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Microsoft Academic Search

Paleobiogeographic patterns of decapod crustaceans from the Southern Hemisphere, based upon 441 species-level records arrayed in 154 genera, document global patterns of distribution that can be compared to those previously published on decapods from the North Pacific and Central American regions. All known records of decapods from the Southern Hemisphere spanning the Early Triassic to Pleistocene have been compiled, nearly




Ecology of Terrestrial Decapod Crustaceans on Aldabra  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecology of the following pagurid and brachyuran decapods on Aldabra is described briefly: Coenobita rugosus, C. perlatus, C. clypeatus, Birgus latro, Geograpsus stormi, G. grayi, Grapsus tenuicrustatus, Cardisoma carnifex, C. frontalis, Ocypode cordimana, O. ceratopthalma. Cardisoma carnifex and Birgus latro are the only species which range far from the shore. C. carnifex occurs in very large numbers, especially around

P. Grubb



The prezoeal stage in various decapod crustaceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed descriptions on the prezoeal stage of the following 20 decapod species have been made based on material hatched in the laboratory, and phylogenetic relationships are discussed: Pandalus montagui Leach, Pagurus prideaux Leach, Pagurus bernhardus (Linnaeus), Hyas araneus (Linnaeus), Hyas coarctatus Leach, Inachus dorsettensis (Pennant), Inachus leptochirus Leach, Macropodia tenuirostris (Leach), Orithyia sinica (Linnaeus), Ebalia tuberosa (Pennant), Liocarcinus holsatus (Fabricius),

Sung Yun Hong




EPA Science Inventory

Vitellogenesis, the production of vitellin (major yolk protein), is controlled in decapod crustaceans by several hormones. With increasing efforts world-wide to successfully culture economically important crustaceans, such as shrimp, there is growing interest in attaining a bette...


New early Jurassic decapod crustacean from Patagonia (Chubut province), Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

A well-preserved decapod specimen was found in early Toarcian deposits cropping out on the western slope of Meseta Catreleo,\\u000a central Chubut province, Argentina. It is a nearly complete exoskeleton preserved in lateral view, slightly crushed, in fine-grained\\u000a sandstones. The skeleton is mostly articulated, though some pieces are disarticulated or missing. Taphonomic features indicate\\u000a a relatively rapid burial after death, with

M. A. PaganiS; S. E. Damborenea; M. O. Manceñido; S. M. Ferrrari



Are mangroves nursery habitat for transient fishes and decapods?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term nursery implies a special place for juvenile nekton (fishes and decapod crustaceans) where density, survival, and\\u000a growth of juveniles and movement to adult habitat are enhanced over those in adjoining juvenile habitat types. We reviewed\\u000a recent literature concerning these four topics and conducted meta-analyses for density and survival data. Most studies of\\u000a mangroves as nurseries have addressed only

Peter Sheridan; Cynthia Hays



Decapod crustaceans in fresh waters of southeastern Bahia, Brazil.  


A total of 117 species of freshwater decapod crustaceans are known from Brazil. Knowledge regarding the fauna of Decapoda from inland waters in the state of Bahia, northeast Brazil, is incipient. In spite of its wide territory and rich hydrographic net, only 13 species of limnetic decapods have been reported from that state. The objective of this contribution was to survey decapod crustaceans of some hydrographic basins in southeastern Bahia. The material described herein was obtained in samplings conducted between 1997 and 2005. Voucher specimens were deposited in the carcinological collections of the Museu de Zoologia, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Brazil, and Departamento de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil. A total of 13 species was collected. The carideans were represented by the atyids Atya scabra (Leach, 1815) and Potimirim potimirim (Müller, 1881) and the palaemonids Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836), M. amazonicum (Heller, 1862), M. carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758), M. heterochirus (Wiegmann, 1836), M. jelskii (Miers, 1877), M. olfersi (Wiegmann, 1836), and Palaemon (Palaemon) pandaliformis (Stimpson, 1871). The brachyurans were represented by the portunids Callinectes bocourti A. Milne-Edwards, 1879 and C. sapidus Rathbun, 1895, the trichodactylid Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille, 1828 and the panopeid Panopeus rugosus A. Milne-Edwards, 1881. Macrobrachium heterochirus represents a new record from Bahia, and M. amazonicum is reported for the first time in southeast Bahia. The occurrence of two extreme different forms of T. fluviatilis was observed. Form A is characterized by the frontal margin of carapace bordered by conspicuous granules, the anterolateral margin provided with developed teeth plus granules, and the posterolateral margin provided with granulation similar to that found on the front. In form B the frontal margin is smooth or has an inconspicuous granulation; the anterolateral margin is usually provided with 1-3 notches, and teeth (1-2), if present, are small; and the posterolateral margin is smooth or slightly granulated. PMID:19419041

de Almeida, Alexandre Oliveira; Coelho, Petrônio Alves; Luz, Joaldo Rocha; dos Santos, José Tiago Almeida; Ferraz, Neyva Ribeiro



Chronobiology of deep-water decapod crustaceans on continental margins.  


Species have evolved biological rhythms in behaviour and physiology with a 24-h periodicity in order to increase their fitness, anticipating the onset of unfavourable habitat conditions. In marine organisms inhabiting deep-water continental margins (i.e. the submerged outer edges of continents), day-night activity rhythms are often referred to in three ways: vertical water column migrations (i.e. pelagic), horizontal displacements within benthic boundary layer of the continental margin, along bathymetric gradients (i.e. nektobenthic), and endobenthic movements (i.e. rhythmic emergence from the substrate). Many studies have been conducted on crustacean decapods that migrate vertically in the water column, but much less information is available for other endobenthic and nektobenthic species. Also, the types of displacement and major life habits of most marine species are still largely unknown, especially in deep-water continental margins, where steep clines in habitat factors (i.e. light intensity and its spectral quality, sediment characteristics, and hydrography) take place. This is the result of technical difficulties in performing temporally scheduled sampling and laboratory testing on living specimens. According to this scenario, there are several major issues that still need extensive research in deep-water crustacean decapods. First, the regulation of their behaviour and physiology by a biological clock is almost unknown compared to data for coastal species that are easily accessible to direct observation and sampling. Second, biological rhythms may change at different life stages (i.e. size-related variations) or at different moments of the reproductive cycle (e.g. at egg-bearing) based on different intra- and interspecific interactions. Third, there is still a major lack of knowledge on the links that exist among the observed bathymetric distributions of species and selected autoecological traits that are controlled by their biological clock, such as the diel rhythm of behaviour. Species evolved in a photically variable environment where intra- and inter-specific interactions change along with the community structure over 24 h. Accordingly, the regulation of their biology through a biological clock may be the major evolutionary constraint that is responsible for their reported bathymetric distributions. In this review, our aim is to propose a series of innovative guidelines for a discussion of the modulation of behavioural rhythms of adult decapod crustaceans, focusing on the deep waters of the continental margin areas of the Mediterranean as a paradigm for other marine zones of the world. PMID:20959158

Aguzzi, Jacopo; Company, Joan B



First findings of decapod crustacea in the hadal zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the first major hadal sampling efforts in the 1950s, crustaceans of the order Decapoda have been thought absent from the hadal zone (6000-11,000 m) with no representatives documented >5700 m. A baited video lander deployed at 6007, 6890 and 7966 m in the Kermadec Trench, 8798 and 9729 m in the Tonga Trench (SW Pacific), 6945 and 7703 m in the Japan Trench and 5469 m in the Marianas region (NW Pacific) has now revealed a conspicuous presence of the Benthesicymid prawn Benthesicymus crenatus Bate 1881. Decapods were observed at all sites except at 7966 m in the Kermadec Trench and the two Tonga Trench sites, making the deepest finding 7703 m in the Japan Trench, 2000 m deeper than previously thought. These natantian decapods were readily attracted to fish bait and, rather than feeding on the bait itself, were observed preying upon smaller scavenging amphipods. These are the first observations of predation in the hadal zone. In less than 10 h of bottom time, 12 observations of 10 individuals were documented at 6007 m and 5 observations of 3 individuals were documented at 6890 m in the Kermadec Trench. In the Japan Trench at 6945 m 29 observations of 20 individuals were documented whilst only one individual was seen at 7703 m. Two individuals were observed in the abyssal Marianas Region (5575 m). Also, in the Kermadec Trench, individual caridean prawns ( Acanthephyra spp.) were observed at 6007 and 6890 m, proving categorically that the crustacean order of Decapoda is represented in the hadal zone.

Jamieson, A. J.; Fujii, T.; Solan, M.; Matsumoto, A. K.; Bagley, P. M.; Priede, I. G.



A review of gastric processing in decapod crustaceans.  


This article reviews the mechanical processes associated with digestion in decapod crustaceans. The decapod crustacean gut is essentially an internal tube that is divided into three functional areas, the foregut, midgut, and hindgut. The foregut houses the gastric mill apparatus which functions in mastication (cutting and grinding) of the ingested food. The processed food passes into the pyloric region of the foregut which controls movement of digesta into the midgut region and hepatopancreas where intracellular digestion takes place. The movements of the foregut muscles and gastric mill are controlled via nerves from the stomatogastric ganglion. Contraction rates of the gastric mill and foregut muscles can be influenced by environmental factors such as salinity, temperature, and oxygen levels. Gut contraction rates depend on the magnitude of the environmental perturbation and the physiological ability of each species. The subsequent transit of the digesta from the foregut into the midgut and through the hindgut has been followed in a wide variety of crustaceans. Transit rates are commonly used as a measure of food processing rates and are keys in understanding strategies of adaptation to trophic conditions. Transit times vary from as little as 30 min in small copepods to over 150 h in larger lobsters. Transit times can be influenced by the size and the type of the meal, the size and activity level of an animal and changes in environmental temperature, salinity and oxygen tension. Ultimately, changes in transit times influence digestive efficiency (the amount of nutrients absorbed across the gut wall). Digestive efficiencies tend to be high for carnivorous crustaceans, but somewhat lower for those that consume plant material. A slowing of the transit rate allows more time for nutrient absorption but this may be confounded by changes in the environment, which may reduce the energy available for active transport processes. Given the large number of articles already published on the stomatogastric ganglion and its control mechanisms, this area will continue to be of interest to scientists. There is also a push towards studying animals in a more natural environment or even in the field and investigation of the energetic costs of the components of digestion under varying biotic and environmental conditions will undoubtedly be an area that expands in the future. PMID:23266655

McGaw, Iain J; Curtis, Daniel L



A report on parasitic isopods (Crustacea) from marine fishes and decapods collected from a report on parasitic isopods (Crustacea) from marine fishes and decapods collected from the Aegean Sea (Turkey).  


Parasitic isopods were investigated in marine fishes and decapods from the Aegean Sea during 1997-1998. A total of 10 species belonging to families Cymothoidae, Gnathiidae and Bopyridae was collected from various body parts of fishes and decapods. Ceratothoa capri and Paragnathia formica have been recorded for the first time from Turkish coasts. PMID:19156617

Kirkim, Fevzi; Kocata?, Ahmet; Kata?an, Tuncer; Sezgin, Murat



Do Decapod Crustaceans Have Nociceptors for Extreme pH?  

PubMed Central

Background Nociception is the physiological detection of noxious stimuli. Because of its obvious importance, nociception is expected to be widespread across animal taxa and to trigger robust behaviours reliably. Nociception in invertebrates, such as crustaceans, is poorly studied. Methodology/Principal Findings Three decapod crustacean species were tested for nociceptive behaviour: Louisiana red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), white shrimp (Litopenaeus setiferus), and grass shrimp (Palaemonetes sp.). Applying sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, or benzocaine to the antennae caused no change in behaviour in the three species compared to controls. Animals did not groom the stimulated antenna, and there was no difference in movement of treated individuals and controls. Extracellular recordings of antennal nerves in P. clarkii revealed continual spontaneous activity, but no neurons that were reliably excited by the application of concentrated sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid. Conclusions/Significance Previously reported responses to extreme pH are either not consistently evoked across species or were mischaracterized as nociception. There was no behavioural or physiological evidence that the antennae contained specialized nociceptors that responded to pH.

Puri, Sakshi; Faulkes, Zen




Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-one species of female decapod Crustacea with gravid ovaries were collected from the field and spawned naturally in the laboratory. Newly spawned eggs and in­ cubating females were kept at temperatures between 3 °C and 24 °C constant at 3 °C increments until the eggs hatched after completing their embryonic development. Observations on developing eggs confirmed that in decapods which




Adult neurogenesis in the decapod crustacean brain: a hematopoietic connection?  


New neurons are produced and integrated into circuits in the adult brains of many organisms, including crustaceans. In some crustacean species, the first-generation neuronal precursors reside in a niche exhibiting characteristics analogous to mammalian neurogenic niches. However, unlike mammalian niches where several generations of neuronal precursors co-exist, the lineage of precursor cells in crayfish is spatially separated allowing the influence of environmental and endogenous regulators on specific generations in the neuronal precursor lineage to be defined. Experiments also demonstrate that the first-generation neuronal precursors in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii are not self-renewing. A source external to the neurogenic niche must therefore provide cells that replenish the first-generation precursor pool, because although these cells divide and produce a continuous efflux of second-generation cells from the niche, the population of first-generation niche precursors is not diminished with growth and aging. In vitro studies show that cells extracted from the hemolymph, but not other tissues, are attracted to and incorporated into the neurogenic niche, a phenomenon that appears to involve serotonergic mechanisms. We propose that, in crayfish, the hematopoietic system may be a source of cells that replenish the niche cell pool. These and other studies reviewed here establish decapod crustaceans as model systems in which the processes underlying adult neurogenesis, such as stem cell origins and transformation, can be readily explored. Studies in diverse species where adult neurogenesis occurs will result in a broader understanding of fundamental mechanisms and how evolutionary processes may have shaped the vertebrate/mammalian condition. PMID:21929622

Beltz, Barbara S; Zhang, Yi; Benton, Jeanne L; Sandeman, David C



Settlement-driven, multiscale demographic patterns of large benthic decapods in the Gulf of Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three decapod species in the Gulf of Maine (American lobster Homarus americanus Milne Edwards, 1837, rock crab Cancer irroratus Say, 1817, and Jonah crab Cancer borealis Stimpson, 1859) were investigated to determine how their patterns of settlement and post-settlement abundance varied at different spatial and temporal scales. Spatial scales ranged from centimeters to hundreds of kilometers. Abundances of newly settled

Alvaro T. Palma; Robert S. Steneck; Carl J. Wilson



Physiological stress in decapod crustaceans ( Munida rugosa and Liocarcinus depurator) discarded in the Clyde Nephrops fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crustacean discards experience stress during commercial fishing operations, due to increased exercise while in the trawl and aerial exposure during sorting of the catch. Physiological stress and recovery were assessed following trawling of two ecologically important decapod species, regularly discarded in the Clyde Nephrops fishery. Haemolymph samples taken from trawled swimming crabs, Liocarcinus depurator, and squat lobsters, Munida rugosa, had

Melanie Bergmann; Alan C Taylor; P Geoffrey Moore



Distribution patterns of decapod crustaceans in polar areas: a result of magnesium regulation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly all decapod crustaceans found in Antarctic waters south of the Antarctic Convergence are caridean shrimps (Natantia) while the group of Reptantia is largely absent in this area. Progress in the development of a physiological hypothesis is reported, which explains this distribution pattern based on differences in the regulation of magnesium levels in the haemolymph ([Mg2+]HL) and on the Mg2+

Markus Frederich; Franz Sartoris; Hans-O. Pörtner



Annotated checklist of decapod crustaceans of Atlantic coastal and continental shelf waters of the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decapod crustacean assemblage inhabiting estuarine, neritic and continental shelf waters (to 190 m) of the temperate eastern United States is diverse, with 391 species reported from Maine to Cape Canaveral, Florida. Three recognized biogeographic provinces (Boreal in part, Virginian and Car­ olinian) are included in this region. The assemblage contains 122 shrimp spe­ cies (28 penaeids, 2 stenopodids, and

Martha S. Nizinski


Subunit compositions of crustacean haemocyanins are species-specific: evidence from non-decapod species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrophoretic examination of dissociated haemocyanin subunits from a number of amphipod, decapod and isopod crustaceans supports the hypothesis that subunit composition is species-specific, despite marked within-species variation in many species. General patterns of heterogeneity on native PAGE gels were also evident between groupings within the Amphipoda. Gammarid amphipods could be split into two groups; one characterised by a high degree

Emily Hodgson; John I Spicer



Three-dimensionally preserved decapod larval compound eyes from the Cretaceous Santana Formation of Brazil.  


Compound eyes are common in decapod crustaceans. Decapods have an abundant post-Palaeozoic fossil record, but hitherto morphological information about their eyes has been mainly restricted to Recent material. Here we report the discovery of compound eyes recovered from acetic acid residues of two fish-bearing nodules from the Cretaceous Santana Formation of Brazil; they include what are identified as decapod larval compound eyes. The fossil eyes are comparable to phyllosoma larval eyes because of the following characters: the hemispherical visual surface on a stalked eye; the relatively small-size of the visual surface of the eye; rounded facets are arranged in square arrays in the anterior region; the fact that the neighboring ommatidia are bounded by ridges and/ or grooves; and the more convex inner surface of the cornea lens. This report represents the first description of a three-dimensionally preserved fossil decapod eye. We conclude that the eyes probably represent palinuroid phyllosoma larval eyes and were an adaptation to a planktonic lifestyle. PMID:19968472

Tanaka, Gengo; Smith, Robin J; Siveter, David J; Parker, Andrew R



Fishes and decapod crustaceans of Cape Cod eelgrass meadows: Species composition, seasonal abundance patterns and comparison with unvegetated substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bimonthly trawl samples from eelgrass and nearby unvegetated areas on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, showed greater species richness\\u000a in eelgrass meadows relative to unvegetated areas, and greater summer abundance in vegetation for decapod crustaceans and\\u000a fishes. The composition of eelgrass-associated decapods and fishes was dominated by cold-water taxa and was strikingly different\\u000a from that of the better studied eelgrass meadows of

K. L. Heck; K. W. Able; M. P. Fahay; C. T. Roman



Identification and developmental expression of mRNAs encoding crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) in decapod crustaceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Full-length cDNAs encoding crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) were isolated from several decapod (brachyuran and astacuran) crustaceans: the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, green shore crab Carcinus maenas, European lobster Homarus gamarus and calico crayfish Orconectes immunis. The cDNAs encode open reading frames of 143 (brachyurans) and 139-140 (astacurans) amino acids. Apart from the predicted signal peptides (30-32 amino acids), the conceptually

J. S. Chung; D. C. Wilcockson; N. Zmora; Y. Zohar; H. Dircksen; S. G. Webster



Megabenthic decapod crustacean assemblages on the Galician continental shelf and upper slope (north-west Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of megabenthic decapod crustacean assemblages on the Galician (north-west Spain) continental shelf (100 to\\u000a 200 depth) and upper slope (200 to 500 m) was analyzed based on surveys carried out in autumn and spring, from 1980 to 1987.\\u000a Forty species belonging to 19 families were caught. The portunid crab Polybius henslowii, a species with pelagic phases, was the

A. C. Fariña; J. Freire; E. González-Gurriarán



Evolution of osmoregulatory patterns and gill ion transport mechanisms in the decapod Crustacea: a review.  


Decapod crustaceans exhibit a wide range of osmoregulatory patterns and capabilities from marine osmoconformers to brackish and freshwater hyperregulators to terrestrial hyporegulators. The principal gill salt transport mechanisms proposed to underlie the ability of the better-known taxa to occupy these specific habitats are examined here. Traditional thinking suggests that a graduated series of successively stronger adaptive mechanisms may have driven the occupation of ever more dilute osmotic niches, culminating in the conquest of freshwater and dry land. However, when habitat and osmoregulatory parameters are analyzed quantitatively against the phylogenies of the taxa examined, as illustrated here using a palaemonid shrimp clade, their association becomes questionable and may hold true only in specific cases. We also propose a putative evolution for gill epithelial ion pump and transporter arrangement in a eubrachyuran crab clade whose lineages occupy distinct osmotic niches. By including the systematics of these selected groups, this review incorporates the notion of a protracted time scale, here termed 'phylophysiology', into decapod osmoregulation, allowing the examination of putative physiological transformations and their underlying evolutionary processes. This approach assumes that species are temporally linked, a factor that can impart phylogenetic structuring, which must be considered in comparative studies. Future experimental models in decapod osmoregulatory physiology should contemplate the phylogenetic relationships among the taxa chosen to better allow comprehension of the transformations arising during their evolution. PMID:22534792

McNamara, John Campbell; Faria, Samuel Coelho



Topographical and typological comparison of the rodlike setae of ambulatory dactylopodites in decapod crustaceans  

SciTech Connect

The arrangement and external morphology of the rodlike setae and associated structures located on the dactylopodites of the walking legs of six species of decapod crustaceans are compared. The dactyls of littoral species, represented by the rock crab, Cancer antennarius, and the spiny lobster, Panulirus interruptus, have dense tufts and bands of rodlike setae, as is typical of many decapods, and additionally only a few small plumed setae. The arrangement of setae on the dactyls of the recently discovered Galapagos vent crab. Bythograea thermydron, closely resembles that of C. antennarius. Rodlike and long plumed setae occur in about equal numbers on the dactyls of the pelagic anomuran, Pleuroncodes planipes. The dactyls having the fewest rodlike setae are those of the terrestrial hermit crab, Coenobita perlatus, and those of the kelp crab, Pugettia producta, where flat setae typical of Majidae have replace most rodlike setae. The presence and structures of the terminal pores in rodlike setae vary intra- and interspecifically, possibly as a function of molt stage. Variations in some features of rodlike setae, such as tip acuity and presence of microsetae and surface sculpting, appear to be related to development. Serrated setae occur on the dactyls of megalopal P. producta but not in later stages. The topography and typolgy of setae located on the ambulatory dactyls of decapod crustaceans are considered in light of recent interest in using seta characteristics to determine the sensory functions of sensilla and to clarify the phylogeny of arthropod groups.

Hamilton, K.A.



Cadmium Concentration of Mesopelagic Decapods and Euphausiids from the North-East Atlantic Ocean: Possible Use as a Dietary Marker in Food Web Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A range of mesopelagic decapods and euphausiids, collected from the N.E. Atlantic, have been analysed for Cd. The data have been compared with previously reported levels of Cd and 210 Po in similar species from the same area. Caridean decapods are active ...

P. S. Ridout H. S. J. Roe H. R. Jones R. J. Morris



Trophic relationships in deep-water decapods of Le Danois bank (Cantabrian Sea, NE Atlantic): Trends related with depth and seasonal changes in food quality and availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trophic relationships of decapod crustaceans on Le Danois bank (NE of Iberian Peninsula, NE Atlantic Ocean) were studied within the framework of the multidisciplinary project ECOMARG during two surveys, one in October 2003 and the other in April 2004. The diets of eleven species of decapods were analyzed and, within a rather continuous gradient of food source exploitation, 3

Joan E. Cartes; C. Huguet; S. Parra; F. Sanchez



Aspects of benthic decapod diversity and distribution from rocky nearshore habitat at geographically widely dispersed sites.  


Relationships of diversity, distribution and abundance of benthic decapods in intertidal and shallow subtidal waters to 10 m depth are explored based on data obtained using a standardized protocol of globally-distributed samples. Results indicate that decapod species richness overall is low within the nearshore, typically ranging from one to six taxa per site (mean?=?4.5). Regionally the Gulf of Alaska decapod crustacean community structure was distinguishable by depth, multivariate analysis indicating increasing change with depth, where assemblages of the high and mid tide, low tide and 1 m, and 5 and 10 m strata formed three distinct groups. Univariate analysis showed species richness increasing from the high intertidal zone to 1 m subtidally, with distinct depth preferences among the 23 species. A similar depth trend but with peak richness at 5 m was observed when all global data were combined. Analysis of latitudinal trends, confined by data limitations, was equivocal on a global scale. While significant latitudinal differences existed in community structure among ecoregions, a semi-linear trend in changing community structure from the Arctic to lower latitudes did not hold when including tropical results. Among boreal regions the Canadian Atlantic was relatively species poor compared to the Gulf of Alaska, whereas the Caribbean and Sea of Japan appeared to be species hot spots. While species poor, samples from the Canadian Atlantic were the most diverse at the higher infraordinal level. Linking 11 environmental variables available for all sites to the best fit family-based biotic pattern showed a significant relationship, with the single best explanatory variable being the level of organic pollution and the best combination overall being organic pollution and primary productivity. While data limitations restrict conclusions in a global context, results are seen as a first-cut contribution useful in generating discussion and more in-depth work in the still poorly understood field of biodiversity distribution. PMID:21533220

Pohle, Gerhard; Iken, Katrin; Clarke, K Robert; Trott, Thomas; Konar, Brenda; Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Wong, Melisa; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Mead, Angela; Miloslavich, Patricia; Mieszkowska, Nova; Milne, Rebecca; Tamburello, Laura; Knowlton, Ann; Kimani, Edward; Shirayama, Yoshihisa



Aspects of Benthic Decapod Diversity and Distribution from Rocky Nearshore Habitat at Geographically Widely Dispersed Sites  

PubMed Central

Relationships of diversity, distribution and abundance of benthic decapods in intertidal and shallow subtidal waters to 10 m depth are explored based on data obtained using a standardized protocol of globally-distributed samples. Results indicate that decapod species richness overall is low within the nearshore, typically ranging from one to six taxa per site (mean?=?4.5). Regionally the Gulf of Alaska decapod crustacean community structure was distinguishable by depth, multivariate analysis indicating increasing change with depth, where assemblages of the high and mid tide, low tide and 1 m, and 5 and 10 m strata formed three distinct groups. Univariate analysis showed species richness increasing from the high intertidal zone to 1 m subtidally, with distinct depth preferences among the 23 species. A similar depth trend but with peak richness at 5 m was observed when all global data were combined. Analysis of latitudinal trends, confined by data limitations, was equivocal on a global scale. While significant latitudinal differences existed in community structure among ecoregions, a semi-linear trend in changing community structure from the Arctic to lower latitudes did not hold when including tropical results. Among boreal regions the Canadian Atlantic was relatively species poor compared to the Gulf of Alaska, whereas the Caribbean and Sea of Japan appeared to be species hot spots. While species poor, samples from the Canadian Atlantic were the most diverse at the higher infraordinal level. Linking 11 environmental variables available for all sites to the best fit family-based biotic pattern showed a significant relationship, with the single best explanatory variable being the level of organic pollution and the best combination overall being organic pollution and primary productivity. While data limitations restrict conclusions in a global context, results are seen as a first-cut contribution useful in generating discussion and more in-depth work in the still poorly understood field of biodiversity distribution.

Pohle, Gerhard; Iken, Katrin; Clarke, K. Robert; Trott, Thomas; Konar, Brenda; Cruz-Motta, Juan Jose; Wong, Melisa; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Mead, Angela; Miloslavich, Patricia; Mieszkowska, Nova; Milne, Rebecca; Tamburello, Laura; Knowlton, Ann; Kimani, Edward; Shirayama, Yoshihisa



Habitats and biodiversity of decapod crustaceans in the SE Gulf of California, Mexico.  


Samples of benthic macro-fauna were obtained in different habitats along and off the coast of Southern Sinaloa, Gulf of California, Mexico, from 1978 to 1991. Occurrence of species of decapod crustaceans was registered for six habitats, from the interidal to depth of 1200 m. A total of 299 species were collected, belonging to 53 families and including 17 species of Penaeoidea, 45 of Caridea, 6 of Thalassinidea, 5 of Palinura, 1 of Astacidea, 63 of Anomura, and 162 of Brachyura. Number of species varied considerably from one habitat to another. Highest biodiversity was observed in the Bay of Mazatlán, with 121 species, followed by the continental shelf and the rocky interidal (107 species each), the estuarine/coastal lagoons (48 species), the upper slope (18 species) and the sandy beaches (9 species). One species was found to be strictly insular-terrestrial and two are primarily associated with the flotsam. The results of this survey were compared with distribution data available for decapod crustaceans fauna from the SE Gulf of California and the Eastern Tropical Pacific zoogeographic region (ETP). The fauna collected represents 82% of the species cited for the area for coastal and shallow subtidal habitats (to ca. 115 m depth) and 57.6% of deep water (> 200 m) species known to occur in the Gulf of California. Except in two cases, similarity indices (SI) based on the number of species common to any pair of habitats were all very low. Continental shelf and the Bay of Mazatlán have 57 species in common (SI = 0.50), while rocky shore habitat and the Bay of Mazatlán share 27 species (SI = 0.24). Comparative studies of decapod crustaceans communities for the ETP are almost lacking altogether. Available data, however, indicate that biodiversity observed on Southern Sinaloa is so far the highest on record for marine and brackish-water habitants for a given section of this tropical zoogeographic region. PMID:9246369

Hendrickx, M E



Nickel uptake and regulation in a copper-tolerant decapod, Cambarus bartoni (Fabricius)  

SciTech Connect

Large amounts of acid forming sulfur dioxide, and heavy metals including nickel are continuously being released into the environment by mining and smelting operations at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. As a consequence, a number of lakes in this region has become acidic and metal stressed. In the current study the uptake and accumulation of nickel by various tissues of a copper-tolerant crayfish, Cambarus bartoni (Decapod, Crustacea), was monitored for 4 wk in the laboratory to ascertain the dynamic nature (i.e., the pattern in time) of the response of the crayfish to increased levels of this relatively less metabolically essential but toxic metal in the aquatic environment.

Alikhan, M.A.; Zia, S.




EPA Science Inventory

A spatiotemporal comparison of habitat suitability of oyster reefs for fishes and decapod crustaceans was conducted for the lower Caloosahatchee Estuary, Florida. Lift nets (1-m2) containing 5 liters (volume displacement) of oyster clusters were deployed monthly at three sites al...


Subcellular distribution of zinc and cadmium in the hepatopancreas and gills of the decapod crustacean Penaeus indicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decapod crustacean Penaeus indicus accumulated Cd and Zn in different subcellular compartments of hepatopancreas and gill cells. Most of the Cd and part of the Zn accumulates within the soluble fraction of the cells, while the remainder of the Zn is found in insoluble inclusions, associated with P, Ca, Mg and Si in B-, F- and R-cells in the

G. Nunez-Nogueira; C. Mouneyrac; J. C. Amiard; P. S. Rainbow



Acanthaster planci Outbreak: Decline in Coral Health, Coral Size Structure Modification and Consequences for Obligate Decapod Assemblages  

PubMed Central

Although benthic motile invertebrate communities encompass the vast majority of coral reef diversity, their response to habitat modification has been poorly studied. A variety of benthic species, particularly decapods, provide benefits to their coral host enabling them to cope with environmental stressors, and as a result benefit the overall diversity of coral-associated species. However, little is known about how invertebrate assemblages associated with corals will be affected by global perturbations, (either directly or indirectly via their coral host) or their consequences for ecosystem resilience. Analysis of a ten year dataset reveals that the greatest perturbation at Moorea over this time was an outbreak of the corallivorous sea star Acanthaster planci from 2006 to 2009 impacting habitat health, availability and size structure of Pocillopora spp. populations and highlights a positive relationship between coral head size and survival. We then present the results of a mensurative study in 2009 conducted at the end of the perturbation (A. planci outbreak) describing how coral-decapod communities change with percent coral mortality for a selected coral species, Pocillopora eydouxi. The loss of coral tissue as a consequence of A. planci consumption led to an increase in rarefied total species diversity, but caused drastic modifications in community composition driven by a shift from coral obligate to non-obligate decapod species. Our study highlights that larger corals left with live tissue in 2009, formed a restricted habitat where coral obligate decapods, including mutualists, could subsist. We conclude that the size structure of Pocillopora populations at the time of an A. planci outbreak may greatly condition the magnitude of coral mortality as well as the persistence of local populations of obligate decapods.

Leray, Matthieu; Beraud, Maxime; Anker, Arthur; Chancerelle, Yannick; Mills, Suzanne C.



Acanthaster planci outbreak: decline in coral health, coral size structure modification and consequences for obligate decapod assemblages.  


Although benthic motile invertebrate communities encompass the vast majority of coral reef diversity, their response to habitat modification has been poorly studied. A variety of benthic species, particularly decapods, provide benefits to their coral host enabling them to cope with environmental stressors, and as a result benefit the overall diversity of coral-associated species. However, little is known about how invertebrate assemblages associated with corals will be affected by global perturbations, (either directly or indirectly via their coral host) or their consequences for ecosystem resilience. Analysis of a ten year dataset reveals that the greatest perturbation at Moorea over this time was an outbreak of the corallivorous sea star Acanthaster planci from 2006 to 2009 impacting habitat health, availability and size structure of Pocillopora spp. populations and highlights a positive relationship between coral head size and survival. We then present the results of a mensurative study in 2009 conducted at the end of the perturbation (A. planci outbreak) describing how coral-decapod communities change with percent coral mortality for a selected coral species, Pocillopora eydouxi. The loss of coral tissue as a consequence of A. planci consumption led to an increase in rarefied total species diversity, but caused drastic modifications in community composition driven by a shift from coral obligate to non-obligate decapod species. Our study highlights that larger corals left with live tissue in 2009, formed a restricted habitat where coral obligate decapods, including mutualists, could subsist. We conclude that the size structure of Pocillopora populations at the time of an A. planci outbreak may greatly condition the magnitude of coral mortality as well as the persistence of local populations of obligate decapods. PMID:22530026

Leray, Matthieu; Béraud, Maxime; Anker, Arthur; Chancerelle, Yannick; Mills, Suzanne C



Interactions between behaviour and physical forcing in the control of horizontal transport of decapod crustacean larvae.  


We summarize what is known of the biophysical interactions that control vertical migration and dispersal of decapod larvae, asking the following main questions: How common is vertical migration in decapod crustacean larvae? What is the vertical extent of the migrations? What are the behavioural mechanisms that control vertical migrations? How does vertical migration interact with the physics of the ocean to control the dispersal of larvae? These questions are analysed by first giving a synopsis of the physical processes that are believed to significantly affect horizontal transport, and then by describing migration patterns according to taxon, to ecological category based on the habitat of adults and larvae, and to stage within the larval series. Some kind of vertical migration has been found in larval stages of virtually all species that have been investigated, irrespective of taxonomic or ecological category. Most vertical migration schedules have a cyclic nature that is related to a major environmental cyclic factor. Tidal (ebb or flood) migration and daily (nocturnal and twilight) migration are the two types of cyclic migration that have been identified. In general, all species show some type of daily migration, with nocturnal migration being the most common, whereas tidal migrations have only been identified in species that use estuaries during part of their life cycle. Moreover, there are several examples indicating that the phasing and extent of migration both change throughout ontogeny. Reported ranges of vertical displacement vary between a few metres in estuaries and several tens of metres (sometimes more than 100 m) in shelf and oceanic waters. Vertical movements are controlled by behavioural responses to the main factors of the marine environment. The most important factors in this respect are light, pressure and gravity, but salinity, temperature, turbulence, current and other factors, also influence behaviour. Many of these factors change cyclically, and the larvae respond with cyclic behaviours. The type of response may be endogenous and regulated by an internal clock, as in the case of some tidally synchronised migrations, but in most cases it is a direct response to a change in an environmental variable, as in diel migration. The reaction of the larvae to exogenous cues depends both on the rate of change of the variable and on the absolute amount of change. A series of dispersal types, involving different spatial and temporal scales, have been identified in decapod larvae: retention of the larval series within estuaries; export from estuarine habitats, dispersal over the shelf, and reinvasion of estuaries by the last stage; hatching in shelf waters and immigration to estuaries by late larvae or postlarvae; complete development on the shelf; and hatching in shelf waters, long-range dispersal in the ocean, and return to the shelf by late stages. In all of these cases, vertical migration behaviour and changes of behaviour during the course of larval development have been related to particular physical processes, resulting in conceptual mechanisms that explain dispersal and recruitment. Most decapod larvae are capable of crossing the vertical temperature differences normally found across thermoclines in natural systems. This ability may have significant consequences for horizontal transport within shelf waters, because amplitude and phase differences of the tidal currents across the thermocline may be reflected in different trajectories of the migrating larvae. PMID:15596167

Queiroga, Henrique; Blanton, Jack



Paleozoic-Mesozoic crayfish from Antarctica: Earliest evidence of freshwater decapod crustaceans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discovery of an Early Permian claw from Antarctica extends the fossil record of crayfish by ˜65 m.y. and demonstrates that decapod crustaceans had radiated into freshwater habitats by the late Paleozoic. Burrows in Lower Triassic rocks of Antarctica are among the oldest apparently constructed by crayfish. Their morphology is similar to modern crayfish burrows, and this demonstrates that burrowing behavior was established early in the evolution of this group. The new discoveries show that the earliest Permian crayfish were distributed in high paleolatitudes of southernmost Pangea, where they lived in freshwater lakes fed by glacial meltwater. Modern crayfish habitat, used as a guide to crayfish temperature tolerance, indicates that summer temperatures of streams and lakes near the South Pole that supported the crayfish probably reached 10 20 °C during Permian-Triassic interglacial intervals.

Babcock, Loren E.; Miller, Molly F.; Isbell, John L.; Collinson, James W.; Hasiotis, Stephen T.



Selfing in a malacostracan crustacean: why a tanaidacean but not decapods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crustacean class Malacostraca, with over 22,000 species, includes commercially important members, such as crabs, shrimps, and lobsters. A few simultaneous hermaphrodites are known in this group, but self-fertilization was unknown. Here we show, through microscopy and breeding experiments, that the simultaneously hermaphroditic malacostracan Apseudes sp. (order Tanaidacea) can self-fertilize; individuals reared in isolation become hermaphroditic via a male-like phase and produce eggs that develop into fertile adults. Although selfing occurs in crustaceans like the Branchiopoda, in which simultaneous hermaphrodites have the sex ducts united, in decapods the separation of gonadal ducts and gonopores, specialized mating organs, and complex mating behavior appear to have constrained the evolution of selfing. In contrast, in most tanaidaceans, sperm is released externally by a male and reaches the eggs in the female brood pouch, where fertilization occurs. This mode of fertilization permitted Apseudes sp. to achieve selfing without large modifications in morphology or behavior.

Kakui, Keiichi; Hiruta, Chizue



Spatial distribution of fishes and decapods in eelgrass ( Zostera marina L.) and sandy habitats of a New Brunswick estuary, eastern Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated spatial distribution of fishes and decapods in eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) and non-vegetated sandy habitats in Kouchibouguac Estuary, New Brunswick, Canada. During the ice-free season in 1999\\u000a and 2000, mobile fauna were sampled using fyke nets, minnow traps and an epibenthic sled. In general, fishes and decapods\\u000a were more abundant and diverse (species richness) in eelgrass beds than

Venitia Joseph; Andrea Locke; Jean-Guy J. Godin



New insights into evolution of crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone in decapods--first characterization in Anomura.  


The neuropeptides of the crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone (CHH) family are encoded by a multigene family and are involved in a wide spectrum of essential functions. In order to characterize CHH family peptides in one of the last groups of decapods not yet investigated, CHH was studied in two anomurans: the hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus and the squat lobster Galathea strigosa. Using RT-PCR and 3' and 5' RACE methods, a preproCHH cDNA was cloned from the major neuroendocrine organs (X-organs) of these two species. Hormone precursors deduced from these cDNAs in P. bernhardus and G. strigosa are composed of signal peptides of 29 and 31 amino acids, respectively, and CHH precursor-related peptides (CPRPs) of 50 and 40 amino acids, respectively, followed by a mature hormone of 72 amino acids. The presence of these predicted CHHs and their related CPRPs was confirmed by performing MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry on sinus glands, the main neurohaemal organs of decapods. These analyses also suggest the presence, in sinus glands of both species, of a peptide related to the moult-inhibiting hormone (MIH), another member of the CHH family. Accordingly, immunostaining of the X-organ/sinus gland complex of P. bernhardus with heterologous anti-CHH and anti-MIH sera showed the presence of distinct cells producing CHH and MIH-like proteins. A phylogenetic analysis of CHHs, including anomuran sequences, based on maximum-likelihood methods, was performed. The phylogenetic position of this taxon, as a sister group to Brachyura, is in agreement with previously reported results, and confirms the utility of CHH as a molecular model for understanding inter-taxa relationships. Finally, the paraphyly of penaeid CHHs and the structural diversity of CPRPs are discussed. PMID:18298796

Montagné, Nicolas; Soyez, Daniel; Gallois, Dominique; Ollivaux, Céline; Toullec, Jean-Yves



Endogenous production of endo-beta-1,4-glucanase by decapod crustaceans.  


The potential ability to produce cellulase enzymes endogenously was examined in decapods crustaceans including the herbivorous gecarcinid land crabs Gecarcoidea natalis and Discoplax hirtipes, the amphibious freshwater crab Austrothelphusa transversa, the terrestrial hermit crab, Coenobita variabilis the parastacid crayfish Euastacus, and the crayfish Cherax destructor. The midgut gland of both G. natalis and D. hirtipes contained substantial total cellulase activities and activities of the cellulase enzymes endo-beta-1,4-glucanase and beta-glucosidase. With the exception of total cellulase and beta-glucosidase from D. hirtipes, the enzyme activities within the midgut gland were higher than those within the digestive juice. Hence, the enzyme activities appear to reside predominantly within midgut gland, providing indirect evidence for endogenous synthesis of cellulase enzymes by this tissue. A 900 bp cDNA fragment encoding a portion of the endo-beta-1,4-glucanase amino acid sequence was amplified by RT-PCR using RNA isolated from the midgut gland of C. destructor, Euastacus, A. transversa and C. variabilis. This provided direct evidence for the endogenous production of endo-beta-1,4-glucanase. The 900 bp fragment was also amplified from genomic DNA isolated from the skeletal muscle of G. natalis and D. hirtipes, clearly indicating that the gene encoding endo-beta-1,4-glucanase is also present in these two species. As this group of evolutionary diverse crustacean species possesses and expresses the endo-beta-1,4-glucanase gene it is likely that decapod crustaceans generally produce cellulases endogenously and are able to digest cellulose. PMID:16408228

Linton, Stuart M; Greenaway, Peter; Towle, David W



Do osmoregulators have lower capacity of muscle water regulation than osmoconformers? A study on decapod crustaceans.  


