spent motionless. In CP and RP, fight intensity decreased with the establishment of dominance. On the contrary, in IP, betas became increasingly likely to initiate and escalate fights and, consequently, increased their dominance till a temporary reversal of the hierarchy. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that, similarly to serotonin, cHH enhances individual aggression, up to reverse, although transitorily, the hierarchical rank. New research perspectives are thus opened in our intriguing effort of understanding the role of cHH in the modulation of agonistic behaviour in crustaceans. PMID:23166815

Aquiloni, Laura; Giulianini, Piero G; Mosco, Alessandro; Guarnaccia, Corrado; Ferrero, Enrico; Gherardi, Francesca

2012-01-01

54

A novel Spiroplasma pathogen causing systemic infection in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Crustacea: Decapod), in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel disease of crayfish Procambarus clarkii appeared in the summer of 2004 in freshwater aquaculture in Jiangsu province of China. Light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), molecular biological methods and in vitro culture were used to identify the pathogen. The agent was unique in having a helical morphology and rotary motility as observed by phase-contrast light microscopy and was

Wen Wang; Wei Gu; Zhengfeng Ding; Yalai Ren; Jianxiu Chen; Yayi Hou

2005-01-01

55

A collection of Decapod Crustacea from Sumba, Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sumba-Expedition undertaken by Dr. E . Sutter of the Naturhistorisches Museum of Basle and Dr. A . Bühler of the Museum für Völkerkunde of the same town, visited the Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia, in 1949. Dr. Sutter, the zoologist, stayed in the islands from 19 May to 26 November; most of the time was spent by him in Sumba

L. B. Holthuis

1978-01-01

56

SEASONAL COMPOSITION AND ABUNDANCE OF DECAPOD AND STOMATOPOD CRUSTACEANS FROM COASTAL HABITATS,  

E-print Network

and bathymetric range, described assemblages of deca- pod Crustacea from the continental shelf of the southeastern. Keiser (1977) identified 20 species of deca- pod and stomatopod crustaceans in a study of the incidental

57

Skeletal adaptations for forwards and sideways walking in three species of decapod crustaceans.  

PubMed

Crustaceans have been successfully employed to study legged locomotion for decades. Most studies have focused on either forwards-walking macrurans, or sideways-walking brachyurans. Libinia emarginata is a Majoid crab (Brachyura) and as such belongs to the earliest group to have evolved the crab form from homoloid ancestors. Unlike most brachyurans, Libinia walks forwards 80% of the time. We employed standard anatomical techniques and motion analysis to compare the skeleton, stance, and the range of motion of the legs of Libinia to the sideways-walking green shore crab (Carcinus maenas), and to the forwards-walking crayfish (Procambarus clarkii). We found animals tended to have greater ranges of motion for joints articulating in the preferred direction of locomotion. Leg segments proximal to such joints were comparatively longer. Thorax elongation, leg length and placement at rest also reflected walking preference. Comparative studies of walking in Libinia and other brachyurans may shed light on the neuroethology of legged locomotion, and on the anatomical and physiological changes necessary for sideways-walking in crustaceans. PMID:18089130

Vidal-Gadea, A G; Rinehart, M D; Belanger, J H

2008-03-01

58

DIURNAL ACTIVITY IN A GROUP OF GULF OF MAINE DECAPODS MARK NOVAK1)  

E-print Network

, the rock crab, Cancer irroratus Say, 1817, and the green crab, Carcinus maenas (L., 1758) as nocturnal, Homarus americanus H. Milne Edwards, 1837, were, as expected, highest at night. The crabs Cancer borealis of the literature suggests that such diurnal activity is not only unusual for the three crab species of this study

Novak, Mark

59

Haemolymph characteristics of a copper-tolerant decapod Orconectes virilis (Hagen) (Astacidae, Crustacea).  

PubMed

The mean haemolymph volume in a copper-tolerant, intermoult (C2-C4) adult (more than a year old) Orconectes virilis, as determined by [14C-carboxylic] inulin dilution method, ranged from 61.17 microliters in females (mean wet body weight = 4.34 g; mean carapace length = 4.43 cm) to 61.79 microliters in males (mean wet weight = 5.73 g; mean carapace length = 4.49 cm). The mean haemolymph volume per cent varied from 14.5 (in females) to 31.1 (in males). Haemolymph from males had an average pH of 7.35, osmotic pressure of 414.1 mmol/kg H2O, and a specific gravity of 1.0603, while that from females averaged a pH of 7.48, osmotic pressure of 433.6 mmol/kg H2O and a specific gravity of 1.0469. Mean total haemocyte counts ranged from 3,434/mm3 (1,000/mm3 halinocytes, 1,125/mm3 hemi-granulocytes and 1,309/mm3 granulocytes) in males to 4,905/mm3 (1,525/mm3 halinocytes. 1,490/mm3 hemi-granulocytes and 1,890/mm3 granulocytes) in females. PMID:2444180

Naich, M; Alikhan, M A

1987-06-01

60

Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (cHH) as a Modulator of Aggression in Crustacean Decapods  

PubMed Central

Biogenic amines, particularly serotonin, are recognised to play an important role in controlling the aggression of invertebrates, whereas the effect of neurohormones is still underexplored. The crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (cHH) is a multifunctional member of the eyestalk neuropeptide family. We expect that this neuropeptide influences aggression either directly, by controlling its expression, or indirectly, by mobilizing the energetic stores needed for the increased activity of an animal. Our study aims at testing such an influence and the possible reversion of hierarchies in the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, as a model organism. Three types of pairs of similarly sized males were formed: (1) ‘control pairs’ (CP, n?=?8): both individuals were injected with a phosphate saline solution (PBS); (2) ‘reinforced pairs’ (RP, n?=?9): the alpha alone was injected with native cHH, and the beta with PBS; (3) ‘inverted pairs’ (IP, n?=?9): the opposite of (2). We found that, independently of the crayfish’s prior social experience, cHH injections induced (i) the expression of dominance behaviour, (ii) higher glycemic levels, and (iii) lower time spent motionless. In CP and RP, fight intensity decreased with the establishment of dominance. On the contrary, in IP, betas became increasingly likely to initiate and escalate fights and, consequently, increased their dominance till a temporary reversal of the hierarchy. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that, similarly to serotonin, cHH enhances individual aggression, up to reverse, although transitorily, the hierarchical rank. New research perspectives are thus opened in our intriguing effort of understanding the role of cHH in the modulation of agonistic behaviour in crustaceans. PMID:23166815

Aquiloni, Laura; Giulianini, Piero G.; Mosco, Alessandro; Guarnaccia, Corrado; Ferrero, Enrico; Gherardi, Francesca

2012-01-01

61

Studies on the Nervous Regulation of the Heart Beat in Decapod Crustacea  

PubMed Central

The effect of electrical stimulation of cardioaccelerator and cardioinhibitor nerves on the mechanically recorded heart beat of crayfish was studied. Similar experiments were performed with the lobster, Homarus americanus. Quantitative relationships between uni- and bilateral accelerator and/or inhibitor nerve stimulation and the resulting change in frequency and amplitude of the heart beat were established. With increasing frequency of stimulation the accelerator nerves show a relative decrease in their action, while that of the inhibitor nerves increases. It appears that left and right regulator nerves have synaptic contacts at the same areas of the postsynaptic cells within the heart ganglion. Similar results are obtained whether all impulses arrive over one, or over the other, or over both accelerator (or inhibitor) nerves; the resulting acceleration or inhibition depends strictly on the number of accelerator, or inhibitor impulses arriving at the ganglion. The ganglion cells can adapt to the inhibitor action. This is shown to be a postsynaptic phenomenon. Adaptation to accelerator stimulation is virtually absent. Characteristic after-effects of the accelerator and inhibitor action were observed and quantitatively evaluated. The interpretation of the results is based on the assumption of chemical transmitter substances. It is concluded that the accelerating transmitter decays slowly while the inhibitory transmitter is inactivated relatively rapidly. PMID:13823571

Florey, Ernst

1960-01-01

62

Genomic sequence and experimental tractability of a new decapod shrimp model, Neocaridina denticulata.  

PubMed

The speciose Crustacea is the largest subphylum of arthropods on the planet after the Insecta. To date, however, the only publically available sequenced crustacean genome is that of the water flea, Daphnia pulex, a member of the Branchiopoda. While Daphnia is a well-established ecotoxicological model, previous study showed that one-third of genes contained in its genome are lineage-specific and could not be identified in any other metazoan genomes. To better understand the genomic evolution of crustaceans and arthropods, we have sequenced the genome of a novel shrimp model, Neocaridina denticulata, and tested its experimental malleability. A library of 170-bp nominal fragment size was constructed from DNA of a starved single adult and sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Core eukaryotic genes, the mitochondrial genome, developmental patterning genes (such as Hox) and microRNA processing pathway genes are all present in this animal, suggesting it has not undergone massive genomic loss. Comparison with the published genome of Daphnia pulex has allowed us to reveal 3750 genes that are indeed specific to the lineage containing malacostracans and branchiopods, rather than Daphnia-specific (E-value: 10??). We also show the experimental tractability of N. denticulata, which, together with the genomic resources presented here, make it an ideal model for a wide range of further aquacultural, developmental, ecotoxicological, food safety, genetic, hormonal, physiological and reproductive research, allowing better understanding of the evolution of crustaceans and other arthropods. PMID:24619275

Kenny, Nathan J; Sin, Yung Wa; Shen, Xin; Zhe, Qu; Wang, Wei; Chan, Ting Fung; Tobe, Stephen S; Shimeld, Sebastian M; Chu, Ka Hou; Hui, Jerome H L

2014-03-01

63

Genomic Sequence and Experimental Tractability of a New Decapod Shrimp Model, Neocaridina denticulata  

PubMed Central

The speciose Crustacea is the largest subphylum of arthropods on the planet after the Insecta. To date, however, the only publically available sequenced crustacean genome is that of the water flea, Daphnia pulex, a member of the Branchiopoda. While Daphnia is a well-established ecotoxicological model, previous study showed that one-third of genes contained in its genome are lineage-specific and could not be identified in any other metazoan genomes. To better understand the genomic evolution of crustaceans and arthropods, we have sequenced the genome of a novel shrimp model, Neocaridina denticulata, and tested its experimental malleability. A library of 170-bp nominal fragment size was constructed from DNA of a starved single adult and sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Core eukaryotic genes, the mitochondrial genome, developmental patterning genes (such as Hox) and microRNA processing pathway genes are all present in this animal, suggesting it has not undergone massive genomic loss. Comparison with the published genome of Daphnia pulex has allowed us to reveal 3750 genes that are indeed specific to the lineage containing malacostracans and branchiopods, rather than Daphnia-specific (E-value: 10?6). We also show the experimental tractability of N. denticulata, which, together with the genomic resources presented here, make it an ideal model for a wide range of further aquacultural, developmental, ecotoxicological, food safety, genetic, hormonal, physiological and reproductive research, allowing better understanding of the evolution of crustaceans and other arthropods. PMID:24619275

Kenny, Nathan J.; Sin, Yung Wa; Shen, Xin; Zhe, Qu; Wang, Wei; Chan, Ting Fung; Tobe, Stephen S.; Shimeld, Sebastian M.; Chu, Ka Hou; Hui, Jerome H. L.

2014-01-01

64

Utilization of submerged aquatic vegetation habitats by fishes and decapods in the Galvestion Bay Ecosystem, Texas  

E-print Network

%; blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, 15%; and white shrimp, Penaeus setiferus, 12%. Dominants in non-vegetated habitats included Penaeus setiferus, 21 %; Callinectes sapidus, 16%; and gulf menhaden, Brevoortia patronus, 14%. The amount of submerged aquatic...

Scott, Elizabeth A.

2012-06-07

65

A study of the seasonal distribution of certain decapod crustaceans of the Louisiana marsh area  

E-print Network

the corresponding salinity for each area from July, 1959 to July, 1960. 59 14. Nuxnber of t'ish per haul that are anown predators of crabs in the three areas. 61 15. Dt d f fCll' t ~d infested with Rhizocephalan. 66 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Statement... the corresponding salinity for each area from July, 1959 to July, 1960. 59 14. Nuxnber of t'ish per haul that are anown predators of crabs in the three areas. 61 15. Dt d f fCll' t ~d infested with Rhizocephalan. 66 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Statement...

Haynes, Evan Baxter

2012-06-07

66

Morphological adaptations to chronic hypoxia in deep-sea decapod crustaceans from hydrothermal vents and cold seeps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animals inhabiting hydrothermal vents and cold seeps face conditions that are challenging for survival. In particular, these\\u000a two habitats are characterized by chronic hypoxia, sometimes reaching complete anoxia. The characteristics of the scaphognathite\\u000a and gills were studied in four species of shrimp and three species of crabs from hydrothermal vents and cold seeps, in order\\u000a to highlight potential adaptations that

Johan Decelle; Ann C. Andersen; Stéphane Hourdez

2010-01-01

67

Biochemical composition of deep-sea decapod crustaceans with two different benthic life strategies off the Portuguese south coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of the present study were to characterize the benthic life strategies of Aristeus antennatus (Crustacea: Penaeidea), Parapenaeus longirostris (Crustacea: Penaeidea) and Nephrops norvegicus (Crustacea: Astacidea) on the basis of biochemical composition (proximate chemical composition, total lipids, glycogen and cholesterol contents), and its response to biological and environmental factors (sex, maturation, reproduction, food availability and depth) into account. The specimens were collected at depths between 200 and 600 m off the Portuguese south coast (Algarve). The nektobenthic species ( A. antennatus and P. longirostris) showed higher protein, lipid, cholesterol and glycogen contents, and lower moisture content in the muscle than the benthic-endobenthic species ( N. norvegicus). Consequently, the energy content of the nektobenthic species was also higher. Principal component analyses were used to assess the relationship between the different biochemical contents and to relate them to the biotic and abiotic factors. Depth seems to have the most important role in the observed trends of the biochemical composition. The increase of the ovarian lipid levels occurs as a result of the maturation process. The highest values were obtained in mature N. norvegicus females. The differences can be due to maternal investment (lipid metabolism of the female is geared to the provision of egg lipid), since N. norvegicus produce large lecithotrophic eggs. The biochemical differences observed in the three species did not seem to be due to distinct trophic strategies, but instead were a consequence of depth, which may have a significant interspecific effect on food intake. It was also evident that reproductive cycle has profound effects upon the biochemistry of the three species. Gonadal maturation has large associated energy costs due to the increase in biosynthetic work. Moreover, the biochemical composition would be influenced by or synchronized with seasonal feeding activity or food availability.

Rosa, R.; Nunes, M. L.

2003-01-01

68

Influence of accumulation of cadmium on the content of other microelements of two species of Black Sea decapods  

SciTech Connect

Because the accumulation of cadmium by an organism may be a progressive and long-term process, the investigation of the influence of this trace metal on the balance of other microelements, especially those of key significance for normal biological functioning, is of great interest. Estimation of the accumulation capacity of organs and tissues involved in this process is of great importance as well.

Skwarzec, B.; Kentzer-Baczewska, A.; Styczynska-Jurewicz, E.; Neugebauer, E.

1984-01-01

69

Comparative strategies of heavy metal accumulation by crustaceans: zinc, copper and cadmium in a decapod, an amphipod and a barnacle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the comparative strategies of accumulation under standardised laboratory conditions of the essential metals zinc and copper, and the non-essential metal cadmium by three crustaceans of different taxa; vizPalaemon elegans Rathke (Malacostraca: Eucarida: Decapoda),Echinogammarus pirloti (Sexton & Spooner) (Malacostraca: Peracarida: Amphipoda) and the barnacleElminius modestus Darwin (Cirripedia: Thoracica).

P. S. Rainbow; S. L. White

1989-01-01

70

Effects of common reed ( Phragmites australis ) invasion on marsh surface macrofauna: Response of fishes and decapod crustaceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tidally inundated marsh surface is an importnat site for energy exchanges for many resident and transient species. In\\u000a many areas along the East Coast of the U.S. the dominant vegetation,Spartina alterniflora, has been replaced by the common reed (Phragmites australis). This shift has caused concern about the impact ofPhragmites on marsh fauna but research in this area has been

Kenneth W. Able; Stacy M. Hagan

2000-01-01

71

CARDIOVASCULAR FUNCTIONS IN TWO MACRURAN DECAPOD CRUSTACEANS (PROCAMBARUS CLARKII AND HOMARUS AMERICANUS) DURING PERIODS OF INACTIVITY, TAIL FLEXION AND CARDIORESPIRATORY PAUSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arterial hemolymph flow was measured in restrained crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and lobsters (Homarus americanus). Implanted pulsed Doppler flow transducers were used to measure arterial flows in the anterior aorta, posterior aorta, sternal artery, lateral artery, ventral thoracic artery and ventral abdominal artery, allowing determination of flow simultaneously in several arteries over a period of 4 days. Calculated Doppler hemolymph flow

CARL L. REIBER; BRIAN R. MCMAHON; WARREN W. BURGGREN

1997-01-01

72

6 13C OF ZOOPLANKTON, DECAPOD CRUSTACEANS AND AMPHIPODS FROM LAGUNA DE TERMINOS, CAMPECHE (MEXICO), WITH REFERENCE TO FOOD SOURCES AND TROPHIC POSITION fi \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zooplankton, Perzaeus setijhzfs, P. duoramnz, Xiphopenaeus kroyeti, Callinectes sapidus, Dyspanopeus texanus, Palaernortetes spp., Hippolyte spp. and amphipods were isotopically characterized to identify the food sources they use and their relative trophic position, as well as to establish a relationship between the isotopic data and the isotopic \\

Andrea Raz-Guzmanl; Guadalupe de la Lanza

73

The proteasomes of two marine decapod crustaceans, European lobster (Homarus gammarus) and Edible crab (Cancer pagurus), are differently impaired by heavy metals.  

PubMed

The intracellular ubiquitin-proteasome system is a key regulator of cellular processes involved in the controlled degradation of short-living or malfunctioning proteins. Certain diseases and cellular dysfunctions are known to arise from the disruption of proteasome pathways. Trace metals are recognized stressors of the proteasome system in vertebrates and plants, but their effects on the proteasome of invertebrates are not well understood. Since marine invertebrates, and particularly benthic crustaceans, can be exposed to high metal levels, we studied the effects of in vitro exposure to Hg(2+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+), and Cd(2+) on the activities of the proteasome from the claw muscles of lobsters (Homarus gammarus) and crabs (Cancer pagurus). The chymotrypsin like activity of the proteasome of these two species showed different sensitivity to metals. In lobsters the activity was significantly inhibited by all metals to a similar extent. In crabs the activities were severely suppressed only by Hg(2+) and Cu(2+) while Zn(2+) had only a moderate effect and Cd(2+) caused almost no inhibition of the crab proteasome. This indicates that the proteasomes of both species possess structural characteristics that determine different susceptibility to metals. Consequently, the proteasome-mediated protein degradation in crab C. pagurus may be less affected by metal pollution than that of the lobster H. gammarus. PMID:24721378

Götze, Sandra; Bose, Aneesh; Sokolova, Inna M; Abele, Doris; Saborowski, Reinhard

2014-05-01

74

Hydrobiologia 449: 4146, 2001. J.P.M. Paula, A.A.V. Flores & C.H.J.M. Fransen (eds), Advances in Decapod Crustacean Research.  

E-print Network

is restricted to the intertidal and shallow subtidal of the Mediterranean and northeastern Atlantic. sexdentatus) are endemic to the Mediterranean. The fourth species, B. atlanticus, is found along the Atlantic coasts of northern Africa and southern Europe, but also extends into the western Mediterranean. This high

Schubart, Christoph

75

Hydrobiologia 449: 241247, 2001. J.P.M. Paula, A.A.V. Flores & C.H.J.M. Fransen (eds), Advances in Decapod Crustacean Research.  

E-print Network

claws make male fiddler crabs more conspicuous to visual predators: a test using human observers Joana M of the possible costs of the male fiddler crabs enlarged claw can be conspicuousness to predators. This hypothesis was tested using human observers as a model of visual predators. In the European fiddler crab, Uca tangeri

76

Effect of food deprivation in late larval development and early benthic life of temperate marine coastal and estuarine caridean shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decapod crustaceans larvae commonly rely on the ingestion of exogenous planktonic food to survive and metamorphose. During larval development, decapods are exposed to variable periods of food shortage. Unfavorable trophic scenarios affect larval decapods differently and the post-settlement effects of nutritional stress during late larval development are still largely unknown. Facultative secondary lecithotrophy (FSL) can be described as the ability

Ricardo Calado; Tânia Pimentel; Patricia Pochelon; Ainhoa O. Olaguer-Feliú; Henrique Queiroga

2010-01-01

77

Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling genes in decapod crustaceans: cloning and tissue expression of mTOR, Akt, Rheb, and p70 S6 kinase in the green crab, Carcinus maenas, and blackback land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis.  

PubMed

Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) controls global translation of mRNA into protein by phosphorylating p70 S6 kinase (S6K) and eIF4E-binding protein-1. Akt and Rheb, a GTP-binding protein, regulate mTOR protein kinase activity. Molting in crustaceans is regulated by ecdysteroids synthesized by a pair of molting glands, or Y-organs (YOs), located in the cephalothorax. During premolt, the YOs hypertrophy and increase production of ecdysteroids. Rapamycin (1?M) inhibited ecdysteroid secretion in Carcinus maenas and Gecarcinus lateralis YOs in vitro, indicating that ecdysteroidogenesis requires mTOR-dependent protein synthesis. The effects of molting on the expression of four key mTOR signaling genes (mTOR, Akt, Rheb, and S6K) in the YO was investigated. Partial cDNAs encoding green crab (C. maenas) mTOR (4031bp), Akt (855bp), and S6K (918bp) were obtained from expressed sequence tags. Identity/similarity of the deduced amino acid sequence of the C. maenas cDNAs to human orthologs were 72%/81% for Cm-mTOR, 58%/73% for Cm-Akt, and 77%/88% for Cm-S6K. mTOR, Akt, S6K, and elongation factor 2 (EF2) in C. maenas and blackback land crab (G. lateralis) were expressed in all tissues examined. The two species differed in the effects of molting on gene expression in the YO. In G. lateralis, Gl-mTOR, Gl-Akt, and Gl-EF2 mRNA levels were increased during premolt. By contrast, molting had no effect on the expression of Cm-mTOR, Cm-Akt, Cm-S6K, Cm-Rheb, and Cm-EF2. These data suggest that YO activation during premolt involves up regulation of mTOR signaling genes in G. lateralis, but is not required in C. maenas. PMID:24269559

Abuhagr, Ali M; Maclea, Kyle S; Chang, Ernest S; Mykles, Donald L

2014-02-01

78

Feedback Regulation of Y-Organ Secretion in the European Green Crab, Carcinus maenas  

E-print Network

Feedback Regulation of Y-Organ Secretion in the European Green Crab, Carcinus maenas Jennifer Jackman Research Conducted at: Bodega Marine Laboratory University of California-Davis Crabs are decapod RESULTS Crabs are decapod crustaceans in the phylum Arthropoda. In order to grow, all arthropods must

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

79

Feeding activity rhythm of Nephrops norvegicus of the western Mediterranean shelf and slope grounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a 24-h time scale, benthic decapods show complex patterns of behavioural activity associated with feeding. Information is scarce on the feeding rhythms of the burrowing decapod Nephrops norvegicus (L.), especially in those deep, benthic environments typical of western Mediterranean slopes, where the fishery of this species is highly developed. In the present study, the feeding of this species was

J. Aguzzi; F. Sardà

2004-01-01

80

HISTORICAL PATTERNS IN THE DESCRIPTION OF NORTH EAST ATLANTIC DECAPODA  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of historical patterns in the description of North East Atlantic Decapoda is presented. The discovery curve of decapods as a whole indicates that the decapod fauna of the NE Atlantic is well known, with two major peaks in species description rates being identifiable: 1808-1830 and 1855-1890, the latter corresponding to the era of the major oceanographic expeditions. On

Sammy De Grave

2003-01-01

81

Stage-structured interactions between seasonal and permanent residents of an estuarine nekton community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estuarine assemblages of fishes and natant decapod crustaceans (i.e. nekton) comprise both permanent resident species and juveniles of coastal marine species that use estuaries primarily as nurseries. In an attempt to understand how the young of marine species successfully invade communities of permanent estuarine residents we studied potential interactions between two of the most abundant decapod crustaceans in nekton assemblages

R. T. Kneib; M. Kathyrn Knowlton

1995-01-01

82

Publications New NMFS Scientific  

E-print Network

of southeastern North America by William Perry Hay and Clarence A. Shore published in 1918 as "The Decapod. Coe, James M., David B. Holts, and Richard W. Butler. "Guidelines for reducing porpoise mortality

83

THE COMPLETE LARVAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE LABORATORY OF MICROPANOPE SCULPTIPES (CRUSTACEA, DECAPODA, XANTHIDAE)  

E-print Network

Bureau, Fort Pierce, Fla. This report is Article XXI. Studies on Decapod Crustacea from the Indian River Foundation RV Sea Diver (cruise SD23, station #007), with a 20 ft (6.1 m) otter trawl. The trawl sample

84

Hidden Treasures in Stem Cells of Indeterminately Growing Bilaterian Invertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indeterminate growth, the life-long growth without fixed limits, is typical of some evolutionarily very successful aquatic\\u000a invertebrate groups such as the decapod crustaceans, bivalve molluscs and echinoderms. These animals enlarge their organs\\u000a also in the adult life period and can regenerate lost appendages and organs, which is in sharp contrast to mammals and most\\u000a insects. Interestingly, decapods, bivalves and echinoderms

Günter Vogt

85

Systematic and Evolutionary Insights Derived from mtDNA COI Barcode Diversity in the Decapoda (Crustacea: Malacostraca)  

PubMed Central

Background Decapods are the most recognizable of all crustaceans and comprise a dominant group of benthic invertebrates of the continental shelf and slope, including many species of economic importance. Of the 17635 morphologically described Decapoda species, only 5.4% are represented by COI barcode region sequences. It therefore remains a challenge to compile regional databases that identify and analyse the extent and patterns of decapod diversity throughout the world. Methodology/Principal Findings We contributed 101 decapod species from the North East Atlantic, the Gulf of Cadiz and the Mediterranean Sea, of which 81 species represent novel COI records. Within the newly-generated dataset, 3.6% of the species barcodes conflicted with the assigned morphological taxonomic identification, highlighting both the apparent taxonomic ambiguity among certain groups, and the need for an accelerated and independent taxonomic approach. Using the combined COI barcode projects from the Barcode of Life Database, we provide the most comprehensive COI data set so far examined for the Order (1572 sequences of 528 species, 213 genera, and 67 families). Patterns within families show a general predicted molecular hierarchy, but the scale of divergence at each taxonomic level appears to vary extensively between families. The range values of mean K2P distance observed were: within species 0.285% to 1.375%, within genus 6.376% to 20.924% and within family 11.392% to 25.617%. Nucleotide composition varied greatly across decapods, ranging from 30.8 % to 49.4 % GC content. Conclusions/Significance Decapod biological diversity was quantified by identifying putative cryptic species allowing a rapid assessment of taxon diversity in groups that have until now received limited morphological and systematic examination. We highlight taxonomic groups or species with unusual nucleotide composition or evolutionary rates. Such data are relevant to strategies for conservation of existing decapod biodiversity, as well as elucidating the mechanisms and constraints shaping the patterns observed. PMID:21589909

Matzen da Silva, Joana; Creer, Simon; dos Santos, Antonina; Costa, Ana C.; Cunha, Marina R.; Costa, Filipe O.; Carvalho, Gary R.

2011-01-01

86

The crustaceans and pycnogonids of the Mariana Islands  

SciTech Connect

The crustacean and pycnogonid fauna of the Mariana Islands is reviewed, and 829 crustacean and 15 pycnogonid species are documented from the archipelago based on literature records and new collections, including 272 new records. Voucher specimens are listed for 605 and photographic records for 356 species. The bulk of the fauna is marine, including 12 terrestrial and 11 freshwater decapods with marine larvae. Five cladocerans comprise the known freshwater fauna, and 25 peracarids and one copepod are currently documented on land. Coverage reflects a taxonomically uneven effort, and is strongly biased toward macrocrustaceans, with decapods accounting for 80%, and crabs for 50% of the recorded crustacean diversity.

Paulay, Gustav (University of Guam); Kropp, Roy K. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Ng, Peter K. (National University); Eldredge, Lucius G. (Pacific Science Association, Bishop Museum, Honolulu, HI)

2003-09-01

87

Influence of trophic variables on the depth-range distributions and zonation rates of deep-sea megafauna: the case of the Western Mediterranean assemblages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied in a deep-sea megafaunal community the relationship of different trophic variables to the depth ranges inhabited by and depth zonation of species, after the ordination of fish and decapod crustaceans in feeding guilds. The variables studied included trophic level of species, food sources exploited, mean weight of predators and prey, feeding intensity and dietary diversity of species. We compiled data on the diets of 18 species of fish and 14 species of decapod crustaceans distributed between 862 and 2261 m in the Catalano-Balearic Basin (Western Mediterranean). Feeding guilds were identified for fish and decapods separately and at two depth strata (862-1400 and 1400-2261 m). The zonation rates (degree of depth overlap) between species within each trophic guild differed by guild and taxon (fish and decapods). The three guilds (G1, G2 and G3) of decapod crustaceans showed quite significantly distinct overlap. G1 (plankton feeders) showed the widest overlap (1326-1381 m) and G3 (benthos feeders) the narrowest (330-476 m). Among the four guilds established for fish, G1, comprising larger predators such as sharks, showed the lowest overlap (between 194 and 382 m). Macrourids overlap ranged between 122 and 553 m, the rest of benthopelagic feeders ranged between 423 and 970 m, and G3 (benthos feeders) gave overlaps between 867 and 1067 m. Significant differences were detected between the depth overlap of most feeding guilds excluding the paired comparisons between G1/macrourids, and G2/G3. Among decapods higher zonation rates (=lower depth overlap) were identified in those guilds occupying higher trophic levels (TL), with a similar, though not as general, trend among fish. In the ordination of species in feeding guilds, TL as indicated by ?15N measurements, was significantly correlated with Dimension 1 (D1) of ordination—MDS-analysis, both in fish and decapods at 862-1400 m. However, deeper (at 1400-2261 m), D1 was not significantly correlated with TL but with the mean weight of predator and prey in fish. In general, TL was again the main explanatory variable (accumulated variances, r2, explained by multi-linear regression—MLR-models between 0.54 and 0.69) both of the zonation rates and the depth ranges occupied by megafauna (fish and decapods together) throughout all the depth range studied. Possible relationships between zonation rates /depth distributions and other biological variables (i.e. egg size, fecundity) are also discussed.

Cartes, Joan E.; Carrassón, Maite

2004-02-01

88

PAMELA ROE, JON L. NORENBURG, AND SVETLANA MASLAKOVA Nemerteans, or ribbon worms (previously known as Rhyn-  

E-print Network

and Oregon. Most nemerteans are free-living benthic marine worms. About 100 species are members of deep), and a vari- ety of decapod crustacean species host species of the genus Car- cinonemertes. The primary and the prey is consumed in suctorial fashion. Identification of most nemertean species is difficult and time

Maslakova, Svetlana

89

Biomagnification profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols and polychlorinated biphenyls in Tokyo Bay elucidated by ? 13C and ? 15N isotope ratios as guides to trophic web structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomagnification profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylphenols, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the innermost part of Tokyo Bay, Japan were analyzed using stable carbon (?13C) and nitrogen (?15N) isotope ratios as guides to trophic web structure. ?15N analysis indicated that all species of mollusks tested were primary consumers, while decapods and fish were secondary consumers. Higher concentrations of PCBs

Ichiro Takeuchi; Noriko Miyoshi; Kaoruko Mizukawa; Hideshige Takada; Tokutaka Ikemoto; Koji Omori; Kotaro Tsuchiya

2009-01-01

90

The geography of crushing: Variation in claw performance of the invasive crab Carcinus maenas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major claws of predatory, durophagous decapods are specialized structures that are routinely used to crush the armor of their prey. This task requires the generation of extremely strong forces, among the strongest forces measured for any animal in any activity. Laboratory studies have shown that claw strength in crabs can respond plastically to, and thereby potentially match, the strength

Graeme M. Taylor; Nusha Keyghobadi; Paul S. Schmidt

2009-01-01

91

Diet overlaps and feeding relationships between the year classes in the yellow perch (Perca flavescens)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study of the diets of five year classes of perch in Lake Opinicon showed Year class 0 to be mainly Cladocera feeders, the Year class 11 to take a diversified range of insect larvae, whereas from Year class V onwards Anisoptera nymphs, decapods, and fish dominated the diet. Sizes of the dominant food items changed strikingly with growth,

Allen Keast

1977-01-01

92

OSMOREGULATORY CAPACITIES OF TWO CARIDEAN SHRIMPS, SYNCARIS PACIFICA (ATYIDAE) AND PALAEMON MACRODACTYLUS (PALAEMONIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The osmoregulatory capacities of decapod crustaceans have been relatively well studied for the group as a whole. However, within the Section Caridea extensive studies on osmoregulation have been made on only one family, the Palaemonidae; this family is of interest because of the variation in habitat salinity shown by its various species. Of the 20 remaining caridean families only 2

JOHN W. BORN

93

Nine types of Pleistocene marine deposits occur on the Galapagos Islands, each containing different fossil associations of foraminifera, ostracodes, mollusks, bryozoans, corals, and barnacles. Minor  

E-print Network

different fossil associations of foraminifera, ostracodes, mollusks, bryozoans, corals, and barnacles. Minor faunal elements include diatoms, sponge spicules, urchin spines, decapod claws, and clionid sponge and spionid polychaete borings. A few vertebrate fossils (e.g., sea lion, bird, lizard) are also present

Finger, Kenneth L.

94

Rosette-type tegumental glands associated with aesthetasc sensilla in the olfactory organ of the Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lateral antennular flagellum of decapod crustaceans bears unique olfactory sensilla, namely the aesthetascs, and other sensilla types. In this study, we identify a new major tissue in the lateral flagellum of the Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, namely “aesthetasc tegumental glands” (ATGs), based on immunostaining with antibodies against CUB serine protease (Csp), in situ hybridization with csp-specific probes, labeling

Manfred Schmidt; Hsin Chien; Tizeta Tadesse; Malcolm E. Johns; Charles D. Derby

2006-01-01

95

SPECIATION IN ANCIENT LAKES Ecological correlates of species differences in the Lake  

E-print Network

SPECIATION IN ANCIENT LAKES Ecological correlates of species differences in the Lake Tanganyika Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008 Abstract The endemic crabs of Lake Tanganyika include for the maintenance of species diversity in Lake Tanganyika. Keywords Decapod Á Adaptive radiation Á Niche

Loon, E. Emiel van

96

Neuropeptide signaling mechanisms in crustacean and insect molting glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth in arthropods requires the periodic synthesis of a new exoskeleton and shedding, or molting, of the old exoskeleton. Both processes are initiated and coordinated by ecdysteroid molting hormones synthesized and secreted by a pair of molting glands: Y-organ (YO) in decapod crustaceans and the prothoracic gland (PG) in insects. The primary regulation of arthropod molting glands is mediated by

Joseph A. Covi; Ernest S. Chang; Donald L. Mykles

2011-01-01

97

Neuropeptide signaling mechanisms in crustacean and insect molting glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth in arthropods requires the periodic synthesis of a new exoskeleton and shedding, or molting, of the old exoskeleton. Both processes are initiated and coordinated by ecdysteroid molting hormones synthesized and secreted by a pair of molting glands: Y-organ (YO) in decapod crustaceans and the prothoracic gland (PG) in insects. The primary regulation of arthropod molting glands is mediated by

Joseph A. Covi; Ernest S. Chang; Donald L. Mykles

2012-01-01

98

Development of a biomimetic underwater ambulatory robot: advantages of matching biomimetic control architecture with biomimetic actuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American Lobster Homarus americanus is a highly mobile marine decapod, ubiquitous to the benthic environment of the eastern North Atlantic. Lobsters occupy a range of subtidal habitats on the continental shelf, and are capable of navigating through spatially complex boulder fields, as well as coping with variable water currents. Given these competencies, we have adopted the lobster as a

Jan H. Witting; Joseph Ayers; Koray Safak

2000-01-01

99

The effect of salinity and calcium concentration on the apparent water permeability of Cherax destructor, Astacus astacus and Carcinus maenas (Decapoda, Crustacea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of calcium concentration and salinity on the apparent water permeability (AWP) has been investigated in three decapods: the Australian Yabbie (Cherax destructor), the noble crayfish (Astacus astacus) and the shore crab (Carcinus maenas). C. destructor does not change its AWP with changing Ca concentration or salinity. The AWP of A. astacus decreases when animals are acclimated to low

Allan Dahl Rasmussen; Poul Bjerregaard

1995-01-01

100

Life-cycle and functional cytology of the hepatopancreatic cells of Astacus astacus (Crustacea, Decapoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hepatopancreas of the freshwater crayfish Astacus astacus was reinvestigated by means of light and electron microscopy using refined techniques of tissue preservation. The results contribute significantly to the solution of controversial problems of the decapod hepatopancreas such as cell genealogy, cellular interdependences, elimination of senescent cells and functional interpretation of the cell types. The three mature cell types of

G. Vogt

1994-01-01

101

Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies Vol. XXXIV, Supplement 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the biogeography, history, and some ecological consequences of the introduction of alien decapod species in Poland, with extensive reference to other European countries. Among some 750 species of Crustacea recorded in Polish waters, 18 representatives of five orders of macrocrustaceans are identified as alien species that either invaded or were introduced to Polish waters in historical times.

MICHAË GRABOWSKI; KRZYSZTOF JADEWSKI

102

Previous Experiences Alter the Outcome of Aggressive Interactions Between Males in the Crayfish, Procambarus Clarkii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various measures of size have been associated with increased likelihood of winning such agonistic encounters between decapod crustaceans. Recent social experience, in the form of 'winner' or 'loser' effects, has also been shown to alter the outcome of encounters between size-matched individuals. This study further explores the importance of social experience in crustacean agonistic encounters. Crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, of different

Alisdair G. Daws; Jennifer Grills; Karen Konzen; Paul A. Moore

2002-01-01

103

Spatial and temporal patterns in the movement of Procambarus clarkii , an invasive crayfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduced in Italy in the 1980s for aquaculture enterprises, the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, has invaded many water bodies, giving rise to breeding populations that now threaten freshwater ecosystems. An understanding of the spatial behaviour of this crayfish could be the baseline for future research aimed at control and management. Following the same pattern as other freshwater decapods, P.

Francesca Gherardi; Silvia Barbaresi; Gabriele Salvi

2000-01-01

104

Effects of Removal of Muscle Receptor Organ Input on the Temporal Structure of Non-Giant Swimming Cycles in the Crayfish, Cherax Destructor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most studies of the muscle receptor organs (MROs) of decapod crustaceans have focused on their role in local reflex loops. This may not be their only function. We examine their involvement in the regulation of non-giant swimming cycles by removing stretch receptor (SR) input from the MROs in abdominal segments 2-5 of the crayfish Cherax destructor. SR input was left

Zen Faulkes; David L. Macmillan

2002-01-01

105

Differences in maximal activation properties of skinned short- and long-sarcomere muscle fibres from the claw of the freshwater crustacean Cherax destructor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Single fibres of different sarcomere length at rest have been isolated from the claw muscle of the yabby (Cherax destructor), a decapod crustacean. Fibres of either long (SL > 6 µm) or short (SL 2+ and Sr2+ under various experimental conditions (ionic strength, in the presence of 2,3 butanedione monoxime (BDM)) to determine differences in their contractile properties. Isometric

Jan M. West; Danielle C. Humphris; D. George Stephenson

1992-01-01

106

The structure and function of the androgenic gland in Cherax destructor (Decapoda: Parastacidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the first published description of the androgenic gland in Cherax destructor. The androgenic gland has been shown to control sexual differentiation in the decapods. An androgenic gland hormone may allow hormonal sex reversal for the production of monosex populations in aquaculture, leading to increases in production. Standard histological techniques revealed androgenic glands consisting of cords of epithelial

Robin J Fowler; Brian V Leonard

1999-01-01

107

INFLUENCE OF FRESHWATER INPUT ON THE HABITAT VALUE OF OYSTER REEFS IN THREE SOUTHWEST FLORIDA ESTUARIES.  

EPA Science Inventory

In order to examine the influence of freshwater input on the habitat value of oyster reefs, a spatiotemporal comparison of reef-resident fishes and decapod crustaceans was conducted during three seasonally dry and three seasonally wet months in three Southwest Florida estuaries: ...

108

Effects of pollution on freshwater invertebrates  

SciTech Connect

The biological effects of acid rain, chlorination, heavy metals and other forms of pollution on freshwater invertebrates are examined in this review. Several methods for evaluating chronic toxicity to pesticide residues and synthetic fuels components are reviewed. The effects of pollutants is reviewed in detail for cladocera, amphipods, isopods, decapods, aquatic insects, molluscs, worms, and protozoa.(KRM)

Buikema

1982-06-01

109

Variaciones temporales en la composición y abundancia de cuatro especies de Cancer (Decapoda: Brachyura: Cancridae) capturadas con trampas en bahía San Vicente, Concepción (Chile central)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the composition and distribution of the main brachyuran decapod crustacean species caught by small-scale fishermen in the coastal area off the Hualpén Peninsula (Concepción). These patterns were then compared and related to variations in temperature and extraction depth. The catches throughout the year were basically represented by four Cancer species, especially in autumn 2003, when C. porteri

Carlos A. Muñoz; Luis M. Pardo; Luis A. Henríquez; Álvaro T. Palma

2006-01-01

110

Ultrastructural and functional characterization of circulating hemocytes from the freshwater crayfish Astacus leptodactylus: Cell types and their role after in vivo artificial non-self challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The freshwater crayfish Astacus leptodactylus (Eschscholtz, 1823) is an important aquacultured decapod species as well as an invasive species in some European countries. In the current investigation we characterized the different classes of circulating blood cells in A. leptodactylus by means of light and electron microscopy analysis and we explored their reaction to different latex beads particles in vivo by

Piero Giulio Giulianini; Manuel Bierti; Simonetta Lorenzon; Silvia Battistella; Enrico Antonio Ferrero

2007-01-01

111

Polar Biol (2010) 33:919928 DOI 10.1007/s00300-010-0768-1  

E-print Network

Polar Biol (2010) 33:919­928 DOI 10.1007/s00300-010-0768-1 123 ORIGINAL PAPER Ion regulatory decapod crabs do not occur in the extremely cold waters of the Antarctic con- tinental shelf whereas chromatography. Cation relationships guaranteed neuromuscular excitability in all species. Sulphate and potassium

Dever, Jennifer A.

112

Changes in retinal fine structure induced in the crab Libinia by light and dark adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytological influence of light and dark adaptation (LA and DA) on the retinular cells of the spider crab Libinia emarginata has been studied by light and electron microscopy in four adaptive states: 17 hours darkness, 5 hours darkness, 5 hours diffuse light and 17 hours diffuse light. The rhabdom's fine structure is typical of decapods but its dual overall

Eisuke Eguchi; Talbot H. Waterman

1967-01-01

113

Morphology of the Brain of Crayfish, Crabs, and Spiny Lobsters: A Common Nomenclature for Homologous Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphologies of the cerebral ganglia (brains) of three infraorders of the decapod crustaceans (Astacura-crayfish; Brachyura-crabs; Palinura-spiny lob- sters) are described. A common nomenclature is proposed for homologous nerve roots, brain regions, tracts, com- missures, neuropils, and cell body clusters.

DAVID SANDEMAN; RENATE SANDEMAN; CHARLES DERBY; MANFRED SCHMIDT

114

GROWTH AND VARIATIONS IN LIPID CLASS AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION DURING LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE STONE CRAB, MENIPPE ADINA WILLIAMS AND FELDER, 1986  

EPA Science Inventory

Larval development in decapod crustaceans is marked by variable growth patterns and changes in weight and biochemical composition. Larvae of the stone crab, Menippe adina, were mass-reared under laboratory conditions (28|C; 20o/ooS) from hatching to the megalopal stage. Growth in...

115

GROWTH AND VARIATIONS IN LIPID CLASS AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION DURING LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE STONE CRAB, MENIPPE ADINA WILLIAMS AND FELDER, 1986.  

EPA Science Inventory

Larval development in decapod crustaceans is marked by variable growth patterns and changes in weight and biochemical composition. Larvae of the stone crab, Menippe adina, were mass-reared under laboratory conditions (28?C; 20o/ooS) from hatching to the megalopa stage. Growth in...

