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Sample records for decay fungus postia

  1. Genome, transcriptome, and secretome analysis of wood decay fungus postia placenta supports unique mechanisms of lignocellulose conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Diego; Challacombe, Jean F; Misra, Monica; Xie, Gary; Brettin, Thomas; Morgenstern, Ingo; Hibbett, David; Schmoll, Monika; Kubicek, Christian P; Ferreira, Patricia; Ruiz - Duenase, Francisco J; Martinez, Angel T; Kersten, Phil; Hammel, Kenneth E; Vanden Wymelenberg, Amber; Gaskell, Jill; Lindquist, Erika; Sabati, Grzegorz; Bondurant, Sandra S; Larrondo, Luis F; Canessa, Paulo; Vicunna, Rafael; Yadavk, Jagiit; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Subramaniank, Venkataramanan; Pisabarro, Antonio G; Lavin, Jose L; Oguiza, Jose A; Master, Emma; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M; Harris, Paul; Magnuson, Jon K; Baker, Scott; Bruno, Kenneth; Kenealy, William; Hoegger, Patrik J; Kues, Ursula; Ramaiva, Preethi; Lucas, Susan; Salamov, Asaf; Shapiro, Harris; Tuh, Hank; Chee, Christine L; Teter, Sarah; Yaver, Debbie; James, Tim; Mokrejs, Martin; Pospisek, Martin; Grigoriev, Igor; Rokhsar, Dan; Berka, Randy; Cullen, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Brown-rot fungi such as Postia placenta are common inhabitants of forest ecosystems and are also largely responsible for the destructive decay of wooden structures. Rapid depolymerization of cellulose is a distinguishing feature of brown-rot, but the biochemical mechanisms and underlying genetics are poorly understood. Systematic examination of the P. placenta genome, transcriptome and secretome revealed unique extracellular enzyme systems, including an unusual repertoire of extracellular glycoside hydrolases. Genes encoding exocellobiohydrolases and cellulose-binding domains, typical of cellulolytic microbes, are absent in this efficient cellulose-degrading fungus. When P. placenta was grown in medium containing cellulose as sole carbon source, transcripts corresponding to many hemicellulases and to a single putative {beta}-1-4 endoglucanase were expressed at high levels relative to glucose grown cultures. These transcript profiles were confirmed by direct identification of peptides by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC{center_dot}MSIMS). Also upregulated during growth on cellulose medium were putative iron reductases, quinone reductase, and structurally divergent oxidases potentially involved in extracellular generation of Fe(II) and H202. These observations are consistent with a biodegradative role for Fenton chemistry in which Fe(II) and H202 react to form hydroxyl radicals, highly reactive oxidants capable of depolymerizing cellulose. The P. placenta genome resources provide unparalleled opportunities for investigating such unusual mechanisms of cellulose conversion. More broadly, the genome offers insight into the diversification of lignocellulose degrading mechanisms in fungi. Comparisons to the closely related white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium support an evolutionary shift from white-rot to brown-rot during which the capacity for efficient depolymerization of lignin was lost.

  2. Genome, transcriptome, and secretome analysis of wood decay fungus Postia placenta supports unique mechanisms of lignocellulose conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Diego; Challacombe, Jean; Morgenstern, Ingo; Hibbett, David; Schmoll, Monika; Kubicek, Christian P.; Ferreira, Patricia; Ruiz-Duenas, Francisco; Martinez, Angel T.; Kersten, Phil; Hammel, Ken; Vanden Wymelenberg, Amber; Gaskell, Jill; Lindquist, Erika; Sabat, Gregorz; Splinter Bondurant, Sandra; Larrondo, Luis F.; Canessa, Paulo; Vicuna, Rafael; Yadev, Jagjit; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Subramanian, Venkataramanan; Pisabarro, Antonio; Lavin, Jose L.; Oguiza, Jose A.; Master, Emma; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Harris, Paul; Magnuson, Jon K.; Baker, Scott E.; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Kenealy, William; Hoegger, Patrik; Kues, Ursula; Ramaiya, Preethi; Lucas, Susan; Salamov, Asaf; Shapiro, Harris; Tu, Hank; Chee, Christine L.; Misra, Monica; Xie, Gary; Teter, Sarah; Yaver, Debbie; James, Tim; Mokrejs, Martin; Pospisek, Martin; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Brettin, T.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Berka, Randy; Cullen, Dan

    2009-02-10

    Brown-rot fungi such as Postia placenta are common inhabitants of forest ecosystems and are also largely responsible for the destructive decay of wooden structures. Rapid depolymerization of cellulose is a distinguishing feature of brown-rot, but the biochemical mechanisms and underlying genetics are poorly understood. Systematic examination of the P. placenta genome, transcriptome, and secretome revealed unique extracellular enzyme systems, including an unusual repertoire of extracellular glycoside hydrolases. Genes encoding exocellobiohydrolases and cellulose-binding domains, typical of cellulolytic microbes, are absent in this efficient cellulose-degrading fungus. When P. placenta was grown in media containing cellulose as sole carbon source, transcripts corresponding to many hemicellulases and to a single putative β-1-4 endoglucanase were expressed at high levels relative to glucose grown cultures. These transcript profiles were confirmed by direct identification of peptides by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Also upregulated under cellulolytic culture conditions were putative iron reductases, quinone reductase, and structurally divergent oxidases potentially involved in extracellular generation of Fe(II) and H2O2. These observations are consistent with a biodegradative role for Fenton chemistry in which Fe(II) and H2O2 react to form hydroxyl radicals, highly reactive oxidants capable of depolymerizing cellulose. The P. placenta genome resources provide unparalleled opportunities for investigating such unusual mechanisms of cellulose conversion. More broadly, the genome offers insight into the diversification of lignocellulose degrading mechanisms in fungi. In particular, comparisons between P. placenta and the closely related white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium support an evolutionary shift from white-rot to brown-rot during which efficient depolymerization of lignin was lost.

  3. Morphological Characterization and Quantification of the Mycelial Growth of the Brown-Rot Fungus Postia placenta for Modeling Purposes.

    PubMed

    Du, Huan; Lv, Pin; Ayouz, Mehdi; Besserer, Arnaud; Perré, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Continuous observation was performed using confocal laser scanning microscopy to visualize the three-dimensional microscopic growth of the brown-rot fungus, Postia placenta, for seventeen days. The morphological characterization of Postia placenta was quantitatively determined, including the tip extension rate, branch angle and branching length, (hyphal length between two adjacent branch sites). A voxel method has been developed to measure the growth of the biomass. Additionally, the tip extension rate distribution, the branch angle distribution and the branching length distribution, which quantified the hyphal growth characteristics, were evaluated. Statistical analysis revealed that the extension rate of tips was randomly distributed in space. The branch angle distribution did not change with the development of the colony, however, the branching length distribution did vary with the development of the colony. The experimental data will be incorporated into a lattice-based model simulating the growth of Postia placenta. PMID:27602575

  4. Transcriptional profiles of laccase genes in the brown rot fungus Postia placenta MAD-R-698.

    PubMed

    An, Hongde; Wei, Dongsheng; Xiao, Tingting

    2015-09-01

    One of the laccase isoforms in the brown rot fungus Postia placenta is thought to contribute to the production of hydroxyl radicals, which play an important role in lignocellulose degradation. However, the presence of at least two laccase isoforms in this fungus makes it difficult to understand the details of this mechanism. In this study, we systematically investigated the transcriptional patterns of two laccase genes, Pplcc1 and Pplcc2, by quantitative PCR (qPCR) to better understand the mechanism. The qPCR results showed that neither of the two genes was expressed constitutively throughout growth in liquid culture or during the degradation of a woody substrate. Transcription of Pplcc1 was upregulated under nitrogen depletion and in response to a high concentration of copper in liquid culture, and during the initial colonization of intact aspen wafer. However, it was subject to catabolite repression by a high concentration of glucose. Transcription of Pplcc2 was upregulated by stresses caused by ferulic acid, 2, 6-dimethylbenzoic acid, and ethanol, and under osmotic stress in liquid culture. However, the transcription of Pplcc2 was downregulated upon contact with the woody substrate in solid culture. These results indicate that Pplcc1 and Pplcc2 are differentially regulated in liquid and solid cultures. Pplcc1 seems to play the major role in producing hydroxyl radicals and Pplcc2 in the stress response during the degradation of a woody substrate. PMID:26231371

  5. Molecular polymorphism and phenotypic diversity in the generalist, wood-decay fungus Eutypa lata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pathogen adaptation to different ecological niches can lead to host specialization and, when coupled with reproductive isolation, ecological speciation. We tested the hypothesis of host specialization in northern California populations of the fungus Eutypa lata, which causes a soft-rot wood decay in...

  6. Identification and functional characterization of a novel fungal immunomodulatory protein from Postia placenta.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu Ying; Shi, Li Jun; Ding, Yang; Nie, Ying; Tang, Xuan Ming

    2015-04-01

    In this study, a previously unknown fungal immunomodulatory protein (FIP), here called FIP-ppl, was identified from the basidiomycete fungus Postia placenta by searching its genome sequence database using known FIPs as baits, which was the first basidiomycete FIP to be identified outside the order of edible macro fungi. The gene FIP-ppl was synthesized and expressed in Escherichia coli to produce a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein. The fusion protein was purified on a GST affinity column and the protein tag was removed using in situ thrombin cleavage. The purified recombinant protein (rFIP-ppl) displayed hemagglutination activity toward rabbit red blood cells but not against human red blood cells. RFIP-ppl stimulated mouse splenocyte cell proliferation and enhanced interleukin-2 (IL-2) release. Antitumor assays indicated that rFIP-ppl had significant cell proliferation inhibitory activity and apoptotic effects in human tumor cells with more pronounced inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptotic effects on gastric tumor cells (MGC823) than against hepatoma (HepG2) cells. This study confirms an alternative means of identifying, producing, and isolating new FIPs. It may provide convenient access to FIP-ppl with potential human therapeutic applications. PMID:25662032

  7. Gene Expression Analysis of Copper Tolerance and Wood Decay in the Brown Rot Fungus Fibroporia radiculosa

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Leslie A.; Perkins, Andy D.; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Schroeder, Steven G.; Nicholas, Darrel D.; Diehl, Susan V.

    2013-01-01

    High-throughput transcriptomics was used to identify Fibroporia radiculosa genes that were differentially regulated during colonization of wood treated with a copper-based preservative. The transcriptome was profiled at two time points while the fungus was growing on wood treated with micronized copper quat (MCQ). A total of 917 transcripts were differentially expressed. Fifty-eight of these genes were more highly expressed when the MCQ was protecting the wood from strength loss and had putative functions related to oxalate production/degradation, laccase activity, quinone biosynthesis, pectin degradation, ATP production, cytochrome P450 activity, signal transduction, and transcriptional regulation. Sixty-one genes were more highly expressed when the MCQ lost its effectiveness (>50% strength loss) and had functions related to oxalate degradation; cytochrome P450 activity; H2O2 production and degradation; degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin; hexose transport; membrane glycerophospholipid metabolism; and cell wall chemistry. Ten of these differentially regulated genes were quantified by reverse transcriptase PCR for a more in-depth study (4 time points on wood with or without MCQ treatment). Our results showed that MCQ induced higher than normal levels of expression for four genes (putative annotations for isocitrate lyase, glyoxylate dehydrogenase, laccase, and oxalate decarboxylase 1), while four other genes (putative annotations for oxalate decarboxylase 2, aryl alcohol oxidase, glycoside hydrolase 5, and glycoside hydrolase 10) were repressed. The significance of these results is that we have identified several genes that appear to be coregulated, with putative functions related to copper tolerance and/or wood decay. PMID:23263965

  8. Gene expression analysis of copper tolerance and wood decay in the brown rot fungus Fibroporia radiculosa.

    PubMed

    Tang, Juliet D; Parker, Leslie A; Perkins, Andy D; Sonstegard, Tad S; Schroeder, Steven G; Nicholas, Darrel D; Diehl, Susan V

    2013-03-01

    High-throughput transcriptomics was used to identify Fibroporia radiculosa genes that were differentially regulated during colonization of wood treated with a copper-based preservative. The transcriptome was profiled at two time points while the fungus was growing on wood treated with micronized copper quat (MCQ). A total of 917 transcripts were differentially expressed. Fifty-eight of these genes were more highly expressed when the MCQ was protecting the wood from strength loss and had putative functions related to oxalate production/degradation, laccase activity, quinone biosynthesis, pectin degradation, ATP production, cytochrome P450 activity, signal transduction, and transcriptional regulation. Sixty-one genes were more highly expressed when the MCQ lost its effectiveness (>50% strength loss) and had functions related to oxalate degradation; cytochrome P450 activity; H(2)O(2) production and degradation; degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin; hexose transport; membrane glycerophospholipid metabolism; and cell wall chemistry. Ten of these differentially regulated genes were quantified by reverse transcriptase PCR for a more in-depth study (4 time points on wood with or without MCQ treatment). Our results showed that MCQ induced higher than normal levels of expression for four genes (putative annotations for isocitrate lyase, glyoxylate dehydrogenase, laccase, and oxalate decarboxylase 1), while four other genes (putative annotations for oxalate decarboxylase 2, aryl alcohol oxidase, glycoside hydrolase 5, and glycoside hydrolase 10) were repressed. The significance of these results is that we have identified several genes that appear to be coregulated, with putative functions related to copper tolerance and/or wood decay. PMID:23263965

  9. Inferring outcrossing in the homothallic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum using linkage disequilibrium decay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The occurrence and frequency of outcrossing in homothallic fungal species in nature is an unresolved question. Here we report detection of frequent outcrossing in the homothallic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. In using multilocus linkage disequilibrium (LD) to infer recombination among microsatell...