Decapod crustaceans occupy various aquatic habitats. In freshwater they are osmoregulators, while marine species are typically osmoconformers. Freshwater crustaceans are derived from marine ancestors. The hypothesis tested here was that osmoregulators, which can rely on salt transport by interface epithelia to prevent extracellular disturbance, would have a lower capacity of tissue water regulation when compared with osmoconformers. Four species of decapod crustaceans (the marine osmoconformer crab Hepatus pudibundus, and three osmoregulators of different habitats) have been exposed in vivo to a salinity challenge, for up to 24 hr. Osmoregulators were: the estuarine shrimp Palaemon pandaliformis, the diadromous freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium acanthurus, and the hololimnetic red crab Dilocarcinus pagei. H. pudibundus displayed hemolymph dilution already after 0.5 hr in 25 per thousand, reaching approximately 30% reduction in osmolality, but its muscle degree of hydration did not increase. To make the different in vivo salinity challenges directly comparable, the ratio between the maximum change in muscle hydration with respect to the control value measured for the species and the maximum change in hemolymph osmolality was calculated (x 1,000): H. pudibundus (25 per thousand, 8.1% kg H(2)O/mOsm x 10(3))>P. pandaliformis (2 per thousand, 9.2)>M. acanthurus (30 per thousand, 12.6)>P. pandaliformis (35 per thousand, 16.7)>D. pagei (7 per thousand, 60.4). Muscle slices submitted in vitro to a 30% osmotic challenge confirmed in vivo results. Thus, the estuarine/freshwater osmoregulators displayed a lower capacity to hold muscle tissue water than the marine osmoconformer, despite undergoing narrower variations in hemolymph osmolality. PMID:19844979

Foster, Clarice; Amado, Enelise M; Souza, Marta M; Freire, Carolina A



Spatiotemporal coupling\\/decoupling of planktonic larvae and benthic settlement in decapods in the Scottish east coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Settlement patterns and the relationship between meroplanktonic larvae and settlement in decapods were studied on the Scottish\\u000a east coast. Artificial settlement substrates (ASS), deployed at two locations (sandy vs. rocky sea substrates), were employed\\u000a to collect megalopae and newly settled juveniles. Abundance of meroplanktonic larvae was used as an indicator of larval supply.\\u000a The results showed a clear seasonality in

Maria PanGraham; Graham J. Pierce; Carey O. Cunningham; Steve J. Hay



Metabolic rates and energy content of deep-sea benthic decapod crustaceans in the western Mediterranean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 23 species of deep-sea benthic decapod crustaceans were collected in the Catalan Sea (western Mediterranean) at different depths (200–1250m) but at the same environmental temperature (13°C) in winter 1992 and winter 1993. Studies on oxygen consumption and energy content were carried out on crustaceans exhibiting two life strategies: nektobenthic species (benthic species with a slight locomotory ability)

F. Sarda



Simultaneous hermaphroditism in the marine shrimp Lysmata wurdemanni (Caridea: Hippolytidae): an undescribed sexual system in the decapod Crustacea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous hermaphroditism with outcrossing, a previously unconfirmed sexual system in decapod crustaceans, is documented\\u000a in the shrimp Lysmata wurdemanni (Gibbes), using time-lapse video observations on mating in pairs of “female-phase” (FP) individuals. Copulations between\\u000a FPs resulted in successful spawning and development of embryos. However, female-phase hermaphrodites maintained in isolation\\u000a were unable to self-fertilize spawned eggs. All smaller individuals possessed characters

R. T. Bauer; G. J. Holt



Day-night migrations by deep-sea decapod crustaceans in experimental samplings in the Western Mediterranean sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of abundance and size frequency data on decapod crustacean species in two different habitats (inside and outside a submarine canyon) in the Western Mediterranean during two near-continuous 24-h sampling periods using commercial bottom trawls provided an indication of migratory ability and ac­ tivity of the numerically dominant species. Certain nektobenthic species (e.g. Aristeus antennatus) carried out migrations up the

J. E. Cartes; F. Sarda; J. Lleonart



A Successful Crayfish Invader Is Capable of Facultative Parthenogenesis: A Novel Reproductive Mode in Decapod Crustaceans  

PubMed Central

Biological invasions are impacting biota worldwide, and explaining why some taxa tend to become invasive is of major scientific interest. North American crayfish species, particularly of the family Cambaridae, are prominent invaders in freshwaters, defying the “tens rule” which states that only a minority of species introduced to new regions become established, and only a minority of those become invasive and pests. So far, success of cambarid invaders has largely been attributed to rapid maturation, high reproductive output, aggressiveness, and tolerance to pollution. We provide experimental evidence that females of one cambarid species particularly widespread in Europe, the spiny-cheek crayfish Orconectes limosus, are capable of facultative parthenogenesis. Such reproductive mode has never before been recognized in decapods, the most diverse crustacean order. As shown by analysis of seven microsatellite loci, crayfish females kept physically separated from males produced genetically homogeneous offspring identical with maternal individuals; this suggests they reproduced by apomixis, unlike those females which mated with males and had a diverse offspring. Further research is needed to clarify what environmental conditions are necessary for a switch to parthenogenesis in O. limosus, and what role it plays in natural crayfish populations. However, if such reproductive plasticity is present in other cambarid crayfish species, it may contribute to the overwhelming invasive success of this group.

Buric, Milos; Hulak, Martin; Kouba, Antonin



Distribution and abundance of decapod crustacean larvae in the southeastern Bering Sea with emphasis on commercial species. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Contents include: Distribution and abundance of king crab larvae, Paralithodes camtschatica and P. platypus in the southeast Bering Sea; Distribution and abundance of the larvae of tanner crabs in the southeastern Bering Sea; Distribution and abundance of other brachyuran larvae in the southeastern Bering Sea with emphasis on Erimacrus isenbeckii; Distribution and abundance of shrimp larvae in the southeastern Bering Sea with emphasis on pandalid species; Distribution and abundance of hermit crabs (Paguridae) in the southeasternBering Sea; Possible oil impacts on decapod larbae in the southeastern Bering Sea with emphesis on the St. George Basin.

Armstrong, D.A.; Incze, L.S.; Wencker, D.L.; Armstrong, J.L.



[Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in the eye, cardiac and skeletal muscles of several decapods].  


Properties of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the eye, heart and muscles of Hemigrapsus sanguineus, Paralithodes camtschatica, Erimacrus isenbeckii, Pandalus latirastrus, Pagurus brachiomastus have been studied with acrylamide gel electrophoresis and kinetics analysis. LDH in all the tissues of all the representatives studied was found to be specific for L-pyruvate and lactate; it migrated in electrophoresis as a single band revealing low mobility towards anode. The isoenzyme from P. camtschatica and P. latirastrus differed from the isoenzymes of other animals studied by higher mobility towards anode that reflected higher negative value of its total charge. The LDH isoenzymes in all the animals studied resembled the A4 (LDH5) of the vertebrates being unstable to the denaturing action of high temperature and being unaffected by high concentrations of pyruvate up to 1.0.10-3M. On the other hand, in conrast to the A4 of mammals, the LDH in question displayed enhancement of the reaction rate and decrease of the Km values upon increase in the NAD+ and NAD.H concentrations both in the presence of high or low lactate and pyruvate concentrations. The isoenzymes displayed catalytic activity also in the presence of NADP, the Km values for pyruvate in the presence of equimolar (2.25 mM) concentrations of NAD.H or NADP.H were practically identical and were found to be within the limits of 14-26.10-5 M. Molecular weight of the LDH studied assessed by the gel filtration method was found to be 130-140,000. It is suggested that the LDH isoenzyme from the representatives of the decapod crayfish studied is homologous in its certain properties to the homotetrameric A4 form of the vertebrates. PMID:1020551

Cherny?, V G; Chizhevich, E P; Shukoliukov, S A


Trophic transfer of trace metals: Subcellular compartmentalization in a polychaete and assimilation by a decapod crustacean  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The chemical form of accumulated trace metal in prey is important in controlling the bioavailataility of dietary metal to a predator. This study investigated the trophic transfer of radiolabelled Ag, Cd and Zn from the polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor to the decapod crustacean Palaemonetes varians. We used 2 populations of worms with different proportions of accumulated metals in different subcellular fractions as prey, and loaded the worms with radiolabelled metals either from sediment or from solution. Accumulated radiolabelled metals were fractionated into 5 components : metal-rich granules (MRG), cellular debris, organelles, metallothionein-like proteins (MTLP), and other (heat-sensitive) proteins (HSP). Assimilation efficiencies (AE) of the metals by P. varians were measured from the 4 categories of prey (i.e. 2 populations, radiolabelled from sediment or solution). There were significant differences for each metal between the AEs from the different prey categories, confirming that origin of prey and route of uptake of accumulated trace metal will cause intraspecific differences in subsequent metal assimilation. Correlations were sought between AEs and selected fractions or combinations of fractions of metals in the prey-MRG, Trophically Available Metal (TAM = MTLP + HSP + organelles) and total protein (MTLP + HSP). TAM explained 28% of the variance in AEs for Ag, but no consistent relationships emerged between AEs and TAM or total protein when the metals were considered separately. AEs did, however, show significant positive regressions with both TAM and total protein when the 3 metals were considered together, explaining only about 21 % of the variance in each case. A significant negative relationship was observed between MRG and AE for all metals combined. The predator (P. varians) can assimilate dietary metal from a range of the fractions binding metals in the prey (N. diversicolor), with different assimilation efficiencies summated across these fractions. TAM and/or total protein may represent an approximate minimum for trophic availability but neither of these alone is a fully accurate predictor. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

Rainbow, P. S.; Poirier, L.; Smith, B. D.; Brix, K. V.; Luoma, S. N.



Seasonal variation and structure of a decapod (Crustacea) assemblage living in a Caulerpa prolifera meadow in Cádiz Bay (SW Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The decapod taxocoenosis living in shallow muddy bottoms with the green algae Caulerpa prolifera was studied monthly between February 1994 and January 1996 in the Inner Bay of Cádiz (SW Spain). More than 32,000 specimens belonging to 35 species were collected. Six species were dominant (representing the 85.8% of the total number of specimens), but the structure of the taxocoenosis was regulated by the Hippolyte species, Sicyonia carinata, Palaemon adspersus and Liocarcinus arcuatus. There was no significant qualitative difference between years. There was no clear change in the dominance of groups of species during the year, as happened in the outer Bay. This is probably due to the sheltered character of the area and the more stable and dense vegetal cover, but some seasonal differences were found. The benthic characteristics of the Inner Bay of Cádiz, such as shallow soft bottoms of fine and muddy sediments and the presence of macrophytes (seagrasses and seaweeds) might be key factors influencing the composition and structure of the general and seasonal decapod assemblage. In spite of human impacts on the bay (e.g. aquaculture activities, sewage), the values of the diversity, equitability and richness indexes appeared stable over time (higher than those found in outer adjacent areas) and no significant differences between years were found.

López De La Rosa, Inmaculada; Rodríguez, Antonio; García Raso, J. Enrique




Microsoft Academic Search

The decapod communities of three coral reefs of the southwestern Caribbean Sea of Cuba (keys Juan Garcia, Cantiles and Diego Perez), at three different ecological levels (the reef lagoon, the reef flat and the outward slope) have been analyzed. A total of 2567 specimens belonging to 216 species were caught. The lagoons have the highest richness. The lower richness found

J. C. Martinez Iglesias; J. E. Garcia Raso


Habitat characteristics and spatial arrangement affecting the diversity of fish and decapod assemblages of seagrass (Zostera marina) beds around the coast of Jersey (English Channel)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent research and management plans for seagrass habitats have called for landscape level approaches. The present study examines the spatial utilisation of subtidal seagrass beds by fish and decapods around the coast of Jersey (49°N 02° W). A hierarchical scale of landscape configuration and the plant characteristics of eight seagrass beds were measured and the contributions of these variables as predictors of the properties of the fish and decapod assemblages were evaluated using multiple linear regression models. The results indicated that total diversity had a negative relationship with transect heterogeneity and total species number had a weak negative association with increasing fragmentation. Both total diversity and total species number showed a positive relationship with depth. In fact, in all models of species number and densities, values were higher in deeper seagrass beds. Total decapod density increased with aggregation of seagrass patches within a landscape. In addition to landscape configuration, smaller-scale structural changes in both canopy height and epiphyte load appeared to influence densities of decapod crustaceans. At night, fewer patterns could be explained by the independent variables in the model.

Jackson, Emma L.; Attrill, Martin J.; Jones, Malcolm B.



Descending into the abyss: Bathymetric patterns of diversity in decapod crustaceans shift with taxonomic level and life strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to examine the depth-related changes in the diversity of decapod crustaceans from the intertidal to abyssal zones off Madeira Archipelago, a chain of islands in the subtropical North East Atlantic Ocean. The bathymetric gradient in species richness was evaluated using the reported ranges of 175 out of approximately 186 decapod species known in this archipelago. The depth-related changes at different taxonomic (order, sub-orders and families) and life strategy (pelagic, benthopelagic and benthic) levels were investigated and different ecological hypotheses (species-energy, mid-domain and Rapoport's effects) were tested to explain the observed patterns. No unimodal trend of Decapoda diversity was revealed and, instead, a monotonic decrease towards the abyss was observed, mainly as a consequence of the depth-related changes in the benthic diversity of the suborder Pleocyemata. Nonetheless, all bathymetric gradients of pelagic diversity (at order and suborder levels) displayed parabolic trends. There was also a general increase in bathymetric range towards greater depth, and the major faunal break was identified within the continental shelf area. All species richness-depth patterns were significantly nested, but there was a clear increasing trend in randomness from the benthic to the pelagic realm. The present study shows for the first time that even within the same taxonomic group and geographic region different bathymetric patterns of diversity can be observed, depending on the taxonomic level and, more importantly, on the group's life strategies. Moreover, our analysis supports the species-energy hypothesis, implicating a combination of temperature and food availability as the main causal predictors explaining diversity variation.

Rosa, Rui; Boavida-Portugal, Joana; Trübenbach, Katja; Baptista, Miguel; Araújo, Ricardo; Calado, Ricardo



Diel and Seasonal Changes in the Structure of a Decapod (Crustacea: Decapoda) Community of Cymodocea nodosa from Southeastern Spain (West Mediterranean Sea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of a decapod community in a Cymodocea nodosa meadow from Southeastern Spain (Western Mediterranean Sea) showed a stable structure, in which the families Hippolytidae,\\u000a Processidae, Majidae and Portunidae were the most abundant and the species Hippolyte niezabitowskii dominated. The animal community was more numerous and diverse during the night, showing the existence of nychthemeral movements,\\u000a which are essentially

J. E. García Raso; M. J. Martín; V. Díaz; V. Cobos; M. E. Manjón-Cabeza



Diel and seasonal changes in the structure of a Decapod (Crustacea: Decapoda) community of Cymodocea nodosa from Southeastern Spain (West Mediterranean Sea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of a decapod community in a Cymodocea nodosa meadow from Southeastern Spain (Western Mediterranean Sea) showed a stable structure, in which the families Hippolytidae,\\u000a Processidae, Majidae and Portunidae were the most abundant and the species Hippolyte niezabitowskii dominated. The animal community was more numerous and diverse during the night, showing the existence of nychthemeral movements,\\u000a which are essentially

J. E. García Raso; M. J. Martín; V. Díaz; V. Cobos; M. E. Manjón-Cabeza


Effect of meal size and body size on specific dynamic action and gastric processing in decapod crustaceans.  


Meal size and animal size are important factors affecting the characteristics of the specific dynamic action (SDA) response across a variety of taxa. The effects of these two variables on the SDA of decapod crustaceans are based on just a couple of articles, and are not wholly consistent with the responses reported for other aquatic ectotherms. Therefore, the effects of meal size and animal size on the characteristics of SDA response were investigated in a variety of decapod crustaceans from different families. A 6 fold increase in meal size (0.5%-3% body mass) resulted a pronounced increase in the duration of increased oxygen consumption, resulting in an increase in the SDA of Callinectes sapidus, Cancer gracilis, Hemigrapsus nudus, Homarus americanus, Pugettia producta and Procambarus clarkii. Unlike many other aquatic ectotherms a substantial increase between meal sizes was required, with meal size close to their upper feeding limit (3% body mass), before changes were evident. In many organisms increases in both duration and scope contribute to the overall SDA, here changes in scope as a function of meal size were weak, suggesting that a similar amount of energy is required to upregulate gastric processes, regardless of meal size. The SDA characteristics were less likely to be influenced by the size of the animal, and there was no difference in the SDA (kJ) as a function of size in H. americanus or Cancer irroratus when analysed as mass specific values. In several fish species characteristics of the SDA response are more closely related to the transit times of food, rather than the size of a meal. To determine if a similar trend occurred in crustaceans, the transit rates of different sized meals were followed through the digestive system using a fluoroscope. Although there was a trend towards larger meals taking longer to pass through the gut, this was only statistically significant for P. clarkii. There were some changes in transit times as a function of animal size. The foregut clearance times for Cancer magister increased with increasing body size, while smaller Carcinus maenas cleared the hindgut region at a faster rate than larger individuals. Unlike fish there was no clear relationship between transit rates and any of the SDA characteristics. While the fluoroscopy method is useful for assessing foregut activity and food passage, it is limited when inferring connections between nutrient assimilation and post-absorptive processes in crustaceans. Therefore, at least with respect to meal size, transit rates do not make a good proxy for determining the SDA characteristics in crustaceans. PMID:23916818

McGaw, Iain J; Curtis, Daniel L



The asian decapod Hemigrapsus penicillatus (de Haan, 1835) (Grapsidae, Decapoda) introduced in European waters: status quo and future perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Asian decapod Hemigrapsus penicillatus (de Haan, 1835) was first recorded in European waters in 1994. The first specimens were collected in the estuary of Charente Maritime on the west coast of France close to La Rochelle. The current range in Europe covers Spanish shallow water habitats of the Bay of Biscay to areas north of La Rochelle (France). Densities of up to 20 specimens per square metre occur. This species has a high temperature and salinity tolerace and will expand its distribution in European waters. It is not clear whether this crab was introduced by shipping in ballast water or as a fouling organism. Based on a study of ship hull fouling in German dry docks this account provides evidence that hull fouling is a likely vector for the introduction of this crab. In August 1993, six juvenile specimens of H. penicillatus were removed from the hull of a car-carrier. After its journey from Japan into European waters this vessel docked in the port of Bremerhaven (Germany) for a routine inspection and coating with antifouling paint.

Gollasch, S.



Differences in oxygen consumption and diel activity as adaptations related to microhabitat in Neotropical freshwater decapods (Crustacea).  


This study evaluated oxygen consumption (MO(2)) and diel activity in Aegla longirostri, Trichodactylus panoplus and Parastacus brasiliensis (three species of freshwater decapods that occur in sympatry), under two different conditions of O(2) availability, limited and constant; and searched for the existence of a relationship between these two variables. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed that in all the species, MO(2) was higher under constant O(2) availability; T. panoplus and P. brasiliensis showed an oxygen-dependent pattern, while A. longirostri showed higher MO(2) values and less variation in the values between the treatments, indicating a higher and more oxygen-independent metabolism. P. brasiliensis was more active in constant O(2). A. longirostri was more active in limited O(2) and did not show a clear diel activity in any case, showing behavioral changes when in unfavorable conditions. The Spearman's rank correlation analysis did not indicate any relationship between MO(2) and activity. These results indicate a higher metabolism in A. longirostri. The less demanding metabolisms of P. brasiliensis and T. panoplus allow these species to occupy environments that are unavailable to A. longirostri due to differences in dissolved-oxygen concentrations. PMID:21851859

Dalosto, Marcelo; Santos, Sandro



Recruitment patterns of decapod crustacean megalopae in a shallow inlet (SW Spain) related to life history strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decapod crustacean megalopae were sampled weekly (spring/neap tides) during late-spring/summer of 1998 by using two planktonic nets located close to the surface and the bottom, at a fixed station in the mouth of the R?´o San Pedro inlet (SW Spain). Sampling was carried out during 25 h cycles to ascertain the flux of megalopae in relation to the main environmental (diel, tidal, tidal amplitude) cycles. The hypothesis that megalopae of some species may be using tidal-stream transport as a mechanism of re-invading the inlet was tested and the relationship between megalopal behaviour and life history strategy was analysed. In general, the flux of megalopae was higher during spring tides, but such differences were only statistically significant for Pisidia longicornis and Liocarcinus sp.2 due to the considerable interdate variation. With the exception of Macropodia sp., megalopae were more abundant close to the bottom. The diel/tidal flux of most abundant species suggested two different patterns of behaviour: megalopae of Liocarcinus spp., Panopeus africanus, Uca tangeri and Brachynotus sexdentatus seemed to be re-invading the inlet (specially at nocturnal floods), while megalopae of Ilia nucleus, Nepinnotheres pinnotheres and Macropodia sp. may have been just looking for a suitable place for settlement. The first group corresponded to the species whose zoeal development occurs in open sea, and the second one to species that complete their life cycle within the studied system, suggesting a relationship between the duration of the larval phase and the life cycle strategy of the species.

González-Gordillo, J. I.; Arias, A. M.; Rodr?´guez, A.; Drake, P.



Trophic transfer of trace metals from the polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor to the polychaete N. virens and the decapod crustacean Palaemonetes varians  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Diet is an important exposure route for the uptake of trace metals by aquatic invertebrates, with trace metal trophic transfer depending on 2 stages - assimilation and subsequent accumulation by the predator. This study investigated the trophic transfer of trace metals from the sediment-dwelling polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor from metal-rich estuarine sediments in southwestern UK to 2 predators - another polychaete N. virens (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Fe) and the decapod crustacean Palaemonetes varians (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Fe, Ag, As, Mn). N. virens showed net accumulation of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd from the prey; accumulation increased with increasing prey concentration, but a coefficient of trophic transfer decreased with increasing prey concentration, probably because a higher proportion of accumulated metal in the prey is bound in less trophically available (insoluble) detoxified forms. The trace metal accumulation patterns of P. varians apparently restricted significant net accumulation of metals from the diet of N. diversicolor to just Cd. There was significant mortality of the decapods fed on the diets of metal-rich worms. Metal-rich invertebrates that have accumulated metals from the rich historical store in the sediments of particular SW England estuaries can potentially pass these metals along food chains, with accumulation and total food chain transfer depending on the metal assimilation efficiencies and accumulation patterns of the animal at each trophic level. This trophic transfer may be significant enough to have ecotoxicological effects. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

Rainbow, P. S.; Poirier, L.; Smith, B. D.; Brix, K. V.; Luoma, S. N.



Trophic relationships in deep-water decapods of Le Danois bank (Cantabrian Sea, NE Atlantic): Trends related with depth and seasonal changes in food quality and availability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The trophic relationships of decapod crustaceans on Le Danois bank (NE of Iberian Peninsula, NE Atlantic Ocean) were studied within the framework of the multidisciplinary project ECOMARG during two surveys, one in October 2003 and the other in April 2004. The diets of eleven species of decapods were analyzed and, within a rather continuous gradient of food source exploitation, 3 trophic groups were identified: (1) plankton feeders, comprising the shrimps Acanthephyra pelagica, Sergia robusta, and Pasiphaea tarda, which preyed on meso-bathypelagic taxa such as euphausiids and calanoids; (2) benthos feeders, comprising the crangonids Pontophilus norvegicus and Pontophilus spinosus, the crab Geryon trispinosus and the shrimp Aristeus antennatus; and (3) an intermediate group, including the rest of species, with mixed diets that included detritus. Among the third group, anomurans ( Munida tenuimana, Pagurus alatus, and Parapagurus pilosimanus) consumed phytoplanktonic detritus in April, suggesting a link with peaks of surface Chl a occurring between March and April in the study area. Gut pigment and isotopic (? 13C/? 15N correlations) analyses revealed that assemblages inhabiting the top of the bank (455-612 m) and the inner basin (642-1048 m, close to the Lastres canyon head) had different food sources, with species inhabiting the deepest region exhibiting a stronger dependence on marine snow derivatives. These results are consistent with the higher proportion of mud and sediment organic matter (OM) content in the inner basin (82.2% pellites; 6.3% OM at 1028 m) compared to the top of the Le Danois bank (only 13.9% pellites; 2.8% OM at 485 m), which is a hydrodynamically more active zone. Exploitation of different food sources is also consistent with differences in the trophic level of species, inferred from stable ? 15N isotope analyses, which yield values ranging from 6.88‰ for the hermit crab P. alatus to 13.52‰ for the crangonid shrimp P. norvegicus. Stomach fullness was higher in April 2004 than in October 2003, both between and within species of the dominant decapods, including detritus feeders ( M. tenuimana) and benthos feeders (e.g. G. trispinosus, P. norvegicus). Most species exhibited a parallel increase in their density in April 2004, with a significant positive correlation between density and stomach fullness. This increase coincides with a peak of surface Chl a concentration occurring in March-April.

Cartes, Joan E.; Huguet, C.; Parra, S.; Sanchez, F.



The use of monoclonal antibodies anti-lectin from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (DeMan, 1879) in the recognition of protein with lectin activity in Decapod's hemolymph.  


We determined the cross-reactivity of a monoclonal antibody against the Macrobrachium rosenbergii lectin with proteins in the hemolymph from Procambarus clarkii (Pc), Procambarus americanus (Pa), Litopenaeus setiferus (Ls), and Pseudothelphusa americana (Psa). Crustaceans' hemolymph agglutinated erythrocytes from rat, mouse, guinea pig, and rabbit. Decapods' hemolymph hemagglutinating activity was inhibited by N-acetylated carbohydrates as well as by antibodies. Western blot assays indicated that the antibodies recognized two main proteins of 97.5 and 80.9 kDa in all hemolymphs studied; moreover, ELISA assays indicated that, in PSa, 7.2% of total proteins showed crossreactivity with antibodies in Pa, Pc, and Lc hemolymphs represented 4.2, 3.1%, and 2.5%, respectively. Our results suggested that antibodies recognize the lectin active site in the crustacean species tested; we propose the use of antibodies as an immunological marker for lectin identification and quantification among crustaceans. PMID:19431046

Pereyra, Ali; Agundis, Concepcion; Barrera, Baltazar; Alpuche, Juan; Sierra, Claudia; Zenteno, Roberto; Zenteno, Edgar; Vazquez, Lorena



Intra- and extracellular osmotic regulation in the hololimnetic Caridea and Anomura: a phylogenetic perspective on the conquest of fresh water by the decapod Crustacea.  


We investigate extra- and intracellular osmoregulatory capability in two species of hololimnetic Caridea and Anomura: Macrobrachium brasiliense, a palaemonid shrimp, and Aegla franca, an aeglid anomuran, both restricted to continental waters. We also appraise the sharing of physiological characteristics by the hololimnetic Decapoda, and their origins and role in the conquest of fresh water. Both species survive salinity exposure well. While overall hyperosmoregulatory capability is weak in A. franca and moderate in M. brasiliense, both species strongly hyporegulate hemolymph [Cl(-)] but not osmolality. Muscle total free amino acids (FAA) increase slowly but markedly in response to the rapid rise in hemolymph osmolality consequent to hyperosmotic challenge: 3.5-fold in A. franca and 1.9-fold in M. brasiliense. Glycine, taurine, arginine, alanine and proline constitute ?85% of muscle FAA pools in fresh water; taurine, arginine, alanine each contribute ?22% in A. franca, while glycine predominates (70%) in M. brasiliense. These FAA also show the greatest increases on salinity challenge. Muscle FAA titers correlate strongly (R = 0.82) with hemolymph osmolalities across the main decapod sub/infraorders, revealing that marine species with high hemolymph osmolalities achieve isosmoticity of the intra- and extracellular fluids partly through elevated intracellular FAA concentrations; freshwater species show low hemolymph osmolalities and exhibit reduced intracellular FAA titers, consistent with isosmoticity at a far lower external osmolality. Given the decapod phylogeny adopted here and their multiple, independent invasions of fresh water, particularly by the Caridea and Anomura, our findings suggest that homoplastic strategies underlie osmotic and ionic homeostasis in the extant freshwater Decapoda. PMID:20981550

de Faria, Samuel Coelho; Augusto, Alessandra Silva; McNamara, John Campbell



Apolipocrustacein, formerly vitellogenin, is the major egg yolk precursor protein in decapod crustaceans and is homologous to insect apolipophorin II/I and vertebrate apolipoprotein B  

PubMed Central

Background In animals, the biogenesis of some lipoprotein classes requires members of the ancient large lipid transfer protein (LLTP) superfamily, including the cytosolic large subunit of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), vertebrate apolipoprotein B (apoB), vitellogenin (Vtg), and insect apolipophorin II/I precursor (apoLp-II/I). In most oviparous species, Vtg, a large glycolipoprotein, is the main egg yolk precursor protein. Results This report clarifies the phylogenetic relationships of LLTP superfamily members and classifies them into three families and their related subfamilies. This means that the generic term Vtg is no longer a functional term, but is rather based on phylogenetic/structural criteria. In addition, we determined that the main egg yolk precursor protein of decapod crustaceans show an overall greater sequence similarity with apoLp-II/I than other LLTP, including Vtgs. This close association is supported by the phylogenetic analysis, i.e. neighbor-joining, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods, of conserved sequence motifs and the presence of three common conserved domains: an N-terminal large lipid transfer module marker for LLTP, a DUF1081 domain of unknown function in their central region exclusively shared with apoLp-II/I and apoB, and a von Willebrand-factor type D domain at their C-terminal end. Additionally, they share a conserved functional subtilisin-like endoprotease cleavage site with apoLp-II/I, in a similar location. Conclusion The structural and phylogenetic data presented indicate that the major egg yolk precursor protein of decapod crustaceans is surprisingly closely related to insect apoLp-II/I and vertebrate apoB and should be known as apolipocrustacein (apoCr) rather than Vtg. These LLTP may arise from an ancient duplication event leading to paralogs of Vtg sequences. The presence of LLTP homologs in one genome may facilitate redundancy, e.g. involvement in lipid metabolism and as egg yolk precursor protein, and neofunctionalization and subfunctionalization, e.g. involvement in clotting cascade and immune response, of extracellular LLTP members. These protein-coding nuclear genes may be used to resolve phylogenetic relationships among the major arthropod groups, especially the Pancrustacea-major splits.

Avarre, Jean-Christophe; Lubzens, Esther; Babin, Patrick J



Distribution of decapod larvae in the surface layer of an isolated equatorial oceanic archipelago: the cases of benthic Grapsus grapsus (Brachyura: Grapsidae) and pelagic Sergestes edwardsi (Dendrobranchiata: Sergestidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two different decapod larval assemblages inhabit the marine environment of Saint Paul's Rocks, differentiating the inlet from the surrounding oceanic waters. Larvae of the crab Grapsus grapsus and of the holopelagic shrimp Sergestes edwardsi are abundant in superficial waters of the archipelago and have previously been shown to be good indicators of the inlet and adjacent oceanic waters, respectively. We investigated the horizontal, diel and temporal distribution of these species at Saint Paul's Rocks. Horizontal surface hauls were conducted from 2003 to 2005, in the inlet and at four increasing distances from the archipelago, in the morning and at night, using a 200-?m mesh net. Larvae of G. grapsus were identified in samples from all expeditions and abundance was found significantly higher at night in the inlet site. Only larvae in the first zoeal stage were found in samples, highlighting the importance of the area for this species reproduction. On the contrary, the distribution of larvae of S. edwardsi was typical of a holopelagic species, which are permanent residents of the water column and spawn in oceanic areas, indicating that the islands are of little influence to them.

Brandão, Manoela Costa; Koettker, Andréa Green; Freire, Andrea Santarosa



Neurogenesis in the central olfactory pathway of adult decapod crustaceans: development of the neurogenic niche in the brains of procambarid crayfish  

PubMed Central

Background In the decapod crustacean brain, neurogenesis persists throughout the animal's life. After embryogenesis, the central olfactory pathway integrates newborn olfactory local and projection interneurons that replace old neurons or expand the existing population. In crayfish, these neurons are the descendants of precursor cells residing in a neurogenic niche. In this paper, the development of the niche was documented by monitoring proliferating cells with S-phase-specific markers combined with immunohistochemical, dye-injection and pulse-chase experiments. Results Between the end of embryogenesis and throughout the first post-embryonic stage (POI), a defined transverse band of mitotically active cells (which we will term 'the deutocerebral proliferative system' (DPS) appears. Just prior to hatching and in parallel with the formation of the DPS, the anlagen of the niche appears, closely associated with the vasculature. When the hatchling molts to the second post-embryonic stage (POII), the DPS differentiates into the lateral (LPZ) and medial (MPZ) proliferative zones. The LPZ and MPZ are characterized by a high number of mitotically active cells from the beginning of post-embryonic life; in contrast, the developing niche contains only very few dividing cells, a characteristic that persists in the adult organism. Conclusions Our data suggest that the LPZ and MPZ are largely responsible for the production of new neurons in the early post-embryonic stages, and that the neurogenic niche in the beginning plays a subordinate role. However, as the neuroblasts in the proliferation zones disappear during early post-embryonic life, the neuronal precursors in the niche gradually become the dominant and only mechanism for the generation of new neurons in the adult brain.



Molecular and mass spectral identification of the broadly conserved decapod crustacean neuropeptide pQIRYHQCYFNPISCF: the first PISCF-allatostatin (Manduca sexta- or C-type allatostatin) from a non-insect  

PubMed Central

The PISCF-allatostatins (Manduca sexta- or C-type allatostatins) are a family of pentadecapeptides characterized by a pyroglutamine blocked N-terminus, an unamidated –PISCF C-terminus, and a disulfide bridge between two internal Cys residues. Several isoforms of PISCF-AST are known, all from holometabolous insects. Using a combination of transcriptomics and mass spectrometry, we have identified the first PISCF-type peptides from a non-insect species. In silico analysis of crustacean ESTs identified several Litopenaeus vannamei (infraorder Penaeidea) transcripts encoding putative PISCF-AST precursors. Translation of these ESTs, with subsequent prediction of their putative post-translational processing, revealed the existence of as many as three PISCF-type peptides, including pQIRYHQCYFNPISCF (disulfide bridging between Cys7 and Cys14). Although none of the predicted isoforms was detected by mass spectrometry in L. vannamei, MALDI-FTMS mass profiling identified an m/z signal corresponding to pQIRYHQCYFNPISCF (disulfide bridge present) in neural tissue from 28 other decapods, which included members of six infraorders (Stenopodidea, Astacidea, Thalassinidea, Achelata, Anomura and Brachyura). Further characterization of the peptide using SORI-CID and chemical derivatization/enzymatic digestion supported the theorized structure. In both the crab Cancer borealis and the lobster Homarus americanus, MALDI-based tissue surveys suggest that pQIRYHQCYFNPISCF is broadly distributed in the nervous system; it was also detected in the posterior midgut caecum. Collectively, our data show that members of the PISCF-AST family are not restricted to the holometabolous insects, but instead may be broadly conserved within the Pancrustacea. Moreover, our data suggest that one highly conserved PISCF-type peptide, pQIRYHQCYFNPISCF, is present in decapod crustaceans, functioning as a brain-gut paracrine/hormone.

Stemmler, Elizabeth A.; Bruns, Emily A.; Cashman, Christopher R.; Dickinson, Patsy S.; Christie, Andrew E.



Molecular and mass spectral identification of the broadly conserved decapod crustacean neuropeptide pQIRYHQCYFNPISCF: the first PISCF-allatostatin (Manduca sexta- or C-type allatostatin) from a non-insect.  


The PISCF-allatostatins (Manduca sexta- or C-type allatostatins) are a family of pentadecapeptides characterized by a pyroglutamine blocked N-terminus, an unamidated-PISCF C-terminus, and a disulfide bridge between two internal Cys residues. Several isoforms of PISCF-AST are known, all from holometabolous insects. Using a combination of transcriptomics and mass spectrometry, we have identified the first PISCF-type peptides from a non-insect species. In silico analysis of crustacean ESTs identified several Litopenaeus vannamei (infraorder Penaeidea) transcripts encoding putative PISCF-AST precursors. Translation of these ESTs, with subsequent prediction of their putative post-translational processing, revealed the existence of as many as three PISCF-type peptides, including pQIRYHQCYFNPISCF (disulfide bridging between Cys(7) and Cys(14)). Although none of the predicted isoforms was detected by mass spectrometry in L. vannamei, MALDI-FTMS mass profiling identified an m/z signal corresponding to pQIRYHQCYFNPISCF (disulfide bridge present) in neural tissue from 28 other decapods, which included members of six infraorders (Stenopodidea, Astacidea, Thalassinidea, Achelata, Anomura and Brachyura). Further characterization of the peptide using SORI-CID and chemical derivatization/enzymatic digestion supported the theorized structure. In both the crab Cancer borealis and the lobster Homarus americanus, MALDI-based tissue surveys suggest that pQIRYHQCYFNPISCF is broadly distributed in the nervous system; it was also detected in the posterior midgut caecum. Collectively, our data show that members of the PISCF-AST family are not restricted to the holometabolous insects, but instead may be broadly conserved within the Pancrustacea. Moreover, our data suggest that one highly conserved PISCF-type peptide, pQIRYHQCYFN-PISCF, is present in decapod crustaceans, functioning as a brain-gut paracrine/hormone. PMID:19467234

Stemmler, Elizabeth A; Bruns, Emily A; Cashman, Christopher R; Dickinson, Patsy S; Christie, Andrew E



[Systems of chemoperception in decapod crayfish].  


The review presents data on some peripheral and central structures in the system of perception of chemical stimuli in crayfish and other Decapoda. The hair receptors on chelipeds, antennas, antennules are innervated by mechano-and chemoreceptor neurons. Antennules are the specialized crayfish chemoreceptor organs, on the surface of which groups of exteroceptors are located. There is an ordered disposition of exteroceptor receptive fields in the form of receptor hair bushes on claws of ambulatory feet (AF), antennas, antennules, and other movable appendages. Behavioral experiments have shown sensitivity of crayfish to odor of individuals of their gender, sex partners as well as the presence in crayfish of pheromones providing connection of female with offspring at the initial stages of the life cycle. Occasional chemosensory cells innervating hair bushes on the crayfish AF respond to amino acids, amines, nucleotides, and sugars. Minimal thresholds of reaction of the studied Decapoda chemoreceptors in response to some chemical compounds correspond to concentrations of 0.1-1 microM. For some chemoreceptors, dose-dependent effects have been shown. Alongside with monomodal chemoreceptors, the crayfish have bimodal receptor perceiving mechanical and chemical stimuli. The efficient response of crayfish chemoreceptors can be obtained to the substance that includes amino group with the hydrogen bridge with carboxyl group, contains no more than 3 carbon atoms in the chain, and is characterized by a certain stereoform. Among chemoreceptors there are fast and slow adapting cells. Efficiency of response of individual chemoreceptors depends on temperature of medium. Chemoreceptors reacting to ecdysterons have been revealed in crayfish. Ecdysterons play a great role in intra- and interspecies communications in Crustacea. Based on the study of efferent responses of interneurons of the first and higher orders in the first thoracic crayfish ganglion to stimulation of the own receptive fields, a concept is put forward of the structural-functional organization of afferent projections at the segmental level. Peculiarities of afferent projections from antennule chemoreceptors are considered. The data are presented on connections of these chemoreceptors with antennular, olfactory, and additional lobules, various cell groups, interneurons of the first, second, and third orders located in various brain parts. An attention is drawn to connections of serotonin neurons in glomeruli with endings of chemoreceptor neurons and projection of interneurons of the higher orders,. which are located in the internal medulla of the crayfish eye stalks. Several principles of integration of the chemoreceptor information in central parts of the crayfish nervous system are discussed. The giant serotonin neurons revealed in crayfish glomeruli most likely participate in formation of memory to certain chemical actions. Polymodal receptor signals in the central chain of the perception system activate autonomic centers, and the changes of the animal functional state can be evaluated from the heart responses. The crayfish heart responses recorded by novel noninvasive methods allow detection of the initial and other phases of the stress state at changes of the chemical quality of medium. Progress of the current biochemical and electrophysiological methods of study of chemoreceptors allow hoping for learning of fine chemoperception mechanisms in invertebrate and vertebrate animals. PMID:19370985

Fedotov, V P


Antibacterial activity in four marine crustacean decapods.  


A search for antibacterial activity in different body-parts of Pandalus borealis (northern shrimp), Pagurus bernhardus (hermit crab), Hyas araneus (spider crab) and Paralithodes camtschatica (king crab) was conducted. Dried samples were extracted with 60% (v/v) acetonitrile, containing 0.1% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid, and further extracted and concentrated on C18 cartridges. Eluates from the solid phase extraction were tested for antibacterial, lysozyme and haemolytic activity. Antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Vibrio anguillarum, Corynebacterium glutamicum and Staphylococcus aureus was detected in extracts from several tissues in all species tested, but mainly in the haemolymph and haemocyte extracts. V. anguillarum and C. glutamicum were generally the most sensitive micro-organisms. In P. borealis and P. bernhardus most of the active fractions were not affected by proteinase K treatment, while in H. araneus and P. camtschatica most fractions were sensitive to proteinase K treatment, indicating antibacterial factors of proteinaceous nature. In P. bernhardus the active fractions were generally heat labile, whereas in H. araneus the activities were resistant to heat. Differences between active extracts regarding hydrophobicity and sensitivity for heat and proteinase K treatment indicate that several compounds are responsible for the antibacterial activities detected. Lysozyme-like activity could be detected in some fractions and haemolytic activity against human red blood cells could be detected in haemolymph/haemocyte and exoskeleton extracts from all species tested. PMID:12194450

Haug, Tor; Kjuul, Anita K; Stensvåg, Klara; Sandsdalen, Erling; Styrvold, Olaf B



Digital electromagnetic telemetry system for studying behaviour of decapod crustaceans.  


1 year and the receiving system batteries are replaced by divers at intervals of up to 4 weeks. In field tests, crab (Cancer pagurus L.) and lobster (Homarus gammarus (L.)) activity was monitored at an artificial reef for 14 months. Examples of the type of information acquired are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the system and potential applications are discussed. Limitations of digital electromagnetic telemetry stem mainly from the short range of detection, the need for cables on the seabed and the size and shape of the transmitting tag. PMID:10742505

Smith; Collins; Jensen



The impact of pathogens on exploited populations of decapod crustaceans.  


Several crustacean fisheries have experienced significant outbreaks of disease that have damaged their industries. Not only do fisheries suffer from direct losses to pathogens, such as disease-induced mortalities or reduced product value, but they can also incur indirect losses such as stunting, castration, and increased risk of predation. In some cases, the indirect losses can be substantial, yet they are often overlooked by the fishing industry as their primary focus is on recruits to the fishery, and not on the affected juvenile pre-recruits. Low levels of pathogens are to be expected in natural populations of commercial species, but baseline data on the prevalence and intensity of even the most common agents is often lacking. It is important to establish baselines for two reasons. First, it is important to know what pathogens exist in heavily exploited populations so as to gauge their potential to damage the industry; and second, during outbreaks, it is important to know whether an outbreak is a newly emergent event or whether it is a component of a cyclical phenomenon. Pathogens frequently act in concert with environmental stressors, and a variety of stressors have contributed to outbreaks of emerging agents in crustacean fisheries. Pollution, poor water quality, hypoxia, temperature extremes, and overexploitation have all been implicated as stressors in various outbreaks. This review focuses on epidemic diseases of commercially fished crustaceans. Outbreaks in cultured stocks are not covered. Disease epizootics have occurred in fished populations of crayfish and shrimp but they are less well known than the issues arising from extensive aquaculture of these species. PMID:22434001

Shields, Jeffrey D



Copper uptake and regulation in a copper-tolerant decapod Cambarus bartoni (Fabricius)  

SciTech Connect

Large amounts of acid forming sulfur dioxide, and heavy metals including copper, are continuously being released into the environment by mining and smelting operation at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. Consequently, a number of lakes in this region have become acidic and metal stressed. In the current study the uptake and accumulation of copper by various tissues of a copper-tolerant crayfish, Cambarus bartoni, were monitored in the laboratory to ascertain the dynamic nature (i.e., the pattern in time) of responses of crayfish to increased levels of these two metals in the water.

Zia, S.; Alikhan, M.A.



Progressive troglomorphism of ambulatory and sensory appendages in three Mexican cave decapods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensory and ambulatory appendages were compared between epigeal and cave species of prawn and crayfish from Mexico. The cave prawn Macrobrachium villalobosi was compared with the epigeal M. totonacum. The cave crayfish Procambarus cavernicola and P. oaxacae reddelli were compared with the epigeal P. olmecorum. In both Macrobrachium and Procambarus the antennules and antennae of the cave species were longer

Richard G. Hartnoll



Roles of neurotransmitters in regulating reproductive hormone release and gonadal maturation in decapod crustaceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments done in this laboratory showed 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) stimulates gonadal maturation in male and female sand fiddler crabs, Uca pugilator, and red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii. This action of 5-HT is indirect, 5-HT apparently stimulating release of the gonad-stimulating hormone (GSH) that is present in the brain and thoracic ganglia. For example, studies with ovarian explants showed 5-HT has no




Skeletal adaptations for forwards and sideways walking in three species of decapod crustaceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crustaceans have been successfully employed to study legged locomotion for decades. Most studies have focused on either forwards-walking macrurans, or sideways-walking brachyurans. Libinia emarginata is a Majoid crab (Brachyura) and as such belongs to the earliest group to have evolved the crab form from homoloid ancestors. Unlike most brachyurans, Libinia walks forwards 80% of the time. We employed standard anatomical

A. G. Vidal-Gadea; M. D. Rinehart; J. H. Belanger



Marine crenarchaeotal membrane lipids in decapods: Implications for the TEX86 paleothermometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pelagic Crenarchaeota produce glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) as membrane lipids,\\u000aand the GDGT composition changes according to growth temperature. This forms the basis of the TEX86\\u000apaleotemperature proxy. This ratio correlates with sea surface temperature (SST) despite the fact that\\u000aCrenarchaeota are distributed through the water column. Therefore there must be mechanisms that\\u000atransport the surface signal to sediments

Carme Huguet; Joan E. Cartes; Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté; Stefan Schouten



Studies on the Nervous Regulation of the Heart Beat in Decapod Crustacea  

PubMed Central

The effect of electrical stimulation of cardioaccelerator and cardioinhibitor nerves on the mechanically recorded heart beat of crayfish was studied. Similar experiments were performed with the lobster, Homarus americanus. Quantitative relationships between uni- and bilateral accelerator and/or inhibitor nerve stimulation and the resulting change in frequency and amplitude of the heart beat were established. With increasing frequency of stimulation the accelerator nerves show a relative decrease in their action, while that of the inhibitor nerves increases. It appears that left and right regulator nerves have synaptic contacts at the same areas of the postsynaptic cells within the heart ganglion. Similar results are obtained whether all impulses arrive over one, or over the other, or over both accelerator (or inhibitor) nerves; the resulting acceleration or inhibition depends strictly on the number of accelerator, or inhibitor impulses arriving at the ganglion. The ganglion cells can adapt to the inhibitor action. This is shown to be a postsynaptic phenomenon. Adaptation to accelerator stimulation is virtually absent. Characteristic after-effects of the accelerator and inhibitor action were observed and quantitatively evaluated. The interpretation of the results is based on the assumption of chemical transmitter substances. It is concluded that the accelerating transmitter decays slowly while the inhibitory transmitter is inactivated relatively rapidly.