116

Gating of Afferent Input by a Central Pattern Generator RALPH A. DICAPRIO  

E-print Network

(Wilkens 1994; Wilkens and DiCaprio 1994). M E T H O D S Male and female green shore crabs, C. maenas, were from the sole proprioceptor (the oval organ) in the crab ventila- tory system show that the nonspiking afferent input by direct cyclic inhibition by the ventilatory CPG in the crab. Gill ventilation in decapod

DiCaprio, Ralph

117

New symbiotic associations involving Syllidae (Annelida: Polychaeta), with taxonomic and biological remarks on  

E-print Network

^worm associations. There were a very few known symbiotic relationships between syllid worms and decapod crustaceansNew symbiotic associations involving Syllidae (Annelida: Polychaeta), with taxonomic and biological Blanes (Girona), Spain. ½ Corresponding author, e-mail: dani@ceab.csic.es Several new symbiotic

Martin, Daniel

118

Development of the giant-axon sheaths in larval lobsters, Homarus americanus Daniel K. Hartline 1,2  

E-print Network

membrane and hence increase conduction speed. Benthic-living adult lobsters utilize axonal gigantism decapod shrimp utilize a combination of axonal gigantism and myelination 4,5 . The more exposed life) sections were taken, double-stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate, and photographed in a LEO912 EF

Hartline, Daniel K.

119

OXYGEN CONSUMPTION AND RESPIRATORY ENERGETICS IN THE SPINY LOBSTER, PANULIR US INTERR UPTUS (RANDALL)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is part of a series designed to examine trophic and energy relation ships in large decapod crustaceans. Information about metabolic rates, generally determined by measuring oxygen consumption (Q02) , and metabolic regulatory mechanisms is of basic importance in defining the metabolic energy budget (Paine, 1965) of an animal. Metabolic rates determine the amount of energy expended in producing

RODNER R. WINGET

1969-01-01

120

Outer Continental Shelf environmental assessment program. Final reports of principal investigators. Volume 53  

SciTech Connect

Contents include: Baffin Island experimental oil spill and dispersant studies. Hydrocarbon bioaccumulation and histopathological and biochemical responses in marine bivalve molluscs; Feeding ecology of juvenile king and Tanner crab in the southeastern Bering Sea; Distribution of larval and juvenile red king crabs (Paralithodes camtschatica) in Bristol Bay; Distribution and abundance of decapod crustacean larvae in the southeastern Bering Sea with emphasis on commercial species.

Not Available

1986-12-01

121

Long-term changes in the composition and diversity of deep-slope megabenthos and trophic webs off Catalonia (western Mediterranean): Are trends related to climatic oscillations?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For depths ranging between 650 and 1700 m we have compared recent (2007-2008) to older (from 1988 to 1992) data, searching for long-term changes in the distribution, abundance and composition of deep megafauna (fish and decapods) off the central Catalonian coasts (western Mediterranean). Overall, in the depth interval between 600 and 1100 m, we found higher abundance of fish in 1988-1992 than in 2007, a decrease simultaneous with an increase of decapod crustaceans. Older and more recent haul replicates (after 20 years) had similar assemblage composition in the depth range 1300-1700 m, whereas we found significant changes at 1000 m. Diversity of fish was greater in 1988-1992 than in 2007, while diversity of decapod crustaceans increased between the two periods. Thus, there was a reorganization in benthopelagic communities, rather than a loss of biodiversity. This was in agreement with long-term changes described for diversity of (neritic) zooplankton in the western Mediterranean. We found a dominance of plankton-suprabenthos feeders (e.g. fish such as Lepidion lepidion, Hymenocephalus italicus and Alepocephalus rostratus; the decapods Plesionika spp. and Sergestes arcticus) in 1988-1992. In 2007 by contrast, dominance of plankton-suprabenthos feeders decreased, and assemblages were increasingly composed of benthos-feeding decapods (e.g. Aristeus antennatus, Pontophilus norvegicus and some hermit crabs) preying for instance on polychaetes. These results coincided with low/negative North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAO) in 2007 and in the period immediately before (2004-2006) 2007 (increase of benthos feeders), and with high average NAO in 1988-1992 (decrease of benthos feeders, which in turn may enhance abundance of plankton feeders). The benthic decapod Calocaris macandreae and suprabenthos (small crustaceans, mostly peracarids, living on and just beneath the sediment surface) are key prey in food webs off Catalonian margins, acting as links between surface oceanographic processes and abundance of benthopelagic predators. A conceptual model is presented relating changes in climatic conditions with changes in deep-sea, benthic-suprabenthic food webs. Calocari macandreae was more abundant in 2007, after 3 years of negative NAO. Under negative/low NAO, rainfall and river discharges increase in the NW Mediterranean, which may enhance advective food inputs for macrobenthos. This fits well with the higher abundance of benthos feeders in 2007, as well as with the significant deepening of decapod crustacean assemblages in that same period. Suprabenthos, being short-lived and annual species, were more abundant under positive NAO conditions (1988-1992), probably enhancing the abundance or aggregation of suprabenthic/pelagic feeders.

Cartes, J. E.; Maynou, F.; Fanelli, E.; Papiol, V.; Lloris, D.

2009-07-01

122

Serotonin immunoreactivity in the ventral nerve cord of the primitive crustacean Anaspides tasmaniae closely resembles that of crayfish  

PubMed

Syncarid crustaceans, of which only a few living species remain, have articulated segments with well-developed appendages along the length of the body, an arrangement thought to resemble that of the earliest malacostracan crustaceans. Decapod malacostracans have fused thoracic segments and reduced abdominal appendages. Modern representatives of the two groups are separated by at least 300 million years of evolutionary history. The serotonin immunoreactivity of ganglia and connectives from the ventral nerve cord of the syncarid Anaspides tasmaniae was compared with that of serially homologous ganglia of the crayfish Cherax destructor. Both species show the serotonin-immunoreactive longitudinal fibre bundles described from other decapods and thought to be part of a neuromodulatory network. They also have in common a number of the cell bodies associated with this system. Each species has some serotonergic cells in the region examined that are not present, or that do not stain, in the other species. PMID:9318221

Harrison; Macmillan; Young

1995-01-01

123

Effects of the Alvenus oil spill on Jamaica beach macrofauna  

E-print Network

o l e l e p i s squamata and Lumbrineris parvula; a decapod, Emerita p o r t o r i c e n s i s ; an amphipod, Haustorius sp.; an isopod, Ancinus depressus; and the pelecypods, Donax spp. 15 S c o l e l e p i s squamata ( M u l l e r 1806) I t i... o l e l e p i s squamata and Lumbrineris parvula; a decapod, Emerita p o r t o r i c e n s i s ; an amphipod, Haustorius sp.; an isopod, Ancinus depressus; and the pelecypods, Donax spp. 15 S c o l e l e p i s squamata ( M u l l e r 1806) I t i...

Sweet, Merrill Henry

2012-06-07

124

Effect of dissolved oxygen level on respiratory metabolism, nutritional physiology, and immune condition of southern king crab Lithodes santolla (Molina, 1782) (Decapoda, Lithodidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Episodes of hypoxia are common in the marine environment, and their ecological effects depend, in part, on their severity\\u000a and duration. Many species of decapod crustaceans reside in areas with fluctuating oxygen regimens. Physiological mechanisms\\u000a enhance the ability of these crustaceans to cope with acute episodes of hypoxia. Southern king crab, Lithodes santolla, fishery is important in the south of

Kurt Paschke; Juan Pablo Cumillaf; Sergio Loyola; Paulina Gebauer; Mauricio Urbina; María Eugenia Chimal; Cristina Pascual; Carlos Rosas

2010-01-01

125

Chemical Ecology and Social Behavior of Anomura  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Anomura is an extremely diverse assemblage of crustacean decapods with a large variety of forms and lifestyles, which makes\\u000a the taxon ideal for comparative studies of social systems and means of communication. Notwithstanding this, our knowledge\\u000a of Anomura is mostly restricted to the crab–shell relationships in hermit crabs, whereas promising fields of research, such\\u000a as chemical ecology, are still in

Francesca Gherardi; Elena Tricarico

126

Lower Cretaceous spiders from the Sierra de Montsech, north-east Spain  

E-print Network

) and twelve from the Trias of France (Gall 1971) were not identified to a taxonomic rank below that of order. Spiders reported from Canadian Cretaceous amber (McAlpine and Martin 1969), the Jurassic and Cretaceous of Siberia and Mongolia (reported in Eskov..., few decapod crustaceans, larval and mature insects belonging to eight extant orders, a wide variety of fish, a few frogs and reptiles, and some bird remains. The spiders were first mentioned by Lacasa (1985, p. 228), and a preliminary report...

Selden, Paul A.

1990-01-01

127

Nekton use of submerged aquatic vegetation, marsh, and shallow unvegetated bottom in the Atchafalaya River delta, a Louisiana tidal freshwater ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We sampled nekton (fishes and decapod crustaceans) in submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) (Potanogeton nodosus, Najas guadalupensis), in emergent marsh vegetation (Sagittaria spp. andScirpus americanus), and over unvegetated bottom associated with three islands in the Atchafalaya River Delta, Louisiana. The purpose of our\\u000a study was to quantify nekton densities in these major aquatic habitat types and to document the relative importance

David L. Castellanos; Lawrence P. Rozas

2001-01-01

128

The effects of biogenic amines, gonadotropin-releasing hormones and corazonin on spermatogenesis in sexually mature small giant freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurotransmitters such as the serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA), as well as the neurohormones gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs) and corazonin (Crz), are known to have various effects on decapod crustaceans, including ovarian maturation and spermatogenesis. The effects of these neurotransmitters and neurohormones on spermatogenesis in the small male freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, have not been reported. So, we undertook histological and

Jaruwan Poljaroen; Yotsawan Tinikul; Ittipon Phoungpetchara; Wilairat Kankoun; Saowaros Suwansa-ard; Tanapan Siangcham; Prasert Meeratana; Scott F. Cummins; Prapee Sretarugsa; Peter J. Hanna; Prasert Sobhon

2011-01-01

129

Distribution and habitat preferences of two grapsid crab species in Mar Chiquita Lagoon (Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyrtograpsus angulatus andChasmagnathus granulata (Grapsidae) are the two dominant decapod crustacean species in the outer parts of Mar Chiquita Lagoon, the southernmost in\\u000a a series of coastal lagoons that occur along the temperate Atlantic coasts of South America. Distribution and habitat preferences\\u000a (water and sediment type) in these crab species were studied in late spring. There is evidence of ontogenetic

E. Spivak; K. Anger; T. Luppi; C. Bas; D. Ismael

1994-01-01

130

Cloning of a nitric oxide synthase from green shore crab, Carcinus maenas: A comparative study of the effects of eyestalk ablation on expression in the molting glands (Y-organs) of C. maenas, and blackback land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molting in decapod crustaceans is regulated by ecdysteroids produced by a pair of Y-organs (YOs) located in the cephalothorax. YO ecdysteroidogenesis is suppressed by molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH), a neuropeptide produced in the X-organ of the eyestalk (ES) ganglia. MIH signaling may involve nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (GC-I). A full-length cDNA encoding Carcinus maenas NOS (Cm-NOS; 3836

Audrey A. McDonald; Ernest S. Chang; Donald L. Mykles

2011-01-01

131

Claw allometry in green crabs, Carcinus maenas : heterochely, handedness, and sex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Claw loss and reversal of handedness during regeneration are common phenomena in heterochelous decapod crustaceans, which\\u000a typically have one large ‘crusher’ claw on the right side and a smaller ‘cutter’ claw on the left. Little is known about the\\u000a relative importance of claw growth vs. body growth during claw regeneration. Here the relationship between claw size and body\\u000a size of

F. Juanes; K. T. Lee; A. McKnight; K. Kellogg

2008-01-01

132

Cryptic assemblages in coral-rubble interstices along a terrestrial-sediment gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assemblage composition of cryptic mobile animals inhabiting coral rubble was sampled using mesh traps containing clean\\u000a coral rubble, and used as indicators of land-based pollution at 14 sites in three coral lagoons at Ishigaki Island, southern\\u000a Japan. Cluster analyses identified three groups of large mobile animal assemblages (molluscs, echinoderms, fishes, decapod\\u000a and stomatopod crustaceans). Using a distance-based redundancy analysis

Y. Takada; O. Abe; T. Shibuno

2008-01-01

133

Long-term changes in the composition and diversity of deep-slope megabenthos and trophic webs off Catalonia (western Mediterranean): Are trends related to climatic oscillations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

For depths ranging between 650 and 1700m we have compared recent (2007–2008) to older (from 1988 to 1992) data, searching for long-term changes in the distribution, abundance and composition of deep megafauna (fish and decapods) off the central Catalonian coasts (western Mediterranean). Overall, in the depth interval between 600 and 1100m, we found higher abundance of fish in 1988–1992 than

J. E. Cartes; F. Maynou; E. Fanelli; V. Papiol; D. Lloris

2009-01-01

134

Biochemical composition of zooplankton from Visakhapatnam harbour waters, east coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proximate composition, zooplankton biomass, protein, lipid, carbohydrate, organic carbon and calorific content of mixed zooplankton in the Visakhapatnam harbour waters were estimated. Biomass varied from 15.2 to 74.0 ml.100 m-3 ( x =31.05 ±17.7) in the outer harbour and 10 to 64.0 ml.100 m-3 ( x =26.30±14.8) in the inner harbour. Copepods, tintin- nids, decapods and chaetognaths formed dominant groups

I. Nageswara Rao; R. Ratna Kumari

2002-01-01

135

Influence of salinity on the larval development of the fiddler crab Uca vocator (Ocypodidae) as an indicator of ontogenetic migration towards offshore waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvae of many marine decapod crustaceans are released in unpredictable habitats with strong salinity fluctuations during\\u000a the breeding season. In an experimental laboratory study, we investigated the influence of seven different salinities (0,\\u000a 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30) on the survival and development time of fiddler crab zoea larvae, Uca vocator, from northern Brazilian mangroves. The species reproduces

Darlan de Jesus de Brito Simith; Adelson Silva de Souza; Cristiana Ramalho Maciel; Fernando Araújo Abrunhosa; Karen Diele

136

Distribution of phyllosoma lobster larvae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Reptantia: Scyllaridea) in the Gulf of Mexico in relation to currents and recruitment potential  

E-print Network

marine food items in the world. Scyllaridea lobsters are not to be confused with the east coast american lobster, Homarus americanus, another decapod crustacean from the suborder Reptantia, section Macrura but of the superfamily Nephropsidea... and family Homaridae. A pelavic larva is present in the development of H. americanus but is of shorter duration than most phyllosoma larvae. A viable f 1she hy 0: . . ul" hfs - r', 'f ' ': ". "'ts 1f'. t, f: tropical-subtropical Atlantic Ocean anf...

Hammer, Richard Melvin

2012-06-07

137

Activity rhythms in the deep-sea: a chronobiological approach.  

PubMed

Ocean waters deeper than 200 m cover 70% of the Earth's surface. Light intensity gets progressively weaker with increasing depth and internal tides or inertial currents may be the only remaining zeitgebers regulating biorhythms in deep-sea decapods. Benthopelagic coupling, exemplified by vertically moving shrimps within the water column, may also act as a source of indirect synchronisation to the day-night cycle for species living in permanently dark areas. At the same time, seasonal rhythms in growth and reproduction may be an exogenous response to spring-summer changes in upper layer productivity (via phytoplankton) or, alternatively, may be provoked by the synchronisation mediated by an endogenous controlling mechanism (via melatonin). In our review, we will focus on the behavioural rhythms of crustacean decapods inhabiting depths where the sun light is absent. Potential scenarios for future research on deep-sea decapod behaviour are suggested by new in situ observation technologies. Permanent video observatories are, to date, one of the most important tools for marine chronobiology in terms of species recognition and animals' movement tracking. PMID:21196163

Aguzzi, Jacopo; Company, Joan Batista; Costa, Corrado; Menesatti, Paolo; Garcia, Jose Antonio; Bahamon, Nixon; Puig, Pere; Sarda, Francesc

2011-01-01

138

Seasonal variability of suprabenthic crustaceans associated with Cymodocea nodosa seagrass meadows off Gran Canaria (eastern Atlantic)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seagrass meadows are important ecosystems on shallow coastal waters, maintaining a high diversity of species. Mysids are the dominant taxa of suprabenthic organisms associated with seagrass meadows in temperate coastal waters, where they are an important food resource for the coastal fishes. Five meadows of Cymodocea nodosa were sampled off the east and west of Gran Canaria Island in spring and autumn 2011 to describe associated suprabenthos and to determine seasonal changes in the abundance of suprabenthos assemblages. Mysids, decapods and amphipods made up 95% of total suprabenthos abundance, which was more abundant in spring (May) than in autumn (November). A total of 29 species were identified, 12 amphipod, 11 decapod and 6 mysid species. The mysid Leptomysis lingvura did not show seasonal differences, while Anchialina agilis showed greater abundance in May at all localities. For the other mysid species, abundances were higher in May than November, although significant differences varied among localities. The dominant amphipod, Apherusa vexatrix, and the dominant decapod, Hippolyte spp., also showed significant differences in density between seasons, being higher in May at all localities. From these results, we conclude that there is an overlap between the natural life cycle of the seagrass C. nodosa and associated suprabenthos.

Herrera, A.; Landeira, J. M.; Tuya, F.; Packard, T.; Espino, F.; Gómez, M.

2014-10-01

139

The emergence of lobsters: phylogenetic relationships, morphological evolution and divergence time comparisons of an ancient group (decapoda: achelata, astacidea, glypheidea, polychelida).  

PubMed

Lobsters are a ubiquitous and economically important group of decapod crustaceans that include the infraorders Polychelida, Glypheidea, Astacidea and Achelata. They include familiar forms such as the spiny, slipper, clawed lobsters and crayfish and unfamiliar forms such as the deep-sea and "living fossil" species. The high degree of morphological diversity among these infraorders has led to a dynamic classification and conflicting hypotheses of evolutionary relationships. In this study, we estimated phylogenetic relationships among the major groups of all lobster families and 94% of the genera using six genes (mitochondrial and nuclear) and 195 morphological characters across 173 species of lobsters for the most comprehensive sampling to date. Lobsters were recovered as a non-monophyletic assemblage in the combined (molecular?+?morphology) analysis. All families were monophyletic, with the exception of Cambaridae, and 7 of 79 genera were recovered as poly- or paraphyletic. A rich fossil history coupled with dense taxon coverage allowed us to estimate and compare divergence times and origins of major lineages using two drastically different approaches. Age priors were constructed and/or included based on fossil age information or fossil discovery, age, and extant species count data. Results from the two approaches were largely congruent across deep to shallow taxonomic divergences across major lineages. The origin of the first lobster-like decapod (Polychelida) was estimated in the Devonian (?409-372 Ma) with all infraorders present in the Carboniferous (?353-318 Ma). Fossil calibration subsampling studies examined the influence of sampling density (number of fossils) and placement (deep, middle, and shallow) on divergence time estimates. Results from our study suggest including at least 1 fossil per 10 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in divergence dating analyses. [Dating; decapods; divergence; lobsters; molecular; morphology; phylogenetics.]. PMID:24562813

Bracken-Grissom, Heather D; Ahyong, Shane T; Wilkinson, Richard D; Feldmann, Rodney M; Schweitzer, Carrie E; Breinholt, Jesse W; Bendall, Matthew; Palero, Ferran; Chan, Tin-Yam; Felder, Darryl L; Robles, Rafael; Chu, Ka-Hou; Tsang, Ling-Ming; Kim, Dohyup; Martin, Joel W; Crandall, Keith A

2014-07-01

140

Molecular evolution of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone family in ecdysozoans  

PubMed Central

Background Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (CHH) family peptides are neurohormones known to regulate several important functions in decapod crustaceans such as ionic and energetic metabolism, molting and reproduction. The structural conservation of these peptides, together with the variety of functions they display, led us to investigate their evolutionary history. CHH family peptides exist in insects (Ion Transport Peptides) and may be present in all ecdysozoans as well. In order to extend the evolutionary study to the entire family, CHH family peptides were thus searched in taxa outside decapods, where they have been, to date, poorly investigated. Results CHH family peptides were characterized by molecular cloning in a branchiopod crustacean, Daphnia magna, and in a collembolan, Folsomia candida. Genes encoding such peptides were also rebuilt in silico from genomic sequences of another branchiopod, a chelicerate and two nematodes. These sequences were included in updated datasets to build phylogenies of the CHH family in pancrustaceans. These phylogenies suggest that peptides found in Branchiopoda and Collembola are more closely related to insect ITPs than to crustacean CHHs. Datasets were also used to support a phylogenetic hypothesis about pancrustacean relationships, which, in addition to gene structures, allowed us to propose two evolutionary scenarios of this multigenic family in ecdysozoans. Conclusions Evolutionary scenarios suggest that CHH family genes of ecdysozoans originate from an ancestral two-exon gene, and genes of arthropods from a three-exon one. In malacostracans, the evolution of the CHH family has involved several duplication, insertion or deletion events, leading to neuropeptides with a wide variety of functions, as observed in decapods. This family could thus constitute a promising model to investigate the links between gene duplications and functional divergence. PMID:20184761

2010-01-01

141

Mass spectral characterization of peptide transmitters/hormones in the nervous system and neuroendocrine organs of the American lobster Homarus americanus  

PubMed Central

The American lobster Homarus americanus is a decapod crustacean with both high economic and scientific importance. To facilitate physiological investigations of peptide transmitter/hormone function in this species, we have used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTMS), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) and nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS) to elucidate the peptidome present in its nervous system and neuroendocrine organs. In total, 84 peptides were identified, including 27 previously known H. americanus peptides (e.g. VYRKPPFNGSIFamide [Val1-SIFamide]), 23 peptides characterized previously from other decapods, but new to the American lobster (e.g. pQTFQYSRGWTNamide [Arg7-corazonin]), and 34 new peptides de novo sequenced/detected for the first time in this study. Of particular note are a novel B-type allatostatin (TNWNKFQGSWamide) and several novel FMRFamide-related peptides, including an unsulfated analog of sulfakinin (GGGEYDDYGHLRFamide), two myosuppressins (QDLDHVFLRFamide and pQDLDHVFLRFamide), and a collection of short neuropeptide F isoforms (e.g. DTSTPALRLRFamide, and FEPSLRLRFamide). Our data also include the first detection of multiple tachykinin-related peptides in a non-brachyuran decapod, as well as the identification of potential individual-specific variants of orcokinin and orcomyotropin-related peptide. Taken collectively, our results not only expand greatly the number of known H. americanus neuropeptides, but also provide a framework for future studies on the physiological roles played by these molecules in this commercially and scientifically important species. PMID:18304551

Ma, Mingming; Chen, Ruibing; Sousa, Gregory L.; Bors, Eleanor K.; Kwiatkowski, Molly; Goiney, Christopher C.; Goy, Michael F.; Christie, Andrew E.; Li, Lingjun

2008-01-01

142

Newborn cells in the adult crayfish brain differentiate into distinct neuronal types.  

PubMed

Mitotically active regions persist in the brains of decapod crustaceans throughout their lifetimes, as they do in many vertebrates. The most well-studied of these regions in decapods occurs within a soma cluster, known as cluster 10, located in the deutocerebrum. Cluster 10 in crayfish and lobsters is composed of the somata of two anatomically and functionally distinct classes of projection neurons: olfactory lobe (OL) projection neurons and accessory lobe (AL) projection neurons. While adult-generated cells in cluster 10 survive for at least a year, their final phenotypes remain unknown. To address this question, we combined BrdU labeling of proliferating cells with specific neuronal and glial markers and tracers to examine the differentiation of newborn cells in cluster 10 of the crayfish, Cherax destructor. Our results show that large numbers of adult-generated cells in cluster 10 differentiate into neurons expressing the neuropeptide crustacean-SIFamide. No evidence was obtained suggesting that cells differentiate into glia. The functional phenotypes of newborn neurons in cluster 10 were examined by combining BrdU immunocytochemistry with the application of dextran dyes to different brain neuropils. These studies showed that while the majority of cells born during the early postembryonic development of C. destructor differentiate in AL projection neurons, neurogenesis in adult crayfish is characterized by the addition of both OL and AL projection neurons. In addition to our examination of neurogenesis in the olfactory pathway, we provide the first evidence that adult neurogenesis is also a characteristic feature of the optic neuropils of decapod crustaceans. PMID:16114027

Sullivan, Jeremy M; Beltz, Barbara S

2005-11-01

143

The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the hydrothermal vent galatheid crab Shinkaia crosnieri (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura): A novel arrangement and incomplete tRNA suite  

PubMed Central

Background Metazoan mitochondrial genomes usually consist of the same 37 genes. Such genes contain useful information for phylogenetic analyses and evolution modelling. Although complete mitochondrial genomes have been determined for over 1,000 animals to date, hydrothermal vent species have, thus far, remained excluded due to the scarcity of collected specimens. Results The mitochondrial genome of the hydrothermal vent galatheid crab Shinkaia crosnieri is 15,182 bp in length, and is composed of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and only 18 transfer RNA genes. The total AT content of the genome, as is typical for decapods, is 72.9%. We identified a non-coding control region of 327 bp according to its location and AT-richness. This is the smallest control region discovered in crustaceans so far. A mechanism of cytoplasmic tRNA import was addressed to compensate for the four missing tRNAs. The S. crosnieri mitogenome exhibits a novel arrangement of mitochondrial genes. We investigated the mitochondrial gene orders and found that at least six rearrangements from the ancestral pancrustacean (crustacean + hexapod) pattern have happened successively. The codon usage, nucleotide composition and bias show no substantial difference with other decapods. Phylogenetic analyses using the concatenated nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the 13 protein-coding genes prove consistent with the previous classification based upon their morphology. Conclusion The present study will supply considerable data of use for both genomic and evolutionary research on hydrothermal vent ecosystems. The mitochondrial genetic characteristics of decapods are sustained in this case of S. crosnieri despite the absence of several tRNAs and a number of dramatic rearrangements. Our results may provide evidence for the immigrating hypothesis about how vent species originate. PMID:18510775

Yang, Jin-Shu; Yang, Wei-Jun

2008-01-01

144

Analysis of the Central Nervous System Transcriptome of the Eastern Rock Lobster Sagmariasus verreauxi Reveals Its Putative Neuropeptidome  

PubMed Central

Neuropeptides have been discovered in many arthropod species including crustaceans. The nature of their biological function is well studied and varies from behavior modulation to physiological regulation of complex biochemical processes such as metabolism, molt and reproduction. Due to their key role in these fundamental processes, neuropeptides are often targeted for modulating these processes to align with market demands in commercially important species. We generated a comprehensive transcriptome of the eyestalk and brain of one of the few commercially important spiny lobster species in the southern Hemisphere, the Eastern rock lobster Sagmariasus verreauxi and mined it for novel neuropeptide and protein hormone-encoding transcripts. We then characterized the predicted mature hormones to verify their validity based on conserved motifs and features known from previously reported hormones. Overall, 37 transcripts which are predicted to encode mature full-length/partial peptides/proteins were identified, representing 21 peptide/protein families/subfamilies. All transcripts had high similarity to hormones that were previously characterized in other decapod crustacean species or, where absent in crustaceans, in other arthropod species. These included, in addition to other proteins previously described in crustaceans, prohormone-3 and prohormone-4 which were previously identified only in insects. A homolog of the crustacean female sex hormone (CFSH), recently found to be female-specific in brachyuran crabs was found to have the same levels of expression in both male and female eyestalks, suggesting that the CFSH female specificity is not conserved throughout decapod crustaceans. Digital gene expression showed that 24 out of the 37 transcripts presented in this study have significant changes in expression between eyestalk and brain. In some cases a trend of difference between males and females could be seen. Taken together, this study provides a comprehensive neuropeptidome of a commercially important crustacean species with novel peptides and protein hormones identified for the first time in decapods. PMID:24819537

Ventura, Tomer; Cummins, Scott F.; Fitzgibbon, Quinn; Battaglene, Stephen; Elizur, Abigail

2014-01-01

145

Analysis of the central nervous system transcriptome of the eastern rock lobster Sagmariasus verreauxi reveals its putative neuropeptidome.  

PubMed

Neuropeptides have been discovered in many arthropod species including crustaceans. The nature of their biological function is well studied and varies from behavior modulation to physiological regulation of complex biochemical processes such as metabolism, molt and reproduction. Due to their key role in these fundamental processes, neuropeptides are often targeted for modulating these processes to align with market demands in commercially important species. We generated a comprehensive transcriptome of the eyestalk and brain of one of the few commercially important spiny lobster species in the southern Hemisphere, the Eastern rock lobster Sagmariasus verreauxi and mined it for novel neuropeptide and protein hormone-encoding transcripts. We then characterized the predicted mature hormones to verify their validity based on conserved motifs and features known from previously reported hormones. Overall, 37 transcripts which are predicted to encode mature full-length/partial peptides/proteins were identified, representing 21 peptide/protein families/subfamilies. All transcripts had high similarity to hormones that were previously characterized in other decapod crustacean species or, where absent in crustaceans, in other arthropod species. These included, in addition to other proteins previously described in crustaceans, prohormone-3 and prohormone-4 which were previously identified only in insects. A homolog of the crustacean female sex hormone (CFSH), recently found to be female-specific in brachyuran crabs was found to have the same levels of expression in both male and female eyestalks, suggesting that the CFSH female specificity is not conserved throughout decapod crustaceans. Digital gene expression showed that 24 out of the 37 transcripts presented in this study have significant changes in expression between eyestalk and brain. In some cases a trend of difference between males and females could be seen. Taken together, this study provides a comprehensive neuropeptidome of a commercially important crustacean species with novel peptides and protein hormones identified for the first time in decapods. PMID:24819537

Ventura, Tomer; Cummins, Scott F; Fitzgibbon, Quinn; Battaglene, Stephen; Elizur, Abigail

2014-01-01

146

Influence of starvation and feeding on the hepatopancreas of larval Hyas araneus (Decapoda, Majidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zoea-1 larvae of Hyas araneus were kept under different nutritional conditions. Their midgut glands were investigated with a transmission electron microscope. The glandular epithelium consists of the cell types known from adult decapods. It is mainly the R-cell type that undergoes ultrastructural alterations which reflect nutritional conditions. R-cells of fed larvae are characterized by large lipid inclusions; after a certain period of food deprivation (point-of-no-return) the original ultrastructure cannot be reestablished. Refeeding results in large glycogen deposits in these cells.

Storch, V.; Anger, K.

1983-03-01

147

The complete mitochondrial genome of the Japanese mud shrimp Upogebia major (Crustacea, Decapoda).  

PubMed

We determined a full-length sequence of mitochondrial (mt) genome from Upogebia major. This is the first complete mt genome report for infraorder Thalassinidea in Decapoda, Crustacea. Our result showed that U. major generally followed a typical pancrustacean gene order but some tRNA genes showed a very unique gene arrangement such as duplication or translocation. Since none of the complete mt genome sequences in the infraorder Thalassinidea are available yet, this report will provide additional information in relation to mt genome diversity and evolution of the decapods. PMID:22040075

Kim, Sanghee; Kim, Taeho; Choi, Han-Gu; Park, Joong-Ki; Ahn, Dong-Ha; Min, Gi-Sik

2011-08-01

148

The epibenthic megafauna of the northern Gulf of Mexico continental slope  

E-print Network

at this site where 14, 393 individuals/ha were members of a single species of unidentified sponge. Following this, the highest site densities were observed at sites c2 (8, 057/ha) and c4 (7, 104/ha) sampled during cruise 2, and at site e2c (7, 641/ha.... The highest densities were found with the actiniarians (707/ha), the decapods (645/ha), and the sponges (404/ha). 3. 1. 3 Penia one s . Distribution During Cruise 3 of NGMCSS very high densities of the holothuroid Peniagone sp. were seen...

Ziegler, Matthew Peek

2012-06-07

149

Acute toxicity and accumulation of zinc in the crayfish, Orconectes virilis (Hagen)  

SciTech Connect

Zinc produces acute toxicity to freshwater organisms over a range of concentrations from 90 to 58, 100..mu..g Zn/L; with the range of acute median effect concentrations being similar for freshwater fish and invertebrates. The capacity to regulate internal zinc concentrations in decapod crustaceans has been described. Studies with the crayfish Austropotambius pallipes suggested a relatively high degree of tolerance to zinc by this animal. The present study is designed to describe the toxicity of zinc to the crayfish Orconectes virilis over a 2-wk exposure period. In addition, whole animal and tissue analyses were performed on the test organisms and compared to previous results.

Not Available

1986-09-01

150

Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program. Final reports of principal investigators. Volume 67  

SciTech Connect

The contents of this study include the following: distribution, abundance, and biology of blue king and Korean hair crabs around the Pribilof Islands; distribution, abundance, and diversity of the epifaunal benthic organisms in Alitak and Ugak bays, Kodiak Island, Alaska; distribution and abundance of some epibenthic invertebrates of the northeastern Gulf of Alaska with notes on the feeding biology of selected species; reproductive success in Dungeness crab (Cancer magister) during long-term exposures to oil-contaminated sediments; and distribution and abundance of decapod larvae of the Kodiak shelf.

Not Available

1990-07-01

151

Food web structure and seasonality of slope megafauna in the NW Mediterranean elucidated by stable isotopes: Relationship with available food sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The food-web structure and seasonality of the dominant taxa of benthopelagic megafauna (fishes and decapods) on the middle slope of the Catalan Sea (Balearic Basin, NW Mediterranean) were investigated using the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of 29 species. Macrofauna (infauna, suprabenthos and zooplankton) were also analysed as potential prey. Samples were collected on a seasonal basis from 600 to 1000 m depth between February 2007 and February 2008. The fishes and decapods were classified into feeding groups based on the literature: benthic feeders (including suprabenthos) and zooplankton feeders, the latter further separated into migratory and non-migratory species. Decapods exhibited depleted ?15N and enriched ?13C compared to fishes. Annual mean ?13C of fishes ranged from - 19.15‰ (Arctozenus risso) to - 16.65‰ (Phycis blennoides) and of ?15N from 7.27‰ (Lampanyctus crocodilus) to 11.31‰ (Nezumia aequalis). Annual mean values of ?13C of decapods were from - 18.94‰ (Sergestes arcticus) to - 14.78‰ (Pontophilus norvegicus), and of ?15N from 6.36‰ (Sergia robusta) to 9.72‰ (Paromola cuvieri). Stable isotopes distinguished well amongst the 3 feeding guilds established a priori, pointing to high levels of resource partitioning in deep-sea communities. The trophic structure of the community was a function of the position of predators along the benthic-pelagic gradient, with benthic feeders isotopically enriched relative to pelagic feeders. This difference allowed the identification of two food webs based on pelagic versus benthic consumption. Prey and predator sizes were also important in structuring the community. The most generalised seasonal pattern was ?13C depletion from winter to spring and summer, especially amongst migratory macroplankton feeders. This suggests greater consumption of pelagic prey, likely related with increases in pelagic production or with ontogenic migrations of organisms from mid-water to the Benthic Boundary Layer (BBL). ?15N enrichment was detected in periods of water column stratification, particularly amongst benthic feeder fishes. Megafauna relied on a single source of nutrition after peaks in surface production, presumably marine snow. Conversely, a larger array of food sources, probably from advection, sustained the community in periods of water column stratification. Benthic feeder ?13C values of both taxa were positively correlated with fluorescence measured 5 m above the seabed and negatively correlated with total organic carbon in the sediments, both being food sources for deposit feeding macroinfauna. Macroplankton feeder ?13C values were linked to environmental variables related to vertical transport from surface production, i.e. lipids and chlorophyll and their degradation products, likely due to their stronger reliance on sinking phytodetritus through consumption of planktonic prey.

Papiol, V.; Cartes, J. E.; Fanelli, E.; Rumolo, P.

2013-03-01

152

The complete mitochondrial genome of the Hawaiian anchialine shrimp Halocaridina rubra Holthuis, 1963 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Atyidae).  

PubMed

Shrimp of the family Atyidae are important members of nearly all tropical (and most temperate) fresh and brackish water ecosystems in the world. To date, a complete mitochondrial genome from this important crustacean group has not been reported. Here, we present the complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the Hawaiian atyid Halocaridina rubra [Holthuis, L.B., 1963. On red coloured shrimps (Decapoda, Caridea) from tropical land-locked saltwater pools. Zool. Meded.16, 261-279.] (Crustacea: Decapoda: Atyidae). The genome is a circular molecule of 16,065 bp and encodes the 37 mitochondrial genes (13 protein-coding, 22 tRNAs, and two rRNAs) typically found in the metazoa. Gene order and orientation in the H. rubra mitochondrial genome is syntenic with most malacostracans that have been examined to date. Of special note is the absence of the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm stem from tRNA(Tyr) and the use of CCG as an initiation codon for cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI); these represent the first reported examples of such phenomena in the Malacostraca. Phylogenetic analyses utilizing complete mitochondrial sequences from other malacostracans place H. rubra as sister to Macrobrachium rosenbergii, which also belongs to the Infraorder Caridea. However, the placement of this infraorder, as well as the Infraorder Dendrobrachiata, in the phylogeny of the Decapoda varied depending on outgroup selection. Data from additional mitochondrial genomes, such as basal decapods like the Stenopodidea, should contribute to a better overall understanding of decapod phylogenetics. PMID:17317038

Ivey, Jennifer L; Santos, Scott R

2007-06-01

153

Putative Pacemakers in the Eyestalk and Brain of the Crayfish Procambarus clarkii Show Circadian Oscillations in Levels of mRNA for Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone  

PubMed Central

Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) synthesizing cells in the optic lobe, one of the pacemakers of the circadian system, have been shown to be present in crayfish. However, the presence of CHH in the central brain, another putative pacemaker of the multi-oscillatory circadian system, of this decapod and its circadian transcription in the optic lobe and brain have yet to be explored. Therefore, using qualitative and quantitative PCR, we isolated and cloned a CHH mRNA fragment from two putative pacemakers of the multi-oscillatory circadian system of Procambarus clarkii, the optic lobe and the central brain. This CHH transcript synchronized to daily light-dark cycles and oscillated under dark, constant conditions demonstrating statistically significant daily and circadian rhythms in both structures. Furthermore, to investigate the presence of the peptide in the central brain of this decapod, we used immunohistochemical methods. Confocal microscopy revealed the presence of CHH-IR in fibers and cells of the protocerebral and tritocerebal clusters and neuropiles, particularly in some neurons located in clusters 6, 14, 15 and 17. The presence of CHH positive neurons in structures of P. clarkii where clock proteins have been reported suggests a relationship between the circadian clockwork and CHH. This work provides new insights into the circadian regulation of CHH, a pleiotropic hormone that regulates many physiological processes such as glucose metabolism and osmoregulatory responses to stress. PMID:24391849

Nelson-Mora, Janikua; Prieto-Sagredo, Julio; Loredo-Ranjel, Rosaura; Fanjul-Moles, Maria Luisa

2013-01-01

154

Age, Growth and Feeding Habits of the Brown Comber Serranus hepatus(Linnaeus, 1758) on the Cretan Shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forty-five samples of the brown comber Serranus hepatuswere collected during experimental surveys carried out on a monthly basis (August 1990 to August 1992) along the Cretan continental shelf. A total of 1268 specimens 31-140 mm in total length were analysed. Growth was well described by both standard and seasonalized forms of the von Bertalanffy growth model and the computed parameters were L?;=152 mm, k=0·36, t0=-0·57. Feeding intensity was high throughout the study period and varied significantly among the age classes of fish examined. Stomach content analysis revealed that S. hepatusis carnivorous, feeding mainly on decapods. Diets did not vary seasonally; decapods were the most important prey throughout the year. However, the composition of the prey consumed varied considerably with predator age coupled with differences in mean prey sizes utilized by each age class. The mean weight of stomach contents increased significantly for older specimens, while the mean number of prey items decreased. Age-specific dietary selection was primarily a function of body size of the predator and appears to reduce intra-specific competition among the members of the different age classes. The results suggest that S. hepatusplays an important trophic role as a macrophagic carnivorous species on the Cretan continental shelf.

Labropoulou, M.; Tserpes, G.; Tsimenides, N.

1998-05-01

155

Mass spectrometric identification of pEGFYSQRYamide: a crustacean peptide hormone possessing a vertebrate neuropeptide Y (NPY)-like carboxy-terminus  

PubMed Central

In invertebrates, peptides possessing the carboxy (C)-terminal motif -RXRFamide have been proposed as the homologs of vertebrate neuropeptide Y (NPY). Using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, in combination with sustained off-resonance irradiation collision-induced dissociation and chemical and enzymatic reactions, we have identified the peptide pEGFYSQRYamide from the neuroendocrine pericardial organ (PO) of the crab Pugettia producta. This peptide is likely the same as that previously reported, but misidentified, as PAFYSQRYamide in several earlier reports (e.g. Li et al. [2003] J. Neurochem. 87,642–656; Fu et al. [2005] J. Comp. Neurol. 493,607–626). The -QRYamide motif contained in pEGFYSQRYamide is identical to that present in many vertebrate members of the NPY superfamily. Mass spectrometric analysis conducted on the POs of several other decapods showed that pEGFYSQRYamide is present in three other brachyurans (Cancer borealis, Cancer irroratus and Cancer productus) as well as in one species from another decapod infraorder (Lithodes maja, an anomuran). Thus, our findings show that at least some invertebrates possess NPY-like peptides in addition to those exhibiting an -RXRFamide C-terminus, and raise the question as to whether the invertebrate -QRYamides are functionally and/or evolutionarily related to the NPY superfamily. PMID:17420018

Stemmler, Elizabeth A.; Bruns, Emily A.; Gardner, Noah P.; Dickinson, Patsy S.; Christie, Andrew E.

2007-01-01

156

Housekeeping Mutualisms: Do More Symbionts Facilitate Host Performance?  

PubMed Central

Mutualisms often involve one host supporting multiple symbionts, whose identity, density and intraguild interactions can influence the nature of the mutualism and performance of the host. However, the implications of multiple co-occurring symbionts on services to a host have rarely been quantified. In this study, we quantified effects of decapod symbionts on removal of sediment from their coral host. Our field survey showed that all common symbionts typically occur as pairs and never at greater abundances. Two species, the crab Trapezia serenei and the shrimp Alpheus lottini, were most common and co-occurred more often than expected by chance. We conducted a mesocosm experiment to test for effects of decapod identity and density on sediment removal. Alone, corals removed 10% of sediment, but removal increased to 30% and 48% with the presence of two and four symbionts, respectively. Per-capita effects of symbionts were independent of density and identity. Our results suggest that symbiont density is restricted by intraspecific competition. Thus, increased sediment removal from a coral host can only be achieved by increasing the number of species of symbionts on that coral, even though these species are functionally equivalent. Symbiont diversity plays a key role, not through added functionality but by overcoming density limitation likely imposed by intraspecific mating systems. PMID:22523536

Lemer, Sarah; Leray, Matthieu; Mills, Suzanne C.; Osenberg, Craig W.

2012-01-01

157

Putative pacemakers in the eyestalk and brain of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii show circadian oscillations in levels of mRNA for crustacean hyperglycemic hormone.  

PubMed

Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) synthesizing cells in the optic lobe, one of the pacemakers of the circadian system, have been shown to be present in crayfish. However, the presence of CHH in the central brain, another putative pacemaker of the multi-oscillatory circadian system, of this decapod and its circadian transcription in the optic lobe and brain have yet to be explored. Therefore, using qualitative and quantitative PCR, we isolated and cloned a CHH mRNA fragment from two putative pacemakers of the multi-oscillatory circadian system of Procambarus clarkii, the optic lobe and the central brain. This CHH transcript synchronized to daily light-dark cycles and oscillated under dark, constant conditions demonstrating statistically significant daily and circadian rhythms in both structures. Furthermore, to investigate the presence of the peptide in the central brain of this decapod, we used immunohistochemical methods. Confocal microscopy revealed the presence of CHH-IR in fibers and cells of the protocerebral and tritocerebal clusters and neuropiles, particularly in some neurons located in clusters 6, 14, 15 and 17. The presence of CHH positive neurons in structures of P. clarkii where clock proteins have been reported suggests a relationship between the circadian clockwork and CHH. This work provides new insights into the circadian regulation of CHH, a pleiotropic hormone that regulates many physiological processes such as glucose metabolism and osmoregulatory responses to stress. PMID:24391849

Nelson-Mora, Janikua; Prieto-Sagredo, Julio; Loredo-Ranjel, Rosaura; Fanjul-Moles, María Luisa

2013-01-01

158

Free amino acids in claw muscle and haemolymph from Australian freshwater crayfish at different stages of the moult cycle.  

PubMed

Amino acids were measured in claw muscle and haemolymph in the freshwater decapod crustacean, Cherax destructor, at different stages of the moult cycle. The total pool of amino acids in muscles from animals in intermoult (97+/-13 mmol kg(-1) muscle), premoult (80+/-20 mmol kg(-1)) and postmoult (97+/-19 mmol kg(-1)) were not significantly different. Despite the relatively stable total pool of amino acids, there were changes in the concentrations of alanine, glutamine and proline over the moult cycle. Compared to intermoult, claw muscles from animals in premoult had a lower concentration of proline, and animals in postmoult had higher concentrations of alanine and glutamine, but lower concentrations of proline. Concentrations of alanine and glutamine in claw muscle of animals in postmoult were higher and proline concentrations lower than in the same animals during the premoult stage. The concentration of proline in haemolymph was lower in animals in premoult and postmoult compared to intermoult. The total amino acid pool in the claw muscle of Cherax destructor did not change significantly over the moult which is distinctly different to the changes in amino acids reported in the claw muscles of marine decapod crustaceans. PMID:11867288

Dooley, P C; Crouch, P J; West, J M

2002-03-01

159

Ultrastructural and functional characterization of circulating hemocytes from the freshwater crayfish Astacus leptodactylus: cell types and their role after in vivo artificial non-self challenge.  