  10. Population genetics of the wood-decay fungus Phlebia centrifuga P. Karst. in fragmented and continuous habitats.

    PubMed

    Franzén, Ina; Vasaitis, Rimvydas; Penttilä, Reijo; Stenlid, Jan

    2007-08-01

    The basidiomycete Phlebia centrifuga is a wood-decay fungus characteristic for unmanaged old-growth forests of spruce, a habitat that has become increasingly fragmented due to forest management. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic population structures of P. centrifuga in both continuous and fragmented habitats, and estimate the potential impact of fragmentation on the genetic diversity of the fungus. Three hundred fifteen single spore isolates (representing 47 spore families and 33 single isolates) from eight populations across northern Europe (Russia, Finland, and Sweden) were screened with seven microsatellite markers and arbitrary primed polymerase chain reaction with the M13 minisatellite. The two molecular methods generally gave the same pattern for the genetic population structure. There were no significant differences between the observed and the expected heterozygosities, and the inbreeding coefficient (FIS) did not indicate any inbreeding. The fixation index (FST) revealed a general pattern with little to moderate genetic differentiation for the majority of populations, while the southernmost Swedish population Norra Kvill was the only one showing high differentiation from about half of the other populations. Swedish population Fiby with the shortest distance to the continuous habitat was moderately differentiated from most of the others and to the largest extent differed from geographically closest population of Norra Kvill. The results indicate that the fragmentation of old-growth forest in Russia and Finland is more recent than the fragmentation in Sweden, and the genetic population structures of P. centrifuga in northern Europe might be related to differences in forest landscape dynamics between the two areas. PMID:17688536

  11. Report of wood decay fungus Inonotus tropicalis (phylum Basidiomycota) from a dog with a granulomatous mediastinal mass.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Barbara J; McGrath, Elizabeth; Giuffrida, Michelle; Craft, Serena L M; Kung, Chung Yee; Smith, Matthew E

    2013-09-01

    A 75.9-kg, 3.5-year-old male Irish Wolfhound dog with a 2-3-week history of gagging and eating difficulties was referred to the University of Florida Veterinary Medical Hospital (Gainesville, Florida) for evaluation of a large cranial mediastinal mass suspected to be a thymoma or lymphosarcoma. The patient had 4 months of nearly 10 kg progressive weight loss with severe flank sensitivity and radiographically apparent lumbar vertebral changes interpreted as discospondylitis. Lab work revealed hyperglobulinemia, mild proteinuria, normal T4, negative Brucella canis titer, and negative blood and urine bacterial cultures. A thoracotomy revealed a nonresectable, destructive, space-occupying mediastinal mass resulting in euthanasia without surgical recovery. Biopsies from the mass were collected during surgery for histology. Microscopic examination revealed extensive granulomatous cellulitis and lymphadenitis characterized by central cavitated necrotic areas containing debris and degenerate neutrophils, intermediate zones of fibrovascular proliferation with marked mixed inflammation, peripheral fibrosis, frequent multinucleated macrophages, and scattered mineralization. The necrotic material contained dense mats of 2 µm wide by 8-15 µm long fungal hyphae with parallel walls, acute angle branching, frequent septae, and occasional bulb-like dilations. DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region confirmed the presence of a fungus in the Inonotus tropicalis group. Inonotus tropicalis is primarily a wood decay fungus that is found on dead wood from angiosperms in tropical and subtropical habitats. Isolates of the I. tropicalis group have been detected a few times from immunosuppressed human beings with X-linked granulomatous disease. PMID:23929678

  12. Influence of Populus Genotype on Gene Expression by the Wood Decay Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    PubMed Central

    Gaskell, Jill; Marty, Amber; Mozuch, Michael; Kersten, Philip J.; Splinter BonDurant, Sandra; Sabat, Grzegorz; Azarpira, Ali; Ralph, John; Skyba, Oleksandr; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Blanchette, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    We examined gene expression patterns in the lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium when it colonizes hybrid poplar (Populus alba × tremula) and syringyl (S)-rich transgenic derivatives. A combination of microarrays and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) allowed detection of a total of 9,959 transcripts and 793 proteins. Comparisons of P. chrysosporium transcript abundance in medium containing poplar or glucose as a sole carbon source showed 113 regulated genes, 11 of which were significantly higher (>2-fold, P < 0.05) in transgenic line 64 relative to the parental line. Possibly related to the very large amounts of syringyl (S) units in this transgenic tree (94 mol% S), several oxidoreductases were among the upregulated genes. Peptides corresponding to a total of 18 oxidoreductases were identified in medium consisting of biomass from line 64 or 82 (85 mol% S) but not in the parental clone (65 mol% S). These results demonstrate that P. chrysosporium gene expression patterns are substantially influenced by lignin composition. PMID:25015893

  13. Using a grass substrate to compare decay among two clades of brown rot fungi.

    PubMed

    Kaffenberger, Justin T; Schilling, Jonathan S

    2013-10-01

    Interest in the mechanisms of wood-degrading fungi has grown in tandem with lignocellulose bioconversion efforts, yet many potential biomass feedstocks are non-woody. Using corn stover (Zea mays) as a substrate, we tracked degradative capacities among brown rot fungi from the Antrodia clade, including Postia placenta, the first brown rot fungus to have its genome sequenced. Decay dynamics were compared against Gloeophyllum trabeum from the Gloeophyllum clade. Weight loss induced by P. placenta (6.2 %) and five other Antrodia clade isolates (average 7.4 %) on corn stalk after 12 weeks demonstrated inefficiency among these fungi, relative to decay induced by G. trabeum (44.4 %). Using aspen (Populus sp.) as a woody substrate resulted in, on average, a fourfold increase in weight loss induced by Antrodia clade fungi, while G. trabeum results matched those on stover. The sequence and trajectories of chemical constituent losses differed as a function of substrate but not fungal clade. Instead, chemical data suggest that characters unique to stover limit decay by the Antrodia clade, rather than disparities in growth rate or extractives toxicity. High p-coumaryl lignin content, lacking the methoxy groups characteristically cleaved during brown rot, is among potential rate-distinguishing characters in grasses. This ineptitude among Antrodia clade fungi on grasses was supported by meta-analysis of other unrelated studies using grass substrates. Concerning application, results expose a problem if adopting the strategy of the model decay fungus P. placenta to treat corn stover, a widely available plant feedstock. Overall, the results insinuate phylogenetically distinct modes of brown rot and demonstrate the benefit of using non-woody substrates to probe wood degradation mechanisms. PMID:23917637

  14. Short-read sequencing for genomic analysis of the brown rot fungus Fibroporia radiculosa.

    PubMed

    Tang, Juliet D; Perkins, Andy D; Sonstegard, Tad S; Schroeder, Steven G; Burgess, Shane C; Diehl, Susan V

    2012-04-01

    The feasibility of short-read sequencing for genomic analysis was demonstrated for Fibroporia radiculosa, a copper-tolerant fungus that causes brown rot decay of wood. The effect of read quality on genomic assembly was assessed by filtering Illumina GAIIx reads from a single run of a paired-end library (75-nucleotide read length and 300-bp fragment size) at three different stringency levels and then assembling each data set with Velvet. A simple approach was devised to determine which filter stringency was "best." Venn diagrams identified the regions containing reads that were used in an assembly but were of a low-enough quality to be removed by a filter. By plotting base quality histograms of reads in this region, we judged whether a filter was too stringent or not stringent enough. Our best assembly had a genome size of 33.6 Mb, an N50 of 65.8 kb for a k-mer of 51, and a maximum contig length of 347 kb. Using GeneMark, 9,262 genes were predicted. TargetP and SignalP analyses showed that among the 1,213 genes with secreted products, 986 had motifs for signal peptides and 227 had motifs for signal anchors. Blast2GO analysis provided functional annotation for 5,407 genes. We identified 29 genes with putative roles in copper tolerance and 73 genes for lignocellulose degradation. A search for homologs of these 102 genes showed that F. radiculosa exhibited more similarity to Postia placenta than Serpula lacrymans. Notable differences were found, however, and their involvements in copper tolerance and wood decay are discussed. PMID:22247176

  15. Evaluation of Selected Soybean Genotypes for Resistance to Phomopsis longicolla, the Fungus That Causes Soybean Seed Decay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phomopsis seed decay of soybean is a major cause of poor quality soybean seed in the United States, especially in the mid-southern USA. The disease is caused primarily by the fungal pathogen, Phomopsis longicolla. To identify soybean lines resistant to this pathogen, 16 soybean plant introductions w...

  16. Fungus Amongus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakeley, Deidra

    2005-01-01

    This role-playing simulation is designed to help teach middle level students about the typical lifecycle of a fungus. In this interactive simulation, students assume the roles of fungi, spores, living and dead organisms, bacteria, and rain. As they move around a playing field collecting food and water chips, they discover how the organisms…

  17. Proteomic and Functional Analysis of the Cellulase System Expressed by Postia placenta during Brown Rot of Solid Wood

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Jae San; Shary, Semarjit; Houtman, Carl J.; Panisko, Ellen A.; Korripally, Premsagar; St John, Franz J.; Crooks, Casey; Siika-aho, Matti; Magnuson, Jon K.; Hammel, Ken

    2011-11-01

    Abstract Brown rot basidiomycetes have an important ecological role in lignocellulose recycling and are notable for their rapid degradation of wood polymers via oxidative and hydrolytic mechanisms. However, most of these fungi apparently lack processive (exo-acting) cellulases, such as cellobiohydrolases, which are generally required for efficient cellulolysis. The recent sequencing of the Postia placenta genome now permits a proteomic approach to this longstanding conundrum. We grew P. placenta on solid aspen wood, extracted proteins from the biodegrading substrate, and analyzed tryptic digests by shotgun liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Comparison of the data with the predicted P. placenta proteome revealed the presence of 34 likely glycoside hydrolases, but only four of these-two in glycoside hydrolase family 5, one in family 10, and one in family 12-have sequences that suggested possible activity on cellulose. We expressed these enzymes heterologously and determined that they all exhibited endoglucanase activity on phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose. They also slowly hydrolyzed filter paper, a more crystalline substrate, but the soluble/insoluble reducing sugar ratios they produced classify them as nonprocessive. Computer simulations indicated that these enzymes produced soluble/insoluble ratios on reduced phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose that were higher than expected for random hydrolysis, which suggests that they could possess limited exo activity, but they are at best 10-fold less processive than cellobiohydrolases. It appears likely that P. placenta employs a combination of oxidative mechanisms and endo-acting cellulases to degrade cellulose efficiently in the absence of a significant processive component.