Florey, Ernst



Skeletal adaptations for forwards and sideways walking in three species of decapod crustaceans.  


Crustaceans have been successfully employed to study legged locomotion for decades. Most studies have focused on either forwards-walking macrurans, or sideways-walking brachyurans. Libinia emarginata is a Majoid crab (Brachyura) and as such belongs to the earliest group to have evolved the crab form from homoloid ancestors. Unlike most brachyurans, Libinia walks forwards 80% of the time. We employed standard anatomical techniques and motion analysis to compare the skeleton, stance, and the range of motion of the legs of Libinia to the sideways-walking green shore crab (Carcinus maenas), and to the forwards-walking crayfish (Procambarus clarkii). We found animals tended to have greater ranges of motion for joints articulating in the preferred direction of locomotion. Leg segments proximal to such joints were comparatively longer. Thorax elongation, leg length and placement at rest also reflected walking preference. Comparative studies of walking in Libinia and other brachyurans may shed light on the neuroethology of legged locomotion, and on the anatomical and physiological changes necessary for sideways-walking in crustaceans. PMID:18089130

Vidal-Gadea, A G; Rinehart, M D; Belanger, J H




EPA Science Inventory

A variety of physiological functions was examined in an estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) during life-cycle exposures to four classes of pesticides. Pesticide exposure initially elevated respiration rates of juveniles. These increased metabolic requirements reduced the amount of...


Odors influencing foraging behavior of the California spiny lobster, Panulirus interruptus, and other decapod crustacea  

SciTech Connect

Trapping experiments were conducted in the More Mesa coastal area of Santa Barbara, California, 4 km east of the U.C. Santa Barbara campus. Live intact and injured prey and excised tissues were placed in traps, in containers allowing odor release but preventing contacts with entering animals. Individuals of six prey species failed to attract lobsters when alive and intact, but some became attractive once injured. Excised tissues were the most effective baits. Abalone and mackerel muscle were attractive to lobsters but relatively nonattractive to crabs, while angel shark muscle was attractive to crabs but not to lobsters. Shrimp cephalothoraces were repellant to lobsters. Naturally occurring attractant and repellent tissues are thus identified and chemosensory abilities of lobsters and sympatric crabs are demonstrated to differ. Abalone muscle increased in attractivity following 1-2 days field exposure. Molecular weights of stimulants released by both weathered and fresh abalone were < 10,000 daltons with evidence suggesting that the 1000-10,000 dalton fraction may contribute significantly to attraction. Concentrations of total primary amines released from abalone muscle failed to differ from background levels, following an initial three (0-3h) period. Primary amines thus appear not to contribute directly to captures of lobsters, since animals were usually caught greater than or equal to 7 h after baits were positioned. Amino acids were the dominant contributors to present measurements of total primary amines, suggesting that these molecules may not direct lobster foraging behavior in the present experiments. 41 references, 4 figures, 8 tables.

Zimmer-Faust, R.K.; Case, J.F.



Determining the extent and spatial scale of population connectivity: decapods and coral reef fishes compared  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patchily distributed demersal marine organisms that possess a pelagic larval stage have the potential to form complex linkages among sedentary adult populations through larval dispersal. Unfortunately, determining the extent of this inter-population connectivity in specific cases is quite difficult: larval dispersal is a complex result of several biotic and non-biotic processes, and marine larvae are minute creatures that are difficult

Peter F Sale; Jacob P Kritzer



Neuroendocrine regulation of osmoregulation and the evolution of air-breathing in decapod crustaceans.  


Gills are the primary organ for salt transport, but in land crabs they are removed from water and thus ion exchanges, as well as CO(2) and ammonia excretion, are compromised. Urinary salt loss is minimised in land crabs by redirecting the urine across the gills where salt reabsorption occurs. Euryhaline marine crabs utilise apical membrane branchial Na(+)/H(+) and Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange powered by a basal membrane Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, but in freshwater crustaceans an apical V-ATPase provides for electrogenic uptake of Cl(-) in exchange for HCO(3)(-). The HCO(3)(-) is provided by carbonic anhydrase facilitating CO(2) excretion while NH(4)(+) can substitute for K(+) in the basal ATPase and for H(+) in the apical exchange. Gecarcinid land crabs and the terrestrial anomuran Birgus latro can lower the NaCl concentration of the urine to 5 % of that of the haemolymph as it passes across the gills. This provides a filtration-reabsorption system analogous to the vertebrate kidney. Crabs exercise hormonal control over branchial transport processes. Aquatic hyper-regulators release neuroamines from the pericardial organs, including dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), which via a cAMP-mediated phosphorylation stimulate Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity and NaCl uptake. Freshwater species utilise a V-ATPase, and additional mechanisms of control have been suggested. Crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone (CHH) has now also been confirmed to have effects on hydromineral regulation, and a putative role for neuropeptides in salt and water balance suggests that current models for salt regulation are probably incomplete. In a terrestrial crabs there may be controls on both active uptake and diffusive loss. The land crab Gecarcoidea natalis drinking saline water for 3 weeks reduced net branchial Na(+) uptake but not Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity, thus implying a reduction in diffusive Na(+) loss. Further, in G. natalis Na(+) uptake and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were stimulated by 5-HT independently of cAMP. Conversely, in the anomuran B. latro, branchial Na(+) and Cl(-) uptake and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase are inhibited by dopamine, mediated by cAMP. There has been a multiple evolution of a kidney-type system in terrestrial crabs capable of managing salt, CO(2) and NH(3) movements. PMID:11171421

Morris, S



Comparative strategies of heavy metal accumulation by crustaceans: zinc, copper and cadmium in a decapod, an amphipod and a barnacle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the comparative strategies of accumulation under standardised laboratory conditions of the essential metals zinc and copper, and the non-essential metal cadmium by three crustaceans of different taxa; vizPalaemon elegans Rathke (Malacostraca: Eucarida: Decapoda),Echinogammarus pirloti (Sexton & Spooner) (Malacostraca: Peracarida: Amphipoda) and the barnacleElminius modestus Darwin (Cirripedia: Thoracica).

P. S. Rainbow; S. L. White



Rapid assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure in decapod crustaceans by fluorimetric analysis of urine and haemolymph.  


Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous and potentially harmful contaminants of the coastal and marine environment. Studies of their bioavailability, disposition and metabolism in marine organisms are therefore important for environmental monitoring purposes. Detecting PAH compounds in the biological fluids of marine organisms provides a measure of their environmental exposure to PAHs. In the present study, the shore crab Carcinus maenas was exposed to waterborne pyrene for 48h. Urine and haemolymph samples were analysed by direct fluorimetry utilising both fixed wavelength (FF) and synchronous scanning fluorescence (SFS) techniques. Samples from exposed crabs exhibited fluorescence due to 1-OH pyrene equivalents, whilst samples from control crabs did not. Levels of equivalents were exposure dependent. Urine was shown to be a more suitable medium for the analysis of PAH equivalents. In a separate experiment, depuration of pyrene equivalents in urine was monitored over time. Urinary levels reached a maximum 2-4 days after initial exposure and decreased steadily thereafter. No unchanged parent pyrene was detected in samples from exposed crabs. While fluorimetric techniques could discriminate between 1-OH pyrene equivalents and parent pyrene, identification of specific metabolites was only possible with HPLC/F analysis. This revealed crabs had bio-transformed pyrene into 3 major conjugates of 1-OH pyrene, which were excreted in the urine. While such biotransformation of PAH is well documented in fish and several crustaceans, this is the first study to use direct fluorimetry to detect PAH equivalents in exposed crustacean urine. Fluorimetric results correlated well with those obtained by HPLC/F and ELISA techniques. The technique has great potential as a rapid, inexpensive and non-destructive technique for field biomonitoring of PAH exposure in crustaceans. PMID:15003698

Watson, Giles M; Andersen, Odd-Ketil; Galloway, Tamara S; Depledge, Michael H



Rapid assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure in decapod crustaceans by fluorimetric analysis of urine and haemolymph  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous and potentially harmful contaminants of the coastal and marine environment. Studies of their bioavailability, disposition and metabolism in marine organisms are therefore important for environmental monitoring purposes. Detecting PAH compounds in the biological fluids of marine organisms provides a measure of their environmental exposure to PAHs. In the present study, the shore crab Carcinus

Giles M Watson; Odd-Ketil Andersen; Tamara S Galloway; Michael H Depledge



Identity of the cells recruited to a lesion in the central nervous system of a decapod crustacean.  


In a previous study, we analyzed and described the features of the degeneration of the protocerebral tract (PCT) of the crustacean Ucides cordatus, after the extirpation of the eyestalk. In that study, among axons with axoplasmic degeneration, cells with granules resembling blood cells (hemocytes) were seen. Therefore, in the present study, we characterized the circulating hemocytes and compared them with the cells recruited to a lesion, which was produced as in the former study. Using histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy (transmission and scanning), we confirmed that circulating and recruited cells display a similar morphology. Therefore, in the crab, hemocytes were attracted to the lesion site in the acute stage of degeneration, appearing near local glial cells that showed signs of being responsive. Some of the attracted hemocytes displayed a morphology that was considered to be possibly activated blood cells. Also, the cells that migrated to the injured PCT displayed features, such as the presence of hydrolytic enzymes and an ability to phagocytize neural debris, similar to those of vertebrates. In summary, our results indicate that hemocytes were not only phagocytizing neural debris together with glial cells but also that they may be concerned with creating a favorable environment for regenerating events. PMID:20878337

Chaves-da-Silva, Paula Grazielle; de Barros, Cintia Monteiro; Lima, Flávia Regina Souza; Biancalana, Adriano; Martinez, Ana Maria Blanco; Allodi, Silvana



Influence of accumulation of cadmium on the content of other microelements of two species of black sea decapods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metals are natural chemical components of the marine environment. They are present there in small amounts as trace elements~ but progressing industralization of the continents evokes a rapid increase of contamination, especially in coastal waters and estuaries. This increasing contamination may be hazardous for all forms of life in the marine environment. Living organisms need for their normal development

Bogdan Skwarzec; Anna Kentzer-Baczewska; Ewa Styczynska-Jurewicz; Ewa Neugebauer



Influence of accumulation of cadmium on the content of other microelements of two species of Black Sea decapods  

SciTech Connect

Because the accumulation of cadmium by an organism may be a progressive and long-term process, the investigation of the influence of this trace metal on the balance of other microelements, especially those of key significance for normal biological functioning, is of great interest. Estimation of the accumulation capacity of organs and tissues involved in this process is of great importance as well.

Skwarzec, B.; Kentzer-Baczewska, A.; Styczynska-Jurewicz, E.; Neugebauer, E.



Arthropod 5HT2 Receptors: A Neurohormonal Receptor in Decapod Crustaceans That Displays Agonist Independent Activity Resulting from an Evolutionary Alteration to the DRY Motif  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stomatogastric nervous system (STNS) is a premiere model for studying modulation of motor pattern generation. Whereas the cellular and network responses to monoamines have been particularly well characterized electrophysiologically, the transduction mech- anisms that link the different monoaminergic signals to specific intracellular responses are presently unknown in this system. To begin to elucidate monoaminergic signal transduction in pyloric neurons,

Merry C. Clark; Timothy E. Dever; John J. Dever; Ping Xu; Vincent Rehder; Maria A. Sosa; Deborah J. Baro




Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Blood calcium concentrations are elevated during a hypercapnic acidosis in the terrestrial crab Gecarcinus lateralis, but not in the aquatic Callincetes sapidus. The increase occurs concomitantly with a rise in blood HCO3~ and partial restoration of resting blood pH values. It is believed that in G. later- alis that a source of CaCO3, possibly the shell, is being dissolved



Immunocytochemical localization of pigment-dispersing hormone (PDH) and its coexistence with FMRFamide-immunoreactive material in the eyestalks of the decapod crustaceans Carcinus maenas and Orconectes limosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

By use of a new antiserum, raised against synthetic pigment-dispersing hormone (PDH) from Uca pugilator, immunoreactive structures were studied at the light-microscopic level in the eyestalk ganglia of Carcinus maenas and Orconectes limosus. PDH-reactivity was mainly found in two types of neurons that were located between the medulla interna (MI) and the medulla terminalis (MT) in both species. Several additional

S. Mangerich; R. Keller; H. Dircksen; K. Ranga Rao; J. P. Riehm



Molecular and mass spectral identification of the broadly conserved decapod crustacean neuropeptide pQIRYHQCYFNPISCF: The first PISCF-allatostatin ( Manduca sexta- or C-type allatostatin) from a non-insect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PISCF-allatostatins (Manduca sexta- or C-type allatostatins) are a family of pentadecapeptides characterized by a pyroglutamine blocked N-terminus, an unamidated-PISCF C-terminus, and a disulfide bridge between two internal Cys residues. Several isoforms of PISCF-AST are known, all from holometabolous insects. Using a combination of transcriptomics and mass spectrometry, we have identified the first PISCF-type peptides from a non-insect species. In

Elizabeth A. Stemmler; Emily A. Bruns; Christopher R. Cashman; Patsy S. Dickinson; Andrew E. Christie



Photoperiodism and seasonal breeding in aquatic and terrestrial Eumalacostraca  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal reproduction in Crustacea is synchronized by environmental cues (e.g., temperature and photoperiod). Two types of responses occur: (1) in reptant decapods, short photoperiods and low temperatures are necessary to induce vitellogenesis; (2) in natant decapods and in most peracarids, both high temperatures and long photoperiods promote the onset of reproduction. In this context studies on the biological clocks involved




77 FR 841 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Operations of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Impacts on Invertebrates Among invertebrates, only cephalopods (octopus and squid) and decapods (lobsters, shrimps, and crabs...cephalopod species (Loligo vulgaris, Sepia officinalis, Octopus vulgaris, and Ilex coindetii) to two hours of...



75 FR 64507 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Military Training Activities Conducted Within the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...has been the suggestion that some other groups of invertebrates are also able to detect sounds. In addition, cephalopods (octopus and squid) and decapods (lobster, shrimp, and crab) are thought to sense low-frequency sound [[Page...



Who Am I?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online game, learners identify various animals including rabbits, turtles, and squirrels that live in National Parks, National Seashores and National Preserves. Clues introduce learners to organism characteristics such as invertebrate, decomposer, reptile, decapod, and mammal.

Service, National P.



Guide to the Thalassinidea (Crustacea: Malacostraca: Decapoda) of the South Atlantic Bight.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ghost shrimp and mud shrimp in the decapod infraorder Thalassinidea are ecologically important members of many benthic intertidal and shallow subtidal infaunal communities, largely due to the sediment filtration and mixing that result from their burrowing...

B. P. Thoma D. M. Knott R. A. King R. W. Heard S. Thornton-DeVictor



Use of 'Juncus' and 'Spartina' Marshes by Fisheries Species in Lavaca Bay, Texas, with Reference to Effects of Floods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study characterized usage of saline coastal and brackish deltaic habitats by estuarine aquatic species. The first objective was to compare densities of fishes and decapod crustaceans from Spartina salt marshes and adjacent nonvegetated bottom with Jun...

R. J. Zimmerman T. J. Minello D. L. Smith J. Kostera



Phytoplankton, Zooplankton, and Ichthyoplankton in Resurrection Bay, Northern Gulf of Alaska in 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides information on phytoplankton, zooplankton, decapod larvae, and ichthyoplankton in the Resurrection Bay fjord at the head of the 'Seward line'. The report is based on a preliminary plankton survey of the Resurrection Bay fjord funded by...

A. J. Paul J. M. Paul K. Coyle R. Smith



Crayfishes of Mexico (Crustacea: Decapoda).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present thesis consists of a resume of the studies made concerning the Mexican crayfishes. The crayfishes are freshwater decapod crustaceans which populate a large part of the streams and lacustrine deposits of Guatemala, Mexico, Cuba, and the United ...

A. Villalobos



Journal of the Fisheries Society of Taiwan, Volume 29, No.1, March 2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Effects of Environmental Factors in the Immune Responses of Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and Other Decapod Crustaceans; Selectivity and Accessibility of Prey in Captive Juvenile Red Drum, Sciaenops ocellatus Linnaeus; Fatty Acid De...



Hidden Treasures in Stem Cells of Indeterminately Growing Bilaterian Invertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indeterminate growth, the life-long growth without fixed limits, is typical of some evolutionarily very successful aquatic\\u000a invertebrate groups such as the decapod crustaceans, bivalve molluscs and echinoderms. These animals enlarge their organs\\u000a also in the adult life period and can regenerate lost appendages and organs, which is in sharp contrast to mammals and most\\u000a insects. Interestingly, decapods, bivalves and echinoderms

Günter Vogt


Biomagnification profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols and polychlorinated biphenyls in Tokyo Bay elucidated by delta13C and delta15N isotope ratios as guides to trophic web structure.  


Biomagnification profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylphenols, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the innermost part of Tokyo Bay, Japan were analyzed using stable carbon (delta(13)C) and nitrogen (delta(15)N) isotope ratios as guides to trophic web structure. delta(15)N analysis indicated that all species of mollusks tested were primary consumers, while decapods and fish were secondary consumers. Higher concentrations of PCBs occurred in decapods and fish than in mollusks. In contrast, concentrations of PAHs and alkylphenols were lower in decapods and fish than in mollusks. Unlike PCBs, whose concentrations largely increased with increasing delta(15)N (i.e. increasing trophic level), all PAHs and alkylphenols analyzed followed a reverse trend. Molecular weights of PAHs are lower than those of PCBs, therefore low membrane permeability caused by large molecular size is an unlikely factor in the "biodilution" of PAHs. Organisms at higher trophic levels may rapidly metabolize PAHs or they may assimilate less of them. PMID:19261300

Takeuchi, Ichiro; Miyoshi, Noriko; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Takada, Hideshige; Ikemoto, Tokutaka; Omori, Koji; Tsuchiya, Kotaro



Systematic and Evolutionary Insights Derived from mtDNA COI Barcode Diversity in the Decapoda (Crustacea: Malacostraca)  

PubMed Central

Background Decapods are the most recognizable of all crustaceans and comprise a dominant group of benthic invertebrates of the continental shelf and slope, including many species of economic importance. Of the 17635 morphologically described Decapoda species, only 5.4% are represented by COI barcode region sequences. It therefore remains a challenge to compile regional databases that identify and analyse the extent and patterns of decapod diversity throughout the world. Methodology/Principal Findings We contributed 101 decapod species from the North East Atlantic, the Gulf of Cadiz and the Mediterranean Sea, of which 81 species represent novel COI records. Within the newly-generated dataset, 3.6% of the species barcodes conflicted with the assigned morphological taxonomic identification, highlighting both the apparent taxonomic ambiguity among certain groups, and the need for an accelerated and independent taxonomic approach. Using the combined COI barcode projects from the Barcode of Life Database, we provide the most comprehensive COI data set so far examined for the Order (1572 sequences of 528 species, 213 genera, and 67 families). Patterns within families show a general predicted molecular hierarchy, but the scale of divergence at each taxonomic level appears to vary extensively between families. The range values of mean K2P distance observed were: within species 0.285% to 1.375%, within genus 6.376% to 20.924% and within family 11.392% to 25.617%. Nucleotide composition varied greatly across decapods, ranging from 30.8 % to 49.4 % GC content. Conclusions/Significance Decapod biological diversity was quantified by identifying putative cryptic species allowing a rapid assessment of taxon diversity in groups that have until now received limited morphological and systematic examination. We highlight taxonomic groups or species with unusual nucleotide composition or evolutionary rates. Such data are relevant to strategies for conservation of existing decapod biodiversity, as well as elucidating the mechanisms and constraints shaping the patterns observed.

Matzen da Silva, Joana; Creer, Simon; dos Santos, Antonina; Costa, Ana C.; Cunha, Marina R.; Costa, Filipe O.; Carvalho, Gary R.



Crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone in the nervous system of the primitive crustacean species Daphnia magna and Artemia salina (Crustacea: Branchiopoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone-immunoreactive neuronal systems are detected in the central and peripheral nervous systems of two entomostracan crustaceans, Daphnia magna and Artemia salina, by immunocytochemistry using specific antisera against crustacean hyperglycaemic hormones of the decapod crustaceans Orconectes limosus and Carcinus maenas. In D. magna, four small putative interneurones are detected in the brain. In the thorax, ten bipolar peripheral neurones

Qian Zhang; Rainer Keller; Heinrich Dircksen



Substance P-like immunoreactivity in the stomatogastric nervous systems of the crab Cancer borealis and the lobsters Panulirus interruptus and Homarus americanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of substance P-like immunoreactivity in the stomatogastric nervous systems of three decapod crustacean species, Cancer borealis, Homarus americanus, and Panulirus interruptus, was studied. The stomatogastric ganglion showed dense staining in the neuropil, but none in the somata. A single neuron stained in the esophageal ganglion. Lucifer yellow backfills and intracellular injections followed by incubation with the substance P

Diane Goldberg; Michael P. Nusbaum; Eve Marder



A molecular method for the detection of sally lightfoot crab larvae (Grapsus grapsus, Brachyura, Grapsidae) in plankton samples.  


The decapod Grapsus grapsus is commonly found on oceanic islands of the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of the Americas. In this study, a simple, quick and reliable method for detecting its larvae in plankton samples is described, which makes it ideal for large-scale studies of larval dispersal patterns in the species. PMID:21931530

Ströher, Patrícia R; Firkowski, Carina R; Freire, Andrea S; Pie, Marcio R




EPA Science Inventory

Larval development in decapod crustaceans is marked by variable growth patterns and changes in weight and biochemical composition. Larvae of the stone crab, Menippe adina, were mass-reared under laboratory conditions (28?C; 20o/ooS) from hatching to the megalopa stage. Growth in...



EPA Science Inventory

Larval development in decapod crustaceans is marked by variable growth patterns and changes in weight and biochemical composition. Larvae of the stone crab, Menippe adina, were mass-reared under laboratory conditions (28|C; 20o/ooS) from hatching to the megalopal stage. Growth in...


Fossil Crustacea of the Late Pleistocene Port Morant Formation, west Port Morant Harbour, southeastern Jamaica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Late Pleistocene Port Morant Formation of southeast Jamaica is particularly rich in fossil marine crustaceans. A new locality on the west side of Port Morant Harbour, parish of St. Thomas, has yielded decapods including the callianassids Lepidophthalmus jamaicense? (Schmitt ), Neocallichirus peraensis Collins et al. and Neocallichirus? sp.; anomurans Petrochirus bahamensis (Herbst) and Paguristes sp. cf. P. lymanni A.

J. S. H. Collins; S. K. Donovan; T. A. Stemann




Microsoft Academic Search

The osmoregulatory capacities of decapod crustaceans have been relatively well studied for the group as a whole. However, within the Section Caridea extensive studies on osmoregulation have been made on only one family, the Palaemonidae; this family is of interest because of the variation in habitat salinity shown by its various species. Of the 20 remaining caridean families only 2



Utility of arginine kinase for resolution of phylogenetic relationships among brachyuran genera and families  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular phylogenetics of decapod crustaceans has been based on sequence data from a limited number of genes. These have included rapidly evolving mitochondrial genes, which are most appropriate for studies of closely related species, and slowly evolving nuclear ribosomal RNA genes, which have been most useful for resolution of deep branches within the Decapoda. Here we examine the utility

Brian C. Mahon; Joseph E. Neigel



Effects of pollution on freshwater invertebrates  

SciTech Connect

The biological effects of acid rain, chlorination, heavy metals and other forms of pollution on freshwater invertebrates are examined in this review. Several methods for evaluating chronic toxicity to pesticide residues and synthetic fuels components are reviewed. The effects of pollutants is reviewed in detail for cladocera, amphipods, isopods, decapods, aquatic insects, molluscs, worms, and protozoa.(KRM)




Morphology of the Brain of Crayfish, Crabs, and Spiny Lobsters: A Common Nomenclature for Homologous Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphologies of the cerebral ganglia (brains) of three infraorders of the decapod crustaceans (Astacura-crayfish; Brachyura-crabs; Palinura-spiny lob- sters) are described. A common nomenclature is proposed for homologous nerve roots, brain regions, tracts, com- missures, neuropils, and cell body clusters.



The result of evolutionary limb loss on the complement of motor neurons in a crayfish limb nerve revealed by serial homology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many macruran decapod crustaceans show sexual dimorphism of abdominal appendages adapted for use as secondary reproductive organs. Not only does the Australian crayfish, Cherax destructor, show no external, abdominal dimorphism, but both males and females have lost the pleopods of the first abdominal segment entirely. The first nerves of the abdominal ganglia of crayfish and lobsters carry the axons of

Joanne Drummond; Daniel Jackson; David L. Macmillan




Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding habits of spotted sand bass (Paralabrax maculatofsciatur) and their seasonal changes are described for the Punta Banda Estuary, Baja California (B.C.). Samples were collected monthly from April 1992 to March 1993, yielding 92 specimens ranging from 80 to 330 mm standard length. In the entire survey, decapods, fish, and mollusks were the major food items of spotted sand



Outer Continental Shelf environmental assessment program. Final reports of principal investigators. Volume 53  

SciTech Connect

Contents include: Baffin Island experimental oil spill and dispersant studies. Hydrocarbon bioaccumulation and histopathological and biochemical responses in marine bivalve molluscs; Feeding ecology of juvenile king and Tanner crab in the southeastern Bering Sea; Distribution of larval and juvenile red king crabs (Paralithodes camtschatica) in Bristol Bay; Distribution and abundance of decapod crustacean larvae in the southeastern Bering Sea with emphasis on commercial species.

Not Available



Effects of manganese on chemically induced food search behaviour of the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decapod Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus (L.), lives on muddy sediments rich in manganese (Mn). In hypoxic conditions, manganese is reduced and released from the sediment, so increased concentrations of dissolved Mn2+ become bioavailable. In excess, manganese acts as a neurotoxin and may inhibit vital functions of benthic organisms, such as muscle contraction. We investigated in a laboratory flume experiment,

Anna-Sara Krång; Gunilla Rosenqvist



Brachyura (Decapoda, Crustacea) of phytobenthic communities of the sublittoral region of rocky shores of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The density of Brachyura decapods was estimated in fourteen phytobenthic communities of the shallow sublittoral region of the coast of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo States, Brazil. The variation in abundance of these crabs was analyzed relative to the degree of wave action, size and slope of the rock surfaces and dry weight of the macroalgae. Collec- tions were



Feeding and digestion in low salinity in an osmoconforming crab, Cancer gracilis I. Cardiovascular and respiratory responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The osmoregulatory physiology of decapod crustaceans has received extensive attention. Within this field there is a growing body of literature on cardiovascular and respiratory responses to low salinity. Most species exhibit a tachycardia coupled with an increase in ventilation rate and oxygen uptake. However, these previous experiments were conducted on animals that were starved prior to experimentation in order to

Iain J. McGaw



Lateral giant fibre activation of exopodite motor neurones in the crayfish tailfan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uropods of decapod crustaceans play a major role in the production of thrust during escape swimming. Here we analyse the output connections of a pair of giant interneurones, that mediate and co-ordinate swimming tail flips, on motor neurones that control the exopodite muscles of the uropods. The lateral giants make short latency output connections with phasic uropod motor neurones,

T. Nagayama; M. Araki; P. L. Newland



Analysis of the factors affecting crustacean trawl fishery catch rates in the northern Tyrrhenian Sea (western Mediterranean)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to analyse the main factors affecting catch rates of the most important decapod crustaceans of the bottom trawl fishery in the northern Tyrrhenian Sea, western Mediterranean. Catch per unit effort (CPUE) data (kg\\/fishing day\\/boat) of deep water rose shrimp, Parapenaeus longirostris, Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus, and red shrimps, Aristaemorpha foliacea and Aristeus antennatus, were

Mario Sbrana; Paolo Sartor; Paola Belcari



A new lobster Paraclytia valashtensis (Crustacea, Decapoda, Nephropidae) from the Late Cretaceous of the central Alborz Range, Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Springer-Verlag 2009 Abstract A new species of Late Cretaceous clawed lobster, Paraclytia valashtensis, is described. The discov- ery is a notable addition to the sparse decapod fossil record of Iran, and this is the first record of the genus outside central Europe. The four previously known species of Paraclytia are from Germany and the Czech Republic, so this discovery represents

Lucy Martha Evelyn McCobb; Vachik Hairapetian




Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is part of a series designed to examine trophic and energy relation ships in large decapod crustaceans. Information about metabolic rates, generally determined by measuring oxygen consumption (Q02) , and metabolic regulatory mechanisms is of basic importance in defining the metabolic energy budget (Paine, 1965) of an animal. Metabolic rates determine the amount of energy expended in producing




Development of a biomimetic underwater ambulatory robot: advantages of matching biomimetic control architecture with biomimetic actuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American Lobster Homarus americanus is a highly mobile marine decapod, ubiquitous to the benthic environment of the eastern North Atlantic. Lobsters occupy a range of subtidal habitats on the continental shelf, and are capable of navigating through spatially complex boulder fields, as well as coping with variable water currents. Given these competencies, we have adopted the lobster as a

Jan H. Witting; Joseph Ayers; Koray Safak



Reversal of a hallmark of brain ageing: lipofuscin accumulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prospect of removing cellular deposits of lipofuscin is of considerable interest because they may contribute to age related functional decline and disease. Here, we use a decapod crustacean model to circumvent a number of problems inherent in previous studies on lipofuscin loss. We employ (a) validated lipofuscin quantification methods, (b) an in vivo context, (c) essentially natural environmental conditions

D. B. Fonseca; M. R. J. Sheehy; N. Blackman; P. M. J. Shelton; A. E. Prior



Ageing and longevity in the Decapoda (Crustacea): A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ageing and longevity is a neglected field of crustacean biology. Information on longevity is available for less than 2% of the extant species of the Decapoda. Maximum ages reliably determined range from 40 days to 72 years corresponding to a life span difference of a factor of 650. The shortest-lived decapods are planktonic dendrobranchiate shrimps, and particularly long-lived species with

G. Vogt


In situ video observations of benthic megafauna and fishes from the deep eastern Mediterranean Sea off Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remotely operated vehicle (ROV) video observations were used to document benthic fauna at a hydrocarbon drilling location, at 2 720 m depth, in the poorly studied deep water off northern Egypt. The decapod Chaceon mediterraneus was the most common organism at the site and the only benthic megafaunal invertebrate observed. Three species of fish, Coryphaenoides mediterraneus, Cataetyx laticeps and Bathypterois

AR Gates; DOB Jones; JE Cartes



Previous Experiences Alter the Outcome of Aggressive Interactions Between Males in the Crayfish, Procambarus Clarkii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various measures of size have been associated with increased likelihood of winning such agonistic encounters between decapod crustaceans. Recent social experience, in the form of 'winner' or 'loser' effects, has also been shown to alter the outcome of encounters between size-matched individuals. This study further explores the importance of social experience in crustacean agonistic encounters. Crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, of different

Alisdair G. Daws; Jennifer Grills; Karen Konzen; Paul A. Moore



The ineffectiveness of grooming in prevention of body fouling in the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency and duration (time spent) of various grooming behaviors were recorded with time-lapse video and quantified. The intensity of body cleaning behavior in Procambarus clarkii, compared to that of some other decapod crustaceans, is quite low. Since molting, a growth process, completely rids the body of fouling in crustaceans, molting rates were measured in laboratory populations. In P. clarkii,

Raymond T Bauer



Experimental Evidence That Captured Rusty Crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) Exclude Uncaptured Rusty Crayfish from Entering Traps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baited modified minnow traps are often used to collect rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus), an invasive species in many areas of North America. However, the use of baited traps as a collection gear for decapods has received considerable scrutiny. We designed a tank-experiment to determine if captured rusty crayfish exclude uncaptured rusty crayfish from baited traps. We found that significantly more

Derek H. Ogle; Lori Kret



Revisiting the Concept of Identifiable Neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although eutely in nematodes was known, giant neurons in several taxa and unique motor neurons to leg muscles in decapod crustaceans, the idea that many animals have many identifiable neurons with relatively consistent dynamical properties and connections was only slowly established in the late 1960s and early 1970s. This has to be one of the important quiet revolutions in neurobiology.

Theodore Holmes Bullock



Systematic and Evolutionary Insights Derived from mtDNA COI Barcode Diversity in the Decapoda (Crustacea: Malacostraca)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDecapods are the most recognizable of all crustaceans and comprise a dominant group of benthic invertebrates of the continental shelf and slope, including many species of economic importance. Of the 17635 morphologically described Decapoda species, only 5.4% are represented by COI barcode region sequences. It therefore remains a challenge to compile regional databases that identify and analyse the extent and

Joana Matzen da Silva; Simon Creer; Antonina Dos Santos; Ana C. Costa; Marina R. Cunha; Filipe O. Costa; Gary R. Carvalho; Dirk Steinke



Selective ablation of antennular sensilla on the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus suggests that dual antennular chemosensory pathways mediate odorant activation of searching and localization of food  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spiny lobsters and other decapod crustaceans, odorant-mediated searching behavior patterns are driven primarily by chemosensory neurons in the antennules. Two groups of antennular chemosensory neurons can be distinguished on the basis of the sensilla that they innervate and their central projections: those that innervate the aesthetasc sensilla on the lateral flagella and project into the glomerularly organized olfactory lobes,

Pascal Steullet; Omar Dudar; Tanya Flavus; Min Zhou; Charles D. Derby


Behavioural Response Thresholds in New Zealand Crab Megalopae to Ambient Underwater Sound  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small number of studies have demonstrated that settlement stage decapod crustaceans are able to detect and exhibit swimming, settlement and metamorphosis responses to ambient underwater sound emanating from coastal reefs. However, the intensity of the acoustic cue required to initiate the settlement and metamorphosis response, and therefore the potential range over which this acoustic cue may operate, is not

Jenni A. Stanley; Craig A. Radford; Andrew G. Jeffs



Emigration of penaeid shrimp from the once-through cooling lake of Cedar Bayou Steam Electric Generating Station, Baytown, Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migration and distribution of two decapod shrimp, Penaeus setiferus and P. aztecus, in the cooling-water system of a power plant on the Texas coast were investigated, with emphasis on the seaward emigration from the cooling lake. Samples were collected every two weeks for a year by straining water leaving the lake over a drop structure, trawling in the cooling lake,



RESEARCH ARTICLE Rheb, an activator of target of rapamycin, in the blackback land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis: cloning and effects of molting and unweighting on expression in skeletal muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Molt-induced claw muscle atrophy in decapod crustaceans facilitates exuviation and is coordinated by ecdysteroid hormones. There is a 4-fold reduction in mass accompanied by remodeling of the contractile apparatus, which is associated with an 11-fold increase in myofibrillar protein synthesis by the end of the premolt period. Loss of a walking limb or claw causes a loss of mass

Kyle S. MacLea; Ali M. Abuhagr; Natalie L. Pitts; Joseph A. Covi; Brandon D. Bader; Ernest S. Chang; Donald L. Mykles



Structure, patterns, and function of cuticular terraces in recent and fossil arthropods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cuticular terraces are found in a number of decapod families. In four examples investigations have been made of terrace pattern, terrace morphology, morphogenetic processes, ontogenetic development, and function. InGrapsus grapsus the terrace pattern on carapace and appendages remains constant during ontogeny and the terraces function as frictional resistances in crevices, aiding to escape from avian predators. Histological investigations explain the

Helmut Schmalfuss




Microsoft Academic Search

Degrees of ti-me terrestrial habit have been achieved by many representatives of ti-me decapod Crustacea. Still, none are completely successful, for they are all bound to water by their reproductive habits. Some of the most successful invaders of land in this group are anomunan crabs, which despite their abundance and common occurrence in tropical regions have received little attention with



A new tracking system for the measurement of diel locomotor rhythms in the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus (L.), is a deep-water burrowing decapod of high commercial value. Diel variations in trawl captures are produced by population rhythms of burrow emergences related to day–night cycles. Rhythms seem to be different in males and females since catches show variations in sex ratios depending on the season. Our hypothesis is that the diel rhythm of

Jacopo Aguzzi; David Sarriá; José A. García; Joaquin Del Rio; Francesc Sardà; Antoni Manuel



Diel trophic interactions between vertically-migrating zooplankton and their fish predators in an eelgrass community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diel changes in the composition of crustacean zooplankton and the diets of fish predators from an intertidal eelgrass flat were monitored concurrently. The zooplankton is characterized by two major components. The obligate zooplankters (holoplanktonic calanoid copepods and meroplanktonic decapod larvae) appear to exhibit vertical migration, being present in higher densities near the surface of the water column at night. The

A. I. Robertson; R. K. Howard



Acute toxicity of cadmium to eight species of marine amphipod and isopod crustaceans from Southern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amphipods and isopods are important components of the marine intertidal and subtidal fauna where they are found on or in the substrate or among spaces between larger, attached organisms. However, in spite of their abundance and importance, the use of these two endemic marine groups has been limited in comparison to decapods in marine toxicological research (Martin and Holdrich 1986).

Jae-Sang Hong; Donald J. Reisha




Microsoft Academic Search

Acetylcholine has been demonstrated to speed the heart of several of the decapod crustacea (Welsh, 1939 a and b; Davenport, Loomis and Opler, 1940 and Davenport, 1941), the grasshopper (Hamilton, 1939), and LiMulus (Garrey, 1941). Is this reaction, which may be indicative of a neurogenic heart, a general characteristic of the arthropods? The pharmacology of the heart of the cladoceran,



Rosette-type tegumental glands associated with aesthetasc sensilla in the olfactory organ of the Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lateral antennular flagellum of decapod crustaceans bears unique olfactory sensilla, namely the aesthetascs, and other sensilla types. In this study, we identify a new major tissue in the lateral flagellum of the Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, namely “aesthetasc tegumental glands” (ATGs), based on immunostaining with antibodies against CUB serine protease (Csp), in situ hybridization with csp-specific probes, labeling

Manfred Schmidt; Hsin Chien; Tizeta Tadesse; Malcolm E. Johns; Charles D. Derby



Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies Vol. XXXIV, Supplement 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the biogeography, history, and some ecological consequences of the introduction of alien decapod species in Poland, with extensive reference to other European countries. Among some 750 species of Crustacea recorded in Polish waters, 18 representatives of five orders of macrocrustaceans are identified as alien species that either invaded or were introduced to Polish waters in historical times.



Digestion in relation to feeding strategies exhibited by crustacean larvae.  


Decapod crustaceans have adopted a full range of reproductive strategies from the release of large numbers of small eggs (Penaeoidea) to the release of relatively low numbers of large advanced larvae (Nephropidae). As larval size determines trophic position in planktonic food webs, all food sources from phyto- to zooplankton are exploited, with many species changing trophic level during ontogenetic development. Comparative studies on digestive enzymes, levels of activity and changes during ontogeny, together with measurements of gastroevacuation rates and food energy values appear to reveal a general pattern. While herbivorous decapod larvae adapt to low food energy values with high enzyme activity levels, rapid food turnover and low assimilation efficiency, carnivorous larvae exhibit low levels of enzyme activity but compensate by extending retention time of high-energy food to maximise assimilation efficiency. New studies on digestive enzyme levels during development in the penaeid Litopenaeus vannamei, the caridean Lysmata debelius and the cirriped Elminius modestus, appear to agree with previous observations. PMID:11246049

Le Vay, L; Jones, D A; Puello-Cruz, A C; Sangha, R S; Ngamphongsai, C



Chemical Ecology and Social Behavior of Anomura  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Anomura is an extremely diverse assemblage of crustacean decapods with a large variety of forms and lifestyles, which makes\\u000a the taxon ideal for comparative studies of social systems and means of communication. Notwithstanding this, our knowledge\\u000a of Anomura is mostly restricted to the crab–shell relationships in hermit crabs, whereas promising fields of research, such\\u000a as chemical ecology, are still in

Francesca Gherardi; Elena Tricarico


Chemical Communication in Crayfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Crayfish are a species rich group of large decapod crustaceans that inhabit freshwater environments. Having served as important\\u000a models for the study of the neural and hormonal control of behavior crayfish were among the first crustacean taxa that were\\u000a reported to use sex pheromones. Decades of research on crayfish chemical communication have, after initial controversies,\\u000a now generated a comprehensive picture

Thomas Breithaupt


Effect of dissolved oxygen level on respiratory metabolism, nutritional physiology, and immune condition of southern king crab Lithodes santolla (Molina, 1782) (Decapoda, Lithodidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Episodes of hypoxia are common in the marine environment, and their ecological effects depend, in part, on their severity\\u000a and duration. Many species of decapod crustaceans reside in areas with fluctuating oxygen regimens. Physiological mechanisms\\u000a enhance the ability of these crustaceans to cope with acute episodes of hypoxia. Southern king crab, Lithodes santolla, fishery is important in the south of

Kurt Paschke; Juan Pablo Cumillaf; Sergio Loyola; Paulina Gebauer; Mauricio Urbina; María Eugenia Chimal; Cristina Pascual; Carlos Rosas



Roles of crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone in ionic and metabolic homeostasis in the Christmas Island blue crab, Discoplax celeste.  