PubMed

The freshwater crayfish Astacus leptodactylus (Eschscholtz, 1823) is an important aquacultured decapod species as well as an invasive species in some European countries. In the current investigation we characterized the different classes of circulating blood cells in A. leptodactylus by means of light and electron microscopy analysis and we explored their reaction to different latex beads particles in vivo by total and differential cell counts at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4h after injections. We identified hemocytes by granule size morphometry as hyaline hemocytes with no or rare tiny granules, small granule hemocytes, unimodal medium diameter granule hemocytes and both small and large granule containing hemocytes. The latter granular hemocytes showed the strongest phenoloxidase l-DOPA reactivity both in granules and cytoplasm. A. leptodactylus respond to foreign particles with strong cellular immune responses. All treatments elicited a total hemocyte increase with a conspicuous recruitment of large granule containing hemocytes. All hemocyte types mounted some phagocytic response but the small granule hemocytes were the only ones involved in phagocytic response to all foreign particles with the highest percentages. These results (1) depict the variability in decapod hemocyte functional morphology; (2) identify the small granule hemocyte as the major phagocytic cell; (3) suggest that the rather rapid recruitment of large granule hemocyte in all treatments plays a relevant role by this hemocyte type in defense against foreign particles, probably in nodule formation. PMID:16839768

Giulianini, Piero Giulio; Bierti, Manuel; Lorenzon, Simonetta; Battistella, Silvia; Ferrero, Enrico Antonio

2007-01-01

160

Predator prey size relationship between Pseudopleuronectes americanus and Carcinus maenas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Young-of-year flatfish grow through a series of critical periods in which they are vulnerable to different predators, including decapod crustaceans. The purpose of this study was to determine if winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, were vulnerable to one such decapod, the green crab, Carcinus maenas, and to determine if vulnerability differed between wild and cultured fish. To examine the predator-prey size relationship, an experiment was conducted in which six cultured and three wild winter flounder size class treatments were tested against six crab size class treatments. Flounder of all size classes were preyed on by all size classes of green crabs; however, mortality was highest when the largest crabs were matched with the smallest flounder. The number of flounder killed per day was significantly higher (31%) in winter flounder <20 mm compared to all other larger fish size classes (4-8%). Additionally, these fish were attacked at a faster rate than any other fish size class. For the 31-60 mm fish size classes tested, more wild fish (11%) were killed per day by crabs than cultured fish (6.3%). These results suggest that in a winter flounder stock enhancement program, only fish >20 mm should be released to promote post-release survival.

Fairchild, E. A.; Howell, W. H.

2000-10-01

161

Genomics, transcriptomics, and peptidomics of Daphnia pulex neuropeptides and protein hormones.  

PubMed

We report 43 novel genes in the water flea Daphnia pulex encoding 73 predicted neuropeptide and protein hormones as partly confirmed by RT-PCR. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry identified 40 neuropeptides by mass matches and 30 neuropeptides by fragmentation sequencing. Single genes encode adipokinetic hormone, allatostatin-A, allatostatin-B, allatotropin, Ala(7)-CCAP, CCHamide, Arg(7)-corazonin, DENamides, CRF-like (DH52) and calcitonin-like (DH31) diuretic hormones, two ecdysis-triggering hormones, two FIRFamides, one insulin, two alternative splice forms of ion transport peptide (ITP), myosuppressin, neuroparsin, two neuropeptide-F splice forms, three periviscerokinins (but no pyrokinins), pigment dispersing hormone, proctolin, Met(4)-proctolin, short neuropeptide-F, three RYamides, SIFamide, two sulfakinins, and three tachykinins. There are two genes for a preprohormone containing orcomyotropin-like peptides and orcokinins, two genes for N-terminally elongated ITPs, two genes (clustered) for eclosion hormones, two genes (clustered) for bursicons alpha, beta, and two genes (clustered) for glycoproteins GPA2, GPB5, three genes for different allatostatins-C (two of them clustered) and three genes for IGF-related peptides. Detailed comparisons of genes or their products with those from insects and decapod crustaceans revealed that the D. pulex peptides are often closer related to their insect than to their decapod crustacean homologues, confirming that branchiopods, to which Daphnia belongs, are the ancestor group of insects. PMID:21830762

Dircksen, Heinrich; Neupert, Susanne; Predel, Reinhard; Verleyen, Peter; Huybrechts, Jurgen; Strauss, Johannes; Hauser, Frank; Stafflinger, Elisabeth; Schneider, Martina; Pauwels, Kevin; Schoofs, Liliane; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P

2011-10-01

162

Spatio-temporal variations in the diversity and abundance of commercially important Decapoda and Stomatopoda in subtropical Hong Kong waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In subtropical Hong Kong, western waters (WW) are strongly influenced by the freshwater input from the Pearl River estuary, especially during summer monsoon, whereas eastern waters (EW) are predominantly influenced by oceanic currents throughout the year. Such hydrographical differences may lead to spatio-temporal differences in biodiversity of benthic communities. This study investigated the diversity and abundance of commercially important decapods and stomatopods in EW (i.e. Tolo Harbour and Channel) and WW (i.e. Tuen Mun and Lantau Island) of Hong Kong using monthly trawl surveys (August 2003-May 2005). In total, 22 decapod and nine stomatopod species were recorded. The penaeid Metapenaeopsis sp. and stomatopod Oratosquillina interrupta were the most abundant and dominant crustaceans in EW and WW, respectively. Both univariate and multivariate analyses showed that WW supported significantly higher abundance, biomass and diversity of crustaceans than EW, although there were significant between-site and within-site variations in community structure. Higher abundance and biomass of crustaceans were recorded in summer than winter. Such spatio-temporal variations could be explained by differences in the hydrography, environmental conditions and anthropogenic impacts between the two areas. Temporal patterns in the abundance-biomass comparison curves and negative W-statistics suggest that the communities have been highly disturbed in both areas, probably due to anthropogenic activities such as bottom trawling and marine pollution.

Lui, Karen K. Y.; Ng, Jasmine S. S.; Leung, Kenneth M. Y.

2007-05-01

163

Regulation of essential heavy metals (Cu, Cr, and Zn) by the freshwater prawn macrobrachium malcolmsonii (Milne Edwards)  

SciTech Connect

Despite the low concentrations of heavy metals in the surrounding medium, aquatic organisms take them up and accumulate them in their soft tissues to concentrations several fold higher than those of ambient levels. Knowledge of accumulation patterns of a particular trace metal is a prerequisite for understanding the significance of an observed metal concentration in a particular animal, especially from the aspect of biomonitoring. Many marine invertebrates accumulate heavy metals without any regulation and the accumulation necessarily being associated with mechanisms to store the metals in a detoxified form. Two detoxification mechanisms have been described, both of which may occur in one specimen. Heavy metals can either be bound up in insoluble metalliferous {open_quote}granules{close_quote}, or are bound to soluble metal-binding ligands, such as metallothioneins. Some marine decapod crustaceans have an innate ability to regulate the internal concentrations of essential but potentially toxic metals within a constant level, presumably to meet their metabolic demands. However, at present, there is no such information relating to freshwater decapod crustaceans, especially shrimps which occupy a totally different environment. Macrobrachium malcolmsonii, a potential aquaculture species for freshwater is found in abundance in one of the major Indian rivers, the Cauvery. In the present study, an attempt was made to determine whether the freshwater prawn, M. malcolmsonlii, is able to regulate the three essential elements, copper, chromium and zinc, over a wide range of dissolved concentrations. These three metals were chosen because the Cauvery River receives pollutants containing these metals.

Vijayram, K. [Periyar E.V.R. College, Tiruchirappalli (India)] [Periyar E.V.R. College, Tiruchirappalli (India); Geraldine, P. [Bharathidasan Univ., Tiruchirappalli (India)] [Bharathidasan Univ., Tiruchirappalli (India)

1996-02-01

164

Efficient identification of proteins from ovaries and hepatopancreas of the unsequenced edible crab, Cancer pagurus, by mass spectrometry and homology-based, cross-species searching.  

PubMed

Proteome maps of hepatopancreas (midgut gland) and ovarian tissues of the crustacean, Cancer pagurus (Decapoda; edible crab) have been produced by 2D-PAGE and identification of proteins, following trypsin proteolysis, by electrospray MS/MS and database searching. Owing to the lack of sequence information on proteins and fully sequenced genomes amongst the decapod crustaceans and given the evolutionary distance to the nearest full genome database (Daphnia), it was necessary to adopt a non-conventional identification approach. Thus, a strategy was developed for effective identification of decapod proteins by sequence similarity, homology-based cross-species database searching, using various algorithms and a combination of NCBI Crustacea and Arthropoda databases, together with the Arthropoda PartiGene database (Blaxter, University of Edinburgh). In both hepatopancreas and ovary tissues, the largest group of proteins identified were a variety of enzymes, followed by a smaller number of storage/transport proteins [including vitellogenin (yolk protein), several subunits of hemocyanin, cryptocyanin, ferritin and calreticulin], with fewer structural proteins (actin, tubulin) and heat-shock proteins, in addition to a number of proteins of miscellaneous functions. Such protein identifications allow the development of tools, such as antibodies and RNA/DNA probes, to investigate the functions of the proteins in specific tissues during development. PMID:20656081

Ward, Deborah A; Sefton, Elaine M; Prescott, Mark C; Webster, Simon G; Wainwright, Geoff; Rees, Huw H; Fisher, Michael J

2010-11-10

165

Idiosyncratic species effects confound size-based predictions of responses to climate change.  

PubMed

Understanding and predicting the consequences of warming for complex ecosystems and indeed individual species remains a major ecological challenge. Here, we investigated the effect of increased seawater temperatures on the metabolic and consumption rates of five distinct marine species. The experimental species reflected different trophic positions within a typical benthic East Atlantic food web, and included a herbivorous gastropod, a scavenging decapod, a predatory echinoderm, a decapod and a benthic-feeding fish. We examined the metabolism-body mass and consumption-body mass scaling for each species, and assessed changes in their consumption efficiencies. Our results indicate that body mass and temperature effects on metabolism were inconsistent across species and that some species were unable to meet metabolic demand at higher temperatures, thus highlighting the vulnerability of individual species to warming. While body size explains a large proportion of the variation in species' physiological responses to warming, it is clear that idiosyncratic species responses, irrespective of body size, complicate predictions of population and ecosystem level response to future scenarios of climate change. PMID:23007085

Twomey, Marion; Brodte, Eva; Jacob, Ute; Brose, Ulrich; Crowe, Tasman P; Emmerson, Mark C

2012-11-01

166

Feeding preferences of two detritivores related to size and metal content of leaves: the crustaceans Atyaephyra desmarestii (Millet) and Echinogammarus meridionalis (Pinkster).  

PubMed

The equilibrium of the structure and functioning of freshwater ecosystems is dependent of detritivores that link all the other functional groups. The preference for feeding leaves with different diameters (particle size) and leaves with metal contamination (several concentrations of the essential metals copper and zinc) were determined for two detritivores, the decapod Atyaephyra desmarestii and the amphipod Echinogammarus meridionalis. Several no-choice and multi-choice assays were done to determinate which leaf diameter the amphipod and the decapod species would eat when they had or not had alternatives available and include a set of dual-choice assays with contaminated and uncontaminated foods. No significant preference was shown by either species relative to the diameter of leaves, either on no-choice or multi-choice assays. The presence of essential metals on food did not had any influence on the feeding choice of these organisms over the concentration range studied. Both showed no preference on ingesting food spiked with these essential metals, except E. meridionalis which preferred ingesting leaves with 2.19 ?g.l(-1) of copper instead of uncontaminated leaves. For further works, despite no preference for leaves with a certain diameter, the leaves with 0.70 cm (0.385 cm(2)of area) and with 0.50 cm (1.767 cm(2) of area) should be used for A. desmarestii and E. meridionalis, respectively. Furthermore, to maintain E. meridionalis, the diet should include some percentage of copper in order to accomplish metabolic needs. PMID:24938812

Quintaneiro, C; Ranville, J; Nogueira, A J A

2014-11-01

167

Accumulation and regulation effects from the metal mixture of Zn, Pb, and Cd in the tropical shrimp Penaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Environmental metal pollution is one of the major problems faced by humankind. This type of pollution affects aquatic systems (estuaries, coastal lagoons, etc.), which are very dynamic systems, therefore making the study of the effects on the organisms that inhabit them an essential issue. In this study, the capacity of metal regulation by decapod crustacean Penaeus vannamei juveniles was determined. The effects of zinc, lead, and cadmium were tested individually and as a metal mixture exposure to determine possible synergism. The results showed that juvenile shrimps were capable of regulating zinc and lead, whereas cadmium was accumulated without any excretion, at least within the concentrations studied. It was also proved that under the estuarine conditions tested here, P. vannamei juveniles showed capacity to act as a bioindicator for cadmium. PMID:22945625

Núñez-Nogueira, Gabriel; Fernández-Bringas, Laura; Ordiano-Flores, Alfredo; Gómez-Ponce, Alejandro; de León-Hill, Claudia Ponce; González-Farías, Fernando

2012-12-01

168

The complete mitochondrial genome of the Japanese ghost shrimp Nihonotrypaea japonica (Crustacea, Decapoda, Axiidea).  

PubMed

We determined the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence of the Japanese ghost shrimp Nihonotrypaea japonica (Ortmann 1891) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Axiidea). The N. japonica mt genome is first represented in infraorder Axiidea, which, together with infraorder Gebiidea, belonged to infraorder Thalassinidea until recently. The genome sequence of N. japonica is 15,274 bp in size, and the gene arrangement and transcriptional polarity are partially different from that of the Japanese mud shrimp, Upogebia major, which belongs to the infraorder Gebiidea. We present the mt genome of N. japonica, which could provide useful molecular information to construct a stable classification for infraorder Thalassinidea and to better understand the phylogenetic relationship of Thalassinidea with other decapod groups. PMID:23305386

Kim, Sanghee; Ahn, Dong-Ha; Park, Joong-Ki; Kim, Se-Joo; Choi, Han-Gu; Min, Gi-Sik

2013-06-01

169

Disease effects on lobster fisheries, ecology, and culture: overview of DAO Special 6.  

PubMed

Lobsters are prized by commercial and recreational fishermen worldwide, and their populations are therefore buffeted by fishery practices. But lobsters also remain integral members of their benthic communities where predator-prey relationships, competitive interactions, and host-pathogen dynamics push and pull at their population dynamics. Although lobsters have few reported pathogens and parasites relative to other decapod crustaceans, the rise of diseases with consequences for lobster fisheries and aquaculture has spotlighted the importance of disease for lobster biology, population dynamics and ecology. Researchers, managers, and fishers thus increasingly recognize the need to understand lobster pathogens and parasites so they can be managed proactively and their impacts minimized where possible. At the 2011 International Conference and Workshop on Lobster Biology and Management a special session on lobster diseases was convened and this special issue of Diseases of Aquatic Organisms highlights those proceedings with a suite of articles focused on diseases discussed during that session. PMID:23186696

Behringer, Donald C; Butler, Mark J; Stentiford, Grant D

2012-08-27

170

The feeding habits of three Mediterranean sea anemone species, Anemonia viridis (Forskål), Actinia equina (Linnaeus) and Cereus pedunculatus (Pennant)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feeding habits of the Mediterranean sea anemones Cereus pedunculatus, Actinia equina and Anemonia viridis were examined mainly by analysing their coelenteron contents. The three species are opportunistic omnivorous suspension feeders. Main source of food for A. viridis and C. pedunculatus are crustaceans (mainly amphipods and decapods, respectively), while for the midlittoral species A. equina, it is organic detritus. Using the same method, the temporal and spatial changes in the diet of A. viridis were examined. During the whole year, crustaceans seem to be the main source of food for A. viridis. The diet composition of this species, however, differs remarkably in space, possibly reflecting the different composition of the macrobenthic organismic assemblages in different areas. The data collected are compared with the limited bibliographical information.

Chintiroglou, Ch.; Koukouras, A.

1992-03-01

171

Novel Protocol for the Chemical Synthesis of Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone Analogues -- An Efficient Experimental Tool for Studying Their Functions  

PubMed Central

The crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (cHH) is present in many decapods in different isoforms, whose specific biological functions are still poorly understood. Here we report on the first chemical synthesis of three distinct isoforms of the cHH of Astacus leptodactylus carried out by solid phase peptide synthesis coupled to native chemical ligation. The synthetic 72 amino acid long peptide amides, containing L- or D-Phe3 and (Glp1, D-Phe3) were tested for their biological activity by means of homologous in vivo bioassays. The hyperglycemic activity of the D-isoforms was significantly higher than that of the L-isoform, while the presence of the N-terminal Glp residue had no influence on the peptide activity. The results show that the presence of D-Phe3 modifies the cHH functionality, contributing to the diversification of the hormone pool. PMID:22253873

Mosco, Alessandro; Zlatev, Vientsislav; Guarnaccia, Corrado; Pongor, Sandor; Campanella, Antonella; Zahariev, Sotir; Giulianini, Piero G.

2012-01-01

172

Sex identification in female crayfish is bimodal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sex identification has been studied in several species of crustacean decapods but only seldom was the role of multimodality investigated in a systematic fashion. Here, we analyse the effect of single/combined chemical and visual stimuli on the ability of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii to identify the sex of a conspecific during mating interactions. Our results show that crayfish respond to the offered stimuli depending on their sex. While males rely on olfaction alone for sex identification, females require the combination of olfaction and vision to do so. In the latter, chemical and visual stimuli act as non-redundant signal components that possibly enhance the female ability to discriminate potential mates in the crowded social context experienced during mating period. This is one of the few clear examples in invertebrates of non-redundancy in a bimodal communication system.

Aquiloni, Laura; Massolo, Alessandro; Gherardi, Francesca

2009-01-01

173

The complete mitochondrial genome of the American lobster, Homarus americanus (Crustacea, Decapoda).  

PubMed

Although relatively a large number of the complete mitochondrial genome sequences have been determined from various decapod species (29 mtDNA sequences reported so far), the information for the infraorder Astacidea (including lobsters, crayfishes, and their relatives) is very limited and represented by only one complete sequence from the Australian freshwater crayfish species Cherax destructor. In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of Homarus americanus, the first representative of the family Nephropidae to be fully characterized. Comparison of the gene arrangement reveals that H. americanus mtDNA is identical to those of other pancrustacean species but differs from the other astacidean species (C. destructor). Based on these data, it can be assumed that an idiosyncratic gene order discovered in C. destructor mtDNA may be secondarily acquired from the ancestral lineage of the Astacidea. PMID:21740340

Kim, Sanghee; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Park, Mi-Hyun; Choi, Han-Gu; Park, Joong-Ki; Min, Gi-Sik

2011-06-01

174

Muscle receptor organs do not mediate load compensation during body roll and defense response extensions in the crayfish Cherax destructor.  

PubMed

It has been proposed that the abdominal muscle receptor organ (MRO) of decapod crustaceans acts in a sensory feedback loop to compensate for external load. There is not yet unequivocal evidence of MRO activity during slow abdominal extension in intact animals, however. This raises the possibility that MRO involvement in load compensation is context-dependent. We recorded from MRO tonic stretch receptors (SRs) in freely behaving crayfish (Cherax destructor) during abdominal extension occurring during two different behaviors: body roll and the defense response. Abdominal extensions are similar in many respects in both behaviors, although defense response extensions are more rapid. In both situations, SR activity typically ceased when the abdominal extension commenced, even if the joint of the SR being monitored was mechanically prevented from extending by a block. Since extensor motor neuron activity increased when the abdomen was prevented from extending, we concluded that the load compensation occurring in these behaviors was not mediated by the MROs. PMID:11748627

Patullo, B W; Faulkes, Z; Macmillan, D L

2001-12-01

175

Video tracking in the extreme: video analysis for nocturnal underwater animal movement.  

PubMed

Computer analysis of video footage is one option for recording locomotor behavior for a range of neurophysiological and behavioral studies. This technique is reasonably well established and accepted, but its use for some behavioral analyses remains a challenge. For example, filming through water can lead to reflection, and filming nocturnal activity can reduce resolution and clarity of filmed images. The aim of this study was to develop a noninvasive method for recording nocturnal activity in aquatic decapods and test the accuracy of analysis by video tracking software. We selected crayfish, Cherax destructor, because they are often active at night, they live underwater, and data on their locomotion is important for answering biological and physiological questions such as how they explore and navigate. We constructed recording arenas and filmed animals in infrared light. Wethen compared human observer data and software-acquired values. In this article, we outline important apparatus and software issues to obtain reliable computer tracking. PMID:18183891

Patullo, B W; Jolley-Rogers, G; Macmillan, D L

2007-11-01

176

Novel protocol for the chemical synthesis of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone analogues--an efficient experimental tool for studying their functions.  

PubMed

The crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (cHH) is present in many decapods in different isoforms, whose specific biological functions are still poorly understood. Here we report on the first chemical synthesis of three distinct isoforms of the cHH of Astacus leptodactylus carried out by solid phase peptide synthesis coupled to native chemical ligation. The synthetic 72 amino acid long peptide amides, containing L- or D-Phe³ and (Glp¹, D-Phe³) were tested for their biological activity by means of homologous in vivo bioassays. The hyperglycemic activity of the D-isoforms was significantly higher than that of the L-isoform, while the presence of the N-terminal Glp residue had no influence on the peptide activity. The results show that the presence of D-Phe³ modifies the cHH functionality, contributing to the diversification of the hormone pool. PMID:22253873

Mosco, Alessandro; Zlatev, Vientsislav; Guarnaccia, Corrado; Pongor, Sándor; Campanella, Antonella; Zahariev, Sotir; Giulianini, Piero G

2012-01-01

177

North Sea ecosystem change from swimming crabs to seagulls  

PubMed Central

A recent increase in sea temperature has established a new ecosystem dynamic regime in the North Sea. Climate-induced changes in decapods have played an important role. Here, we reveal a coincident increase in the abundance of swimming crabs and lesser black-backed gull colonies in the North Sea, both in time and in space. Swimming crabs are an important food source for lesser black-backed gulls during the breeding season. Inhabiting the land, but feeding mainly at sea, lesser black-backed gulls provide a link between marine and terrestrial ecosystems, since the bottom-up influence of allochthonous nutrient input from seabirds to coastal soils can structure the terrestrial food web. We, therefore, suggest that climate-driven changes in trophic interactions in the marine food web may also have ensuing ramifications for the coastal ecology of the North Sea. PMID:22764111

Luczak, C.; Beaugrand, G.; Lindley, J. A.; Dewarumez, J-M.; Dubois, P. J.; Kirby, R. R.

2012-01-01

178

The Early Miocene Cape Melville Formation fossil assemblage and the evolution of modern Antarctic marine communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fossil community from the Early Miocene Cape Melville Formation (King George Island, Antarctica) does not show the archaic retrograde nature of modern Antarctic marine communities, despite evidence, such as the presence of dropstones, diamictites and striated rocks, that it was deposited in a glacial environment. Unlike modern Antarctic settings, and the upper units of the Eocene La Meseta Formation on Seymour Island, Antarctica, which are 10 million years older, the Cape Melville Formation community is not dominated by sessile suspension feeding ophiuroids, crinoids or brachiopods. Instead, it is dominated by infaunal bivalves, with a significant component of decapods, similar to present day South American settings. It is possible that the archaic retrograde structure of the modern community did not fully evolve until relatively recently, maybe due to factors such as further cooling and isolation of the continent leading to glaciations, which resulted in a loss of shallow shelf habitats.

Whittle, Rowan J.; Quaglio, Fernanda; Griffiths, Huw J.; Linse, Katrin; Crame, J. Alistair

2014-01-01

179

Novel transcriptome assembly and improved annotation of the whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), a dominant crustacean in global seafood mariculture  

PubMed Central

We present a new transcriptome assembly of the Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), the species most farmed for human consumption. Its functional annotation, a substantial improvement over previous ones, is provided freely. RNA-Seq with Illumina HiSeq technology was used to analyze samples extracted from shrimp abdominal muscle, hepatopancreas, gills and pleopods. We used the Trinity and Trinotate software suites for transcriptome assembly and annotation, respectively. The quality of this assembly and the affiliated targeted homology searches greatly enrich the curated transcripts currently available in public databases for this species. Comparison with the model arthropod Daphnia allows some insights into defining characteristics of decapod crustaceans. This large-scale gene discovery gives the broadest depth yet to the annotated transcriptome of this important species and should be of value to ongoing genomics and immunogenetic resistance studies in this shrimp of paramount global economic importance.

Ghaffari, Noushin; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Doan, Ryan; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D.; Chen, Patricia L.; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrian; Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A.; Carrasco, J. Salvador; Hong, Chris; Brieba, Luis G.; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Blood, Philip D.; Sawyer, Jason E.; Johnson, Charles D.; Dindot, Scott V.; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.; Criscitiello, Michael F.

2014-01-01

180

Effects of the sandbar breaching on hydrobiological parameters and zooplankton communities in the Senegal River Estuary (West Africa).  

PubMed

This study describes the changes in hydrology, zooplankton communities and abundance in the Senegal River Estuary (SRE) before and after the breaching of the sandbar in October 2003. Samples were taken in 2003 at 3 stations located upstream (DI), in mid estuary (HY) and downstream (RM), and in 2005 at the same stations (RM becoming Old River Mouth: ORM), plus the new river mouth (NRM) resulting from the morphological evolution of the SRE. The study showed marked seasonal variations that affected the structure and distribution of zooplankton as well as major changes caused by the sandbar opening: increased marine influence throughout the whole SRE, changes in the horizontal gradients, arrival of euryhaline species and increase in meroplankton, in particular decapod larvae, transformation of the ORM area into a slackwater area with limited exchanges and the highest zooplankton numbers during high waters. PMID:24685450

Champalbert, Gisèle; Pagano, Marc; Arfi, Robert; Chevalier, Cristèle

2014-05-15

181

The complete mitogenome of the Chinese swamp shrimp Neocaridina denticulata sinensis Kemp 1918 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Atyidae).  

PubMed

In this study we determined the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the Chinese swamp shrimp Neocaridina denticulata sinensis Kemp, 1918 (Decapoda, Atyidae). The mitogenome consists of 15,561?bp encoding 37 genes that are involved in mitochondrial protein synthesis as well as respiration chain/oxidative phosphorylation. Besides, a 672-bp putative control region was identified between the small subunit ribosomal RNA and tRNA-Ile genes, the size and AT content of which is moderate within the Decapoda. The gene arrangement of the mitogenome follows the pancrustacean ancestral pattern shared by the decapod subfamily Dendrobranchiata, pleocyematan infrafamilies Caridea and Palinura. Our results will provide important data for various levels of phylogeny and further evolution. PMID:23795841

Yu, Yan-Qin; Yang, Wei-Jun; Yang, Jin-Shu

2014-06-01

182

Erratum.  

PubMed

The "turritid gastropod" referred to on page 713 (column 2, line 22) of the article "Hydrothermal vent animals: Distribution and biology" by J. Frederick Grassle (23 Aug.) should have been a "turrid gastropod." The first reference 26 on page 716 (column 2, line 14) should have been to R. A. Lutz and D. C. Rhoads, Eos 64, 1017 (1983). The statement at the end of page 716 that vent animals have metabolic rates that are orders of magnitude higher than relatives in other parts of the deep sea cannot be substantiated because, although many deep-sea organisms have low metabolic rates, benthic decapod crustacea and echinoderms from areas away from hydrothermal vents in the deep sea have metabolic rates similar to those of vent species when measured at the same temperature. This is further discussed in a forthcoming issue of the Bulletin of the Biological Society of Washington. PMID:17797293

1985-11-01

183

Animal Behavior Frozen in Time: Gregarious Behavior of Early Jurassic Lobsters within an Ammonoid Body Chamber  

PubMed Central

Direct animal behavior can be inferred from the fossil record only in exceptional circumstances. The exceptional mode of preservation of ammonoid shells in the Posidonia Shale (Lower Jurassic, lower Toarcian) of Dotternhausen in southern Germany, with only the organic periostracum preserved, provides an excellent opportunity to observe the contents of the ammonoid body chamber because this periostracum is translucent. Here, we report upon three delicate lobsters preserved within a compressed ammonoid specimen of Harpoceras falciferum. We attempt to explain this gregarious behavior. The three lobsters were studied using standard microscopy under low angle light. The lobsters belong to the extinct family of the Eryonidae; further identification was not possible. The organic material of the three small lobsters is preserved more than halfway into the ammonoid body chamber. The lobsters are closely spaced and are positioned with their tails oriented toward each other. The specimens are interpreted to represent corpses rather than molts. The lobsters probably sought shelter in preparation for molting or against predators such as fish that were present in Dotternhausen. Alternatively, the soft tissue of the ammonoid may have been a source of food that attracted the lobsters, or it may have served as a long-term residency for the lobsters (inquilinism). The lobsters represent the oldest known example of gregariousness amongst lobsters and decapods in the fossil record. Gregarious behavior in lobsters, also known for extant lobsters, thus developed earlier in earth's history than previously known. Moreover, this is one of the oldest known examples of decapod crustaceans preserved within cephalopod shells. PMID:22412846

Klompmaker, Adiël A.; Fraaije, René H. B.

2012-01-01

184

Feeding ecology of elasmobranch fishes in coastal waters of the Colombian Eastern Tropical Pacific  

PubMed Central

Background Stomach contents of 131 specimens of five elasmobranch species (Mustelus lunulatus, Dasyatis longa, Rhinobatos leucorhynchus, Raja velezi and Zapteryx xyster) caught in the central fishing zone in the Pacific Ocean of Colombia were counted and weighed to describe feeding habits and dietary overlaps. Results Twenty-one prey items belonging to four major groups (stomatopods, decapods, mollusks and fish) were identified. Decapod crustaceans were the most abundant prey found in stomachs. The mantis shrimp Squilla panamensis was the main prey item in the diet of M. lunulatus; tiger shrimp Trachypenaeus sp. was the main prey item in the diet of Rhinobatos leucorhynchus and Raja velezi, and Penaeidae shrimp were the main prey items in the diet of Z. xyster. Furthermore, fish were important in the diet of Raja velezi, Z. xyster and D. longa. The greatest diet breadth corresponded to Z. xyster whereas M. lunulatus was the most specialized predator. Finally, four significant diet overlaps between the five species were found, attributable mainly to Squillidae, Penaeidae and Fish. Conclusion Shrimps (Penaeidae and stomatopods) and benthic fishes were the most important food types in the diet of the elasmobranch species studied. Diet breadth and overlap were relatively low. Determination of food resource partitioning among the batoid species studied was not possible. However, we identified partitions in other niche axes (time of feeding activity and habitat utilization). It is possible to assume that diffuse competition could be exceeding the biunivocal competition among the studied species. Therefore, this assemblage would have a strong tendency to trophic guild formation. PMID:17877796

Navia, Andres F; Mejia-Falla, Paola A; Giraldo, Alan

2007-01-01

185

The 'Ventral Organs' of Pycnogonida (Arthropoda) Are Neurogenic Niches of Late Embryonic and Post-Embryonic Nervous System Development  

PubMed Central

Early neurogenesis in arthropods has been in the focus of numerous studies, its cellular basis, spatio-temporal dynamics and underlying genetic network being by now comparably well characterized for representatives of chelicerates, myriapods, hexapods and crustaceans. By contrast, neurogenesis during late embryonic and/or post-embryonic development has received less attention, especially in myriapods and chelicerates. Here, we apply (i) immunolabeling, (ii) histology and (iii) scanning electron microscopy to study post-embryonic ventral nerve cord development in Pseudopallene sp., a representative of the sea spiders (Pycnogonida), the presumable sister group of the remaining chelicerates. During early post-embryonic development, large neural stem cells give rise to additional ganglion cell material in segmentally paired invaginations in the ventral ectoderm. These ectodermal cell regions – traditionally designated as ‘ventral organs’ – detach from the surface into the interior and persist as apical cell clusters on the ventral ganglion side. Each cluster is a post-embryonic neurogenic niche that features a tiny central cavity and initially still houses larger neural stem cells. The cluster stays connected to the underlying ganglionic somata cortex via an anterior and a posterior cell stream. Cell proliferation remains restricted to the cluster and streams, and migration of newly produced cells along the streams seems to account for increasing ganglion cell numbers in the cortex. The pycnogonid cluster-stream-systems show striking similarities to the life-long neurogenic system of decapod crustaceans, and due to their close vicinity to glomerulus-like neuropils, we consider their possible involvement in post-embryonic (perhaps even adult) replenishment of olfactory neurons – as in decapods. An instance of a potentially similar post-embryonic/adult neurogenic system in the arthropod outgroup Onychophora is discussed. Additionally, we document two transient posterior ganglia in the ventral nerve cord of Pseudopallene sp. and evaluate this finding in light of the often discussed reduction of a segmented ‘opisthosoma’ during pycnogonid evolution. PMID:24736377

Brenneis, Georg; Scholtz, Gerhard

2014-01-01

186

Mass spectrometric identification of pEGFYSQRYamide: a crustacean peptide hormone possessing a vertebrate neuropeptide Y (NPY)-like carboxy-terminus.  

PubMed

In invertebrates, peptides possessing the carboxy (C)-terminal motif -RXRFamide have been proposed as the homologs of vertebrate neuropeptide Y (NPY). Using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, in combination with sustained off-resonance irradiation collision-induced dissociation and chemical and enzymatic reactions, we have identified the peptide pEGFYSQRYamide from the neuroendocrine pericardial organ (PO) of the crab Pugettia producta. This peptide is likely the same as that previously reported, but misidentified, as PAFYSQRYamide in several earlier reports (e.g. [Li, L., Kelley, W.P., Billimoria, C.P., Christie, A.E., Pulver, S.R., Sweedler, J.V., Marder, E. 2003. Mass spectrometric investigation of the neuropeptide complement and release in the pericardial organs of the crab, Cancer borealis. J. Neurochem. 87, 642-656; Fu, Q., Kutz, K.K., Schmidt, J.J., Hsu, Y.W., Messinger, D.I., Cain, S.D., de la Iglesia, H.O., Christie, A.E., Li, L. 2005. Hormone complement of the Cancer productus sinus gland and pericardial organ: an anatomical and mass spectrometric investigation. J. Comp. Neurol. 493, 607-626.]). The -QRYamide motif contained in pEGFYSQRYamide is identical to that present in many vertebrate members of the NPY superfamily. Mass spectrometric analysis conducted on the POs of several other decapods showed that pEGFYSQRYamide is present in three other brachyurans (Cancer borealis, Cancer irroratus and Cancer productus) as well as in one species from another decapod infraorder (Lithodes maja, an anomuran). Thus, our findings show that at least some invertebrates possess NPY-like peptides in addition to those exhibiting an -RXRFamide C-terminus, and raise the question as to whether the invertebrate -QRYamides are functionally and/or evolutionarily related to the NPY superfamily. PMID:17420018

Stemmler, Elizabeth A; Bruns, Emily A; Gardner, Noah P; Dickinson, Patsy S; Christie, Andrew E

2007-05-15

187

The effects of serotonin, dopamine, gonadotropin-releasing hormones, and corazonin, on the androgenic gland of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

PubMed

Neurotransmitters and neurohormones are agents that control gonad maturation in decapod crustaceans. Of these, serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) are neurotransmitters with known antagonist roles in female reproduction, whilst gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs) and corazonin (Crz) are neurohormones that exercise both positive and negative controls in some invertebrates. However, the effects of these agents on the androgenic gland (AG), which controls testicular maturation and male sex development in decapods, via insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (IAG), are unknown. Therefore, we set out to assay the effects of 5-HT, DA, l-GnRH-III, oct-GnRH and Crz, on the AG of small male Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr), using histological studies, a BrdU proliferative cell assay, immunofluorescence of Mr-IAG, and ELISA of Mr-IAG. The results showed stimulatory effects by 5-HT and l-GnRH-III through significant increases in AG size, proliferation of AG cells, and Mr-IAG production (P<0.05). In contrast, DA and Crz caused inhibitory effects on the AG through significant decreases in AG size, proliferation of AG cells, and Mr-IAG production (P<0.05). Moreover, the prawns treated with Crz died before day 16 of the experimental period. We propose that 5-HT and certain GnRHs can be now used to stimulate reproduction in male M. rosenbergii, as they induce increases in AG and testicular size, IAG production, and spermatogenesis. The mechanisms by which these occur are part of our on-going research. PMID:23867230

Siangcham, Tanapan; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Sroyraya, Morakot; Changklungmoa, Narin; Phoungpetchara, Ittipon; Kankuan, Wilairat; Sumpownon, Chanudporn; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert

2013-11-01

188

Expression of the male reproduction-related gene in spermatic ducts of the blue swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus, and transfer of modified protein to the sperm acrosome.  

PubMed

Expression of a sex-specific gene in Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr-Mrr), encoding a male reproduction-related (Mrr) protein, has been identified in the spermatic ducts (SDs) and postulated to be involved in sperm maturation processes. M. rosenbergii is the only decapod that the expression and fate of the Mrr protein has been studied. To determine that this protein was conserved in decapods, we firstly used cloning techniques to identify the Mrr gene in two crabs, Portunus pelagicus (Pp-Mrr) and Scylla serrata (Ss-Mrr). We then investigated expression of Pp-Mrr by in situ hybridization, and immunolocalization, as well as phosphorylation and glycosylation modifications, and the fate of the protein in the male reproductive tract. Pp-Mrr was shown to have 632 nucleotides, and a deduced protein of 110 amino acids, with an unmodified molecular weight of 11.79 kDa and a mature protein with molecular weight of 9.16 kDa. In situ hybridization showed that Pp-Mrr is expressed in the epithelium of the proximal, middle, distal SDs, and ejaculatory ducts. In Western blotting, proteins of 10.9 and 17.2 kDa from SDs were all positive using anti-Mrr, antiphosphoserine/threonine, and antiphosphotyrosine. PAS staining showed they were also glycosylated. Immunolocalization studies showed Pp-Mrr in the SD epithelium, lumen, and on the acrosomes of spermatozoa. Immunofluorescence staining indicated the acrosome of spermatozoa contained the Mrr protein, which is phosphorylated with serine/threonine and tyrosine, and also glycosylated. The Mrr is likely to be involved in acrosomal activation during fertilization of eggs. PMID:23108973

Sroyraya, Morakot; Hanna, Peter J; Changklungmoa, Narin; Senarai, Thanyaporn; Siangcham, Tanapan; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Sobhon, Prasert

2013-01-01

189

Synaptic neuropil in nerves of the crustacean stomatogastric nervous system: an immunocytochemical and electron microscopical study.  

PubMed

Patches of peptide-immunoreactive varicosities have been found in nerves of the stomatogastric nervous system (STNS) of decapod crustaceans. In the present study, these patches were examined in detail in the stomatogastric nerve (stn) and in the superior oesophageal nerve (son) of the crayfish Cherax destructor by using whole-mount immunocytochemical techniques combined with confocal microscopy and, in addition, electron microscopy. Double-labeling experiments with antibodies generated against the peptides allatostatin, FMRFamide and proctolin, combined with an antibody generated against the small vesicle protein synapsin, suggest that each patch contains small synaptic vesicles in addition to all three peptides. The neuropil regions of the ganglia of the STNS were also strongly stained by the synapsin antibody. Synapsin-like immunoreactivity was also studied in the crab Cancer pagurus and the lobster Homarus americanus. A similar pattern of staining was found for all three species, but the distribution within the stn varied. In H. americanus, a lightly stained weblike structure was found on the surface of nerves including the inferior oesophageal nerve, the son, and the anterior stn. By using electron microscopy, synapses were found in the core of the stn-son junction of C. destructor, in the same region where the synapsin-like and the peptide staining was localized. In addition, putative neurohemal release sites were found in the peripheral sheath of the stn. The presynaptic profiles found in the core of the stn seem to correspond to the types of presynaptic profiles found in the neuropil of the stomatogastric ganglion. These findings demonstrate that synaptic neuropil is present in the nerves of the STNS of a decapod crustacean. PMID:10754509

Skiebe, P; Ganeshina, O

2000-05-01

190

Allatostatin-like immunoreactivity in the stomatogastric nervous system and the pericardial organs of the crab Cancer pagurus, the lobster Homarus americanus, and the crayfish Cherax destructor and Procambarus clarkii.  

PubMed

The distribution of allatostatin (AST)-like immunoreactivity was studied in the stomatogastric nervous system (STNS) and the neurosecretory pericardial organs (PO) of four decapod crustacean species by using wholemount immunocytochemical techniques and confocal microscopy. AST-like immunoreactivity was found within the STNS of all four species; its distribution in each was unique. In all four species, AST-like immunoreactivity was present in the paired commissural ganglia (CoG), in the esophageal ganglion (OG), in the stomatogastric ganglion (STG), and in their connecting nerves. Within the CoGs, numerous cell bodies and neuropil were stained. In the OG, two cell bodies were immunoreactive, although their branching pattern varies between species. In the STG of C. pagurus and H. americanus, neuropil was stained extensively, but no labeled cell bodies were found. Surprisingly, in C. destructor and P. clarkii, cell bodies were stained in the STG, one brightly stained cell body in both species and an additional two to five weakly stained cell bodies in P. clarkii. In all four species, stained gastropyloric receptor cells were present. In contrast to the variable staining within the STNS, all four species have a similar pattern of AST-like immunoreactivity within the PO. Only in C. destructor, AST-immunoreactive varicosities occur on the surface of the circumesophageal connectives and on the postesophageal commissure and suggest another neurohaemal source for AST-like peptides in this species. The pattern of this staining suggests that AST-like peptides are likely utilized as both neurohormones and as neuromodulators in the STNS of decapod crustacea. PMID:10075445

Skiebe, P

1999-01-01

191

An evolutionary analysis of flightin reveals a conserved motif unique and widespread in Pancrustacea.  

PubMed

Flightin is a thick filament protein that in Drosophila melanogaster is uniquely expressed in the asynchronous, indirect flight muscles (IFM). Flightin is required for the structure and function of the IFM and is indispensable for flight in Drosophila. Given the importance of flight acquisition in the evolutionary history of insects, here we study the phylogeny and distribution of flightin. Flightin was identified in 69 species of hexapods in classes Collembola (springtails), Protura, Diplura, and insect orders Thysanura (silverfish), Dictyoptera (roaches), Orthoptera (grasshoppers), Pthiraptera (lice), Hemiptera (true bugs), Coleoptera (beetles), Neuroptera (green lacewing), Hymenoptera (bees, ants, and wasps), Lepidoptera (moths), and Diptera (flies and mosquitoes). Flightin was also found in 14 species of crustaceans in orders Anostraca (water flea), Cladocera (brine shrimp), Isopoda (pill bugs), Amphipoda (scuds, sideswimmers), and Decapoda (lobsters, crabs, and shrimps). Flightin was not identified in representatives of chelicerates, myriapods, or any species outside Pancrustacea (Tetraconata, sensu Dohle). Alignment of amino acid sequences revealed a conserved region of 52 amino acids, referred herein as WYR, that is bound by strictly conserved tryptophan (W) and arginine (R) and an intervening sequence with a high content of tyrosines (Y). This motif has no homologs in GenBank or PROSITE and is unique to flightin and paraflightin, a putative flightin paralog identified in decapods. A third motif of unclear affinities to pancrustacean WYR was observed in chelicerates. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of the conserved motif suggests that paraflightin originated before the divergence of amphipods, isopods, and decapods. We conclude that flightin originated de novo in the ancestor of Pancrustacea > 500 MYA, well before the divergence of insects (~400 MYA) and the origin of flight (~325 MYA), and that its IFM-specific function in Drosophila is a more recent adaptation. Furthermore, we propose that WYR represents a novel myosin coiled-coil binding motif. PMID:24271855

Soto-Adames, Felipe N; Alvarez-Ortiz, Pedro; Vigoreaux, Jim O

2014-01-01

192

A comparative study on mesozooplankton abundance and diversity between a protected and an unprotected coastal area of Andaman Islands.  