  18. Proteomic and Functional Analysis of the Cellulase System Expressed by Postia placenta during Brown Rot of Solid Wood▿†

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Jae San; Shary, Semarjit; Houtman, Carl J.; Panisko, Ellen A.; Korripally, Premsagar; St. John, Franz J.; Crooks, Casey; Siika-aho, Matti; Magnuson, Jon K.; Hammel, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    Brown rot basidiomycetes have an important ecological role in lignocellulose recycling and are notable for their rapid degradation of wood polymers via oxidative and hydrolytic mechanisms. However, most of these fungi apparently lack processive (exo-acting) cellulases, such as cellobiohydrolases, which are generally required for efficient cellulolysis. The recent sequencing of the Postia placenta genome now permits a proteomic approach to this longstanding conundrum. We grew P. placenta on solid aspen wood, extracted proteins from the biodegrading substrate, and analyzed tryptic digests by shotgun liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Comparison of the data with the predicted P. placenta proteome revealed the presence of 34 likely glycoside hydrolases, but only four of these—two in glycoside hydrolase family 5, one in family 10, and one in family 12—have sequences that suggested possible activity on cellulose. We expressed these enzymes heterologously and determined that they all exhibited endoglucanase activity on phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose. They also slowly hydrolyzed filter paper, a more crystalline substrate, but the soluble/insoluble reducing sugar ratios they produced classify them as nonprocessive. Computer simulations indicated that these enzymes produced soluble/insoluble ratios on reduced phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose that were higher than expected for random hydrolysis, which suggests that they could possess limited exo activity, but they are at best 10-fold less processive than cellobiohydrolases. It appears likely that P. placenta employs a combination of oxidative mechanisms and endo-acting cellulases to degrade cellulose efficiently in the absence of a significant processive component. PMID:21948841

  19. High Incidence of Preharvest Colonization of Huanglongbing-Symptomatic Citrus sinensis Fruit by Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Diplodia natalensis) and Exacerbation of Postharvest Fruit Decay by That Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Bai, Jinhe; McCollum, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB), presumably caused by the bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus,” is a devastating citrus disease associated with excessive preharvest fruit drop. Lasiodiplodia theobromae (diplodia) is the causal organism of citrus stem end rot (SER). The pathogen infects citrus fruit under the calyx abscission zone (AZ-C) and is associated with cell wall hydrolytic enzymes similar to plant enzymes involved in abscission. By means of DNA sequencing, diplodia was found in “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus”-positive juice from HLB-symptomatic fruit (S) but not in “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus”-negative juice. Therefore, the incidence of diplodia in fruit tissues, the impact on HLB-related postharvest decay, and the implications for HLB-related preharvest fruit drop were investigated in Hamlin and Valencia oranges. Quantitative PCR results (qPCR) revealed a significantly (P < 0.001) greater incidence of diplodia in the AZ-C of HLB-symptomatic (S; “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” threshold cycle [CT] of <30) than in the AZ-C of in asymptomatic (AS; “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” CT of ≥30) fruit. In agreement with the qPCR results, 2 weeks after exposure to ethylene, the incidences of SER in S fruit were 66.7% (Hamlin) and 58.7% (Valencia), whereas for AS fruit the decay rates were 6.7% (Hamlin) and 5.3% (Valencia). Diplodia colonization of S fruit AZ-C was observed by scanning electron microscopy and confirmed by PCR test and morphology of conidia in isolates from the AZ-C after surface sterilization. Diplodia CT values were negatively correlated with ethylene production (R = −0.838 for Hamlin; R = −0.858 for Valencia) in S fruit, and positively correlated with fruit detachment force (R = 0.855 for Hamlin; R = 0.850 for Valencia), suggesting that diplodia colonization in AZ-C may exacerbate HLB-associated preharvest fruit drop. PMID:25344245

  20. High incidence of preharvest colonization of huanglongbing-symptomatic citrus sinensis fruit by Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Diplodia natalensis) and exacerbation of postharvest fruit decay by that fungus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Bai, Jinhe; McCollum, Greg; Baldwin, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB), presumably caused by the bacterium "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus," is a devastating citrus disease associated with excessive preharvest fruit drop. Lasiodiplodia theobromae (diplodia) is the causal organism of citrus stem end rot (SER). The pathogen infects citrus fruit under the calyx abscission zone (AZ-C) and is associated with cell wall hydrolytic enzymes similar to plant enzymes involved in abscission. By means of DNA sequencing, diplodia was found in "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus"-positive juice from HLB-symptomatic fruit (S) but not in "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus"-negative juice. Therefore, the incidence of diplodia in fruit tissues, the impact on HLB-related postharvest decay, and the implications for HLB-related preharvest fruit drop were investigated in Hamlin and Valencia oranges. Quantitative PCR results (qPCR) revealed a significantly (P < 0.001) greater incidence of diplodia in the AZ-C of HLB-symptomatic (S; "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus" threshold cycle [CT] of <30) than in the AZ-C of in asymptomatic (AS; "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus" CT of ≥30) fruit. In agreement with the qPCR results, 2 weeks after exposure to ethylene, the incidences of SER in S fruit were 66.7% (Hamlin) and 58.7% (Valencia), whereas for AS fruit the decay rates were 6.7% (Hamlin) and 5.3% (Valencia). Diplodia colonization of S fruit AZ-C was observed by scanning electron microscopy and confirmed by PCR test and morphology of conidia in isolates from the AZ-C after surface sterilization. Diplodia CT values were negatively correlated with ethylene production (R = -0.838 for Hamlin; R = -0.858 for Valencia) in S fruit, and positively correlated with fruit detachment force (R = 0.855 for Hamlin; R = 0.850 for Valencia), suggesting that diplodia colonization in AZ-C may exacerbate HLB-associated preharvest fruit drop. PMID:25344245

  1. Evidence of Subterranean Termite Feeding Deterrent Produced by Brown Rot Fungus Fibroporia radiculosa (Peck) Parmasto 1968 (Polyporales, Fomitopsidaceae).

    PubMed

    Kamaluddin, Nadia Nuraniya; Nakagawa-Izumi, Akiko; Nishizawa, Shota; Fukunaga, Ayuko; Doi, Shuichi; Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi; Horisawa, Sakae

    2016-01-01

    We found that decayed wood stakes with no termite damage collected from a termite-infested field exhibited a deterrent effect against the termite Reticulitermes speratus, Kolbe, 1885. The effect was observed to be lost or reduced by drying. After identification, it was found that the decayed stakes were infected by brown rot fungus Fibroporia radiculosa (Peck) Parmasto, 1968. In a no-choice feeding test, wood blocks decayed by this fungus under laboratory condition deterred R. speratus feeding and n-hexane extract from the decayed stake and blocks induced termite mortality. These data provided an insight into the interaction between wood-rot fungi and wood-feeding termites. PMID:27548231

  2. Short read sequencing for Genomic Analysis of the brown rot fungus Fibroporia radiculosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The practical capability of short read sequencing for whole genome gene prediction was investigated for Fibroporia radiculosa, a copper-tolerant basidiomycete fungus that causes brown rot decay of wood. Illumina GAIIX reads from a single run of a paired-end library (75 nt read length, 300 bp insert...

  3. Tooth Decay

    MedlinePlus

    ... decay starts in the outer layer, called the enamel. Without a filling, the decay can get deep into the tooth and its nerves and cause a toothache or abscess. To help prevent cavities Brush your teeth every day with a fluoride toothpaste Clean between ...

  4. [Cutaneous mold fungus granuloma from Ulocladium chartarum].

    PubMed

    Altmeyer, P; Schon, K

    1981-01-01

    Cutaneous granulomas due to the mold fungus Ulocladium chartarum (Preuss) are described in a 58 year old woman. This fungus is usually harmless for mammalian. It is thought that a consisting immunosuppression (Brill-Symmer's disease, therapy with corticosteroids) was a priming condition for the infection. The route of infection in this patient described is unknown. PMID:7194869

  5. Aggregation and feeding behavior of the formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) on wood decayed by three species of wood rot fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aggregation and feeding behavior of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, was evaluated on wood decayed by three species of fungus that use different enzymatic pathways to degrade lignocellulose, the brown rot fungus, Gloeophyllum trabeum and two white rot fungi, Phanero...

  6. Seal Out Tooth Decay

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topics > Tooth Decay (Caries) > Seal Out Tooth Decay Seal Out Tooth Decay Main Content What are dental ... back teeth decay so easily? Who should get seal​ants? Should sealants be put on baby teeth? ...

  7. Fungus-insect gall of Phlebopus portentosus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-Xia; He, Ming-Xia; Cao, Yang; Liu, Jing; Gao, Feng; Wang, Wen-Bing; Ji, Kai-Ping; Shao, Shi-Cheng; Wang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Phlebopus portentosus is a popular edible wild mushroom found in the tropical Yunnan, China, and northern Thailand. In its natural habitats, a gall often has been found on some plant roots, around which fungal fruiting bodies are produced. The galls are different from common insect galls in that their cavity walls are not made from plant tissue but rather from the hyphae of P. portentosus. Therefore we have termed this phenomenon "fungus-insect gall". Thus far six root mealy bug species in the family Pseudococcidae that form fungus-insect galls with P. portentosus have been identified: Formicococcus polysperes, Geococcus satellitum, Planococcus minor, Pseudococcus cryptus, Paraputo banzigeri and Rastrococcus invadens. Fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of more than 21 plant species, including Delonix regia, Citrus maxima, Coffea arabica and Artocarpus heterophyllus. Greenhouse inoculation trials showed that fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of A. heterophyllus 1 mo after inoculation. The galls were subglobose to globose, fulvous when young and became dark brown at maturation. Each gall harbored one or more mealy bugs and had a chimney-like vent for ventilation and access to the gall. The cavity wall had three layers. Various shaped mealy bug wax deposits were found inside the wall. Fungal hyphae invaded the epidermis of plant roots and sometimes even the cortical cells during the late stage of gall development. The identity of the fungus inside the cavity was confirmed by molecular methods. PMID:25344264

  8. Two unusual naphthalene-containing compounds from a freshwater fungus YMF 1.01029.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jin-Yan; Song, Hong-Chuan; Li, Jian-Hua; Wang, Chun-Ren; Sun, Rong; Tang, Yu-Shu; Shen, Kai-Ze; Wang, Le; Wang, Li-Mei; Zhou, Yong-Ping; Li, Lei; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2009-04-01

    Two novel naphthalene-containing compounds, colelomycerones A and B (1 and 2, resp.), and three known metabolites, including preussomerin D (3), (2RS,2'SR,3'E,3SR,4E,8E)-1-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-3-hydroxy-2-[(2-hydroxyoctadec-3-enoyl)amino]-9-methyloctadeca-4,8-diene (4), and 3beta-hydroxy-5alpha,8alpha-epidioxyergosta-6,22-diene (5), were isolated from the culture broth of an unidentified freshwater water fungus YMF 1.01029. This fungus was collected from a decaying branch of an unidentified tree near Lake Fuxian in Yunnan Province, China. The structures of these five compounds were determined on the basis of their spectroscopic and mass-spectrometric data. Colelomycerones A and B (1 and 2, resp.) represent unprecendented examples of naphthalene-1,2-diones with novel cyclic acetals. Compounds 1-3 showed noticeable antifungal and antibacterial activities. PMID:19353541

  9. An unusual niche for an opportunistic fungus.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-del Valle, N; Quigdley, L; Silva-Ruíz, S A

    1991-02-01

    An acrylic on canvas painting from the collection of the Institute of Puerto Rico Culture was found to be stained with light brown spots. Under ultraviolet light it was evident that these spots covered the entire painting. Scotch tape samples from different areas of the painting were taken. In almost all of these samples, septated hyphae were observed to surround the canvas fibers and in most of them, spiny or rough-surfaced conidia were also observed. A sample from the canvas which was incubated over a Sabourand agar plate yielded a fungus very similar to the one observed in the tape samples after subculturing in potato dextrose agar. Slide cultures and culture characteristics provided evidence that this fungus was a species of Scopulariopsis. This fungus has been implicated in human disease and in this case, it was the cause of the deterioration of the painting. PMID:2043232

  10. Dentigerumycin: a bacterial mediator of an ant-fungus symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Dong-Chan; Poulsen, Michael; Currie, Cameron R.; Clardy, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Fungus-growing ants engage in mutualistic associations with both the fungus they cultivate for food and actinobacteria (Pseudonocardia spp.) that produce selective antibiotics to defend that fungus from specialized fungal parasites. In the first system to be analyzed at the molecular level, the bacterium associated with the ant Apterostigma dentigerum produces dentigerumycin, a cyclic depsipeptide with highly modified amino acids, to selectively inhibit the parasitic fungus (Escovopsis sp.). PMID:19330011

  11. Open-Ended Experimentation with the Fungus Pilobolus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coble, Charles R.; Bland, Charles E.