There is a growing body of evidence implicating the involvement of crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone (CHH) in ionic homeostasis in decapod crustaceans. However, little is known regarding hormonally influenced osmoregulatory processes in terrestrial decapods. As many terrestrial decapods experience opposing seasonal demands upon ionoregulatory physiologies, we reasoned that these would make interesting models in which to study the effect of CHH upon these phenomena. In particular, those (tropical) species that also undergo seasonal migrations might be especially informative, as we know relatively little regarding the nature of CHHs in terrestrial decapods, and hormonally mediated responses to seasonal changes in metabolic demands might also be superimposed or otherwise integrated with those associated with ionic homeostasis. Using Discoplax celeste as a model crab that experiences seasonal extremes in water availability, and exhibits diurnal and migratory activity patterns, we identified two CHHs in the sinus gland. We biochemically characterised (cDNA cloning) one CHH and functionally characterised (in terms of dose-dependent hyperglycaemic responses and glucose-dependent negative feedback loops) both CHHs. Whole-animal in situ branchial chamber (22)NaCl perfusion experiments showed that injection of both CHHs increased gill Na(+) uptake in a seasonally dependent manner, and (51)Cr-EDTA clearance experiments demonstrated that CHH increased urine production by the antennal gland. Seasonal and salinity-dependent differences in haemolymph CHH titre further implicated CHH in osmoregulatory processes. Intriguingly, CHH appeared to have no effect on gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase or V-ATPase activity, suggesting unknown mechanisms of this hormone's action on Na(+) transport across gill epithelia. PMID:23239894

Turner, Lucy M; Webster, Simon G; Morris, Stephen



Cloning of a nitric oxide synthase from green shore crab, Carcinus maenas: A comparative study of the effects of eyestalk ablation on expression in the molting glands (Y-organs) of C. maenas, and blackback land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molting in decapod crustaceans is regulated by ecdysteroids produced by a pair of Y-organs (YOs) located in the cephalothorax. YO ecdysteroidogenesis is suppressed by molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH), a neuropeptide produced in the X-organ of the eyestalk (ES) ganglia. MIH signaling may involve nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (GC-I). A full-length cDNA encoding Carcinus maenas NOS (Cm-NOS; 3836

Audrey A. McDonald; Ernest S. Chang; Donald L. Mykles



Subunit heterogeneity in arthropod hemocyanins: II. Crustacea  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The hemocyanins of 10 decapod Crustacea were dissociated and their subunits analyzed by high resolution polyacrylamide electrophoresis (PAGE): 5 brachyuran crabs (Cancer pagurus, Carcinus maenas, Macropipus holsatus, Hyas araneus, Maja squinado), 3 Astacura (Astacus leptodactylus, Homarus americanus, Homarus gammarus) and the spiny lobstersPalinurus vulgaris andPanulirus interruptus2.All of the species save the spiny lobsters possess a major hemocyanin component sedimenting with

J. Markl; A. Hofer; G. Bauer; A. Markl; B. Kempter; M. Brenzinger; B. Linzen



Distribution and habitat preferences of two grapsid crab species in Mar Chiquita Lagoon (Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyrtograpsus angulatus andChasmagnathus granulata (Grapsidae) are the two dominant decapod crustacean species in the outer parts of Mar Chiquita Lagoon, the southernmost in\\u000a a series of coastal lagoons that occur along the temperate Atlantic coasts of South America. Distribution and habitat preferences\\u000a (water and sediment type) in these crab species were studied in late spring. There is evidence of ontogenetic

E. Spivak; K. Anger; T. Luppi; C. Bas; D. Ismael



Spatio-temporal variations of biomass and abundance in bathyal non-crustacean megafauna in the Catalan Sea (North-western Mediterranean)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatio-temporal variations in diversity, biomass and abundance of bathyal invertebrates (excluding decapod crustaceans,\\u000a which have been analysed elsewhere) from the North-western Mediterranean margin are described. The upper canyon (?450 m),\\u000a middle slope (?650 m) and lower slope (?1,200 m) habitats were investigated throughout the year. The first two sites are visited\\u000a daily by a specialised commercial fisheries’ fleet, while the deeper site

Eva Ramírez-Llodra; Manuel Ballesteros; Luis Dantart; Francisco Sardà



Bait-attending fauna of the Kermadec Trench, SW Pacific Ocean: Evidence for an ecotone across the abyssal–hadal transition zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bait-attending fauna of the abyssal–hadal transition zone of the Kermadec Trench, SW Pacific Ocean (4329–7966m), was investigated using a baited camera and a trap lander. The abyssal stations (4329–6007m) revealed a typical scavenging fish community comprising macrourids and synaphobranchid eels, as well as natantian decapods. At the hadal depths of 7199 and 7561m, the endemic liparid Notoliparis kermadecensis was

A. J. Jamieson; N. M. Kilgallen; A. A. Rowden; T. Fujii; T. Horton; A.-N. Lörz; K. Kitazawa; I. G. Priede



Claw allometry in green crabs, Carcinus maenas : heterochely, handedness, and sex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Claw loss and reversal of handedness during regeneration are common phenomena in heterochelous decapod crustaceans, which\\u000a typically have one large ‘crusher’ claw on the right side and a smaller ‘cutter’ claw on the left. Little is known about the\\u000a relative importance of claw growth vs. body growth during claw regeneration. Here the relationship between claw size and body\\u000a size of

F. Juanes; K. T. Lee; A. McKnight; K. Kellogg



Seasonal changes of benthic megafauna in the Ría de Muros e Noia (Galicia, North-West Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A community of decapod crustaceans (Brachyura) was sampled seasonally (October 1978–July 1979) from three habitats (raft, middle and beach) in the Ría de Muros e Noia (North-West Spain), with the purpose of studying spatial and temporal changes in the community and comparing with communities in the neighbouring Ría de Arousa, which supports an intense mussel (Mytilus edulis)-raft culture. The Portunidae

E. González-Gurriarán



Human-Mediated Spread of Alien Crabs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The introduction and spread of alien species is now recognized as one of the most significant modifiers of biodiversity. In\\u000a the absence of their normal predators and parasites, alien crabs often establish high population densities and tend to compete\\u000a fiercely with local fauna for food and shelter. A total of 73 species of brachyuran and crab-like anomuran decapods are known

Annette Brockerhoff; Colin McLay


Ecdysteroid metabolism in crustaceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molting gland, or Y-organ (YO), is the primary site for ecdysteroid synthesis in decapod crustaceans. Ecdysteroid biosynthesis is divided into two stages: (1) conversion of cholesterol to 5?-diketol and (2) conversion of 5?-diketol to secreted products. Stage 1 involves the conversion of cholesterol to 7-dehydrocholesterol (7DC) by 7,8-dehydrogenase, the “Black Box” reactions involving 3-oxo-?4 intermediates, and the conversion of

Donald L. Mykles


Molecular characterization and expression of a crustin-like gene from Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crustin is a cysteine-rich antibacterial peptide which widely distributes within decapod crustaceans. In the present study, the cDNA encoding crustin-like peptide (designated CrusEs) was cloned from Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches and expressed sequence tag analysis. The full-length cDNA of CrusEs was of 796bp, containing a 5? untranslated region (UTR) of

Changkao Mu; Peilin Zheng; Jianmin Zhao; Lingling Wang; Huan Zhang; Limei Qiu; Yunchao Gai; Linsheng Song



Orientation by polarized light in the crayfish dorsal light reflex: behavioral and neurophysiological studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In decapod crustaceans, the dorsal light reflex rotates the eyestalk so that the dorsal retina faces the brightest segment\\u000a of dorsal visual space. Stepwise displacements of white stripes elicit eyestalk rotations in the same direction as that of\\u000a the stripe. Conversely, stepwise displacements of black stripes on a white background elicit eyestalk rotations in the opposite\\u000a direction as that of

Raymon M. Glantz; John P. Schroeter



Feeding habits of the Madeira rockfish Scorpaena maderensis from central Mediterranean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess diet composition and niche breadth of this species, we analysed the stomach content of 182 specimens collected\\u000a monthly along the eastern coast of Sicily (Central Mediterranean Sea). Overall, 50 prey taxa belonging to five major groups\\u000a (algae, gastropods, crustaceans, polychaetes, fishes) were identified in 102 full stomachs. Benthic or epibenthic crustaceans,\\u000a such as decapods, amphipods and

G. La Mesa; M. La Mesa; P. Tomassetti



Morphological and physiological development of anterior thoracic stretch receptors in two isopods, Armadillidium vulgare and Ligia exotica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abdominal muscle receptor organs (MROs) monitor the position and movement of abdomen in crustaceans. Thoracic segments of\\u000a decapods are fused and immovable. It is speculated that MROs had retrograded simple shape, N-cells that lost receptor muscles,\\u000a a receptor cell and accessory nerves. We focused on the effect of segmental movement in respect to thoracic N-cells and MROs\\u000a in isopods that

Masazumi Iwasaki; Ayako Ohata; Akiyoshi Niida



Trophic relationships in the community of the upper Tagus estuary (Portugal): A preliminary approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diet of 25 invertebrate and fish species occurring in the upper Tagus estuary are compared. Multivariate methods are used to define trophic groups and identify key prey species, fundamental links in the understanding of the estuarine food web. Four trophic groups are described: microalgae, macroinfauna, mysid and fish and decapod eaters. It was found that the food web of this area heavily relies on the polychaete Nereis diversicolor and the crustacean Crangon crangon.

Moreira, F.; Assis, C. A.; Almeida, P. R.; Costa, J. L.; Costa, M. J.



Cephalopod tropomyosins: Identification as major allergens and molecular cloning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heated extracts prepared from the mantle muscles (for decapods) or leg muscles (for octapods) of nine species of cephalopods were shown to be all reactive with serum IgE in crustacean-allergic patients. No marked difference in the reactivity with IgE was recognized among the cephalopods, suggesting that they are almost equally allergenic. Immunoblotting and inhibition immunoblotting data revealed that the major

K. Motoyama; S. Ishizaki; Y. Nagashima; K. Shiomi



Expression of the Reproductive Female-Specific Vitellogenin Gene in Endocrinologically Induced Male and Intersex Cherax quadricarinatus Crayfish1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In oviparous females, the synthesis of the yolk precursor vi- tellogenin is an important step in ovarian maturation and oocyte development. In decapod Crustacea, including the red-claw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus), this reproductive process is regulated by inhibitory neurohormones secreted by the endo- crine X-organ-sinus gland (XO-SG) complex. In males, the C. quadricarinatus vitellogenin gene (CqVg), although present, is not expressed

Asaf Shechter; Eliahu D. Aflalo; Claytus Davis; Amir Sagi


Twelve invertebrate and eight fish species new to the marine fauna of Madeira, and a discussion of the zoogeography of the area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benthic ctenophoreVallicula multiformis, a large undescribed flatworm species of the genusPseudoceros, the prosobranch gastropodTonna maculosa, the opisthobranch gastropodsPlacida cf.dendritica, Caloria elegans, Aeolidiella sanguinea, Janolus cristatus, the decapodBalssia gasti, the sea urchinSchizaster canaliferus and the tunicatesClavelina lepadiformis, Clavelina dellavallei andPycnoclavella taureanensis are recorded from Madeira for the first time. This is the first record of a platyctenid ctenophore in the

Peter Wirtz



Approaches to a Molecular Identification of Sex Pheromones in Blue Crabs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Molecular identification of sex pheromones in marine crustaceans has proven to be very difficult, and so far no unequivocal\\u000a identification for any decapod crustacean has been published. Some of these difficulties are common to other animals – pheromones\\u000a are often blends of molecules at low concentrations. Some difficulties are more specific to marine crustaceans – pheromones\\u000a are often small and

Michiya Kamio; Charles D. Derby


Diet and feeding strategy of thornback ray Raja clavata.  


The diet and feeding strategy of thornback ray Raja clavata, from the eastern-central Adriatic Sea, were investigated. Stomach contents of 428 specimens, total length (L(T)) of 14·0-75·1 cm, were collected from commercial bottom trawls. The prey items identified in the stomachs belong to eight major groups: Cephalopoda, Polychaeta, Stomatopoda, Decapoda (Natantia and Reptantia), Mysidacea, Isopoda, Amphipoda and Teleostei. Decapods were the most important prey (index of relative important, %I(RI) ,= 72·8) followed by teleosts (%I(RI) = 20·4), whereas other prey groups were only occasionally ingested. Small-sized individuals (<25 cm L(T)) fed primarily on small crustaceans (mysids and amphipods), whereas large-sized specimens consumed larger prey, such as decapods, cephalopods and teleosts. Diet composition showed little seasonal variation; decapods were the most important prey in all seasons. There was high dietary similarity between sampling locations. The percentage of empty stomachs did not differ significantly among size classes and seasons. In terms of composition by species, the diet of R. clavata was characterized by a variety of rare or unimportant prey. As a result, R. clavata could be considered a generalist predator. PMID:22880738

Santi?, M; Ra?a, B; Pallaoro, A



Resolution of fine biological structure including small narcomedusae across a front in the Southern California Bight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We sampled a front detected by SST gradient, ocean color imagery, and a Spray glider south of San Nicolas Island in the Southern California Bight between 14 and 18 October 2010. We sampled the front with an unusually extensive array of instrumentation, including the Continuous Underway Fish Egg Sampler (CUFES), the undulating In Situ Ichthyoplankton Imaging System (ISIIS) (fitted with temperature, salinity, oxygen, and fluorescence sensors), multifrequency acoustics, a surface pelagic trawl, a bongo net, and a neuston net. We found higher fluorescence and greater cladoceran, decapod, and euphausiid densities in the front, indicating increased primary and secondary production. Mesopelagic fish were most abundant in oceanic waters to the west of the front, market squid were abundant in the front associated with higher krill and decapod densities, and jack mackerel were most common in the front and on the shoreward side of the front. Egg densities peaked to either side of the front, consistent with both offshore (for oceanic squid and mesopelagic fish) and shelf origins (for white croaker and California halibut). We discovered unusually high concentrations of predatory narcomedusae in the surface layer of the frontal zone. Potential ichthyoplankton predators were more abundant either in the front (decapods, euphausiids, and squid) or shoreward of the front (medusae, chaetognaths, and jack mackerel). For pelagic fish like sardine, which can thrive in less productive waters, the safest place to spawn would be offshore because there are fewer potential predators.

McClatchie, Sam; Cowen, Robert; Nieto, Karen; Greer, Adam; Luo, Jessica Y.; Guigand, Cedric; Demer, David; Griffith, David; Rudnick, Daniel



Abbreviation of larval development and extension of brood care as key features of the evolution of freshwater Decapoda.  


The transition from marine to freshwater habitats is one of the major steps in the evolution of life. In the decapod crustaceans, four groups have colonized fresh water at different geological times since the Triassic, the freshwater shrimps, freshwater crayfish, freshwater crabs and freshwater anomurans. Some families have even colonized terrestrial habitats via the freshwater route or directly via the sea shore. Since none of these taxa has ever reinvaded its environment of origin the Decapoda appear particularly suitable to investigate life-history adaptations to fresh water. Evolutionary comparison of marine, freshwater and terrestrial decapods suggests that the reduction of egg number, abbreviation of larval development, extension of brood care and lecithotrophy of the first posthatching life stages are key adaptations to fresh water. Marine decapods usually have high numbers of small eggs and develop through a prolonged planktonic larval cycle, whereas the production of small numbers of large eggs, direct development and extended brood care until the juvenile stage is the rule in freshwater crayfish, primary freshwater crabs and aeglid anomurans. The amphidromous freshwater shrimp and freshwater crab species and all terrestrial decapods that invaded land via the sea shore have retained ocean-type planktonic development. Abbreviation of larval development and extension of brood care are interpreted as adaptations to the particularly strong variations of hydrodynamic parameters, physico-chemical factors and phytoplankton availability in freshwater habitats. These life-history changes increase fitness of the offspring and are obviously favoured by natural selection, explaining their multiple origins in fresh water. There is no evidence for their early evolution in the marine ancestors of the extant freshwater groups and a preadaptive role for the conquest of fresh water. The costs of the shift from relative r- to K-strategy in freshwater decapods are traded-off against fecundity, future reproduction and growth of females and perhaps against size of species but not against longevity of species. Direct development and extension of brood care is associated with the reduction of dispersal and gene flow among populations, which may explain the high degree of speciation and endemism in directly developing freshwater decapods. Direct development and extended brood care also favour the evolution of social systems, which in freshwater decapods range from simple subsocial organization to eusociality. Hermaphroditism and parthenogenesis, which have evolved in some terrestrial crayfish burrowers and invasive open water crayfish, respectively, may enable populations to adapt to restrictive or new environments by spatio-temporal alteration of their socio-ecological characteristics. Under conditions of rapid habitat loss, environmental pollution and global warming, the reduced dispersal ability of direct developers may turn into a severe disadvantage, posing a higher threat of extinction to freshwater crayfish, primary freshwater crabs, aeglids and landlocked freshwater shrimps as compared to amphidromous freshwater shrimps and secondary freshwater crabs. PMID:22891642

Vogt, Günter



The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the hydrothermal vent galatheid crab Shinkaia crosnieri (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura): A novel arrangement and incomplete tRNA suite  

PubMed Central

Background Metazoan mitochondrial genomes usually consist of the same 37 genes. Such genes contain useful information for phylogenetic analyses and evolution modelling. Although complete mitochondrial genomes have been determined for over 1,000 animals to date, hydrothermal vent species have, thus far, remained excluded due to the scarcity of collected specimens. Results The mitochondrial genome of the hydrothermal vent galatheid crab Shinkaia crosnieri is 15,182 bp in length, and is composed of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and only 18 transfer RNA genes. The total AT content of the genome, as is typical for decapods, is 72.9%. We identified a non-coding control region of 327 bp according to its location and AT-richness. This is the smallest control region discovered in crustaceans so far. A mechanism of cytoplasmic tRNA import was addressed to compensate for the four missing tRNAs. The S. crosnieri mitogenome exhibits a novel arrangement of mitochondrial genes. We investigated the mitochondrial gene orders and found that at least six rearrangements from the ancestral pancrustacean (crustacean + hexapod) pattern have happened successively. The codon usage, nucleotide composition and bias show no substantial difference with other decapods. Phylogenetic analyses using the concatenated nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the 13 protein-coding genes prove consistent with the previous classification based upon their morphology. Conclusion The present study will supply considerable data of use for both genomic and evolutionary research on hydrothermal vent ecosystems. The mitochondrial genetic characteristics of decapods are sustained in this case of S. crosnieri despite the absence of several tRNAs and a number of dramatic rearrangements. Our results may provide evidence for the immigrating hypothesis about how vent species originate.

Yang, Jin-Shu; Yang, Wei-Jun



Retinal anatomy of Chorocaris chacei, a deep-sea hydrothermal vent shrimp from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.  


Exploration of deep-sea hydrothermal vents over the past quarter century has revealed that they support unique and diverse biota. Despite the harsh nature of the environment, vents along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge are dominated by large masses of highly motile Bresiliid shrimp. Until 1989, when it was discovered that the vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata possesses a hypertrophied dorsal eye, many believed that animals populating hydrothermal vents were blind. Chorocaris chacei (originally designated Rimicaris chacei) is a Bresiliid shrimp found at hydrothermal vent fields along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Like R. exoculata, C. chacei has a hypertrophied retina that appears to be specialized to detect the very small amount of light emitted from the orifices of black smoker hydrothermal vent chimneys. C. chacei lacks the sophisticated compound eyes common to other decapod crustaceans. Instead, it has a smooth cornea, with no dioptric apparatus, apposed by a tightly packed, massive array of photosensitive membrane. Photoreceptors in the C. chacei retina are segmented into a hypertrophied region that contains the photosensitive membrane and an atrophied cell body that is roughly ten times smaller in volume than the photosensitive segment. The microvillar photosensitive membrane is consistent in structure and ultrastructure with the rhabdoms of decapod and other invertebrate retinas. However, the volume density of photosensitive membrane (> or =60%) exceeds that typically observed in invertebrate retinas. The reflecting pigment cells commonly found in decapod retinas are represented in the form of a matrix of white diffusing cells that exhibit Tyndall scattering and form an axial sheath around the photoreceptors. All photoreceptor screening pigment granules and screening pigment cells are restricted to the region below the photoreceptor nuclei and are thereby removed from the path of incident light. No ultrastructural evidence of rhythmic cycling of photosensitive membrane was observed. The morphological adaptations observed in the C. chacei retina suggest that it is a high-sensitivity photodetector that is of functional significance to the animal. PMID:9302103

Lakin, R C; Jinks, R N; Battelle, B A; Herzog, E D; Kass, L; Renninger, G H; Chamberlain, S C



[Seasonal dynamics of diel changes in inshore benthopelagic communities of the Black Sea by the example of the Golubaya Bay (Gelendzhik Town)].  


Seasonal and diel changes in littoral plankton in the Golubaya Bay (near Gelendzhik Town) were studied at seven daily stations from October 1999 to September 2000. In the night-time, the plankton included both holoplanktonic and demersal species rising to the upper layers (benthopelagic plankton). The role of benthopelagic and holoplanktonic organisms in relation to the time of the day, season, and phase of the moon was determined. Benthopelagic plankton of the Golubaya Bay largely included amphipods (which were the most abundant), mysids, isopods, decapods, tanaids, cumaceans, and polychaetes. PMID:16004269

Anokhin, L L


Acute toxicity and accumulation of zinc in the crayfish, Orconectes virilis (Hagen)  

SciTech Connect

Zinc produces acute toxicity to freshwater organisms over a range of concentrations from 90 to 58, Zn/L; with the range of acute median effect concentrations being similar for freshwater fish and invertebrates. The capacity to regulate internal zinc concentrations in decapod crustaceans has been described. Studies with the crayfish Austropotambius pallipes suggested a relatively high degree of tolerance to zinc by this animal. The present study is designed to describe the toxicity of zinc to the crayfish Orconectes virilis over a 2-wk exposure period. In addition, whole animal and tissue analyses were performed on the test organisms and compared to previous results.

Not Available



Phase response theory extended to nonoscillatory network components  

PubMed Central

New tools for analysis of oscillatory networks using phase response theory (PRT) under the assumption of pulsatile coupling have been developed steadily since the 1980s, but none have yet allowed for analysis of mixed systems containing nonoscillatory elements. This caveat has excluded the application of PRT to most real systems, which are often mixed. We show that a recently developed tool, the functional phase resetting curve (fPRC), provides a serendipitous benefit: it allows incorporation of nonoscillatory elements into systems of oscillators where PRT can be applied. We validate this method in a model system of neural oscillators and a biological system, the pyloric network of crustacean decapods.

Sieling, Fred H.; Archila, Santiago; Hooper, Ryan; Canavier, Carmen C.; Prinz, Astrid A.



Physiological responses of three crustacean species to infection by the dinoflagellate-like protist Hematodinium (Alveolata: Syndinea).  


This is the first study comparing physiological responses of three decapod species to infection by parasites of the genus Hematodinium, which belongs to the dinoflagellate-like Syndinea. Responses varied profoundly between the crabs Carcinus maenas and Cancer pagurus (Brachyura), but also differed to those of hermit crabs, Pagurus bernhardus (Anomura). Osmoregulatory capacity was reduced significantly in Hematodinium-infected C. maenas, haemolymph pH increased in parasitised C. pagurus and P. bernhardus, and L-lactate concentration decreased in infected P. bernhardus. Changes to tissues and exoskeletons were observed in C. pagurus, but not in C. maenas and P. bernhardus. PMID:20600085

Hamilton, Kristina M; Shaw, Paul W; Morritt, D



A Comparative Analysis of Feeding and Trophic Level Ecology in Stingrays (Rajiformes; Myliobatoidei) and Electric Rays (Rajiformes: Torpedinoidei)  

PubMed Central

Standardised diets and trophic level (TL) estimates were calculated for 75 ray species from the suborders Myliobatoidei (67 spp.) and Torpedinoidei (8 spp.). Decapod crustaceans (31.71±3.92%) and teleost fishes (16.45±3.43%) made the largest contribution to the standardised diet of the Myliobatoidei. Teleost fishes (37.40±16.09%) and polychaete worms (31.96±14.22%) were the most prominent prey categories in the standardised diet of the suborder Torpedinoidei. Cluster analysis identified nine major trophic guilds the largest of which were decapod crustaceans (24 species), teleost fishes (11 species) and molluscs (11 species). Trophic level estimates for rays ranged from 3.10 for Potamotrygon falkneri to 4.24 for Gymnura australis, Torpedo marmorata and T. nobiliana. Secondary consumers with a TL <4.00 represented 84% of the species examined, with the remaining 12 species (16%) classified as tertiary consumers (TL ?4.00). Tertiary consumers included electric rays (Torpedo, 3 spp. and Hypnos, 1 sp.), butterfly rays (Gymnura, 4 spp.), stingrays (2 spp.) and Potamotrygonid stingrays (2 spp.). Feeding strategies were identified as the primary factor of influence with respect to Myliobatoidei and Torpedinoidei TL estimates with inter-family comparisons providing the greatest insight into Myliobatoidei and Torpedinoidei relationships.

Jacobsen, Ian P.; Bennett, Mike B.



Animal Behavior Frozen in Time: Gregarious Behavior of Early Jurassic Lobsters within an Ammonoid Body Chamber  

PubMed Central

Direct animal behavior can be inferred from the fossil record only in exceptional circumstances. The exceptional mode of preservation of ammonoid shells in the Posidonia Shale (Lower Jurassic, lower Toarcian) of Dotternhausen in southern Germany, with only the organic periostracum preserved, provides an excellent opportunity to observe the contents of the ammonoid body chamber because this periostracum is translucent. Here, we report upon three delicate lobsters preserved within a compressed ammonoid specimen of Harpoceras falciferum. We attempt to explain this gregarious behavior. The three lobsters were studied using standard microscopy under low angle light. The lobsters belong to the extinct family of the Eryonidae; further identification was not possible. The organic material of the three small lobsters is preserved more than halfway into the ammonoid body chamber. The lobsters are closely spaced and are positioned with their tails oriented toward each other. The specimens are interpreted to represent corpses rather than molts. The lobsters probably sought shelter in preparation for molting or against predators such as fish that were present in Dotternhausen. Alternatively, the soft tissue of the ammonoid may have been a source of food that attracted the lobsters, or it may have served as a long-term residency for the lobsters (inquilinism). The lobsters represent the oldest known example of gregariousness amongst lobsters and decapods in the fossil record. Gregarious behavior in lobsters, also known for extant lobsters, thus developed earlier in earth's history than previously known. Moreover, this is one of the oldest known examples of decapod crustaceans preserved within cephalopod shells.

Klompmaker, Adiel A.; Fraaije, Rene H. B.



Mass spectrometric identification of pEGFYSQRYamide: a crustacean peptide hormone possessing a vertebrate neuropeptide Y (NPY)-like carboxy-terminus  

PubMed Central

In invertebrates, peptides possessing the carboxy (C)-terminal motif -RXRFamide have been proposed as the homologs of vertebrate neuropeptide Y (NPY). Using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, in combination with sustained off-resonance irradiation collision-induced dissociation and chemical and enzymatic reactions, we have identified the peptide pEGFYSQRYamide from the neuroendocrine pericardial organ (PO) of the crab Pugettia producta. This peptide is likely the same as that previously reported, but misidentified, as PAFYSQRYamide in several earlier reports (e.g. Li et al. [2003] J. Neurochem. 87,642–656; Fu et al. [2005] J. Comp. Neurol. 493,607–626). The -QRYamide motif contained in pEGFYSQRYamide is identical to that present in many vertebrate members of the NPY superfamily. Mass spectrometric analysis conducted on the POs of several other decapods showed that pEGFYSQRYamide is present in three other brachyurans (Cancer borealis, Cancer irroratus and Cancer productus) as well as in one species from another decapod infraorder (Lithodes maja, an anomuran). Thus, our findings show that at least some invertebrates possess NPY-like peptides in addition to those exhibiting an -RXRFamide C-terminus, and raise the question as to whether the invertebrate -QRYamides are functionally and/or evolutionarily related to the NPY superfamily.

Stemmler, Elizabeth A.; Bruns, Emily A.; Gardner, Noah P.; Dickinson, Patsy S.; Christie, Andrew E.



Discovery and functional study of a novel crustacean tachykinin neuropeptide.  


Tachykinin-related peptide (TRP) refers to a large and structurally diverse family of neuropeptides found in vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems. These peptides have various important physiological functions, from regulating stress in mammals to exciting the pyloric (food filtering) rhythm in the stomatogastric nervous system (STNS) of decapod crustaceans. Here, a novel TRP, which we named CalsTRP (Callinectes sapidus TRP), YPSGFLGMRamide (m/z 1026.52), was identified and de novo sequenced using a multifaceted mass spectrometry-based platform in both the central nervous system (CNS) and STNS of C. sapidus. We also found, using isotopic formaldehyde labeling, that CalsTRP in the C. sapidus brain and commissural ganglion (CoG) was up-regulated after food-intake, suggesting that TRPs in the CNS and STNS are involved in regulating feeding in Callinectes. Using imaging mass spectrometry, we determined that the previously identified CabTRP Ia (APSGFLGMRamide) and CalsTRP were co-localized in the C. sapidus brain. Lastly, our electrophysiological studies show that bath-applied CalsTRP and CabTRP Ia each activates the pyloric and gastric mill rhythms in C. sapidus, as shown previously for pyloric rhythm activation by CabTRP Ia in the crab Cancer borealis. In summary, the newly identified CalsTRP joins CabTRP Ia as a TRP family member in the decapod crustacean nervous system, whose actions include regulating feeding behavior. PMID:22247794

Hui, Limei; Zhang, Yuzhuo; Wang, Junhua; Cook, Aaron; Ye, Hui; Nusbaum, Michael P; Li, Lingjun



Diet and scavenging habits of the smooth skate Dipturus innominatus.  


The diet of smooth skate Dipturus innominatus was determined from examination of stomach contents of 321 specimens of 29·3-152·0 cm pelvic length, sampled from research and commercial trawlers at depths of 231-789 m on Chatham Rise, New Zealand. The diet was dominated by the benthic decapods Metanephrops challengeri and Munida gracilis, the natant decapod Campylonotus rathbunae and fishes from 17 families, of which hoki Macruronus novaezelandiae, sea perch Helicolenus barathri, various Macrouridae and a variety of discarded fishes were the most important. Multivariate analyses indicated the best predictors of diet variability were D. innominatus length and a spatial model. The diet of small D. innominatus was predominantly small crustaceans, with larger crustaceans, fishes and then scavenged discarded fishes increasing in importance as D. innominatus got larger. Scavenged discards were obvious as fish heads or tails only, or skeletal remains after filleting, often from pelagic species. Demersal fish prey were most frequent on the south and west Chatham Rise, in areas where commercial fishing was most active. Dipturus innominatus are highly vulnerable to overfishing, but discarding practices by commercial fishing vessels may provide a positive feedback to populations through improved scavenging opportunities. PMID:22497396

Forman, J S; Dunn, M R



Feeding ecology of elasmobranch fishes in coastal waters of the Colombian Eastern Tropical Pacific  

PubMed Central

Background Stomach contents of 131 specimens of five elasmobranch species (Mustelus lunulatus, Dasyatis longa, Rhinobatos leucorhynchus, Raja velezi and Zapteryx xyster) caught in the central fishing zone in the Pacific Ocean of Colombia were counted and weighed to describe feeding habits and dietary overlaps. Results Twenty-one prey items belonging to four major groups (stomatopods, decapods, mollusks and fish) were identified. Decapod crustaceans were the most abundant prey found in stomachs. The mantis shrimp Squilla panamensis was the main prey item in the diet of M. lunulatus; tiger shrimp Trachypenaeus sp. was the main prey item in the diet of Rhinobatos leucorhynchus and Raja velezi, and Penaeidae shrimp were the main prey items in the diet of Z. xyster. Furthermore, fish were important in the diet of Raja velezi, Z. xyster and D. longa. The greatest diet breadth corresponded to Z. xyster whereas M. lunulatus was the most specialized predator. Finally, four significant diet overlaps between the five species were found, attributable mainly to Squillidae, Penaeidae and Fish. Conclusion Shrimps (Penaeidae and stomatopods) and benthic fishes were the most important food types in the diet of the elasmobranch species studied. Diet breadth and overlap were relatively low. Determination of food resource partitioning among the batoid species studied was not possible. However, we identified partitions in other niche axes (time of feeding activity and habitat utilization). It is possible to assume that diffuse competition could be exceeding the biunivocal competition among the studied species. Therefore, this assemblage would have a strong tendency to trophic guild formation.

Navia, Andres F; Mejia-Falla, Paola A; Giraldo, Alan



Molecular characterization and evolution of haemocyanin from the two freshwater shrimps Caridina multidentata (Stimpson, 1860) and Atyopsis moluccensis (De Haan, 1849).  


Haemocyanin (Hc) is a copper-containing respiratory protein, floating freely dissolved in the hemolymph of many arthropod species. A typical haemocyanin is a hexamer or oligohexamer of six identical or similar subunits, with a molecular mass around 75 kDa each. In the crustaceans, the haemocyanins appear to be restricted to the remipedes and the malacostracans. We have investigated the haemocyanins of two freshwater shrimps, the Amano shrimp Caridina multidentata and the bamboo shrimp Atyopsis moluccensis. We obtained three full-length and one partial cDNA sequences of haemocyanin subunits from the Amano shrimp, which were assigned to the ?- and ?-types of decapod haemocyanin subunits. Three complete and two partial haemocyanin cDNA sequences were obtained from the bamboo shrimp, which represent subunit types ?, ? and ?. This is the first time that sequences of all three subunit types of the decapod haemocyanins were obtained from a single species. However, mass spectrometry analyses identified only ?- and ?-type subunits, suggesting that a ?-subunit is not a major component of the native haemocyanin of the bamboo shrimp. Phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses showed that malacostracan haemocyanins commenced to diversify into distinct subunit types already ~515 million years ago. ?-subunits diverged first, followed by ?- and ?-type subunits ~396 million years ago. The haemocyanins of phyllocarids and peracarids form distinct clades within the ?/?-cluster. Within the Caridea, an early divergence of distinct ?-type subunits occurred ~200 MYA. The tree of the ?-subunits suggests a common clade of the Caridea (shrimps) and Penaeidae (prawns). PMID:23338600

Marxen, Julia C; Pick, Christian; Kwiatkowski, Marcel; Burmester, Thorsten



Housekeeping Mutualisms: Do More Symbionts Facilitate Host Performance?  

PubMed Central

Mutualisms often involve one host supporting multiple symbionts, whose identity, density and intraguild interactions can influence the nature of the mutualism and performance of the host. However, the implications of multiple co-occurring symbionts on services to a host have rarely been quantified. In this study, we quantified effects of decapod symbionts on removal of sediment from their coral host. Our field survey showed that all common symbionts typically occur as pairs and never at greater abundances. Two species, the crab Trapezia serenei and the shrimp Alpheus lottini, were most common and co-occurred more often than expected by chance. We conducted a mesocosm experiment to test for effects of decapod identity and density on sediment removal. Alone, corals removed 10% of sediment, but removal increased to 30% and 48% with the presence of two and four symbionts, respectively. Per-capita effects of symbionts were independent of density and identity. Our results suggest that symbiont density is restricted by intraspecific competition. Thus, increased sediment removal from a coral host can only be achieved by increasing the number of species of symbionts on that coral, even though these species are functionally equivalent. Symbiont diversity plays a key role, not through added functionality but by overcoming density limitation likely imposed by intraspecific mating systems.

Lemer, Sarah; Leray, Matthieu; Mills, Suzanne C.; Osenberg, Craig W.



The complete mitochondrial genome of the Hawaiian anchialine shrimp Halocaridina rubra Holthuis, 1963 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Atyidae).  


Shrimp of the family Atyidae are important members of nearly all tropical (and most temperate) fresh and brackish water ecosystems in the world. To date, a complete mitochondrial genome from this important crustacean group has not been reported. Here, we present the complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the Hawaiian atyid Halocaridina rubra [Holthuis, L.B., 1963. On red coloured shrimps (Decapoda, Caridea) from tropical land-locked saltwater pools. Zool. Meded.16, 261-279.] (Crustacea: Decapoda: Atyidae). The genome is a circular molecule of 16,065 bp and encodes the 37 mitochondrial genes (13 protein-coding, 22 tRNAs, and two rRNAs) typically found in the metazoa. Gene order and orientation in the H. rubra mitochondrial genome is syntenic with most malacostracans that have been examined to date. Of special note is the absence of the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm stem from tRNA(Tyr) and the use of CCG as an initiation codon for cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI); these represent the first reported examples of such phenomena in the Malacostraca. Phylogenetic analyses utilizing complete mitochondrial sequences from other malacostracans place H. rubra as sister to Macrobrachium rosenbergii, which also belongs to the Infraorder Caridea. However, the placement of this infraorder, as well as the Infraorder Dendrobrachiata, in the phylogeny of the Decapoda varied depending on outgroup selection. Data from additional mitochondrial genomes, such as basal decapods like the Stenopodidea, should contribute to a better overall understanding of decapod phylogenetics. PMID:17317038

Ivey, Jennifer L; Santos, Scott R



Housekeeping mutualisms: do more symbionts facilitate host performance?  


Mutualisms often involve one host supporting multiple symbionts, whose identity, density and intraguild interactions can influence the nature of the mutualism and performance of the host. However, the implications of multiple co-occurring symbionts on services to a host have rarely been quantified. In this study, we quantified effects of decapod symbionts on removal of sediment from their coral host. Our field survey showed that all common symbionts typically occur as pairs and never at greater abundances. Two species, the crab Trapezia serenei and the shrimp Alpheus lottini, were most common and co-occurred more often than expected by chance. We conducted a mesocosm experiment to test for effects of decapod identity and density on sediment removal. Alone, corals removed 10% of sediment, but removal increased to 30% and 48% with the presence of two and four symbionts, respectively. Per-capita effects of symbionts were independent of density and identity. Our results suggest that symbiont density is restricted by intraspecific competition. Thus, increased sediment removal from a coral host can only be achieved by increasing the number of species of symbionts on that coral, even though these species are functionally equivalent. Symbiont diversity plays a key role, not through added functionality but by overcoming density limitation likely imposed by intraspecific mating systems. PMID:22523536

Stier, Adrian C; Gil, Michael A; McKeon, C Seabird; Lemer, Sarah; Leray, Matthieu; Mills, Suzanne C; Osenberg, Craig W



Host partitioning by parasites in an intertidal crustacean community.  


Patterns of host use by parasites throughout a guild community of intermediate hosts can depend on several biological and ecological factors, including physiology, morphology, immunology, and behavior. We looked at parasite transmission in the intertidal crustacean community of Lower Portobello Bay, Dunedin, New Zealand, with the intent of: (1) mapping the flow of parasites throughout the major crustacean species, (2) identifying hosts that play the most important transmission role for each parasite, and (3) assessing the impact of parasitism on host populations. The most prevalent parasites found in 14 species of crustaceans (635 specimens) examined were the trematodes Maritrema novaezealandensis and Microphallus sp., the acanthocephalans Profilicollis spp., the nematode Ascarophis sp., and an acuariid nematode. Decapods were compatible hosts for M. novaezealandensis, while other crustaceans demonstrated lower host suitability as shown by high levels of melanized and immature parasite stages. Carapace thickness, gill morphology, and breathing style may contribute to the differential infection success of M. novaezealandensis and Microphallus sp. in the decapod species. Parasite-induced host mortality appears likely with M. novaezealandensis in the crabs Austrohelice crassa, Halicarcinus varius, Hemigrapsus sexdentatus, and Macrophthalmus hirtipes, and also with Microphallus sp. in A. crassa. Overall, the different parasite species make different use of available crustacean intermediate hosts and possibly contribute to intertidal community structure. PMID:20950092

Koehler, Anson V; Poulin, Robert



Functional morphology of the gastric mills of carnivorous, omnivorous, and herbivorous land crabs.  


Terrestrial decapods consume a wide variety of plant and animal material. The potential adaptations of carnivorous, omnivorous, and herbivorous terrestrial crustaceans were studied by examining the functional morphology of the gastric mill. Two closely related species from each feeding preference group were examined to identify which features of the mill were due to phylogeny and which were due to adaptation. The morphology of the gastric mill matched the diet well; the gastric mills of the carnivorous species (Geograpsus grayi and Geograpsus crinipes) possessed a blunt, rounded medial tooth and flattened lateral teeth with a longitudinal grinding groove. These features make them well suited to a carnivorous diet of soft animal tissue as well as hard material, such as arthropod exoskeleton. In contrast, the mill of the herbivorous gecarcinids (Gecarcoidea natalis and Discoplax hirtipes) consisted of a medial tooth with sharp transverse ridges and lateral teeth with sharp interlocking cusps and ridges and no grinding surface. These features would efficiently shred fibrous plant material. The morphology of the mill of the omnivorous coenobitids (Coenobita perlatus and Birgus latro) was more generalized toward a mixed diet. However, the mill of B. latro was more adapted to deal with highly nutritious food items, such as nuts and heavily calcified decapods. Its mill possessed lateral teeth with extended ridges, which sat close to the calcified cardiopyloric valve to form a flattened floor. Hard items trapped in the mill would be crushed against this surface by the medial tooth. PMID:19623627

Allardyce, Benjamin J; Linton, Stuart M



Efficient identification of proteins from ovaries and hepatopancreas of the unsequenced edible crab, Cancer pagurus, by mass spectrometry and homology-based, cross-species searching.  


Proteome maps of hepatopancreas (midgut gland) and ovarian tissues of the crustacean, Cancer pagurus (Decapoda; edible crab) have been produced by 2D-PAGE and identification of proteins, following trypsin proteolysis, by electrospray MS/MS and database searching. Owing to the lack of sequence information on proteins and fully sequenced genomes amongst the decapod crustaceans and given the evolutionary distance to the nearest full genome database (Daphnia), it was necessary to adopt a non-conventional identification approach. Thus, a strategy was developed for effective identification of decapod proteins by sequence similarity, homology-based cross-species database searching, using various algorithms and a combination of NCBI Crustacea and Arthropoda databases, together with the Arthropoda PartiGene database (Blaxter, University of Edinburgh). In both hepatopancreas and ovary tissues, the largest group of proteins identified were a variety of enzymes, followed by a smaller number of storage/transport proteins [including vitellogenin (yolk protein), several subunits of hemocyanin, cryptocyanin, ferritin and calreticulin], with fewer structural proteins (actin, tubulin) and heat-shock proteins, in addition to a number of proteins of miscellaneous functions. Such protein identifications allow the development of tools, such as antibodies and RNA/DNA probes, to investigate the functions of the proteins in specific tissues during development. PMID:20656081

Ward, Deborah A; Sefton, Elaine M; Prescott, Mark C; Webster, Simon G; Wainwright, Geoff; Rees, Huw H; Fisher, Michael J



Characterization of the cardiac ganglion in the crab Neohelice granulata and immunohistochemical evidence of GABA-like extrinsic regulation.  


The aim of the present work is to provide an anatomical description of the cardiac system in the crab Neohelice granulata and evidence of the presence of GABA by means of immunohistochemistry. The ganglionic trunk was found lying on the inner surface of the heart's dorsal wall. After dissection, this structure appeared as a Y-shaped figure with its major axis perpendicular to the major axis of the heart. Inside the cardiac ganglion, we identified four large neurons of 63.7 ?m ± 3.7 in maximum diameter, which were similar to the motor neurons described in other decapods. All the GABA-like immunoreactivity (GABAi) was observed as processes entering mainly the ganglionic trunk and branching in slender varicose fibers, forming a network around the large neurons suggesting that GABAi processes contact them. Our findings strengthen previous results suggesting that the GABAergic system mediates the cardio-inhibitory response upon sensory stimulation. PMID:22986313

Yang, Margarita; Carbó Tano, Martín; Freudenthal, Ramiro; Hermitte, Gabriela



Acute toxicity of cadmium to eight species of marine amphipod and isopod crustaceans from southern California  

SciTech Connect

Amphipods and isopods are important components of the marine intertidal and subtidal fauna where they are found on or in the substrate or among spaces between larger, attached organisms. However, in spite of their abundance and importance, the use of these two endemic marine groups has been limited in comparison to decapods in marine toxicological research. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a single metallic salt, CdCl/sub 2/, on six species of amphipods and two species of isopods under similar experimental conditions. Cadmium was selected as the toxicant in this comparative study since this metal is an important constituent in municipal wastes discharged into southern California marine waters.

Hong, J.S.; Reish, D.J.



Suprabenthic biodiversity of Catalan beaches (NW Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of the suprabenthos has been carried out on 13 diverse type beaches in Catalonian coast (NE of Spain). A total of 29 717 specimens, belonging to 145 species and eight different zoological groups (mysids, amphipods, cumaceans, isopods, tanaidaceans, decapods, pycnogonids, and teleostean fishes) were obtained. The suprabenthos of Catalan beaches were characterized by a mean density of 40 ind. m -2, by the abundance of Mysids (75% of the total density) and by the higher diversity of Amphipods (64 species). Five population species were considered as typical of suprabenthic assemblages: Schistomysis assimilis, Mesopodopsis slabberi, Atylus guttatus, Pontocrates altamarinus, and Cumopsis goodsir. Four main types of beaches with different number of suprabenthic species and densities and three main faunistic groups are described and related to environmental physical factors of the analysed beaches (morphodynamics, exposure, etc.). The macrofaunal trend about to that the species richness decrease from dissipative to reflective beaches is confirmed for the suprabenthic communities.

Munilla, T.; San Vicente, C.



Population dynamics and parasitation of planktonic and epibenthic crustaceans in the Baltic Schlei fjord  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The planktonic and epibenthic crustacean fauna from two sites of the brackish Schlei fjord, Northern Germany, was investigated over a six-month period. Calanoid and cyclopoid copepods were more abundant in lower salinities, whereas, benthic decapods, isopods and amphipods prevailed in the site of higher salinity. Cestodan larvae were found only in spring which may be due to the timing of the respective life-cycles. Parasites of benthic crustaceans, mostly digenean metacercariae but also cestodans, acanthocephalans and nematodes, appeared from spring to late summer. Decreasing salinities caused lower intensities of the most abundant parasite, Maritrema subdolum; only the true brackish-water species among the hosts were more heavily infested than those found in higher salinities. The correlation of parasite size and host size at infestation became apparent. Therefore, Crangon crangon is an optimal host for the large Podocotyle atomon metacercariae. Coevolutive trends between some hosts and parasites are made evident.