PubMed

The study was carried out to understand the variability in phytoplankton production (Chlorophyll a) and mesozooplankton diversity from two different shallow coastal regions of south Andaman viz. Port Blair Bay (PBB), the only real urban area among the islands and Mahatma Gandhi Marine National Park, a Marine Protected Area (MPA) at Wandoor. Seasonal sampling was carried out during the Northeast monsoon (NEM--November 2005), Intermonsoon (IM--April 2006), and Southwest monsoon (SWM--August 2006). Significant (P < 0.05) seasonal variation was observed in the environmental variables at both the regions. Higher average chlorophyll a (Chl. a) and mesozooplankton standing stock were observed at PBB compared to MPA, but the seasonal variation observed was marginal at both the study areas. Chl. a showed a steep increasing gradient from outer to the inner regions of the PBB. The number of zooplankton taxa recorded at both areas was quite similar, but marked differences were noticed in their relative contribution to the total abundance. Eventhough the Copepoda dominated at both the areas, the non-copepod taxa differed significantly between the regions. Dominance of carnivores such as siphonophores and chaetognaths were noticed at PBB, while filter feeders such as appendicularians and decapod larvae were more abundant at MPA. A total of 20 and 21 copepod families was recorded from PBB and MPA, respectively. Eleven species of chaetognaths were observed as common at both areas. Larval decapods were found to be predominant at MPA with 20 families; whereas, at PBB, only 12 families were recorded. In the light of the recent reports on various changes occurring in the coastal waters of the Andaman Islands, it is suspected that the difference in Chl. a as well as the mesozooplankton standing stock and community structure observed between the two study areas may be related to the various anthropogenic events influencing the coastal waters. PMID:24729177

Pillai, Honey U K; Jayalakshmy, K V; Biju, A; Jayalakshmi, K J; Paulinose, V T; Devi, C B L; Nair, V R; Revichandran, C; Menon, N R; Achuthankutty, C T; Panampunnayil, S U

2014-06-01

193

Predators alter community organization of coral reef cryptofauna and reduce abundance of coral mutualists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coral reefs are the most diverse marine systems in the world, yet our understanding of the processes that maintain such extraordinary diversity remains limited and taxonomically biased toward the most conspicuous species. Cryptofauna that live deeply embedded within the interstitial spaces of coral reefs make up the majority of reef diversity, and many of these species provide important protective services to their coral hosts. However, we know very little about the processes governing the diversity and composition of these less conspicuous but functionally important species. Here, we experimentally quantify the role of predation in driving the community organization of small fishes and decapods that live embedded within Pocillopora eydouxi, a structurally complex, reef-building coral found widely across the Indo-Pacific. We use surveys to describe the natural distribution of predators, and then, factorially manipulate two focal predator species to quantify the independent and combined effects of predator density and identity on P. eydouxi-dwelling cryptofauna. Predators reduced abundance (34 %), species richness (20 %), and modified species composition. Rarefaction revealed that observed reductions in species richness were primarily driven by changes in abundance. Additionally, the two predator species uniquely affected the beta diversity and composition of the prey assemblage. Predators reduced the abundance and modified the composition of a number of mutualist fishes and decapods, whose benefit to the coral is known to be both diversity- and density-dependent. We predict that the density and identity of predators present within P. eydouxi may substantially alter coral performance in the face of an increased frequency and intensity of natural and anthropogenic stressors.

Stier, A. C.; Leray, M.

2014-03-01

194

Material properties of zooplankton and nekton from the California current  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study measured the material properties of zooplankton, Pacific hake (Merluccius productus), Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas), and two species of myctophids (Symbolophorus californiensis and Diaphus theta) collected from the California Current ecosystem. The density contrast (g) was measured for euphausiids, decapods (Sergestes similis), amphipods (Primno macropa, Phronima sp., and Hyperiid spp.), siphonophore bracts, chaetognaths, larval fish, crab megalopae, larval squid, and medusae. Morphometric data (length, width, and height) were collected for these taxa. Density contrasts varied within and between zooplankton taxa. The mean and standard deviation for euphausiid density contrast were 1.059 +/- 0.009. Relationships between zooplankton density contrast and morphometric measurements, geographic location, and environmental conditions were investigated. Site had a significant effect on euphausiid density contrast. Density contrasts of euphausiids collected in the same geographic area approximately 4-10 days apart were significantly higher (p < 0.001). Sound speed contrast (h) was measured for euphausiids and pelagic decapods (S. similis) and it varied between taxa. The mean and standard deviation for euphausiid sound speed were 1.019 +/- 0.009. Euphausiid mass was calculated from density measurements and volume, and a relationship between euphausiid mass and length was produced. We determined that euphausiid from volumes could be accurately estimated two dimensional measurements of animal body shape, and that biomass (or biovolume) could be accurately calculated from digital photographs of animals. Density contrast (g) was measured for zooplankton, pieces of hake flesh, myctophid flesh, and of the following Humboldt squid body parts: mantle, arms, tentacle, braincase, eyes, pen, and beak. The density contrasts varied within and between fish taxa, as well as among squid body parts. Effects of animal length and environmental conditions on nekton density contrast were investigated. The sound speed contrast (h) was measured for Pacific hake flesh, myctophid flesh, Humboldt squid mantle, and Humboldt squid braincase. Sound speed varied within and between nekton taxa. The material properties reported in this study can be used to improve target strength estimates from acoustic scattering models which would increase the accuracy of biomass estimates from acoustic surveys for these zooplankton and nekton.

Becker, Kaylyn

195

Food web structure of deep-sea macrozooplankton and micronekton off the Catalan slope: Insight from stable isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Food web structure of the macroplankton/micronekton fauna on the continental slope of the Catalan Sea (Balearic basin, NW Mediterranean) was investigated using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope tracers on a total of 34 taxa. Samples were collected close to Barcelona, Spain, on the middle slope, at a seasonal scale. Mean ? 13C values ranged from - 22.1‰ ( Salpa maxima) to - 16.9‰ (the mysid Eucopia hanseni). Values of ? 15N ranged from 2.5‰ (the hyperiid Vibilia armata) to 9.8‰ (the pelagic polychaete Tomopteris sp.). The stable isotope ratios of this fauna displayed a continuum of values over the ? 15N range of 7‰, confirming a wide spectrum of feeding strategies (from filter feeders to predators). High annual mean ? 15N values were found among carnivorous large zooplankton and micronekton, including species that prey on gelatinous plankton (i.e. salps, siphonophores), euphausiids, natantian decapod crustaceans and fish (i.e. myctophids and stomiiformes). In agreement with the available information on diets of planktonic taxa, the lowest isotope ratios were found for filter feeders ( V. armata, S. maxima, the pteropods Cymbulia peroni and Cavolinia inflexa, ostracods and the thaliacean Pyrosoma atlanticum), all of which feed on particulate organic matter. We found three trophic levels in macroplankton/micronekton food webs based on a 15N-enrichment factor of ~ 2.5‰ per level. The range of ? 13C was particularly wide among carnivores (- 20.7‰ to - 16.6‰), suggesting predation on a variety of prey from gelatinous zooplankton (which displayed more depleted ? 13C signatures) to small fishes and decapods. Correlation between ? 13C-? 15N was generally weak, likely due to the consumption of different kinds of sinking particles (e.g. marine snow, phytodetritus), some constituted of multiply recycled particulate organic matter (POM). However, higher ? 13C-? 15N correlations were observed during winter and spring, periods of water column homogenization, suggesting that the planktonic community assimilates pulses of new production from the photic zone (peaking in January-February). Low correlations were observed during periods of water column stratification, particularly in summer, when production is especially low, suggesting that in this period macroplankton-micronekton community rely on sources other than surface primary production such as POM derived from river discharge.

Fanelli, E.; Cartes, J. E.; Papiol, V.

2011-07-01

196

Evolution and phylogeny of the mud shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda) revealed from complete mitochondrial genomes  

PubMed Central

Background The evolutionary history and relationships of the mud shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Gebiidea and Axiidea) are contentious, with previous attempts revealing mixed results. The mud shrimps were once classified in the infraorder Thalassinidea. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses, however, suggest separation of the group into two individual infraorders, Gebiidea and Axiidea. Mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence and structure can be especially powerful in resolving higher systematic relationships that may offer new insights into the phylogeny of the mud shrimps and the other decapod infraorders, and test the hypothesis of dividing the mud shrimps into two infraorders. Results We present the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of five mud shrimps, Austinogebia edulis, Upogebia major, Thalassina kelanang (Gebiidea), Nihonotrypaea thermophilus and Neaxius glyptocercus (Axiidea). All five genomes encode a standard set of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a putative control region. Except for T. kelanang, mud shrimp mitochondrial genomes exhibited rearrangements and novel patterns compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern. Each of the two Gebiidea species (A. edulis and U. major) and two Axiidea species (N. glyptocercus and N. thermophiles) share unique gene order specific to their infraorders and analyses further suggest these two derived gene orders have evolved independently. Phylogenetic analyses based on the concatenated nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 13 protein-coding genes indicate the possible polyphyly of mud shrimps, supporting the division of the group into two infraorders. However, the infraordinal relationships among the Gebiidea and Axiidea, and other reptants are poorly resolved. The inclusion of mt genome from more taxa, in particular the reptant infraorders Polychelida and Glypheidea is required in further analysis. Conclusions Phylogenetic analyses on the mt genome sequences and the distinct gene orders provide further evidences for the divergence between the two mud shrimp infraorders, Gebiidea and Axiidea, corroborating previous molecular phylogeny and justifying their infraordinal status. Mitochondrial genome sequences appear to be promising markers for resolving phylogenetic issues concerning decapod crustaceans that warrant further investigations and our present study has also provided further information concerning the mt genome evolution of the Decapoda. PMID:23153176

2012-01-01

197

Variability of coastal suprabenthic assemblages from sandy beaches of the Caribbean coast of Venezuela.  

PubMed

The suprabenthos or hyperbenthos is the macrofaunal assemblage of small-sized organisms that interact for some time in the benthic boundary layer. Information about the taxonomic composition and role of suprabenthic species, especially in littoral zones, is scarce and scattered. This work attempts to contribute alleviate this problem. We analyze the temporal and spatial variations of suprabenthic assemblages in the swash-zone from four beaches of the littoral coast of Venezuela. For each beach, two sites were chosen, and special attention was given to water and sediment characteristics. 12 environmental variables were measured: Dissolved oxygen, oxygen saturation percentage, pH, salinity, surface temperature, total, organic and inorganic suspended solids, total organic carbon, organic matter in sediment, grain size of sediment, and amount of dragged material of sample. All faunal samples were taken on a monthly basis during 2011; these were extracted using a manual suprabenthic sledge towed parallel to the shoreline. Samples were sorted and identified to their lowest possible taxonomic level. A total of 24 141 specimens (mean abundance: 26.16 +/- 55.35 ind./m2) belonging to 21 taxonomic groups were identified. Analysis suggests that seasonality does not explain observed changes either in fauna or environmental variables. It was found that suprabenthic assemblages, total suprabenthos density, richness and environmental variables changed in a dissimilar fashion between months and beaches. The most frequent groups were amphipods and decapods; and at the species/categories level post-larval shrimp (Penaeidae), Grapsidae crab megalopae and Arenaeus cribarius megalopae were common. Dissimilarity between months in each beach was primarily explained by the abundance of amphipods, ctenophores, decapods and mysids. For particular months and selected beaches very high abundances of ctenophores were found. This group dominated the sample even though it is not usually a representative group in suprabenthos. Samples showed low correlations between suprabenthos and environmental variables. A somewhat stronger correlation could be established between water characteristics and dragged material abundance. The studied suprabenthos assemblage was found to have high taxa richness and very dynamic behaviour at spatial and temporal scale. Further analysis suggested that there is no evident pattern of distribution and that causality can not be directly attributed to temporal variation only. Possibly there is an influence of a synergy of environmentals or biological factors, rather than a single variable. The species Americamysis bahia and Americamysis taironana are reported for the first time in Venezuela. This study represents the first ecological research of the suprabenthos in the Caribbean region. PMID:25102634

Ortega, Ileana; Martín, Alberto; Díaz, Yusbelly J

2014-06-01

198

DIRS1-like retrotransposons are widely distributed among Decapoda and are particularly present in hydrothermal vent organisms  

PubMed Central

Background Transposable elements are major constituents of eukaryote genomes and have a great impact on genome structure and stability. Considering their mutational abilities, TEs can contribute to the genetic diversity and evolution of organisms. Knowledge of their distribution among several genomes is an essential condition to study their dynamics and to better understand their role in species evolution. DIRS1-like retrotransposons are a particular group of retrotransposons according to their mode of transposition that implies a tyrosine recombinase. To date, they have been described in a restricted number of species in comparison with the LTR retrotransposons. In this paper, we determine the distribution of DIRS1-like elements among 25 decapod species, 10 of them living in hydrothermal vents that correspond to particularly unstable environments. Results Using PCR approaches, we have identified 15 new DIRS1-like families in 15 diverse decapod species (shrimps, lobsters, crabs and galatheid crabs). Hydrothermal organisms show a particularly great diversity of DIRS1-like elements with 5 families characterized among Alvinocarididae shrimps and 3 in the galatheid crab Munidopsis recta. Phylogenic analyses show that these elements are divergent toward the DIRS1-like families previously described in other crustaceans and arthropods and form a new clade called AlDIRS1. At larger scale, the distribution of DIRS1-like retrotransposons appears more or less patchy depending on the taxa considered. Indeed, a scattered distribution can be observed in the infraorder Brachyura whereas all the species tested in infraorders Caridea and Astacidea harbor some DIRS1-like elements. Conclusion Our results lead to nearly double both the number of DIRS1-like elements described to date, and the number of species known to harbor these ones. In this study, we provide the first degenerate primers designed to look specifically for DIRS1-like retrotransposons. They allowed for revealing for the first time a widespread distribution of these elements among a large phylum, here the order Decapoda. They also suggest some peculiar features of these retrotransposons in hydrothermal organisms where a great diversity of elements is already observed. Finally, this paper constitutes the first essential step which allows for considering further studies based on the dynamics of the DIRS1-like retrotransposons among several genomes. PMID:19400949

Piednoel, Mathieu; Bonnivard, Eric

2009-01-01

199

Ichnofabrics of the Capdevila Formation (early Eocene) in the Los Palacios Basin (western Cuba): Paleoenvironmental and paleoecological implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ichnofabrics present in the early Eocene siliciclastic deposits of the Capdevila Formation exposed in the Pinar del Rio area (Los Palacios Basin, western Cuba) are analyzed in this paper and their paleoecological and paleoenvironmental significance are discussed. Nine ichnofabrics were recognized in the dominantly sandy sedimentary succession: Ophiomorpha, Asterosoma, Thalassinoides, Palaeophycus, Scolicia, Bichordites-Thalassinoides, Rhizocorallium, Scolicia-Thalassinoides and rhizobioturbation. Diversity of ichnofauna is low and burrows made by detritus-feeding organisms in well oxygenated and stenohaline waters predominate. Suites of the Cruziana and Skolithos Ichnofacies lacking their archetypical characteristics were recognized, being impoverished in diversity and presenting dominance of echinoderm and decapods crustacean burrows as a response to the environmental stress caused by the high frequency of deposition. The ichnofabric distribution in the studied succession, its recurrence in the sandstone beds and the presence of a Glossifungites Ichnofacies suite with rhizobioturbation associated reflect a shoaling-upward event with subaerial exposure of the substrate. The integrated analysis of the ichnology and the sedimentary facies suggests deposition in a shallow slope frequently impacted by gravitational flows and high-energy events. The evidence of substrate exposure indicates the occurrence of a forced regression and suggests the existence of a sequence boundary at the top of the Capdevila Formation.

Villegas-Martín, Jorge; Netto, Renata Guimarães; Lavina, Ernesto Luis Correa; Rojas-Consuegra, Reinaldo

2014-12-01

200

Trophic amplification of climate warming.  

PubMed

Ecosystems can alternate suddenly between contrasting persistent states due to internal processes or external drivers. It is important to understand the mechanisms by which these shifts occur, especially in exploited ecosystems. There have been several abrupt marine ecosystem shifts attributed either to fishing, recent climate change or a combination of these two drivers. We show that temperature has been an important driver of the trophodynamics of the North Sea, a heavily fished marine ecosystem, for nearly 50 years and that a recent pronounced change in temperature established a new ecosystem dynamic regime through a series of internal mechanisms. Using an end-to-end ecosystem approach that included primary producers, primary, secondary and tertiary consumers, and detritivores, we found that temperature modified the relationships among species through nonlinearities in the ecosystem involving ecological thresholds and trophic amplifications. Trophic amplification provides an alternative mechanism to positive feedback to drive an ecosystem towards a new dynamic regime, which in this case favours jellyfish in the plankton and decapods and detritivores in the benthos. Although overfishing is often held responsible for marine ecosystem degeneration, temperature can clearly bring about similar effects. Our results are relevant to ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM), seen as the way forward to manage exploited marine ecosystems. PMID:19740882

Kirby, Richard R; Beaugrand, Gregory

2009-12-01

201

Moult cycle and growth of the crab Halicarcinus planatus (Brachyura, Hymenosomatidae) in the Beagle Channel, southern tip of South America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crab Halicarcinus planatus is the only hymenosomatid crab that inhabits the southern tip of South America and is the only decapod species that reproduces twice a year in the Beagle Channel. In this article, we study the moult cycle in the field (moult frequency, analysis of size frequency distribution) and linked it with growth studied in the laboratory (absolute and per cent growth increment, Hiatt function). Hiatt functions were similar for males and females. Moult frequency was seasonal: in early austral spring and in austral summer. In females, the pubertal moult is the terminal moult, whereas males continue moulting after attaining the size of morphometric maturity. Moult increment was highly variable. The relationship between absolute moult increment and crab size was described by a quadratic function. Per cent growth increment decreased with size, and relationships were different for each sex: linear for females and quadratic for males. Seven and eight modal groups explained the size frequency distributions for females and males from the field, respectively, and revealed the existence of two cohorts of recruits per year. Further modal analysis was mainly hampered by the high variability of size increment that could make any moulting individual fall in its own or one of two following modal groups. The antagonism between growth and reproduction was evident in small males. We hypothesize that the terminal pubertal moult is an advantageous feature that allows females to maximize their investment in reproduction after their terminal moult, which allows this species to have two spawnings per year.

Diez, Mariano J.; Lovrich, Gustavo A.

2013-09-01

202

Geographical Information System Based Evaluation of Benthic MACRO Fauna in Thondi Coastal Environment, South East Coast of India Rethna Priya. E, Anbuchezhian. R and Ravichandran. S. Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Annamalai University, Portonovo, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal and frequency difference of the macro fauna have been related to variation in the morpho dynamics and the population dynamics of dominant species. The aim of this article is to describe the seasonal and spatial variation of the macro fauna at 12 different samplings stations with distinct environmental conditions in Thondi coastal area. The samples were collected monthly from September 2010 to September 2011. Macro benthic invertebrates are numerically important components of coastal ecosystems and represents indicators of fishery potentials, intertidal ecology and environmental degradation. Sampling stations were fixed by GPS. 54 species were recorded, of this 24 species belonging to gastropods, 15 species of bivalves, 5 species of amphipods, 6 species of decapods and 4 species of echinoderms. In the present study the abdunce of benthic fauna greatly depends on physical and chemical properties of the substratum. The diversity, seasonal variations, dominances, influence of ecological parameters have been studied geographically by using GIS software for a period of one year from September 2010 to September 2011The macro fauna at all sites showed a arresting seasonal variation in density and diversity. Keywords: Macro fauna, GIS software, environmental degradation, morpho dynamics.

Priya, R.; Ramasamy, A.; Ravichandran, R.; Anbuchezhian. E.

2013-05-01

203

Astacin family metallopeptidases and serine peptidase inhibitors in spider digestive fluid.  

PubMed

Digestive fluid of the araneid spider Argiope aurantia is known to contain zinc metallopeptidases. Using anion-exchange chromatography, size-exclusion chromatography, sucrose density gradient centrifugation, and gel electrophoresis, we isolated two lower-molecular-mass peptidases, designated p16 and p18. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of p16 (37 residues) and p18 (20 residues) are 85% identical over the first 20 residues and are most similar to the N-terminal sequences of the fully active form of meprin (beta subunits) from several vertebrates (47-52% and 50-60% identical, respectively). Meprin is a peptidase in the astacin (M12A) subfamily of the astacin (M12) family. Additionally, a 66-residue internal sequence obtained from p16 aligns with the conserved astacin subfamily domain. Thus, at least some spider digestive peptidases appear related to astacin of decapod crustaceans. However, important differences between spider and crustacean metallopeptidases with regard to isoelectric point and their susceptibility to hemolymph-borne inhibitors are demonstrated. Anomalous behavior of the lower-molecular-mass Argiope peptidases during certain fractionation procedures indicates that these peptidases may take part in reversible associations with each other or with other proteins. A. aurantia digestive fluid also contains inhibitory activity effective against insect digestive peptidases. Here we present evidence for at least thirteen, heat-stable serine peptidase inhibitors ranging in molecular mass from about 15 to 32 kDa. PMID:16458560

Foradori, Matthew J; Tillinghast, Edward K; Smith, J Stephen; Townley, Mark A; Mooney, Robert E

2006-03-01

204

The timing and pattern of biotic recovery following the end-Permian mass extinction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aftermath of the great end-Permian period mass extinction 252 Myr ago shows how life can recover from the loss of >90% species globally. The crisis was triggered by a number of physical environmental shocks (global warming, acid rain, ocean acidification and ocean anoxia), and some of these were repeated over the next 5-6 Myr. Ammonoids and some other groups diversified rapidly, within 1-3 Myr, but extinctions continued through the Early Triassic period. Triassic ecosystems were rebuilt stepwise from low to high trophic levels through the Early to Middle Triassic, and a stable, complex ecosystem did not re-emerge until the beginning of the Middle Triassic, 8-9 Myr after the crisis. A positive aspect of the recovery was the emergence of entirely new groups, such as marine reptiles and decapod crustaceans, as well as new tetrapods on land, including -- eventually -- dinosaurs. The stepwise recovery of life in the Triassic could have been delayed either by biotic drivers (complex multispecies interactions) or physical perturbations, or a combination of both. This is an example of the wider debate about the relative roles of intrinsic and extrinsic drivers of large-scale evolution.

Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Benton, Michael J.

2012-06-01

205

Tyrosine hydroxylase protein expression in ventral nerve cord of Neotropical freshwater crab.  

PubMed

Given the importance of catecholamines in coordinating physiological and behavioral responses in brachyurans, the present study was designed to investigate the distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive cells and fibers in the ventral nerve cord of Dilocarcinus pagei the Neotropical freshwater crab. TH immunoreactivity was visualized in adult crabs of both sexes, during the intermolt period. We found TH-positive cells that have not been previously described in brachyurans. Specifically, we found a pair of TH-positive cells in the ventral region of the thoracic ganglion, and in ventral and dorsal regions of the abdominal (pleonic) ganglion, suggesting catecholaminergic modulation of claws' function and abdominal structures. In addition, great population of TH-positive cells was observed in the subesophageal ganglion, indicating conservation during evolution of catecholamines in this ganglion of decapods. Dopamine is present in cells and fiber tracts of brachyuran ventral nerve cord, projecting to endocrine, cardiac and digestive structures, suggesting widespread modulation and control of physiological functions and behavior. Dopamine plays a central role in movement and psychiatric disorders in humans. Information on dopaminergic function in the nervous system of invertebrates should improve the understanding of its function in more complex systems, such as human beings. PMID:25217291

Ponzoni, Silvia

2014-12-01

206

Endogenous origin of endo-?-1,4-glucanase in common woodlouse Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Isopoda).  

PubMed

Because endogenous cellulases have been observed in arthropods, the potential ability to produce cellulose degrading enzymes was examined in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber, an important decomposer of decayed plant material. cDNA fragments encoding portions of two novel endo-?-1,4-glucanase amino acid sequences were amplified by RT-PCR, and the amino acid sequences predicted were affiliated to endo-?-1,4-glucanases from other arthropods, where they cluster with endo-?-1,4-glucanases of decapod crustaceans. Hybridization in situ reveals the hepatopancreas to be the primary site of gene expression and provides direct evidence of the endogenous origin of endo-?-1,4-glucanase in P. scaber. Conservation of catalytically important amino acid residues suggests that both sequences translate into functional cellulases. Cellulolytic activity was detected in hepatopancreatic extract after separation by SDS-PAGE, which included CMC as substrate. This is the first evidence of endogenous cellulases in peracarid crustaceans and gives strong support for the involvement of isopod endo-?-1,4-glucanases in the degradation of cellulose in their diet. PMID:20544203

Kostanjšek, Rok; Milatovi?, Maša; Strus, Jasna

2010-11-01

207

Organization of optic lobes that support motion detection in a semiterrestrial crab  

PubMed Central

There is a mismatch between the documentation of the visually guided behaviors and visual physiology of decapods (Malacostraca, Crustacea) and knowledge about the neural architecture of their visual systems. The present study provides a description of the neuroanatomical features of the four visual neuropils of the grapsid crab Chasmagnathus granulatus, which is currently used as a model for investigating the neurobiology of learning and memory. Visual memory in Chasmagnathus is thought to be driven from within deep retinotopic neuropil by large field motion sensitive neurons. Here we describe the neural architecture characterizing the Chasmagnathus lobula, in which such neurons are found. It is shown that unlike the equivalent region of insects, the malacostracan lobula is densely packed with columns, the spacing of which is the same as that of retinotopic units of the lamina. The lobula comprises many levels of strata and columnar afferents that supply systems of tangential neurons. Two of these, which are known to respond to movement across the retina, have orthogonally arranged dendritic fields deep in the lobula. They also show evidence of dye coupling. The present results discuss the significance of commonalties across taxa with respect to the organization of the lamina and medulla and contrasts these with possible taxon-specific arrangements of deeper neuropils that support systems of matched filters. PMID:16261533

Sztarker, Julieta; Strausfeld, Nicholas J.; Tomsic, Daniel

2008-01-01

208

Tunneling trilobites: Habitual infaunalism in an Ordovician carbonate seafloor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asaphus trilobites preserved in tunnel systems of the trace fossil Thalassinoides from the mid-Ordovician (ca. 465 Ma) Holen Limestone, Sweden, are interpreted as the trace makers, enabled by shallow carbonate firm grounds to construct open tunnel networks and develop habitual infaunal behavior. Their in situ preservation confirms an infaunal ethology inferred for some trilobite taxa from functional morphology. We suggest that predation pressure from large omnivorous nautiloid cephalopods (“Orthoceras” Limestone facies) may have triggered ecologic opportunism. In trilobites well adapted for predatory-scavenging behavior as well as excavation, the tunnel networks functioned primarily for protection, possibly assisting in feeding, breathing, and breeding strategies. Previously, “trilobite burrows” have referred to seafloor traces of locomotion, feeding, and resting (Cruziana, Rusophycus). Infaunal, tunneling trilobites provide new evidence of mid-Ordovician partitioning of the skeletal benthos, adding to an ecologic and trophic tier hitherto interpreted as occupied by soft-bodied organisms. Such trilobites also provide an identity for Thalassinoides tracemakers prior to Devonian evolution of decapod crustaceans.

Cherns, Lesley; Wheeley, James R.; Karis, Lars

2006-08-01

209

Feeding habits and ontogenetic diet shifts of Bombay duck, Harpadon nehereus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on two bottom trawl surveys conducted in autumn 2000 and 2001, a total of 1106 stomach samples of Bombay duck Harpadon nehereus between 23-278 mm fork length were collected and analyzed. The results show that Bombay duck prey items consisted of 11 groups or 32 species, of which Apogon lineatus, Leptochela gracilis, Acetes chinensis, and Euphausia pacifi ca were the dominant prey species. Ontogenetic variations were found in feeding habits and feeding activity of Bombay duck. Feeding activity was highest in fish smaller than 50 mm, lowest in fish between 50 and 99 mm, and then increased with increasing size thereafter. As Bombay duck size increased, fish prey increased in importance, whereas euphausiids and decapods decreased in importance. Different trophic guilds were observed in feeding habits across the examined size range. Bombay duck smaller than 50 mm were zooplanktivores, mainly feeding on zooplankton and fish larva; those between 50 and 149 mm were generalist predators, mainly feeding on pelagic shrimps, demersal shrimps and fishes; and those larger than 150 mm were piscivores, mainly feeding on fishes.

Zhang, Bo; Jin, Xianshi

2014-05-01

210

Composition and dynamics of the Black Sea benthopelagic plankton and its contribution to the near-shore plankton communities.  

PubMed

At a shallow (7 m) near-shore sampling site in the Black Sea we analyzed composition, abundance, and biomass of benthopelagic organisms and the contribution these animals make to the total plankton. The site was monitored across several years (1996-2001; 2006-2007) whilst for 1999-2000 the seasonal variations were analysed. A total of 321 samples from Golubaja Bay near Novorossiysk (44°34'31.04? N, 37°58'45.11? E) in 1996-2007 were taken with a Judey net. The benthopelagic fauna was represented by 69 taxa, a diversity comparable to similar shelf areas. The benthopelagic component played an important role in near-shore plankton communities in the Black Sea accounting for 50% of the total zooplankton biomass at night during all seasons. Abundance and biomass of the benthopelagic animals showed seasonal fluctuations, the highest biomass being recorded during winter (>75% of the total zooplankton biomass) and early spring due to large amphipods, whilst the highest abundances occur during late summer because of numerous young stages of various taxa. Amphipods, mysids, and decapods are the main contributors to the plankton biomass and abundances. Both night and daytime samples are strongly recommended for the adequate description of the near-shore plankton communities. PMID:24945680

Vereshchaka, Alexander L; Anokhina, Ludmila L

2014-01-01

211

Large-field-of-view wide-spectrum artificial reflecting superposition compound eyes.  

PubMed

In nature, reflecting superposition compound eyes (RSCEs) found in shrimps, lobsters and some other decapods are extraordinary imaging systems with numerous optical features such as minimum chromatic aberration, wide-angle field of view (FOV), high sensitivity to light and superb acuity to motion. Here, we present life-sized, large-FOV, wide-spectrum artificial RSCEs as optical imaging devices inspired by the unique designs of their natural counterparts. Our devices can form real, clear images based on reflection rather than refraction, hence avoiding chromatic aberration due to dispersion by the optical materials. Compared to imaging at visible wavelengths using conventional refractive lenses of comparable size, our artificial RSCEs demonstrate minimum chromatic aberration, exceptional FOV up to 165° without distortion, modest aberrations and comparable imaging quality without any post-image processing. Together with an augmenting cruciform pattern surrounding each focused image, our large-FOV, wide-spectrum artificial RSCEs possess enhanced motion-tracking capability ideal for diverse applications in military, security, medical imaging and astronomy. PMID:24764227

Huang, Chi-Chieh; Wu, Xiudong; Liu, Hewei; Aldalali, Bader; Rogers, John A; Jiang, Hongrui

2014-08-01

212

Biomimicking micropatterned surfaces and their effect on marine biofouling.  

PubMed

When synthetic materials are submerged in marine environments, dissolved matter and marine organisms attach to their surfaces by a process known as marine fouling. This phenomenon may lead to diminished material performance with detrimental consequences. Bioinspired surface patterning and chemical surface modifications present promising approaches to the design of novel functional surfaces that can prevent biofouling phenomena. In this study, we report the synergistic effects of surface patterns, inspired by the marine decapod crab Myomenippe hardwickii in combination with chemical surface modifications toward suppressing marine fouling. M. hardwickii is known to maintain a relatively clean carapace although the species occurs in biofouling communities of tropical shallow subtidal coastal waters. Following the surface analysis of selected specimens, we designed hierarchical surface microtopographies that replicate the critical features observed on the crustacean surface. The micropatterned surfaces were modified with zwitterionic polymer brushes or with layer-by-layer deposited polyelectrolyte multilayers to enhance their antifouling and/or fouling-release potential. Chemically modified and unmodified micropatterned surfaces were subjected to extensive fouling tests, including laboratory assays against barnacle settlement and algae adhesion, and field static immersion tests. The results show a statistically significant reduction in settlement on the micropatterned surfaces as well as a synergistic effect when the microtopographies are combined with grafted polymer chains. PMID:25017490

Brzozowska, Agata M; Parra-Velandia, Fernando J; Quintana, Robert; Xiaoying, Zhu; Lee, Serina S C; Chin-Sing, Lim; Ja?czewski, Dominik; Teo, Serena L-M; Vancso, Julius G

2014-08-01

213

Global Diversity and Phylogeny of Pelagic Shrimps of the Former Genera Sergestes and Sergia (Crustacea, Dendrobranchiata, Sergestidae), with Definition of Eight New Genera  

PubMed Central

We revise the global diversity of the former genera Sergia and Sergestes which include 71 valid species. The revision is based on examination of more than 37,000 specimens from collections in the Natural History Museum of Denmark and the Museum of Natural History, Paris. We used 72 morphological characters (61 binary, 11 multistate) and Sicyonella antennata as an outgroup for cladistic analysis. There is no support for the genera Sergia and Sergestes as they have been defined until now. We define and diagnose eight genera of the former genus Sergia (Sergia and new genera Gardinerosergia, Phorcosergia, Prehensilosergia, Robustosergia, Scintillosergia, Challengerosergia, and Lucensosergia) and seven genera of the former genus Sergestes (Sergestes, Deosergestes, Eusergestes, Allosergestes, Parasergestes, Neosergestes, and a new genus Cornutosergestes). An identification key is presented for all genera of the family Sergestidae. The phylogeny of Sergestidae is mainly based on three categories of characters related to: (1) general decapod morphology, (2) male copulatory organs, and (3) photophores. Only simultaneous use of all three character types resulted in a resolved tree with minimal Bootstrap support 75 for each clade. Most genera are interzonal mesopelagic migrants, some are benthopelagic (Scintillosergia, Lucensosergia), bathypelagic (Sergia), or epipelagic (Cornutosergestes). Within each of meso- and benthopelagic genera there is one species with panoceanic distribution, while most species ranges are restricted to a single ocean. The genera demonstrate two different strategies expressed both in morphology and behavior: protective (Eusergestes, Sergestes, Cornutosergestes, Prehensilosergia, Scintillosergia, Lucensosergia, Challengerosergia, Gardinerosergia, Robustosergia, Phorcosergia, Sergia) and offensive (Neosergestes, Parasergestes, Allosergestes, Deosergestes). PMID:25409458

Vereshchaka, Alexander L.; Olesen, Jørgen; Lunina, Anastasia A.

2014-01-01

214

Adult neurogenesis in the central olfactory pathway in the absence of receptor neuron turnover in Libinia emarginata  

PubMed Central

Life-long neurogenesis is a characteristic feature of the olfactory pathways of a phylogenetically diverse array of animals. In both vertebrates and invertebrates, the life-long addition of olfactory interneurons in the brain occurs in parallel with the continuous proliferation of olfactory receptor neurons in the olfactory organ. It has been proposed that these two processes are related functionally, with new olfactory interneurons being added to accommodate the new olfactory receptor neurons added in the periphery. While this has not been tested directly because the two processes are not readily separable, this question can be addressed in the olfactory pathway of the crab, Libinia emarginata. Unlike most decapod crustaceans, which moult and grow throughout life, L. emarginata has a terminal, maturational moult after which animals become anecdysic (stop moulting). Because the addition of new receptor neurons in crustaceans is associated with moulting, a comparison of neurogenesis in immature and mature L. emarginata provides an opportunity to examine the interdependence of central and peripheral neurogenesis in the olfactory pathway. This study demonstrates that the continuous addition of olfactory receptor neurons in L. emarginata ceases at the terminal moult but that proliferation and differentiation of olfactory interneurons in the brain continues in mature animals. Contrary to the general assumption, therefore, continuous neurogenesis in the central olfactory pathway of this species does not occur as part of a process involving the coregulation of central and peripheral neurogenesis. These findings suggest that peripheral neurogenesis is not a requirement for continuous neurogenesis in the central olfactory pathway. PMID:16307582

Sullivan, Jeremy M.; Beltz, Barbara S.

2009-01-01

215

Early embryonic development of the central nervous system in the Australian crayfish and the Marbled crayfish (Marmorkrebs).  

PubMed

This study sets out to provide a systematic analysis of the development of the primordial central nervous system (CNS) in embryos of two decapod crustaceans, the Australian crayfish Cherax destructor (Malacostraca, Decapoda, Astacida) and the parthenogenetic Marbled crayfish (Marmorkrebs, Malacostraca, Decapoda, Astacida) by histochemical labelling with phalloidin, a general marker for actin. One goal of our study was to examine the neurogenesis in these two organisms with a higher temporal resolution than previous studies did. The second goal was to explore if there are any developmental differences between the parthenogenetic Marmorkrebs and the sexually reproducing Australian crayfish. We found that in the embryos of both species the sequence of neurogenetic events and the architecture of the embryonic CNS are identical. The naupliar neuromeres proto-, deuto-, tritocerebrum, and the mandibular neuromeres emerge simultaneously. After this "naupliar brain" has formed, there is a certain time lag before the maxilla one primordium develops and before the more caudal neuromeres follow sequentially in the characteristic anterior-posterior gradient. Because the malacostracan egg-nauplius represents a re-capitulation of a conserved ancestral information, which is expressed during development, we speculate that the naupliar brain also conserves an ancestral piece of information on how the brain architecture of an early crustacean or even arthropod ancestor may have looked like. Furthermore, we compare the architecture of the embryonic crayfish CNS to that of the brain and thoracic neuromeres in insects and discuss the similarities and differences that we found against an evolutionary background. PMID:16479399

Vilpoux, K; Sandeman, R; Harzsch, S

2006-04-01

216

Adult neurogenesis and cell cycle regulation in the crustacean olfactory pathway: from glial precursors to differentiated neurons  

PubMed Central

Adult neurogenesis is a characteristic feature of the olfactory pathways of decapod crustaceans. In crayfish and clawed lobsters, adult-born neurons are the progeny of precursor cells with glial characteristics located in a neurogenic niche on the ventral surface of the brain. The daughters of these precursor cells migrate during S and G2 stages of the cell cycle along glial fibers to lateral (cluster 10) and medial (cluster 9) proliferation zones. Here, they divide (M phase) producing offspring that differentiate into olfactory interneurons. The complete lineage of cells producing neurons in these animals, therefore, is arranged along the migratory stream according to cell cycle stage. We have exploited this model to examine the influence of environmental and endogenous factors on adult neurogenesis. We find that increased levels of serotonin upregulate neuronal production, as does maintaining animals in an enriched (versus deprived) environment or augmenting their diet with omega-3 fatty acids; increased levels of nitric oxide, on the other hand, decrease the rate of neurogenesis. The features of the neurogenic niche and migratory streams, and the fact that these continue to function in vitro, provide opportunities unavailable in other organisms to explore the sequence of cellular and molecular events leading to the production of new neurons in adult brains. PMID:17624620

Sullivan, Jeremy M.; Sandeman, David C.; Benton, Jeanne L.

2009-01-01

217

Differential uptake of MRI contrast agents indicates charge-selective blood-brain interface in the crayfish.  

PubMed

This study provides a new perspective on the long-standing problem of the nature of the decapod crustacean blood-brain interface. Previous studies of crustacean blood-brain interface permeability have relied on invasive histological, immunohistochemical and electrophysiological techniques, indicating a leaky non-selective blood-brain barrier. The present investigation involves the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a method for non-invasive longitudinal tracking of tracers in real-time. Differential uptake rates of two molecularly distinct MRI contrast agents, namely manganese (Mn(II)) and Magnevist® (Gd-DTPA), were observed and quantified in the crayfish, Cherax destructor. Contrast agents were injected into the pericardium and uptake was observed with longitudinal MRI for approximately 14.5 h. Mn(II) was taken up quickly into neural tissue (within 6.5 min), whereas Gd-DTPA was not taken up into neural tissue and was instead restricted to the intracerebral vasculature or excreted into nearby sinuses. Our results provide evidence for a charge-selective intracerebral blood-brain interface in the crustacean nervous system, a structural characteristic once considered too complex for a lower-order arthropod. PMID:22526631

Otopalik, Adriane G; Shin, Jane; Beltz, Barbara S; Sandeman, David C; Kolodny, Nancy H

2012-08-01

218

Diet composition of Bathylagus euryops (Osmeriformes: Bathylagidae) along the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge, from Iceland to the Azores (MAR), is the largest topographical feature in the Atlantic Ocean. Despite its size, few studies have described dietary patterns of pelagic fishes along the MAR. MAR-ECO, a Census of Marine Life field project, aimed to describe the food web structure of abundant fish species along the ridge through a series of research expeditions to the MAR. Among the midwater fishes sampled during the MAR-ECO project, Bathylagus euryops (Osmeriformes: Bathylagidae) was the biomass-dominant pelagic species and ranked third in total abundance. In this paper, we describe the dietary composition of B. euryops along the MAR. Overall, copepods represented the dominant prey group consumed by B. euryops. Multivariate analyses, including a cluster analysis and a canonical correspondence analysis, revealed that fish size significantly influenced the diet of B. euryops with ostracods representing the most important prey group at small sizes (<95 mm) and decapod shrimp and calanoid copepods becoming more important with increasing fish size. Due to the high abundance and biomass observed along the MAR combined with its role as a link for energy transfer between zooplankton and higher trophic level predators, B. euryops appears to be an ecologically important species in the oceanic food web of the North Atlantic Ocean.

Sweetman, C. J.; Sutton, T. T.; Vecchione, M.; Latour, R. J.

2014-10-01

219

Reprint of “Deep epibenthic communities in two contrasting areas of the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)”  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epibenthic communities were studied in two areas, off western and southern Mallorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean), which differ in the oceanographic conditions and show different degrees of oligotrophy. Sampling was performed with beam trawl at two seasons (December 2009 and July 2010) and at depths between 228 and 900 m. A total of 199 taxa were identified, of which the most diverse were decapod crustaceans and fishes. Depth was the main factor structuring megafaunal assemblages. In the shelf break the shrimps Plesionika heterocarpus, P. antigai, Processa nouveli and P. canaliculata were dominant. In the upper slope, P. acanthonotus, Boreomysis arctica, Gaidropsarus biscayensis and Aristeus antennatus were the species that most contributed to the group formation, whereas in the middle slope the crustaceans P. acanthonotus and Munida tenuimana dominated. Specific abundances were relatively low everywhere. Diversity H? values ranged from 2.19 to 3.17, being higher in Sóller. Using species abundance data, significant differences were identified concerning both area and season in both shelf break and upper slope strata, while no significant differences were found in the middle slope stratum. The analysis of functional groups showed that both depth and area had a significant effect on their differential distribution.

Ramón, Montserrat; Abelló, Pere; Ordines, Francesc; Massutí, Enric

2014-10-01

220

SPERMIOGENESIS IN THE CRAYFISH (PROCAMBARUS CLARKII)  

PubMed Central

The sperm of the crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, is relatively simple among decapod sperm and was described in the first paper of this series (28). The present paper details the development of this sperm as followed with the light and electron microscopes. The process is divided into six stages for purposes of description. The main points of interest discussed are the absence of mitochondria or mitochondrial derivatives in the mature sperm, the development of a complex acrosome in the absence of highly organized characteristic Golgi apparatus but in the presence of small stacks of annulate lamellae, and the changes in the nucleus. Of the latter, the elaborate convoluted sheets of membrane that are extensions of the nuclear envelope are unique. The nucleus undergoes unusual changes in size and shape that are accompanied by several phases of organization of the chromatin. In the mature sperm the nucleus is empty-appearing and notably lacking in any apparent high degree of order. The entire development of the sperm is consonant with the idea that the fate of the mitochondria and centrioles, structures that figure prominently in the elaborate architecture of flagellate sperm, is associated with the lack of a flagellum. PMID:13773055

Moses, Montrose J.

1961-01-01

221

Species-specific effects on hemolymph glucose control by serotonin, dopamine, and L-enkephalin and their inhibitors in Squilla mantis and Astacus leptodactylus (crustacea).  

PubMed

Hemolymph glucose level is controlled by crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (cHH) released from the eyestalk neuroendocrine centers under conditions of both physiological and environmental stress. Biogenic amines and enkephalin have been found to mediate the release of several neurohormones from crustacean neuroendocrine tissue. We investigated the effect of serotonin, dopamine, and Leucine-enkephalin in vivo--injected into the stomatopod Squilla mantis and the decapod Astacus leptodactylus--whether increasing or depressing glycemia. Serotonin had a marked effect in elevating glucose level compared with initial values in both species. 5-HT1-like receptors are more involved in mediating serotonin action as co-injected cyproheptadine was a more effective antagonist than ketanserin (5-HT2-like receptor inhibitor). Dopamine injection in intact animals produced a decrease below initial levels of hemolymph glucose. This effect was significantly antagonized by domperidone. No significant effect of both amines occurred in eyestalkless animals. L-enkephalin shows a differential effect: in S. mantis it induced hypoglycemia while in A. leptodactylus it caused an increase of glucose level. Co-injected antagonist naloxone affected the direction of the response. Serotonin appears to provide a major control on glucose mobilization, whereas dopamine and L-enkephalin act as modulators whose plasticity in use or action varies among species. PMID:15559934

Lorenzon, Simonetta; Brezovec, Sara; Ferrero, Enrico A

2004-09-01

222

Expression of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase alpha-subunit mRNA during embryonic development of the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus.  

PubMed

Astacus leptodactylus is a decapod crustacean fully adapted to freshwater where it spends its entire life cycle after hatching under huge osmoconcentration differences between the hemolymph and surrounding freshwater. We investigated the expression of mRNA encoding one ion transport-related protein, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase alpha-subunit, and one putative housekeeping gene, beta-actin, during crayfish ontogenesis using quantitative real-time PCR. A 216-amino acid part of the open reading frame region of the cDNA coding for the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase alpha-subunit was sequenced from total embryo, juvenile and adult gill tissues. The predicted amino acid sequence showed a high percentage similarity to those of other invertebrates (up to 95%) and vertebrates (up to 69%). beta-actin expression exhibited modest changes through embryonic development and early post-embryonic stage. The Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase alpha-subunit gene was expressed in all studied stages from metanauplius to juvenile. Two peaks of expression were observed: one in young embryos at 25% of embryonic development (EI=100 mum), and one in embryos just before hatching (at EI=420 mum), continuing in the freshly hatched juveniles. The Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase expression profile during embryonic development is time-correlated with the occurrence of other features, including ontogenesis of excretory antennal glands and differentiation of gill ionocytes linked to hyperosmoregulation processes and therefore involved in freshwater adaptation. PMID:20483286

Serrano, L; Towle, D W; Charmantier, G; Spanings-Pierrot, C

2007-06-01

223

Functional aspects of cHH C-terminal amidation in crayfish species.  