    This paper describes open-ended experimentation with the fungus Pilobolus for laboratory work by high school students. The fungus structure and reproduction is described and sources of the fungus are suggested. Four areas for investigation are suggested: the effect of a diffuse light source, the effect of a point light source, the effect of light…

  12. Solanapyrone analogues from a Hawaiian fungicolous fungus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four new solanayrone analogues (solanapyrones J-M; 1-4) have been isolated from an unidentified fungicolous fungus collected in Hawaii. The structures and relative configurations of these compounds were determined by analysis of ID NMR, 2D NMR, and MS data. Solanapyrone J(1) showed antifungal acti...

  13. Cytochemical localization of cellulases in decayed and nondecayed wood

    SciTech Connect

    Murmanis, L.; Highley, T.L.; Palmer, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    Sawdust from undecayed western hemlock wood and from wood previously decayed by the brown-rot fungus Poria placenta or by the white-rot fungus Ganoderma applanatum was incubated with commercial cellulase from Trichoderma viride. Samples were treated cytochemically to locate cellulase activity and examined by TEM. Results showed that cellulase degraded undecayed wood extensively, with the attack starting on the outer border of a cell wall and progressing inside. Wood decayed by P. placenta, with or without cellulase incubation, and treated by the cytochemical test showed uniform distribution of electron dense particles throughout the cell walls. In wood decayed by G. applanatum, cellulase degradation was similar to that in undecayed wood. From measurements of particle diameter it is suggested that electron dense particles are cellulase. It is concluded that brown-rot and white-rot fungi have different effects on the microstructure of wood. The brown-rot fungus appears to open the wood microstructure so that cellulase can diffuse throughout the degraded tracheid wall.

  14. Semileptonic Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Luth, Vera G.; /SLAC

    2012-10-02

    The following is an overview of the measurements of the CKM matrix elements |V{sub cb}| and |V{sub ub}| that are based on detailed studies of semileptonic B decays by the BABAR and Belle Collaborations and major advances in QCD calculations. In addition, a new and improved measurement of the ratios R(D{sup (*)}) = {Beta}({bar B} {yields} D{sup (*)}{tau}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {tau}})/{Beta}({bar B} {yields} D{sup (*)}{ell}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {ell}}) is presented. Here D{sup (*)} refers to a D or a D* meson and {ell} is either e or {mu}. The results, R(D) = 0.440 {+-} 0.058 {+-} 0.042 and R(D*) = 0.332 {+-} 0.024 {+-} 0.018, exceed the Standard Model expectations by 2.0{sigma} and 2.7{sigma}, respectively. Taken together, they disagree with these expectations at the 3.4{sigma} level. The excess of events cannot be explained by a charged Higgs boson in the type II two-Higgs-doublet model.

  15. Dental Caries (Tooth Decay)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find Data by Topic > Dental Caries (Tooth Decay) Dental Caries (Tooth Decay) Main Content Dental caries (tooth decay) remains the most prevalent chronic ... important source of information on oral health and dental care in the United States since the early ...

  16. Identification of naphthalene metabolism by white rot fungus Pleurotus eryngii.

    PubMed

    Hadibarata, Tony; Teh, Zee Chuang; Rubiyatno; Zubir, Meor Mohd Fikri Ahmad; Khudhair, Ameer Badr; Yusoff, Abdull Rahim Mohd; Salim, Mohd Razman; Hidayat, Topik

    2013-10-01

    The use of biomaterials or microorganisms in PAHs degradation had presented an eye-catching performance. Pleurotus eryngii is a white rot fungus, which is easily isolated from the decayed woods in the tropical rain forest, used to determine the capability to utilize naphthalene, a two-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as source of carbon and energy. In the meantime, biotransformation of naphthalene to intermediates and other by-products during degradation was investigated in this study. Pleurotus eryngii had been incubated in liquid medium formulated with naphthalene for 14 days. The presence of metabolites of naphthalene suggests that Pleurotus eryngii begin the ring cleavage by dioxygenation on C1 and C4 position to give 1,4-naphthaquinone. 1,4-Naphthaquinone was further degraded to benzoic acid, where the proposed terepthalic acid is absent in the cultured extract. Further degradation of benzoic acid by Pleurotus eryngii shows the existence of catechol as a result of the combination of decarboxylation and hydroxylation process. Unfortunately, phthalic acid was not detected in this study. Several enzymes, including manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, laccase, 1,2-dioxygenase and 2,3-dioxygenase are enzymes responsible for naphthalene degradation. Reduction of naphthalene and the presence of metabolites in liquid medium showed the ability of Pleurotus eryngii to utilize naphthalene as carbon source instead of a limited glucose amount. PMID:23334282

  17. [Report on a fungus parasitizing Entamoeba histolytica].

    PubMed

    Cao, C Q; Feng, Y S

    1989-01-01

    Infection of Entamoeba histolytica with chytridiaceous fungus Sphaerita was observed in some specimens obtained from a farmer and stained with iron-haematoxylin. The fungi were found in 78% of the cysts, mostly immature ones. Within the amoebae this parasite occurred singly, in groups, or in the form of a sporangium. It was located in the cytoplasm, the glycogen mass or the chromatoidal bars. In the same specimen, the parasitic fungus was also found in 18% of E. coli cysts; in 11% of E. nana cysts; while only one of 16 E. hartmanni cysts was parasitized. It is an interesting case of superimposed parasitism so far reported in China as well as a rare case of several species of amoebae being heavily involved with the same in the scientific literature. PMID:2548767

  18. [Melanin complex of the fungus Inonotus obliquus].

    PubMed

    Babitskaia, V G; Shcherba, V V; Ikonnikova, N V

    2000-01-01

    The fungus Inonotus obliquus (Pers.) Pil. synthesised high-molecular-weight phenolic pigments that were assigned to melanins according to their physicochemical properties. It was showed that copper ions (0.008%), pyrocatechol (1.0 mM), and tyrosine (20.0 mM) stimulated the melanogenesis. The production of melanin correlated with the synthesis of o- and p-diphenoloxidases. The fungal melanin had strong antioxidant and genoprotective effects. PMID:10994193

  19. Proton decay theory

    SciTech Connect

    Marciano, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    Topics include minimal SU(5) predictions, gauge boson mediated proton decay, uncertainties in tau/sub p/, Higgs scalar effects, proton decay via Higgs scalars, supersymmetric SU(5), dimension 5 operators and proton decay, and Higgs scalars and proton decay. (WHK)

  20. Symbiotic Fungi Produce Laccases Potentially Involved in Phenol Degradation in Fungus Combs of Fungus-Growing Termites in Thailand†

    PubMed Central

    Taprab, Yaovapa; Johjima, Toru; Maeda, Yoshimasa; Moriya, Shigeharu; Trakulnaleamsai, Savitr; Noparatnaraporn, Napavarn; Ohkuma, Moriya; Kudo, Toshiaki

    2005-01-01

    Fungus-growing termites efficiently decompose plant litter through their symbiotic relationship with basidiomycete fungi of the genus Termitomyces. Here, we investigated phenol-oxidizing enzymes in symbiotic fungi and fungus combs (a substrate used to cultivate symbiotic fungi) from termites belonging to the genera Macrotermes, Odontotermes, and Microtermes in Thailand, because these enzymes are potentially involved in the degradation of phenolic compounds during fungus comb aging. Laccase activity was detected in all the fungus combs examined as well as in the culture supernatants of isolated symbiotic fungi. Conversely, no peroxidase activity was detected in any of the fungus combs or the symbiotic fungal cultures. The laccase cDNA fragments were amplified directly from RNA extracted from fungus combs of five termite species and a fungal isolate using degenerate primers targeting conserved copper binding domains of basidiomycete laccases, resulting in a total of 13 putative laccase cDNA sequences being identified. The full-length sequences of the laccase cDNA and the corresponding gene, lcc1-2, were identified from the fungus comb of Macrotermes gilvus and a Termitomyces strain isolated from the same fungus comb, respectively. Partial purification of laccase from the fungus comb showed that the lcc1-2 gene product was a dominant laccase in the fungus comb. These findings indicate that the symbiotic fungus secretes laccase to the fungus comb. In addition to laccase, we report novel genes that showed a significant similarity with fungal laccases, but the gene product lacked laccase activity. Interestingly, these genes were highly expressed in symbiotic fungi of all the termite hosts examined. PMID:16332742

  1. Association of fungus gnats with oomycetal plant pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dark-winged fungus gnats in the genus Bradysia (Diptera: Sciaridae) are especially abundant in greenhouse plant production. It is thought that adult fungus gnats do not feed in the greenhouse setting; however sciarid larvae are known to feed on microorganisms in the soil, including various Oomycete...

  2. Expanding Distribution of Lethal Amphibian Fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in Europe.

    PubMed

    Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Annemarieke; Martel, An; Asselberghs, Johan; Bales, Emma K; Beukema, Wouter; Bletz, Molly C; Dalbeck, Lutz; Goverse, Edo; Kerres, Alexander; Kinet, Thierry; Kirst, Kai; Laudelout, Arnaud; Marin da Fonte, Luis F; Nöllert, Andreas; Ohlhoff, Dagmar; Sabino-Pinto, Joana; Schmidt, Benedikt R; Speybroeck, Jeroen; Spikmans, Frank; Steinfartz, Sebastian; Veith, Michael; Vences, Miguel; Wagner, Norman; Pasmans, Frank; Lötters, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Emerging fungal diseases can drive amphibian species to local extinction. During 2010-2016, we examined 1,921 urodeles in 3 European countries. Presence of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans at new locations and in urodeles of different species expands the known geographic and host range of the fungus and underpins its imminent threat to biodiversity. PMID:27070102

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of the Cellulolytic Fungus Chaetomium globosum

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li-Jun; Grabherr, Manfred; Birren, Bruce W.

    2015-01-01

    Chaetomium globosum is a filamentous fungus typically isolated from cellulosic substrates. This species also causes superficial infections of humans and, more rarely, can cause cerebral infections. Here, we report the genome sequence of C. globosum isolate CBS 148.51, which will facilitate the study and comparative analysis of this fungus. PMID:25720678

  4. Metacridamides A and B from the biocontrol fungus metarhizium acridum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metarhizium acridum, an entomopathogenic fungus, has been commercialized and used successfully for biocontrol of grasshopper pests in Africa and Australia. As part of an effort to catalog the secondary metabolites of this fungus we discovered that its conidia produce two novel 17-membered macrocycl...

  5. Expanding Distribution of Lethal Amphibian Fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Annemarieke; Martel, An; Asselberghs, Johan; Bales, Emma K.; Beukema, Wouter; Bletz, Molly C.; Dalbeck, Lutz; Goverse, Edo; Kerres, Alexander; Kinet, Thierry; Kirst, Kai; Laudelout, Arnaud; Marin da Fonte, Luis F.; Nöllert, Andreas; Ohlhoff, Dagmar; Sabino-Pinto, Joana; Schmidt, Benedikt R.; Speybroeck, Jeroen; Spikmans, Frank; Steinfartz, Sebastian; Veith, Michael; Vences, Miguel; Wagner, Norman; Pasmans, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Emerging fungal diseases can drive amphibian species to local extinction. During 2010–2016, we examined 1,921 urodeles in 3 European countries. Presence of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans at new locations and in urodeles of different species expands the known geographic and host range of the fungus and underpins its imminent threat to biodiversity. PMID:27070102

  6. Moduli Decays and Gravitinos

    SciTech Connect

    Dine, Michael; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Morisse, Alexander; Shirman, Yuri

    2006-04-21

    One proposed solution of the moduli problem of string cosmology requires that the moduli are quite heavy, their decays reheating the universe to temperatures above the scale of nucleosynthesis. In many of these scenarios, the moduli are approximately supersymmetric; it is then crucial that the decays to gravitinos are helicity suppressed. In this paper, we discuss situations where these decays are, and are not, suppressed. We also comment on a possible gravitino problem from inaton decay.