Gollasch, S.; Zander, C. D.



Exuviotrophic apostome ciliates from crustaceans of St. Andrew Bay, Florida, and a description of Gymnodinioides kozloffi n. sp.  


Gymnodinioides kozloffi n. sp. is described from the eelgrass broken-back shrimp Hippolyte zostericola. The species is distinct from others in the apostome genus Gymnodinioides in that the trophont ciliature has a small group of kinetosomes located to the right of Kinety 9a, and Kinety 1 and 2 are divided. Other apostome morphologies are described from many decapod crustaceans from St. Andrew Bay, Florida, including Gymnodinioides inkystans, Hyalophysa chattoni, and variants of both H. chattoni and G. kozloffi. All of these apostome ciliates are exuviotrophic, found feeding on exuvial fluid within the exoskeleton of the host after ecdysis. The hosts surveyed for this study are the following: Callinectes sapidus, Eurypanopeus depressus, Hippolyte zostericola, Farfantepenaeus spp., Palaemonetes intermedius, Palaemon floridanus, Portunus spp., Tozeuma carolinense, and Sicyonia laevigata, which revealed a number of new host-apostome records. PMID:15666721

Landers, Stephen C


Organization of Chemically Activated Food Search Behavior in Procambarus clarkii Girard and Orconectes rusticus Girard Crayfishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract.,The feeding,responses,of decapod,crustaceans to chemical,stimuli have,most,often been,evaluated,in terms of one defining act, ignoring the organization of the behav- ior. To gain greater insight into foraging behavior, we considered,the organization,of food-search,behavior,in eval- uating the responses,of two,species,of crayfishes,to a feed- ing stimulant. We also examined,the effects of food,depri- vation,on,the,behavioral,organization,and,whether,a behavioral,dichotomy,exists between,food search,and,feed- ing behavior,in these,species. Individual,crayfish,of the species,Procambarus,clarkii and Orconectes,rusticus were,presented,with infusions,of

Craig Steele; Carol Skinner; Catherine Steele; Philip Alberstadt; Candice Mathewson



Effects of temperature and salinity on the development of the amphipod crustacean Eogammarus sinensis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amphipod crustacean Eogammarus sinensis has useful features that make it suitable for use in the aquaculture of fish and large decapod crustaceans. In this study, we investigated the effects of temperature and salinity on the development, fecundity, survival, and growth rate of E. sinensis. The results show that temperature significantly affected E. sinensis development, but salinity. As temperature increased, the duration of E. sinensis embryonic development decreased. Fecundity was affected significantly by temperature and the combination of temperature and salinity, but by salinity alone. In addition, high temperatures accelerated E. sinensis juvenile growth rates, whereas high salinity reduced it. Therefore, our data suggest that E. sinensis tolerates a wide range of salinities and that temperature has more significant effects than salinity on the embryonic development, fecundity, and growth of E. sinensis. Our results shall be useful for mass production of this species for use in aquaculture.

Xue, Suyan; Fang, Jianguang; Zhang, Jihong; Jiang, Zengjie; Mao, Yuze; Zhao, Fazhen



The complete mitochondrial genome of the subarctic red king crab, Paralithodes camtschaticus (Decapoda, Anomura).  


We determined the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence of the red king crab, Paralithodes camtschaticus (Decapoda, Anomura). P. camtschaticus is one of the largest arthropods and the most expensive commercially available gourmet seafood. The genome sequence of P. camtschaticus is 16,720 bp in size and its gene content, gene order, and transcriptional polarity are almost identical to those of the hermit crab Pagurus longicarpus, which is thought to be derived from a common ancestor. However, P. camtschaticus mtDNA showed tRNA translocation in two blocks compared to that of P. longicarpus. Prior to this study, complete mt genomes of only two species of Anomura have been reported. Thus, our genomic data will provide additional information for constructing the decapod phylogeny. PMID:23343414

Kim, Sanghee; Choi, Han-Gu; Park, Joong-Ki; Min, Gi-Sik



The circadian system of crayfish: a developmental approach.  


Adult crayfish exhibit a variety of overt circadian rhythms. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying the overt rhythms are controversial. Research has centered on two overt rhythms: the motor activity and the retinal sensitivity rhythms of the genus Procambarus. The present work reviews various studies undertaken to localize pacemakers and mechanisms of entrainment responsible for these two rhythms in adult organisms of this crustacean decapod. It also describes an ontogenetic approach to the problem by means of behavioral, electrophysiological, and neurochemical experiments. The results of this approach confirm previous models proposed for adult crayfish, based on a number of circadian pacemakers distributed in the central nervous system. However, the coupling of rhythmicity between these independent oscillators might be complex and dependent on the interaction between serotonin (5-HT), light, and the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH). The latter compound has, up until now, not been considered as an agent in the genesis and synchronization of the retinal sensitivity rhythm. PMID:12539159

Fanjul-Moles, María Luisa; Prieto-Sagredo, Julio



North Sea ecosystem change from swimming crabs to seagulls  

PubMed Central

A recent increase in sea temperature has established a new ecosystem dynamic regime in the North Sea. Climate-induced changes in decapods have played an important role. Here, we reveal a coincident increase in the abundance of swimming crabs and lesser black-backed gull colonies in the North Sea, both in time and in space. Swimming crabs are an important food source for lesser black-backed gulls during the breeding season. Inhabiting the land, but feeding mainly at sea, lesser black-backed gulls provide a link between marine and terrestrial ecosystems, since the bottom-up influence of allochthonous nutrient input from seabirds to coastal soils can structure the terrestrial food web. We, therefore, suggest that climate-driven changes in trophic interactions in the marine food web may also have ensuing ramifications for the coastal ecology of the North Sea.

Luczak, C.; Beaugrand, G.; Lindley, J. A.; Dewarumez, J-M.; Dubois, P. J.; Kirby, R. R.



Analysis of genetic variability in Aristaeomorpha foliacea (crustacea, aristeidae) using DNA-ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeats) markers.  


This work reports the first genetic data of Aristaeomorpha foliacea, a marine decapod of high commercial value, from six Mediterranean localities and one new fishing ground in the Mozambique Channel. The use of five Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) primers provided 150 polymorphic loci. Average estimates of genetic diversity did not significantly differ among sampled localities, with a mean value of heterozygosity H=0.105±0.015. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) allocated>98% of genetic variability to the within-sample component, displaying values higher than those previously reported in ISSR studies on marine invertebrates. Cluster analyses did not detect geographically or genetically distinct groups. The observed lack of large-scale genetic differentiation is discussed in relation to the high potential for larval dispersal of the species and to features of the marker employed. PMID:21943519

Fernández, Maria Victoria; Maltagliati, Ferruccio; Pannacciulli, Federica G; Roldán, Maria Inés



A new species of Eualus Thallwitz, 1892 and new record of Lebbeus antarcticus (Hale, 1941) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Hippolytidae) from the Scotia Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eleven specimens representing two hippolytid genera, EualusThallwitz, 1892 and LebbeusWhite, 1847 were sampled recently from the Scotia Sea (1517-2598 m). Seven specimens are described and illustrated as Eualus amandae sp. nov., and its morphology is compared with those of previously described species. Four female specimens, morphologically consistent with Lebbeus antarcticus (Hale, 1941), are described and illustrated to supplement previous descriptions of this rarely collected bathyal species. Partial COI mtDNA and 18S rDNA sequences were generated for both species. Only limited DNA sequences are available for the Hippolytidae. COI phylogenetic trees are presented to illustrate that the new species is genetically distinct from all other species in GenBank. This record enhances existing knowledge of Antarctic invertebrate biodiversity and species richness of decapod crustaceans in the Southern Ocean.

Nye, Verity; Copley, Jonathan T.; Linse, Katrin



Physiological responses of estuarine animals to cadmium pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toxic effects of cadmium contamination may be observed at all levels of organismic organization. In estuarine areas the sensitivity of euryhaline species to acute Cd toxicity is strongly modified by various abiotic factors, whereas long-term threshold values are less dependent on environmental parameters. Experiments with larval stages of the mollusc Mytilus edulis reveal that Cd effects on life functions such as development and growth are differentially modified by temperature and salinity. High Cd concentrations can be accumulated by adult bivalves of coastal areas without signs of physiological damage. Mechanisms of heavy-metal detoxication in these molluscs seem to be quite different from those known to exist in vertebrates. Among decapod crustaceans, stenoecous species tend to exhibit higher rates of Cd uptake than euryoecous ones. Rates of Cd uptake and of accumulation depend on external and internal factors. In adult Nereis succinea individuals sublethal Cd effects have been recorded on growth and food conversion (in terms of energy content).

Theede, H.



Accumulation and regulation effects from the metal mixture of Zn, Pb, and Cd in the tropical shrimp Penaeus vannamei.  


Environmental metal pollution is one of the major problems faced by humankind. This type of pollution affects aquatic systems (estuaries, coastal lagoons, etc.), which are very dynamic systems, therefore making the study of the effects on the organisms that inhabit them an essential issue. In this study, the capacity of metal regulation by decapod crustacean Penaeus vannamei juveniles was determined. The effects of zinc, lead, and cadmium were tested individually and as a metal mixture exposure to determine possible synergism. The results showed that juvenile shrimps were capable of regulating zinc and lead, whereas cadmium was accumulated without any excretion, at least within the concentrations studied. It was also proved that under the estuarine conditions tested here, P. vannamei juveniles showed capacity to act as a bioindicator for cadmium. PMID:22945625

Núñez-Nogueira, Gabriel; Fernández-Bringas, Laura; Ordiano-Flores, Alfredo; Gómez-Ponce, Alejandro; de León-Hill, Claudia Ponce; González-Farías, Fernando



North Sea ecosystem change from swimming crabs to seagulls.  


A recent increase in sea temperature has established a new ecosystem dynamic regime in the North Sea. Climate-induced changes in decapods have played an important role. Here, we reveal a coincident increase in the abundance of swimming crabs and lesser black-backed gull colonies in the North Sea, both in time and in space. Swimming crabs are an important food source for lesser black-backed gulls during the breeding season. Inhabiting the land, but feeding mainly at sea, lesser black-backed gulls provide a link between marine and terrestrial ecosystems, since the bottom-up influence of allochthonous nutrient input from seabirds to coastal soils can structure the terrestrial food web. We, therefore, suggest that climate-driven changes in trophic interactions in the marine food web may also have ensuing ramifications for the coastal ecology of the North Sea. PMID:22764111

Luczak, C; Beaugrand, G; Lindley, J A; Dewarumez, J-M; Dubois, P J; Kirby, R R



Enterospora sp., an intranuclear microsporidian infection of hermit crab Eupagurus bernhardus.  


Recent work at our laboratory has led to the discovery of a new genus of microsporidian parasite residing in the family Enterocytozoonidae. The type species of this new genus, Enterospora canceri, is an intranuclear parasite infecting the hepatopancreatocytes of the decapod crustacean Cancer pagurus. Here we provide the second description of a parasite within the genus Enterospora, this time infecting the hermit crab Eupagurus bernhardus from U.K. waters. The pathological manifestation and ultrastructural features of the hermit crab parasite are very similar to those described for E. canceri. Further taxonomic comparisons based upon ultrastructural and molecular affinities of Enterospora are now required to define firmer links between this new genus within the Enterocytozoonidae and all other microsporidian families. The opportunistic nature of the discovery of a second intranuclear microsporidian within the Crustacea suggests that their presence may be more common than in higher animal groups. PMID:17523545

Stentiford, G D; Bateman, K S



Novel Protocol for the Chemical Synthesis of Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone Analogues -- An Efficient Experimental Tool for Studying Their Functions  

PubMed Central

The crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (cHH) is present in many decapods in different isoforms, whose specific biological functions are still poorly understood. Here we report on the first chemical synthesis of three distinct isoforms of the cHH of Astacus leptodactylus carried out by solid phase peptide synthesis coupled to native chemical ligation. The synthetic 72 amino acid long peptide amides, containing L- or D-Phe3 and (Glp1, D-Phe3) were tested for their biological activity by means of homologous in vivo bioassays. The hyperglycemic activity of the D-isoforms was significantly higher than that of the L-isoform, while the presence of the N-terminal Glp residue had no influence on the peptide activity. The results show that the presence of D-Phe3 modifies the cHH functionality, contributing to the diversification of the hormone pool.

Mosco, Alessandro; Zlatev, Vientsislav; Guarnaccia, Corrado; Pongor, Sandor; Campanella, Antonella; Zahariev, Sotir; Giulianini, Piero G.



Vertically migrating micronekton and macrozooplankton communities around Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution, biomass, and assemblages of vertically migrating micronekton/macrozooplankton were studied in relation to oceanographic conditions around Guam and the adjacent Northern Mariana Islands during Spring 2010, using 3-m2 Isaacs-Kidd Midwater Trawl (IKMT). The study area was located within the oligotrophic waters of the westward flowing North Equatorial Current (NEC). However, southern stations of the survey were situated close to the northern boundary of the more productive North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC), where we observed the highest biomass, abundance, species richness, and diversity of pelagic organisms. Overall, we recorded 85 species from 20 families of mostly mesopelagic species in the area, with lanternfishes (Myctophidae—40 species) and dragonfishes (Stomiidae—18 species) being the most taxonomically diverse groups. Three genera of mesopelagic shrimps, Sergestes, Janicella and Sergia, dominated the decapod crustacean component of the micronekton community numerically and by biomass, while the contribution from cephalopods was relatively minor. Assemblages of major micronekton/macrozooplankton groups, based on biomass and abundance showed principal changes with latitude. However, the classification and ordination analysis, based on taxonomically resolved taxa (fishes and decapod shrimps), indicated additional zonal variation, with areas east and west of the island chain showing different community structure. The mean total micronekton biomass for the area near the productive boundary region between the NEC and NECC was 5.8 mg/m3, with a mean biomass of 1.2 mg/m3 obtained for stations in the oligotrophic NEC area. The corresponding biomass of mesopelagic fishes was 0.88 mg/m3 and 0.24 mg/m3 for these two areas, respectively. We reviewed and compared the available information on the quantitative distribution of midwater fish biomass in the western tropical Pacific and outlined major patterns of variation in the equatorial Pacific in general.

Suntsov, Andrey; Domokos, Réka



Identification of SYWKQCAFNAVSCFamide: a broadly conserved crustacean C-type allatostatin-like peptide with both neuromodulatory and cardioactive properties  

PubMed Central

Summary The allatostatins comprise three structurally distinct peptide families that regulate juvenile hormone production by the insect corpora allata. A-type family members contain the C-terminal motif –YXFGLamide and have been found in species from numerous arthropod taxa. Members of the B-type family exhibit a –WX6Wamide C-terminus and, like the A-type peptides, appear to be broadly conserved within the Arthropoda. By contrast, members of the C-type family, typified by the unblocked C-terminus –PISCF, a pyroglutamine blocked N-terminus, and a disulfide bridge between two internal Cys residues, have only been found in holometabolous insects, i.e. lepidopterans and dipterans. Here, using transcriptomics, we have identified SYWKQCAFNAVSCFamide (disulfide bridging predicted between the two Cys residues), a known honeybee and water flea C-type-like peptide, from the American lobster Homarus americanus (infraorder Astacidea). Using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTMS), a mass corresponding to that of SYWKQCAFNAVSCFamide was detected in the H. americanus brain, supporting the existence of this peptide and its theorized structure. Furthermore, SYWKQCAFNAVSCFamide was detected by MALDI-FTMS in neural tissues from five additional astacideans as well as 19 members of four other decapod infraorders (i.e. Achelata, Anomura, Brachyura and Thalassinidea), suggesting that it is a broadly conserved decapod peptide. In H. americanus, SYWKQCAFNAVSCFamide is capable of modulating the output of both the pyloric circuit of the stomatogastric nervous system and the heart. This is the first demonstration of bioactivity for this peptide in any species.

Dickinson, Patsy S.; Wiwatpanit, Teerawat; Gabranski, Emily R.; Ackerman, Rachel J.; Stevens, Jake S.; Cashman, Christopher R.; Stemmler, Elizabeth A.; Christie, Andrew E.



The eyestalk-androgenic gland-testis endocrine axis in the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus.  


In decapod crustaceans, a number of neurohormones regulating a variety of physiological processes, including reproduction, are to be found in the X-organ-sinus gland complex of the eyestalk. Bilateral eyestalk ablation was thus performed in mature males of the Australian red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus with the aim of studying the role of eyestalk-borne hormones on spermatogenic activity in the testis and on the androgenic gland (AG). The latter gland controls the differentiation and functioning of male sexual characteristics in crustaceans. Eyestalk ablation caused hypertrophy of the AG, as indicated by an increase in gland weight (3.9 +/- 0.44 mg vs < 0.1mg in intact males) and by overexpression of AG polypeptides. In the testes of eyestalk-ablated males, empty spermatogenic lobules were common, while lobules containing primary spermatocytes were infrequent. These findings were reflected in decreased amounts of DNA in these testes and a consequent increase in the relative weights of the sperm ducts. Since it was found that eyestalk ablation affected both the AG and the reproductive system, in vitro experiments were conducted to study the direct effects of the sinus gland on the AG and testes and of the AG on the testes. Sinus gland extracts inhibited by 30% the incorporation of radiolabeled amino acids into AG polypeptides and almost totally inhibited the secretion of radiolabeled AG polypeptides into the culture medium. However, sinus gland extracts had no significant effects on testicular tissue. On the other hand, AG extracts affected the in vitro phosphorylation of a testicular polypeptide (of 28 kDa), in a time- and dose-dependent manner, suggesting a direct effect of AG-borne hormones on the testes. The above findings, together with the evidence for direct inhibition by the sinus gland on the AG, suggest an endocrine axis-like relationship between the sinus gland, the AG, and the male reproductive system in decapod crustaceans. PMID:12383442

Khalaila, Isam; Manor, Rivka; Weil, Simy; Granot, Yosef; Keller, Rainer; Sagi, Amir



Neuropeptides in the crayfish stomatogastric nervous system.  


Neuropeptides are peptides with profound effects on the nervous system. The function of neuropeptides can be studied in detail in the stomatogastric nervous system (STNS). Neuropeptides are ubiquitously distributed in the STNS and it contains well-studied neural circuits that are strongly modulated by neuropeptides. The STNS controls the movements of the foregut in crustaceans and has been studied intensively in a variety of decapod crustaceans including crayfish. This article reviews our knowledge of neuropeptides in the crayfish STNS. Within crayfish, peptides reach the circuits of the STNS as neurohormones released by neurohaemal organs or by putative neurohemal zones located within the STNS. As transmitters, neuropeptides are present in identified motoneurons, interneurons, and sensory neurons (mainly shown by immunocytochemistry), indicating a multiple role of peptides in the plasticity of neural networks. Neuropeptides are not only present in varicosities within the neuropil of ganglia, but also in varicosities on muscles and within small neuropil patches along nerves. This suggests that the muscles of the stomach are under a more direct modulatory control than previously thought, and that information processing can also occur within nerves. In addition to anatomical studies, biochemical and electrophysiological methods were used. For example, MALDI-TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry) revealed the presence of four different peptides of the orcokinin family within a single neuron, and electrophysiological experiments demonstrated that the networks of the STNS are not only under excitatory but also inhibitory peptidergic influence. Comparing the similarities and differences between the STNS of crayfish and that of other decapod crustaceans has already contributed to our knowledge about peptides and will further help to unravel peptide function in the plasticity of neural circuits. For example, the identified neurons in the STNS can be used to study co-transmission because neuropeptides are co-localized with classical transmitters, biogenic amines, or other peptides in these neurons. PMID:12539160

Skiebe, Petra



Environmental drivers of megafaunal assemblage composition and biomass distribution over mainland and insular slopes of the Balearic Basin (Western Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of mesoscale physical and trophic variables on deep-sea megafauna, a scale of variation often neglected in deep-sea studies, is crucial for understanding their role in the ecosystem. Drivers of megafaunal assemblage composition and biomass distribution have been investigated in two contrasting areas of the Balearic basin in the NW Mediterranean: on the mainland slope (Catalonian coasts) and on the insular slope (North of Mallorca, Balearic Islands). An experimental bottom trawl survey was carried out during summer 2010, at stations in both sub-areas located between 450 and 2200 m water depth. Environmental data were collected simultaneously: near-bottom physical parameters, and the elemental and isotopic composition of sediments. Initially, data were analysed along the whole depth gradient, and then assemblages from the two areas were compared. Analysis of the trawls showed the existence of one group associated with the upper slope (US=450-690 m), another with the middle slope (MS=1000-1300 m) and a third with the lower slope (LS=1400-2200 m). Also, significant differences in the assemblage composition were found between mainland and insular slopes at MS. Dominance by different species was evident when the two areas were compared by SIMPER analysis. The greatest fish biomass was recorded in both areas at 1000-1300 m, a zone linked to minimum temperature and maximum O2 concentration on the bottom. Near the mainland, fish assemblages were best explained (43% of total variance, DISTLM analysis) by prey availability (gelatinous zooplankton biomass). On the insular slope, trophic webs seemed less complex and were based on vertical input of surface primary production. Decapods, which reached their highest biomass values on the upper slope, were correlated with salinity and temperature in both the areas. However, while hydrographic conditions (temperature and salinity) seemed to be the most important variables over the insular slope, resource availability (gelatinous zooplankton and Calocaris macandreae) predominated and explained 59% of decapod assemblage variation over the mainland slope. Both fish and decapods were linked to net primary production recorded over the mainland 3 months before sampling, while the delay between the input of food from the surface and fish abundance was only 1 month on the insular slope. Our results suggest that trophic relationships over insular slopes probably involve a shorter food chain than over mainland slopes and one that is likely more efficient in terms of energy transfer. HighlightsDeep assemblages differ at bathymetric and geographical (mainland vs. insular) scale.Species diversity is greater over mainland than on insular slope.Different environmental and trophic variables drive the observed patterns.Over the insular slope, benthopelagic species are more connected to vertical flux.Assemblages exploit both vertical and lateral advective inputs on the mainland slope.

Fanelli, E.; Cartes, J. E.; Papiol, V.; López-Pérez, C.



The effects of temperature on peripheral neuronal function in eurythermal and stenothermal crustaceans.  


To determine whether neuronal function in Antarctic crustaceans is adapted to the low and narrow range of temperatures at which these animals live, we have compared conduction velocities in the peripheral nervous systems of two temperate species, the decapod Carcinus maenas and the isopod Ligia oceanica, and two Antarctic species, the isopod Glyptonotus antarcticus and the amphipod Paraceradocus gibber. Neuronal conduction velocity differs among the species in the order C. maenas > G. antarcticus > P. gibber > L. oceanica. When measured at the normal environmental temperatures characteristic of each species, conduction velocity of the Antarctic peracarid P. gibber is greater than that of its similar sized temperate relative L. oceanica, demonstrating complete thermal compensation. The temperate decapod C. maenas has a higher thermal dependence of neuronal conduction velocity than either of the Antarctic species, G. antarcticus and P. gibber, but the temperate L. oceanica does not. These data, when collated with published values, indicate that peracarid crustaceans (L. oceanica, G. antarcticus and P. gibber) have lower neuronal conduction velocities and a lower thermal dependence of neuronal conduction velocity than do other arthropods, irrespective of habitat. There is a linear dependence of conduction velocity on temperature down to -1.8 degrees C in all three species. Our data extend by more than 10 degrees the lower range of temperatures at which conduction velocities have been tested systematically in previous studies. The upper thermal block of neuronal conduction is similar in C. maenas, G. antarcticus, P. gibber and L. oceanica at 24.5, 19.5, 21.5 and 19.5 degrees C, respectively. This suggests that failure to conduct action potentials is not what determines the mortality of Antarctic invertebrates at approximately 10 degrees C. The excitability of axons in the leg nerve of G. antarcticus is not affected by temperatures ranging from -1.8 to +18 degrees C. The responses of sensory neurones activated by movements of spines on the leg, however, are strongly modulated by temperature, with maximal responses at 5-10 degrees C; well above the normal environmental temperature range for the species. The responses fail at 20-22 degrees C. The number of large diameter axons (which produce the fast action potentials recorded in this study) is the same in L. oceanica and G. antarcticus, but the median axon diameter is greater in L. oceanica than G. antarcticus. In G. antarcticus, however, there are glial wrappings around some large (>5 microm diameter) axons that may increase their conduction velocity. Such wrappings are not found in L. oceanica. PMID:16651562

Young, John S; Peck, Lloyd S; Matheson, Thomas



Kinematics of walking in the hermit crab, Pagurus pollicarus.  


Hermit crabs are decapod crustaceans that have adapted to life in gastropod shells. Among their adaptations are modifications to their thoracic appendages or pereopods. The 4th and 5th pairs are adapted for shell support; walking is performed with the 2nd and 3rd pereopods, with an alternation of diagonal pairs. During stance, the walking legs are rotated backwards in the pitch plane. Two patterns of walking were studied to compare them with walking patterns described for other decapods, a lateral gait, similar to that in many brachyurans, and a forward gait resembling macruran walking. Video sequences of free walking and restrained animals were used to obtain leg segment positions from which joint angles were calculated. Leading legs in a lateral walk generated a power stroke by flexion of MC and PD joints; CB angles often did not change during slow walks. Trailing legs exhibited extension of MC and PD with a slight levation of CB. The two joints, B/IM and CP, are aligned at 90° angles to CB, MC and PD, moving dorso-anteriorly during swing and ventro-posteriorly during stance. A forward step was more complex; during swing the leg was rotated forward (yaw) and vertically (pitch), due to the action of TC. At the beginning of stance, TC started to rotate posteriorly and laterally, CB was depressed, and MC flexed. As stance progressed and the leg was directed laterally, PD and MC extended, so that at the end of stance the dactyl tip was quite posterior. During walks of the animal out of its shell, the legs were extended more anterior-laterally and the animal often toppled over, indicating that during walking in a shell its weight stabilized the animal. An open chain kinematic model in which each segment was approximated as a rectangular solid, the dimensions of which were derived from measurements on animals, was developed to estimate the CM of the animal under different load conditions. CM was normally quite anterior; removal of the chelipeds shifted it caudally. Application of forces simulating the weight of the shell on the 5th pereopods moved CM just anterior to the thoracic-abdominal junction. However, lateral and vertical coordinates were not altered under these different load conditions. The interaction of the shell aperture with proximal leg joints and with the CM indicates that the oblique angles of the legs, due primarily to the rotation of the TC joints, is an adaptation that confers stability during walking. PMID:22321513

Chapple, William



Seamount biota and biogeography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review of the literature and unpublished data has identified 1045 species of plants, invertebrates and fishes collected from more than 100 seamounts worldwide at depths of 29 to 3800 m. Cnidarians and decapod crustaceans among invertebrates, and scorpaenids and morids among fishes, were the most widely distributed groups on seamounts, according to published reports. Biota of seamounts is dominated by organisms inhabiting the nearest continental areas, especially at high latitudes. On shallow seamounts (<1000 m) provincial species with distributions limited to the region in which the seamount is located and widespread/cosmopolitan species are nearly equally represented. On deeper seamounts, the widespread/cosmopolitan categories dominate. Seamounts appear to provide "stepping stones" for trans-oceanic dispersal in both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Dispersal onto seamounts probably occurs both actively (swimming) and passively )drift of pelagic and planktonic stages). Seamount endemism is estimated maximally at 15.4% among invertebrates and 11.6% among fishes. Population divergence and possibly speciation have occurred on seamounts of varying depths and distances from continental margins.

Wilson, Raymond R., Jr.; Kaufmann, Ronald S.


Ecology of irregularly flooded salt marshes of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico: a community profile  

SciTech Connect

The salt marshes of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico are distinguished by irregular flooding, low energy wave and tidal action, and long periods of exposure. The plant community is most often dominated by black needlerush (Juncus roemerianus), the species of focus in this synthesis. Distinct marsh zones include those dominated by Juncus and Spartina alterniflora at low elevations, sparsely vegetated salt flats, and higher elevation salt meadows of Juncus and Spartina patens. A diverse microbial and algal assemblage is also present. A diverse fauna has adapted to the physical rigors of these marshes. Zooplankton are dominated by the larvae of fiddler crabs and other decapods. The meiofauna consist primarily of nematodes and harpacticoid copepods. Macroinvertebrates are represented by crustaceans (especially mollusks and crabs), annelids, and insects. Grass shrimp, blue crabs, and other crustaceans are seasonally abundant in marsh creeks, as are a number of resident and migratory fish species. Birds comprise one of the larger herbivore groups and are also significant at higher tropic levels as top carnivores. Muskrat and nutria are important mammals. 43 figs., 38 tabs.

Stout, J.P.



Physiological and behavioral effects of chemoreceptors located in different body parts of the swimming crab Callinectes danae.  


By perfusing their branchial chambers with filtered seawater, we have developed a preparation that allows us to maintain the swimming crab Callinectes danae outside water without any major effects on its cardiac activity. This in turn allowed us to selectively stimulate chemoreceptors located in different body parts, and specifically to discriminate between the receptors located in the branchial chambers and those located in the oral region (mainly in the mouthparts, antennules and antennae). We show that a taurine solution can evoke bradycardia when applied to the oral region or to a combination of the oral region and the branchial chambers. Although the precise localization of the oral region receptors involved remains to be determined, ablation experiments show that the olfactory organs (i.e., the antennules) are not involved. Finally, we show that although stimulating the pereiopods has no effect on the animals' cardiac activity it causes the animals to move, putatively to try to grasp a piece of food, a reaction not evoked by stimulating the gills or the oral regions. Our results lend support to the idea that chemoreceptors located in different parts of the body play different functional roles in decapod crustaceans. PMID:16762574

Aggio, Juan F; de Freitas, José C



Analysis of stomach and gut microbiomes of the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) from coastal Louisiana, USA.  


We used high throughput pyrosequencing to characterize stomach and gut content microbiomes of Crassostrea virginica, the Easter oyster, obtained from two sites, one in Barataria Bay (Hackberry Bay) and the other in Terrebonne Bay (Lake Caillou), Louisiana, USA. Stomach microbiomes in oysters from Hackberry Bay were overwhelmingly dominated by Mollicutes most closely related to Mycoplasma; a more rich community dominated by Planctomyctes occurred in Lake Caillou oyster stomachs. Gut communities for oysters from both sites differed from stomach communities, and harbored a relatively diverse assemblage of phylotypes. Phylotypes most closely related to Shewanella and a Chloroflexi strain dominated the Lake Caillou and Hackberry Bay gut microbiota, respectively. While many members of the stomach and gut microbiomes appeared to be transients or opportunists, a putative core microbiome was identified based on phylotypes that occurred in all stomach or gut samples only. The putative core stomach microbiome comprised 5 OTUs in 3 phyla, while the putative core gut microbiome contained 44 OTUs in 12 phyla. These results collectively revealed novel microbial communities within the oyster digestive system, the functions of the oyster microbiome are largely unknown. A comparison of microbiomes from Louisiana oysters with bacterial communities reported for other marine invertebrates and fish indicated that molluscan microbiomes were more similar to each other than to microbiomes of polychaetes, decapods and fish. PMID:23251548

King, Gary M; Judd, Craig; Kuske, Cheryl R; Smith, Conor



cDNA cloning and mRNA expression of retinoid-X-receptor in the ovary of the shrimp Metapenaeus ensis.  


Retinoid-X-receptor (RXR) plays an essential role in the molting process of decapod crustaceans, by forming a heterodimeric complex with the ecdysteroid receptor. However, its role during female reproduction, especially in the process of ovarian maturation, has not been characterized. To get an insight into the molecular events governing the process of ovarian maturation in shrimps, the full-length cDNA of RXR from Metapenaeus ensis was cloned by extension of truncated cDNA by using the RACE technique. The open reading frame of MeRXR encodes a 410 amino acid protein with a deduced molecular weight of 44.8 kDa, and putative pI of 6.64, which roughly matched our observation from 2DE gel. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MeRXR has high similarity to RXR of Penaeus chinensis and P. japonicus. RT-PCR revealed that MeRXR was universally expressed in all tissues investigated. The variation in MeRXR mRNA expression pattern during ovarian maturation was further analyzed by real-time PCR. In contrast to the decrease in MeRXR at protein level with ovarian maturation, MeRXR mRNA level was low in pre-vitellogenic and mid-vitellogenic ovaries, and increased significantly from mid-vitellogenic to late-vitellogenic stages. This result suggests that MeRXR transcripts in the mature ovary probably act as maternal messages for regulating early molting events during embryonic development. PMID:24091942

Cui, Ju; Wu, Longtao; Chan, Siu-Ming; Chu, Ka Hou



[Feeding changes for three Sphoeroides species (Tetraodontiformes: Tetraodontidae) after Isidore hurricane impact in Carbonera Inlet, Southeastern Gulf of Mexico].  


The coexistence of ecologically similar species may occur because of resources distribution, such as prey and habitat type and segregation time, that minimizes the interspecific competition. The changes brought about by Hurricane Isidore in the distribution of food resources by three coexisting fish species of the family Tetraodontidae (Sphoeroides nephelus, S. spengleri and S testudineus), were analyzed at the Carbonera Inlet. Sphoeroides spp. based their food on benthic organisms; principally, they consume mussels (Brachidontes sp.), barnacles (Balanus sp.) and gastropods (Crepidula sp). Before hurricane impact, the three species share the available food resources in different proportions (bivalves, gastropods, barnacles and decapods), according to different strategies that enabled them to coexist and reduce interspecific competition. After the impact, the abundance of available prey decreased and the interespecific competition for food increased, leading to S. testudines and S. nephelus change their trophic spectrum (xiphosurans, amphipods, isopods and detritus) and displacing S. splengleri of the inlet. The distribution of food resources was conditioned by the abundance and diversity of prey, as well as the adaptive response of each species. PMID:21250477

Palacios-Sánchez, Sonia Eugenia; Vega-Cendejas, María Eugenia



Ancient lakes as evolutionary reservoirs: evidence from the thalassoid gastropods of Lake Tanganyika.  

PubMed Central

Ancient lakes are often collectively viewed as evolutionary hot spots of diversification. East Africa's Lake Tanganyika has long been the subject of scientific interest owing to dramatic levels of endemism in species as diverse as cichlid fishes, paludomid gastropods, decapod and ostracod crustaceans and poriferans. It is the largest and deepest of the African rift lakes, and its endemic fauna has been presented with a stable inland environment for over 10 Myr, offering unique opportunities for within-lake diversification. Although astonishing diversification has been documented in the endemic cichlid fauna of the lake, similar patterns of rapid diversification have long been assumed for other groups. In contrast to this hypothesis of rapid speciation, we show here that there has been no acceleration in the rate of speciation in the thalassoid gastropods of the lake following lake colonization. While limited within-lake speciation has occurred, the dramatic conchological diversity of gastropods presently found within the lake has evolved from at least four major lineages that pre-date its formation by as much as 40 Myr. At the same time, a widespread group of African gastropods appears to have evolved from taxa presently found in the lake. While Lake Tanganyika has been a cradle of speciation for cichlid fishes, it has also been an important evolutionary reservoir of gastropod lineages that have been extirpated outside the basin.

Wilson, Anthony B.; Glaubrecht, Matthias; Meyer, Axel



Dancing for food in the deep sea: bacterial farming by a new species of Yeti crab.  


Vent and seep animals harness chemosynthetic energy to thrive far from the sun's energy. While symbiont-derived energy fuels many taxa, vent crustaceans have remained an enigma; these shrimps, crabs, and barnacles possess a phylogenetically distinct group of chemosynthetic bacterial epibionts, yet the role of these bacteria has remained unclear. We test whether a new species of Yeti crab, which we describe as Kiwa puravida n. sp, farms the epibiotic bacteria that it grows on its chelipeds (claws), chelipeds that the crab waves in fluid escaping from a deep-sea methane seep. Lipid and isotope analyses provide evidence that epibiotic bacteria are the crab's main food source and K. puravida n. sp. has highly-modified setae (hairs) on its 3(rd) maxilliped (a mouth appendage) which it uses to harvest these bacteria. The ?- and ?- proteobacteria that this methane-seep species farms are closely related to hydrothermal-vent decapod epibionts. We hypothesize that this species waves its arm in reducing fluid to increase the productivity of its epibionts by removing boundary layers which may otherwise limit carbon fixation. The discovery of this new species, only the second within a family described in 2005, stresses how much remains undiscovered on our continental margins. PMID:22140426

Thurber, Andrew R; Jones, William J; Schnabel, Kareen



Doomed pioneers: Event deposition and bioturbation in anaerobic marine environments  

SciTech Connect

Isolated horizons of Thalassinoides and Gyrolithes burrows, in exclusive association with gravity flow deposits within otherwise unbioturbated sediments, indicate that event deposition in oxygen-depleted sedimentary environments may be accompanied by the appearance of allochthonous infauna. In the Miocene Monterey Formation of Alta California and in the Oligocene-Miocene San Gregorio Formation of Baja California Sur, the authors observe compelling evidence that some turbulent sedimentation events entrain living decapod crustaceans. Upon deposition in anaerobic environments, these imported burrowers rework substantial quantities of laminated, commonly organic-rich sediment, in an environment from which they were previously excluded. The persistence of oxygen-depleted environmental conditions limits the survival time of these transported infaunal dwellers and renders them doomed pioneers. The occurrence of Thalassinoides and Gyrolithes, ichnogenera that are generally observed in normal-marine, neritic environments, in anoxic hemipelagic host sediments have been problematic for paleoenvironmental interpretation; in some cases, these features have been incorrectly interpreted to indicate bottom water ventilation and reoxygenation on a basin-wide scale. Accurate recognition of doomed pioneer trace fossil assemblages will permit more precise understanding of paleo-oxygen levels and basin history.

Grimm, K.A. (Univ. of California, Santa Cruz (USA)); Follmi, K.B. (Geologisches Institut, Zurich (Switzerland))



The Role of Road Corridors on Riparian Vegetation and Stream Ecosystem Dynamics.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stream ecosystems are dependent on organic material from the riparian zone as a major energy source for the food web. Leaf litter (organic matter) entering streams is processed by a combination of physical and biological mechanisms. In temperate streams, microbial conditioning is important for detrital processing. Much less is known in tropical systems, especially those dominated by large macro-consumers such as decapods. There is also variation among species in terms of processing rates that are explained by nutritional value, chemical defenses and palatability. These traits are a function of plant life history. If riparian species are being significantly altered through invasions by exotic species along road corridors, then we can expect changes in detrital processing rates and ultimately, ecosystem function. As part of a biocomplexity project in Puerto Rico, we are quantifying the changes to species composition and trait-mediated decomposition and foodweb dynamics. Where roads are constructed, exotic invasives include Spathodea, Bambusa, Syzigium and a various grasses. Because of the chemical defenses and their high nutritional value, decomposition rates on these species is much higher than for native riparian species. The increased breakdown rates may `accelerate' ecosystem processes and either enhance or destabilize existing food web linkages.

Crowl, T.; Heartsill-Scalley, T.; Covich, A. P.; Hein, C. L.



Dancing for Food in the Deep Sea: Bacterial Farming by a New Species of Yeti Crab  

PubMed Central

Vent and seep animals harness chemosynthetic energy to thrive far from the sun's energy. While symbiont-derived energy fuels many taxa, vent crustaceans have remained an enigma; these shrimps, crabs, and barnacles possess a phylogenetically distinct group of chemosynthetic bacterial epibionts, yet the role of these bacteria has remained unclear. We test whether a new species of Yeti crab, which we describe as Kiwa puravida n. sp, farms the epibiotic bacteria that it grows on its chelipeds (claws), chelipeds that the crab waves in fluid escaping from a deep-sea methane seep. Lipid and isotope analyses provide evidence that epibiotic bacteria are the crab's main food source and K. puravida n. sp. has highly-modified setae (hairs) on its 3rd maxilliped (a mouth appendage) which it uses to harvest these bacteria. The ?- and ?- proteobacteria that this methane-seep species farms are closely related to hydrothermal-vent decapod epibionts. We hypothesize that this species waves its arm in reducing fluid to increase the productivity of its epibionts by removing boundary layers which may otherwise limit carbon fixation. The discovery of this new species, only the second within a family described in 2005, stresses how much remains undiscovered on our continental margins.

Thurber, Andrew R.; Jones, William J.; Schnabel, Kareen



Locomotory activity and feeding strategy of the hadal munnopsid isopod Rectisura cf. herculea (Crustacea: Asellota) in the Japan Trench.  


Benthic fauna in the hadal zone (6500-11,000 m) rely on maintaining sufficient locomotory activity to exploit a low, patchy and uniquely distributed food supply while exposed to high pressure, low temperatures and responding to predator-prey interactions. Very little is currently known about the locomotory capabilities of hadal fauna. In situ video footage of the isopod Rectisura cf. herculea (Birstein 1957) (Asellota, Munnopsidae) was obtained from 6945 and 7703 m deep in the Japan Trench (NW Pacific Ocean). Measurements of locomotion revealed routine walking speeds of 0.19 ± 0.04 BL s(-1) (mean ± s.d.), increasing to 0.33 ± 0.04 BL s(-1) if naturally perturbed by larger organisms. When immediately threatened by the presence of predators (decapod crustaceans), the isopods are capable of eliciting backward escape jumps and burst swimming escape responses of 2.6 ± 1.5 BL s(-1) and 4.63 ± 0.9 BL s(-1), respectively. These data suggest no significant reduction in locomotory capability despite the extreme depths in which they inhabit. These observations also revealed the isopod to be a bait-attending and aggregative species and suggest that it may not be obligatorily selecting infaunal food sources as previously thought. PMID:22875769

Jamieson, Alan J; Fujii, Toyonobu; Priede, Imants G



[Feeding ecology of Amblychaeturichthys hexanema in Jiaozhou Bay, China].  


From February to November 2011, four seasonal bottom trawl surveys were conducted in the Jiaozhou Bay of China. A total of 624 Amblychaeturichthys hexanema individuals were collected to analyze their stomach contents, with the feeding ecology of A. hexanema studied. The prey items of A. hexanema included more than 40 species, among which, Alpheus japonicas, Philine kinglippini, and Leptochela gracilis were the dominant prey species. The diet composition of A. hexanema had an obvious seasonal variation, with the gastropods, fish, decapods, and microcrustacean being the most important prey items in spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively. This phenomenon could be mainly related to the seasonal variations in the species and biomass of the preys in Jiaozhou Bay. With the increase of predator size, the prey species of A. hexanema varied from small size copepod to larger sizes P. kinglippini, Raphidopus ciliates, and A. japonicas. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that water temperature and salinity were the most important factors affecting the feeding of A. hexanema, followed by predator size and water pH. PMID:24015569

Han, Dong-Yan; Xue, Ying; Ji, Yu-Peng; Ma, Qiu-Yun



Seasonal habitat-use patterns of nekton in a tide-restricted and unrestricted New England salt marsh  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many New England salt marshes remain tide-restricted or are undergoing tidal restoration. Hydrologic manipulation of salt marshes affects marsh biogeochemistry and vegetation patterns, but responses by fishes and decapod crustaceans (nekton) remain unclear, This study examines nekton habitat-use patterns in the tide-restricted Hatches Harbor salt marsh (Provincetown, Massachusetts) relative to a downstream, unrestricted marsh. Nekton assemblages were sampled in tidal creek, marsh pool, and salt marsh surface habitats. Pools and creeks were sampled every two weeks for one year to account for seasonal variability, and the marsh surface was sampled at two-week intervals in summer and fall. Density, richness, and community composition of nekton in creek and marsh surface habitats were similar between the unrestricted and restricted marsh, but use of pools differed drastically on the two sides of the tide-restricting dike. In 95% of the cases tested, restricted marsh habitats provided equal or greater habitat value for nekton than the same habitat in the unrestricted marsh (based on density), suggesting that the restricted marsh did not provide a degraded habitat for most species. For some species, the restricted marsh provided nursery, breeding, and overwintering habitat during different seasons, and tidal restoration of this salt marsh must be approached with care to prevent losses of these valuable marsh functions.

Raposa, K.B.; Roman, C.T.