PubMed

The crustacean hyperglycemic hormone is the most abundant neuropeptide present in the eyestalk of Crustacea and its main role is to control the glucose level in the hemolymph. Our study was aimed at assessing the importance of C-terminal amidation for its biological activity. Two recombinant peptides were produced, Asl-rcHH-Gly with a free carboxyl terminus and Asl-rcHH-amide with an amidated C-terminus. Homologous bioassays performed on the astacid crayfish Astacus leptodactylus showed that the amidated peptide had a stronger hyperglycemic effect compared to the non-amidated peptide. To assess the relevance of amidation also in other decapods and how much the differences in the cHH amino acid sequence can affect the functionality of the peptides, we carried out heterologous bioassays on the cambarid Procambarus clarkii and palaemonid Palaemon elegans. The Asl-rcHH-amide elicited a good response in P. clarkii and in P. elegans. The injection of Asl-rcHH-Gly evoked a weak response in both species. These results prove the importance of C-terminal amidation for the biological activity of cHH in crayfish as well as the role of the peptide primary sequence for the species-specificity hormone-receptor recognition. PMID:18281112

Mosco, Alessandro; Edomi, Paolo; Guarnaccia, Corrado; Lorenzon, Simonetta; Pongor, Sándor; Ferrero, Enrico A; Giulianini, Piero G

2008-04-10

224

Neuropeptide Action in Insects and Crustaceans*  

PubMed Central

Physiological processes are regulated by a diverse array of neuropeptides that coordinate organ systems. The neuropeptides, many of which act through G protein–coupled receptors, affect the levels of cyclic nucleotides (cAMP and cGMP) and Ca2+ in target tissues. In this perspective, their roles in molting, osmoregulation, metabolite utilization, and cardiovascular function are highlighted. In decapod crustaceans, inhibitory neuropeptides (molt-inihibiting hormone and crustacean hyperglycemic hormone) suppress the molting gland through cAMP- and cGMP-mediated signaling. In insects, the complex movements during ecdysis are controlled by ecdysis-triggering hormone and a cascade of downstream neuropeptides. Adipokinetic/hypertrehalosemic/hyperprolinemic hormones mobilize energy stores in response to increased locomotory activity. Crustacean cardioacceleratory (cardioactive) peptide, proctolin, and FMRFamide-related peptides act on the heart, accessory pulsatile organs, and excurrent ostia to control hemolymph distribution to tissues. The osmoregulatory challenge of blood gorging in Rhodnius prolixus requires the coordinated release of serotonin and diuretic and antidiuretic hormones acting on the midgut and Malpighian tubules. These studies illustrate how multiple neuropeptides allow for flexibility in response to physiological challenges. PMID:20550437

Mykles, Donald L.; Adams, Michael E.; Gade, Gerd; Lange, Angela B.; Marco, Heather G.; Orchard, Ian

2011-01-01

225

Detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae with respect to seasonal fluctuations in temperature and plankton abundance.  

PubMed

Over a 1-year period, bi-monthly estuarine surface water and plankton samples (63-200 and >?200??m fractions) were assayed by polymerase chain reaction for the prevalence of total Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V.?vulnificus and V.?cholerae and select genes associated with clinical strains found in each species. Neither temperature nor plankton abundance was a significant correlate of total V.?parahaemolyticus; however, the prevalence of genes commonly associated with clinical strains (trh, tdh, ORF8) increased with temperature and copepod abundance (P?decapod abundance (P?

Turner, Jeffrey W; Malayil, Leena; Guadagnoli, Dominic; Cole, D; Lipp, Erin K

2014-04-01

226

Spiny lobsters detect conspecific blood-borne alarm cues exclusively through olfactory sensilla.  

PubMed

When attacked by predators, diverse animals actively or passively release molecules that evoke alarm and related anti-predatory behavior by nearby conspecifics. The actively released molecules are alarm pheromones, whereas the passively released molecules are alarm cues. For example, many insects have alarm-signaling systems that involve active release of alarm pheromones from specialized glands and detection of these signals using specific sensors. Many crustaceans passively release alarm cues, but the nature of the cues, sensors and responses is poorly characterized. Here we show in laboratory and field experiments that injured Caribbean spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, passively release alarm cues via blood (hemolymph) that induce alarm responses in the form of avoidance and suppression of feeding. These cues are detected exclusively through specific olfactory chemosensors, the aesthetasc sensilla. The alarm cues for Caribbean spiny lobsters are not unique to the species but do show some phylogenetic specificity: P. argus responds primarily with alarm behavior to conspecific blood, but with mixed alarm and appetitive behaviors to blood from the congener Panulirus interruptus, or with appetitive behaviors to blood from the blue crab Callinectes sapidus. This study lays the foundation for future neuroethological studies of alarm cue systems in this and other decapod crustaceans. PMID:18689413

Shabani, Shkelzen; Kamio, Michiya; Derby, Charles D

2008-08-01

227

A New PCR-Based Method Shows That Blue Crabs (Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun)) Consume Winter Flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Walbaum))  

PubMed Central

Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) once supported robust commercial and recreational fisheries in the New York (USA) region, but since the 1990s populations have been in decline. Available data show that settlement of young-of-the-year winter flounder has not declined as sharply as adult abundance, suggesting that juveniles are experiencing higher mortality following settlement. The recent increase of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) abundance in the New York region raises the possibility that new sources of predation may be contributing to juvenile winter flounder mortality. To investigate this possibility we developed and validated a method to specifically detect winter flounder mitochondrial control region DNA sequences in the gut contents of blue crabs. A survey of 55 crabs collected from Shinnecock Bay (along the south shore of Long Island, New York) in July, August, and September of 2011 showed that 12 of 42 blue crabs (28.6%) from which PCR-amplifiable DNA was recovered had consumed winter flounder in the wild, empirically supporting the trophic link between these species that has been widely speculated to exist. This technique overcomes difficulties with visual identification of the often unrecognizable gut contents of decapod crustaceans, and modifications of this approach offer valuable tools to more broadly address their feeding habits on a wide variety of species. PMID:24454797

Collier, Jackie L.; Fitzgerald, Sean P.; Hice, Lyndie A.; Frisk, Michael G.; McElroy, Anne E.

2014-01-01

228

How visual space maps in the optic neuropils of a crab.  

PubMed

The Decapoda is the largest order of crustaceans, some 10,000 species having been described to date. The order includes shrimps, lobsters, crayfishes, and crabs. Most of these are highly visual animals that display complex visually guided behaviors and, consequently, large areas of their nervous systems are dedicated to visual processing. However, our knowledge of the organization and functioning of the visual nervous system of these animals is still limited. Beneath the retina lie three serially arranged optic neuropils connected by two chiasmata. Here, we apply dye tracers in different areas of the retina or the optic neuropils to investigate the organization of visual space maps in the optic neuropils of the brachyuran crab Chasmagnathus granulatus. Our results reveal the way in which the visual space is represented in the three main optic neuropils of a decapod. We show that the crabs' optic chiasmata are oriented perpendicular to each other, an arrangement that seems to be unique among malacostracans. Crabs use retinal position in azimuth and elevation to categorize visual stimuli; for instance, stimuli moving above or below the horizon are interpreted as predators or conspecifics, respectively. The retinotopic maps revealed in the present study create the possibility of relating particular regions of the optic neuropils with distinct behavioral responses elicited by stimuli occurring in different regions of the visual field. PMID:21452243

De Astrada, Martín Berón; Medan, Violeta; Tomsic, Daniel

2011-06-15

229

Temporal changes in the structure of a slope suprabenthic community from the Bay of Biscay (NE Atlantic Ocean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The suprabenthic community of the upper slope off Arcachon (site A at about 400 m depth on a muddy sand substratum) was sampled monthly from February 1991 to January 1992 with a suprabenthic sled towed over the sea bottom. The fauna collected in the 0-50 cm water layer above the bottom was classified into 9 major groups and 109 species (56 amphipods, 12 mysids, 10 isopods, 10 decapods, 9 cumaceans, 6 euphausiids, 4 fishes, 1 lophogastrid and 1 tanaid). The total abundance of the community fluctuated between a maximum of 3199 ind./100 m2 in July and a minimum of 82 ind./100 m2 in November, with an annual mean value of 969±601 ind./100 m2. The community structure was mainly affected by the temporal abundance fluctuations of the asellote isopod Munnopsurus atlanticus. This species was numerically dominant during the first part of the year and showed a drastic decrease in August, followed by the dominance of the mysids Erythrops neapolitana or Parapseudomma calloplura in autumn and early winter. Such structural changes in the dominance of major taxa are discussed with respect to the feeding behaviour of species and food availability in the near-bottom environment. We conclude that the population dynamics of M. atlanticus in the upper bathyal was mainly governed by the seasonal development of its major prey, the benthic foraminifers, favoured by the spring phytodetritus deposition on the sea floor.

Sorbe, Jean Claude; Elizalde, Marta

2014-08-01

230

Seasonal changes in the demersal nekton community off the Changjiang River estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diversity, community structure and seasonal variation in demersal nekton off the Changjiang (Yangtze) River estuary was evaluated using monthly trawl survey data, collected between December 2008 and November 2009. A total of 95 species (56 teleosts, 11 cephalopods, and 28 decapod crustaceans) from 69 genera, 49 families and 15 orders were collected. These species could be classified into six groups on the basis of temporal distribution patterns. The resident crab Ovalipes punctatus dominated the community, both in number and biomass. A clear seasonal succession was observed in the species composition. Cluster analysis revealed three primary seasonal groups corresponding to the samples collected in winter-spring, late spring-summer and late summer-autumn. The highest biomass and lowest diversity were observed in summer, while the lowest biomass and highest diversity in winter. The abundance-biomass comparison curves and community composition suggested that the investigated community was moderately disturbed. The results suggest that reduction in fishing pressure and in the degree of seasonal hypoxia are essential for sustainable resource management off the Changjiang River estuary.

Jiang, Yazhou; Ling, Jianzhong; Li, Jiansheng; Yang, Linlin; Li, Shengfa

2014-03-01

231

Clarification of Cercaria sevillana (Digenea: Microphallidae) life cycle using morphological and molecular data.  

PubMed

Cercaria sevillana is the cercaria larval stage that infects the gonads and the digestive gland of its first intermediate host, Nassarius reticulatus. In this study the decapodous crustacean Carcinus maenas was used to determine if it would serve as second intermediate host in the parasite's life cycle. The latter hypothesis was based on the knowledge that C. maenas is the second intermediate host of several other digenean species. After dissection, it was possible to observe encysted metacercariae in the antennal glands of the green crab. After biochemical excystment, the metacercariae were processed for light and scanning electron microscopy. The morphological features observed led us to conclude that this species was a microphallid fluke, and it was identified as Gynaecotyla longiintestinata. To establish a possible relationship between C. sevillana and this metacercariae, the ITS1 region was analyzed. Thus, DNA was extracted from C. sevillana and from the cysts isolated from the antennal glands. The ITS1 region was amplified and sequenced, and the alignment clearly demonstrated that the cercaria and the metacercariae belonged to the same species, G. longiintestinata. PMID:17539414

Pina, Susana M R; Russell-Pinto, Fernanda; Rodrigues, Pedro

2007-04-01

232

Identification and characterization of a serine protease inhibitor (PtSerpin) in the swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus.  

PubMed

Serine protease inhibitors (Serpins) play a key role in diverse immune biological processes. A serine protease inhibitor (Serpin), namely PtSerpin, was identified from the haemocyte cDNA library of swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus. The full-length PtSerpin cDNA was 1593 bp, including an open reading frame (ORF) of 1227 bp encoding a polypeptide of 408 amino acids with estimated molecular mass of 45.048 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point of 7.23. Predicted tertiary structure of PtSerpin contained three ?-sheets and nine ?-helices. Multiple sequence alignment revealed that deduced amino acid sequence of PtSerpin shared the highest similarity with serpin SPI from green mud crab Scylla paramamosain (SpSerpin). Phylogenetic analysis supported PtSerpin and SpSerpin were closely related to serpins from Penaeus monodon and Daphnia pulex while other decapods formed a separate group. Although the mRNA transcripts of PtSerpin could be detected in all the examined tissues, the higher levels were present in haemocytes and gills which are the major organs respond to pathogenic microorganism. After challenged by Vibrio alginolyticus, Micrococcus luteus and Pichia pastoris, the temporal expression of PtSerpin gene in haemocytes showed different activation times against bacteria and fungi within the experimental period of 72 h. These findings suggest that PtSerpin is involved in the antibacterial defense mechanism of P. trituberculatus crab. PMID:22245590

Wang, Shuangyan; Cui, Zhaoxia; Liu, Yuan; Li, Qianqian; Song, Chengwen

2012-04-01

233

Expression of recombinant eyestalk crustacean hyperglycemic hormone from the tropical land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis, that inhibits Y-organ ecdysteroidogenesis in vitro.  

PubMed

Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) is a pleiotropic neuropeptide that regulates carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, molting, reproduction, and osmoregulation in decapod crustaceans. CHH elevates glucose levels in the hemolymph by stimulating glycogenolysis in target tissues. It also inhibits ecdysteroidogenesis in the molting gland, or Y-organ (YO), possibly as a response to environmental stress. CHH acts via binding to a membrane receptor guanylyl cyclase, which is expressed in most tissues, including the YO. Large amounts of biologically active neuropeptide are required to investigate the mechanism of CHH signaling in the YO. Consequently, the eyestalk ganglia CHH (EG-CHH) isoform was cloned into a yeast (Pichia pastoris) expression vector to express recombinant mature peptide (rEG-CHH) with or without a C-terminal c-Myc/polyhistidine tag. Yeast cultures with untagged or tagged rEG-CHH inhibited ecdysteroidogenesis in YOs from European green crab (Carcinus maenas) 36% (P < 0.002) and 51% (P < 0.006), respectively. Purified tagged EG-CHH inhibited YO ecdysteroidogenesis 32% (P < 0.002), but lacked hyperglycemic activity in vivo. This is the first report of recombinant EG-CHH inhibiting YO ecdysteroidogenesis. The data suggest that the tagged recombinant peptide can be used to elucidate the CHH signaling pathway in the crustacean molting gland. PMID:18595002

Zarubin, Tyler P; Chang, Ernest S; Mykles, Donald L

2009-07-01

234

Differential acid-base regulation in various gills of the green crab Carcinus maenas: Effects of elevated environmental pCO2.  

PubMed

Euryhaline decapod crustaceans possess an efficient regulation apparatus located in the gill epithelia, providing a high adaptation potential to varying environmental abiotic conditions. Even though many studies focussed on the osmoregulatory capacity of the gills, acid-base regulatory mechanisms have obtained much less attention. In the present study, underlying principles and effects of elevated pCO(2) on acid-base regulatory patterns were investigated in the green crab Carcinus maenas acclimated to diluted seawater. In gill perfusion experiments, all investigated gills 4-9 were observed to up-regulate the pH of the hemolymph by 0.1-0.2 units. Anterior gills, especially gill 4, were identified to be most efficient in the equivalent proton excretion rate. Ammonia excretion rates mirrored this pattern among gills, indicating a linkage between both processes. In specimen exposed to elevated pCO(2) levels for at least 7 days, mimicking a future ocean scenario as predicted until the year 2300, hemolymph K(+) and ammonia concentrations were significantly elevated, and an increased ammonia excretion rate was observed. A detailed quantitative gene expression analysis revealed that upon elevated pCO(2) exposure, mRNA levels of transcripts hypothesized to be involved in ammonia and acid-base regulation (Rhesus-like protein, membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase) were affected predominantly in the non-osmoregulating anterior gills. PMID:23022520

Fehsenfeld, Sandra; Weihrauch, Dirk

2013-01-01

235

Rapid scavenging of jellyfish carcasses reveals the importance of gelatinous material to deep-sea food webs.  

PubMed

Jellyfish blooms are common in many oceans, and anthropogenic changes appear to have increased their magnitude in some regions. Although mass falls of jellyfish carcasses have been observed recently at the deep seafloor, the dense necrophage aggregations and rapid consumption rates typical for vertebrate carrion have not been documented. This has led to a paradigm of limited energy transfer to higher trophic levels at jelly falls relative to vertebrate organic falls. We show from baited camera deployments in the Norwegian deep sea that dense aggregations of deep-sea scavengers (more than 1000 animals at peak densities) can rapidly form at jellyfish baits and consume entire jellyfish carcasses in 2.5 h. We also show that scavenging rates on jellyfish are not significantly different from fish carrion of similar mass, and reveal that scavenging communities typical for the NE Atlantic bathyal zone, including the Atlantic hagfish, galatheid crabs, decapod shrimp and lyssianasid amphipods, consume both types of carcasses. These rapid jellyfish carrion consumption rates suggest that the contribution of gelatinous material to organic fluxes may be seriously underestimated in some regions, because jelly falls may disappear much more rapidly than previously thought. Our results also demonstrate that the energy contained in gelatinous carrion can be efficiently incorporated into large numbers of deep-sea scavengers and food webs, lessening the expected impacts (e.g. smothering of the seafloor) of enhanced jellyfish production on deep-sea ecosystems and pelagic-benthic coupling. PMID:25320167

Sweetman, Andrew K; Smith, Craig R; Dale, Trine; Jones, Daniel O B

2014-12-01

236

The Role of Road Corridors on Riparian Vegetation and Stream Ecosystem Dynamics.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stream ecosystems are dependent on organic material from the riparian zone as a major energy source for the food web. Leaf litter (organic matter) entering streams is processed by a combination of physical and biological mechanisms. In temperate streams, microbial conditioning is important for detrital processing. Much less is known in tropical systems, especially those dominated by large macro-consumers such as decapods. There is also variation among species in terms of processing rates that are explained by nutritional value, chemical defenses and palatability. These traits are a function of plant life history. If riparian species are being significantly altered through invasions by exotic species along road corridors, then we can expect changes in detrital processing rates and ultimately, ecosystem function. As part of a biocomplexity project in Puerto Rico, we are quantifying the changes to species composition and trait-mediated decomposition and foodweb dynamics. Where roads are constructed, exotic invasives include Spathodea, Bambusa, Syzigium and a various grasses. Because of the chemical defenses and their high nutritional value, decomposition rates on these species is much higher than for native riparian species. The increased breakdown rates may `accelerate' ecosystem processes and either enhance or destabilize existing food web linkages.

Crowl, T.; Heartsill-Scalley, T.; Covich, A. P.; Hein, C. L.

2005-05-01

237

Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three-quarters of the Earth's volcanic activity is submarine, located mostly along the mid-ocean ridges, with the remainder along intraoceanic arcs and hotspots at depths varying from greater than 4,000 m to near the sea surface. Most observations and sampling of submarine eruptions have been indirect, made from surface vessels or made after the fact. We describe here direct observations and sampling of an eruption at a submarine arc volcano named NW Rota-1, located 60 km northwest of the island of Rota (Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands). We observed a pulsating plume permeated with droplets of molten sulphur disgorging volcanic ash and lapilli from a 15-m diameter pit in March 2004 and again in October 2005 near the summit of the volcano at a water depth of 555 m (depth in 2004). A turbid layer found on the flanks of the volcano (in 2004) at depths from 700 m to more than 1,400 m was probably formed by mass-wasting events related to the eruption. Long-term eruptive activity has produced an unusual chemical environment and a very unstable benthic habitat exploited by only a few mobile decapod species. Such conditions are perhaps distinctive of active arc and hotspot volcanoes. ?? 2006 Nature Publishing Group.

Embley, R. W.; Chadwick, Jr. , W. W.; Baker, E. T.; Butterfield, D. A.; Resing, J. A.; De Ronde, C. E. J.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Lupton, J. E.; Juniper, S. K.; Rubin, K. H.; Stern, R. J.; Lebon, G. T.; Nakamura, K. -I.; Merle, S. G.; Hein, J. R.; Wiens, D. A.; Tamura, Y.

2006-01-01

238

Phylogenetic relationships within the snapping shrimp genus Synalpheus (Decapoda: Alpheidae).  

PubMed

The snapping shrimp genus Synalpheus (Alpheidae) is one of the most speciose decapod genera, with over 160 described species worldwide. Most species live in symbiotic relationships with other marine organisms, such as sponges, corals and crinoids, and some sponge-dwelling species have a highly organized, social structure. The present study is the first worldwide molecular phylogenetic analysis of Synalpheus, based on >2,200 bp of sequence data from two mitochondrial (COI and 16S) and two nuclear (PEPCK and 18S) loci. Our molecular data show strong support for monophyly of three out of six traditionally recognized morphology-based species groups: the S. brevicarpus, S. comatularum and S. gambarelloides groups. The remaining three species groups (S. paulsoni, S. neomeris and S. coutierei groups) are non-monophyletic in their current composition and will need to be either abandoned or taxonomically redefined. We also identified potential cryptic species of Synalpheus in our dataset, using intraspecific and interspecific sequence variation in COI from the taxonomically well-studied S. gambarelloides group to establish a genetic divergence threshold. We then used both genetic divergence and tree-based criteria (reciprocal monophyly) to identify potential cryptic species in the remaining taxa of the genus. Our results suggest the presence of multiple cryptic lineages in Synalpheus, underlining the need for more integrative taxonomic studies-including morphological, ecological, molecular, and color pattern data-in this biologically interesting genus. PMID:24680914

Hultgren, Kristin M; Hurt, Carla; Anker, Arthur

2014-08-01

239

Suspension feeding in adult Nephrops norvegicus (L.) and Homarus gammarus (L.) (decapoda)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suspension feeding in adults of the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus (40-74 g) and the European lobster Homarus gammarus (280-350 g) was tested in experiments offering planktonic food items of different sizes from 200 to 600 ?m and measuring the clearing capacity. Both lobster species were found to effectively clear water of food particles comprising nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina of about 600 ?m in size. These were reduced to 50% of the initial concentration within 5 h and to 90% within 12 h. When N. norvegicus was offered food particles averaging 200 ?m, a significant reduction in average size occurred, indicating that the minimum retention size is around 200 ?m. Fluorescently dyed Artemia salina were recovered in the stomach and intestine of lobsters proving that the filtered particles are passed to the digestive tract. Results from other experiments, using the blood pigment (haemocyanin) concentration as an index of nutritional state, indicated that the lobsters can get some nutritional advantage from suspension feeding. Suspension feeding in larger decapods has not been described previously, so the significance of this finding is discussed with respect to changes in behavioural and ecological role.

Loo, Lars-Ove; Pihl Baden, Susanne; Ulmestrand, Mats

240

GYRKPPFNGSIFamide (Gly-SIFamide) Modulates Aggression in the Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

PubMed Central

The freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii is a tropical crustacean with characteristics similar to those of lobsters and crayfish. Adult males develop through three morphological types—small (SC), yellow (YC), and blue claws (BC)—with each representing a level in the dominance hierarchy of a group, BC males being the most dominant. We are interested in understanding the role played by neuropeptides in the mechanisms underlying aggressive behavior and the establishment of dominance hierarchies in this type of prawn. SIFamides are a family of arthropod peptides recently identified in the central nervous system of insects and crustaceans, where it has been linked to olfaction, sexual behavior, and gut endocrine functions. One of the six SIFamide isoforms, GYRKPPFNGSIFamide (Gly-SIFamide), is highly conserved among decapod crustaceans such as crabs and crayfish. We wanted to determine whether Gly-SIFamide plays a role in modulating aggression and dominant behavior in the prawn. To do this, we performed behavioral experiments in which interactions between BC/YC pairs were recorded and quantified before and after injecting Gly-SIFamide directly into the circulating hemolymph of the living animal. Behavioral data showed that aggression among interacting BC/YC prawns was enhanced by injection of Gly-SIFamide, suggesting that this neuropeptide does have a modulatory role for this type of behavior in the prawn. PMID:20040755

Vazquez-Acevedo, Nietzell; Rivera, Nilsa M.; Torres-Gonzalez, Alejandra M.; Rullan-Matheu, Yarely; Ruiz-Rodriguez, Eduardo A.; Sosa, Maria A.

2010-01-01

241

Ecological effects of ocean acidification and habitat complexity on reef-associated macroinvertebrate communities  

PubMed Central

The ecological effects of ocean acidification (OA) from rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) on benthic marine communities are largely unknown. We investigated in situ the consequences of long-term exposure to high CO2 on coral-reef-associated macroinvertebrate communities around three shallow volcanic CO2 seeps in Papua New Guinea. The densities of many groups and the number of taxa (classes and phyla) of macroinvertebrates were significantly reduced at elevated CO2 (425–1100 µatm) compared with control sites. However, sensitivities of some groups, including decapod crustaceans, ascidians and several echinoderms, contrasted with predictions of their physiological CO2 tolerances derived from laboratory experiments. High CO2 reduced the availability of structurally complex corals that are essential refugia for many reef-associated macroinvertebrates. This loss of habitat complexity was also associated with losses in many macroinvertebrate groups, especially predation-prone mobile taxa, including crustaceans and crinoids. The transition from living to dead coral as substratum and habitat further altered macroinvertebrate communities, with far more taxa losing than gaining in numbers. Our study shows that indirect ecological effects of OA (reduced habitat complexity) will complement its direct physiological effects and together with the loss of coral cover through climate change will severely affect macroinvertebrate communities in coral reefs. PMID:24307670

Fabricius, K. E.; De'ath, G.; Noonan, S.; Uthicke, S.

2014-01-01

242

Seasonal dynamics of the density of the crab larvae (Decapoda: Brachyura et Anomura) in Minonosok Bay of Pos'eta Bay (Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the materials for this project, we used data on the distribution of the larvae of the Asian paddle crab Charybdis japonicus (A. Milne-Edwards, 1861); the spider crabs Hyas coarctatus ursinus (= Hyas ursinus) (Rathbun, 1924), Pugettia quadridens (de Haan, 1839), and Pisoides bidentatus (H. Milne-Edwards, 1873); the samurai crab Paradorippe granulata (= Dorippe granulata) (de Haan, 1841); the pea crab Pinnixa rathbuni (Sakai, 1934); and the porcelain crab Pachycheles stevensii (Stimpson, 1858) in Minonosok Bay of Pos'eta Bay obtained during 2000-2002 and in 2004. The planktonic samples were collected from the last third of May to September. The greatest density of the larvae was observed in May, mid-June, late June-early July, and late July-early August. The greatest densities of the crab larvae and the decapod larvae ranged from 20.4 to 48.2 and from 88.4 to 245.3 specimens/m3. The schedule of the crab larvae's occurrence in the plankton is provided for the first time. The distribution of the density showed pronounced patchiness.

Grigoryeva, N. I.

2013-03-01

243

Physiological and behavioral effects of chemoreceptors located in different body parts of the swimming crab Callinectes danae.  

PubMed

By perfusing their branchial chambers with filtered seawater, we have developed a preparation that allows us to maintain the swimming crab Callinectes danae outside water without any major effects on its cardiac activity. This in turn allowed us to selectively stimulate chemoreceptors located in different body parts, and specifically to discriminate between the receptors located in the branchial chambers and those located in the oral region (mainly in the mouthparts, antennules and antennae). We show that a taurine solution can evoke bradycardia when applied to the oral region or to a combination of the oral region and the branchial chambers. Although the precise localization of the oral region receptors involved remains to be determined, ablation experiments show that the olfactory organs (i.e., the antennules) are not involved. Finally, we show that although stimulating the pereiopods has no effect on the animals' cardiac activity it causes the animals to move, putatively to try to grasp a piece of food, a reaction not evoked by stimulating the gills or the oral regions. Our results lend support to the idea that chemoreceptors located in different parts of the body play different functional roles in decapod crustaceans. PMID:16762574

Aggio, Juan F; de Freitas, José C

2007-04-01

244

Molecular characterisation and evolution of the hemocyanin from the European spiny lobster, Palinurus elephas.  

PubMed

The hemocyanin of the European spiny lobster Palinurus elephas (synonym: Palinurus vulgaris) is a hexamer composed by four closely related but distinct subunits. We have obtained the full cDNA sequences of all four subunits, which cover 2275-2298 bp and encode for native polypeptides of 656 and 657 amino acids. The P. elephas hemocyanin subunits belong to the alpha-type of crustacean hemocyanins, whereas beta- and gamma-subunits are absent in this species. An unusual high ratio of non-synonymous versus synonymous nucleotide substitutions was observed, suggesting positive selection among subunits. Assuming a constant evolution rate, the P. elephas hemocyanin subunits emerged from a single hemocyanin gene around 25 million years ago. The alpha-type hemocyanins of P. elephas and the American spiny lobster Panulirus interruptus split around 100 million years ago. This is about five times older than the assumed divergence time of the species and suggests that the genera may have split with the formation of the Atlantic Ocean. The application of the Bayesian method for phylogenetic inference allows for the first time a solid reconstruction of the evolution of the decapod hemocyanins, showing that the beta-subunit types diverged first and that the crustacean pseudo-hemocyanins are associated with the gamma-type subunits. PMID:12664090

Kusche, K; Hembach, A; Milke, C; Burmester, T

2003-06-01

245

Acute toxicity of sodium metabisulphite on mangrove crab Ucides cordatus (Decapoda, Ucididae).  

PubMed

The sodium metabisulphite salt is usually used in shrimp culture to prevent black spot. Unfortunately the toxicological effect of this xenobiotic in decapod crabs is unknown. Thus, the present study aims to investigate the sodium metabisulphite LC(50) - 96 h in the mangrove species Ucides cordatus. Crabs were collected in the tidal creek margins in Bragança estuarine and were submitted to preliminary test (screening) and posterior definitive test. Crabs were exposed in five different concentrations and a control group in five replicates, two crabs per recipient (5 L) during 96 hours. A negative correlation was observed to sodium metabisulphite concentration in relation to dissolved oxygen and pH. At the end of the experiment were obtained the following mortality index in relation to sodium metabisulphite concentrations: 100% in 86.0 mg.L(-1), 74% in 62.0 mg.L(-1), 52% in 52.0 mg.L(-1), 44% in 38.0 mg.L(-1). The value of LC(50) - 96 h for U. cordatus was determinate at 42.58 mg.L(-1)/Na(2)S(2)O(5). The results strongly indicate that sodium metabisulphite is toxic for U. cordatus, and this crab could be used for biomonitoring the environmental impact. PMID:22990601

Pedale, Adriana B; Fujimoto, Rodrigo Y; Santos, Rudã F B; Abrunhosa, Fernando A

2012-12-01

246

Analysis of Stomach and Gut Microbiomes of the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) from Coastal Louisiana, USA  

PubMed Central

We used high throughput pyrosequencing to characterize stomach and gut content microbiomes of Crassostrea virginica, the Easter oyster, obtained from two sites, one in Barataria Bay (Hackberry Bay) and the other in Terrebonne Bay (Lake Caillou), Louisiana, USA. Stomach microbiomes in oysters from Hackberry Bay were overwhelmingly dominated by Mollicutes most closely related to Mycoplasma; a more rich community dominated by Planctomyctes occurred in Lake Caillou oyster stomachs. Gut communities for oysters from both sites differed from stomach communities, and harbored a relatively diverse assemblage of phylotypes. Phylotypes most closely related to Shewanella and a Chloroflexi strain dominated the Lake Caillou and Hackberry Bay gut microbiota, respectively. While many members of the stomach and gut microbiomes appeared to be transients or opportunists, a putative core microbiome was identified based on phylotypes that occurred in all stomach or gut samples only. The putative core stomach microbiome comprised 5 OTUs in 3 phyla, while the putative core gut microbiome contained 44 OTUs in 12 phyla. These results collectively revealed novel microbial communities within the oyster digestive system, the functions of the oyster microbiome are largely unknown. A comparison of microbiomes from Louisiana oysters with bacterial communities reported for other marine invertebrates and fish indicated that molluscan microbiomes were more similar to each other than to microbiomes of polychaetes, decapods and fish. PMID:23251548

King, Gary M.; Judd, Craig; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Smith, Conor

2012-01-01

247

Dancing for Food in the Deep Sea: Bacterial Farming by a New Species of Yeti Crab  

PubMed Central

Vent and seep animals harness chemosynthetic energy to thrive far from the sun's energy. While symbiont-derived energy fuels many taxa, vent crustaceans have remained an enigma; these shrimps, crabs, and barnacles possess a phylogenetically distinct group of chemosynthetic bacterial epibionts, yet the role of these bacteria has remained unclear. We test whether a new species of Yeti crab, which we describe as Kiwa puravida n. sp, farms the epibiotic bacteria that it grows on its chelipeds (claws), chelipeds that the crab waves in fluid escaping from a deep-sea methane seep. Lipid and isotope analyses provide evidence that epibiotic bacteria are the crab's main food source and K. puravida n. sp. has highly-modified setae (hairs) on its 3rd maxilliped (a mouth appendage) which it uses to harvest these bacteria. The ?- and ?- proteobacteria that this methane-seep species farms are closely related to hydrothermal-vent decapod epibionts. We hypothesize that this species waves its arm in reducing fluid to increase the productivity of its epibionts by removing boundary layers which may otherwise limit carbon fixation. The discovery of this new species, only the second within a family described in 2005, stresses how much remains undiscovered on our continental margins. PMID:22140426

Thurber, Andrew R.; Jones, William J.; Schnabel, Kareen

2011-01-01

248

Fine-Scale Distribution and Spatial Variability of Benthic Invertebrate Larvae in an Open Coastal Embayment in Nova Scotia, Canada  

PubMed Central

This study quantified the fine- scale (0.5 km) of variability in the horizontal distributions of benthic invertebrate larvae and related this variability to that in physical and biological variables, such as density, temperature, salinity, fluorescence and current velocity. Larvae were sampled in contiguous 500-m transects along two perpendicular 10-km transects with a 200-µm plankton ring net (0.75-m diameter) in St. George’s Bay, Nova Scotia, Canada, in Aug 2009. Temperature, conductivity, pressure and fluorescence were measured with a CTD cast at each station, and currents were measured with an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler moored at the intersection of the 2 transects. Gastropod, bivalve and, to a lesser extent, bryozoan larvae had very similar spatial distributions, but the distribution of decapod larvae had a different pattern. These findings suggest that taxonomic groups with functionally similar larvae have similar dispersive properties such as distribution and spatial variability, while the opposite is true for groups with functionally dissimilar larvae. The spatial variability in larval distributions was anisotropic and matched the temporal/spatial variability in the current velocity. We postulate that in a system with no strong oceanographic features, the scale of spatially coherent physical forcing (e.g. tidal periodicity) can regulate the formation or maintenance of larval patches; however, swimming ability may modulate it. PMID:25153075

Daigle, Remi M.; Metaxas, Anna; deYoung, Brad

2014-01-01

249

Purification and identification of a clotting protein from the hemolymph of Chinese shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The clotting protein (CP) plays important and diverse roles in crustaceans, such as coagulation and lipid transportation. A clotting protein was purified from the hemolymph of Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis (named as Fc-CP) with Q sepharose HP anion-exchange chromatography and phenyl sepharose HP hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Fc-CP was able to form stable clots in vitro in the presence of hemocyte lysate and Ca2+, suggesting that the clotting reaction is catalyzed by a Ca2+-dependent transglutaminase in shrimp hemocytes. The molecular mass of Fc-CP was 380 kDa under non-reducing conditions and 190 kDa under reducing conditions as was determined with SDS-PAGE. CP exists as disulfide-linked homodimers and oligomers. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of Fc-CP was identical to that of shrimps including Penaeus monodon, Farfantepenaeus paulensis and Litopenaeus vannamei; and similar to that of other decapods. The purified Fc-CP was digested with trypsin and verified on an ABI 4700 matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry. Our results will aid to better understanding the coagulation mechanism of shrimp hemolymph.

Wang, Baojie; Peng, Hongni; Liu, Mei; Jiang, Keyong; Zhang, Guofan; Wang, Lei

2013-09-01

250

Composition and Dynamics of the Black Sea Benthopelagic Plankton and Its Contribution to the Near-Shore Plankton Communities  

PubMed Central

At a shallow (7 m) near-shore sampling site in the Black Sea we analyzed composition, abundance, and biomass of benthopelagic organisms and the contribution these animals make to the total plankton. The site was monitored across several years (1996–2001; 2006–2007) whilst for 1999–2000 the seasonal variations were analysed. A total of 321 samples from Golubaja Bay near Novorossiysk (44°34?31.04? N, 37°58?45.11? E) in 1996–2007 were taken with a Judey net. The benthopelagic fauna was represented by 69 taxa, a diversity comparable to similar shelf areas. The benthopelagic component played an important role in near-shore plankton communities in the Black Sea accounting for 50% of the total zooplankton biomass at night during all seasons. Abundance and biomass of the benthopelagic animals showed seasonal fluctuations, the highest biomass being recorded during winter (>75% of the total zooplankton biomass) and early spring due to large amphipods, whilst the highest abundances occur during late summer because of numerous young stages of various taxa. Amphipods, mysids, and decapods are the main contributors to the plankton biomass and abundances. Both night and daytime samples are strongly recommended for the adequate description of the near-shore plankton communities. PMID:24945680

Vereshchaka, Alexander L.; Anokhina, Ludmila L.

2014-01-01

251

A new tracking system for the measurement of diel locomotor rhythms in the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus (L.).  

PubMed

The Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus (L.), is a deep-water burrowing decapod of high commercial value. Diel variations in trawl captures are produced by population rhythms of burrow emergences related to day-night cycles. Rhythms seem to be different in males and females since catches show variations in sex ratios depending on the season. Our hypothesis is that the diel rhythm of activity in this species can be distinguished in three different behavioural sets, the durations of which show gender-related modulation: door-keeping, proximal-, and distal-emergence from the burrow. Our aim is to detail the functioning of a new tracking system allowing the durations of these three behavioural components to be determined. Movement of animals was detected by subdividing aquaria into different zones by means of three rows of infrared-emitting and -receiving photodiodes in which blue light emitters were also integrated for the generation of light cycles. We recorded movement patterns in adult males and females (n=20) exposed to a standard photoperiod regime (i.e., 12 h; monochromatic at 480 nm of 5 lx) over 12 days. Marked diel nocturnal rhythms were reported at all barriers, with activity peaks diffused over the night at the burrow entrance and located at the day-night transition at other barriers (i.e., crepuscular peaks that decreased in the next few hours of darkness). Mean total activity was significantly higher for females than males at the burrow entrance (i.e., door-keeping behaviour). Males had significantly higher activity at other locations (proximal- and distal-emergence behaviours). PMID:18606187

Aguzzi, Jacopo; Sarriá, David; García, José A; Del Rio, Joaquin; Sardà, Francesc; Manuel, Antoni

2008-08-30

252

Lethal and sublethal effects of chlorine, phenol, and chlorine-phenol mixtures on the mud crab, Panopeus herbstii.  

PubMed Central

The mud crab, Panopeus herbstii, was acutely exposed (96-hr) to chlorine-produced oxidants (CPO), phenol, and a CPO-phenolic mixture (1:1) to determine lethal and sublethal effects. The 96-hr (LC50) values were determined for each individual compound and mixture. Additionally, whole-animal respiration rates were measured following acute exposure to sublethal concentrations of each compound or mixture. Phenol uptake/depuration rates were measured in the phenol and CPO-phenol mixture concentrations. Results indicated 96-hr LC50 values of 1.06 mg/L for CPO (fiducial limits (FL) = 0.53-2.01 mg/L), 52.8 mg/L for phenol (FL = 45.6-64.5 mg/L), and 184.7 mg/L total toxicant units (TTU) for the CPO-phenol mixture (FL = 143.7-250.2 mg/L TTU). Statistical analysis indicated that the acute toxicity of the CPO-phenol mixture was less than additive. Sublethal studies indicated that only acute exposure to sublethal concentrations of CPO caused altered respiration rates. After 96-hr depuration, metabolic rates in all CPO-exposure crabs generally returned to control rates. Uptake/depuration rate studies indicated significantly lower phenol uptake rates in crabs exposed to the CPO-phenol mixture. These findings suggest that the less-than-additive toxicity of the CPO-phenol mixture may result from lowered uptake/depuration rate kinetics and indicate that the discharge of chlorinated-phenolic waste may not result in additive and/or synergistic interactions, but rather in less-than-additive effects on decapod aquatic species. PMID:3816734

Key, P B; Scott, G I

1986-01-01

253

Osmoregulation in the Hawaiian anchialine shrimp Halocaridina rubra (Crustacea: Atyidae): expression of ion transporters, mitochondria-rich cell proliferation and hemolymph osmolality during salinity transfers.  

PubMed

Studies of euryhaline crustaceans have identified conserved osmoregulatory adaptions allowing hyper-osmoregulation in dilute waters. However, previous studies have mainly examined decapod brachyurans with marine ancestries inhabiting estuaries or tidal creeks on a seasonal basis. Here, we describe osmoregulation in the atyid Halocaridina rubra, an endemic Hawaiian shrimp of freshwater ancestry from the islands' anchialine ecosystem (coastal ponds with subsurface freshwater and seawater connections) that encounters near-continuous spatial and temporal salinity changes. Given this, survival and osmoregulatory responses were examined over a wide salinity range. In the laboratory, H. rubra tolerated salinities of ~0-56‰, acting as both a hyper- and hypo-osmoregulator and maintaining a maximum osmotic gradient of ~868 mOsm kg(-1) H2O in freshwater. Furthermore, hemolymph osmolality was more stable during salinity transfers relative to other crustaceans. Silver nitrate and vital mitochondria-rich cell staining suggest all gills are osmoregulatory, with a large proportion of each individual gill functioning in ion transport (including when H. rubra acts as an osmoconformer in seawater). Additionally, expression of ion transporters and supporting enzymes that typically undergo upregulation during salinity transfer in osmoregulatory gills (i.e. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, carbonic anhydrase, Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter, V-type H(+)-ATPase and arginine kinase) were generally unaltered in H. rubra during similar transfers. These results suggest H. rubra (and possibly other anchialine species) maintains high, constitutive levels of gene expression and ion transport capability in the gills as a means of potentially coping with the fluctuating salinities that are encountered in anchialine habitats. Thus, anchialine taxa represent an interesting avenue for future physiological research. PMID:24744415

Havird, Justin C; Santos, Scott R; Henry, Raymond P

2014-07-01

254

Antarctic crabs: invasion or endurance?  

PubMed

Recent scientific interest following the "discovery" of lithodid crabs around Antarctica has centred on a hypothesis that these crabs might be poised to invade the Antarctic shelf if the recent warming trend continues, potentially decimating its native fauna. This "invasion hypothesis" suggests that decapod crabs were driven out of Antarctica 40-15 million years ago and are only now returning as "warm" enough habitats become available. The hypothesis is based on a geographically and spatially poor fossil record of a different group of crabs (Brachyura), and examination of relatively few Recent lithodid samples from the Antarctic slope. In this paper, we examine the existing lithodid fossil record and present the distribution and biogeographic patterns derived from over 16,000 records of Recent Southern Hemisphere crabs and lobsters. Globally, the lithodid fossil record consists of only two known specimens, neither of which comes from the Antarctic. Recent records show that 22 species of crabs and lobsters have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with 12 species found south of 60 °S. All are restricted to waters warmer than 0 °C, with their Antarctic distribution limited to the areas of seafloor dominated by Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW). Currently, CDW extends further and shallower onto the West Antarctic shelf than the known distribution ranges of most lithodid species examined. Geological evidence suggests that West Antarctic shelf could have been available for colonisation during the last 9,000 years. Distribution patterns, species richness, and levels of endemism all suggest that, rather than becoming extinct and recently re-invading from outside Antarctica, the lithodid crabs have likely persisted, and even radiated, on or near to Antarctic slope. We conclude there is no evidence for a modern-day "crab invasion". We recommend a repeated targeted lithodid sampling program along the West Antarctic shelf to fully test the validity of the "invasion hypothesis". PMID:23843974

Griffiths, Huw J; Whittle, Rowan J; Roberts, Stephen J; Belchier, Mark; Linse, Katrin

2013-01-01

255

DNA barcoding of Arctic Ocean holozooplankton for species identification and recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zooplankton species diversity and distribution are important measures of environmental change in the Arctic Ocean, and may serve as 'rapid-responders' of climate-induced changes in this fragile ecosystem. The scarcity of taxonomists hampers detailed and up-to-date monitoring of these patterns for the rarer and more problematic species. DNA barcodes (short DNA sequences for species recognition and discovery) provide an alternative approach to accurate identification of known species, and can speed routine analysis of zooplankton samples. During 2004-2008, zooplankton samples were collected during cruises to the central Arctic Ocean and Chukchi Sea. A ˜700 base-pair region of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) gene was amplified and sequenced for 82 identified specimens of 41 species, including cnidarians (six hydrozoans, one scyphozoan), arthropod crustaceans (five amphipods, 24 copepods, one decapod, and one euphausiid); two chaetognaths; and one nemertean. Phylogenetic analysis used the Neighbor-Joining algorithm with Kimura-2-Parameter (K-2-P) distances, with 1000-fold bootstrapping. K-2-P genetic distances between individuals of the same species ranged from 0.0 to 0.2; genetic distances between species ranged widely from 0.1 to 0.7. The mtCOI gene tree showed monophyly (at 100% bootstrap value) for each of the 26 species for which more than one individual was analyzed. Of seven genera for which more than one species was analyzed, four were shown to be monophyletic; three genera were not resolved. At higher taxonomic levels, only the crustacean order Copepoda was resolved, with bootstrap value of 83%. The mtCOI barcodes accurately discriminated and identified known species of 10 taxonomic groups of Arctic Ocean holozooplankton. A comprehensive DNA barcode database for the estimated 300 described species of Arctic holozooplankton will allow rapid assessment of species diversity and distribution in this climate-vulnerable ocean ecosystem.