  7. Baryonic B Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chistov, R.

    2016-02-01

    In this talk the decays of B-mesons into baryons are discussed. Large mass of B-meson makes possible the decays of the type B → baryon (+mesons). Experimental observations and measurements of these decays at B-factories Belle and BaBar have stimulate the development of theoretical models in this field. We briefly review the experimental results together with the current theoretical models which describe baryonic B decays.

  8. Assembly of complex plant–fungus networks

    PubMed Central

    Toju, Hirokazu; Guimarães, Paulo R.; Olesen, Jens M.; Thompson, John N.

    2014-01-01

    Species in ecological communities build complex webs of interaction. Although revealing the architecture of these networks is fundamental to understanding ecological and evolutionary dynamics in nature, it has been difficult to characterize the structure of most species-rich ecological systems. By overcoming this limitation through next-generation sequencing technology, we herein uncover the network architecture of below-ground plant–fungus symbioses, which are ubiquitous to terrestrial ecosystems. The examined symbiotic network of a temperate forest in Japan includes 33 plant species and 387 functionally and phylogenetically diverse fungal taxa, and the overall network architecture differs fundamentally from that of other ecological networks. In contrast to results for other ecological networks and theoretical predictions for symbiotic networks, the plant–fungus network shows moderate or relatively low levels of interaction specialization and modularity and an unusual pattern of ‘nested’ network architecture. These results suggest that species-rich ecological networks are more architecturally diverse than previously recognized. PMID:25327887

  9. Bacterial farming by the fungus Morchella crassipes.

    PubMed

    Pion, Martin; Spangenberg, Jorge E; Simon, Anaele; Bindschedler, Saskia; Flury, Coralie; Chatelain, Auriel; Bshary, Redouan; Job, Daniel; Junier, Pilar

    2013-12-22

    The interactions between bacteria and fungi, the main actors of the soil microbiome, remain poorly studied. Here, we show that the saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal soil fungus Morchella crassipes acts as a bacterial farmer of Pseudomonas putida, which serves as a model soil bacterium. Farming by M. crassipes consists of bacterial dispersal, bacterial rearing with fungal exudates, as well as harvesting and translocation of bacterial carbon. The different phases were confirmed experimentally using cell counting and (13)C probing. Common criteria met by other non-human farming systems are also valid for M. crassipes farming, including habitual planting, cultivation and harvesting. Specific traits include delocalization of food production and consumption and separation of roles in the colony (source versus sink areas), which are also found in human agriculture. Our study evidences a hitherto unknown mutualistic association in which bacteria gain through dispersal and rearing, while the fungus gains through the harvesting of an additional carbon source and increased stress resistance of the mycelium. This type of interaction between fungi and bacteria may play a key role in soils. PMID:24174111

  10. Hazardous waste treatment using fungus enters marketplace

    SciTech Connect

    Illman, D.L.

    1993-07-01

    When the announcement was made eight years ago that a common fungus had been found that could degrade a variety of environmental pollutants, the news stirred interest in the scientific community, the private sector, and the general public. Here was the promise of a new technology that might be effective and economical in treating hazardous waste, especially the most recalcitrant of toxic pollutants. Today, commercialization is beginning amid a mixture of optimism and skepticism. The organism in question is white rot fungus, or Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and it belongs to a family of woodrotting fungi common all over North America. The fungi secrete enzymes that break down lignin in wood to carbon dioxide and water--a process called mineralization. These lignin-degrading enzymes are not very discriminating, however. The white rot fungi have been shown to degrade such materials as DDT, the herbicide (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4,5-T), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentachlorophenol (PCP), creosote, coal tars, and heavy fuels, in many cases mineralizing these pollutants to a significant extent.

  11. Bacterial farming by the fungus Morchella crassipes

    PubMed Central

    Pion, Martin; Spangenberg, Jorge E.; Simon, Anaele; Bindschedler, Saskia; Flury, Coralie; Chatelain, Auriel; Bshary, Redouan; Job, Daniel; Junier, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    The interactions between bacteria and fungi, the main actors of the soil microbiome, remain poorly studied. Here, we show that the saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal soil fungus Morchella crassipes acts as a bacterial farmer of Pseudomonas putida, which serves as a model soil bacterium. Farming by M. crassipes consists of bacterial dispersal, bacterial rearing with fungal exudates, as well as harvesting and translocation of bacterial carbon. The different phases were confirmed experimentally using cell counting and 13C probing. Common criteria met by other non-human farming systems are also valid for M. crassipes farming, including habitual planting, cultivation and harvesting. Specific traits include delocalization of food production and consumption and separation of roles in the colony (source versus sink areas), which are also found in human agriculture. Our study evidences a hitherto unknown mutualistic association in which bacteria gain through dispersal and rearing, while the fungus gains through the harvesting of an additional carbon source and increased stress resistance of the mycelium. This type of interaction between fungi and bacteria may play a key role in soils. PMID:24174111

  12. Is the Fungus Magnaporthe Losing DNA Methylation?

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Ken-ichi; Van Vu, Ba; Kadotani, Naoki; Tanaka, Masaki; Murata, Toshiki; Shiina, Kohta; Chuma, Izumi; Tosa, Yukio; Nakayashiki, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    The long terminal repeat retrotransposon, Magnaporthe gypsy-like element (MAGGY), has been shown to be targeted for cytosine methylation in a subset of Magnaporthe oryzae field isolates. Analysis of the F1 progeny from a genetic cross between methylation-proficient (Br48) and methylation-deficient (GFSI1-7-2) isolates revealed that methylation of the MAGGY element was governed by a single dominant gene. Positional cloning followed by gene disruption and complementation experiments revealed that the responsible gene was the DNA methyltransferase, MoDMT1, an ortholog of Neurospora crassa Dim-2. A survey of MAGGY methylation in 60 Magnaporthe field isolates revealed that 42 isolates from rice, common millet, wheat, finger millet, and buffelgrass were methylation proficient while 18 isolates from foxtail millet, green bristlegrass, Japanese panicgrass, torpedo grass, Guinea grass, and crabgrass were methylation deficient. Phenotypic analyses showed that MoDMT1 plays no major role in development and pathogenicity of the fungus. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the average copy number of genomic MAGGY elements was not significantly different between methylation-deficient and -proficient field isolates even though the levels of MAGGY transcript were generally higher in the former group. MoDMT1 gene sequences in the methylation-deficient isolates suggested that at least three independent mutations were responsible for the loss of MoDMT1 function. Overall, our data suggest that MoDMT1 is not essential for the natural life cycle of the fungus and raise the possibility that the genus Magnaporthe may be losing the mechanism of DNA methylation on the evolutionary time scale. PMID:23979580

  13. Comparative Study of Nest Architecture and Colony Structure of the Fungus-Growing Ants, Mycocepurus goeldii and M. smithii

    PubMed Central

    Rabeling, C.; Verhaagh, M.; Engels, W.

    2007-01-01

    Nest architecture and demography of the non leaf-cutting fungus-growing ant species Mycocepurus goeldii and M. smithii (Attini: Formicidae) were studied in an agroforest habitat near Manaus, Brazil during the excavation of 13 nests. Both species built their nests in two different ways. The first type possessed a “tree-like” architecture, in which a vertical tunnel led downwards and lateral tunnels branched off at 90° angles from the main tunnel, with a chamber at the end of each side branch. Alternatively, other nests displayed a “necklace-like” architecture, where the main tunnel also led down vertically, but entered each chamber from the top and exited it at the bottom, resulting in an architecture where chambers appeared like pearls on a necklace. The nest systems of M. goeldii and M. smithii consisted of 1–21 or 1–15 chambers, respectively. Of 199 excavated chambers, 57 % contained fungus-gardens. Chambers not containing fungus gardens were filled with organic matter from decaying fungus gardens or earthworm feces. Only M. smithii workers deposited loose soil in abandoned chambers during the construction of new nest chambers. Workers of M. smithii constructed significantly smaller chambers than those of M. goeldii. In both species, fungus garden-containing chambers were larger than non-garden chambers and were homogenously distributed in the soil between 17 cm and 105 cm depth. Neither fungus gardens nor abandoned chambers were encountered more frequently in deeper or shallower soil strata indicating that ants of both species did not abandon shallower versus deeper chambers, or move the colony to deeper soil layers with increasing colony age. Fungus gardens were suspended from the ceiling of the subterranean chambers and originated as small mycelial tufts. Through continual addition of organic debris, the tufts first grew vertically to strands before they expanded laterally until most of the chamber volume was filled with fungus garden curtains

  14. Comparative study of nest architecture and colony structure of the fungus-growing ants, Mycocepurus goeldii and M. smithii.

    PubMed

    Rabeling, C; Verhaagh, M; Engels, W

    2007-01-01

    Nest architecture and demography of the non leaf-cutting fungus-growing ant species Mycocepurus goeldii and M. smithii (Attini: Formicidae) were studied in an agroforest habitat near Manaus, Brazil during the excavation of 13 nests. Both species built their nests in two different ways. The first type possessed a "tree-like" architecture, in which a vertical tunnel led downwards and lateral tunnels branched off at 90 degrees angles from the main tunnel, with a chamber at the end of each side branch. Alternatively, other nests displayed a "necklace-like" architecture, where the main tunnel also led down vertically, but entered each chamber from the top and exited it at the bottom, resulting in an architecture where chambers appeared like pearls on a necklace. The nest systems of M. goeldii and M. smithii consisted of 1-21 or 1-15 chambers, respectively. Of 199 excavated chambers, 57 % contained fungus-gardens. Chambers not containing fungus gardens were filled with organic matter from decaying fungus gardens or earthworm feces. Only M. smithii workers deposited loose soil in abandoned chambers during the construction of new nest chambers. Workers of M. smithii constructed significantly smaller chambers than those of M. goeldii. In both species, fungus garden-containing chambers were larger than non-garden chambers and were homogenously distributed in the soil between 17 cm and 105 cm depth. Neither fungus gardens nor abandoned chambers were encountered more frequently in deeper or shallower soil strata indicating that ants of both species did not abandon shallower versus deeper chambers, or move the colony to deeper soil layers with increasing colony age. Fungus gardens were suspended from the ceiling of the subterranean chambers and originated as small mycelial tufts. Through continual addition of organic debris, the tufts first grew vertically to strands before they expanded laterally until most of the chamber volume was filled with fungus garden curtains. New

  15. Chaetochromones A and B, two new polyketides from the fungus Chaetomium indicum (CBS.860.68).

    PubMed

    Lu, Keyang; Zhang, Yisheng; Li, Li; Wang, Xuewei; Ding, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Chaetochromones A (1) and B (2), two novel polyketides, were isolated from the crude extract of fungus Chaetomium indicum (CBS.860.68) together with three known analogues PI-3(3), PI-4 (4) and SB236050 (5). The structures of these compounds were determined by HRESI-MS and NMR experiments. Chaetochromones A (1) and B (2) are a member of the polyketides family, which might originate from a similar biogenetic pathway as the known compounds PI-3 (3), PI-4 (4) and SB236050 (5). The biological activities of these secondary metabolites were evaluated against eight plant pathogens, including Alternaria alternata, Ilyonectria radicicola, Trichoderma viride pers, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium verticillioide, Irpex lacteus (Fr.), Poria placenta (Fr.) Cooke and Coriolus versicolor (L.) Quél. Compound 1 displayed moderate inhibitory rate (>60%) against the brown rot fungus Poria placenta (Fr.) Cooke, which causes significant wood decay. In addition, the cytotoxic activities against three cancer cell lines A549, MDA-MB-231, PANC-1 were also tested, without any inhibitory activities being detected. PMID:24013408

  16. Direct three-dimensional characterization and multiscale visualization of wheat straw deconstruction by white rot fungus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Qian, Chen; Jiang, Lei; Yu, Han-Qing

    2014-08-19

    Microbial degradation of lignocellulose for resource and energy recovery has received increasing interest. Despite its obvious importance, the mechanism behind the biodegradation, especially the changes of morphological structure and surface characteristics, has not been fully understood. Here, we used three-dimensional (3D) characterization and multiscale visualization methods, in combination with chemical compositional analyses, to elucidate the degradation process of wheat straw by a white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium. It was found that the fungal attack initiated from stomata. Lignin of the straw decayed in both size and quantity, and heterogeneity in the biodegradation was observed. After treatment with the fungus, the straw surface turned from hydrophobic to hydrophilic, and the adhesion of the straw surface increased in the fungal degradation. The morphology of the straw outer layer became heterogeneous and loose with the formation of many holes with various sizes. The wasp-tunnels-like structure of the collenchyma and parenchyma of the straw as well as the fungal hyphae interspersed inside the straw structure were clearly visualized in the 3D reconstruction structure. This work offers a new insight into the mechanism of lignocellulose biodegradation and demonstrates that multiscale visualization methods could be a useful tool to explore such complex processes. PMID:25072830