Seasonal dynamics of the density of the crab larvae (Decapoda: Brachyura et Anomura) in Minonosok Bay of Pos'eta Bay (Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the materials for this project, we used data on the distribution of the larvae of the Asian paddle crab Charybdis japonicus (A. Milne-Edwards, 1861); the spider crabs Hyas coarctatus ursinus (= Hyas ursinus) (Rathbun, 1924), Pugettia quadridens (de Haan, 1839), and Pisoides bidentatus (H. Milne-Edwards, 1873); the samurai crab Paradorippe granulata (= Dorippe granulata) (de Haan, 1841); the pea crab Pinnixa rathbuni (Sakai, 1934); and the porcelain crab Pachycheles stevensii (Stimpson, 1858) in Minonosok Bay of Pos'eta Bay obtained during 2000-2002 and in 2004. The planktonic samples were collected from the last third of May to September. The greatest density of the larvae was observed in May, mid-June, late June-early July, and late July-early August. The greatest densities of the crab larvae and the decapod larvae ranged from 20.4 to 48.2 and from 88.4 to 245.3 specimens/m3. The schedule of the crab larvae's occurrence in the plankton is provided for the first time. The distribution of the density showed pronounced patchiness.

Grigoryeva, N. I.



Characterization of red pigment concentrating hormone (RPCH) in the female mud crab (Scylla olivacea) and the effect of 5-HT on its expression.  


Red pigment concentrating hormone (RPCH) is a member of the chromatophorotropic hormones and, in crustaceans, it is synthesized in the eyestalk. We have isolated a full-length cDNA for a RPCH preprohormone gene (Scyol-RPCH) from the eyestalks of female mud crabs, Scylla olivacea. The open reading frame consists of 642 nucleotides, and encodes a deduced 108 amino acid precursor protein, which includes a signal peptide, the RPCH (pQLNFSPGWamide), and an associated peptide. We show that the mud crab RPCH peptide exhibits 100% identity with 15 other decapods. Expression of Scyol-RPCH within adult mud crab takes place in the eyestalk, brain, and ventral nerve cord, comprising subesophageal ganglion, thoracic ganglion, and abdominal ganglion. In situ hybridization demonstrates specific expression within neuronal clusters 1, 2, 3, and 4 of the eyestalk X-organ, clusters 6, 8, 9, 10, and 17 of the brain, and in neuronal clusters of the ventral nerve cord. We found that administration of 5-HT up-regulates RPCH gene expression in the eyestalk, suggesting that RPCH may play a role as a downstream hormone of 5-HT. PMID:23376531

Kornthong, Napamanee; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Chansela, Piyachat; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Cummins, Scott F; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert



Development and Application of Microsatellites in Carcinus maenas: Genetic Differentiation between Northern and Central Portuguese Populations  

PubMed Central

Carcinus maenas, the common shore crab of European coastal waters, has recently gained notoriety due to its globally invasive nature associated with drastic ecological and economic effects. The native ubiquity and worldwide importance of C. maenas has resulted in it becoming one of the best-studied estuarine crustacean species globally. Accordingly, there is significant interest in investigating the population genetic structure of this broadly distributed crab along European and invaded coastlines. Here, we developed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for one dinucleotide and two trinucleotide microsatellite loci, resulting from an enrichment process based on Portuguese populations. Combining these three new markers with six existing markers, we examined levels of genetic diversity and population structure of C. maenas in two coastal regions from Northern and Central Portugal. Genotypes showed that locus polymorphism ranged from 10 to 42 alleles (N?=?135) and observed heterozygosity per locus ranged from 0.745 to 0.987 with expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.711 to 0.960; values typical of marine decapods. The markers revealed weak, but significant structuring among populations (global FST?=?0.004) across a 450 km (over-water distance) spatial scale. Combinations of these and existing markers will be useful for studying population genetic parameters at a range of spatial scales of C. maenas throughout its expanding species range.

Pascoal, Sonia; Creer, Simon; Taylor, Martin I.; Queiroga, Henrique; Carvalho, Gary; Mendo, Sonia



Endogenous origin of endo-?-1,4-glucanase in common woodlouse Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Isopoda).  


Because endogenous cellulases have been observed in arthropods, the potential ability to produce cellulose degrading enzymes was examined in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber, an important decomposer of decayed plant material. cDNA fragments encoding portions of two novel endo-?-1,4-glucanase amino acid sequences were amplified by RT-PCR, and the amino acid sequences predicted were affiliated to endo-?-1,4-glucanases from other arthropods, where they cluster with endo-?-1,4-glucanases of decapod crustaceans. Hybridization in situ reveals the hepatopancreas to be the primary site of gene expression and provides direct evidence of the endogenous origin of endo-?-1,4-glucanase in P. scaber. Conservation of catalytically important amino acid residues suggests that both sequences translate into functional cellulases. Cellulolytic activity was detected in hepatopancreatic extract after separation by SDS-PAGE, which included CMC as substrate. This is the first evidence of endogenous cellulases in peracarid crustaceans and gives strong support for the involvement of isopod endo-?-1,4-glucanases in the degradation of cellulose in their diet. PMID:20544203

Kostanjšek, Rok; Milatovi?, Maša; Strus, Jasna




PubMed Central

The sperm of the crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, is relatively simple among decapod sperm and was described in the first paper of this series (28). The present paper details the development of this sperm as followed with the light and electron microscopes. The process is divided into six stages for purposes of description. The main points of interest discussed are the absence of mitochondria or mitochondrial derivatives in the mature sperm, the development of a complex acrosome in the absence of highly organized characteristic Golgi apparatus but in the presence of small stacks of annulate lamellae, and the changes in the nucleus. Of the latter, the elaborate convoluted sheets of membrane that are extensions of the nuclear envelope are unique. The nucleus undergoes unusual changes in size and shape that are accompanied by several phases of organization of the chromatin. In the mature sperm the nucleus is empty-appearing and notably lacking in any apparent high degree of order. The entire development of the sperm is consonant with the idea that the fate of the mitochondria and centrioles, structures that figure prominently in the elaborate architecture of flagellate sperm, is associated with the lack of a flagellum.

Moses, Montrose J.



Conservation status of Chinese species: (2) Invertebrates.  


A total of 2441 invertebrate species were evaluated using the IUCN Red List Criteria and Regional Guidelines. Approximately 30 experts were involved in this project, which covered a wide range of species, including jellyfish, corals, planarians, snails, mollusks, bivalves, decapods, benthic crustaceans, arachnids (spiders, scorpions), butterflies, moths, beetles, sea cucumbers, sea urchins, sea stars, acorn worms and lancelets. In general, invertebrate species in China were found to be severely threatened, with 0.9% being critically endangered, 13.44% endangered and 20.63% vulnerable. All species of hermatypic corals and planarians are threatened. More than 80% of evaluated species face serious threat due to habitat destruction by coral collection, logging, non-woody vegetation collection, timber plantations, non-timber plantations, extraction and/or livestock. Other threats are intrinsic factors, harvesting by humans, alien invasive species and pollution. The main intrinsic factors contributing to the high levels of threat are limited dispersal and restricted range. No conservation measures have been taken for 70% of the threatened invertebrates evaluated. Existing conservation measures include: strengthening of national and international legislation (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora), increasing public awareness, studying population trends/monitoring, and establishment of protected areas. The major conservation measure employed is strengthening of policies. Relative to the situation worldwide (2006 IUCN Red List), there is little information available about invertebrate extinctions in China. PMID:21396022

Xie, Yan; Wang, Sung



The timing and pattern of biotic recovery following the end-Permian mass extinction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aftermath of the great end-Permian period mass extinction 252 Myr ago shows how life can recover from the loss of >90% species globally. The crisis was triggered by a number of physical environmental shocks (global warming, acid rain, ocean acidification and ocean anoxia), and some of these were repeated over the next 5-6 Myr. Ammonoids and some other groups diversified rapidly, within 1-3 Myr, but extinctions continued through the Early Triassic period. Triassic ecosystems were rebuilt stepwise from low to high trophic levels through the Early to Middle Triassic, and a stable, complex ecosystem did not re-emerge until the beginning of the Middle Triassic, 8-9 Myr after the crisis. A positive aspect of the recovery was the emergence of entirely new groups, such as marine reptiles and decapod crustaceans, as well as new tetrapods on land, including -- eventually -- dinosaurs. The stepwise recovery of life in the Triassic could have been delayed either by biotic drivers (complex multispecies interactions) or physical perturbations, or a combination of both. This is an example of the wider debate about the relative roles of intrinsic and extrinsic drivers of large-scale evolution.

Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Benton, Michael J.



A new morphometric implemented video-image analysis protocol for the study of social modulation in activity rhythms of marine organisms.  


Video-image analysis can be an efficient tool for microcosm experiments portraying the modulation of individual behaviour based on sociality. The Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus is a burrowing decapod the commercial capture of which occurs by trawling only when animals are engaged in seabed excursions. Emergence behaviour is modulated by the day-night cycle but a further modulation occurs upon social interaction in a still unknown fashion. Here, we present a novel automated protocol for the tracking of the movement of different animals at once based on a multivariate morphometric approach. Four black and white tags were customized according to a precise geometric design. Shape Matching and Complex Fourier Descriptors analyses were used to track tag displacement through consecutive frames in a 7-day experiment under monochromatic blue light (480 nm)-darkness conditions. Shape Matching errors were evaluated in relation to tag geometry. Time series of centroid coordinates in pixels were transformed in centimetres. The FD analysis was slightly less efficient than the Shape Matching, although more rapid (i.e. up to 20 times faster). Nocturnal rhythms were reported for all animals. Waveform analysis indicated marked differences in the amplitude of activity phases as proof of interindividual interaction. Total diel activity presented a decrease in the rate of out of burrow locomotion as the testing progressed. N. norvegicus is a nocturnal species and present observations sustain the efficiency and fidelity of our automated tracking system. PMID:19619586

Menesatti, Paolo; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Costa, Corrado; García, José Antonio; Sardà, Francesc



Involvement of the antioxidant system in differential sensitivity of Carcinus maenas to fenitrothion exposure.  


Carcinus maenas is an invertebrate with worldwide distribution and high ability to adapt to different environments, which is frequently used in environmental monitoring. Despite this, it is not clear how historical exposure to moderate contamination may influence sensitivity to further chemical stress in this important decapod species. This study investigated differential responses to organophosphate fenitrothion of C. maenas from a moderately contaminated estuary and a low impacted one, using in vitro and in vivo biomarker assays. To clarify potential differences in sensitivity, a biochemical characterisation of muscle cholinesterases was first performed. The results indicated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) as the main form present in C. maenas muscle. Exposure assays revealed that crabs from the moderately contaminated site were less sensitive to fenitrothion showing lower AChE inhibition than those from the low impacted site. Other biomarker changes detected in these animals were: increased anaerobic metabolism (muscle lactate dehydrogenase), enhanced phase II biotransformation (glutathione S-transferases in the digestive gland) and antioxidant defences (i.e., activities of glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase, and levels of total glutathiones in the digestive gland). Altogether, the results pointed out a role for the glutathione redox system towards tolerance to fenitrothion exposure. PMID:24056931

Rodrigues, A P; Gravato, C; Guimarães, L



Ichnology of Upper Cretaceous deep-sea thick-bedded flysch sandstones: Lower Istebna Beds, Silesian Unit (Outer Carpathians, southern Poland)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ophiomorpha rudis ichnosubfacies of the Nereites ichnofacies was recognized in thick- and very thick-bedded sandstones of the Lower Istebna Beds (Campanian-Maastrichtian), which were deposited mainly in deep-sea clastic ramps and aprons. It contains mainly Ophiomorpha rudis (produced by deeply burrowing decapod crustaceans) and rarely Zoophycos isp. and Chondrites isp. The impoverished Paleodictyon ichnosubfacies of the Nereites ichnofacies is present in the medium- and thin-bedded packages of flysch sandwiched between the thick- and very thick-bedded sandstones. They contain Chondrites isp., Phycosiphon incertum, Planolites isp., Arthrophycus strictus, Thalassinoides isp., Ophiomorpha annulata, O. rudis, Scolicia strozzii and Helminthorhaphe flexuosa. The relatively low diversity of this assemblage is influenced by limited areas covered by muddy substrate, which favours deep-sea tracemakers, and partly by a lowered oxygenation in the sediment.

Rajchel, Jacek; Uchman, Alfred



Ethological analyses of crayfish behavior: a new invertebrate system for measuring the rewarding properties of psychostimulants.  


Recent investigations in invertebrate neurobiology have opened up a new line of research into the basic behavioral, neurochemical and genomic alterations that accompany psychostimulant drug exposure. However, the extent to which such findings relate to changes in motivational and learning processes, such as those that typify drug addictions, remains unclear. The present study addressed this issue in the crayfish, Orconectes rusticus. The first set of experiments demonstrated that intramuscular injections of cocaine and amphetamine have robust and distinguishable effects on crayfish behavior. In the second part of the study, the reinforcing properties of psychostimulants were tested in a series of conditioned place preference experiments. Amphetamine and, to a lesser extent, cocaine were both found to serve as rewards when their intra-circulatory infusion was coupled to a distinct visual environment. The monoaminergic regulation of behavior has been extensively studied in decapod crustaceans and the present experiments demonstrated that (mammalian) drugs of abuse, capable of interfering with monoamine chemistry, are similarly rewarding to crayfish. Behavioral studies in crayfish can provide a complementary approach to using other invertebrate species in addiction research. PMID:15219718

Panksepp, Jules B; Huber, Robert



GYRKPPFNGSIFamide (Gly-SIFamide) modulates aggression in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  


The freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii is a tropical crustacean with characteristics similar to those of lobsters and crayfish. Adult males develop through three morphological types-small (SC), yellow (YC), and blue claws (BC)-with each representing a level in the dominance hierarchy of a group, BC males being the most dominant. We are interested in understanding the role played by neuropeptides in the mechanisms underlying aggressive behavior and the establishment of dominance hierarchies in this type of prawn. SIFamides are a family of arthropod peptides recently identified in the central nervous system of insects and crustaceans, where it has been linked to olfaction, sexual behavior, and gut endocrine functions. One of the six SIFamide isoforms, GYRKPPFNGSIFamide (Gly-SIFamide), is highly conserved among decapod crustaceans such as crabs and crayfish. We wanted to determine whether Gly-SIFamide plays a role in modulating aggression and dominant behavior in the prawn. To do this, we performed behavioral experiments in which interactions between BC/YC pairs were recorded and quantified before and after injecting Gly-SIFamide directly into the circulating hemolymph of the living animal. Behavioral data showed that aggression among interacting BC/YC prawns was enhanced by injection of Gly-SIFamide, suggesting that this neuropeptide does have a modulatory role for this type of behavior in the prawn. PMID:20040755

Vázquez-Acevedo, Nietzell; Rivera, Nilsa M; Torres-González, Alejandra M; Rullan-Matheu, Yarely; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Eduardo A; Sosa, María A



Expression of recombinant eyestalk crustacean hyperglycemic hormone from the tropical land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis, that inhibits Y-organ ecdysteroidogenesis in vitro.  


Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) is a pleiotropic neuropeptide that regulates carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, molting, reproduction, and osmoregulation in decapod crustaceans. CHH elevates glucose levels in the hemolymph by stimulating glycogenolysis in target tissues. It also inhibits ecdysteroidogenesis in the molting gland, or Y-organ (YO), possibly as a response to environmental stress. CHH acts via binding to a membrane receptor guanylyl cyclase, which is expressed in most tissues, including the YO. Large amounts of biologically active neuropeptide are required to investigate the mechanism of CHH signaling in the YO. Consequently, the eyestalk ganglia CHH (EG-CHH) isoform was cloned into a yeast (Pichia pastoris) expression vector to express recombinant mature peptide (rEG-CHH) with or without a C-terminal c-Myc/polyhistidine tag. Yeast cultures with untagged or tagged rEG-CHH inhibited ecdysteroidogenesis in YOs from European green crab (Carcinus maenas) 36% (P < 0.002) and 51% (P < 0.006), respectively. Purified tagged EG-CHH inhibited YO ecdysteroidogenesis 32% (P < 0.002), but lacked hyperglycemic activity in vivo. This is the first report of recombinant EG-CHH inhibiting YO ecdysteroidogenesis. The data suggest that the tagged recombinant peptide can be used to elucidate the CHH signaling pathway in the crustacean molting gland. PMID:18595002

Zarubin, Tyler P; Chang, Ernest S; Mykles, Donald L



Clarification of Cercaria sevillana (Digenea: Microphallidae) life cycle using morphological and molecular data.  


Cercaria sevillana is the cercaria larval stage that infects the gonads and the digestive gland of its first intermediate host, Nassarius reticulatus. In this study the decapodous crustacean Carcinus maenas was used to determine if it would serve as second intermediate host in the parasite's life cycle. The latter hypothesis was based on the knowledge that C. maenas is the second intermediate host of several other digenean species. After dissection, it was possible to observe encysted metacercariae in the antennal glands of the green crab. After biochemical excystment, the metacercariae were processed for light and scanning electron microscopy. The morphological features observed led us to conclude that this species was a microphallid fluke, and it was identified as Gynaecotyla longiintestinata. To establish a possible relationship between C. sevillana and this metacercariae, the ITS1 region was analyzed. Thus, DNA was extracted from C. sevillana and from the cysts isolated from the antennal glands. The ITS1 region was amplified and sequenced, and the alignment clearly demonstrated that the cercaria and the metacercariae belonged to the same species, G. longiintestinata. PMID:17539414

Pina, Susana M R; Russell-Pinto, Fernanda; Rodrigues, Pedro



Identification and characterization of a serine protease inhibitor (PtSerpin) in the swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus.  


Serine protease inhibitors (Serpins) play a key role in diverse immune biological processes. A serine protease inhibitor (Serpin), namely PtSerpin, was identified from the haemocyte cDNA library of swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus. The full-length PtSerpin cDNA was 1593 bp, including an open reading frame (ORF) of 1227 bp encoding a polypeptide of 408 amino acids with estimated molecular mass of 45.048 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point of 7.23. Predicted tertiary structure of PtSerpin contained three ?-sheets and nine ?-helices. Multiple sequence alignment revealed that deduced amino acid sequence of PtSerpin shared the highest similarity with serpin SPI from green mud crab Scylla paramamosain (SpSerpin). Phylogenetic analysis supported PtSerpin and SpSerpin were closely related to serpins from Penaeus monodon and Daphnia pulex while other decapods formed a separate group. Although the mRNA transcripts of PtSerpin could be detected in all the examined tissues, the higher levels were present in haemocytes and gills which are the major organs respond to pathogenic microorganism. After challenged by Vibrio alginolyticus, Micrococcus luteus and Pichia pastoris, the temporal expression of PtSerpin gene in haemocytes showed different activation times against bacteria and fungi within the experimental period of 72 h. These findings suggest that PtSerpin is involved in the antibacterial defense mechanism of P. trituberculatus crab. PMID:22245590

Wang, Shuangyan; Cui, Zhaoxia; Liu, Yuan; Li, Qianqian; Song, Chengwen



Differential acid-base regulation in various gills of the green crab Carcinus maenas: Effects of elevated environmental pCO2.  


Euryhaline decapod crustaceans possess an efficient regulation apparatus located in the gill epithelia, providing a high adaptation potential to varying environmental abiotic conditions. Even though many studies focussed on the osmoregulatory capacity of the gills, acid-base regulatory mechanisms have obtained much less attention. In the present study, underlying principles and effects of elevated pCO(2) on acid-base regulatory patterns were investigated in the green crab Carcinus maenas acclimated to diluted seawater. In gill perfusion experiments, all investigated gills 4-9 were observed to up-regulate the pH of the hemolymph by 0.1-0.2 units. Anterior gills, especially gill 4, were identified to be most efficient in the equivalent proton excretion rate. Ammonia excretion rates mirrored this pattern among gills, indicating a linkage between both processes. In specimen exposed to elevated pCO(2) levels for at least 7 days, mimicking a future ocean scenario as predicted until the year 2300, hemolymph K(+) and ammonia concentrations were significantly elevated, and an increased ammonia excretion rate was observed. A detailed quantitative gene expression analysis revealed that upon elevated pCO(2) exposure, mRNA levels of transcripts hypothesized to be involved in ammonia and acid-base regulation (Rhesus-like protein, membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase) were affected predominantly in the non-osmoregulating anterior gills. PMID:23022520

Fehsenfeld, Sandra; Weihrauch, Dirk



Regulation of muscular contraction. Distribution of actin control and myosin control in the animal kingdom  

PubMed Central

The control systems regulating muscle contraction in approximately 100 organisms have been categorized. Both myosin control and actin control operate simultaneously in the majority of invertebrates tested. These include insects, chelicerates, most crustaceans, annelids, priapulids, nematodes, and some sipunculids. Single myosin control is present in the muscles of molluscs, brachiopods, echinoderms, echiuroids, and nemertine worms. Single actin control was found in the fast muscles of decapods, in mysidacea, in a single sipunculid species, and in vertebrate striated muscles. Classification is based on functional tests that include measurements of the calcium dependence of the actomyosin ATPase activity in the presence and the absence of purified rabbit actin and myosin. In addition, isolated thin filaments and myosins were also analyzed. Molluscs lack actin control since troponin is not present in sufficient quantities. Even though the functional tests indicate the complete lack of myosin control in vertebrate striated muscle, it is difficult to exclude unambiguously the in vivo existence of this regulation. Both control systems have been found in animals from phyla which evolved early. We cannot ascribe any simple correlation between ATPase activity, muscle structure, and regulatory mechanisms.



Fauna and paleoecological setting of the La Meseta Formation (Eocene), Antarctica  

SciTech Connect

The La Meseta Formation, an Eocene sandstone from Seymour Island, Palmer Peninsula, Antarctica, has yielded a diverse fossil assemblage of body and trace fossils representative of a cool temperate, littoral to shallow sublittoral habitat. Over 61 taxa of macroinvertebrates, excluding gastropod body fossils, and more than 18 ichnogenera collected from the La Meseta represent the largest, most comprehensive and most diverse assemblage of Paleogene fossils from Antarctica. Included in the body fossil assemblage are species representative of at least 26 taxa of bivales, four taxa of echinoids, two of crinoids, two of ophiuroids, two of asteroids, one inarticulate and four articulate brachiopods, two barnacles, six decapod crustaceans, two cyclostome and two cheilostome bryozoans, a scaphopod and one coral. The traces include several burrow forms characteristic of the Skolithos ichnofacies of Seilacher (1967), several halo and rind burrows, gastropod predation borings, and abundant examples of teredid bivalve borings in lithified wood.Autecological analyses of the preserved organisms and environmental interpretations of the ichnogenera indicate a littoral to very shallow sublittoral environment of deposition, generally above wave base, for the la Meseta Sandstone. Modern congeneric descendants of the body fossils are known to inhabit both deep water and shallow water habitats. Of the 20 extant genera of bivalves reported from the La Meseta, 19 generally occur only in cool temperate habitats. Only one genus is known to occur south of 60/sup 0/. Most of the shallow water forms are known from cool temperate, austral regimes.

Feldmann, R.M.; Wiedman, L.A.; Zinsmeister, W.J.



Polypocephalus sp. infects the nervous system and increases activity of commercially harvested white shrimp (Litopenaeus setiferus).  


Larval tapeworms (Polypocephalus sp.) reside within the central nervous system of decapod crustaceans. Living within the nervous system would seem to create an excellent opportunity for the parasites to manipulate the behavior of their hosts, so we tested the hypothesis that behavior of white shrimp ( Litopenaeus setiferus ) would be correlated with the level of parasitic infection. We videorecorded the behavior of L. setiferus for 8 hr, then examined the nervous system and digestive glands for parasite infection. Larval Polypocephalus sp. were found in the nerve cord, often in large numbers, but only very rarely in the digestive gland, which was typically infected by the larval stage of the nematode, Hysterothylacium sp. There were significantly more Polypocephalus larvae in the abdominal and thoracic ganglia than the subesophageal ganglia and brain. Walking, but not swimming, was significantly and positively related to the number of Polypocephalus sp. lodged in nervous tissue, as well as shrimp carapace length. Polypocephalus sp. is 1 of only a few parasites residing inside the host nervous system and it may, therefore, be suitable for investigating mechanisms of parasite manipulation of invertebrate host behavior. PMID:21506800

Carreon, Nadia; Faulkes, Zen; Fredensborg, Brian L



Changes in caridac output and hemolymph flow during hypoxic exposure in the gravid grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio.  


The cardiovascular response of decapod crustaceans to hypoxic exposure is well documented; however, information is limited concerning the influence of reproductive state on cardiovascular demands during hypoxic exposure. Given the additional metabolic demand of reproduction, we investigated the cardiovascular adjustments employed by gravid grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio to maintain oxygen delivery during hypoxic stress. Cardiac output values were elevated in gravid compared to nongravid grass shrimp. Gravid grass shrimp were exposed to hypoxia and the stroke volume, heart rate, cardiac output and hemolymph flow were determined using video-microscopy and dimensional analysis. Oxygen consumption rates were determined using respirometry. There where no changes in the cardiac output values of gravid females until reaching 6.8 kPa O2, with a significant redistribution of hemolymph flow at 13.7 kPa O2. Flow was significantly decreased to the anterior lateral arteries that supply the ovaries and hepatopancreas, the anterior aorta and the posterior aorta. The redistribution of hemolymph flow away from these vessels results in an enhanced hemolymph flow to the sternal artery that supplies the ventral segmental system, the gills, the buccal apparatus and the ventral nerve cord. The data suggest that during hypoxic stress, gravid females place a priority on survival. PMID:15891889

Guadagnoli, Jutta A; Reiber, Carl L



Comparative biochemistry and physiology in Latin America over the last decade (1997-2006).  


We investigate the distribution of Latin American comparative biochemistry and physiology across subject areas and systematic groups. Our study focuses on papers published over the last decade (1997-2006) in four leading topical journals. Brazil dominates the production of papers, followed by Argentina, Mexico and Chile, which together account for 91% of the production in numbers. These countries differ in a number of variables that we discuss in the text. Questions regarding the physiology of wild animals are particularly common, but comparative approaches to study practical issues are also well represented throughout the continent. The most frequent topics in the latter context include the action of snake venoms, the physiology of pathogens and their hosts, and the physiology of domestic or cultured species. The subjects of metabolism, thermoregulation and digestive physiology constitute 40% of the contributions in the database. Regarding systematic groups, most attention has been devoted to vertebrates, mostly anuran amphibians. Other highlighted groups are octodontid rodents, phocid mammals and characid fish. Among invertebrates, malacostracan decapods are by far the best studied group. Many taxa of wild animals are represented by just one or a few studies, thus limited information is available about a large number of Latin American species. PMID:17428716

Navas, Carlos A; Freire, Carolina A



Haplosporidium littoralis sp. nov.: a crustacean pathogen within the Haplosporida (Cercozoa, Ascetosporea).  


Previously, we described the pathology and ultrastructure of an apparently asporous haplosporidian-like parasite infecting the common shore crab Carcinus maenas from the European shoreline. In the current study, extraction of genomic DNA from the haemolymph, gill or hepatopancreas of infected C. maenas was carried out and the small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) of the pathogen was amplified by PCR before cloning and sequencing. All 4 crabs yielded an identical 1736 bp parasite sequence. BLAST analysis against the NCBI GenBank database identified the sequence as most similar to the protistan pathogen group comprising the order Haplosporida within the class Ascetosporea of the phylum Cercozoa Cavalier-Smith, 1998. Parsimony analysis placed the crab pathogen within the genus Haplosporidium, sister to the molluscan parasites H. montforti, H. pickfordi and H. lusitanicum. The parasite infecting C. maenas is hereby named as Haplosporidium littoralis sp. nov. The presence of a haplosporidian parasite infecting decapod crustaceans from the European shoreline with close phylogenetic affinity to previously described haplosporidians infecting molluscs is intriguing. The study provides important phylogenetic data for this relatively understudied, but commercially significant, pathogen group. PMID:23999708

Stentiford, G D; Bateman, K S; Stokes, N A; Carnegie, R B



The Elusive Baseline of Marine Disease: Are Diseases in Ocean Ecosystems Increasing?  

PubMed Central

Disease outbreaks alter the structure and function of marine ecosystems, directly affecting vertebrates (mammals, turtles, fish), invertebrates (corals, crustaceans, echinoderms), and plants (seagrasses). Previous studies suggest a recent increase in marine disease. However, lack of baseline data in most communities prevents a direct test of this hypothesis. We developed a proxy to evaluate a prediction of the increasing disease hypothesis: the proportion of scientific publications reporting disease increased in recent decades. This represents, to our knowledge, the first quantitative use of normalized trends in the literature to investigate an ecological hypothesis. We searched a literature database for reports of parasites and disease (hereafter “disease”) in nine marine taxonomic groups from 1970 to 2001. Reports, normalized for research effort, increased in turtles, corals, mammals, urchins, and molluscs. No significant trends were detected for seagrasses, decapods, or sharks/rays (though disease occurred in these groups). Counter to the prediction, disease reports decreased in fishes. Formulating effective resource management policy requires understanding the basis and timing of marine disease events. Why disease outbreaks increased in some groups but not in others should be a priority for future investigation. The increase in several groups lends urgency to understanding disease dynamics, particularly since few viable options currently exist to mitigate disease in the oceans.



Ecdysteriod titers during the molt cycle of the blue crab resemble those of other crustacea  

SciTech Connect

Callinectes sapidus is the only true crab (brachyuran) whose pattern of ecdysteroid titers has been described as departing from the pattern seen in other decapods. While ecdysteroids in other crabs reach a peak just prior to ecdysis, those of C. sapidus were claimed to reach their maxima after ecdysis. The data reported here challenge these findings. Ecdysteroids were measured in hemolymph, ovaries, and whole animal extracts of blue crabs using a radioimmunoassay. In hemolymph and whole animals, ecdysteroid levels rose during premolt to a maximum at stage D/sub 3/. Ecdysteroids declined rapidly from late premolt stage D/sub 4/ through postmolt stage A/sub 2/, increased slightly at postmolt stage B, and returned to low levels where they remained during intermolt stage C. Ecdysteroid levels in males and immature females were not significantly different but mature females, having reached a terminal anecdysis, had signifincatly lower ecdysteroid levels. Ovaries of mature females accumulated ecdysteroids during vitellogenesis while the concentration of ecdysteroids in hemolymph was low.

Soumoff, C.; Skinner, D.M.



Organization of optic lobes that support motion detection in a semiterrestrial crab  

PubMed Central

There is a mismatch between the documentation of the visually guided behaviors and visual physiology of decapods (Malacostraca, Crustacea) and knowledge about the neural architecture of their visual systems. The present study provides a description of the neuroanatomical features of the four visual neuropils of the grapsid crab Chasmagnathus granulatus, which is currently used as a model for investigating the neurobiology of learning and memory. Visual memory in Chasmagnathus is thought to be driven from within deep retinotopic neuropil by large field motion sensitive neurons. Here we describe the neural architecture characterizing the Chasmagnathus lobula, in which such neurons are found. It is shown that unlike the equivalent region of insects, the malacostracan lobula is densely packed with columns, the spacing of which is the same as that of retinotopic units of the lamina. The lobula comprises many levels of strata and columnar afferents that supply systems of tangential neurons. Two of these, which are known to respond to movement across the retina, have orthogonally arranged dendritic fields deep in the lobula. They also show evidence of dye coupling. The present results discuss the significance of commonalties across taxa with respect to the organization of the lamina and medulla and contrasts these with possible taxon-specific arrangements of deeper neuropils that support systems of matched filters.

Sztarker, Julieta; Strausfeld, Nicholas J.; Tomsic, Daniel




PubMed Central

Cytochemical and radioautographic techniques define and confirm a staging scheme for developing spermatids of the decapod crab, Emerita analoga. Quantitative photometric data demonstrate that developing spermatids lose a significant proportion of their nuclear proteins, as evidenced by diminishing binding of fluorodinitrobenzene. Photometric results also show that much (but not all) of the spermatid nuclear protein loss is in somatic-type histone, as evidenced by a dramatic fall in the histone/DNA ratio of these cells during a period in which nuclear DNA content remains constant. By the end of spermiogenesis, the sperm nuclear histone and protamine content is approximately zero, whereas some nonbasic protein persists. Loss of spermatid nuclear somatic-type histone is not accompanied by synthesis of gamete-type histone (e.g. protamine or arginine-rich histone), showing that the processes of displacement and synthesis of nuclear basic proteins during histone transition are not subject to obligatory coupling. Labeling studies suggest that nonbasic acrosomal proteins (presumably partly enzymes) are synthesized in the cytoplasm, after which they move into the acrosome. Stainable basic proteins accumulate in the acrosome during precisely the period of nuclear somatic histone loss, suggesting nuclear-cytoplasmic transfer.

Vaughn, Jack C.; Thomson, Lillian A.



Emigration of penaeid shrimp from the once-through cooling lake of Cedar Bayou Steam Electric Generating Station, Baytown, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Migration and distribution of two decapod shrimp, Penaeus setiferus and P. aztecus, in the cooling-water system of a power plant on the Texas coast were investigated, with emphasis on the seaward emigration from the cooling lake. Samples were collected every two weeks for a year by straining water leaving the lake over a drop structure, trawling in the cooling lake, and flushed from the intake screen. Shrimp catches at the drop structure were positively correlated with the standing population in the cooling lake. Significantly more shrimp passed over the drop structure nocturnally than diurnally. Shrimp caught at the drop structure diurnally averaged either smaller or similar in size to the shrimp taken there at night. The passage of a cold front enhanced migration and initially increased and then reduced the mean size of shrimp passing the drop structure. Higher percentages of the shrimp population in the cooling lake emigrated near new moon than full moon. The moon-phase effects appeared to be due to the moon cycle itself rather than to the intinsity of moon light. Significantly more shrimp of both species emigrated during the hours of ebbing than incoming tide. As the lake surface was above high tide level, an endogenous timing mechanism rather than evironmental factors associated with tidal rhythms controlled this emigration pattern. A temperature drop of up to 0.23 C/hour significantly increased P. aztecus emigration.

Chen, Y.L.



Paragonimiasis in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa.  


Nine cases of paragonimiasis have been reported from cats (4), dogs (2) and children (3) in South Africa, with an additional suspected case in an adult female patient. Details of these cases are reviewed. All nine cases, and perhaps the adult case as well, were from the province of KwaZulu-Natal but locality data are only available for six of them. These six cases represent four localities which all lie below 100 m above sea level in the province's lowlands, suggesting that there may be a focus of transmission here. The molluscan first intermediate host must be one of the two prosobranch snail species present in the area, Melanoides tuberculata or Tomichia natalensis, and the decapod second intermediate host the common river crab Potamonautes sidneyi. All infected cats and dogs had pulmonary infections, while two human cases for which there is sufficient information had extrapulmonary infections. Transmission appears to be ongoing but the invasive snail Tarebia granifera may be competing with both M. tuberculata and T. natalensis. If so, this may bring transmission to an end. PMID:23253517

Appleton, C C



Identification and cardiotropic actions of brain/gut-derived tachykinin-related peptides (TRPs) from the American lobster Homarus americanus.  


Two tachykinin-related peptides (TRPs) are known in decapods, APSGFLGMRamide and TPSGFLGMRamide. The former peptide appears to be ubiquitously conserved in members of this taxon, while the latter has been suggested to be a genus (Cancer)- or infraorder (Brachyura)-specific isoform. Here, we characterized a cDNA from the American lobster Homarus americanus (infraorder Astacidea) that encodes both TRPs: six copies of APSGFLGMRamide and one of TPSGFLGMRamide. Mass spectral analyses of the H. americanus supraoesophageal ganglion (brain) and commissural ganglia confirmed the presence of both peptides in these neural tissues; both isoforms were also detected in the midgut. Physiological experiments showed that both APSGFLGMRamide and TPSGFLGMRamide are cardioactive in H. americanus, eliciting identical increases in both heart contraction frequency and amplitude. Collectively, our data represent the first genetic confirmation of TRPs in H. americanus and of TPSGFLGMRamide in any species, demonstrate that TPSGFLGMRamide is not restricted to brachyurans, and show that both this peptide and APSGFLGMRamide are brain-gut isoforms, the first peptides thus far confirmed to possess this dual tissue distribution in H. americanus. Our data also suggest a possible role for TRPs in modulating the output of the lobster heart. PMID:18706463

Christie, Andrew E; Cashman, Christopher R; Stevens, Jake S; Smith, Christine M; Beale, Kristin M; Stemmler, Elizabeth A; Greenwood, Spencer J; Towle, David W; Dickinson, Patsy S



The peroxinectin of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is synthesised in the semi-granular and granular cells, and its transcription is up-regulated with Vibrio alginolyticus infection.  


Peroxinectin mRNA expression in the different types of haemocytes of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was studied by in situ hybridisation using digoxigenin-UTP-labelled riboprobes and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Granular cells (GC) and a mixture of semi-granular cells (SGC) and hyaline cells (HC) were separated by 70% Percoll gradient centrifugation. Peroxinectin was synthesised in both GC and the mixture of SGC-HC. An in situ hybridisation assay indicated that peroxinectin mRNA expression occurred in GC and SGC, but not in HC. Peroxinectin transcript up-regulated significantly, whereas haemocyte count decreased significantly at 6, 12 and 24 h post Vibrio alginolyticus-injection with slower restoration as compared to that of saline-injected shrimp. The RT-PCR assay indicated that peroxinectin exists extensively in several species of decapod crustaceans including L. vannamei, freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, common caridina Caridina pseudodenticulata, stone crab Thalamita crenata and mud crab Scylla serrata suggesting that this protein plays an important role in defence against pathogens. PMID:15683919

Liu, Chun-Hung; Cheng, Winton; Chen, Jiann-Chu



Twelve invertebrate and eight fish species new to the marine fauna of Madeira, and a discussion of the zoogeography of the area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The benthic ctenophore Vallicula multiformis, a large undescribed flatworm species of the genus Pseudoceros, the prosobranch gastropod Tonna maculosa, the opisthobranch gastropods Placida cf. dendritica, Caloria elegans, Aeolidiella sanguinea, Janolus cristatus, the decapod Balssia gasti, the sea urchin Schizaster canaliferus and the tunicates Clavelina lepadiformis, Clavelina dellavallei and Pycnoclavella taureanensis are recorded from Madeira for the first time. This is the first record of a platyctenid ctenophore in the eastern Atlantic. The teleost fishes Pomatoschistus pictus, Vaneaugobius canariensis, Chromogobius sp., Nerophis ophidion, Hippocampus hippocampus, Acanthocybium solandri, Sphyraena viridensis and Sphyraena barracuda are recorded from Madeira for the first time. The presence of the sea-hare Aplysia dactylomela at Madeira is confirmed; the species has increased tremendously in abundance in the last four years. The crocodile fish Grammoplites gruveli can occasionally be found in the mantle cavity of cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis) sold at the fish market of Funchal, but does not originate from Madeiran waters. An analysis of 100 new records from the coastal fauna of Madeira shows that, while predominantly of lusitanian, mediterranean and mauritanian affinity, Madeira’s shallow water fauna contains a large component of tropical species.

Wirtz, Peter



Daily variations of the antioxidant defense system of the lithodid crab Lithodes santolla.  


Several physiological processes can induce daily variations in aerobic metabolism. Lithodes santolla is a decapod crustacean of special concern since it is a sub-Antarctic species of commercial interest. The aim of this work was to study in L. santolla the daily variations in levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, and haemolymphatic pH. Males of L. santolla of commercial size were randomly dissected every 4 h during a period of 24 h. Enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase were determined in samples of gills, muscle, hepatopancreas and haemolymph. Ascorbic acid, total glutathione, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation were also determined in all tissues. Gills showed the highest enzymatic activity and hepatopancreas the highest concentration of non-enzymatic antioxidants. Maximum antioxidant activity was during the dark phase in gills and during the photophase in the haemolymph. Muscle showed significant daily variations, with peaks during the photophase and scotophase. Overall, an antioxidant protective mechanism is present in all tissues, where SOD and CAT represent the first line of defense. The defense mechanism in L. santolla seems to be more active during the dark phase, with slight differences among the analyzed tissues, indicating a higher metabolic rate. PMID:23376123

Schvezov, Natasha; Lovrich, Gustavo A; Tapella, Federico; Romero, M Carolina



Metal toxicity, uptake and bioaccumulation in aquatic invertebrates--modelling zinc in crustaceans.  


We use published data on the different patterns of the bioaccumulation of zinc by three crustaceans, the caridean decapod Palaemon elegans, the amphipod Orchestia gammarellus and the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite, to construct comparative biodynamic models of the bioaccumulation of zinc into metabolically available and detoxified components of accumulated zinc in each crustacean under both field and laboratory toxicity test conditions. We then link these bioaccumulation models to the onset of toxic effects on exposure of the crustaceans to high dissolved zinc bioavailabilities, using the tenets that toxicity effects are related to the total uptake rate of the toxic metal, and that toxicity is not usually dependent on the total accumulated metal concentration but always on the concentration of accumulated metal that is metabolically available. We dismiss the general concept that there is a critical accumulated body concentration of a metal in an invertebrate at which toxicity ensues, except under specific circumstances involving a rare lack of storage detoxification of accumulated metal. We thus propose a theoretical framework that can be extended to other metals and other aquatic invertebrates (indeed other animals) to explain the variation in the relationship between bioaccumulated body concentrations and toxicity, and subsequently to predict this relationship in many other species for which we have bioaccumulation modelling data. PMID:21872557

Rainbow, P S; Luoma, S N



Eukaryote DIRS1-like retrotransposons: an overview  

PubMed Central

Background DIRS1-like elements compose one superfamily of tyrosine recombinase-encoding retrotransposons. They have been previously reported in only a few diverse eukaryote species, describing a patchy distribution, and little is known about their origin and dynamics. Recently, we have shown that these retrotransposons are common among decapods, which calls into question the distribution of DIRS1-like retrotransposons among eukaryotes. Results To determine the distribution of DIRS1-like retrotransposons, we developed a new computational tool, ReDoSt, which allows us to identify well-conserved DIRS1-like elements. By screening 274 completely sequenced genomes, we identified more than 4000 DIRS1-like copies distributed among 30 diverse species which can be clustered into roughly 300 families. While the diversity in most species appears restricted to a low copy number, a few bursts of transposition are strongly suggested in certain species, such as Danio rerio and Saccoglossus kowalevskii. Conclusion In this study, we report 14 new species and 8 new higher taxa that were not previously known to harbor DIRS1-like retrotransposons. Now reported in 61 species, these elements appear widely distributed among eukaryotes, even if they remain undetected in streptophytes and mammals. Especially in unikonts, a broad range of taxa from Cnidaria to Sauropsida harbors such elements. Both the distribution and the similarities between the DIRS1-like element phylogeny and conventional phylogenies of the host species suggest that DIRS1-like retrotransposons emerged early during the radiation of eukaryotes.



Phylogeny and evolutionary patterns in the Dwarf crayfish subfamily (Decapoda: Cambarellinae).  


The Dwarf crayfish or Cambarellinae, is a morphologically singular subfamily of decapod crustaceans that contains only one genus, Cambarellus. Its intriguing distribution, along the river basins of the Gulf Coast of United States (Gulf Group) and into Central México (Mexican Group), has until now lacked of satisfactory explanation. This study provides a comprehensive sampling of most of the extant species of Cambarellus and sheds light on its evolutionary history, systematics and biogeography. We tested the impact of Gulf Group versus Mexican Group geography on rates of cladogenesis using a maximum likelihood framework, testing different models of birth/extinction of lineages. We propose a comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis for the subfamily based on mitochondrial and nuclear loci (3,833 bp) using Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood methods. The phylogenetic structure found two phylogenetic groups associated to the two main geographic components (Gulf Group and Mexican Group) and is partially consistent with the historical structure of river basins. The previous hypothesis, which divided the genus into three subgenera based on genitalia morphology was only partially supported (P?=?0.047), resulting in a paraphyletic subgenus Pandicambarus. We found at least two cases in which phylogenetic structure failed to recover monophyly of recognized species while detecting several cases of cryptic diversity, corresponding to lineages not assigned to any described species. Cladogenetic patterns in the entire subfamily are better explained by an allopatric model of speciation. Diversification analyses showed similar cladogenesis patterns between both groups and did not significantly differ from the constant rate models. While cladogenesis in the Gulf Group is coincident in time with changes in the sea levels, in the Mexican Group, cladogenesis is congruent with the formation of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Our results show how similar allopatric divergence in freshwater organisms can be promoted through diverse vicariant factors. PMID:23155379

Pedraza-Lara, Carlos; Doadrio, Ignacio; Breinholt, Jesse W; Crandall, Keith A



Antarctic Crabs: Invasion or Endurance?  