Bucklin, Ann; Hopcroft, Russell R.; Kosobokova, Ksenia N.; Nigro, Lisa M.; Ortman, Brian D.; Jennings, Robert M.; Sweetman, Christopher J.

2010-01-01

256

Detection and discovery of crustacean parasites in blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) by using 18S rRNA gene-targeted denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

Recently, we described a novel denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) approach useful for initial detection and identification of crustacean parasites. Because this approach utilizes general primers targeted to conserved regions of the 18S rRNA gene, a priori genetic sequence information on eukaryotic parasites is not required. This distinction provides a significant advantage over specifically targeted PCR assays that do not allow for the detection of unknown or unsuspected parasites. However, initial field evaluations of the DHPLC assay suggested that because of PCR-biased amplification of dominant host genes it was not possible to detect relatively rare parasite genes in infected crab tissue. Here, we describe the use of a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) PCR hybridization blocking probe in association with DHPLC (PNA-PCR DHPLC) to overcome inherent PCR bias associated with amplification of rare target genes by use of generic primers. This approach was utilized to detect infection of blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) by the parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium sp. Evaluation of 76 crabs caught in Wassaw Sound, GA, indicated a 97% correspondence between detection of the parasite by use of a specific PCR diagnostic assay and that by use of PNA-PCR DHPLC. During these studies, we discovered one crab with an association with a previously undescribed protist symbiont. Phylogenetic analysis of the amplified symbiont 18S rRNA gene indicated that it is most closely related to the free-living kinetoplastid parasite Procryptobia sorokini. To our knowledge, this is the first report of this parasite group in a decapod crab and of this organism exhibiting a presumably parasitic life history. PMID:18502913

Troedsson, Christofer; Lee, Richard F; Walters, Tina; Stokes, Vivica; Brinkley, Karrie; Naegele, Verena; Frischer, Marc E

2008-07-01

257

Modifications to the bottomless lift net for sampling nekton in tidal mangrove forests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sampling fishes in vegetated intertidal wetlands is logistically challenging. We modified the 2 ?? 3-m2 bottomless lift net developed for sampling nekton (fish and decapod crustaceans) on the surface of salt marshes for use in tidal mangrove forests with a woody (as opposed to herbaceous) underground root system. As originally designed (Rozas, Mar Ecol Prog Ser 89:287-292, 1992), the lift net was buried directly in the marsh substrate. The net was raised at slack high tide thereby encircling nekton within the enclosed area. A chain-line on the net bottom prevented escape under the net once deployed. However, when we used this same design in tidal mangrove forests, the extensive woody roots and occasional slumping sediments resulted in uneven trenches that could not be cleared effectively during sample recovery. We made 3 modifications to the original net design: (i) lined the peat trenches with aluminum channels of uniform width and depth; (ii) replaced the previous chain-line with Velcro closures that directly attached the net to the inner face of the outer wall of the aluminum channel; and (iii) removed the subtidal pan previously used for concentrating the enclosed nekton at low tide, and filled in those depressions with on-site peat. In the modified version, the aluminum trench became the only subtidal refuge available to nekton, and it was from here that we collected the sample after the forest drained. These modifications permitted high clearing efficiency (93-100%) of fin-clipped individuals of two common species of estuarine resident fishes, Kryptolebias marmoratus (mangrove rivulus) and Bathygobius soporator (frillfin goby). Additionally, the density estimates of grass shrimp (Palaemonetes spp.) increased 10-fold post-modification. ?? 2010 US Government.

McIvor, C. C.; Silverman, N. L.

2010-01-01

258

Oesophageal chemoreceptors of blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, sense chemical deterrents and can block ingestion of food.  

PubMed

Decapod crustaceans such as blue crabs possess a variety of chemoreceptors that control different stages of the feeding process. All these chemoreceptors are putative targets for feeding deterrents that cause animals to avoid or reject otherwise palatable food. As a first step towards characterizing the chemoreceptors that mediate the effect of deterrents, we used a behavioral approach to investigate their precise location. Data presented here demonstrate that chemoreceptors located on the antennules, pereiopods and mouthparts do not mediate the food-rejection effects of a variety of deterrents, both natural and artificial to crabs. Crabs always searched for deterrent-laced food and took it to their oral region. The deterrent effect was manifested as either rejection or extensive manipulation, but in both cases crabs bit the food. The biting behavior is relevant because the introduction of food into the oral cavity ensured that the deterrents gained access to the oesophageal taste receptors, and so we conclude that they are the ones mediating rejection. Additional support comes from the fact that a variety of deterrent compounds evoked oesophageal dilatation, which is mediated by oesophageal receptors and has been linked to food rejection. Further, there is a positive correlation between a compound's ability to elicit rejection and its ability to evoke oesophageal dilatation. The fact that deterrents do not act at a distance is in accordance with the limited solubility of most known feeding deterrents, and likely influences predator-prey interactions and their outcome: prey organisms will be attacked and bitten before deterrents become relevant. PMID:22539737

Aggio, Juan F; Tieu, Ryan; Wei, Amy; Derby, Charles D

2012-05-15

259

Pre-Partum Diet of Adult Female Bearded Seals in Years of Contrasting Ice Conditions  

PubMed Central

Changing patterns of sea-ice distribution and extent have measurable effects on polar marine systems. Beyond the obvious impacts of key-habitat loss, it is unclear how such changes will influence ice-associated marine mammals in part because of the logistical difficulties of studying foraging behaviour or other aspects of the ecology of large, mobile animals at sea during the polar winter. This study investigated the diet of pregnant bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) during three spring breeding periods (2005, 2006 and 2007) with markedly contrasting ice conditions in Svalbard using stable isotopes (?13C and ?15N) measured in whiskers collected from their newborn pups. The ?15N values in the whiskers of individual seals ranged from 11.95 to 17.45 ‰, spanning almost 2 full trophic levels. Some seals were clearly dietary specialists, despite the species being characterised overall as a generalist predator. This may buffer bearded seal populations from the changes in prey distributions lower in the marine food web which seems to accompany continued changes in temperature and ice cover. Comparisons with isotopic signatures of known prey, suggested that benthic gastropods and decapods were the most common prey. Bayesian isotopic mixing models indicated that diet varied considerably among years. In the year with most fast-ice (2005), the seals had the greatest proportion of pelagic fish and lowest benthic invertebrate content, and during the year with the least ice (2006), the seals ate more benthic invertebrates and less pelagic fish. This suggests that the seals fed further offshore in years with greater ice cover, but moved in to the fjords when ice-cover was minimal, giving them access to different types of prey. Long-term trends of sea ice decline, earlier ice melt, and increased water temperatures in the Arctic are likely to have ecosystem-wide effects, including impacts on the forage bases of pagophilic seals. PMID:22693616

Hindell, Mark A.; Lydersen, Christian; Hop, Haakon; Kovacs, Kit M.

2012-01-01

260

Revisiting the reticulum: feedforward and feedback contributions to motor program parameters in the crab cardiac ganglion microcircuit  

PubMed Central

The neurogenic heartbeat of crustaceans is controlled by the cardiac ganglion (CG), a central pattern generator (CPG) microcircuit composed of nine neurons. In most decapods, five “large” motor neurons (MNs) project from the CG to the myocardium, where their excitatory synaptic signals generate the rhythmic heartbeat. The processes of four “small” premotor neurons (PMNs) are confined to the CG, where they provide excitatory drive to the MNs via impulse-mediated chemical signals and electrotonic coupling. This study explored feedforward and feedback interactions between the PMNs and the MNs in the CG of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus). Three methods were used to compare the activity of the MNs and the PMNs in the integrated CG to their autonomous firing patterns: 1) ligatures were tightened on the ganglion trunk that connects the PMNs and MNs; 2) TTX was applied focally to suppress selectively PMN or MN activity; and 3) sucrose pools were devised to block reversibly PMN or MN impulse conduction. With all treatments, the PMNs and MNs continued to produce autonomous rhythmic bursting following disengagement. Removal of PMN influence resulted in a significantly reduced MN duty cycle that was mainly attributable to a lower autonomous burst frequency. Conversely, after removal of MN feedback, the PMN duty cycle was increased, primarily due to a prolonged burst duration. Application of sucrose to block impulse conduction without eliminating PMN oscillations disclosed significant contributions of spike-mediated PMN-to-MN signals to the initiation and prolongation of the MN burst. Together, these observations support a view of the Callinectes CG composed of two classes of spontaneously bursting neurons with distinct endogenous rhythms. Compartmentalized feedforward and feedback signaling endow this microcircuit with syncytial properties such that the intrinsic attributes of the PMNs and MNs both contribute to shaping all parameters of the motor patterns transmitted to the myocardium. PMID:21775716

Garcia-Crescioni, Keyla

2011-01-01

261

Morphology and Histochemistry of the Aesthetasc-Associated Epidermal Glands in Terrestrial Hermit Crabs of the Genus Coenobita (Decapoda: Paguroidea)  

PubMed Central

Crustaceans have successfully adapted to a variety of environments including fresh- and saltwater as well as land. Transition from an aquatic to a terrestrial lifestyle required adaptations of the sensory equipment of an animal, particularly in olfaction, where the stimulus itself changes from hydrophilic to mainly hydrophobic, air-borne molecules. Hermit crabs Coenobita spp. (Anomura, Coenobitidae) have adapted to a fully terrestrial lifestyle as adults and have been shown to rely on olfaction in order to detect distant food items. We observed that the specialized olfactory sensilla in Coenobita, named aesthetascs, are immersed in a layer of mucous-like substance. We hypothesized that the mucous is produced by antennal glands and affects functioning of the aesthetascs. Using various microscopic and histochemical techniques we proved that the mucous is produced by aesthetasc-associated epidermal glands, which we consider to be modified rosette-type aesthetasc tegumental glands known from aquatic decapods. These epidermal glands in Coenobita are multicellular exocrine organs of the recto-canal type with tubulo-acinar arrangement of the secretory cells. Two distinct populations of secretory cells were clearly distinguishable with light and electron microscopy. At least part of the secretory cells contains specific enzymes, CUB-serine proteases, which are likely to be secreted on the surface of the aesthetasc pad and take part in antimicrobial defense. Proteomic analysis of the glandular tissue corroborates the idea that the secretions of the aesthetasc-associated epidermal glands are involved in immune responses. We propose that the mucous covering the aesthetascs in Coenobita takes part in antimicrobial defense and at the same time provides the moisture essential for odor perception in terrestrial hermit crabs. We conclude that the morphological modifications of the aesthetasc-associated epidermal glands as well as the functional characteristics of their secretions are important adaptations to a terrestrial lifestyle. PMID:24805352

Muller, Carsten H. G.; Wielsch, Natalie; Hupfer, Yvonne; Svatos, Ales; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald; Hansson, Bill S.

2014-01-01

262

Mercury in the biotic compartments of Northwest Patagonia lakes, Argentina.  

PubMed

We report on total mercury (THg) concentrations in the principal components of food webs of selected Northern Patagonia Andean Range ultraoligotrophic lakes, Argentina. The THg contents were determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in muscle and liver of four fish species occupying the higher trophic positions (the introduced Salmo trutta, Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salvelinus fontinalis, and the native Percichthys trucha) accounted for eight lakes belonging to Nahuel Huapi and Los Alerces National Parks. We studied the food web components of both the West and East branches of Lake Moreno, including benthic primary producers such as biofilm, mosses, and macrophytes, three plankton fractions, fish, riparian tree leaves, and benthic invertebrates, namely decapods, molluscs, insect larvae, leeches, oligochaetes, and amphipods. Mercury concentrations in fish muscle varied in a wide range, from less than 0.05 to 4 ?g g(-1) dry weight (DW), without a distribution pattern among species but showing higher values for P. trucha and S. fontinalis, particularly in Lake Moreno. The THg contents of the food web components of Lake Moreno varied within 4 orders of magnitude, with the lower values ranging from 0.01 to 0.5 ?g g(-1) DW in tree leaves, some macrophytes, juvenile salmonids or benthic macroinvertebrates, and reaching concentrations over 200 ?g g(-1) DW in the plankton. Juvenile Galaxias maculatus caught in the pelagic area presented the highest THg contents of all fish sampled, reaching 10 ?g g(-1) DW, contents that could be associated with the high THg concentrations in plankton since it is their main food source. Although Lake Moreno is a system without local point sources of contamination, situated in a protected area, some benthic organisms presented high THg contents when compared with those from polluted ecosystems. PMID:21421254

Rizzo, A; Arcagni, M; Arribére, M A; Bubach, D; Guevara, S Ribeiro

2011-06-01

263

Diversity and distribution of deep-sea shrimps in the Ross Sea region of Antarctica.  

PubMed

Although decapod crustaceans are widespread in the oceans, only Natantia (shrimps) are common in the Antarctic. Because remoteness, depth and ice cover restrict sampling in the South Ocean, species distribution modelling is a useful tool for evaluating distributions. We used physical specimen and towed camera data to describe the diversity and distribution of shrimps in the Ross Sea region of Antarctica. Eight shrimp species were recorded: Chorismus antarcticus; Notocrangon antarcticus; Nematocarcinus lanceopes; Dendrobranchiata; Pasiphaea scotiae; Pasiphaea cf. ledoyeri; Petalidium sp., and a new species of Lebbeus. For the two most common species, N. antarcticus and N. lanceopes, we used maximum entropy modelling, based on records of 60 specimens and over 1130 observations across 23 sites in depths from 269 m to 3433 m, to predict distributions in relation to environmental variables. Two independent sets of environmental data layers at 0.05° and 0.5° resolution respectively, showed how spatial resolution affected the model. Chorismus antarcticus and N. antarcticus were found only on the continental shelf and upper slopes, while N. lanceopes, Lebbeus n. sp., Dendrobranchiata, Petalidium sp., Pasiphaea cf. ledoyeri, and Pasiphaea scotiae were found on the slopes, seamounts and abyssal plain. The environmental variables that contributed most to models for N. antarcticus were depth, chlorophyll-a concentration, temperature, and salinity, and for N. lanceopes were depth, ice concentration, seabed slope/rugosity, and temperature. The relative ranking, but not the composition of these variables changed in models using different spatial resolutions, and the predicted extent of suitable habitat was smaller in models using the finer-scale environmental layers. Our modelling indicated that shrimps were widespread throughout the Ross Sea region and were thus likely to play important functional role in the ecosystem, and that the spatial resolution of data needs to be considered both in the use of species distribution models. PMID:25051333

Basher, Zeenatul; Bowden, David A; Costello, Mark J

2014-01-01

264

Cross-shelf transport of pink shrimp larvae: Interactions of tidal currents, larval vertical migrations and internal tides  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Transport and behavior of pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarum larvae were investigated on the southwestern Florida (SWF) shelf of the Gulf of Mexico between the Dry Tortugas spawning grounds and Florida Bay nursery grounds. Stratified plankton samples and hydrographic data were collected at 2 h intervals at 3 stations located on a cross-shelf transect. At the Marquesas station, midway between Dry Tortugas and Florida Bay, internal tides were recognized by anomalously cool water, a shallow thermocline with strong density gradients, strong current shear, and a high concentration of pink shrimp larvae at the shallow thermocline. Low Richardson numbers occurred at the pycnocline depth, indicating vertical shear instability and possible turbulent transport from the lower to the upper layer where myses and postlarvae were concentrated. Analysis of vertically stratified plankton suggested that larvae perform vertical migrations and the specific behavior changes ontogenetically; protozoeae were found deeper than myses, and myses deeper than postlarvae. Relative concentrations of protozoea in the upper, middle and bottom layers were consistent with a diel vertical migration, whereas that of postlarvae and myses were consistent with the semidiurnal tides in phase with the flood tide. Postlarvae, the shallowest dwellers that migrate with a semidiurnal periodicity, experienced the largest net onshore flux and larval concentrations were highly correlated with the cross-shelf current. These results provide the first evidence of an onshore tidal transport (a type of selective tidal stream transport, STST), in decapod larvae migrating in continental shelf waters offshore, ca. 100 km from the coast and at a depth of 20 m, while approaching the coastal nursery grounds. Longer time series would be necessary to establish whether internal tides play any role in the larval onshore transport of this species and determine if the STST is the dominant onshore transport mechanism. ?? Inter-Research 2007 .

Criales, M. M.; Browder, J. A.; Mooers, C. N. K.; Robblee, M. B.; Cardenas, H.; Jackson, T. L.

2007-01-01

265

Trophodynamics and distribution of silver in a Patagonia mountain lake.  

PubMed

Silver (Ag) ions are among the most toxic metallic ions to aquatic biota. In southern Argentina, fish from Patagonian lakes have liver Ag concentrations [Ag] among the highest ever reported globally. Silver concentration in phytoplankton from Lake Moreno (1.82±3.00?gg(-1) dry weight, DW) was found to be significantly higher than [Ag] in zooplankton (0.25±0.13?gg(-1)). Values in snails and decapods (0.60±0.28?gg(-1) and 0.47±0.03?gg(-1) respectively), were higher than in insect larvae (0.28±0.39?gg(-1) for Trichoptera). We examined trophic transfer of Ag in the biota using stable nitrogen and carbon isotopes ratios (?(15)N and ?(13)C respectively). Silver concentrations in the biota of Lake Moreno were not associated with any particular C source, as assessed by ?(13)C. Hepatic [Ag] significantly increased with trophic position, as measured by ?(15)N, within the brook trout sample set. Biodilution of Ag was observed between primary producers and small forage fish when whole body [Ag] was analyzed. Nevertheless, when considering whole food web biomagnification and hepatic [Ag] of top predator fish, a significant positive regression was found between [Ag] and trophic position, as measured by ?(15)N. The importance of species-specific and tissue-specific considerations to obtain more information on Ag trophodynamics than that usually presented in the literature is shown. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in assessing Ag trophodynamics and tissue-specific biomagnification in a whole freshwater food web. PMID:21216430

Revenga, J E; Campbell, L M; Kyser, K; Klassen, K; Arribére, M A; Ribeiro Guevara, S

2011-04-01

266

An androgenic gland membrane-anchored gene associated with the crustacean insulin-like androgenic gland hormone.  

PubMed

Crustacean male sexual differentiation is governed by the androgenic gland (AG) and specifically by the secreted insulin-like AG hormone (IAG), thus far identified in several decapod species including the Australian red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus (termed Cq-IAG). While a few insulin-like AG genes have been identified in crustaceans, other AG-specific genes have not been documented until now. In the present study, we describe the recent identification of a non-IAG AG-specific transcript obtained from the C. quadricarinatus AG cDNA library. This transcript, termed C. quadricarinatus membrane-anchored AG-specific factor (Cq-MAG), was fully sequenced and found to encode a putative product of 189 amino acids including a signal anchoring peptide. Expression of a recombinant GFP fusion protein lacking the signal anchor encoding sequence dramatically affected recombinant protein localization pattern. While the expression of the deleterious fusion protein was observed throughout most of the cell, the native GFP::Cq-MAG fusion protein was observed mainly surrounding the periphery of the nucleus, demonstrating an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-like localization pattern. Moreover, co-expression of the wild-type Cq-MAG (fused to GFP) and the Cq-IAG hormone revealed that these peptides indeed co-localize. This study is the first to report a protein specifically associated with the insulin-like AG hormone in addition to the finding of another AG-specific transcript in crustaceans. Previous knowledge suggests that insulin/insulin-like factor secretion involves tissue-specific transcripts and membrane-anchored proteins. In this regard, Cq-MAG's tissue specificity, anchoring properties and intracellular co-localization with Cq-IAG suggest that it may play a role in the processing and secretion of this insulin-like AG hormone. PMID:23470660

Rosen, Ohad; Manor, Rivka; Weil, Simy; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Bakhrat, Anna; Abdu, Uri; Sagi, Amir

2013-06-01

267

Molecular characterization and immunological response analysis of a novel transferrin-like, pacifastin heavy chain protein in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879).  

PubMed

The full-length cDNA of the pacifastin heavy chain gene from giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Mr-PHC) was cloned and characterized. The full sequence of the Mr-PHC cDNA was 4331 bp and contained a 119-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 3990-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 1329 amino acid residues and a 222-bp 3' UTR. The Mr-PHC protein predicted by its full ORF, exhibited a unique transferrin-like protein structure containing 4 different lobes that have not been previously identified. Three of the four lobes contained highly conserved of iron/anion binding residues. Expression analyses by conventional RT-PCR demonstrated that Mr-PHC was expressed predominantly during postlarval stage 45 and also in the foregut and gills of the adult prawn. Interestingly, dose response analyses that were quantified using quantitative real-time PCR indicated a significant upregulation of Mr-PHC during postlarval stage 45 in prawn grown at hour 24 after challenging with 10(9) cfu/ml of Aeromonas hydrophila, which is a pathogenic bacterium. Mr-HPC in the adult prawn was significantly upregulated at both hour 12 and day 7 after stimulation with A. hydrophila (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Additionally, a delayed induction response of the Mr-PHC gene was observed at 14 days when the experimental adult prawns were fed with ?-glucan-supplemented feed. Based on results of this study, the transferrin-like protein encoded by the pacifastin heavy chain gene may exist in all decapod crustaceans. Even though the function as an iron transporter is not proven, immune response studies are clearly indicated that PHC is critically involved in the immune system in these animals. PMID:23198290

Toe, Aung; Areechon, Nontawith; Srisapoome, Prapansak

2012-10-01

268

Epidermal growth factor receptor in the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: function and putative signaling cascade.  

PubMed

Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) are highly conserved members of the tyrosine kinase receptor superfamily found in metazoans and plants. In arthropods, EGFRs are vital for the proper development of embryos and of adult limbs, gonads, and eyes as well as affecting body size. In searching for genes involved in the growth and development of our model organism, the decapod crustacean (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), a comprehensive transcript library was established using next-generation sequencing. Using this library, the expression of several genes assigned to the signal transduction pathways mediated by EGFRs was observed, including a transcript encoding M. rosenbergii EGFR (Mr-EGFR), several potential ligands upstream to the receptor, and most of the putative downstream signal transducer genes. The deduced protein encoded by Mr-EGFR, representing the first such receptor reported thus far in crustaceans, shows sequence similarity to other arthropod EGFRs. The M. rosenbergii gene is expressed in most tested tissues. The role of Mr-EGFR was revealed by temporarily silencing the transcript through weekly injections of double-stranded Mr-EGFR RNA. Such treatment resulted in a significant reduction in growth and a delay in the appearance of a male secondary sexual characteristic, namely the appendix masculina. An additional function of Mr-EGFR was revealed with respect to eye development. Although the optic ganglion appeared to have retained its normal morphology, Mr-EGFR-silenced individuals developed abnormal eyes that presented irregular organization of the ommatidia, reflected by unorganized receptor cells occupying large areas of the dioptric portion and by a shortened crystalline tract layer. PMID:23825131

Sharabi, Omri; Ventura, Tomer; Manor, Rivka; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Sagi, Amir

2013-09-01

269

Birth, survival and differentiation of neurons in an adult crustacean brain.  

PubMed

Life-long neurogenesis is a characteristic feature of many vertebrate and invertebrate species. In decapod crustaceans, new neurons are added throughout life to two cell clusters containing local (cluster 9) and projection (cluster 10) interneurons in the olfactory pathway. Adult-born neurons in clusters 9 and 10 in crayfish have the anatomical properties and chemistry of mature neurons by 6 months after birth. Here we use 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation to pulse label mitotically active cells in these cell clusters, followed by a survival time of up to 8 months, during which crayfish (Cherax destructor) were sacrificed at intervals and the numbers of BrdU-labeled cells quantified. We find a decrease in the numbers of BrdU-labeled cells in cell cluster 10 between the first and second weeks following BrdU exposure, suggesting a period of cell death shortly after proliferation. Additional delayed cell divisions in both cell clusters are indicated by increases in labeled cells long after the BrdU clearing time. The differentiation time of these cells into neurons was defined by detection of the first immunoreactivity for the transmitter SIFamide in cluster 10 BrdU-labeled cells, which begins at 4 weeks after BrdU labeling; the numbers of SIFamide-labeled cells continues to increase over the following month. Experiments testing whether proliferation and survival of Cluster 10 cells are influenced by locomotor activity provided no evidence of a correlation between activity levels and cell proliferation, but suggest a strong influence of locomotor activity on cell survival. PMID:24339155

Kim, Youngmi Faith; Sandeman, David C; Benton, Jeanne L; Beltz, Barbara S

2014-06-01

270

Cytoarchitecture and Ultrastructure of Neural Stem Cell Niches and Neurogenic Complexes Maintaining Adult Neurogenesis in the Olfactory Midbrain of Spiny Lobsters, Panulirus argus  

PubMed Central

New interneurons are continuously generated in small proliferation zones within neuronal somata clusters in the olfactory deutocerebrum of adult decapod crustaceans. Each proliferation zone is connected to a clump of cells containing one neural stem cell (i.e., adult neuroblast), thus forming a “neurogenic complex.” Here we provide a detailed analysis of the cytoarchitecture of neurogenic complexes in adult spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, based on transmission electron microscopy and labeling with cell-type-selective markers. The clump of cells is composed of unique bipolar clump-forming cells that collectively completely envelop the adult neuroblast and are themselves ensheathed by a layer of processes of multipolar cell body glia. An arteriole is attached to the clump of cells, but dye perfusion experiments show that hemolymph has no access to the interior of the clump of cells. Thus, the clump of cells fulfills morphological criteria of a protective stem cell niche, with clump-forming cells constituting the adult neuroblast’s microenvironment together with the cell body glia processes separating it from other tissue components. Bromodeoxyuridine pulse-chase experiments with short survival times suggest that adult neuroblasts are not quiescent but rather cycle actively during daytime. We propose a cell lineage model in which an asymmetrically dividing adult neuroblast repopulates the pool of neuronal progenitor cells in the associated proliferation zone. In conclusion, as in mammalian brains, adult neurogenesis in crustacean brains is fueled by neural stem cells that are maintained by stem cell niches that preserve elements of the embryonic microenvironment and contain glial and vascular elements. PMID:21523781

Schmidt, Manfred; Derby, Charles D.

2013-01-01

271

Comparative brain ontogeny of the crayfish and clawed lobster: implications of direct and larval development.  

PubMed

The freshwater crayfish Cherax destructor and the lobster Homarus americanus have many similarities including life style, body form, and neural organization. However, the ontogenic history is very different in the two species. The development of Cherax is short and direct whereas the development of Homarus comprises three pelagic larval stages and takes more than twice as long from extrusion to benthic stages at constant temperature. In order to determine the progression of maturation of the nervous system in each species and the potential implications of pelagic forms on brain structure, the timing of appearance of 22 general and neural developmental events clearly identifiable in both species was compared. The onset of serotonin antigenicity in the different parts of the brain was chosen as one marker of neural development. During the first month of embryogenesis the timing of morphological, physiological, and neural events is similar in the two species. Morphological development is then accelerated in the crayfish near hatching time and over the two postembryonic stages before the advent of the independent benthic stage. Such heterochronic processes can at least partly account for the different developmental patterns in the two decapods. Among the characters showing similar timing in the two species is the formation of glomeruli (presumptive zones of synaptic contact) in the olfactory lobes of the deutocerebrum, although this event is embryonic in Homarus but postembryonic in Cherax. In contrast, glomerular formation in the accessory lobes is heterochronic: in both species, the glomeruli of the accessory lobes are acquired postembryonically, that is, 3 to 4 months earlier in Cherax than in Homarus. These data suggest that the development of the glomeruli in the olfactory lobes may depend primarily on internal developmental signals, whereas the triggering of glomerular formation in the accessory lobes may depend on external cues. The fact that, in Homarus, only the postlarval stages show mature accessory glomeruli may be a reflection of the functional requirements of benthic life. PMID:8227524

Helluy, S; Sandeman, R; Beltz, B; Sandeman, D

1993-09-15

272

Adult neurogenesis in the crayfish brain: proliferation, migration, and possible origin of precursor cells.  

PubMed

The birth of new neurons and their incorporation into functional circuits in the adult brain is a characteristic of many vertebrate and invertebrate organisms, including decapod crustaceans. Precursor cells maintaining life-long proliferation in the brains of crayfish (Procambarus clarkii, Cherax destructor) and clawed lobsters (Homarus americanus) reside within a specialized niche on the ventral surface of the brain; their daughters migrate to two proliferation zones along a stream formed by processes of the niche precursors. Here they divide again, finally producing interneurons in the olfactory pathway. The present studies in P. clarkii explore (1) differential proliferative activity among the niche precursor cells with growth and aging, (2) morphological characteristics of cells in the niche and migratory streams, and (3) aspects of the cell cycle in this lineage. Morphologically symmetrical divisions of neuronal precursor cells were observed in the niche near where the migratory streams emerge, as well as in the streams and proliferation zones. The nuclei of migrating cells elongate and undergo shape changes consistent with nucleokinetic movement. LIS1, a highly conserved dynein-binding protein, is expressed in cells in the migratory stream and neurogenic niche, implicating this protein in the translocation of crustacean brain neuronal precursor cells. Symmetrical divisions of the niche precursors and migration of both daughters raised the question of how the niche precursor pool is replenished. We present here preliminary evidence for an association between vascular cells and the niche precursors, which may relate to the life-long growth and maintenance of the crustacean neurogenic niche. PMID:19294644

Zhang, Yi; Allodi, Silvana; Sandeman, David C; Beltz, Barbara S

2009-06-01

273

Immunocytochemical localization of FLRFamide-, proctolin-, and CCAP-like peptides in the stomatogastric nervous system and neurohemal structures of the crayfish, Cherax destructor.  

PubMed

To compare the stomatogastric nervous system of the crayfish Cherax destructor with those of other decapod species, the distribution of FLRF (Phe-Leu-Arg-Phe) amide-, proctolin- and crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP)-like immunoreactivities was studied in the stomatogastric nervous system and in neurosecretory structures by using wholemount immunocytochemical techniques and confocal microscopy. In addition, the number of cells in the stomatogastric ganglion (19-24) and axon profiles in the stomatogastric nerve (157-165) were counted. FLRFamide-like immunoreactivity was present within numerous cell bodies and neuropil of the commissural ganglia, in the neuropil of the stomatogastric ganglion, and in one cell body of the esophageal ganglion. FLRFamide-like immunoreactivity was also found in two cell bodies at the junction of the stomatogastric nerve with the superior esophageal nerve and in two cell bodies in the inferior ventricular nerve. Proctolin-like immunoreactivity was present in numerous cell bodies and neuropil of the paired commissural ganglia and in the neuropil of the stomatogastric ganglion. CCAP-like immunoreactivity was found in the neuropil and in one to four cell bodies in the commissural ganglia. Both proctolin- and CCAP-immunoreactive varicosities occurred on the surface of the circumesophageal connectives and on the postesophageal commissure, indicating a neurohemal source within the stomatogastric nervous system, which was verified by electron microscopy. The pericardial organs showed FLRFamide-, proctolin-, and CCAP-like immunoreactivity. This staining pattern suggests that FLRFamide-like and proctolin-like peptides are used as neurohormones and as neuromodulators in the stomatogastric nervous system of the crayfish C. destructor, whereas CCAP-like peptides may only affect the stomatogastric ganglion as a neurohormone. PMID:10531543

Skiebe, P; Dietel, C; Schmidt, M

1999-11-29

274

Susceptibility to infection and pathogenicity of White Spot Disease (WSD) in non-model crustacean host taxa from temperate regions.  

PubMed

Despite almost two decades since its discovery, White Spot Disease (WSD) caused by White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is still considered the most significant known pathogen impacting the sustainability and growth of the global penaeid shrimp farming industry. Although most commonly associated with penaeid shrimp farmed in tropical regions, the virus is also able to infect, cause disease and kill a wide range of other decapod crustacean hosts from temperate regions, including lobsters, crabs, crayfish and shrimp. For this reason, WSSV has recently been listed in European Community Council Directive 2006/88. Using principles laid down by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) we applied an array of diagnostic approaches to provide a definitive statement on the susceptibility to White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) infection in seven ecologically or economically important crustacean species from Europe. We chose four marine species: Cancer pagurus, Homarus gammarus, Nephrops norvegicus and Carcinus maenas; one estuarine species, Eriocheir sinensis and two freshwater species, Austropotamobius pallipes and Pacifastacus leniusculus. Exposure trials based upon natural (feeding) and artificial (intra-muscular injection) routes of exposure to WSSV revealed universal susceptibility to WSSV infection in these hosts. However, the relative degree of susceptibility (measured by progression of infection to disease, and mortality) varied significantly between host species. In some instances (Type 1 hosts), pathogenesis mimicked that observed in penaeid shrimp hosts whereas in other examples (Types 2 and 3 hosts), infection did not readily progress to disease, even though hosts were considered as infected and susceptible according to accepted principles. Results arising from challenge studies are discussed in relation to the potential risk posed to non-target hosts by the inadvertent introduction of WSSV to European waters via trade. Furthermore, we highlight the potential for susceptible but relatively resistant hosts to serve as models to investigate natural mitigation strategies against WSSV in these hosts. We speculate that these non-model hosts may offer a unique insight into viral handling in crustaceans. PMID:22484233

Bateman, K S; Tew, I; French, C; Hicks, R J; Martin, P; Munro, J; Stentiford, G D

2012-07-01

275

Characterization of a membrane-bound angiotensin-converting enzyme isoform in crayfish testis and evidence for its release into the seminal fluid.  

PubMed

In the present study, an isoform of angiotensin-converting enzyme was characterized from the testis of a decapod crustacean, the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus. Angiotensin-converting enzyme cDNA, obtained by 3'- to 5' RACE of testis RNAs, codes for a predicted one-domain protein similar to the mammalian germinal isoform of angiotensin-converting enzyme. All amino acid residues involved in enzyme activity are highly conserved, and a potential C-terminus transmembrane anchor may be predicted from the sequence. Comparison of this testicular isoform with angiotensin-converting enzyme from other crustaceans, namely Carcinus maenas, Homarus americanus (both reconstituted for this study from expressed-sequence tag data) and Daphnia pulex, suggests that membrane-bound angiotensin-converting enzyme occurs widely in crustaceans, conversely to other invertebrate groups where angiotensin-converting enzyme is predominantly a soluble protein. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry performed on testis sections show that angiotensin-converting enzyme mRNA is mainly localized in spermatogonias, whereas protein is present in spermatozoids. By contrast, in vas deferens, immunoreactivity is detected in the seminal fluid rather than in germ cells. Accordingly, angiotensin-converting enzyme activity assays of testis and vas deferens extracts demonstrate that the enzyme is present in the membrane fraction in testis, but in the soluble fraction in vas deferens. Taken together, the results obtained in the present study suggest that, during the migration of spermatozoids from testis to vas deferens, the enzyme is cleaved from the membrane of the germ cells and released into the seminal fluid. To our knowledge, this present study is the first to report such a maturation process for angiotensin-converting enzyme outside of mammals. PMID:19656189

Simunic, Juraj; Soyez, Daniel; Kamech, Nédia

2009-09-01

276

An antibody to recombinant crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone of Nephrops norvegicus cross-reacts with neuroendocrine organs of several taxa of malacostracan Crustacea.  

PubMed

The crustacean hyperglycaemic hormones (cHHs) are multifunctional neuropeptides that play a central role in the physiology of crustaceans. A partial cDNA coding for cHH of the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus, was cloned; this cDNA was fused to glutathione- S-transferase (GST) to obtain a recombinant fusion protein that was used to raise a rabbit antiserum and to perform a biological assay. The specificity of the purified antibody was demonstrated by means of Western blotting. To validate the specificity of the purified antibody to the cHH of N. norvegicus and its cross-reactivity with other species, we performed standard immunocytochemistry of the eyestalk on: (1) paraffin sections of the decapod species N. norvegicus, Munida rugosa and Astacus leptodactylus and of the stomatopod Squilla mantis; (2) semithin resin sections of N. norvegicus and Palaemon elegans; (3) ultrathin sections of N. norvegicus sinus gland (transmission electron microscopy studies). The pattern of immunoreactivity shown by N. norvegicus eyestalk sections conforms to distribution, relative amount and ultrastructural features of cHH-containing neurons and nerve endings as reported in the previous literature. In all the crustacean species examined, the antibody marks precisely the X organ-sinus gland complex and unspecific staining is completely lacking. In addition, its specific cross-reaction by immunoprecipitation depletes shrimp eyestalk extract of hyperglycaemic activity in an in vivo bioassay. The results obtained show a cHH-specific molecular recognition despite the fact that the species tested belong to systematic groups increasingly remote in the phylogenetic tree. The antibody could be used for advancing our knowledge on cHH activity in a variety of crustacean species, e.g. for monitoring reproductive and stress conditions. PMID:11845331

Giulianini, P G; Pandolfelli, N; Lorenzon, S; Ferrero, E A; Edomi, P

2002-02-01

277

Infaunal community responses to a gradient of trawling disturbance and a long-term Fishery Exclusion Zone in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically the majority of Mediterranean trawl fisheries occur on the continental shelf with a smaller proportion focused on the shelf slope and deep sea areas. Understanding how trawl fisheries affect the wider ecosystem is an important component of the ecosystem-based approach to fisheries management. In this context the current study examined the impact of the otter trawl fishery on the infaunal communities found on the continental shelf and upper slope off the coast of Sicily and Calabria, Italy. A total of thirty six sites were sampled across a gradient of fishing intensity and from within a large bay from which trawling has been excluded for 22 years. Fishing intensities were ascertained post-hoc from vessel monitoring system data. Seabed characteristics of the sites studied were uniform across the continental shelf and slope areas that were studied, such that the only factor that varied was fishing intensity. The density index (DI) and total number of species (S) were significantly higher in the fishery closure area compared with other continental shelf sites. In particular, bioturbating decapod fauna occurred only within the fishery closure area. Fished sites were dominated primarily by burrowing deposit feeding worms, small bivalves and scavenging biota. In contrast, the response to fishing on the upper slope was less clear. This observation was treated with caution as the power to detect fishing effects was lower for the upper slope sites as a result of possible illegal fishing that had compromised two of the four replicate sites within the closed area. While the present study was able to quantify the effect of the demersal trawl fleet on the benthic infauna of the continental shelf, the effects of trawling on the upper shelf slope remain unclear and warrant further study.

Mangano, M. Cristina; Kaiser, Michel J.; Porporato, Erika M. D.; Lambert, Gwladys I.; Rinelli, Paola; Spanò, Nunziacarla

2014-03-01

278

Characterization of a Prawn OA/TA Receptor in Xenopus Oocytes Suggests Functional Selectivity between Octopamine and Tyramine  

PubMed Central

Here we report the characterization of an octopamine/tyramine (OA/TA or TyrR1) receptor (OA/TAMac) cloned from the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, an animal used in the study of agonistic social behavior. The invertebrate OA/TA receptors are seven trans-membrane domain G-protein coupled receptors that are related to vertebrate adrenergic receptors. Behavioral studies in arthropods indicate that octopaminergic signaling systems modulate fight or flight behaviors with octopamine and/or tyramine functioning in a similar way to the adrenalins in vertebrate systems. Despite the importance of octopamine signaling in behavioral studies of decapod crustaceans there are no functional data available for any of their octopamine or tyramine receptors. We expressed OA/TAMac in Xenopus oocytes where agonist-evoked trans-membrane currents were used as readouts of receptor activity. The currents were most effectively evoked by tyramine but were also evoked by octopamine and dopamine. They were effectively blocked by yohimbine. The electrophysiological approach we used enabled the continuous observation of complex dynamics over time. Using voltage steps, we were able to simultaneously resolve two types of endogenous currents that are affected over different time scales. At higher concentrations we observe that octopamine and tyramine can produce different and opposing effects on both of these currents, presumably through the activity of the single expressed receptor type. The pharmacological profile and apparent functional-selectivity are consistent with properties first observed in the OA/TA receptor from the insect Drosophila melanogaster. As the first functional data reported for any crustacean OA/TA receptor, these results suggest that functional-selectivity between tyramine and octopamine is a feature of this receptor type that may be conserved among arthropods. PMID:25350749

Jezzini, Sami H.; Reyes-Colón, Dalynés; Sosa, María A.

2014-01-01

279

Antarctic Crabs: Invasion or Endurance?  

PubMed Central

Recent scientific interest following the “discovery” of lithodid crabs around Antarctica has centred on a hypothesis that these crabs might be poised to invade the Antarctic shelf if the recent warming trend continues, potentially decimating its native fauna. This “invasion hypothesis” suggests that decapod crabs were driven out of Antarctica 40–15 million years ago and are only now returning as “warm” enough habitats become available. The hypothesis is based on a geographically and spatially poor fossil record of a different group of crabs (Brachyura), and examination of relatively few Recent lithodid samples from the Antarctic slope. In this paper, we examine the existing lithodid fossil record and present the distribution and biogeographic patterns derived from over 16,000 records of Recent Southern Hemisphere crabs and lobsters. Globally, the lithodid fossil record consists of only two known specimens, neither of which comes from the Antarctic. Recent records show that 22 species of crabs and lobsters have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with 12 species found south of 60°S. All are restricted to waters warmer than 0°C, with their Antarctic distribution limited to the areas of seafloor dominated by Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW). Currently, CDW extends further and shallower onto the West Antarctic shelf than the known distribution ranges of most lithodid species examined. Geological evidence suggests that West Antarctic shelf could have been available for colonisation during the last 9,000 years. Distribution patterns, species richness, and levels of endemism all suggest that, rather than becoming extinct and recently re-invading from outside Antarctica, the lithodid crabs have likely persisted, and even radiated, on or near to Antarctic slope. We conclude there is no evidence for a modern-day “crab invasion”. We recommend a repeated targeted lithodid sampling program along the West Antarctic shelf to fully test the validity of the “invasion hypothesis”. PMID:23843974

Griffiths, Huw J.; Whittle, Rowan J.; Roberts, Stephen J.; Belchier, Mark; Linse, Katrin

2013-01-01

280

Resistance to the crayfish plague pathogen, Aphanomyces astaci, in two freshwater shrimps.  

PubMed

Aphanomyces astaci, the causal agent of the crayfish plague, has recently been confirmed to infect also freshwater-inhabiting crabs. We experimentally tested the resistance of freshwater shrimps, another important decapod group inhabiting freshwaters, to this pathogen. We exposed individuals of two Asian shrimp species, Macrobrachium dayanum and Neocaridina davidi, to zoospores of the pathogen strain isolated from Procambarus clarkii, a known A. astaci carrier likely to get into contact with shrimps. The shrimps were kept in separate vessels up to seven weeks; exuviae and randomly chosen individuals were sampled throughout the experiment. Shrimp bodies and exuviae were tested for A. astaci presence by a species-specific quantitative PCR. The results were compared with amounts of A. astaci DNA in an inert substrate to distinguish potential pathogen growth in live specimens from persisting spores or environmental DNA attached to their surface. In contrast to susceptible crayfish Astacus astacus, we did not observe mortality of shrimps. The amount of detected pathogen DNA was decreasing steadily in the inert substrate, but it was still detectable several weeks after zoospore addition, which should be considered in studies relying on molecular detection of A. astaci. Probably due to moulting, the amount of A. astaci DNA was decreasing in N. davidi even faster than in the inert substrate. In contrast, high pathogen DNA levels were detected in some non-moulting individuals of M. dayanum, suggesting that A. astaci growth may be possible in tissues of this species. Further experiments are needed to test for the potential of long-term A. astaci persistence in freshwater shrimp populations. PMID:25064254

Svoboda, J; Mruga?a, A; Kozubíková-Balcarová, E; Kouba, A; Diéguez-Uribeondo, J; Petrusek, A

2014-09-01

281

Cloning and characterisation of a prophenoloxidase from the haemocytes of mud crab Scylla serrata.  

PubMed

A prophenoloxidase (proPO) cDNA was cloned from the haemocytes of mud crab Scylla serrata using oligonucleotide primers and RT-PCR. Both 3'- and 5'-regions were isolated by rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) method. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed that the cDNA clone has a full length of 2663bp, with an open reading frame of 2019bp, a 124-bp 5'-untranslated region, and a 520-bp 3'-untranslated region containing a poly A signal. It encodes a protein of 673 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 77.5kDa and with an estimated pI of 5.96. It contains two putative tyrosinase copper-binding motifs with six histidine residues (copper A, 185, 189, 211, and copper B, 346, 350, 386). The proPO has thiol-ester-like motif (GCGWPQHM), which showed similar structural features of proPOs from other decapod crustaceans. It also contains five possible glycosylation sites, and a conserved C-terminal region common to all known proPOs. Sequence comparison showed that the proPO-deduced amino acid of mud crab S. serrata has an overall similarity of 78%, 57%, 56%, 51-55%, 54%, 53%, 52%, 52%, and 52% to that of Dungeness crab Cancer magister, American lobster Homarus americanus, European lobster Homarus gammarus, kuruma prawn Marsupenaeus japonicus, crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, green tiger shrimp Penaeus semisulcatus, and giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, respectively. The proPO was strongly expressed in haemocytes, but not in heart, eyestalk, gill, muscle, ovary, hepatopancreas, stomach, and intestine. The proPO transcript of mud crab S. serrata increased significantly in 12 and 24h post-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection, but returned to the original values in 72h post injection. PMID:16806468

Ko, Chi-Fong; Chiou, Tzu-Ting; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Lu, Jenn-Kan; Chen, Jiann-Chu

2007-01-01

282

An insulin-like growth factor found in hepatopancreas implicates carbohydrate metabolism of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus.  