  17. Protoilludane sesquiterpenes from the wood decomposing fungus Granulobasidium vellereum (Ellis & Cragin) Jülich.

    PubMed

    Nord, Christina L; Menkis, Audrius; Vasaitis, Rimvydas; Broberg, Anders

    2013-06-01

    The secondary metabolites of the saprotrophic wood-decay basidiomycete fungus Granulobasidium vellereum were studied. Six sesquiterpenes were obtained; 2-hydroxycoprinolone (1), 8-deoxy-4a-hydroxytsugicoline (2), 8-deoxydihydrotsugicoline (3), which were previously not described, radulone A and B, and coprinolone ketodiol. Additionally, base-treatment of 1 yielded the diagnostic degradation products 1a and 1b, whereas radulone A was found to form 4 under mild acidic conditions. The structures were determined by NMR, MS, CD and polarimetry, along with biosynthetic considerations. Radulone A fully inhibited the spore germination of the potentially competing fungi Phlebiopsis gigantea, Coniophora puteana and Heterobasidion occidentale at 10μM, 500μM and 100μM, respectively. None of the other substances tested gave rise to any growth inhibition. PMID:23517685

  18. Axions from string decay

    SciTech Connect

    Hagmann, C., LLNL

    1998-07-09

    We have studied numerically the evolution and decay of axion strings. These global defects decay mainly by axion emission and thus contribute to the cosmological axion energy density. The relative importance of this source relative to misalignment production of axions depends on the spectrum. Radiation spectra for various string loop configurations are presented. They support the contention that the string decay contribution is of the same order of magnitude as the contribution from misalignment.

  19. Mucormycosis (Mucor fungus ball) of the maxillary sinus.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hang Sun; Yang, Hoon Shik; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2014-01-01

    A fungus ball is an extramucosal fungal proliferation that completely fills one or more paranasal sinuses and usually occurs as a unilateral infection. It is mainly caused by Aspergillus spp in an immunocompetent host, but some cases of paranasal fungal balls reportedly have been caused by Mucor spp. A Mucor fungus ball is usually found in the maxillary sinus and/or the sphenoid sinus and may be black in color. Patients with mucormycosis, or a Mucor fungal ball infection, usually present with facial pain or headache. On computed tomography, there are no pathognomonic findings that are conclusive for a diagnosis of mucormycosis. In this article we report a case of mucormycosis in a 56-year-old woman and provide a comprehensive review of the literature on the "Mucor fungus ball." To the best of our knowledge, 5 case reports (8 patients) have been published in which the fungus ball was thought to be caused by Mucor spp. PMID:25397383

  20. An insect parasitoid carrying an ochratoxin producing fungus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, Fernando E.; Posada, Francisco; Gianfagna, Thomas J.; Chaves, Fabio C.; Peterson, Stephen W.

    2006-06-01

    The insect parasitoid Prorops nasuta has been introduced from Africa to many coffee-producing countries in an attempt to control the coffee berry borer. In this paper, we report on the sequencing of the ITS LSU-rDNA and beta-tubulin loci used to identify a fungus isolated from the cuticle of a P. nasuta that emerged from coffee berries infected with the coffee berry borer. The sequences were compared with deposits in GenBank and the fungus was identified as Aspergillus westerdijkiae. The fungus tested positive for ochratoxin A production, with varying levels depending on the media in which it was grown. These results raise the possibility that an insect parasitoid might be disseminating an ochratoxin-producing fungus in coffee plantations.

  1. Fungus Ball in Concha Bullosa: A Rare Case with Anosmia

    PubMed Central

    Özkırıs, Mahmut; Kapusuz, Zeliha; Seçkın, Selda; Saydam, Levent

    2013-01-01

    Concha bullosa is the pneumatization of the concha and is one of the most common variations of the sinonasal anatomy. The histopathological changes caused by the infections which arise from the impaired aeration of conchal cavity are frequently found. Fungus ball of the nasal cavity is an extremely rare, fungal infection with only three cases reported previously. In this paper, we present the fourth fungus ball case which developed within a concha bullosa and presented with anosmia. PMID:23936708

  2. Genome sequence of a white rot fungus Schizopora paradoxa KUC8140 for wood decay and mycoremediation.

    PubMed

    Min, Byoungnam; Park, Hongjae; Jang, Yeongseon; Kim, Jae-Jin; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Lipzen, Anna; Riley, Robert; Grigoriev, Igor V; Spatafora, Joseph W; Choi, In-Geol

    2015-10-10

    Schizopora paradoxa KUC8140 is a white rot wood degrader commonly found in Korea. Tolerance to heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dye decolorization activity make this strain a potential candidate for mycoremediation. We report the genome sequence of S. paradoxa KUC8140 containing 44.4Mbp. Based on ab initio gene prediction, homology search and RNA-seq, total 17,098 gene models were annotated. We identified 17 lignin-modifying peroxidases and other 377 carbohydrate-active enzymes for modeling lignocellulose deconstruction and mycoremediation. PMID:26188242

  3. Gene expression analysis of copper tolerance and wood decay in the brown rot fungus Fibroporia radiculosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many brown rot fungi are capable of rapidly degrading wood and are copper-tolerant. To better understand the genes that control these processes, we examined gene expression of Fibroporia radiculosa growing on wood treated with a copper-based preservative that combined copper carbonate with dimethyld...

  4. Biological control of Ascaris suum eggs by Pochonia chlamydosporia fungus.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sebastião Rodrigo; de Araújo, Jackson Victor; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Frassy, Luiza Neme; Ferreira, Aloízio Soares

    2011-12-01

    Ascaris suum is a gastrointestinal nematode parasite of swines. The aim of this study was to observe Pochonia chlamydosporia fungus on biological control of A. suum eggs after fungus passage through swines gastrointestinal tract. Eighteen pigs, previously dewormed, were randomly divided into three groups: group 1, treated with the fungus isolate VC4; group 2, treated with the fungus isolate VC1 and group 3 did not receive fungus (control). In the treated groups, each animal received a 9 g single dose of mycelium mass containing P. chlamydosporia (VC1 or VC4). Thereafter, animal fecal samples were collected at the following intervals: 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h after treatment beginning and these were poured in Petri dishes containing 2% water-agar culture medium. Then, 1,000 A. suum eggs were poured into each dish and kept in an incubator at 26 °C and in the dark for 30 days. After this period, approximately 100 eggs were removed from each Petri dish and morphologically analyzed under light microscopy following the ovicidal activity parameters. The higher percentage observed for isolated VC4 eggs destruction was 57.5% (36 h) after fungus administration and for isolate VC1 this percentage was 45.8% (24 h and 72 h) (p > 0.01). P. chlamydosporia remained viable after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of swines, maintaining its ability of destroying A. suum eggs. PMID:21796329

  5. Radioactive Decay - An Analog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeachy, Frank

    1988-01-01

    Presents an analog of radioactive decay that allows the student to grasp the concept of half life and the exponential nature of the decay process. The analog is devised to use small, colored, plastic poker chips or counters. Provides the typical data and a graph which supports the analog. (YP)

  6. The efficacy of six elite isolates of the fungus Chondrostereum purpureum against the sprouting of European aspen.

    PubMed

    Hamberg, Leena; Hantula, Jarkko

    2016-04-15

    The sprouting of broad-leaved trees after cutting is problematic in forest regeneration areas, along roads and railways, under electric power and above gas pipe lines. In Finland, one of the most difficult species to control in these areas is the European aspen (Populus tremula), which produces both stump sprouts and root suckers after saplings have been cut. In this study, we investigated whether a decay fungus of broad-leaved trees, Chondrostereum purpureum, could be used as a biological control agent against aspen sprouting. The efficacy of six elite strains of C. purpureum (improved earlier in a breeding process) was investigated on aspen for three years. The most efficient C. purpureum strain, R53, tested earlier on birch (Betula pendula and B. pubescens), was efficient in causing mortality of aspen stumps and preventing the development of root suckers. With this strain, stump mortality was 78%, while significantly lower in control stumps which were cut only (47%). Aspen trees in the vicinity of the treatments (within a 10 m radius around each sapling) decreased the efficacy of C. purpureum. This study shows that the decay fungus C. purpureum can successfully be used in the sprout control of aspen saplings. PMID:26899306

  7. Hypernuclear Weak Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itonaga, K.; Motoba, T.

    The recent theoretical studies of Lambda-hypernuclear weak decaysof the nonmesonic and pi-mesonic ones are developed with the aim to disclose the link between the experimental decay observables and the underlying basic weak decay interactions and the weak decay mechanisms. The expressions of the nonmesonic decay rates Gamma_{nm} and the decay asymmetry parameter alpha_1 of protons from the polarized hypernuclei are presented in the shell model framework. We then introduce the meson theoretical Lambda N -> NN interactions which include the one-meson exchanges, the correlated-2pi exchanges, and the chiral-pair-meson exchanges. The features of meson exchange potentials and their roles on the nonmesonic decays are discussed. With the adoption of the pi + 2pi/rho + 2pi/sigma + omega + K + rhopi/a_1 + sigmapi/a_1 exchange potentials, we have carried out the systematic calculations of the nonmesonic decay observables for light-to-heavy hypernuclei. The present model can account for the available experimental data of the decay rates, Gamma_n/Gamma_p ratios, and the intrinsic asymmetry parameters alpha_Lambda (alpha_Lambda is related to alpha_1) of emitted protons well and consistently within the error bars. The hypernuclear lifetimes are evaluated by converting the total weak decay rates Gamma_{tot} = Gamma_pi + Gamma_{nm} to tau, which exhibit saturation property for the hypernuclear mass A ≥ 30 and agree grossly well with experimental data for the mass range from light to heavy hypernuclei except for the very light ones. Future extensions of the model and the remaining problems are also mentioned. The pi-mesonic weak processes are briefly surveyed, and the calculations and predictions are compared and confirmed by the recent high precision FINUDA pi-mesonic decay data. This shows that the theoretical basis seems to be firmly grounded.

  8. Malaria Mosquitoes Attracted by Fatal Fungus

    PubMed Central

    George, Justin; Jenkins, Nina E.; Blanford, Simon; Thomas, Matthew B.; Baker, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Insect-killing fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are being evaluated as possible active ingredients for use in novel biopesticides against mosquito vectors that transmit malaria. Fungal pathogens infect through contact and so applications of spores to surfaces such as walls, nets, or other resting sites provide possible routes to infect mosquitoes in and around domestic dwellings. However, some insects can detect and actively avoid fungal spores to reduce infection risk. If true for mosquitoes, such behavior could render the biopesticide approach ineffective. Here we find that the spores of B. bassiana are highly attractive to females of Anopheles stephensi, a major anopheline mosquito vector of human malaria in Asia. We further find that An. stephensi females are preferentially attracted to dead and dying caterpillars infected with B. bassiana, landing on them and subsequently becoming infected with the fungus. Females are also preferentially attracted to cloth sprayed with oil-formulated B. bassiana spores, with 95% of the attracted females becoming infected after a one-minute visit on the cloth. This is the first report of an insect being attracted to a lethal fungal pathogen. The exact mechanisms involved in this behavior remain unclear. Nonetheless, our results indicate that biopesticidal formulations comprising B. bassiana spores will be conducive to attraction and on-source visitation by malaria vectors. PMID:23658757

  9. Malaria mosquitoes attracted by fatal fungus.

    PubMed

    George, Justin; Jenkins, Nina E; Blanford, Simon; Thomas, Matthew B; Baker, Thomas C