PubMed Central

Recent scientific interest following the “discovery” of lithodid crabs around Antarctica has centred on a hypothesis that these crabs might be poised to invade the Antarctic shelf if the recent warming trend continues, potentially decimating its native fauna. This “invasion hypothesis” suggests that decapod crabs were driven out of Antarctica 40–15 million years ago and are only now returning as “warm” enough habitats become available. The hypothesis is based on a geographically and spatially poor fossil record of a different group of crabs (Brachyura), and examination of relatively few Recent lithodid samples from the Antarctic slope. In this paper, we examine the existing lithodid fossil record and present the distribution and biogeographic patterns derived from over 16,000 records of Recent Southern Hemisphere crabs and lobsters. Globally, the lithodid fossil record consists of only two known specimens, neither of which comes from the Antarctic. Recent records show that 22 species of crabs and lobsters have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with 12 species found south of 60°S. All are restricted to waters warmer than 0°C, with their Antarctic distribution limited to the areas of seafloor dominated by Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW). Currently, CDW extends further and shallower onto the West Antarctic shelf than the known distribution ranges of most lithodid species examined. Geological evidence suggests that West Antarctic shelf could have been available for colonisation during the last 9,000 years. Distribution patterns, species richness, and levels of endemism all suggest that, rather than becoming extinct and recently re-invading from outside Antarctica, the lithodid crabs have likely persisted, and even radiated, on or near to Antarctic slope. We conclude there is no evidence for a modern-day “crab invasion”. We recommend a repeated targeted lithodid sampling program along the West Antarctic shelf to fully test the validity of the “invasion hypothesis”.

Griffiths, Huw J.; Whittle, Rowan J.; Roberts, Stephen J.; Belchier, Mark; Linse, Katrin



Diversity and vertical distribution of mesozooplankton in the Arctic's Canada Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The composition and biomass of the zooplankton community within the Canada Basin down to 3000 m was studied during July 2005 at 12 stations. A total of 111 species including 74 species of crustaceans (55 species of copepods, 2 euphausiids, 11 amphipods, 1 decapod, 5 ostracods), 17 cnidarians (12 hydromedusae, 1 scyphomedusae, 4 siphonophora), 1 foraminifera, 4 ctenophores, 2 pteropods, 4 larvaceans, 4 chaetognaths, and 5 polychaetes were identified. Most of the species observed are typical of the Arctic waters, with the notable exception of several Pacific expatriate copepod species, suggesting no zoogeographical barrier between the Canadian and Eurasian basins. Overall species inventories appear unchanged over the past 50 years, and were similar to the Eurasian Basins. Zooplankton biomass averaged 3.6±0.23 g DW m -2, with ˜50% of the biomass concentrated within the upper 100 m; nonetheless significant biomass and the majority of species diversity occurred below 100 m. Copepods represented 91% of the community numerically, followed by pteropods (2.6%), larvacean (1.8%) and shelled protists (1.5%), with other groups each contributing 1% or less. While copepods represented 85% of the total biomass, chaetognaths represented 13% on average (ca. 50% of non-copepod biomass), followed by cnidarians plus ctenophores (4.6%), ostracods (3.6%), and other groups (˜2% or less). Species-specific depth preferences and ranges resulted in statistically distinct communities in different depth strata and showed an orderly departure in similarity with increasing distance between strata. In Arctic waters, because temperature varies relatively little over the water column, so should respiratory rates; hence deep-water species are likely to play a greater role in the transfer or recycling of surface production than is typical of other deep ocean communities.

Kosobokova, Ksenia N.; Hopcroft, Russell R.



Molecular characterization of three crustin genes in the morotoge shrimp, Pandalopsis japonica.  


Crustins are among the most important antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) found in decapod crustaceans. They are small cationic AMPs (5-7 kDa) characterized by a proline-rich amino-terminal domain and a cysteine-rich carboxyl-terminal domain. Here, the first 3 crustin-like cDNAs (Pj-crus Ia, Ib, and II) were identified from the morotoge shrimp, Pandalopsis japonica. The full-length cDNAs of Pj-crus Ia, Ib, and II consisted of 1135, 580, and 700 nucleotides and encoded putative proteins containing 109, 119, and 186 amino acids residues, respectively. All 3 identified Pj-crus sequences exhibited the conserved domain organization for crustins, including a signal sequence, a cysteine-containing region, a glycine-rich region, and a whey-acidic protein (WAP) domain. Amino acid sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Pj-crus Ia and Ib belong to type I crustins (e.g., carcinin), which have been mostly identified from Brachyura and Astacidea, whereas Pj-crus II was classified as belonging to the type II crustins, which are mainly found in Dendrobranchiata. An analysis of the organization of these 3 Pj-crus genes revealed that the splicing site within the WAP domain may be an important key for classifying types I and II crustin family members. The tissue distribution profile results showed that the Pj-crus I genes were expressed in a tissue-specific manner but that the Pj-crus II gene was expressed ubiquitously, suggesting that these crustins may play different roles in various tissues or under different physiological conditions. The bacterial challenge results suggested that the Pj-crus genes may be transcriptionally influenced by different bacterial types. This comparative study of various crustin family members will help extend the knowledge on the crustacean innate immune response, which will provide important basic information for controlling shrimp immunity against various pathogens. PMID:22613817

Kim, MeeSun; Jeon, Jeong-Min; Oh, Chul-Woong; Kim, Young Mog; Lee, Dae Sung; Kang, Chang-Keun; Kim, Hyun-Woo



Biodiversity of the Deep-Sea Continental Margin Bordering the Gulf of Maine (NW Atlantic): Relationships among Sub-Regions and to Shelf Systems  

PubMed Central

Background In contrast to the well-studied continental shelf region of the Gulf of Maine, fundamental questions regarding the diversity, distribution, and abundance of species living in deep-sea habitats along the adjacent continental margin remain unanswered. Lack of such knowledge precludes a greater understanding of the Gulf of Maine ecosystem and limits development of alternatives for conservation and management. Methodology/Principal Findings We use data from the published literature, unpublished studies, museum records and online sources, to: (1) assess the current state of knowledge of species diversity in the deep-sea habitats adjacent to the Gulf of Maine (39–43°N, 63–71°W, 150–3000 m depth); (2) compare patterns of taxonomic diversity and distribution of megafaunal and macrofaunal species among six distinct sub-regions and to the continental shelf; and (3) estimate the amount of unknown diversity in the region. Known diversity for the deep-sea region is 1,671 species; most are narrowly distributed and known to occur within only one sub-region. The number of species varies by sub-region and is directly related to sampling effort occurring within each. Fishes, corals, decapod crustaceans, molluscs, and echinoderms are relatively well known, while most other taxonomic groups are poorly known. Taxonomic diversity decreases with increasing distance from the continental shelf and with changes in benthic topography. Low similarity in faunal composition suggests the deep-sea region harbours faunal communities distinct from those of the continental shelf. Non-parametric estimators of species richness suggest a minimum of 50% of the deep-sea species inventory remains to be discovered. Conclusions/Significance The current state of knowledge of biodiversity in this deep-sea region is rudimentary. Our ability to answer questions is hampered by a lack of sufficient data for many taxonomic groups, which is constrained by sampling biases, life-history characteristics of target species, and the lack of trained taxonomists.

Kelly, Noreen E.; Shea, Elizabeth K.; Metaxas, Anna; Haedrich, Richard L.; Auster, Peter J.



An androgenic gland membrane-anchored gene associated with the crustacean insulin-like androgenic gland hormone.  


Crustacean male sexual differentiation is governed by the androgenic gland (AG) and specifically by the secreted insulin-like AG hormone (IAG), thus far identified in several decapod species including the Australian red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus (termed Cq-IAG). While a few insulin-like AG genes have been identified in crustaceans, other AG-specific genes have not been documented until now. In the present study, we describe the recent identification of a non-IAG AG-specific transcript obtained from the C. quadricarinatus AG cDNA library. This transcript, termed C. quadricarinatus membrane-anchored AG-specific factor (Cq-MAG), was fully sequenced and found to encode a putative product of 189 amino acids including a signal anchoring peptide. Expression of a recombinant GFP fusion protein lacking the signal anchor encoding sequence dramatically affected recombinant protein localization pattern. While the expression of the deleterious fusion protein was observed throughout most of the cell, the native GFP::Cq-MAG fusion protein was observed mainly surrounding the periphery of the nucleus, demonstrating an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-like localization pattern. Moreover, co-expression of the wild-type Cq-MAG (fused to GFP) and the Cq-IAG hormone revealed that these peptides indeed co-localize. This study is the first to report a protein specifically associated with the insulin-like AG hormone in addition to the finding of another AG-specific transcript in crustaceans. Previous knowledge suggests that insulin/insulin-like factor secretion involves tissue-specific transcripts and membrane-anchored proteins. In this regard, Cq-MAG's tissue specificity, anchoring properties and intracellular co-localization with Cq-IAG suggest that it may play a role in the processing and secretion of this insulin-like AG hormone. PMID:23470660

Rosen, Ohad; Manor, Rivka; Weil, Simy; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Bakhrat, Anna; Abdu, Uri; Sagi, Amir



Oesophageal chemoreceptors of blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, sense chemical deterrents and can block ingestion of food.  


Decapod crustaceans such as blue crabs possess a variety of chemoreceptors that control different stages of the feeding process. All these chemoreceptors are putative targets for feeding deterrents that cause animals to avoid or reject otherwise palatable food. As a first step towards characterizing the chemoreceptors that mediate the effect of deterrents, we used a behavioral approach to investigate their precise location. Data presented here demonstrate that chemoreceptors located on the antennules, pereiopods and mouthparts do not mediate the food-rejection effects of a variety of deterrents, both natural and artificial to crabs. Crabs always searched for deterrent-laced food and took it to their oral region. The deterrent effect was manifested as either rejection or extensive manipulation, but in both cases crabs bit the food. The biting behavior is relevant because the introduction of food into the oral cavity ensured that the deterrents gained access to the oesophageal taste receptors, and so we conclude that they are the ones mediating rejection. Additional support comes from the fact that a variety of deterrent compounds evoked oesophageal dilatation, which is mediated by oesophageal receptors and has been linked to food rejection. Further, there is a positive correlation between a compound's ability to elicit rejection and its ability to evoke oesophageal dilatation. The fact that deterrents do not act at a distance is in accordance with the limited solubility of most known feeding deterrents, and likely influences predator-prey interactions and their outcome: prey organisms will be attacked and bitten before deterrents become relevant. PMID:22539737

Aggio, Juan F; Tieu, Ryan; Wei, Amy; Derby, Charles D



New insights into mercury bioaccumulation in deep-sea organisms from the NW Mediterranean and their human health implications.  


A number of studies have found high levels of mercury (Hg) in deep-sea organisms throughout the world's oceans, but the underlying causes are not clear as there is no consensus on the origin and cycling of Hg in the ocean. Recent findings suggested that Hg accumulation may increase with increasing forage depth and pointed to the deep-water column as the origin of most Hg in marine biota, especially its organic methylmercury (MeHg) form. In the present study, we determined the total mercury (THg) levels in 12 deep-sea fish species and a decapod crustacean and investigated their relationship with the species' nitrogen stable isotope ratio (?(15)N) as an indicator of their trophic level, average weight and habitat depth. THg levels ranged from 0.27 to 4.42 ?g/g w.w. and exceeded in all, except one species, the recommended 0.5 ?g/g w.w. guideline value. While THg levels exhibited a strong relationship with ?(15)N values and to a lesser extent with weight, the habitat depth, characterized as the species' depth of maximum abundance (DMA), had also a significant effect on Hg accumulation. The fish species with a shallower depth range exhibited lower THg values than predicted by their trophic level (?(15)N) and body mass, while measured THg values were higher than predicted in deeper-dwelling fish. Overall, the present results point out a potential risk for human health from the consumption of deep-sea fish. In particular, for both, the red shrimp Aristeus antennatus, which is one of the most valuable fishing resources of the Mediterranean, as well as the commercially exploited fish Mora moro, THg levels considerably exceeded the recommended 0.5?g/g w.w. limit and should be consumed with caution. PMID:23178837

Koenig, Samuel; Solé, Montserrat; Fernández-Gómez, Cristal; Díez, Sergi



Trophodynamics and distribution of silver in a Patagonia mountain lake.  


Silver (Ag) ions are among the most toxic metallic ions to aquatic biota. In southern Argentina, fish from Patagonian lakes have liver Ag concentrations [Ag] among the highest ever reported globally. Silver concentration in phytoplankton from Lake Moreno (1.82±3.00?gg(-1) dry weight, DW) was found to be significantly higher than [Ag] in zooplankton (0.25±0.13?gg(-1)). Values in snails and decapods (0.60±0.28?gg(-1) and 0.47±0.03?gg(-1) respectively), were higher than in insect larvae (0.28±0.39?gg(-1) for Trichoptera). We examined trophic transfer of Ag in the biota using stable nitrogen and carbon isotopes ratios (?(15)N and ?(13)C respectively). Silver concentrations in the biota of Lake Moreno were not associated with any particular C source, as assessed by ?(13)C. Hepatic [Ag] significantly increased with trophic position, as measured by ?(15)N, within the brook trout sample set. Biodilution of Ag was observed between primary producers and small forage fish when whole body [Ag] was analyzed. Nevertheless, when considering whole food web biomagnification and hepatic [Ag] of top predator fish, a significant positive regression was found between [Ag] and trophic position, as measured by ?(15)N. The importance of species-specific and tissue-specific considerations to obtain more information on Ag trophodynamics than that usually presented in the literature is shown. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in assessing Ag trophodynamics and tissue-specific biomagnification in a whole freshwater food web. PMID:21216430

Revenga, J E; Campbell, L M; Kyser, K; Klassen, K; Arribére, M A; Ribeiro Guevara, S



Tissue distribution of 210Po and 210Pb in select marine species of the coast of Kudankulam, southern coast of Gulf of Mannar, India.  


Activities of 210Po and 210Pb in various tissues of four species of decapod crabs and two species of cephalopod mollusks (cuttlefishes) of Kudankulam coast were studied. A non-uniform distribution of these radionuclides was observed between the organs. Of all the tissues, 210Po and 210Pb were found accumulated more in the hepatopancreas and intestine of crabs and in the digestive gland, shell gland, and intestine of cephalopods. Among crabs, Charybdis lucifera registered a little higher 210Po and 210Pb activities. The cephalopod species Loligo duvauceli displayed higher 210Po and 210Pb in some organs when compared to Sepia pharaonis. The muscle of all the species registered lower activity. In cephalopods, the activity ratio of 210Po/210Pb fell within the range of 1-2 for most of the organs, and in crab tissues, it varied from 1.7 to 31.4. The biological concentration factor for organs of cephalopods ranged from 1.2×10(3) to 4.3×10(5) for 210Po and 4.8×10(2) to 8.4×10(4) for 210Pb and for organs of crabs it varied between 2.0×10(4) and 1.9×10(6) for 210Po and 9.2×10(2) and 2.4×10(4) for 210Pb. The study revealed that the organs associated with digestion and metabolism displayed a higher activity concentration than the other tissues. A significant variation in the accumulation of 210Po and 210Pb was noted between species (P<0.05). The activity levels recorded are in agreement with values recorded in related organisms in other parts of the world. The data generated will act as a reference database for these organisms of this coast in which a nuclear power station is under construction. PMID:20571883

Khan, Mohan Feroz; Wesley, Samuel Godwin



The Global Diversity of Parasitic Isopods Associated with Crustacean Hosts (Isopoda: Bopyroidea and Cryptoniscoidea)  

PubMed Central

Parasitic isopods of Bopyroidea and Cryptoniscoidea (commonly referred to as epicarideans) are unique in using crustaceans as both intermediate and definitive hosts. In total, 795 epicarideans are known, representing ?7.7% of described isopods. The rate of description of parasitic species has not matched that of free-living isopods and this disparity will likely continue due to the more cryptic nature of these parasites. Distribution patterns of epicarideans are influenced by a combination of their definitive (both benthic and pelagic species) and intermediate (pelagic copepod) host distributions, although host specificity is poorly known for most species. Among epicarideans, nearly all species in Bopyroidea are ectoparasitic on decapod hosts. Bopyrids are the most diverse taxon (605 species), with their highest diversity in the North West Pacific (139 species), East Asian Sea (120 species), and Central Indian Ocean (44 species). The diversity patterns of Cryptoniscoidea (99 species, endoparasites of a diverse assemblage of crustacean hosts) are distinct from bopyrids, with the greatest diversity of cryptoniscoids in the North East Atlantic (18 species) followed by the Antarctic, Mediterranean, and Arctic regions (13, 12, and 8 species, respectively). Dajidae (54 species, ectoparasites of shrimp, mysids, and euphausids) exhibits highest diversity in the Antarctic (7 species) with 14 species in the Arctic and North East Atlantic regions combined. Entoniscidae (37 species, endoparasites within anomuran, brachyuran and shrimp hosts) show highest diversity in the North West Pacific (10 species) and North East Atlantic (8 species). Most epicarideans are known from relatively shallow waters, although some bopyrids are known from depths below 4000 m. Lack of parasitic groups in certain geographic areas is likely a sampling artifact and we predict that the Central Indian Ocean and East Asian Sea (in particular, the Indo-Malay-Philippines Archipelago) hold a wealth of undescribed species, reflecting our knowledge of host diversity patterns.

Williams, Jason D.; Boyko, Christopher B.



Surf Zone Hyperbenthos of Belgian Sandy Beaches: Seasonal Patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since surf zone hyperbenthos, although highly important in local food webs, has often been neglected and very little information is available, a survey of the Belgian sandy beaches was carried out from May 1996 until July 1997. Monthly samples were taken to give a complete record of hyperbenthic organisms occurring in the surf zone of Belgian sandy beaches and to evaluate the intensity by which this surf zone is used. In total 172 species were recorded. The number of species occurring in the surf zone is comparable to that of adjacent areas. As well as true hyperbenthic species, endobenthic and planktonic organisms were sampled. More than 75% of the average total sample composition consisted of mysids, mainly Mesopodopsis slabberi, Schistomysis spiritus and Schistomysis kervillei (holohyperbenthos). Apart from several resident species, active and passive seasonal migration towards the surf zone by a number of species is suggested. A large number of sporadic species adds to the composition of surf zone hyperbenthos. Within the merohyperbenthos, postlarval decapods and fish were the dominant organisms. During the year three recruitment peaks were observed. Average densities per month exceeded 1500 ind. 100 m -2. Yearly biomass averages ranged from 300 to over 3000 mg ADW 100 m -2. Densities of the common species are slightly higher in the surf zone than in other habitats, emphasising the importance of the area. Besides a possible nursery function, the surf zone may also be used as a transient area between different habitats. Finally, the influence of several abiotic factors on the hyperbenthic assemblages was evaluated. The main structuring variables determining the occurrence of most of the organisms are water temperature and hydrodynamic factors such as wave height and turbidity. The influence of wave height seems to be two-fold: several good swimmers such as mysids and some fish species are suggested to be able to actively avoid severe wave conditions, whereas other, more planktonic organisms, are passively transported towards the area if wave height increases.

Beyst, B.; Buysse, D.; Dewicke, A.; Mees, J.



Estuarine resources use by juvenile Flagfin mojarra ( Eucinostomus melanopterus) in an inverse tropical estuary (Sine Saloum, Senegal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Flagfin mojarra, Eucinostomus melanopterus, is a marine spawner whose young individuals are common in the Sine Saloum inverse estuary (Senegal). The species offers the opportunity to study both the use of the estuarine nursery resources and the impact of the particular environment of the inverse estuary on these resources. This will lead to a better understanding of the functioning of the nursery. We investigated the resources used by juvenile Flagfin mojarra by coupling stomach contents and stable isotopes methods. Young Flagfin mojarra feed on a wide range of invertebrates. Diet changed from copepods in the smallest size class (10-40 mm), to a range of invertebrates including amphipods, insect larvae, polychaetes and mollusc in the medium size class (up to 60 mm) and mainly polychaetes for individuals >60 mm in size. In mangrove habitats with moderate salinity, the diet was dominated by polychaetes and decapod larvae (crabs) whereas in habitats with higher salinity, diet was dominated by amphipods. In very hypersaline areas with scarce mangroves, diet comprised benthic copepods, chironomid larvae and ostracods. This agreed with a clear change in ?13C measured in fish sampled at downstream or upstream sites. Comparison with signatures of primary producers suggested that the local food web exploited by young Flagfin mojarra is mainly based on phytoplankton in the downstream mangrove area, and mainly on benthic microalgae in the upstream hypersaline area. As in many studies considering the food webs in mangrove, mangrove was not identified as a major contributor to the food web exploited by E. melanopterus. This needs further investigation particularly because the exportation of estuarine materials to the sea is limited in an inverse estuary.

Gning, Ndombour; Le Loc'h, François; Thiaw, Omar T.; Aliaume, Catherine; Vidy, Guy



Reproductive plasticity in Petrolisthes armatus (Anomura, Porcellanidae): a comparison between a Pacific and an Atlantic population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The porcellanid crab Petrolisthes armatus, with a known geographic distribution covering a wide range of latitudes, was selected to conduct a comparative study on egg production and reproductive output between two populations from Pacific and Atlantic coasts. Ovigerous females were collected between September and November 2005 in Punta Morales, Pacific coast of Costa Rica ( n = 137) and from March 2005 to July 2006 in Araçá region, São Paulo, Brazil ( n = 46). The mean size of females was statistically different between both populations with larger females from Brazil than Costa Rica (7.9 ± 1.31 and 6.6 ± 0.95 mm CW, respectively). Likewise, egg production was significantly different in both populations and started in Pacific Costa Rica at a smaller female size than in Brazil. Specimens from Pacific Costa Rica produced roughly three times more eggs than equally sized females from Brazil, while newly extruded embryos were larger in Brazil than in Costa Rica (0.045 and 0.039 mm3, respectively). Egg volume increased during embryogenesis by 112.8 and 164.5% in Costa Rican and Brazilian populations, respectively. The egg water content increased steadily in both populations; however, eggs produced in Brazil contained always more water than those from the same developmental stage in Costa Rica. Average reproductive output (based on dry weight) was substantially lower in Brazil (0.031) than in Costa Rica (0.065). Our results confirm an impressive intraspecific plasticity of reproductive features in an intertidal decapod. The observed phenotypical variability might be related to local environmental conditions as well as to the location of the studied population concerning its geographic range of distribution.

Wehrtmann, Ingo S.; Miranda, Ivana; Lizana-Moreno, Claudia A.; Hernáez, Patricio; Barrantes-Echandi, Vera; Mantelatto, Fernando L.



Mesozooplankton community development at elevated CO2 concentrations: results from a mesocosm experiment in an Arctic fjord  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere caused by burning fossil fuels leads to increasing pCO2 and decreasing pH in the world oceans. These changes may have severe consequences for marine biota, especially in cold-water ecosystems due to higher solubility of CO2. However, studies on the response of mesozooplankton communities to elevated pCO2 are yet lacking. In order to test whether abundance and taxonomic composition change with pCO2, we have sampled nine mesocosms, which were deployed in Kongsfjorden, an Arctic fjord at Svalbard, and were adjusted to eight CO2 concentrations, initially ranging from 185 ?atm to 1420 ?atm. Samples were taken weekly over a six-week period with an Apstein net (55 ?m mesh size) in all mesocosms and the surrounding fjord. In addition, sediment trap samples, taken every second day in the mesocosms, were analyzed to account for losses due to vertical migration and mortality. The taxonomic analysis revealed that meroplanktonic larvae (cirripeds, polychaetes, bivalves, gastropod, and decapods) dominated in the mesocosms while copepods (Calanus spp., Oithona similis, Acartia longiremis and Microsetella norvegica) were found in lower abundances. In the fjord copepods prevailed for most of our study. With time, abundance and taxonomic composition developed similarly in all mesocosms; the pCO2 had no significant effect on the overall community structure. However, single taxa responded to elevated CO2 concentrations. The ratio of cirripedia nauplii to cypris larvae, the next developmental stage, in the sediment traps averaged over the entire experiment increased with pCO2 and this suggests that increased pCO2 may have delayed their development. Also, the number of bivalves, averaged over the experimental period, decreased significantly with increasing pCO2. The nature of the CO2 effect, either direct or indirect, remains open and needs to be addressed in future.

Niehoff, B.; Knüppel, N.; Daase, M.; Czerny, J.; Boxhammer, T.



Spatial and temporal patterns in the hyperbenthic community structure in a warm temperate southern African permanently open estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial and temporal patterns in the hyperbenthic community structure (>500 ?m) in the warm temperate, permanently open Kariega Estuary situated along the south-eastern coastline of South Africa was investigated monthly over a period of twelve months. Data were collected using a modified hyperbenthic sledge at six stations along the length of the estuary. Physico-chemical data indicate the presence of a constant reverse salinity gradient, with highest salinities measured in the upper reaches and lowest at the mouth of the estuary. Strong seasonal patterns in temperature, dissolved oxygen and total chlorophyll- a (chl- a) concentration were evident. Total average hyperbenthic densities ranged between 0.4 and 166 ind.m -3 in the lower net and between 0.2 and 225 ind.m -3 in the upper net. Hyperbenthic biomass values ranged between 0.02 and 11.9 mg.dry weight.m -3 in the lower net and between 0.02 and 17.4 mg.dry weight.m -3 in the upper net. Both the lower and upper nets were numerically dominated by decapods (mainly brachyuran crab zoea) with the exception of June and July 2008 when mysids (mainly Mesopodopsis wooldridgei) dominated, comprising up to 72.4 ± 58.14% of the total abundance in the lower net. A redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that 99.2% of the variance in the hyperbenthic community structure could be explained by the first two canonical axes. Axis one, which accounted for 96.8% of the total variation detected in the ordination plot was highly correlated with sedimentary organic content and to a lesser extent the chl- a concentration within the Kariega Estuary. The correlations with the second canonical axis (2.4%) were less obvious, however, salinity and seston concentration were weakly correlated with this axis.

Heyns, Elodie; Froneman, William



Sulfate transport mechanisms in epithelial systems.  


A novel invertebrate gastrointestinal transport mechanism has been shown to couple chloride-sulfate exchange in an electrogenic fashion. In the lobster, Homarus americanus, the hepatopancreas, or digestive gland, exists as an outpocketing of the digestive tract, representing a single cell layer separating the gut lumen and an open circulatory system composed of hemolymph. Investigations utilizing independently prepared brush border and basolateral membrane vesicles revealed discrete antiport systems which possess the capacity to bring about a transcellular secretion of sulfate. The luminal antiport system functions as a high-affinity, one-to-one chloride-sulfate exchanger that is stimulated by an increase in luminal hydrogen ion concentration. Such a system would take advantage of the high chloride concentration of ingested seawater as well as the high proton concentrations generated during digestion, which further suggests a potential regulation by resident sodium-proton exchangers. Exchange of one chloride for one divalent sulfate ion provides the driving force for electrogenic vectorial translocation. The basolateral antiport system was found to be electroneutral in nature, responsive to gradients of the dicarboxylic anion oxalate while lacking in proton stimulation. No evidence of sodium-sulfate co-transport, commonly reported for the brush border of vertebrate renal and intestinal epithelia, was observed in either membrane preparation. The two antiporters together can account for the low hemolymph to seawater sulfate levels previously described in decapod crustaceans. A secretory pathway for sulfate based upon electrogenic chloride-antiport may appear among invertebrates partly in response to digestion taking place in a seawater environment. J. Exp. Zool. 289:245-253, 2001. PMID:11241395

Gerencser, G A; Ahearn, G A; Zhang, J; Cattey, M A



Retinal anatomy of a new species of bresiliid shrimp from a hydrothermal vent field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.  


A new species of shrimp (Rimicaris sp.) was recently collected from the Snake Pit hydrothermal vent field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Until the discovery in 1989 that the deep-sea, hydrothermal vent species, Rimicaris exoculata, possessed a hypertrophied dorsal eye, everyone believed that animals recovered from vent environments were blind. Like R. exoculata, Rimicaris sp., a small orange bresiliid shrimp, has an enlarged dorsal eye specialized for detecting light in a very dim environment instead of the expected compound eye. The individual lenses characteristic of a compound eye adapted for imaging have been replaced in Rimicaris sp. by a smooth cornea underlain by a massive array of photosensitive membrane. The number of ommatidia in this species is about the same as in shrimp species that live at the surface; however, the photoreceptors are larger in the deep-sea species and the shape of the photoreceptors is markedly different. The light-sensitive region of the photoreceptor is much larger than those of other shrimp and the rest of the receptor is much smaller than normal. All screening pigment has moved out of the path of incident light to a position below the retina, and the reflecting pigment cells have adapted to form a bright white diffusing screen between and behind the photoreceptors. The ultrastructure of the microvillar array comprising the rhabdom is typical for decapod crustaceans; however, there is a much greater volume density of rhabdom (80% to 85%) than normal. There is no ultrastructural evidence for cyclic rhabdom shedding or renewal. Rimicaris sp. has apparently adapted its visual system to detect the very dim light emitted from the throats of the black smoker chimneys around which it lives. PMID:8852633

Nuckley, D J; Jinks, R N; Battelle, B A; Herzog, E D; Kass, L; Renninger, G H; Chamberlain, S C



Does sympatry affect trophic resource use in congeneric tidepool fishes? A tale of two gobies Favonigobius lentiginosus and Favonigobius exquisitus.  


The feeding ecology of two sympatric gobies, Favonigobius lentiginosus and Favonigobius exquisitus, which inhabit soft substrate pools was studied in Moreton Bay, Australia. Favonigobius spp. and sediment cores were collected from three locations within the bay and fish gut contents were analysed to explore potential competition and ontogenetic dietary shifts. The most abundant prey at all sites was nematodes at 6.33 ± 0.38 cm(-3) at Dunwich, 33.58 ± 0.26 cm(-3) at Manly and 6.36 ± 0.849 cm(-3) (mean ± S.E.) at Godwin Beach. Nevertheless, they were not a dominant component of the diets. Volumetric percent contribution of prey showed that copepods and decapod shrimps dominated F. lentiginosus diets at Dunwich (7.8 and 6.6%, respectively) and Godwin Beach (6.5 and 14.3%, respectively) and the diets of F. exquisitus at Manly (9.2 and 9.5%, respectively) and Godwin Beach (10.4 and 11.8%, respectively). Schoener's index of dietary overlap between the two species, when sympatric, was 0.85 indicating a high similarity. An ontogenetic shift towards larger prey items occurred as Favonigobius spp. reached larger sizes. Gut fullness indices showed significant differences between time of day (two-way ANOVA, P < 0.01) and species (two-way ANOVA, P < 0.05) but Bonferroni's multiple comparison test showed that the only significant difference was between F. lentiginosus at Dunwich and F. exquisitus at Godwin Beach at 1800 hours. Food resource competition and temporal resource partitioning did not appear to be a limiting factor between F. lentiginosus and F. exquisitus despite cohabitation in such restricted environments. PMID:22141899

Chargulaf, C A; Krück, N C; Tibbetts, I R



Behavioural Response Thresholds in New Zealand Crab Megalopae to Ambient Underwater Sound  

PubMed Central

A small number of studies have demonstrated that settlement stage decapod crustaceans are able to detect and exhibit swimming, settlement and metamorphosis responses to ambient underwater sound emanating from coastal reefs. However, the intensity of the acoustic cue required to initiate the settlement and metamorphosis response, and therefore the potential range over which this acoustic cue may operate, is not known. The current study determined the behavioural response thresholds of four species of New Zealand brachyuran crab megalopae by exposing them to different intensity levels of broadcast reef sound recorded from their preferred settlement habitat and from an unfavourable settlement habitat. Megalopae of the rocky-reef crab, Leptograpsus variegatus, exhibited the lowest behavioural response threshold (highest sensitivity), with a significant reduction in time to metamorphosis (TTM) when exposed to underwater reef sound with an intensity of 90 dB re 1 µPa and greater (100, 126 and 135 dB re 1 µPa). Megalopae of the mud crab, Austrohelice crassa, which settle in soft sediment habitats, exhibited no response to any of the underwater reef sound levels. All reef associated species exposed to sound levels from an unfavourable settlement habitat showed no significant change in TTM, even at intensities that were similar to their preferred reef sound for which reductions in TTM were observed. These results indicated that megalopae were able to discern and respond selectively to habitat-specific acoustic cues. The settlement and metamorphosis behavioural response thresholds to levels of underwater reef sound determined in the current study of four species of crabs, enables preliminary estimation of the spatial range at which an acoustic settlement cue may be operating, from 5 m to 40 km depending on the species. Overall, these results indicate that underwater sound is likely to play a major role in influencing the spatial patterns of settlement of coastal crab species.

Stanley, Jenni A.; Radford, Craig A.; Jeffs, Andrew G.



Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) neuropeptidesfamily: Functions, titer, and binding to target tissues.  


The removal of the eyestalk (s) induces molting and reproduction promoted the presence of regulatory substances in the eyestalk (ES), particularly medulla terminalis X-organ and the sinus gland (MTXO-SG). The PCR-based cloning strategies have allowed for isolating a great number of cDNAs sequences of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) neuropeptides family from the eyestalk and non-eyestalk tissues, e.g., pericardial organs and fore- and hindguts. However, the translated corresponding neuropeptides in these tissues, their circulating concentrations, the mode of actions, and specific physiological functions have not been well described. The profiles of CHH neuropeptides present in the MTXO-SG may differ among decapod crustacean species, but they can be largely divided into two sub-groups on the basis of structural homology: (1) CHH and (2) molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH)/mandibular organ-inhibiting hormone (MOIH)/vitellogenesis/gonad-inhibiting hormone (V/GIH). CHH typically elevating the level of circulating glucose from animals under stressful conditions (hyper- and hypothermia, hypoxia, and low salinity) has multiple target tissues and functions such as ecdysteroidogenesis, osmoregulation, and vitellogenesis. Recently, MIH, known for exclusively suppressing ecdysteroidogenesis in Y-organs, is also reported to have an additional role in vitellogenesis of adult female crustacean species, suggesting that some CHH neuropeptides may acquire an extra regulatory role in reproduction at adult stage. This paper reviews the regulatory roles of CHH and MIH at the levels of specific functions, temporal and spatial expression, titers, their binding sites on the target tissues, and second messengers from two crab species: the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, and the European green crab, Carcinus maenas. It further discusses the diverse regulatory roles of these neuropeptides and the functional plasticity of these neuropeptides in regard to life stage and species-specific physiology. PMID:20026335

Chung, J Sook; Zmora, N; Katayama, H; Tsutsui, N



Cloning and characterisation of a prophenoloxidase from the haemocytes of mud crab Scylla serrata.  


A prophenoloxidase (proPO) cDNA was cloned from the haemocytes of mud crab Scylla serrata using oligonucleotide primers and RT-PCR. Both 3'- and 5'-regions were isolated by rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) method. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed that the cDNA clone has a full length of 2663bp, with an open reading frame of 2019bp, a 124-bp 5'-untranslated region, and a 520-bp 3'-untranslated region containing a poly A signal. It encodes a protein of 673 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 77.5kDa and with an estimated pI of 5.96. It contains two putative tyrosinase copper-binding motifs with six histidine residues (copper A, 185, 189, 211, and copper B, 346, 350, 386). The proPO has thiol-ester-like motif (GCGWPQHM), which showed similar structural features of proPOs from other decapod crustaceans. It also contains five possible glycosylation sites, and a conserved C-terminal region common to all known proPOs. Sequence comparison showed that the proPO-deduced amino acid of mud crab S. serrata has an overall similarity of 78%, 57%, 56%, 51-55%, 54%, 53%, 52%, 52%, and 52% to that of Dungeness crab Cancer magister, American lobster Homarus americanus, European lobster Homarus gammarus, kuruma prawn Marsupenaeus japonicus, crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, green tiger shrimp Penaeus semisulcatus, and giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, respectively. The proPO was strongly expressed in haemocytes, but not in heart, eyestalk, gill, muscle, ovary, hepatopancreas, stomach, and intestine. The proPO transcript of mud crab S. serrata increased significantly in 12 and 24h post-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection, but returned to the original values in 72h post injection. PMID:16806468

Ko, Chi-Fong; Chiou, Tzu-Ting; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Lu, Jenn-Kan; Chen, Jiann-Chu



Effects of Cadmium on Lipid Storage and Metabolism in the Freshwater Crab Sinopotamon henanense.  


Since environmental effects of molecular traits are often questioned we analyze here the molecular effects of cadmium (Cd) on lipid pathways and their effects on tissues development. Lipids are an important energy source for the developing embryo, and accumulate in the ovary and hepatopancreas of decapod crustaceans. The extend of Cd affecting lipid storage and metabolism, is studied here with the freshwater crabs Sinopotamon henanense. Crabs were exposed to water-born Cd at 1.45, 2.9, 5.8 mg/l for 10, 15, and 20 days. With significantly increased Cd accumulation in exposed crabs, lipid content in hepatopancreas and ovary showed a time-dependent and concentration-dependent reduction, being at least one of the reasons for a lower ovarian index (OI) and hepatopancreatic index (HI). After 10-day exposure increased triglyceride (TG) level in hemolymph and up-regulation of pancreatic lipase (PL) activity in the hepatopancreas suggested an increased nutritional lipid uptake. However, two processes led to lower lipid levels upon Cd exposure: an increased utilization of lipids and a down-regulated lipoprotein lipase (LPL) led to insufficient lipid transport. 10-day Cd exposure also triggered the production of ?-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide 2'-phosphate reduced tetrasodium salt hydrate (NADPH), as well as to the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and fatty acids. With increasing exposure time, the crabs at 15 and 20-day exposure contained less lipid and TG, suggesting that more energy was consumed during the exposure time. Meanwhile, the level of NADPH, ATP and the activity of PL, LPL, fatty acid synthase (FAS), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) activity was down-regulated suggesting an impairment of the crab metabolism by Cd in addition to causing a lower lipid level. PMID:24130894

Yang, Jian; Liu, Dongmei; Jing, Weixin; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Wang, Lan



The impact of extreme turbidity events on the nursery function of a temperate European estuary with regulated freshwater inflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estuaries are used as nursery grounds by numerous marine species despite being usually subject to strong anthropogenic disturbances. Abundances of marine recruits (fish and crustacean decapods) and their main prey (mysids) were monitored by monthly sampling, from June 1997 to February 2009, in the lower reaches of the Guadalquivir estuary (SW Spain). During that period, unusually high and persistent turbidity events (HPTEs) were observed twice. Both HPTEs started with strong and sudden freshwater discharges after relatively long periods of very low freshwater inflow. Data from this time-series were used to test the hypothesis that HPTEs may negatively impact the nursery function of estuaries either by decreasing prey availability or by decreasing survival/arrival of marine recruits. During HPTEs, the commonest mysid ( Mesopodopsis slabberi), a key species in the estuarine food web, showed a significant decrease in abundance. Likewise, some marine recruits that prey on M. slabberi and whose peaks of abundance within the estuary occur in summer-autumn ( Engraulis encrasicolus and Pomadasys incisus) were less abundant during HPTEs. It is also suggested that HPTEs might have triggered a shift in the distribution of the most euryhaline prey ( Neomysis integer) and predator ( Dicentrarchus punctatus and Crangon crangon) species, towards more saline waters. This could have contributed to an increase in the inter-specific competition (for food/habitat) within the estuarine nursery area. The results discussed in this study call attention to the need to reduce as much as possible the anthropogenic pressures that may stimulate the occurrence of high and persistent turbidity events (HPTEs) in order to preserve the nursery function of temperate estuaries.

González-Ortegón, E.; Subida, M. D.; Cuesta, J. A.; Arias, A. M.; Fernández-Delgado, C.; Drake, P.



Molecular characterization and immunological response analysis of a novel transferrin-like, pacifastin heavy chain protein in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879).  


The full-length cDNA of the pacifastin heavy chain gene from giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Mr-PHC) was cloned and characterized. The full sequence of the Mr-PHC cDNA was 4331 bp and contained a 119-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 3990-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 1329 amino acid residues and a 222-bp 3' UTR. The Mr-PHC protein predicted by its full ORF, exhibited a unique transferrin-like protein structure containing 4 different lobes that have not been previously identified. Three of the four lobes contained highly conserved of iron/anion binding residues. Expression analyses by conventional RT-PCR demonstrated that Mr-PHC was expressed predominantly during postlarval stage 45 and also in the foregut and gills of the adult prawn. Interestingly, dose response analyses that were quantified using quantitative real-time PCR indicated a significant upregulation of Mr-PHC during postlarval stage 45 in prawn grown at hour 24 after challenging with 10(9) cfu/ml of Aeromonas hydrophila, which is a pathogenic bacterium. Mr-HPC in the adult prawn was significantly upregulated at both hour 12 and day 7 after stimulation with A. hydrophila (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Additionally, a delayed induction response of the Mr-PHC gene was observed at 14 days when the experimental adult prawns were fed with ?-glucan-supplemented feed. Based on results of this study, the transferrin-like protein encoded by the pacifastin heavy chain gene may exist in all decapod crustaceans. Even though the function as an iron transporter is not proven, immune response studies are clearly indicated that PHC is critically involved in the immune system in these animals. PMID:23198290

Toe, Aung; Areechon, Nontawith; Srisapoome, Prapansak



Susceptibility to infection and pathogenicity of White Spot Disease (WSD) in non-model crustacean host taxa from temperate regions.  


Despite almost two decades since its discovery, White Spot Disease (WSD) caused by White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is still considered the most significant known pathogen impacting the sustainability and growth of the global penaeid shrimp farming industry. Although most commonly associated with penaeid shrimp farmed in tropical regions, the virus is also able to infect, cause disease and kill a wide range of other decapod crustacean hosts from temperate regions, including lobsters, crabs, crayfish and shrimp. For this reason, WSSV has recently been listed in European Community Council Directive 2006/88. Using principles laid down by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) we applied an array of diagnostic approaches to provide a definitive statement on the susceptibility to White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) infection in seven ecologically or economically important crustacean species from Europe. We chose four marine species: Cancer pagurus, Homarus gammarus, Nephrops norvegicus and Carcinus maenas; one estuarine species, Eriocheir sinensis and two freshwater species, Austropotamobius pallipes and Pacifastacus leniusculus. Exposure trials based upon natural (feeding) and artificial (intra-muscular injection) routes of exposure to WSSV revealed universal susceptibility to WSSV infection in these hosts. However, the relative degree of susceptibility (measured by progression of infection to disease, and mortality) varied significantly between host species. In some instances (Type 1 hosts), pathogenesis mimicked that observed in penaeid shrimp hosts whereas in other examples (Types 2 and 3 hosts), infection did not readily progress to disease, even though hosts were considered as infected and susceptible according to accepted principles. Results arising from challenge studies are discussed in relation to the potential risk posed to non-target hosts by the inadvertent introduction of WSSV to European waters via trade. Furthermore, we highlight the potential for susceptible but relatively resistant hosts to serve as models to investigate natural mitigation strategies against WSSV in these hosts. We speculate that these non-model hosts may offer a unique insight into viral handling in crustaceans. PMID:22484233

Bateman, K S; Tew, I; French, C; Hicks, R J; Martin, P; Munro, J; Stentiford, G D



Relevance of the Halocline in the Diet of the Troglobic Shrimp T.mitchelli in the Yucatan Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The anchihaline cave systems are characterized by subsurface connections with the sea and the sinkholes, have polyhaline underground water masses and are locally influenced by the rainforest organic input during the rainy season. The specific physical characteristics of the two water masses (fresh and marine) define the presence of karst fauna and their diet, the halocline represents a physicochemical barrier for many organisms and retains suspended particles creating food source storage along a cline of geochemical reactions. We studied the occurrence of the shrimp Typhatya mitchelli, an endemic Decapod Crustacean from the Yucatan Peninsula anchihaline ecosystems. We analyzed its presence in the two water masses and related its muscle d13C and d15N stable isotopic composition to its diet and specific habitat preference. The presence of specialized setae in P1 and P2 and depleted C and N values (d13C -43.11 min. -21.05 max.; d15N -0.54 min. 9.34 max.) confirm a diet sustained on bacteria with similar signatures as those from chemoautotrophic environments where the dominant morphological structures show that scraping on the cave walls, cave floor and the halocline are the prevailing feeding strategy. The density differences of water masses (rainwater rho 0.996 to 0.997 kg m-3, halocline rho 0.997 to 1.009 kg m-3; marine water rho 1.09 to 1.024 kg m-3) at the halocline allow the species (rho 1.12 to 1.13) to find the interface as a suitable substrate where organic matter can concentrate and sustain a dense population of shrimps.