PubMed

Hyperglycemia that is caused by the release of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) from the sinus gland to hemolymph is one of the hallmark physiological phenomena, occurring in decapod crustaceans experiencing stressful conditions. However, the mechanism(s) by which such elevated glucose levels return to resting levels is still unknown. Interestingly, noted is a difference in the clearance rate of hemolymph glucose between adult females and adult males of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus: the former with more rapid clearance than the latter. The presence of an endogenous-insulin-like molecule is suggested in C. sapidus because an injection of bovine insulin, significantly reduces the levels of hemolymph glucose that were previously elevated by emersion stress or the glucose injection. Using 5' and 3' RACE, the full-length cDNA of an insulin-like molecule is isolated from the hepatopancreas of an adult female C. sapidus and shows the same putative sequence of an insulin-like androgenic gland factor (IAG) but differs in 5' and 3' UTR sequences. A knock-down study using five injections of double-stranded RNA of CasIAG-hep (dsRNA-CasIAG-hep, 10?g/injection) over a 10-day period reduces CasIAG-hep expression by ?50%. The levels of hemolymph glucose are also kept higher in dsRNA-CasIAG-hep injected group than those treated with dsRNA-green fluorescent protein (dsRNA-IAG-hep) or saline. Most importantly, the hepatopancreas of dsRNA-CasIAG-hep injected animals contains amounts of carbohydrate (glucose, trehalose, and glycogen) significantly lower than those of control groups, indicating that the function of CasIAG-hep in carbohydrate metabolism in crustaceans is similar to carbohydrate metabolism in vertebrates. PMID:24503150

Chung, J Sook

2014-04-01

283

Expanding the Crustacean neuropeptidome using a multifaceted mass spectrometric approach.  

PubMed

Jonah crab Cancer borealis is an excellent, long-served model organism for many areas of physiology, including the study of endocrinology and neurobiology. Characterizing the neuropeptides present in its nervous system provides the first critical step toward understanding the physiological roles of these complex molecules. Multiple mass spectral techniques were used to comprehensively characterize the neuropeptidome in C. borealis, including matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTMS), MALDI time-of-flight (TOF)/TOF MS and nanoflow liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-ESI-Q-TOF MS/MS). To enhance the detection signals and expand the dynamic range, direct tissue analysis, tissue extraction, capillary electrophoresis (CE) and off-line HPLC separation have also been employed. In total, 142 peptides were identified, including 85 previously known C. borealis peptides, 22 peptides characterized previously from other decapods, but new to this species, and 35 new peptides de novo sequenced for the first time in this study. Seventeen neuropeptide families were revealed including FMRFamide-related peptide (FaRP), allatostatin (A and B type), RYamide, orcokinin, orcomyotropin, proctolin, crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP), crustacean hyperglycemic hormone precursor-related peptide (CPRP), crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), corazonin, pigment-dispersing hormone (PDH), tachykinin, pyrokinin, SIFamide, red pigment concentrating hormone (RPCH) and HISGLYRamide. Collectively, our results greatly increase the number and expand the coverage of known C. borealis neuropeptides, and thus provide a stronger framework for future studies on the physiological roles played by these molecules in this important model organism. PMID:19222238

Ma, Mingming; Wang, Junhua; Chen, Ruibing; Li, Lingjun

2009-05-01

284

Potential respiration estimated by electron transport system activity in deep-sea suprabenthic crustaceans off Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ETS is an acronym for the activity of the respiratory electron transport system; the ETS assay is a biochemical method for estimating the “potential” respiration (?). We apply this technique to suprabenthic species captured at three depths (250 m, 650 m and 850 m) in two different locations: Cabrera (Algerian subbasin) and Sóller (Balearic subbasin) during the IDEADOS survey during summer 2010. The aim of this study was to compare specific ? between areas and between three depths to identify differences in the suprabenthos physiological state related to nutritional conditions. Specific ?, expressed in unit of ?l O2 h- 1 mg prot- 1 was not significantly different between species. Mean values were for the decapods: Plesionika heterocarpus, 8.4 ± 7.9; Gennadas elegans, 8.3 ± 2.9; and Sergestes arcticus 7.3 ± 4.6. Within the euphausiids specific ? averaged 6.5 ± 4.2 for Thysanopoda aequalis and 9.8 ± 5.1 for Meganyctiphanes norvegica; while for the mysids it ranged from 7.7 ± 4.4 for Boreomysis arctica and 2.1 ± 0.6 for Eucopia unguiculata. The comparison of specific potential respiration (?), with the pooling of the data of all the species, showed differences between the two locations, being higher in Cabrera. However, no significant differences between the different depths of each locality were found. The slope of the log ?-log biomass plot was 0.93 ± 0.09 for Cabrera and 0.64 ± 0.11 in Sóller. We interpret these differences as indicating that the suprabenthos in the Cabrera area, as compared to the Sóller area, has been well-nourished.

Herrera, A.; Gómez, M.; Packard, T. T.; Reglero, P.; Blanco, E.; Barberá-Cebrián, C.

2014-10-01

285

Inorganic carbon fixation by chemosynthetic ectosymbionts and nutritional transfers to the hydrothermal vent host-shrimp Rimicaris exoculata  

PubMed Central

The shrimp Rimicaris exoculata dominates several hydrothermal vent ecosystems of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and is thought to be a primary consumer harbouring a chemoautotrophic bacterial community in its gill chamber. The aim of the present study was to test current hypotheses concerning the epibiont's chemoautotrophy, and the mutualistic character of this association. In-vivo experiments were carried out in a pressurised aquarium with isotope-labelled inorganic carbon (NaH13CO3 and NaH14CO3) in the presence of two different electron donors (Na2S2O3 and Fe2+) and with radiolabelled organic compounds (14C-acetate and 3H-lysine) chosen as potential bacterial substrates and/or metabolic by-products in experiments mimicking transfer of small biomolecules from epibionts to host. The bacterial epibionts were found to assimilate inorganic carbon by chemoautotrophy, but many of them (thick filaments of epsilonproteobacteria) appeared versatile and able to switch between electron donors, including organic compounds (heterotrophic acetate and lysine uptake). At least some of them (thin filamentous gammaproteobacteria) also seem capable of internal energy storage that could supply chemosynthetic metabolism for hours under conditions of electron donor deprivation. As direct nutritional transfer from bacteria to host was detected, the association appears as true mutualism. Import of soluble bacterial products occurs by permeation across the gill chamber integument, rather than via the digestive tract. This first demonstration of such capabilities in a decapod crustacean supports the previously discarded hypothesis of transtegumental absorption of dissolved organic matter or carbon as a common nutritional pathway. PMID:22914596

Ponsard, Julie; Cambon-Bonavita, Marie-Anne; Zbinden, Magali; Lepoint, Gilles; Joassin, Andre; Corbari, Laure; Shillito, Bruce; Durand, Lucile; Cueff-Gauchard, Valerie; Compere, Philippe

2013-01-01

286

The Fauna Of Two New Discovered Hydrothermal Fields At 5°S And 9°33'S On The Mid-Atlantic-Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Before April 2005 there was a zoogeographical puzzle to solve: Are there any hydrothermal vent communities south of the equator the Atlantic Ocean, and if so, what will be their characteristics? Are they similar with those of the northern Atlantic Ocean or will they differ? Before the cruise 169 of the British "Charles Darwin" research vessel started, no vent site was discovered on the southern Atlantic Ridge. Using an autonomous underwater vehicle from WHOI, the first hydrothermal active vent site was found at 5°S in April 2005. With the support by British and American colleagues(Chris German and Tim Shank) the scientific crew of Meteor cruise M64/1 sampled this site at 5° first with the ROV "Quest 4000" from Marum, University Bremen. But far in excess of this success one more vent site was discovered and investigated by the Meteor cruise M64/1: the Lilliput Field at 9°33S on the Mid-Atlantic-Ridge. Our first results indicate that the identified taxa of the hydrothermal fields at 5°S and 9°33S resemble the northern Logatchev community (Gebruk et al. 2000) in most elements. Remarkable is the missing of following typical hydrothermal taxa: Decapods of the families Alvinocaridae, like Chorocaris, and Galatheidae, echinoderms like Ophiuridae and Ventfishes of the family Zoarcidae. Obviously the Romanch Fracture Zone act only partly as a physical barrier between vent fauna assemblages of the North and South Atlantic Oceans (see Shank 2004). Gebruk, A.V., Chevaldonne, P., Shank, T., Lutz, R.A. & Vrijenhoek, R.C. (2000): Deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities of the Logatchev area (14°45'N, Mid-Atlantic Ridge): diverse biotopes and high biomass. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U. K. 80: 383-393. Shank, T. (2004): The evolutionary puzzle of seafloor life. - Oceanus Magazine Vol. 42, No.2 http://oceanusmag.whoi.edu/v42n2/shank.html.

Stecher, J. E.

2005-12-01

287

The reaction of European lobster larvae (Homarus gammarus) to different quality food: effects of ontogenetic shifts and pre-feeding history.  

PubMed

Young larval stages of many organisms represent bottlenecks in the life-history of many species. The high mortality commonly observed in, for example, decapod larvae has often been linked to poor nutrition, with most studies focussing on food quantity. Here, we focus instead on the effects of quality and have investigated its effects on the nutritional condition of lobster larvae. We established a tri-trophic food chain consisting of the cryptophyte Rhodomonas salina, the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa and larvae of the European lobster Homarus gammarus. In a set of experiments, we manipulated the C:N:P stoichiometry of the primary producers, and accordingly those of the primary consumer. In a first experiment, R. salina was grown under N- and P-limitation and the nutrient content of the algae was manipulated by addition of the limiting nutrient to create a food quality gradient. In a second experiment, the effect on lobster larvae of long- and short-term exposure to food of varying quality during ontogenetic development was investigated. The condition of the lobster larvae was negatively affected even by subtle N- and P-nutrient limitations of the algae. Furthermore, younger lobster larvae were more vulnerable to nutrient limitation than older ones, suggesting an ontogenetic shift in the capacity of lobster larvae to cope with low quality food. The results presented here might have substantial consequences for the survival of lobster larvae in the field, as, in the light of future climate change and re-oligotrophication of the North Sea, lobster larvae might face marked changes in temperature and nutrient conditions, thus significantly altering their condition and growth. PMID:24072442

Schoo, Katherina L; Aberle, Nicole; Malzahn, Arne M; Schmalenbach, Isabel; Boersma, Maarten

2014-02-01

288

Detection and Discovery of Crustacean Parasites in Blue Crabs (Callinectes sapidus) by Using 18S rRNA Gene-Targeted Denaturing High-Performance Liquid Chromatography? †  

PubMed Central

Recently, we described a novel denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) approach useful for initial detection and identification of crustacean parasites. Because this approach utilizes general primers targeted to conserved regions of the 18S rRNA gene, a priori genetic sequence information on eukaryotic parasites is not required. This distinction provides a significant advantage over specifically targeted PCR assays that do not allow for the detection of unknown or unsuspected parasites. However, initial field evaluations of the DHPLC assay suggested that because of PCR-biased amplification of dominant host genes it was not possible to detect relatively rare parasite genes in infected crab tissue. Here, we describe the use of a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) PCR hybridization blocking probe in association with DHPLC (PNA-PCR DHPLC) to overcome inherent PCR bias associated with amplification of rare target genes by use of generic primers. This approach was utilized to detect infection of blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) by the parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium sp. Evaluation of 76 crabs caught in Wassaw Sound, GA, indicated a 97% correspondence between detection of the parasite by use of a specific PCR diagnostic assay and that by use of PNA-PCR DHPLC. During these studies, we discovered one crab with an association with a previously undescribed protist symbiont. Phylogenetic analysis of the amplified symbiont 18S rRNA gene indicated that it is most closely related to the free-living kinetoplastid parasite Procryptobia sorokini. To our knowledge, this is the first report of this parasite group in a decapod crab and of this organism exhibiting a presumably parasitic life history. PMID:18502913

Troedsson, Christofer; Lee, Richard F.; Walters, Tina; Stokes, Vivica; Brinkley, Karrie; Naegele, Verena; Frischer, Marc E.

2008-01-01

289

Reproductive biology and recruitment of the deep-sea fish community from the NW Mediterranean continental margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temporal patterns in deep-sea fish reproduction are presently unknown for the majority of deep continental margins. A series of seasonal trawling surveys between depths of 300 to 1750 m in the Blanes submarine canyon and its adjacent open slope (NW Mediterranean) were conducted. The bathymetric size distributions and reproductive cycles of the most abundant species along the NW Mediterranean margin were analyzed to assess the occurrence of (i) temporal patterns in reproduction (i.e., spawning season) along a bathymetric gradient and (ii) preferential depth strata for recruitment. The fish assemblages were grouped in relation to their bathymetric distribution: upper slope, middle slope and lower slope species. Middle-slope species (i.e., 800-1350 m) showed short (i.e., highly seasonal) reproductive activity compared to the upper (300-800 m) and lower (1350-1750 m) ones. Our results, together with those previously published for megabenthic crustacean decapods in the area, suggest a cross-phyla depth-related trend of seasonality in reproduction. In the middle and lower slope species, the reproductive activity reached a maximum in the autumn-winter months and decreased in the spring. The observed seasonal spawning patterns appear to be ultimately correlated with changes in the downward transport of organic particles and with seasonal changes in the physicochemical characteristics of the surrounding water masses. The distribution of juveniles was associated with the bathymetric stratum where intermediate nepheloid layers interact with the continental margins, indicating that this stratum acts as a deep-sea fish nursery area.

Fernandez-Arcaya, U.; Rotllant, G.; Ramirez-Llodra, E.; Recasens, L.; Aguzzi, J.; Flexas, M. M.; Sanchez-Vidal, A.; López-Fernández, P.; García, J. A.; Company, J. B.

2013-11-01

290

Myogenesis of Malacostraca - the "egg-nauplius" concept revisited  

PubMed Central

Background Malacostracan evolutionary history has seen multiple transformations of ontogenetic mode. For example direct development in connection with extensive brood care and development involving planktotrophic nauplius larvae, as well as intermediate forms are found throughout this taxon. This makes the Malacostraca a promising group for study of evolutionary morphological diversification and the role of heterochrony therein. One candidate heterochronic phenomenon is represented by the concept of the ‘egg-nauplius’, in which the nauplius larva, considered plesiomorphic to all Crustacea, is recapitulated as an embryonic stage. Results Here we present a comparative investigation of embryonic muscle differentiation in four representatives of Malacostraca: Gonodactylaceus falcatus (Stomatopoda), Neocaridina heteropoda (Decapoda), Neomysis integer (Mysida) and Parhyale hawaiensis (Amphipoda). We describe the patterns of muscle precursors in different embryonic stages to reconstruct the sequence of muscle development, until hatching of the larva or juvenile. Comparison of the developmental sequences between species reveals extensive heterochronic and heteromorphic variation. Clear anticipation of muscle differentiation in the nauplius segments, but also early formation of longitudinal trunk musculature independently of the teloblastic proliferation zone, are found to be characteristic to stomatopods and decapods, all of which share an egg-nauplius stage. Conclusions Our study provides a strong indication that the concept of nauplius recapitulation in Malacostraca is incomplete, because sequences of muscle tissue differentiation deviate from the chronological patterns observed in the ectoderm, on which the egg-nauplius is based. However, comparison of myogenic sequences between taxa supports the hypothesis of a zoea-like larva that was present in the last common ancestor of Eumalacostraca (Malacostraca without Leptostraca). We argue that much of the developmental sequences of larva muscle patterning were retained in the eumalacostracan lineage despite the reduction of free swimming nauplius larvae, but was severely reduced in the peracaridean clade. PMID:24325906

2013-01-01

291

Feedback From Peripheral Musculature to Central Pattern Generator in the Neurogenic Heart of the Crab Callinectes sapidus: Role of Mechanosensitive Dendrites  

PubMed Central

The neurogenic heart of decapod crustaceans is a very simple, self-contained, model central pattern generator (CPG)-effector system. The CPG, the nine-neuron cardiac ganglion (CG), is embedded in the myocardium itself; it generates bursts of spikes that are transmitted by the CG's five motor neurons to the periphery of the system, the myocardium, to produce its contractions. Considerable evidence suggests that a CPG-peripheral loop is completed by a return feedback pathway through which the contractions modify, in turn, the CG motor pattern. One likely pathway is provided by dendrites, presumably mechanosensitive, that the CG neurons project into the adjacent myocardial muscle. Here we have tested the role of this pathway in the heart of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. We performed “de-efferentation” experiments in which we cut the motor neuron axons to the myocardium and “de-afferentation” experiments in which we cut or ligated the dendrites. In the isolated CG, these manipulations had no effect on the CG motor pattern. When the CG remained embedded in the myocardium, however, these manipulations, interrupting either the efferent or afferent limb of the CPG-peripheral loop, decreased contraction amplitude, increased the frequency of the CG motor neuron spike bursts, and decreased the number of spikes per burst and burst duration. Finally, passive stretches of the myocardium likewise modulated the spike bursts, an effect that disappeared when the dendrites were cut. We conclude that feedback through the dendrites indeed operates in this system and suggest that it completes a loop through which the system self-regulates its activity. PMID:19828726

Garcia-Crescioni, Keyla; Fort, Timothy J.; Stern, Estee; Brezina, Vladimir

2010-01-01

292

Biodiversity of the Deep-Sea Continental Margin Bordering the Gulf of Maine (NW Atlantic): Relationships among Sub-Regions and to Shelf Systems  

PubMed Central

Background In contrast to the well-studied continental shelf region of the Gulf of Maine, fundamental questions regarding the diversity, distribution, and abundance of species living in deep-sea habitats along the adjacent continental margin remain unanswered. Lack of such knowledge precludes a greater understanding of the Gulf of Maine ecosystem and limits development of alternatives for conservation and management. Methodology/Principal Findings We use data from the published literature, unpublished studies, museum records and online sources, to: (1) assess the current state of knowledge of species diversity in the deep-sea habitats adjacent to the Gulf of Maine (39–43°N, 63–71°W, 150–3000 m depth); (2) compare patterns of taxonomic diversity and distribution of megafaunal and macrofaunal species among six distinct sub-regions and to the continental shelf; and (3) estimate the amount of unknown diversity in the region. Known diversity for the deep-sea region is 1,671 species; most are narrowly distributed and known to occur within only one sub-region. The number of species varies by sub-region and is directly related to sampling effort occurring within each. Fishes, corals, decapod crustaceans, molluscs, and echinoderms are relatively well known, while most other taxonomic groups are poorly known. Taxonomic diversity decreases with increasing distance from the continental shelf and with changes in benthic topography. Low similarity in faunal composition suggests the deep-sea region harbours faunal communities distinct from those of the continental shelf. Non-parametric estimators of species richness suggest a minimum of 50% of the deep-sea species inventory remains to be discovered. Conclusions/Significance The current state of knowledge of biodiversity in this deep-sea region is rudimentary. Our ability to answer questions is hampered by a lack of sufficient data for many taxonomic groups, which is constrained by sampling biases, life-history characteristics of target species, and the lack of trained taxonomists. PMID:21124960

Kelly, Noreen E.; Shea, Elizabeth K.; Metaxas, Anna; Haedrich, Richard L.; Auster, Peter J.

2010-01-01

293

Morphology and histochemistry of the aesthetasc-associated epidermal glands in terrestrial hermit crabs of the genus Coenobita (Decapoda: Paguroidea).  

PubMed

Crustaceans have successfully adapted to a variety of environments including fresh- and saltwater as well as land. Transition from an aquatic to a terrestrial lifestyle required adaptations of the sensory equipment of an animal, particularly in olfaction, where the stimulus itself changes from hydrophilic to mainly hydrophobic, air-borne molecules. Hermit crabs Coenobita spp. (Anomura, Coenobitidae) have adapted to a fully terrestrial lifestyle as adults and have been shown to rely on olfaction in order to detect distant food items. We observed that the specialized olfactory sensilla in Coenobita, named aesthetascs, are immersed in a layer of mucous-like substance. We hypothesized that the mucous is produced by antennal glands and affects functioning of the aesthetascs. Using various microscopic and histochemical techniques we proved that the mucous is produced by aesthetasc-associated epidermal glands, which we consider to be modified rosette-type aesthetasc tegumental glands known from aquatic decapods. These epidermal glands in Coenobita are multicellular exocrine organs of the recto-canal type with tubulo-acinar arrangement of the secretory cells. Two distinct populations of secretory cells were clearly distinguishable with light and electron microscopy. At least part of the secretory cells contains specific enzymes, CUB-serine proteases, which are likely to be secreted on the surface of the aesthetasc pad and take part in antimicrobial defense. Proteomic analysis of the glandular tissue corroborates the idea that the secretions of the aesthetasc-associated epidermal glands are involved in immune responses. We propose that the mucous covering the aesthetascs in Coenobita takes part in antimicrobial defense and at the same time provides the moisture essential for odor perception in terrestrial hermit crabs. We conclude that the morphological modifications of the aesthetasc-associated epidermal glands as well as the functional characteristics of their secretions are important adaptations to a terrestrial lifestyle. PMID:24805352

Tuchina, Oksana; Groh, Katrin C; Talarico, Giovanni; Müller, Carsten H G; Wielsch, Natalie; Hupfer, Yvonne; Svatoš, Aleš; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald; Hansson, Bill S

2014-01-01

294

Modeling prey consumption by native and non-native piscivorous fishes: implications for competition and impacts on shared prey in an ultraoligotrophic lake in Patagonia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined trophic interactions of the nonnative salmonids Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, Brown Trout Salmo trutta, and Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalisand the main native predator Creole Perch Percichthys trucha in Lake Nahuel Huapi (Patagonia, Argentina) to determine the relative impact of each predator on their forage base and to evaluate the potential vulnerability of each predator to competitive impacts by the others. Using bioenergetics simulations, we demonstrated the overall importance of galaxiids and decapods to the energy budgets of nonnative salmonids and Creole Perch. Introduced salmonids, especially Rainbow Trout, exerted considerably heavier predatory demands on shared resources than did the native Creole Perch on both a per capita basis and in terms of relative population impacts. Rainbow Trout consumed higher quantities and a wider size range of Small Puyen (also known as Inanga) Galaxias maculatus than the other predators, including early pelagic life stages of that prey; as such, this represents an additional source of mortality for the vulnerable early life stages of Small Puyen before and during their transition from pelagic to benthic habitats. All predators were generally feeding at high feeding rates (above 40% of their maximum physiological rates), suggesting that competition for prey does not currently limit either Creole Perch or the salmonids in this lake. This study highlights the importance of keystone prey for the coexistence of native species with nonnative top predators. It provides new quantitative and qualitative evidence of the high predation pressure exerted on Small Puyen, the keystone prey species, during the larval to juvenile transition from pelagic to littoral-benthic habitat in Patagonian lakes. This study also emphasizes the importance of monitoring salmonid and Creole Perch population dynamics in order to detect signs of potential impacts through competition and shows the need to carefully consider the rationale behind any additional trout stocking.

Juncos, Romina; Beauchamp, David A.; Viglianoc, Pablo H.

2013-01-01

295

Food utilisation by coastal fish assemblages in rocky and soft bottoms on the Swedish west coast: Inference for identification of essential fish habitats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of essential fish habitats (EFHs) is widely accepted for conservational and management purposes. EFHs are often considered as high quality habitats for fisheries species and subsequently of high values for society. In this study, fish and Substrate-Associated Prey (SAP) were sampled during the productive summer season 1998 (fish) and 2003 and 2004 (SAP) in shallow coastal rocky- and soft-bottom habitats on the Swedish west coast. The aim was to study the spatial and monthly variation of SAP as well as abundance and biomass of fish, and to examine if food items found in the diet of the fish assemblage were derived from SAP. We also examined if the diet of Ctenolabrus rupestris, a resident and abundant fish species in the shallow coastal habitats, and the diet of four seasonally abundant and commercially important fish species ( Gadus morhua, Pleuronectes platessa, Salmo trutta and Scomber scombrus) were derived from SAP. There were significantly higher mean species number and abundance of the SAP assemblage on rocky compared to soft bottoms and the highest values were found on the rocky bottoms in August and in the shallowest (0-3 m) depth strata. There were no significant differences in number of fish species caught in the two habitats, although mean number of fish and mean biomass were significantly higher on rocky bottoms. Both habitats showed the same seasonal variation and the highest values of number of fish species, abundance and biomass were observed in June. On rocky bottoms, gastropods and amphipods were the most frequent food items in the diet of the entire fish assemblage and these items were also the most abundant SAP in this habitat. The dominant food items of the soft-bottom fish assemblage were decapods and fish, which were not common SAP. However, except for S. scombrus, the diet of the selected fish species showed a strong association to the SAP availability. Gadus morhua displayed the strongest association to SAP on rocky bottoms and P. platessa and C. rupestris to SAP on soft bottoms. Further, for C. rupestris, multivariate statistical analysis showed a significant association to the SAP assemblage on both rocky and soft bottoms. These results provide vital new information for the management and conservation of Essential Fish Habitats on the Swedish west coast.

Stål, Johan; Pihl, Leif; Wennhage, Håkan

2007-02-01

296

Large-field-of-view wide-spectrum artificial reflecting superposition compound eyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the imaging principles of natural compound eyes has become an active area of research and has fueled the advancement of modern optics with many attractive design features beyond those available with conventional technologies. Most prominent among all compound eyes is the reflecting superposition compound eyes (RSCEs) found in some decapods. They are extraordinary imaging systems with numerous optical features such as minimum chromatic aberration, wide-angle field of view (FOV), high sensitivity to light and superb acuity to motion. Inspired by their remarkable visual system, we were able to implement the unique lens-free, reflection-based imaging mechanisms into a miniaturized, large-FOV optical imaging device operating at the wide visible spectrum to minimize chromatic aberration without any additional post-image processing. First, two micro-transfer printing methods, a multiple and a shear-assisted transfer printing technique, were studied and discussed to realize life-sized artificial RSCEs. The processes exploited the differential adhesive tendencies of the microstructures formed between a donor and a transfer substrate to accomplish an efficient release and transfer process. These techniques enabled conformal wrapping of three-dimensional (3-D) microstructures, initially fabricated in two-dimensional (2-D) layouts with standard fabrication technology onto a wide range of surfaces with complex and curvilinear shapes. Final part of this dissertation was focused on implementing the key operational features of the natural RSCEs into large-FOV, wide-spectrum artificial RSCEs as an optical imaging device suitable for the wide visible spectrum. Our devices can form real, clear images based on reflection rather than refraction, hence avoiding chromatic aberration due to dispersion by the optical materials. Compared to the performance of conventional refractive lenses of comparable size, our devices demonstrated minimum chromatic aberration, exceptional FOV up to 165o without distortion, modest spherical aberrations and comparable imaging quality without any post-image processing. Together with an augmenting cruciform pattern surrounding each focused image, our devices possessed enhanced, dynamic motion-tracking capability ideal for diverse applications in military, security, search and rescue, night navigation, medical imaging and astronomy. In the future, due to its reflection-based operating principles, it can be further extended into mid- and far-infrared for more demanding applications.

Huang, Chi-Chieh

297

Effects of Mg2+ on Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle fibres from yabby (crustacean) and rat  

PubMed Central

The role of myoplasmic [Mg2+] on Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) was examined in the two major types of crustacean muscle fibres, the tonic, long sarcomere fibres and the phasic, short sarcomere fibres of the fresh water decapod crustacean Cherax destructor (yabby) and in the fast-twitch rat muscle fibres using the mechanically skinned muscle fibre preparation.A robust Ca2+-induced Ca2+-release (CICR) mechanism was present in both long and short sarcomere fibres and 1 mm Mg2+ exerted a strong inhibitory action on the SR Ca2+ release in both fibre types.The SR displayed different properties with respect to Ca2+ loading in the long and the short sarcomere fibres and marked functional differences were identified with respect to Mg2+ inhibition between the two crustacean fibre types. Thus, in long sarcomere fibres, the submaximally loaded SR was able to release Ca2+ when [Mg2+] was lowered from 1 to 0.01 mm in the presence of 8 mm ATPtotal and in the virtual absence of Ca2+ (< 5 nM) even when the CICR was suppressed. In contrast, negligible Ca2+ was released from the submaximally loaded SR of short sarcomere yabby fibres when [Mg2+] was lowered from 1 to 0.01 mm under the same conditions as for the long sarcomere fibres. Nevertheless, the rate of SR Ca2+ release in short sarcomere fibres increased markedly when [Mg2+] was lowered in the presence of [Ca2+] approaching the normal resting levels (50-100 nM).Rat fibres were able to release SR Ca2+ at a faster rate than the long sarcomere yabby fibres when [Mg2+] was lowered from 1 to 0.01 mm in the virtual absence of Ca2+ but, unlike with yabby fibres, the net rate of Ca2+ release was actually increased for conditions that were considerably less favourable to CICR.In summary, it is concluded that crustacean skeletal muscles have more that one functional type of Ca2+-release channels, that these channels display properties that are intermediate between those of mammalian skeletal and cardiac isoforms, that the inhibition exerted by Mg2+ at rest on the crustacean SR Ca2+-release channels must be removed during excitation-contraction coupling and that, unlike in crustacean fibres, CICR cannot play the major role in the activation of SR Ca2+-release channels in the rat skeletal muscle. PMID:10896719

Launikonis, Bradley S; Stephenson, D George

2000-01-01

298

Effect of saponin treatment on the sarcoplasmic reticulum of rat, cane toad and crustacean (yabby) skeletal muscle.  

PubMed Central

1. Mechanically skinned fibres from skeletal muscles of the rat, toad and yabby were used to investigate the effect of saponin treatment on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ loading properties. The SR was loaded submaximally under control conditions before and after treatment with saponin and SR Ca2+ was released with caffeine. 2. Treatment with 10 micrograms ml-1 saponin greatly reduced the SR Ca2+ loading ability of skinned fibres from the extensor digitorum longus muscle of the rat with a rate constant of 0.24 min-1. Saponin concentrations up to 150 micrograms ml-1 and increased exposure time up to 30 min did not further reduce the SR Ca2+ loading ability of the SR, which indicates that the inhibitory action of 10-150 micrograms ml-1 saponin is not dose dependent. The effect of saponin was also not dependent on the state of polarization of the transverse-tubular system. 3. Treatment with saponin at concentrations up to 100 micrograms ml-1 for 30 min did not affect the Ca2+ loading ability of SR in skinned skeletal muscle fibres from the twitch portion of the toad iliofibularis muscle but SR Ca2+ loading ability decreased markedly with a time constant of 0.22 min-1 in the presence of 150 micrograms ml-1 saponin. 4. The saponin dependent increase in permeability could be reversed in both rat and toad fibres by short treatment with 6 microM Ruthenium Red, a potent SR Ca2+ channel blocker, suggesting that saponin does affect the SR Ca2+ channel properties in mammalian and anuran skeletal muscle. 5. Treatment of skinned fibres of long sarcomere length (> 6 microns) from the claw muscle of the yabby (a freshwater decapod crustacean) with 10 micrograms ml-1 saponin for 30 min abolished the ability of the SR to load Ca2+, indicating that saponin affects differently the SR from skeletal muscles of mammals, anurans and crustaceans. 6. It is concluded that at relatively low concentrations, saponin causes inhibition of the skeletal SR Ca2+ loading ability in a species dependent manner, probably by increasing the Ca2+ loss through SR Ca2+ release channels. PMID:9365915

Launikonis, B S; Stephenson, D G

1997-01-01

299

Two fast-type fibers in claw closer and abdominal deep muscles of the Australian freshwater crustacean, Cherax destructor, differ in Ca2+ sensitivity and troponin-I isoforms.  

PubMed

One type of fast fiber and two types of slow (slow-twitch, S1 and slow-tonic, S2) fibers are found in decapod crustacean skeletal muscles that differ in contractile properties and myofibrillar protein isoform compositions. In this study the structural characteristics, protein isoform compositions, and Ca2+-activation properties of fast fibers in the claw closer (F1) and abdominal deep flexor (F2) muscles of Cherax destructor were analyzed. For comparison, myofibrillar protein isoform compositions of slow (long-sarcomere) fibers from claw and abdomen were also determined; our results indicate that the slow fibers in the claw closer were the slow-twitch (S1) type and those in the abdominal superficial flexor were primarily slow-tonic (S2) type. F1 fibers had shorter resting sarcomere lengths (2.93 microm in unstretched fibers and 3.06 microm in stretched fibers) and smaller fiber diameter (256 microm) than F2 fibers (sarcomere lengths 3.48 microm in unstretched and 3.46 microm in stretched; 747 microm diameter). Moreover, F1 fibers showed a narrower range in sarcomere lengths than F2 fibers (2.81 to 3.28 microm vs. 2.47 to 4.05 micro m in unstretched fibers). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting showed that the fast fibers from claw and abdomen differed in troponin-I composition; F1 fibers expressed two isoforms of troponin-I (TnI1 and TnI2) in approximately equal amounts, whereas F2 fibers expressed primarily TnI3 and lower levels of TnI1. F1 fibers were more sensitive to Ca2+, as shown by higher pCa values at threshold activation (pCa(10)=6.50+/-0.07) and at 50% maximum force (pCa(50)=6.43+/-0.07) than F2 fibers (pCa(10)=6.12+/-0.04 and pCa(50)=5.88+/-0.03, respectively). F1 fibers also had a greater degree of co-operativity in Ca2+ activation, as shown by a higher maximum slope of the force-pCa curve (n(Ca)=12.98+/-2.27 vs. 4.34+/-0.64). These data indicate that there is a greater fast fiber-type diversity in crustacean muscles than was previously supposed. Moreover, the differences in activation properties suggest that the TnI isoform composition influences the Ca2+ sensitivity of the contractile mechanism. PMID:15229869

Koenders, Annette; Lamey, Tina M; Medler, Scott; West, Jan M; Mykles, Donald L

2004-07-01

300

Effects of Mg2+ on Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle fibres from yabby (crustacean) and rat.  

PubMed

1. The role of myoplasmic [Mg2+] on Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) was examined in the two major types of crustacean muscle fibres, the tonic, long sarcomere fibres and the phasic, short sarcomere fibres of the fresh water decapod crustacean Cherax destructor (yabby) and in the fast-twitch rat muscle fibres using the mechanically skinned muscle fibre preparation. 2. A robust Ca2+-induced Ca2+-release (CICR) mechanism was present in both long and short sarcomere fibres and 1 mM Mg2+ exerted a strong inhibitory action on the SR Ca2+ release in both fibre types. 3. The SR displayed different properties with respect to Ca2+ loading in the long and the short sarcomere fibres and marked functional differences were identified with respect to Mg2+ inhibition between the two crustacean fibre types. Thus, in long sarcomere fibres, the submaximally loaded SR was able to release Ca2+ when [Mg2+] was lowered from 1 to 0.01 mM in the presence of 8 mM ATPtotal and in the virtual absence of Ca2+ (< 5 nM) even when the CICR was suppressed. In contrast, negligible Ca2+ was released from the submaximally loaded SR of short sarcomere yabby fibres when [Mg2+] was lowered from 1 to 0.01 mM under the same conditions as for the long sarcomere fibres. Nevertheless, the rate of SR Ca2+ release in short sarcomere fibres increased markedly when [Mg2+] was lowered in the presence of [Ca2+] approaching the normal resting levels (50-100 nM). 4. Rat fibres were able to release SR Ca2+ at a faster rate than the long sarcomere yabby fibres when [Mg2+] was lowered from 1 to 0. 01 mM in the virtual absence of Ca2+ but, unlike with yabby fibres, the net rate of Ca2+ release was actually increased for conditions that were considerably less favourable to CICR. 5. In summary, it is concluded that crustacean skeletal muscles have more that one functional type of Ca2+-release channels, that these channels display properties that are intermediate between those of mammalian skeletal and cardiac isoforms, that the inhibition exerted by Mg2+ at rest on the crustacean SR Ca2+-release channels must be removed during excitation-contraction coupling and that, unlike in crustacean fibres, CICR cannot play the major role in the activation of SR Ca2+-release channels in the rat skeletal muscle. PMID:10896719

Launikonis, B S; Stephenson, D G

2000-07-15

301

Structure and dynamics of food webs in the water column on shelf and slope grounds of the western Mediterranean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Benthic-pelagic coupling is an important process connecting species throughout the water column, particularly, in deep-sea systems where faunal assemblages can be dense if indirectly sustained by production from the above. Through stable isotope analyses, this study explored the sources of production, trophic structure, and bentho-pelagic coupling in two locations with contrasting oceanographic conditions from the western Mediterranean, in the Balearic (BsB) and the Algerian (AsB) sub-basins. The samples of 89 dominant species (23 decapods, 19 cephalopods, 33 fishes, among the other taxa), inhabiting the hyperbenthic and pelagic domains, from the shelf break (250 m), upper slope (650 m), and middle slope (850 m) were analyzed. Results suggested long food webs of approximately four trophic levels (TrLs) that were sustained by planktonic source material in shallower waters and degraded particulate organic matter of planktonic origin in deeper waters. Most of the collected species (70%) occupied intermediate trophic positions between the 3rd and 4th TrLs. The species ?15N and ?13C values exhibited a broad range, consistent with the high diversity that might be attributed to the oligotrophic conditions. As the depth increased, stronger segregation occurred between the trophic groups, and spatial differences were found among consumers of the two locations. Species in the AsB always had consistently higher ?15N values than in the BsB, which could possibly be attributed to the basal ?15N that was present through the food web. Despite the contrasting basin characteristics, a similarly close bentho-pelagic coupling pattern was observed at both locations, except at the deepest ground, especially at the AsB, where the mean ?13C values from the hyperbenthic and pelagic compartments were more distant. This could be related to the higher degree of reworking of organic matter in the AsB. Overall, these findings suggested the need for a depth-stratified approach to analyze deep-sea food webs in the study site in future studies.

Valls, M.; Sweeting, C. J.; Olivar, M. P.; Fernández de Puelles, M. L.; Pasqual, C.; Polunin, N. V. C.; Quetglas, A.

2014-10-01

302

Mercury bioaccumulation in cartilaginous fishes from Southern New England coastal waters: contamination from a trophic ecology and human health perspective.  

PubMed

This study examined total mercury (Hg) concentrations in cartilaginous fishes from Southern New England coastal waters, including smooth dogfish (Mustelus canis), spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias), little skate (Leucoraja erinacea), and winter skate (Leucoraja ocellata). Total Hg in dogfish and skates were positively related to their respective body size and age, indicating Hg bioaccumulation in muscle tissue. There were also significant inter-species differences in Hg levels (mean ± 1 SD, mg Hg/kg dry weight, ppm): smooth dogfish (3.3 ± 2.1 ppm; n = 54) > spiny dogfish (1.1 ± 0.7 ppm; n = 124) > little skate (0.4 ± 0.3 ppm; n = 173) ? winter skate (0.3 ± 0.2 ppm; n = 148). The increased Hg content of smooth dogfish was attributed to its upper trophic level status, determined by stable nitrogen (?(15)N) isotope analysis (mean ?(15)N = 13.2 ± 0.7‰), and the consumption of high Hg prey, most notably cancer crabs (0.10 ppm). Spiny dogfish had depleted ?(15)N signatures (11.6 ± 0.8‰), yet demonstrated a moderate level of contamination by foraging on pelagic prey with a range of Hg concentrations, e.g., in order of dietary importance, butterfish (Hg = 0.06 ppm), longfin squid (0.17 ppm), and scup (0.11 ppm). Skates were low trophic level consumers (?(15)N = 11.9-12.0‰) and fed mainly on amphipods, small decapods, and polychaetes with low Hg concentrations (0.05-0.09 ppm). Intra-specific Hg concentrations were directly related to ?(15)N and carbon (?(13)C) isotope signatures, suggesting that Hg biomagnifies across successive trophic levels and foraging in the benthic trophic pathway increases Hg exposure. From a human health perspective, 87% of smooth dogfish, 32% of spiny dogfish, and <2% of skates had Hg concentrations exceeding the US Environmental Protection Agency threshold level (0.3 ppm wet weight). These results indicate that frequent consumption of smooth dogfish and spiny dogfish may adversely affect human health, whereas skates present minimal risk. PMID:25081850

Taylor, David L; Kutil, Nicholas J; Malek, Anna J; Collie, Jeremy S

2014-08-01

303

Effect of meal type on specific dynamic action in the green shore crab, Carcinus maenas.  

PubMed

The effect of meal type on specific dynamic action was investigated in the green shore crab, Carcinus maenas. When the crabs were offered a meal of fish, shrimp, or mussel of 3 % of their body mass the duration of the SDA response and thus the resultant SDA was lower for the mussel, compared with the shrimp or fish meals. In feeding behaviour experiments the crabs consumed almost twice as much mussel compared with fish or shrimp. When the animals were allowed to feed on each meal until satiated, the differences in the SDA response were abolished. The mussel was much softer (compression test) than the fish or shrimp meal, and meal texture is known to affect the SDA response in amphibians and reptiles. When the crabs were offered a meal of homogenized fish muscle or whole fish muscle, the SDA for the homogenized meal was approximately 35 % lower. This suggested that a significant portion of the SDA budget in decapod crustaceans may be related to mechanical digestion. This is not unexpected since the foregut is supplied by over forty muscles which control the cutting and grinding movements of the gastric mill apparatus. There were slight, but significant differences in protein, lipid, moisture and total energy content of each meal type. Three prepared meals that were high in either protein, lipid or carbohydrate were offered to the crabs to determine if the nutrient content was also a contributing factor to the observed differences in the SDA. The crabs did not eat the prepared meals as readily as the natural food items and as they are messy feeders there was a large variation in the amount of food eaten. The lack of significant differences in the SDA response as a function of nutrient content was likely due to differences in amount of food eaten, which is a major factor determining the SDA response. The differences in SDA when consuming natural food items were likely due to a combination of the costs of mechanical digestion, variation in nutrient content and food preference: determining how each of these factors contributes to the overall SDA budget remains a pressing question for comparative physiologists. PMID:24531572

McGaw, Iain J; Penney, Chantelle M

2014-05-01

304

Cloning of a nitric oxide synthase from green shore crab, Carcinus maenas: a comparative study of the effects of eyestalk ablation on expression in the molting glands (Y-organs) of C. maenas, and blackback land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis.  

PubMed

Molting in decapod crustaceans is regulated by ecdysteroids produced by a pair of Y-organs (YOs) located in the cephalothorax. YO ecdysteroidogenesis is suppressed by molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH), a neuropeptide produced in the X-organ of the eyestalk (ES) ganglia. MIH signaling may involve nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (GC-I). A full-length cDNA encoding Carcinus maenas NOS (Cm-NOS; 3836 base pairs) of 1164 amino acid residues (estimated mass 131,833 Da) was cloned with 88% identity to Gecarcinus lateralis NOS (Gl-NOS). End-point reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that Cm-NOS was expressed at varying levels in the YO, testis, ovary, hepatopancreas, midgut, hindgut, heart, thoracic ganglion, and skeletal muscle and was not detected in the gill. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed localization of NOS and cGMP in the steroidogenic cells and the surrounding connective tissue layer of the C. maenas YO. ES ablation (ESA) induced molting in G. lateralis; hemolymph ecdysteroid titers increased during premolt and reached a peak of about 400 pg/?L at 20 days and 24 days post-ESA. By contrast, ESA did not induce molting in C. maenas; hemolymph ecdysteroid titers increased about 2-fold (53 to 121 pg/?L) by 3 days post-ESA and remained at that level at 7 days post-ESA. Real time PCR was used to quantify the effects of ESA on the expression of NOS in C. maenas and G. lateralis YOs. ESA caused 32-fold and 5-fold increases in Gl-NOS and Cm-NOS transcripts by 24 days and 7 days post-ESA, respectively, which were correlated with hemolymph ecdysteroid levels. In addition, GC-I catalytic subunit (Gl-GC-I?) mRNA level increased 7.4-fold by 24 days post-ESA, but there was no significant effect of ESA on membrane GC (Gl-GC-II) mRNA level. These data indicate that the YO up-regulates NO signaling components in response to withdrawal of ES neuropeptides. PMID:20959144

McDonald, Audrey A; Chang, Ernest S; Mykles, Donald L

2011-01-01

305

Molt regulation in green and red color morphs of the crab Carcinus maenas: gene expression of molt-inhibiting hormone signaling components.  