    2013-01-01

    Insect-killing fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are being evaluated as possible active ingredients for use in novel biopesticides against mosquito vectors that transmit malaria. Fungal pathogens infect through contact and so applications of spores to surfaces such as walls, nets, or other resting sites provide possible routes to infect mosquitoes in and around domestic dwellings. However, some insects can detect and actively avoid fungal spores to reduce infection risk. If true for mosquitoes, such behavior could render the biopesticide approach ineffective. Here we find that the spores of B. bassiana are highly attractive to females of Anopheles stephensi, a major anopheline mosquito vector of human malaria in Asia. We further find that An. stephensi females are preferentially attracted to dead and dying caterpillars infected with B. bassiana, landing on them and subsequently becoming infected with the fungus. Females are also preferentially attracted to cloth sprayed with oil-formulated B. bassiana spores, with 95% of the attracted females becoming infected after a one-minute visit on the cloth. This is the first report of an insect being attracted to a lethal fungal pathogen. The exact mechanisms involved in this behavior remain unclear. Nonetheless, our results indicate that biopesticidal formulations comprising B. bassiana spores will be conducive to attraction and on-source visitation by malaria vectors. PMID:23658757

  10. The agricultural pathology of ant fungus gardens

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Cameron R.; Mueller, Ulrich G.; Malloch, David

    1999-01-01

    Gardens of fungus-growing ants (Formicidae: Attini) traditionally have been thought to be free of microbial parasites, with the fungal mutualist maintained in nearly pure “monocultures.” We conducted extensive isolations of “alien” (nonmutualistic) fungi from ant gardens of a phylogenetically representative collection of attine ants. Contrary to the long-standing assumption that gardens are maintained free of microbial pathogens and parasites, they are in fact host to specialized parasites that are only known from attine gardens and that are found in most attine nests. These specialized garden parasites, belonging to the microfungus genus Escovopsis (Ascomycota: anamorphic Hypocreales), are horizontally transmitted between colonies. Consistent with theory of virulence evolution under this mode of pathogen transmission, Escovopsis is highly virulent and has the potential for rapid devastation of ant gardens, leading to colony mortality. The specialized parasite Escovopsis is more prevalent in gardens of the more derived ant lineages than in gardens of the more “primitive” (basal) ant lineages. Because fungal cultivars of derived attine lineages are asexual clones of apparently ancient origin whereas cultivars of primitive ant lineages were domesticated relatively recently from free-living sexual stocks, the increased virulence of pathogens associated with ancient asexual cultivars suggests an evolutionary cost to cultivar clonality, perhaps resulting from slower evolutionary rates of cultivars in the coevolutionary race with their pathogens. PMID:10393936

  11. Secondary Metabolites from the Fungus Emericella nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Tarawneh, Amer H.; León, Francisco; Radwan, Mohamed M.; Rosa, Luiz H.

    2014-01-01

    A new polyketide derivative koninginin H (1), has been isolated from the fungus Emericella nidulans, together with koninginin E (2), koninginin A (3), trichodermatide B (4), citrantifidiol (5), (4S,5R)-4-hydroxy-5-methylfuran-2-one (6), the glycerol derivatives gingerglycolipid B (7), (2S)-bis[9Z,12Z]-1-O, 2-O-dilinoleoyl-3-O-[α-d-galactopyranosyl-(1″→6′)β-d-galactopyranosyl]glycerol (8), (2S)-bis[9Z,12Z]-1-O, 2-O-dilinoleoyl-3-O-β-d-galactopyranosylglycerol (9), the cerebroside flavuside B (10), and the known sterols β-sitosterol glucoside and ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3-ol. Their structures were established by extensive NMR studies (1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT, 1H–1H COSY, HSQC, HMBC) and mass spectrometry. The antibacterial, antimalarial, antifungal and antileishmanial activities of compounds 1-10 were examined and the results indicated that compound 4 showed good antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC50 value of 4.9 μg /mL. PMID:24273867

  12. The first fossil fungus gardens of Isoptera: oldest evidence of symbiotic termite fungiculture (Miocene, Chad basin).

    PubMed

    Duringer, Philippe; Schuster, Mathieu; Genise, Jorge F; Likius, Andossa; Mackaye, Hassan Taisso; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2006-12-01

    Higher termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae (fungus-growing termites) are known to build fungus gardens where a symbiotic fungus (Termitomyces sp.) is cultivated. The fungus grows on a substrate called fungus comb, a structure built with the termites' own faeces. Here we present the first fossil fungus combs ever found in the world. They were extracted from 7-million-year-old continental sandstone (Chad basin). Fossilized fungus combs have an ovoid morphology with a more or less flattened concave base and a characteristic general alveolar aspect. Under lens, they display a typical millimetre-scale pelletal structure. The latter, as well as the general shape and alveolar aspect, are similar to the morphology of fungus combs from extant fungus-growing termites. PMID:16924476

  13. The first fossil fungus gardens of Isoptera: oldest evidence of symbiotic termite fungiculture (Miocene, Chad basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duringer, Philippe; Schuster, Mathieu; Genise, Jorge F.; Likius, Andossa; Mackaye, Hassan Taisso; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2006-12-01

    Higher termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae (fungus-growing termites) are known to build fungus gardens where a symbiotic fungus ( Termitomyces sp.) is cultivated. The fungus grows on a substrate called fungus comb, a structure built with the termites’ own faeces. Here we present the first fossil fungus combs ever found in the world. They were extracted from 7-million-year-old continental sandstone (Chad basin). Fossilized fungus combs have an ovoid morphology with a more or less flattened concave base and a characteristic general alveolar aspect. Under lens, they display a typical millimetre-scale pelletal structure. The latter, as well as the general shape and alveolar aspect, are similar to the morphology of fungus combs from extant fungus-growing termites.

  14. Isolated Polynucleotides and Methods of Promoting a Morphology in a Fungus

    DOEpatents

    Lasure, Linda L [Fall City, WA; Dai, Ziyu [Richland, WA

    2008-10-21

    The invention includes isolated polynucleotide molecules that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention includes a method of enhancing a bioprocess utilizing a fungus. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to a promoter. The polynucleotide sequence is expressed to promote a first morphology. The first morphology of the transformed fungus enhances a bioprocess relative to the bioprocess utilizing a second morphology.

  15. Axions from wall decay

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S; Hagmann, C; Sikivie, P

    2001-01-08

    The authors discuss the decay of axion walls bounded by strings and present numerical simulations of the decay process. In these simulations, the decay happens immediately, in a time scale of order the light travel time, and the average energy of the radiated axions is {approx_equal} 7m{sub a} for v{sub a}/m{sub a} {approx_equal} 500. is found to increase approximately linearly with ln(v{sub a}/m{sub a}). Extrapolation of this behavior yields {approx_equal} 60 m{sub a} in axion models of interest.

  16. Modulated curvaton decay

    SciTech Connect

    Assadullahi, Hooshyar; Wands, David; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Namjoo, Mohammad Hossein E-mail: firouz@mail.ipm.ir E-mail: david.wands@port.ac.uk

    2013-03-01

    We study primordial density perturbations generated by the late decay of a curvaton field whose decay rate may be modulated by the local value of another isocurvature field, analogous to models of modulated reheating at the end of inflation. We calculate the primordial density perturbation and its local-type non-Gaussianity using the sudden-decay approximation for the curvaton field, recovering standard curvaton and modulated reheating results as limiting cases. We verify the Suyama-Yamaguchi inequality between bispectrum and trispectrum parameters for the primordial density field generated by multiple field fluctuations, and find conditions for the bound to be saturated.

  17. Combinedatomic-nuclear decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzyublik, A. Ya.

    2016-05-01

    We analyzed in details the combined decay of the atomic-nuclear state, which consists of the excited 3/2+ level of 63 153 Eu and K hole, formed in the K capture by 153Gd. This decay proceeds in two stages. First, the nucleus transfers its energy to 2 p electron, which flies into the continuum spectrum, and then returns into 1s hole, emitting γ quantum with the energy equal to the sum of energies of the nuclear and atomic transitions. We estimated the decay probability to be 2.2 × 10-13, that is much less than the recent experimental findings.

  18. Allergens of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana

    PubMed Central

    Westwood, Greg S; Huang, Shih-Wen; Keyhani, Nemat O

    2005-01-01

    Background Beauveria bassiana is an important entomopathogenic fungus currently under development as a bio-control agent for a variety of insect pests. Although reported to be non-toxic to vertebrates, the potential allergenicity of Beauveria species has not been widely studied. Methods IgE-reactivity studies were performed using sera from patients displaying mould hypersensitivity by immunoblot and immunoblot inhibition. Skin reactivity to B. bassiana extracts was measured using intradermal skin testing. Results Immunoblots of fungal extracts with pooled as well as individual sera showed a distribution of IgE reactive proteins present in B. bassiana crude extracts. Proteinase K digestion of extracts resulted in loss of IgE reactive epitopes, whereas EndoH and PNGaseF (glycosidase) treatments resulted in minor changes in IgE reactive banding patterns as determined by Western blots. Immunoblot inhibitions experiments showed complete loss of IgE-binding using self protein, and partial inhibition using extracts from common allergenic fungi including; Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium herbarum, Candida albicans, Epicoccum purpurascens, and Penicillium notatum. Several proteins including a strongly reactive band with an approximate molecular mass of 35 kDa was uninhibited by any of the tested extracts, and may represent B. bassiana specific allergens. Intradermal skin testing confirmed the in vitro results, demonstrating allergenic reactions in a number of individuals, including those who have had occupational exposure to B. bassiana. Conclusions Beauveria bassiana possesses numerous IgE reactive proteins, some of which are cross-reactive among allergens from other fungi. A strongly reactive potential B. bassiana specific allergen (35 kDa) was identified. Intradermal skin testing confirmed the allergenic potential of B. bassiana. PMID:15644142

  19. Radiative B Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Bard, D.; /Imperial Coll., London

    2011-11-23

    I discuss recent results in radiative B decays from the Belle and BaBar collaborations. I report new measurements of the decay rate and CP asymmetries in b {yields} s{gamma} and b {yields} d{gamma} decays, and measurements of the photon spectrum in b {yields} s{gamma}. Radiative penguin decays are flavour changing neutral currents which do not occur at tree level in the standard model (SM), but must proceed via one loop or higher order diagrams. These transitions are therefore suppressed in the SM, but offer access to poorlyknown SM parameters and are also a sensitive probe of new physics. In the SM, the rate is dominated by the top quark contribution to the loop, but non-SM particles could also contribute with a size comparable to leading SM contributions. The new physics effects are potentially large which makes them theoretically very interesting, but due to their small branching fractions they are typically experimentally challenging.

  20. RARE KAON DECAYS.

    SciTech Connect

    LITTENBERG, L.

    2005-07-19

    Lepton flavor violation (LFV) experiments have probed sensitivities corresponding to mass scales of well over 100 TeV, making life difficult for models predicting accessible LFV in kaon decay and discouraging new dedicated experiments of this type.

  1. Tooth decay - early childhood

    MedlinePlus

    Bottle mouth; Bottle carries; Baby bottle tooth decay; Early childhood caries (ECC) ... chap 304. Ribeiro NM, Ribeiro MA. Breastfeeding and early childhood caries: a critical review. J Pediatr (Rio J) . ...

  2. Detection and assessment of wood decay using x-ray computer tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGovern, Megan; Senalik, Adam; Chen, George; Beall, Frank C.; Reis, Henrique

    2010-04-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) wood cube specimens were exposed to Gloeophyllum fungus (Gloeophyllum trabeum) for increasing periods of time ranging from one week to twelve weeks. The corresponding mass of each of these specimens was recorded before and after they were subjected to the controlled decay. X-ray computed tomography (CT) was then carried out. From the CT scans and recorded mass data, the specimens' corresponding volumes and densities were calculated. Blocks decayed for twelve weeks experienced, on the average, the greatest loss of mass (~40%), volume (~30%), and density (~37%). The observations quantified the well-known effect of non-uniform decay, with the greatest occurring at the surface in contact with the fungi and decreasing to the opposite surface. Wood blocks subjected to controlled decay for twelve weeks lost 47% of density at the surface in contact with the fungi and 28% at the opposite surface, while blocks subjected to only one week of decay experienced over 5% density loss at the surface in contact with fungi and nearly 0% at the opposite surface. While the mass loss of specimens exposed to only one week of controlled decay was difficult to evaluate because of initial moisture absorption, these results indicate that x-ray CT can detect decay in wood specimens exposed to only one week of controlled decay using density measurements.