Cruz de La Garza, Y.; Escobar Briones, E.



Temperature effects on zoeal morphometric traits and intraspecific variability in the hairy crab Cancer setosus across latitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenotypic plasticity is an important but often ignored ability that enables organisms, within species-specific physiological limits, to respond to gradual or sudden extrinsic changes in their environment. In the marine realm, the early ontogeny of decapod crustaceans is among the best known examples to demonstrate a temperature-dependent phenotypic response. Here, we present morphometric results of larvae of the hairy crab Cancer setosus, the embryonic development of which took place at different temperatures at two different sites (Antofagasta, 23°45' S; Puerto Montt, 41°44' S) along the Chilean Coast. Zoea I larvae from Puerto Montt were significantly larger than those from Antofagasta, when considering embryonic development at the same temperature. Larvae from Puerto Montt reared at 12 and 16°C did not differ morphometrically, but sizes of larvae from Antofagasta kept at 16 and 20°C did, being larger at the colder temperature. Zoea II larvae reared in Antofagasta at three temperatures (16, 20, and 24°C) showed the same pattern, with larger larvae at colder temperatures. Furthermore, larvae reared at 24°C, showed deformations, suggesting that 24°C, which coincides with temperatures found during strong EL Niño events, is indicative of the upper larval thermal tolerance limit. C. setosus is exposed to a wide temperature range across its distribution range of about 40° of latitude. Phenotypic plasticity in larval offspring does furthermore enable this species to locally respond to the inter-decadal warming induced by El Niño. Morphological plasticity in this species does support previously reported energetic trade-offs with temperature throughout early ontogeny of this species, indicating that plasticity may be a key to a species’ success to occupy a wide distribution range and/or to thrive under highly variable habitat conditions.

Weiss, Monika; Thatje, Sven; Heilmayer, Olaf



Ecdysteroid metabolism in crustaceans.  


The molting gland, or Y-organ (YO), is the primary site for ecdysteroid synthesis in decapod crustaceans. Ecdysteroid biosynthesis is divided into two stages: (1) conversion of cholesterol to 5?-diketol and (2) conversion of 5?-diketol to secreted products. Stage 1 involves the conversion of cholesterol to 7-dehydrocholesterol (7DC) by 7,8-dehydrogenase, the "Black Box" reactions involving 3-oxo-?(4) intermediates, and the conversion of ?(4)-diketol to 5?-diketol by 5?[H]-reductase. The stage 2 reactions generate four major products, depending on species: ecdysone, 3-dehydroecdysone (3DE), 25-deoxyecdysone (25dE), and 3-dehydro-25-deoxyecdysone (3D25dE). Peripheral tissues convert these compounds to the active hormones 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and ponasterone A (25-deoxy-20-hydroxyecdysone or 25d20E). The hydroxylations at C25, C22, C2, and C20 are catalyzed by cytochrome P-450 mono-oxygenases, which are encoded by the Halloween genes Phantom, Disembodied, Shadow, and Shade, respectively, in insects. Orthologs of these genes are present in the Daphnia genome and a cDNA encoding Phantom has been cloned from prawn. Inactivation involves conversion of ecdysteroids to polar metabolites and/or conjugates, which are eliminated in the urine and feces. The antennal gland is the major route for excretion of ecdysteroids synthesized by the YO. The hepatopancreas eliminates ingested ecdysteroids by forming apolar conjugates. The concentrations of ecdysteroids vary over the molt cycle and are determined by the combined effects biosynthesis, metabolism, and excretion. PMID:20837145

Mykles, Donald L



Inhibitory effect of molt-inhibiting hormone on phantom expression in the Y-organ of the kuruma prawn, Marsupenaeus japonicus.  


Molting in crustaceans is induced by ecdysteroids as in insects. The ecdysteroid titre in hemolymph is negatively regulated by molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) that inhibits the secretion of ecdysteroids from the Y-organ, an ecdysteroid-producing gland of crustaceans, whereas little is known about the molecular mechanism of inhibition by MIH. Recently, the Halloween genes encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases were characterized as the steroidogenic enzymes in insects. To elucidate whether the ecdysteroidogenesis in the Y-organ is regulated by molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH), we analyzed the expression level of an orthologue of a member of the Halloween genes, phantom (Cyp306a1, phm), in the Y-organ of a decapod crustacean, Marsupenaeus japonicus. A cDNA encoding phm (Mj-phm) was cloned by degenerate PCR and 5'- and 3'-RACEs. The deduced amino acid sequence of Mj-phm showed about 40% identity to those of insect phm. The six motif sequences and the four substrate recognition sites were well conserved between Mj-PHM and other PHM. RT-PCR showed the specific expression of Mj-phm mRNA in the Y-organ. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR verified that the expression level of Mj-phm was significantly increased at the pre-molt stage and decreased after ecdysis. Furthermore, exposure of the Y-organ to MIH significantly decreased the Mj-phm expression level in vitro. These results indicate that the transcription of Mj-phm in the Y-organ may be regulated by the inhibitory mechanism of MIH of M. japonicus, which involves the consequent negative regulation of ecdysteroidogenesis at the transcriptional level. PMID:19802900

Asazuma, Hideaki; Nagata, Shinji; Nagasawa, Hiromichi



Mobile demersal megafauna at artificial structures in the German Bight – Likely effects of offshore wind farm development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the next few decades, large underwater structures of thousands of wind turbines in the northern European shelf seas will substantially increase the amount of habitat available for mobile demersal megafauna. As a first indication of the possible effects of this large scale habitat creation on faunal stocks settling on hard substrata, we compared selected taxa of the mobile demersal megafauna (decapods and fish) associated with the foundation of an offshore research platform (a wind-power foundation equivalent) with those of five shipwrecks and different areas of soft bottoms in the southern German Bight, North Sea. When comparing the amount of approximately 5000 planned wind-power foundations (covering 5.1 × 106 m2 of bottom area) with the existing number of at least 1000 shipwrecks (covering 1.2 × 106 m2 of bottom area), it becomes clear that the southern North Sea will provide about 4.3 times more available artificial hard substratum habitats than currently available. With regard to the fauna found on shipwrecks, on soft substrata and on the investigated wind-power foundation, we predict that the amount of added hard substrata will allow the stocks of substrata-limited mobile demersal hard bottom species to increase by 25–165% in that area. The fauna found at the offshore platform foundations is very similar to that at shipwrecks. Megafauna abundances at the foundations, however, are lower compared to those at the highly fractured wrecks and are irregularly scattered over the foundations. The upper regions of the platform construction (5 and 15 m depth) were only sparsely colonized by mobile fauna, the anchorages, however, more densely. The faunal assemblages from the shipwrecks and the foundations, respectively, as well as from the soft bottoms clearly differed from each other. We predict that new wind-power foundations will support the spread of hard bottom fauna into soft bottom areas with low wreck densities.

Krone, R.; Gutow, L.; Brey, T.; Dannheim, J.; Schröder, A.



The Fauna Of Two New Discovered Hydrothermal Fields At 5°S And 9°33'S On The Mid-Atlantic-Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Before April 2005 there was a zoogeographical puzzle to solve: Are there any hydrothermal vent communities south of the equator the Atlantic Ocean, and if so, what will be their characteristics? Are they similar with those of the northern Atlantic Ocean or will they differ? Before the cruise 169 of the British "Charles Darwin" research vessel started, no vent site was discovered on the southern Atlantic Ridge. Using an autonomous underwater vehicle from WHOI, the first hydrothermal active vent site was found at 5°S in April 2005. With the support by British and American colleagues(Chris German and Tim Shank) the scientific crew of Meteor cruise M64/1 sampled this site at 5° first with the ROV "Quest 4000" from Marum, University Bremen. But far in excess of this success one more vent site was discovered and investigated by the Meteor cruise M64/1: the Lilliput Field at 9°33S on the Mid-Atlantic-Ridge. Our first results indicate that the identified taxa of the hydrothermal fields at 5°S and 9°33S resemble the northern Logatchev community (Gebruk et al. 2000) in most elements. Remarkable is the missing of following typical hydrothermal taxa: Decapods of the families Alvinocaridae, like Chorocaris, and Galatheidae, echinoderms like Ophiuridae and Ventfishes of the family Zoarcidae. Obviously the Romanch Fracture Zone act only partly as a physical barrier between vent fauna assemblages of the North and South Atlantic Oceans (see Shank 2004). Gebruk, A.V., Chevaldonne, P., Shank, T., Lutz, R.A. & Vrijenhoek, R.C. (2000): Deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities of the Logatchev area (14°45'N, Mid-Atlantic Ridge): diverse biotopes and high biomass. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U. K. 80: 383-393. Shank, T. (2004): The evolutionary puzzle of seafloor life. - Oceanus Magazine Vol. 42, No.2

Stecher, J. E.



Feedback From Peripheral Musculature to Central Pattern Generator in the Neurogenic Heart of the Crab Callinectes sapidus: Role of Mechanosensitive Dendrites  

PubMed Central

The neurogenic heart of decapod crustaceans is a very simple, self-contained, model central pattern generator (CPG)-effector system. The CPG, the nine-neuron cardiac ganglion (CG), is embedded in the myocardium itself; it generates bursts of spikes that are transmitted by the CG's five motor neurons to the periphery of the system, the myocardium, to produce its contractions. Considerable evidence suggests that a CPG-peripheral loop is completed by a return feedback pathway through which the contractions modify, in turn, the CG motor pattern. One likely pathway is provided by dendrites, presumably mechanosensitive, that the CG neurons project into the adjacent myocardial muscle. Here we have tested the role of this pathway in the heart of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. We performed “de-efferentation” experiments in which we cut the motor neuron axons to the myocardium and “de-afferentation” experiments in which we cut or ligated the dendrites. In the isolated CG, these manipulations had no effect on the CG motor pattern. When the CG remained embedded in the myocardium, however, these manipulations, interrupting either the efferent or afferent limb of the CPG-peripheral loop, decreased contraction amplitude, increased the frequency of the CG motor neuron spike bursts, and decreased the number of spikes per burst and burst duration. Finally, passive stretches of the myocardium likewise modulated the spike bursts, an effect that disappeared when the dendrites were cut. We conclude that feedback through the dendrites indeed operates in this system and suggest that it completes a loop through which the system self-regulates its activity.

Garcia-Crescioni, Keyla; Fort, Timothy J.; Stern, Estee; Brezina, Vladimir



Identification of a calcitonin-like diuretic hormone that functions as an intrinsic modulator of the American lobster, Homarus americanus, cardiac neuromuscular system.  


In insects, a family of peptides with sequence homology to the vertebrate calcitonins has been implicated in the control of diuresis, a process that includes mixing of the hemolymph. Here, we show that a member of the insect calcitonin-like diuretic hormone (CLDH) family is present in the American lobster, Homarus americanus, serving, at least in part, as a powerful modulator of cardiac output. Specifically, during an ongoing EST project, a transcript encoding a putative H. americanus CLDH precursor was identified; a full-length cDNA was subsequently cloned. In silico analyses of the deduced prepro-hormone predicted the mature structure of the encoded CLDH to be GLDLGLGRGFSGSQAAKHLMGLAAANFAGGPamide (Homam-CLDH), which is identical to a known Tribolium castaneum peptide. RT-PCR tissue profiling suggests that Homam-CLDH is broadly distributed within the lobster nervous system, including the cardiac ganglion (CG), which controls the movement of the neurogenic heart. RT-PCR analysis conducted on pacemaker neuron- and motor neuron-specific cDNAs suggests that the motor neurons are the source of the CLDH message in the CG. Perfusion of Homam-CLDH through the isolated lobster heart produced dose-dependent increases in both contraction frequency and amplitude and a dose-dependent decrease in contraction duration, with threshold concentrations for all parameters in the range 10(-11) to 10(-10) mol l(-1) or less, among the lowest for any peptide on this system. This report is the first documentation of a decapod CLDH, the first demonstration of CLDH bioactivity outside the Insecta, and the first detection of an intrinsic neuropeptide transcript in the crustacean CG. PMID:20008368

Christie, A E; Stevens, J S; Bowers, M R; Chapline, M C; Jensen, D A; Schegg, K M; Goldwaser, J; Kwiatkowski, M A; Pleasant, T K; Shoenfeld, L; Tempest, L K; Williams, C R; Wiwatpanit, T; Smith, C M; Beale, K M; Towle, D W; Schooley, D A; Dickinson, P S



Effects of Cadmium on Lipid Storage and Metabolism in the Freshwater Crab Sinopotamon henanense  

PubMed Central

Since environmental effects of molecular traits are often questioned we analyze here the molecular effects of cadmium (Cd) on lipid pathways and their effects on tissues development. Lipids are an important energy source for the developing embryo, and accumulate in the ovary and hepatopancreas of decapod crustaceans. The extend of Cd affecting lipid storage and metabolism, is studied here with the freshwater crabs Sinopotamon henanense. Crabs were exposed to water-born Cd at 1.45, 2.9, 5.8 mg/l for 10, 15, and 20 days. With significantly increased Cd accumulation in exposed crabs, lipid content in hepatopancreas and ovary showed a time-dependent and concentration-dependent reduction, being at least one of the reasons for a lower ovarian index (OI) and hepatopancreatic index (HI). After 10-day exposure increased triglyceride (TG) level in hemolymph and up-regulation of pancreatic lipase (PL) activity in the hepatopancreas suggested an increased nutritional lipid uptake. However, two processes led to lower lipid levels upon Cd exposure: an increased utilization of lipids and a down-regulated lipoprotein lipase (LPL) led to insufficient lipid transport. 10-day Cd exposure also triggered the production of ?-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide 2'-phosphate reduced tetrasodium salt hydrate (NADPH), as well as to the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and fatty acids. With increasing exposure time, the crabs at 15 and 20-day exposure contained less lipid and TG, suggesting that more energy was consumed during the exposure time. Meanwhile, the level of NADPH, ATP and the activity of PL, LPL, fatty acid synthase (FAS), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) activity was down-regulated suggesting an impairment of the crab metabolism by Cd in addition to causing a lower lipid level.

Yang, Jian; Liu, Dongmei; Jing, Weixin; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Wang, Lan



Hermit to king, or hermit to all: multiple transitions to crab-like forms from hermit crab ancestors.  


The Anomura presents the greatest degree of morphological disparity in the decapod Crustacea, with body forms ranging from the symmetrical and asymmetrical hermit crabs to squat lobsters and king crabs. The phylogeny of the anomurans has been fraught with controversy. Recent debate has focused primarily on the phenomenon of carcinization, the evolution of crab-like form from a non-crab-like ancestor, focused chiefly on derivation of king crabs from asymmetrical hermit crabs--the "hermit to king" hypothesis. We show by phylogenetic analysis of five nuclear protein-coding gene sequences that hermit crabs have a single origin, but surprisingly, that almost all other major clades and body forms within the Anomura, are derived from within the hermit crabs. The crab-like form and squat lobster form have each evolved at least twice from separate symmetrical hermit crab ancestors. In each case, a carcinization trend can be posited via a transition series from the initial symmetrical long-tailed hermit crab form, through the intermediate squat lobster or asymmetrical hermit crab form, to the final crab-like form. Adaptation to dextral shell habitation evolved at least twice, once in an exclusively deep-water clade and once in the common ancestor of all other asymmetrical hermit crabs (from which king crabs are derived). These remarkable cases of parallelism suggest considerable phenotypic flexibility within the hermit crab ground plan, with a general tendency toward carcinization. Rather than having a separate origin from other major clades, hermit crabs have given rise to most other major anomuran body types. PMID:21835822

Tsang, Ling Ming; Chan, Tin-Yam; Ahyong, Shane T; Chu, Ka Hou



Spermatophore transfer in the hermit crab Clibanarius vittatus (Crustacea, Anomura, Diogenidae).  


Although mating has been described in several hermit crab species, the mechanics of spermatophore transfer have not previously been demonstrated. Evidence from pleopod and gonopore morphology, video observations, and inseminated females indicates that in Clibanarius vittatus the male applies a spermatophoric mass directly onto the female via the gonopores rather than with modified pleopods 1-2 (gonopods) and/or genital papillae as in many other decapods. The single second pleopod of males of C. vittatus has a simple endopod with no apparent modifications for sperm transfer. There are no genital papillae extending from the male gonopores. The globular spermatophores are aligned in rows surrounded by a seminal secretion in the male ducts (vasa deferentia that terminate in ejaculatory ducts opening to the exterior via the gonopores). During copulation, described from time-lapse video recordings, the ventral surface of the last thoracic segment of the male, bearing the gonopores, was apposed to the ventral cephalothorax of the female. A massive amount of seminal secretion containing spermatophore ribbons, termed here the spermatophoric mass and described for the first time in a hermit crab species, was observed covering the sternites and coxae of pereopods 1-5 of a recently copulated female. It is suggested that during copulation the male emits the contents of the ejaculatory ducts directly onto the female without the aid of gonopods or genital papillae. Although spermatophore transfer is simple in C. vittatus, the presence of modified anterior pleopods or elongate genital papillae (sexual tubes) in other paguroidean species suggests the possibility of a more complex insemination process in these other hermit crabs. PMID:12112130

Hess, Gregory S; Bauer, Raymond T



Analysis of neurotransmitter distribution in brain development of benthic and pelagic octopod cephalopods.  


The database on neurotransmitter distribution during central nervous system development of cephalopod mollusks is still scarce. We describe the ontogeny of serotonergic (5-HT-ir) and FMRFamide-like immunoreactive (Fa-lir) neurons in the central nervous system of the benthic Octopus vulgaris and Fa-lir distribution in the pelagic Argonauta hians. Comparing our data to previous studies, we aim at revealing shared immunochemical domains among coleoid cephalopods, i.e., all cephalopods except nautiluses. During development of O. vulgaris, 5-HT-ir and Fa-lir elements occur relatively late, namely during stage XII, when the brain neuropils are already highly differentiated. In stage XII-XX individuals, Fa-lir cell somata are located in the middle and posterior subesophageal mass and in the optic, posterior basal, and superior buccal lobes. 5-HT is predominately expressed in cell somata of the superior buccal, anterior basal, and optic lobes, as well as in the subesophageal mass. The overall population of Fa-lir neurons is larger than the one expressing 5-HT. Fa-lir elements are distributed throughout homologous brain areas of A. hians and O. vulgaris. We identified neuronal subsets with similar cell number and immunochemical phenotype in coleoids. These are located in corresponding brain regions of developmental stages and adults of O. vulgaris, A. hians, and the decapod squid Idiosepius notoides. O. vulgaris and I. notoides exhibit numerous 5-HT-ir cell somata in the superior buccal lobes but none or very few in the inferior buccal lobes. The latter have previously been homologized to the gastropod buccal ganglia, which also lack 5-HT-ir cell somata in euthyneuran gastropods. Among coleoids, 5-HT-ir neuronal subsets, which are located ventrally to the lateral anterior basal lobes and in the anterior middle subesophageal mass, are candidates for homologous subsets. Contrary to I. notoides, octopods exhibit Fa-lir cell somata ventrally to the brachial lobes and 5-HT-ir cell somata close to the stellate ganglia. PMID:22461086

Wollesen, Tim; Sukhsangchan, Charuay; Seixas, Pedro; Nabhitabhata, Jaruwat; Wanninger, Andreas



Metabolism of Antarctic micronektonic crustacea across a summer ice-edge bloom: respiration, composition, and enzymatic activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Antarctic marginal ice zone is an important oceanic front separating the pack-ice and open-water environments. During summer, the retreating pack ice creates a meltwater lens in the euphotic zone, allowing primary producers and microheterotrophs to flourish in a discrete bloom just seaward of the retreating ice edge that lasts about 60 days. The purpose of the present study was to see if the ice-edge bloom had a discernible effect on the metabolism and physiological condition of Antarctic micronekton similar to that observed in zooplankton species. We also wished to assess the importance of the summer season to species' life cycles. Two major data sets were collected on 25 species in the following taxonomic groups: amphipods, cephalopods, decapods, euphausiids, isopods, mysids, ostracods, and polychaetes. The first data set described the metabolic rates of individuals in areas of the marginal ice zone with widely different levels of chlorophyll biomass to investigate the effect of the ice-edge bloom on metabolism. Additionally, summer metabolic rates were compared with data from other seasons. The second data set detailed the levels of protein, water, ash, RNA and DNA, and the activities of metabolic enzymes (citrate synthase and malate dehydrogenase) to examine the efficacy of biochemical indices as predictive tools for metabolism. Results suggested that the mobility of the micronektonic species eliminated most direct effects of the bloom on metabolism. Individuals captured in very different productivity regimes showed few significant differences in the metabolic indicators listed above. Isolated cases of changes in body composition and enzyme activity, however, implied that longer-term effects of the bloom may be exhibited. Seasonal increases in metabolism from winter to summer were observed in the euphausiids Euphausia superba, E. triacantha, and Thysanoessa macrura and the amphipod Vibilia stebbingi. It was concluded that the seasonal shifts were indicative of a "type 2" or compromise overwintering strategy whereby metabolism drops without an accompanying dormant state. Protein content and MDH activity were found to be the best predictors of respiration rate, while nucleic acid measures only correlated with respiration in immature specimens.

Donnelly, Joseph; Kawall, Helena; Geiger, Stephen P.; Torres, Joseph J.



The Gela Basin pockmark field in the strait of Sicily (Mediterranean Sea): chemosymbiotic faunal and carbonate signatures of postglacial to modern cold seepage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geo-biological exploration of a pockmark field located at ca. 800 m below sea level in the Gela basin (Strait of Sicily, Central Mediterranean) provided a relatively diverse chemosymbiotic community and methane-imprinted carbonates. To date, this is the first occurrence of such a type of specialised deep-water cold-seep communities recorded from this key region, before documented in the Mediterranean as rather disjunct findings in its eastern and westernmost basins. The thiotrophic chemosymbiotic organisms recovered from this area include empty tubes of the vestimentiferan Lamellibrachia sp., loose and articulated shells of lucinids (Lucinoma kazani, Myrtea amorpha), vesicomyids (Isorropodon perplexum), and gastropods (Taranis moerchii). A callianassid decapod (Calliax sp.) was consistently found alive in large numbers in the pockmark mud. Their post-mortem calcified parts mixed with molluscs and subordinately miliolid foraminifers form a distinct type of skeletal assemblage. Carbonate concretions display ?13C values as low as -40‰ PDB suggesting the occurrence of light hydrocarbons in the seeping fluids. Since none of the truly chemosymbiotic organisms was found alive, although their skeletal parts appear at times very fresh, some specimens have been AMS-14C dated to shed light on the historical evolution of this site. Lamellibrachiav and Lucinoma are two of the most significant chemosymbiotic taxa reported from various Mediterranean cold seep sites (Alboran Sea and Eastern basin). Specimens from station MEDCOR78 (pockmark #1, Lat. 36°46´10.18" N, Long. 14°01´31.59" E, 815 m below sea level) provided ages of 11736 ± 636 yr cal BP (Lamellibrachia sp.), and 9609.5 ± 153.5 yr cal BP (L. kazani). One shell of M. amorpha in core MEDCOR81 (pockmark #6, Lat 36°45´38.89" N, Long 14°00´07.58" E, 822 m below sea level) provided a sub-modern age of 484 ± 54 yr cal BP. These ages document that fluid seepage at this pockmark site has been episodically sustaining thiotrophic macrobenthic communities since the end of the Younger Dryas stadial up to sub-recent times.

Taviani, M.; Angeletti, L.; Ceregato, A.; Foglini, F.; Froglia, C.; Trincardi, F.



Geomorphological, trophic and human influences on the bamboo coral Isidella elongata assemblages in the deep Mediterranean: To what extent does Isidella form habitat for fish and invertebrates?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed what are the best ecological conditions for megafauna associated with the bamboo coral Isidella elongata based on the geomorphological, physical and trophic information taken in 3 stations (St1, St2, St3) off the southern Catalonian coasts at 620 m depth in June 2011. Results were compared with assemblage compositions recorded in past cruises (May 1992, 1994) at the same 3 stations. St1 was in a fishing ground exploited since the 1940s over a relatively wide slope at ca. 22 km from the nearest canyon head; St2 and St3 were on a narrower slope closer to canyon heads and to the Ebro river mouth than St1. I. elongata had formed (to May 1994, at least) a dense coral forest at St2-St3 (to ca. 255 colonies/ha at St3), and some isolated colonies (to ca. 0.9 colonies/ha) were still collected in 2011. Fish and invertebrate communities significantly differed between St1 and St2/St3, with two macrourid fishes (Trachrhynchus trachyrhynchus and Nezumia aequalis) and two decapods (Plesionika martia and Plesionika acanthonotus) more abundant at St2/St3. The following ecological indicators imply better food conditions for megafauna at St2-St3 and for I. elongata itself: (i) greater density of zooplankton (copepods, euphausiids, and others) as potential prey for planktivores (including I. elongata); (ii) greater biomass and mean weight of epifaunal and infaunal deposit feeders; (iii) higher feeding intensity, F, at St3 for benthos feeders (Phycis blennoides, N. aequalis and Aristeus antennatus). Also, at St2-St3 we found higher near-bottom turbidity (indicating particle resuspension: food for suspension feeders) and finer and more reduced (Eh) sediments. The results let us suggest that corals and accompanying fauna preferently found optimal ecological conditions in the same habitat, while habitat-forming capacity by I. elongata seemed weak to generate these conditions. Coral forests may enhance detritus accumulations around them, improving habitat conditions for benthos feeders (e.g. macrourid fish). At St3 our side-scan sonar recorded three types of tracks produced by trawler doors, which match with three identified vessels occasionally operating in the area. After this low fishing activity off the Ebro Delta since the mid-1990s, almost all colonies of I. elongata has been removed. However, this impact has hardly altered fish and invertebrate composition without any significant loss of diversity, pointing also toward a rather low capacity of I. elongata facies in forming habitat for megafauna on muddy bottoms of the Mediterranean slope.

Cartes, J. E.; LoIacono, C.; Mamouridis, V.; López-Pérez, C.; Rodríguez, P.



Role of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) in the environmental stressor-exposed intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus.  


To identify and characterize CHH (TJ-CHH) gene in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus, we analyzed the full-length cDNA sequence, genomic structure, and promoter region. The full-length TJ-CHH cDNA was 716bp in length, encoding 136 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequences of TJ-CHH showed a high similarity of the CHH mature domain to other crustaceans. Six conserved cysteine residues and five conserved structural motifs in the CHH mature peptide domain were also observed. The genomic structure of the TJ-CHH gene contained three exons and two introns in its open reading frame (ORF), and several transcriptional elements were detected in the promoter region of the TJ-CHH gene. To investigate transcriptional change of TJ-CHH under environmental stress, T. japonicus were exposed to heat treatment, UV-B radiation, heavy metals, and water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of Iranian crude oil. Upon heat stress, TJ-CHH transcripts were elevated at 30°C and 35°C for 96h in a time-course experiment. UV-B radiation led to a decreased pattern of the TJ-CHH transcript 48h and more after radiation (12kJ/m(2)). After exposure of a fixed dose (12kJ/m(2)) in a time-course experiment, TJ-CHH transcript was down-regulated in time-dependent manner with a lowest value at 12h. However, the TJ-CHH transcript level was increased in response to five heavy metal exposures for 96h. Also, the level of the TJ-CHH transcript was significantly up-regulated at 20% of WAFs after exposure to WAFs for 48h and then remarkably reduced in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that the enhanced TJ-CHH transcript level is associated with a cellular stress response of the TJ-CHH gene as shown in decapod crustaceans. This study is also helpful for a better understanding of the detrimental effects of environmental changes on the CHH-triggered copepod metabolism. PMID:23797038

Kim, Bo-Mi; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Han, Jeonghoon; Kim, Il-Chan; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong



Effect of hypoxia and anoxia on invertebrate behaviour: ecological perspectives from species to community level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal hypoxia and anoxia have become a global key stressor to marine ecosystems, with almost 500 dead zones recorded wordwide. By triggering cascading effects from the individual organism to the community and ecosystem-level, oxygen depletions threat marine biodiversity and can alter ecosystem structure and function. By integrating both physiological function and ecological processes, animal behaviour is ideal for assessing the stress state of benthic macrofauna to low dissolved oxygen. The initial response of organisms can serve as an early-warning signal, while the successive behavioural reactions of key species indicate hypoxia levels and help assess community degradation. Here we document the behavioural responses of a representative spectrum of benthic macrofauna in the natural setting in the Northern Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean. We experimentally induced small-scale anoxia with a benthic chamber in 24 m depth to overcome the difficulties in predicting the onset of hypoxia, which often hinders full documentation in the field. The behavioural reactions were documented with a time-lapse camera. Oxygen depletion elicited significant and repeatable changes in general (visibility, locomotion, body movement and posture, location) and species-specific reactions in virtually all organisms (302 individuals from 32 species and 2 species groups). Most atypical (stress) behaviours were associated with specific oxygen thresholds: arm-tipping in the ophiuroid Ophiothrix quinquemaculata, for example, with the onset of mild hypoxia (< 2 mL O2 L-1), the emergence of polychates on the sediment surface with moderate hypoxia (< 1 mL O2 L-1), the emergence of the infaunal sea urchin Schizaster canaliferus on the sediment with severe hypoxia (< 0.5 mL O2 L-1) and heavy body rotations in sea anemones with anoxia. Other species changed their activity patterns, i.e. circadian rhythm in the hermit crab Paguristes eremita or the bioherm-associated crab Pisidia longimana. Intra- and interspecific reactions were weakened or changed: decapods ceased defensive and territorial behaviour, and predator-prey interactions and relationships shifted. This nuanced scale of resolution is a useful tool to interpret present benthic community status (behaviour) and past mortalities (community composition, e.g. survival of tolerant species). This information on the sensitivity (onset of stress response), tolerance (mortality, survival), and characteristics (i.e. life habit, functional role) of key species also helps predict potential future changes in benthic structure and ecosystem functioning. This integrated approach can transport complex ecological processes to the public and decision-makers and help define specific monitoring, assessment and conservation plans.

Riedel, B.; Pados, T.; Pretterebner, K.; Schiemer, L.; Steckbauer, A.; Haselmair, A.; Zuschin, M.; Stachowitsch, M.



The Gela Basin pockmark field in the strait of Sicily (Mediterranean Sea): chemosymbiotic faunal and carbonate signatures of postglacial to modern cold seepage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geo-biological exploration of a pockmark field located at ca. -800 m in the Gela basin (Strait of Sicily, Central Mediterranean) provided a relatively diverse chemosymbiotic community and methane-imprinted carbonates. To date, this is the first occurrence of such type of specialized deep-water cold-seep communities recorded from this key region, before documented in the Mediterranean as rather disjunct findings in its eastern and westernmost basins. The thiotrophic chemosymbiotic organisms recovered from this area include empty tubes of the vestimentiferan Lamellibrachia sp., loose and articulated shells of lucinids (Lucinoma kazani, Myrtea amorpha), vesicomyids (Isorropodon perplexum), and gastropods (Taranis moerchi). A callianassid decapod (Calliax sp.) was consistently found alive in large numbers in the pockmark mud. Their post-mortem calcified parts mixed with molluscs and subordinately miliolid foraminifers form a distinct type of skeletal assemblage (named DECAMOL). Carbonate concretions display ?13C values as low as -40 ‰ PDB suggesting the occurrence of light hydrocarbons in the seeping fluids. Since none of the truly chemosymbiotic organisms was found alive, although their skeletal parts appear at times very fresh, some specimens have been AMS-14C dated to shed light on the historical evolution of this site. Lamellibrachia and Lucinoma are two of the most significant chemosymbiotic taxa reported from various Mediterranean cold seep sites (Alboran Sea and Eastern basin). Specimens from station MEDCOR78 (pockmark#1, Lat 36°46´10.18´´ N, Long 14°01´31.59´´ E, -815 m) provided ages of 11 736 ± 636 yr cal BP (Lamellibrachia sp.), and 9609.5 ± 153.5 yr cal BP (L. kazani). One shell of M. amorpha in core MEDCOR81 (pockmark#6, Lat 36°45´38.89´´ N, Long 14°00´07.58´´ E, -822 m) provided a sub-modern age of 484 ± 54 yr cal BP. These ages document that fluid seepage at this pockmark site has been episodically sustaining thiotrophic macrobenthic communities since the end of the Younger Dryas stadial up to sub-recent times.

Taviani, M.; Angeletti, L.; Ceregato, A.; Foglini, F.; Froglia, C.; Trincardi, F.



Cloning of a nitric oxide synthase from green shore crab, Carcinus maenas: a comparative study of the effects of eyestalk ablation on expression in the molting glands (Y-organs) of C. maenas, and blackback land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis.  


Molting in decapod crustaceans is regulated by ecdysteroids produced by a pair of Y-organs (YOs) located in the cephalothorax. YO ecdysteroidogenesis is suppressed by molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH), a neuropeptide produced in the X-organ of the eyestalk (ES) ganglia. MIH signaling may involve nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (GC-I). A full-length cDNA encoding Carcinus maenas NOS (Cm-NOS; 3836 base pairs) of 1164 amino acid residues (estimated mass 131,833 Da) was cloned with 88% identity to Gecarcinus lateralis NOS (Gl-NOS). End-point reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that Cm-NOS was expressed at varying levels in the YO, testis, ovary, hepatopancreas, midgut, hindgut, heart, thoracic ganglion, and skeletal muscle and was not detected in the gill. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed localization of NOS and cGMP in the steroidogenic cells and the surrounding connective tissue layer of the C. maenas YO. ES ablation (ESA) induced molting in G. lateralis; hemolymph ecdysteroid titers increased during premolt and reached a peak of about 400 pg/?L at 20 days and 24 days post-ESA. By contrast, ESA did not induce molting in C. maenas; hemolymph ecdysteroid titers increased about 2-fold (53 to 121 pg/?L) by 3 days post-ESA and remained at that level at 7 days post-ESA. Real time PCR was used to quantify the effects of ESA on the expression of NOS in C. maenas and G. lateralis YOs. ESA caused 32-fold and 5-fold increases in Gl-NOS and Cm-NOS transcripts by 24 days and 7 days post-ESA, respectively, which were correlated with hemolymph ecdysteroid levels. In addition, GC-I catalytic subunit (Gl-GC-I?) mRNA level increased 7.4-fold by 24 days post-ESA, but there was no significant effect of ESA on membrane GC (Gl-GC-II) mRNA level. These data indicate that the YO up-regulates NO signaling components in response to withdrawal of ES neuropeptides. PMID:20959144

McDonald, Audrey A; Chang, Ernest S; Mykles, Donald L



Automated Image Analysis for the Detection of Benthic Crustaceans and Bacterial Mat Coverage Using the VENUS Undersea Cabled Network  

PubMed Central

The development and deployment of sensors for undersea cabled observatories is presently biased toward the measurement of habitat variables, while sensor technologies for biological community characterization through species identification and individual counting are less common. The VENUS cabled multisensory network (Vancouver Island, Canada) deploys seafloor camera systems at several sites. Our objective in this study was to implement new automated image analysis protocols for the recognition and counting of benthic decapods (i.e., the galatheid squat lobster, Munida quadrispina), as well as for the evaluation of changes in bacterial mat coverage (i.e., Beggiatoa spp.), using a camera deployed in Saanich Inlet (103 m depth). For the counting of Munida we remotely acquired 100 digital photos at hourly intervals from 2 to 6 December 2009. In the case of bacterial mat coverage estimation, images were taken from 2 to 8 December 2009 at the same time frequency. The automated image analysis protocols for both study cases were created in MatLab 7.1. Automation for Munida counting incorporated the combination of both filtering and background correction (Median- and Top-Hat Filters) with Euclidean Distances (ED) on Red-Green-Blue (RGB) channels. The Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) features and Fourier Descriptors (FD) of tracked objects were then extracted. Animal classifications were carried out with the tools of morphometric multivariate statistic (i.e., Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis; PLSDA) on Mean RGB (RGBv) value for each object and Fourier Descriptors (RGBv+FD) matrices plus SIFT and ED. The SIFT approach returned the better results. Higher percentages of images were correctly classified and lower misclassification errors (an animal is present but not detected) occurred. In contrast, RGBv+FD and ED resulted in a high incidence of records being generated for non-present animals. Bacterial mat coverage was estimated in terms of Percent Coverage and Fractal Dimension. A constant Region of Interest (ROI) was defined and background extraction by a Gaussian Blurring Filter was performed. Image subtraction within ROI was followed by the sum of the RGB channels matrices. Percent Coverage was calculated on the resulting image. Fractal Dimension was estimated using the box-counting method. The images were then resized to a dimension in pixels equal to a power of 2, allowing subdivision into sub-multiple quadrants. In comparisons of manual and automated Percent Coverage and Fractal Dimension estimates, the former showed an overestimation tendency for both parameters. The primary limitations on the automatic analysis of benthic images were habitat variations in sediment texture and water column turbidity. The application of filters for background corrections is a required preliminary step for the efficient recognition of animals and bacterial mat patches.

Aguzzi, Jacopo; Costa, Corrado; Robert, Katleen; Matabos, Marjolaine; Antonucci, Francesca; Juniper, S. Kim; Menesatti, Paolo



Differential effects of arginine, glutamate and phosphoarginine on Ca(2+)-activation properties of muscle fibres from crayfish and rat.  


The effects of two amino acids, arginine which has a positively charged side-chain and glutamate which has a negatively charged side-chain on the Ca2+-activation properties of the contractile apparatus were examined in four structurally and functionally different types of skeletal muscle; long- and short-sarcomere fibres from the claw muscle of the yabby (a freshwater decapod crustacean), and fast- and slow-twitch fibres from limb muscles of the rat. Single skinned fibres were activated in carefully balanced solutions of different pCa (-log10[Ca2+]) that either contained the test solute ("test") or not ("control"). The effect of phosphoarginine, a phosphagen that bears a nett negative charge, was also compared to the effects of arginine. Results show that (i) arginine (33-36 mmol l(-1)) significantly shifted the force-pCa curve by 0.08-0.13 pCa units in the direction of increased sensitivity to Ca2+-activated contraction in all fibre types; (ii) phosphoarginine (9-10 mmol l(-1)) induced a significant shift of the force-pCa curve by 0.18-0.24 pCa units in the direction of increased sensitivity to Ca2+ in mammalian fast- and slow-twitch fibres, but had no significant effects on the force-pCa relation in either long- or short-sarcomere crustacean fibres; (iii) glutamate (36-40 mmol l(-1)), like arginine affected the force-pCa relation of all fibre types investigated, but in the opposite direction, causing a significant decrease in the sensitivity to Ca2+-activated contraction by 0.08-0.19 pCa units; (iv) arginine, phosphoarginine and glutamate had little or no effect on the maximum Ca2+-activated force of crustacean and mammalian fibres. The results suggest that the opposing effects of glutamate and arginine are not related to simply their charge structure, but must involve complex interactions between these molecules, Ca2+ and the regulatory and other myofibrillar proteins. PMID:15711880

Jame, David W; West, Jan M; Dooley, Philip C; Stephenson, D George



a Study of the Bioluminescence of Larger Zooplankton and the Effects of Low-Level Light Changes on Their Behavior.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A bio-optical study was undertaken to quantify the relationships which exist between counter-illuminating organisms and the downwelling spectral light field in which they exist. The basic hypothesis behind counter-illumination is that the animal emits light using ventrally-oriented photophores to disrupt or eliminate the shadowed area on ventral surfaces. An organism lacking photophores sharply silhouettes against the highly directional downwelling irradiance, whereas by distributing photophores over the ventral surface of the body and closely matching the spectral and intensity characteristics of the downwelling light, this silhouette is obscured. Analysis carried out on changes in vertical distribution patterns in response to low-level intensity changes in ambient surface light suggested that diel migrating organisms begin to shift vertically in the water column when surface scalar irradiance decreased below or increased above 1.0 times10^{-2} muEin m^{-2} sec^ {-1}. Maximum aggregations of organisms, as defined by MOCNESS net sampling or single-frequency acoustic backscatter, appeared to remain within definable in situ blue-green isolume ranges varying less than a factor of ten throughout each night. Comparisons made between organism counter-illumination capacity and modeled in situ downwelling irradiance levels suggested that euphausiids, decapods and myctophids use between 1-10 percent of their maximum counter-illumination capacity to match the ambient downwelling light conditions. Modeling also suggested that up to 40 percent of the maximum measured bioluminescence output is required to match ambient irradiance in the shallower surface zones where aggregations of copepods, potential food sources, were commonly found at night. An optical study to quantify the radiative transfer of bioluminescence from a point source revealed that non -isotropic point sources produce radiance patterns that cannot be simply explained by inverse square losses. Therefore simple inverse-square estimates of bioluminescent propagation loss rates from organisms in the ocean are an oversimplification of the radiative transfer processes that occur when these emissions occur. Additionally, in evaluating counter-illumination, the distance of the receptor, such as the eyes of a potential predator, is critical in determining the effectiveness of the organisms in matching the uniform light field of their surrounding environment and ultimately avoiding detection and predation.

van Keuren, Jeffrey Robert


Food web structure of the epibenthic and infaunal invertebrates on the Catalan slope (NW Mediterranean): Evidence from ? 13C and ? 15N analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The food-web structure of the epibenthic and infaunal invertebrates on the continental slope of the Catalan Sea (Balearic basin, NW Mediterranean) was investigated using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes on a total of 34 species, and HPLC pigment analyses for three key species. Samples were collected close to Barcelona (NE Iberian Peninsula), between 650 and 800 m depth and between February 2007 and February 2008. Mean ? 13C values ranged from -21.0‰ (small Calocaris macandreae and Amphipholis squamata) to -14.5‰ ( Sipunculus norvegicus). Values of ? 15N ranged from 4.0‰ ( A. squamata) to 12.1‰ ( Molpadia musculus). The stable isotope ratios of benthic fauna displayed a continuum of values (e.g. ? 15N range of 8‰), confirming a wide spectrum of feeding strategies (from active suspension feeders to predators) and complex food webs. According to the available information on diets of benthic fauna, the lowest values were found for surface deposit feeders (small C. macandrae and the two ophiuroids A. squamata and Amphiura chiajei) and active suspension feeders ( Abra longicallus and Scalpellum scalpellum) feeding on different sizes of particulate organic matter (POM), among which small particles may exhibit lower ? 15N. High annual mean ? 15N values were found among sub-surface deposit feeders, exploiting refractory or frequently recycled organic matter that is enriched in ? 15N. Carnivorous polychaetes ( Nephtys spp., Oenonidae and Polynoidae) and large decapods ( Geryon longipes and Paromola cuvieri) also displayed high ? 15N values. ? 13C ranges were particularly wide among surface deposit feeders (ranging from -21.0‰ to -16.4‰), suggesting exploitation of POM of both terrigenous and oceanic origins. Correlation between ? 13C and ? 15N was generally weak, indicating multiple carbon sources, likely due to the consumption of different kinds of sinking particles (e.g. marine snow, phytodetritus, etc.), sedimented and frequently recycled POM, together with macrophyte remains. The stronger ? 13C-? 15N correlations found in February and April suggest that during the period of water column homogeneization (winter-spring), the benthic community was sustained by phytodetritus inputs originating from the peak of surface primary production in February. Conversely, weaker ? 13C-? 15N correlations were observed during the period of water column stratification (beginning in June-July), suggesting that the benthic community in this period was sustained, with a delay of ca. 2/3 months, by multiple carbon sources including continental inputs from river discharge (with the maxima in April-May). Thus both advective and vertical fluxes seem to be food sources for benthos on the Catalonian slope. Pigments in the guts of key species were generally degraded, and only the active suspension feeder A. longicallus ingested fresh chlorophyll during periods of high primary production at the surface (February and April 2007).

Fanelli, E.; Papiol, V.; Cartes, J. E.; Rumolo, P.; Brunet, C.; Sprovieri, M.