PubMed

In decapod crustaceans, regulation of molting is controlled by the X-organ/sinus gland complex in the eyestalks. The complex secretes molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH), which suppresses production of ecdysteroids by the Y-organ (YO). MIH signaling involves nitric oxide and cGMP in the YO, which expresses nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (GC-I). Molting can generally be induced by eyestalk ablation (ESA), which removes the primary source of MIH, or by multiple leg autotomy (MLA). In our work on Carcinus maenas, however, ESA has limited effects on hemolymph ecdysteroid titers and animals remain in intermolt at 7 days post-ESA, suggesting that adults are refractory to molt induction techniques. Consequently, the effects of ESA and MLA on molting and YO gene expression in C. maenas green and red color morphotypes were determined at intermediate (16 and 24 days) and long-term (~90 days) intervals. In intermediate-interval experiments, ESA of intermolt animals caused transient twofold to fourfold increases in hemolymph ecdysteroid titers during the first 2 weeks. In intermolt animals, long-term ESA increased hemolymph ecdysteroid titers fourfold to fivefold by 28 days post treatment, but there was no late premolt peak (>400 pg ?l(-1)) characteristic of late premolt animals and animals did not molt by 90 days post-ESA. There was no effect of ESA or MLA on the expression of Cm-elongation factor 2 (EF2), Cm-NOS, the beta subunit of GC-I (Cm-GC-I?), a membrane receptor GC (Cm-GC-II) and a soluble NO-insensitive GC (Cm-GC-III) in green morphs. Red morphs were affected by prolonged ESA and MLA treatments, as indicated by large decreases in Cm-EF2, Cm-GC-II and Cm-GC-III mRNA levels. ESA accelerated the transition of green morphs to the red phenotype in intermolt animals. ESA delayed molting in premolt green morphs, whereas intact and MLA animals molted by 30 days post treatment. There were significant effects on YO gene expression in intact animals: Cm-GC-I? mRNA increased during premolt and Cm-GC-III mRNA decreased during premolt and increased during postmolt. Cm-MIH transcripts were detected in eyestalk ganglia, the brain and the thoracic ganglion from green intermolt animals, suggesing that MIH in the brain and thoracic ganglion prevents molt induction in green ESA animals. PMID:24198255

Abuhagr, Ali M; Blindert, Jennifer L; Nimitkul, Sukkrit; Zander, Ian A; Labere, Stefan M; Chang, Sharon A; Maclea, Kyle S; Chang, Ernest S; Mykles, Donald L

2014-03-01

306

Geomorphological, trophic and human influences on the bamboo coral Isidella elongata assemblages in the deep Mediterranean: To what extent does Isidella form habitat for fish and invertebrates?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed what are the best ecological conditions for megafauna associated with the bamboo coral Isidella elongata based on the geomorphological, physical and trophic information taken in 3 stations (St1, St2, St3) off the southern Catalonian coasts at 620 m depth in June 2011. Results were compared with assemblage compositions recorded in past cruises (May 1992, 1994) at the same 3 stations. St1 was in a fishing ground exploited since the 1940s over a relatively wide slope at ca. 22 km from the nearest canyon head; St2 and St3 were on a narrower slope closer to canyon heads and to the Ebro river mouth than St1. I. elongata had formed (to May 1994, at least) a dense coral forest at St2-St3 (to ca. 255 colonies/ha at St3), and some isolated colonies (to ca. 0.9 colonies/ha) were still collected in 2011. Fish and invertebrate communities significantly differed between St1 and St2/St3, with two macrourid fishes (Trachrhynchus trachyrhynchus and Nezumia aequalis) and two decapods (Plesionika martia and Plesionika acanthonotus) more abundant at St2/St3. The following ecological indicators imply better food conditions for megafauna at St2-St3 and for I. elongata itself: (i) greater density of zooplankton (copepods, euphausiids, and others) as potential prey for planktivores (including I. elongata); (ii) greater biomass and mean weight of epifaunal and infaunal deposit feeders; (iii) higher feeding intensity, F, at St3 for benthos feeders (Phycis blennoides, N. aequalis and Aristeus antennatus). Also, at St2-St3 we found higher near-bottom turbidity (indicating particle resuspension: food for suspension feeders) and finer and more reduced (Eh) sediments. The results let us suggest that corals and accompanying fauna preferently found optimal ecological conditions in the same habitat, while habitat-forming capacity by I. elongata seemed weak to generate these conditions. Coral forests may enhance detritus accumulations around them, improving habitat conditions for benthos feeders (e.g. macrourid fish). At St3 our side-scan sonar recorded three types of tracks produced by trawler doors, which match with three identified vessels occasionally operating in the area. After this low fishing activity off the Ebro Delta since the mid-1990s, almost all colonies of I. elongata has been removed. However, this impact has hardly altered fish and invertebrate composition without any significant loss of diversity, pointing also toward a rather low capacity of I. elongata facies in forming habitat for megafauna on muddy bottoms of the Mediterranean slope.

Cartes, J. E.; LoIacono, C.; Mamouridis, V.; López-Pérez, C.; Rodríguez, P.

2013-06-01

307

Abyssopelagic fauna in the central North Pacific: comparison of acoustic detection and trawl and baited trap collections to 5800 m  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated study using an acoustic array, opening-closing trawl and baited traps was conducted at an abyssal station in the central North Pacific (31°N, 159°W) to further characterize the near-bottom community. Two split-beam line arrays with beam patterns narrow in the vertical and omnidirectional in the horizontal were moored at 100 and 600 m above bottom (mab), sampling an insonified volume of 7855 m 3 each. In addition, a multiple opening-closing trawl (10 m 2 mouth opening) and baited traps were used to sample the fauna up to 1800 mab. Fourteen deployments of the acoustic arrays during two cruises detected 26 targets, with twice as many at 100 mab as at 600 mab (2.10 vs 0.97 targets h -1). Backscatter strengths for acoustic targets ranged from -57.2 to -26.8 dB. A total of 31 species, at least eight previously undescribed, were identified from trawl and trap collections within 1800 m of the sea floor. Of these new species, four of the decapod genus Hymenodora and one eel, Monognathus rosenblatti, were the most abundant animals collected by trawl. Other species commonly collected in baited traps included Acanthephyra quadrispinosa (Crustacea, Decapoda), Eurythenes gryllus (Crustacea, Amphipoda), and Coryphaenoides yaquinae (Osteichthyes, Macrouridae). Acoustic target abundances ranged from 0 to 1.6 animals per 10 5 m 3 per deployment, while values measured with the trawl ranged from 1.4 to 11.9 animals per 10 5 m 3. Biomass of the acoustic targets, estimated using a tentative identification based on size, and a series of regressions based on target strength and animal length and weight, ranged from 0 to 72.3 g wet weight per 10 5 m 3. Biomass estimates from the trawl samples ranged from 0.2 to 6.7 g wet weight per 10 5 m 3. The large number of new species collected during this study and the variability in sampling sparse populations using three different sampling techniques illustrate how little we know about the abyssopelagic community.

Smith, K. L.; Kaufmann, R. S.; Edelman, J. L.; Baldwin, R. J.

1992-04-01

308

Low faunal diversity on Maltese sandy beaches: fact or artefact?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eight sandy beaches on Malta and two on Gozo were sampled for macrofauna to test the hypothesis that Maltese beaches have an intrinsically low diversity. Stations distributed in the supralittoral (dry zone), mediolittoral (wet zone) and upper infralittoral (submerged zone to 1 m water depth) were sampled by sieving core samples and standardised searching during daytime, and pitfall trapping and standardised sweeping of the water column using a hand-net at night, as appropriate. Physical parameters of the sediment were measured and human occupancy of the beaches was estimated. From the supralittoral and mediolittoral, 39 species represented by 1584 individuals were collected by the combined techniques of pitfall trapping, sieving and standard searching. For Ramla beach, which had the highest diversity, 267 individuals representing 25 infaunal species were collected by sieving from a combined volume of 1.175 m 3 of sand, and 149 individuals representing 28 epifaunal species were collected by standardised searching from a combined area of 700 m 2 of sand during two winter and two summer sampling sessions between 1992 and 1993. For nine other beaches sampled during the summer of 2000, only six macrofaunal species were collected from core samples, with overall population densities ranging from 4.13 to 45.45 individuals m -2. Only 92 individuals belonging to 12 species were collected by hand-net from the uppermost infralittoral of five beaches sampled using this method during the summer of 2000. Taxa of gastropods, bivalves, decapods, mysids and staphylinid beetles generally abundant on Mediterranean sandy beaches, were entirely absent from the beaches sampled. Few correlations that could explain the impoverishment of Maltese sandy beaches were found between physical parameters and faunal abundances, and other factors such as inadequate sampling effort, human disturbance and marine pollution were also excluded; however, seasonally biased sampling may partly explain the results obtained. One factor that may explain why certain species are missing could be lack of recruitment, due to Malta's geographical isolation from the European and African mainlands.

Deidun, Alan; Azzopardi, Marthese; Saliba, Stephen; Schembri, Patrick J.

2003-10-01

309

Isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen of suprabenthic fauna in the NW Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable isotope (? 13C and ? 15N) analyses were performed on suprabenthic fauna collected in the western Mediterranean (NW Balearic Islands), at depths ranging between 350 and 780 m. Samples were collected seasonally at bi-monthly intervals during six cruises performed between August 2003 and June 2004, using a Macer-GIROQ suprabenthic sledge (0.5 mm mesh size). Twenty-four separate species (5 mysids, 12 amphipods, 2 cumaceans, 2 isopods, 1 euphausiid, 1 decapod and 1 fish) and bulk copepods were analyzed on a seasonal basis for stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes. Stable nitrogen isotope ratios (? 15N) ranged from 2.3‰ (the amphipod Lepechinella manco in September 2003) to 13.0‰ (the amphipod Rhachotropis caeca in August 2003). ? 13C values ranged from - 24.2 (the cumacean Campylaspis sulcata in June 2004) to - 16.1 (the amphipod Bruzelia typica in November 2006). Both ? 13C and ? 15N values suggest that there are three trophic levels within the suprabenthic community. However, considering the bathymetric range of the species, the results suggest that the deepest assemblage supported only two trophic levels. The stable isotope ratios of suprabenthic fauna displayed a continuum of values and confirmed a wide spectrum of feeding types (from filter-feeders to predators). In general, and in spite of the poor knowledge about diets available for most suprabenthic species, higher ? 15N were found for carnivorous amphipods (e.g. Rhachotropis spp., Nicippe tumida) consuming copepods. Low overlap for ? 13C and ? 15N values was observed, though ? 15N values where less variable than ? 13C, which suggests high resource partitioning in this assemblage. Seasonal variations in isotopic composition for both ? 13C and ? 15N were low (less than 1‰ and 3‰, respectively) and variable depending on species. Low correlations between ? 13C and ? 15N of suprabenthic fauna were found for all periods studied, though increasing from February 2004 to June 2004 (after the main peak of primary production in surface). C:N ratio (indicator of lipid content) showed higher values in summer than in winter. This suggests that lipid content may explain the seasonal patterns of ? 13C variability and, due to the increase of storage products in phytoplankton and zooplankton, it possibly indicates the peak of primary production at the surface.

Madurell, T.; Fanelli, E.; Cartes, J. E.

310

Automated Image Analysis for the Detection of Benthic Crustaceans and Bacterial Mat Coverage Using the VENUS Undersea Cabled Network  

PubMed Central

The development and deployment of sensors for undersea cabled observatories is presently biased toward the measurement of habitat variables, while sensor technologies for biological community characterization through species identification and individual counting are less common. The VENUS cabled multisensory network (Vancouver Island, Canada) deploys seafloor camera systems at several sites. Our objective in this study was to implement new automated image analysis protocols for the recognition and counting of benthic decapods (i.e., the galatheid squat lobster, Munida quadrispina), as well as for the evaluation of changes in bacterial mat coverage (i.e., Beggiatoa spp.), using a camera deployed in Saanich Inlet (103 m depth). For the counting of Munida we remotely acquired 100 digital photos at hourly intervals from 2 to 6 December 2009. In the case of bacterial mat coverage estimation, images were taken from 2 to 8 December 2009 at the same time frequency. The automated image analysis protocols for both study cases were created in MatLab 7.1. Automation for Munida counting incorporated the combination of both filtering and background correction (Median- and Top-Hat Filters) with Euclidean Distances (ED) on Red-Green-Blue (RGB) channels. The Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) features and Fourier Descriptors (FD) of tracked objects were then extracted. Animal classifications were carried out with the tools of morphometric multivariate statistic (i.e., Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis; PLSDA) on Mean RGB (RGBv) value for each object and Fourier Descriptors (RGBv+FD) matrices plus SIFT and ED. The SIFT approach returned the better results. Higher percentages of images were correctly classified and lower misclassification errors (an animal is present but not detected) occurred. In contrast, RGBv+FD and ED resulted in a high incidence of records being generated for non-present animals. Bacterial mat coverage was estimated in terms of Percent Coverage and Fractal Dimension. A constant Region of Interest (ROI) was defined and background extraction by a Gaussian Blurring Filter was performed. Image subtraction within ROI was followed by the sum of the RGB channels matrices. Percent Coverage was calculated on the resulting image. Fractal Dimension was estimated using the box-counting method. The images were then resized to a dimension in pixels equal to a power of 2, allowing subdivision into sub-multiple quadrants. In comparisons of manual and automated Percent Coverage and Fractal Dimension estimates, the former showed an overestimation tendency for both parameters. The primary limitations on the automatic analysis of benthic images were habitat variations in sediment texture and water column turbidity. The application of filters for background corrections is a required preliminary step for the efficient recognition of animals and bacterial mat patches. PMID:22346657

Aguzzi, Jacopo; Costa, Corrado; Robert, Katleen; Matabos, Marjolaine; Antonucci, Francesca; Juniper, S. Kim; Menesatti, Paolo

2011-01-01

311

Role of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) in the environmental stressor-exposed intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus.  

PubMed

To identify and characterize CHH (TJ-CHH) gene in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus, we analyzed the full-length cDNA sequence, genomic structure, and promoter region. The full-length TJ-CHH cDNA was 716 bp in length, encoding 136 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequences of TJ-CHH showed a high similarity of the CHH mature domain to other crustaceans. Six conserved cysteine residues and five conserved structural motifs in the CHH mature peptide domain were also observed. The genomic structure of the TJ-CHH gene contained three exons and two introns in its open reading frame (ORF), and several transcriptional elements were detected in the promoter region of the TJ-CHH gene. To investigate transcriptional change of TJ-CHH under environmental stress, T. japonicus were exposed to heat treatment, UV-B radiation, heavy metals, and water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of Iranian crude oil. Upon heat stress, TJ-CHH transcripts were elevated at 30 °C and 35 °C for 96 h in a time-course experiment. UV-B radiation led to a decreased pattern of the TJ-CHH transcript 48 h and more after radiation (12 kJ/m(2)). After exposure of a fixed dose (12 kJ/m(2)) in a time-course experiment, TJ-CHH transcript was down-regulated in time-dependent manner with a lowest value at 12h. However, the TJ-CHH transcript level was increased in response to five heavy metal exposures for 96 h. Also, the level of the TJ-CHH transcript was significantly up-regulated at 20% of WAFs after exposure to WAFs for 48 h and then remarkably reduced in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that the enhanced TJ-CHH transcript level is associated with a cellular stress response of the TJ-CHH gene as shown in decapod crustaceans. This study is also helpful for a better understanding of the detrimental effects of environmental changes on the CHH-triggered copepod metabolism. PMID:23797038

Kim, Bo-Mi; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Han, Jeonghoon; Kim, Il-Chan; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong

2013-09-01

312

Analysis of neurotransmitter distribution in brain development of benthic and pelagic octopod cephalopods.  

PubMed

The database on neurotransmitter distribution during central nervous system development of cephalopod mollusks is still scarce. We describe the ontogeny of serotonergic (5-HT-ir) and FMRFamide-like immunoreactive (Fa-lir) neurons in the central nervous system of the benthic Octopus vulgaris and Fa-lir distribution in the pelagic Argonauta hians. Comparing our data to previous studies, we aim at revealing shared immunochemical domains among coleoid cephalopods, i.e., all cephalopods except nautiluses. During development of O. vulgaris, 5-HT-ir and Fa-lir elements occur relatively late, namely during stage XII, when the brain neuropils are already highly differentiated. In stage XII-XX individuals, Fa-lir cell somata are located in the middle and posterior subesophageal mass and in the optic, posterior basal, and superior buccal lobes. 5-HT is predominately expressed in cell somata of the superior buccal, anterior basal, and optic lobes, as well as in the subesophageal mass. The overall population of Fa-lir neurons is larger than the one expressing 5-HT. Fa-lir elements are distributed throughout homologous brain areas of A. hians and O. vulgaris. We identified neuronal subsets with similar cell number and immunochemical phenotype in coleoids. These are located in corresponding brain regions of developmental stages and adults of O. vulgaris, A. hians, and the decapod squid Idiosepius notoides. O. vulgaris and I. notoides exhibit numerous 5-HT-ir cell somata in the superior buccal lobes but none or very few in the inferior buccal lobes. The latter have previously been homologized to the gastropod buccal ganglia, which also lack 5-HT-ir cell somata in euthyneuran gastropods. Among coleoids, 5-HT-ir neuronal subsets, which are located ventrally to the lateral anterior basal lobes and in the anterior middle subesophageal mass, are candidates for homologous subsets. Contrary to I. notoides, octopods exhibit Fa-lir cell somata ventrally to the brachial lobes and 5-HT-ir cell somata close to the stellate ganglia. PMID:22461086

Wollesen, Tim; Sukhsangchan, Charuay; Seixas, Pedro; Nabhitabhata, Jaruwat; Wanninger, Andreas

2012-07-01

313

The distribution of megabenthic, invertebrate epifauna in the Balearic Basin (western Mediterranean) between 400 and 2300 m: Environmental gradients influencing assemblages composition and biomass trends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution of megabenthic epifauna (invertebrates) in the Balearic Basin (western Mediterranean) has been analyzed at depths between 427 and 2265 m after compiling samplings performed in 1985-1992 and 2007-2008 with an OTSB-14 bottom trawl. 84 epibenthic taxa of invertebrates (excluded decapod crustaceans) were collected. Epibenthic assemblages were organized in five groups (n-MDS analyses) as a function of increasing depth: upper slope assemblage, U, hauls between 427 and 660 m; middle slope assemblages M1 and M2, hauls between 663-876 m and 864-1412 m, respectively; lower slope assemblages L1 and L2, hauls between 1488-1789 m and 1798-2265 m, respectively). We found significant differences in assemblage composition between all depth-adjacent pairs of groups. Trends in the distribution of biomass vs. depth and within assemblages varied when hauls taken over insular were compared to those over mainland slopes. Over insular slopes we found (n-MDS) only four distinct depth assemblages, with significant differences between all depth-adjacent group pairs, except between L1 and L2. Over the mainland slope, two peaks of biomass situated at U (427-660 m) and at L1 (1488-1789 m) were clearly identified, attributable to the echinoid Brissopsis lyrifera and holothurian Molpadia musculus at U and to the synallactid holothurian Mesothuria intestinalis at L1. The distribution of biomass vs. depth on insular slopes did not follow this pattern, showing no significant biomass peak below 1000 m and a total biomass an order of magnitude lower than adjacent to the mainland. After compiling available environmental data over the mainland slope off Barcelona, we found coincidence between the peak biomass of Mesothuria intestinalis and: i) a significant increase of labile OM (%OrgC, C/N, hydrolizable aminoacids-EHAA, and the EHAA/THAA-total hydrolizable aminoacids-ratio) over 1600 m; and ii) an increase of turbidity and T at 1500-1600 m in February 2008. We suggest that such OM inputs must likely be associated to the formation of nepheloid layers close to submarine canyons, probably associated with oceanographic processes in deep water masses in the area. This would explain why aggregations of M. intestinalis were linked to the mainland part of the Balearic basin, with highest densities located south of canyons. If hotspots of biomass as cited here for M. intestinalis are regulated by factors such as river inputs, both natural climatic changes (e.g. changes in rainfall regimes) and human impact (e.g. river damming) may affect deep-Mediterranean communities below 1000 m.

Cartes, Joan E.; Maynou, Francesc; Fanelli, Emanuela; Romano, Chiara; Mamouridis, Valeria; Papiol, Vanesa

2009-04-01

314

Transcriptome Analysis of Androgenic Gland for Discovery of Novel Genes from the Oriental River Prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, Using Illumina Hiseq 2000  

PubMed Central

Background The oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, is an important aquaculture species in China, even in whole of Asia. The androgenic gland produces hormones that play crucial roles in sexual differentiation to maleness. This study is the first de novo M. nipponense transcriptome analysis using cDNA prepared from mRNA isolated from the androgenic gland. Illumina/Solexa was used for sequencing. Methodology and Principal Finding The total volume of RNA sample was more than 5 ug. We generated 70,853,361 high quality reads after eliminating adapter sequences and filtering out low-quality reads. A total of 78,408 isosequences were obtained by clustering and assembly of the clean reads, producing 57,619 non-redundant transcripts with an average length of 1244.19 bp. In total 70,702 isosequences were matched to the Nr database, additional analyses were performed by GO (33,203), KEGG (17,868), and COG analyses (13,817), identifying the potential genes and their functions. A total of 47 sex-determination related gene families were identified from the M. nipponense androgenic gland transcriptome based on the functional annotation of non-redundant transcripts and comparisons with the published literature. Furthermore, a total of 40 candidate novel genes were found, that may contribute to sex-determination based on their extremely high expression levels in the androgenic compared to other sex glands,. Further, 437 SSRs and 65,535 high-confidence SNPs were identified in this EST dataset from which 14 EST-SSR markers have been isolated. Conclusion Our study provides new sequence information for M. nipponense, which will be the basis for further genetic studies on decapods crustaceans. More importantly, this study dramatically improves understanding of sex-determination mechanisms, and advances sex-determination research in all crustacean species. The huge number of potential SSR and SNP markers isolated from the transcriptome may shed the lights on research in many fields, including the evolution and molecular ecology of Macrobrachium species. PMID:24204682

Jin, Shubo; Fu, Hongtuo; Zhou, Qiao; Sun, Shengming; Jiang, Sufei; Xiong, Yiwei; Gong, Yongsheng; Qiao, Hui; Zhang, Wenyi

2013-01-01

315

Trophic ecology of Lampanyctus crocodilus on north-west Mediterranean Sea slopes in relation to reproductive cycle and environmental variables.  

PubMed

This study examined the population structure, reproductive cycle and feeding pattern of the lanternfish Lampanyctus crocodilus in the Balearic Basin (north-west Mediterranean Sea) from a depth of 450 to 1800?m and at a seasonal scale. Juveniles were mainly located at shallower depths, but also at deepest stations in autumn, while adults mostly inhabited intermediate depths with their centre of population density (CPD) located at 800-1000?m of depth. The migration of adults to deeper depths was detected in late summer to autumn, probably linked to the occurrence of nepheloid layers at c. 1200?m, which in turn enhances the biomass of the zooplankton prey. The diet was mainly based on euphausiids and mysids, with marked seasonal variations both on the upper (450-800 m) and lower (1000-1800 m), where suprabenthic gammariids and pelagic decapods were also dominant. Stomach fullness increased from winter to autumn on the US, while it had a maximum in spring on the LS, in parallel with high consumption of gelatinous zooplankton, which is probably more available after the phytoplankton bloom in late winter. Reproduction occurred in winter, confirmed by the higher percentage of mature females and high gonadosomatic indices (I(G)) at both depth ranges. Hepatosomatic indices (I(H)) showed an inverse trend to I(G) on the US, except in autumn, and was almost parallel on the LS, probably attributable to the migration of adults, which determined different temporal schemes in energy use and storage for reproduction on the US v. LS. Consistent with the different patterns observed at the two depth ranges, environmental drivers of fullness (i.e. feeding intensity) and I(G) (as a proxy of reproductive cycle) differed on the US and LS. The biomass of mysids and euphausiids was the greatest explanatory variables of fullness on the US and LS, pointing to the increasing feeding intensity when a resource was more available. I(H) also explained fullness, suggesting that greater feeding intensity in pre-reproductive periods enabled energy storage in the liver. I(G) was linked directly (i.e. mysids) or indirectly (i.e. surface primary production recorded 2 months before sampling) to food availability, implying a rapid response to vertical food inputs by deep-sea predators. Also, I(G) in L. crocodilus was related to population density, which suggests aggregations for reproduction. Estimates of L. crocodilus trophic levels, and of other accompanying mesopelagic fishes, indicated that the species feed through a continuum spanning the third trophic level, confirming the key role of mesopelagic fishes in transferring organic carbon between trophic levels. Trophic niche segregation among mesopelagic species was pronounced and non-overlapping groups could be distinguished because of the different vertical distribution and migratory behaviour. The study highlights the important role of the benthic boundary layer in sustaining benthopelagic communities in the deep Mediterranean Sea and the need to study the biology of a species throughout its whole depth range and not just at exploited depths (i.e. fishing grounds). PMID:24786723

Fanelli, E; Papiol, V; Cartes, J E; Rodriguez-Romeu, O

2014-06-01

316

Differences in maximal activation properties of skinned short- and long-sarcomere muscle fibres from the claw of the freshwater crustacean Cherax destructor.  

PubMed

Single fibres of different sarcomere length at rest have been isolated from the claw muscle of the yabby (Cherax destructor), a decapod crustacean. Fibres of either long (SL > 6 microns) or short (SL < 4 microns) sarcomere length have been mechanically skinned and were maximally activated by Ca2+ and Sr2+ under various experimental conditions (ionic strength, in the presence of 2,3 butanedione monoxime (BDM)) to determine differences in their contractile properties. Isometric force was measured simultaneously with either myofibrillar MgATPase or fibre stiffness in both fibre types. The ultrastructure of individual long- and short-sarcomere fibres was also determined by electron microscopy. The long-sarcomere fibres developed greater tension (30.48 +/- 1.72 N cm-2) when maximally activated by Ca2+ compared with the short-sarcomere fibres (18.60 +/- 0.80 N cm-2). The difference in the maximum Ca(2+)-activated force can be explained by the difference in the amount of filament overlap between the two fibre types. The maximum Ca(2+)-activated myofibrillar MgATPase rate in the short-sarcomere fibres (1.60 +/- 0.27 mmol ATP l-1s-1) was higher, but not significantly different from the ATPase rate in fibres with long-sarcomeres (1.09 +/- 0.14 mmol ATP l-1s-1). As the concentration of myosin is estimated to be higher only by a factor of 1.22 in the short-sarcomere preparations there is no evidence to suggest that the myofibrillar MgATPase activity is different in the long- and short-sarcomere preparations. The maximum Ca(2+)-activated force (P0) of both short- and long-sarcomere fibres was quite insensitive to BDM compared with vertebrate muscle. Force decreased to 60.2 +/- 5.3% and 76.1 +/- 2.7% in the short- and long-sarcomere fibres respectively in the presence of 100 mmol l-1 BDM. The difference in the force depression between the long- and short-sarcomere fibres is statistically significant (p < 0.05). Fibre stiffness during maximum Ca(2+)-activation expressed as percentage maximum force per nm per half sarcomere was higher by a factor of 3.5 in short-sarcomere fibres than in long-sarcomere fibres suggesting that the compliance of the filaments in the long-sarcomere fibres is considerably higher than in the short-sarcomere fibres. Sr2+ could not activate the contractile apparatus to the same level as that seen by Ca2+ in either fibre type: the maximum Sr(2+)-activated force was (20 +/- 3%) and (63 +/- 3%) of the maximum Ca(2+)-activated force response in short- and long-sarcomere fibres, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1491074

West, J M; Humphris, D C; Stephenson, D G

1992-12-01

317

Ca2+- and Sr2+-activation properties of muscle fibres from a muscle receptor organ and the associated extrafusal muscle of the crab and crayfish.  

PubMed

In this study on decapod crustaceans, we examined the Ca2+- and Sr2+-activation properties of skeletal muscle fibres from an identified proprioceptor, the thoracic coxal muscle receptor organ (TCMRO) and its extrafusal promotor muscle fibres. Proprioceptors and extrafusal muscles were isolated from a walking leg from the crayfish (Cherax destructor) and the rear swimming leg of the mud crab (Scylla serrata). The crayfish and mud crab TCMROs had very low Hill coefficient (nCa) values (1.86 +/- 0.08 and 1.64 +/- 0.03, respectively). In comparison to other skeletal muscle fibre types these low Hill coefficients would enable the length of the receptor muscles to be finely controlled over a wide range of [Ca2+]. Maximum force was found to be significantly lower in the TCMROs (crayfish: 5.76 +/- 0.98; crab: 4.80 +/- 0.56 Ncm(-2)), compared to their associated extrafusal promotor muscle fibres (crayfish: 10.69 +/- 1.63; crab: 20.07 +/- 1.98 Ncm(-2)), which is consistent with their sensory role. The muscle fibres of the crayfish TCMRO had faster contractile properties than the mud crab TCMRO, we discuss how these contractile properties relate to the type of locomotion undergone by each leg. The mud crab 'red' promotor and all crayfish promotor fibres were characterised as slow with low Hill coefficients (nCa: crayfish: 3.22 +/- 0.29; crab: 3.34 +/- 0.29) and a contractile apparatus with a high sensitivity to Ca2+ (pCa50: crayfish: 6.42 +/- 0.03; crab: 6.18 +/- 0.03). In contrast the 'white' mud crab promotor fibres from the swimming leg had contractile properties that were characteristic of fast fibres with a high mean Hill coefficient (nCa: 5.27 +/- 0.76) and a lower Ca2+ sensitivity (pCa50: 6.03 +/- 0.03). The sensitivity of the contractile apparatus to Sr2+ was very low (range of mean pSr50: 4.23 +/- 0.03-3.48 +/- 0.06) and low force levels were produced in comparison to that produced with Ca2+. The results of this study show that the muscle fibres of the sensory receptor, produce less force and have been adapted to enable the length of the receptor to be finely set in relation to the length of the extrafusal muscle. We discuss how the striated fibres of the receptor have been adapted to perform a sensory role and how this is related to the type of locomotion undergone by the legs. We also discuss how the fibre types of the extrafusal muscle have adapted to the mode of locomotion. PMID:11227793

Parkinson, A L; Bakker, A J; Head, S I

2000-01-01

318

On two reports associated with James Wood-Mason and Alfred William Alcock published by the Indian Museum and the Indian Marine Survey between 1890 and 1891: implications for malacostracan nomenclature.  

PubMed

Two rare documents associated with the Indian Museum and the Indian Marine Survey for the administrative year April 1890 to March 1891 have been examined and found to have nomenclatural consequences for malacostracan crustaceans. Even though they constitute available published works according to the International Code for Zoological Nomenclature, these reports have rarely been cited. Dating these two publications is of importance as they make decapod scientific names available and, in a few instances, describe the same taxa. After searching the collections deposited in the Asian and African Room, British Library, the Administration Report of the Indian Marine for the year April 1890 to March 1891 could be dated with some degree of certainty as 25 August 1891. In contrast, dating the Indian Museum Annual Report proved more difficult because after examination of copies held by the General Library in the Natural History Museum, London, it was evident that not all of these reports were consistently published on time to meet an end of year deadline. However, the publication of volume XXII of the Indian Museum Annual Report for the year April 1890 to March 1891 appeared to be contemporary with the year printed at the bottom of the title page. As no exact date could be established with confidence, the publication date for this volume was fixed as 31 December 1891 in accordance with ICZN Art. 21.3.2. Therefore the Administration Report of the Indian Marine (published 25 August 1891) is considered to take precedence over the Indian Museum Annual Report (published 31 December 1891) and as such the names made available in the former take priority. As original copies of the Administration Report of the Indian Marine are not readily available in most libraries and few scientists have actually had access to these publications, the relevant Appendix No. XIII, in which the names of several malacostracan taxa are made available, is reproduced here. Since the appendix is not conclusively attributable to a specific author, it is considered to be written anonymously and should therefore be cited as Anonymous (1891). A number of names in Appendix No. XIII are available since they are accompanied by a brief description of the taxa they denote, and are either attributable to James Wood-Mason or remain with anonymous authorship; others are nomina nuda without a diagnosis or indication, or have been diagnosed previously in the "Natural History Notes from H.M. Indian Marine Survey Steamer Investigator". The nomenclatural implications for eight names made available in Anonymous (1891) are discussed: Glyphocrangon caeca, Glyphocrangon sculptus var. coecescens, Psalidopodidae, Psalidopus, Psalidopus mirabilis, Psathyrocaris, Psathyrocaris fragilis and Psopheticus crepitans. The nomenclatural history of various other taxa, initially denoted by unavailable names in Anonymous (1891), is also documented. The authorships of the various crustacean taxa collected by the Indian Marine Survey Steamer Investigator during the seasons 1889-1890 and 1890-1891, and published in two series of connected parts in the Annals and Magazine of Natural History, are also re-assessed and summarised. A rare document containing the list of R.I.M.S. Investigator stations for the period 1884-1913 is reproduced for the future benefit of the scientific community.  PMID:24869963

Huys, Rony; Low, Martyn E Y; De Grave, Sammy; Ng, Peter K L; Clark, Paul F

2014-01-01

319

Food-web structure and trophodynamics of mesopelagic-suprabenthic bathyal macrofauna of the Algerian Basin based on stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The trophodynamics of mesopelagic (macrozooplankton/micronekton) and benthic boundary layer (suprabenthos=hyperbenthos) faunas from the Algerian Basin were characterized on a seasonal scale through stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic analyses of a total of 34 species and two broad taxa (Copepoda and Cumacea). This is the first study simultaneously focused on trophodynamics of deep-sea zooplankton and suprabenthos. Samples were collected southeast of Mallorca (Algerian Basin, Western Mediterranean), on the continental slope close to Cabrera Archipelago, at 650-780 m depths, ca. bi-monthly between August 2003 and June 2004. Mean ? 13C values of suprabenthos ranged from -21.1‰ ( Munnopsurus atlanticus) to -16.7‰ ( Cyclaspis longicaudata). Values of ? 15N ranged from 2.8‰ ( Lepechinella manco) to 9.9‰ (larvae of Gnathia sp.). The stable isotope ratios of suprabenthic fauna displayed a continuum of values, confirming a wide spectrum of feeding guilds (from filter feeders/surface deposit feeders to predators). According to the available information on diets for suprabenthic species, the highest annual mean ? 15N values were found for the hematophagous isopod Gnathia sp. parasite on fish (represented by Praniza larvae) and carnivorous amphipods (e.g. Rhachotropis spp., Nicippe tumida) consuming copepods, and the lowest ? 15N values were found for two cumaceans ( Cyclaspis longicaudata and Platysympus typicus) feeding on detritus. Assuming a 15N-enrichment factor of 2.5‰ and deposit feeders as baseline, we found three trophic levels in suprabenthic food webs. ? 13C ranges were particularly wide among deposit feeders (ranging from -21.8% to -17.3‰) and omnivores (from -20.5% to -18.8‰), suggesting exploitation of particulate organic matter (POM) of different characteristics. Our isotopic analyses revealed lower ranges of ? 13C and ? 15N for macrozooplankton/micronekton, compared with suprabenthos. ? 13C values of zooplankton taxa ranged from -21.1‰ (the hyperiid Phrosina semilunata) to -19.9‰ (the decapod Pasiphaea multidentata), while ? 15N values ranged from 3.9‰ ( P. semilunata) to 7.5‰ ( P. multidentata). Among zooplankton, more enriched ? 15N values were found among carnivores (e.g. the fish Cyclothone spp. and Pasiphaea multidentata) preying on copepods, hyperiids, euphausiids and small fish. The lowest ? 15N values were found for hyperiids that feed on the mucus nets of salps (e.g. Vibilia armata). After contrasting isotope analysis with dietary data, we conclude there were two trophic levels among zooplankton/micronekton. Strong correlation between the mean annual ? 15N and ? 13C values was found for zooplankton ( R2=0.7), but not for suprabenthos, which suggests a single source of carbon for plankton. We found a general seasonal trend for ? 13C enrichment from late autumn (November) to late winter-spring (February-April) for both suprabenthos and zooplankton. The ? 13C enrichment in February-April was correlated in zooplankton with higher surface chlorophyll a concentration 1 month before sampling. As evidenced by ? 13C-? 15N correlations, the response of zooplankton to the peak of surface primary production was almost immediate (an increase of ? 13C-? 15N correlations in February), and stronger than for suprabenthos. The response among suprabenthos was weak, with slight increase in ? 13C-? 15N relationships in April-June.

Fanelli, E.; Cartes, J. E.; Rumolo, P.; Sprovieri, M.

2009-09-01

320

Climate-dependent evolution of Antarctic ectotherms: An integrative analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper explores the climate-dependent evolution of marine Antarctic fauna and tries to identify key mechanisms involved as well as the driving forces that have caused the physiological and life history characteristics observed today. In an integrative approach it uses the recent concept of oxygen and capacity limited thermal tolerance to identify potential links between molecular, cellular, whole-organism, and ecological characteristics of marine animal life in the Antarctic. As a generalized pattern, minimization of baseline energy costs, for the sake of maximized growth in the cold, appears as one over-arching principle shaping the evolution and functioning of Antarctic marine ectotherms. This conclusion is supported by recent comparisons with (sub-) Arctic ectotherms, where elevated levels of energy turnover result at unstable, including cold temperatures, and are related to wide windows of thermal tolerance and associated metabolic features. At biochemical levels, metabolic regulation at low temperatures in general, is supported by the cold compensation of enzyme kinetic parameters like substrate affinities and turnover numbers, through minute structural modifications of the enzyme molecule. These involve a shift in protein folding, sometimes supported by the replacement of individual amino acids. The hypothesis is developed that efficient metabolic regulation at low rates in Antarctic marine stenotherms occurs through high mitochondrial densities at low capacities and possibly enhanced levels of Arrhenius activation energies or activation enthalpies. This contrasts the more costly patterns of metabolic regulation at elevated rates in cold-adapted eurytherms. Energy savings in Antarctic ectotherms, largely exemplified in fish, typically involve low-cost, diffusive oxygen distribution due to high density of lipid membranes, loss of haemoglobin, myoglobin and the heat shock response, reduced anaerobic capacity, large myocytes with low ion exchange activities, and the use of lipid body stores for neutral buoyancy. Important trade-offs result from obligatory energy savings in the permanent cold: low metabolic rates support cold-compensated growth but imply narrow windows of thermal tolerance and reduced scopes for activity. The degree of thermal specialization is not uniformly defined by cold temperature but varies with life style characteristics and activity levels and associated aerobic scope. Trade-offs for the sake of cold compensated growth parallel reduced capacities for exercise performance, exacerbated by the effect of high haemolymph magnesium levels in crustaceans and, possibly, other invertebrates. High magnesium levels likely exclude the group of reptant decapod crustaceans from Antarctic waters below 0 °C. The hypothesis is developed that energy savings imposed by the permanent cold bear specific life history consequences. Due to effects of allometry, energy savings are exacerbated at small body size, favouring passive lecithotrophic larvae. At all stages of life history, reduced energy turnover for the sake of growth causes delays and low rates in other higher functions, with the result of late maturity, fecundity and offspring release, as well as extended development. As a consequence, extended life spans evolved due to life history requirements. At the same time, polar gigantism is enabled by a combination of elevated oxygen levels in cold waters, of reduced metabolism and of extended periods of growth at slow developmental rates.

Pörtner, Hans O.

2006-04-01

321

Final report: Initial ecosystem response of salt marshes to ditch plugging and pool creation: Experiments at Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge (Maine)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study evaluates the response of three salt marshes, associated with the Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge (Maine), to the practice of ditch plugging. Drainage ditches, originally dug to drain the marsh for mosquito control or to facilitate salt hay farming, are plugged with marsh peat in an effort to impound water upstream of the plug, raise water table levels in the marsh, and increase surface water habitat. At two study sites, Moody Marsh and Granite Point Road Marsh, ditch plugs were installed in spring 2000. Monitoring of hydrology, vegetation, nekton and bird utilization, and marsh development processes was conducted in 1999, before ditch plugging, and then in 2000 and 2001 (all parameters except nekton), after ditch plugging. Each study site had a control marsh that was monitored simultaneously with the plugged marsh, and thus, we employed a BACI study design (before, after, control, impact). A third site, Marshall Point Road Marsh, was plugged in 1998. Monitoring of the plugged and control sites was conducted in 1999 and 2000, with limited monitoring in 2001, thus there was no ?before? plug monitoring. With ditch plugging, water table levels increased toward the marsh surface and the areal extent of standing water increased. Responding to a wetter substrate, a vegetation change from high marsh species (e.g., Spartina patens) to those more tolerant of flooded conditions (e.g., Spartina alterniflora) was noted at two of the three ditch plugged sites. Initial response of the nekton community (fishes and decapod crustaceans) was evaluated by monitoring utilization of salt marsh pools using a 1m2 enclosure trap. In general, nekton species richness, density, and community structure remained unchanged following ditch plugging at the Moody and Granite Point sites. At Marshall Point, species richness and density (number of individuals per m2) were significantly greater in the experimental plugged marsh than the control marsh (<2% of the control marsh was open water habitat vs. 11% of the plugged marsh). The response of birds, categorized as waterfowl & waterbirds, shorebirds & wading birds, gulls & terns, and miscellaneous (raptors, passerines, other), was variable. Following ditch plugging, bird species richness increased at the Granite Point site (1999 pre-plug = 15.4, 2000 post-plug = 26.2, 2001 post-plug = 38.7). Because of a low sample size at Moody Marsh, reliable statements on species richness cannot be made. Density of birds (no. of birds per ha) remained unchanged with ditch plugging at Granite Point Marsh, although there was a strong, but not statistically significant, trend toward increased density. This study only reports on initial responses of marsh functions to ditch plugging. Monitoring should continue at these sites, and perhaps at additional sites, for the next decade or so. A monitoring plan is recommended. Long-term monitoring will include evaluation of salt marsh development processes using SET (surface elevation table) methodology. There is concern, although not confirmed, that as ditch-plugged marshes become wetter and marsh grass production declines their ability to keep pace with sea level rise could be jeopardized. It is suggested that ditch plugging should be considered an experimental marsh management technique. Additional monitoring on the physical and habitat responses of ditch-plugged marshes is required, along with assessments of other techniques aimed at restoring open water habitat to the marsh surface.

Adamowicz, S.C.; Roman, C.T.

2002-01-01

322

Dynamics of suprabenthos-zooplankton communities around the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean): Influence of environmental variables and effects on the biological cycle of Aristeus antennatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamics of suprabenthos and zooplankton were analyzed in two areas located in the NW (off Sóller harbour) and S (off Cabrera Archipelago) of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean) at depths ranging between 135-780 m. Four stations situated respectively at 150 m (shelf-slope break), and at bathyal depths of 350, 650 and 750 m were sampled at bi-monthly intervals during six cruises performed between August 2003 and June 2004. Suprabenthos showed maximum biomass in both areas from late spring to summer (April to August), while minimum biomass was found in autumn (September-November). Though variable, temporal dynamics of zooplankton showed peaks of biomass in late winter and summer (February and June), while minimals occurred in autumn (August-September) and, at bathyal depths, in April. Suprabenthos (abundance; MDS analyses) showed a sample aggregation as a function of depth (3 groups corresponding to the shelf-slope break, upper slope — over 350 m; and the middle, deeper part of the slope — over 650-750 m), without any separation of hauls by season. By contrast, zooplankton samples were separated by season and not by depth. There was evidence of three seasonal groups corresponding to summer (June 2004-August 2003), autumn-winter (September and November 2003, February 2004), and spring (April 2004), being especially well established off Sóller. In general, suprabenthos was significantly correlated with the sediment variables (e.g. total organic matter content (% OM), potential REDOX), whereas zooplankton was almost exclusively dependent on Chl a at the surface, which suggests two different food sources for suprabenthos and zooplankton. The increase of suprabenthos abundance in April-June was paralleled by a sharp increase ( ca. 2.8 times) in the %OM on sediment during the same period, coupled ca. 1-2 months of delay with the peak of surface Chl a recorded in February-March (from satellite imagery data). Suprabenthos biomass was also correlated with salinity close to the bottom, suggesting a link between suprabenthos abundance and changes in the oceanographic condition of water masses close to the bottom. It is suggested that a higher suprabenthos biomass recorded off Sóller in comparison to that off Cabrera in June could, in turn, be related to a seasonal inflow of Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) in April-June in this area at mid bathyal depths (350-650 m). This trend would be based on: 1) it was evident only at mid-slope depths between 350-750 m, coinciding with the LIW distribution, and 2) it was not recorded among zooplankton (collected throughout the water column). The possible effect of the fluctuations of suprabenthos and zooplankton on higher trophic levels has been explored studying the diet and food consumption rates of the red shrimp Aristeus antennatus, as indicator species by its dominance in bathyal communities. A. antennatus increased its food consumption from February to April-June 2004 off Sóller, which in the case of large (CL > 40 mm) specimens was found in both areas. In addition, there was a shift of diet from winter to spring-early summer. In this last period, A. antennatus preyed upon euphausiids and mesopelagic decapods and fish, while benthos (e.g. polychaetes and bivalves) decreased in the diet. This indicates an increase in the food consumption and probably in the caloric content of the diet in pre-spawning females in April-June 2004, which is synchronized with the period when gonad development begins in A. antennatus females (May-June). Anyway, macrozooplankton, and not suprabenthos, is crucial as a high energetic food source in the coupling between food intake and reproduction in the red shrimp.

Cartes, J. E.; Madurell, T.; Fanelli, E.; López-Jurado, J. L.