  3. An endosymbiotic conidial fungus, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, protects the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, from desiccation imposed by an entomopathogenic fungus.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Jay A; Benoit, Joshua B; Denlinger, David L; Tank, Justin L; Zettler, Lawrence W

    2008-02-01

    The functional role of an endosymbiotic conidial fungus (Scopulariopsis brevicaulis) prevalent within the integumental glands and hemocoel of the American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis) was investigated to explore the nature of this tick/fungus association. D. variabilis is normally highly resistant to Metarhizium anisopliae, a widely-distributed entomopathogenic fungus, but when mature female ticks harboring S. brevicaulis were fed a solution containing a mycotoxin (Amphotericin B) to purge this mycobiont internally, the ticks inoculated with M. anisopliae displayed classic signs of pathogenicity, as evidenced by recovery of M. anisopliae from ticks by internal fungus culture, greatly accelerated net transpiration water loss rates (nearly 3x faster than ticks containing S. brevicaulis naturally) and elevation of critical equilibrium humidity (CEH) closer to saturation, implying a reduced capacity to absorb water vapor and disruption of water balance (water gain not equal water loss) that resulted in tick death. The presence of S. brevicaulis within the tick was previously puzzling: the fungus is transmitted maternally and there is no apparent harm inflicted to either generation. This study suggests that S. brevicaulis provides protection to D. variabilis ticks against M. anisopliae. Thus, the S. brevicaulis/tick association appears to be mutualistic symbiosis. Given that both organisms are of medical-veterinary importance, disruption of this symbiosis has potential for generating novel tools for disease control. PMID:17880996

  4. Attraction of pinewood nematode to endoparasitic nematophagous fungus Esteya vermicola.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun Yan; Wang, Zhen; Fang, Zhe Ming; Zhang, Dong Liang; Gu, Li Juan; Liu, Lei; Sung, Chang Keun

    2010-05-01

    The investigations on attraction of nematodes to nematophagous fungi have mostly dealt with the nematode-trapping species. Esteya vermicola is the endoparasitic fungus of pinewood nematode (PWN) with high infection activity. In the present study, the attraction of PWNs to E. vermicola was investigated. It was confirmed that the living mycelia and exudative substances of E. vermicola were attractive to PWN. Compared with the nematode-trapping fungus A. brochopaga as well as nematode-feeding fungus B. cinerea, E. vermicola showed the significantly strongest attraction ability to nematode. It therefore appeared that the attraction ability reflects the dependence of the fungi on nematodes for nutrients. Furthermore, a new method was developed and used in the study to confirm the effect of volatile substances for the attraction of nematode to fungi. The results suggested that the attractive substances were consisted of avolatile exudative and volatile diffusing compounds. PMID:20012046

  5. Source of fungus contamination of hydrophilic soft contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Gasset, A R; Mattingly, T P; Hood, I

    1979-09-01

    Fungus infiltration within hydrophilic lenses has been a rare finding. This case report confirms previous findings that fungal contamination of hydrophilic contact lens is possible. The present report, to our knowledge, is the first demonstration of the association of fungus from contaminated cosmetics with hydrophilic contact lenses. It is important to be aware of the possibility of fungal invasion of hydrophilic lenses, as well as to be able to differentiate this from the more common harmless spot formation. On the basis of this study, good lid hygiene, strict adherence to the sterilization procedure, and discontinuance of any soft hydrophilic contact lenses with spot formation seems appropriate. PMID:556154

  6. Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae), wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow) and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i) 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii) four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. Results We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-β-1,3(4)-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-β-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Conclusion Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily accessible hemicellulose

  7. Roles of Peroxisomes in the Rice Blast Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Caiyun

    2016-01-01

    The rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, is a model plant pathogenic fungus and is a severe threat to global rice production. Over the past two decades, it has been found that the peroxisomes play indispensable roles during M. oryzae infection. Given the importance of the peroxisomes for virulence, we review recent advances of the peroxisomes roles during M. oryzae infection processes. We firstly introduce the molecular mechanisms and life cycles of the peroxisomes. And then, metabolic functions related to the peroxisomes are also discussed. Finally, we provide an overview of the relationship between peroxisomes and pathogenicity. PMID:27610388

  8. A new cytosporone derivative from the endophytic fungus Cytospora sp.

    PubMed

    Takano, Tomoya; Koseki, Takuya; Koyama, Hiromasa; Shiono, Yoshihito

    2014-07-01

    Japanese oak wilt (JOW) is a tree disease caused by the fungus Raffaelea quercivora, which is vectored by the ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus. In a screening study of the inhibitory active compounds from fungi, a new cytosporone analogue, compound 1, was isolated from the endophytic fungus Cytospora sp. TT-10 isolated from Japanese oak, together with the known compounds, integracin A (2), cytosporones N (3) and A (4). Their structures were determined by extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic and mass spectral analyses. Compound 1 was identified as 4,5-dihydroxy-3-heptylphthalide and named cytosporone E. Compounds 2 and 3 showed antimicrobial activity against Raffaelea quercivora. PMID:25230507

  9. The soil fungus Chaetomium in the human paranasal sinuses.

    PubMed

    Aru, A; Munk-Nielsen, L; Federspiel, B H

    1997-01-01

    Chaetomium is a soil fungus of which more than 180 species are now known. Most species cause degradation of cellulose-rich substrates, such as components in soil, straw or wood. Growth of Chaetomium globosum is often stimulated in the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus, which excretes such compounds as sugar phosphates and phospho-glyceric acid. A 73-year-old woman, with long-standing pain and secretion from her left maxillary sinus, was admitted to hospital where an infundibulectomy was performed. Histological examination showed necrotic material with hyphae of A. fumigatus and perithecia of Chaetomium sp. The latter fungus is rarely pathogenic to man. PMID:9298672

  10. Roles of Peroxisomes in the Rice Blast Fungus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Lin; Wang, Zhao; Liu, Caiyun

    2016-01-01

    The rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, is a model plant pathogenic fungus and is a severe threat to global rice production. Over the past two decades, it has been found that the peroxisomes play indispensable roles during M. oryzae infection. Given the importance of the peroxisomes for virulence, we review recent advances of the peroxisomes roles during M. oryzae infection processes. We firstly introduce the molecular mechanisms and life cycles of the peroxisomes. And then, metabolic functions related to the peroxisomes are also discussed. Finally, we provide an overview of the relationship between peroxisomes and pathogenicity. PMID:27610388

  11. Two chlorinated benzofuran derivatives from the marine fungus Pseudallescheria boydii.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dan-Feng; Lan, Wen-Jian; Wang, Kun-Teng; Huang, Lei; Jiang, Cai-Wu; Li, Hou-Jin

    2015-04-01

    The marine fungus Pseudallescheria boydii was isolated from the inner tissue of the starfish Acanthaster planci. This fungus was cultured in a high salinity glucose-peptone-yeast extract (GPY) medium. Two new chlorinated benzofuran derivatives, 6-chloro-2-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2,3-dihydro-5 hydroxybenzofuran (1) and 7-chloro-2-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2,3-dihydro-5-hydroxybenzofuran (2), were obtained from the extract of the culture broth. Their structures were determined by analysis of the NMR and MS data. PMID:25973491

  12. Decay of metastable topological defects

    SciTech Connect

    Preskill, J. ); Vilenkin, A. Lyman Laboratory of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 )

    1993-03-15

    We systematically analyze the decay of metastable topological defects that arise from the spontaneous breakdown of gauge or global symmetries. Quantum-mechanical tunneling rates are estimated for a variety of decay processes. The decay rate for a global string, vortex, domain wall, or kink is typically suppressed compared to the decay rate for its gauged counterpart. We also discuss the decay of global texture, and of semilocal and electroweak strings.

  13. Bionectriol A, a polyketide glycoside from the fungus Bionectria sp. associated with the fungus-growing ant, Apterostigma dentigerum

    PubMed Central

    Freinkman, Elizaveta; Oh, Dong-Chan; Scott, Jarrod J.; Currie, Cameron R.; Clardy, Jon

    2009-01-01

    A new polyketide glycoside, bionectriol A (1), was produced by a fungal culture of Bionectria sp., which was isolated from a fungus garden of the fungus-growing ant Apterostigma dentigerum, in Costa Rica. The structure of bionectriol A was determined mainly through NMR and mass spectroscopic data, as well as UV and IR spectra. The relative configurations of the main chain, the pyranohexose, and the pentitol moiety were elucidated by 1H-1H coupling constants and ROESY NMR spectral analysis. PMID:20160864

  14. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremonesi, Oliviero

    2016-05-01

    After more than 3/4 of century from its proposal, Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay (NLDBD) is still missing observation and continues to represent the only practical method for investigating the Dirac/Majorana nature of neutrinos. In case neutrinos would be Majorana particles, NLDBD would provide unique informations on their properties (absolute mass scale and Majorana phases). Boosted by the discovery of neutrino oscillations, a number of experiments with improved sensitivity have been proposed in the past decade. Some of them have recently started operation and others are ready to start. They will push the experimental sensitivity on the decay halflife beyond 1026 year, starting to analyze the region of the inverted mass hierarchy. The status and perspectives of the ongoing experimental effort are reviewed. Uncertainties coming from the calculation othe decay nuclear matrix elements (NME) as well as the recently suggested possibility of a relevant quenching of the axial coupling constant are also discussed.

  15. Decay of superdeformed bands

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, M.P.; Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T.

    1995-12-31

    One of the major challenges in the study of superdeformation is to directly connect the large number of superdeformed bands now known to the yrast states. In this way, excitation energies, spins and parities can be assigned to the levels in the second well which is essential to establish the collective and single-particle components of these bands. This paper will review some of the progress which has been made to understand the decay of superdeformed bands using the new arrays including the measurement of the total decay spectrum and the establishment of direct one-step decays from the superdeformed band to the yrast line in {sup 194}Hg. 42 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Suppressed Charmed B Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Snoek, Hella Leonie

    2009-06-02

    This thesis describes the measurement of the branching fractions of the suppressed charmed B0 → D*- a0+ decays and the non-resonant B0 → D*- ηπ+ decays in approximately 230 million Υ(4S) → B$\\bar{B}$ events. The data have been collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in California. Theoretical predictions of the branching fraction of the B0 → D*- a{sub 0}+ decays show large QCD model dependent uncertainties. Non-factorizing terms, in the naive factorization model, that can be calculated by QCD factorizing models have a large impact on the branching fraction of these decay modes. The predictions of the branching fractions are of the order of 10-6. The measurement of the branching fraction gives more insight into the theoretical models. In general a better understanding of QCD models will be necessary to conduct weak interaction physics at the next level. The presence of CP violation in electroweak interactions allows the differentiation between matter and antimatter in the laws of physics. In the Standard Model, CP violation is incorporated in the CKM matrix that describes the weak interaction between quarks. Relations amongst the CKM matrix elements are used to present the two relevant parameters as the apex of a triangle (Unitarity Triangle) in a complex plane. The over-constraining of the CKM triangle by experimental measurements is an important test of the Standard Model. At this moment no stringent direct measurements of the CKM angle γ, one of the interior angles of the Unitarity Triangle, are available. The measurement of the angle γ can be performed using the decays of neutral B mesons. The B0 → D*- a0+ decay is sensitive to the angle γ and, in comparison to the current decays that are being employed, could significantly

  17. Extracellular oxidative metabolism of wood decay fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Cullen

    2010-04-21

    Substantial progress has been made toward understanding the fundamental physiology and genetics of wood decay fungi, microbes that are capable of degrading all major components of plant cell walls. Efficient utilization of lignocellulosic biomass has been hampered in part by limitations in our understanding of enzymatic mechanisms of plant cell wall degradation. This is particularly true of woody substrates where accessibility and high lignin content substantially complicate enzymatic 'deconstruction'. The interdisciplinary research has illuminated enzymatic mechanisms essential for the conversion of lignocellulosics to simple carbohydrates and other small molecular weight products. Progress was in large part dependent on substantial collaborations with the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute (JGI) in Walnut Creek and Los Alamos, as well as the Catholic University, Santiago, Chile, the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, the University of Minnesota, St. Paul, and colleagues at the University of Wisconsin and the Forest Products Laboratory. Early accomplishments focused on the development of experimental tools (2, 7, 22, 24-26, 32) and characterization of individual genes and enzymes (1, 3-5, 8, 9, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 23, 27, 33). In 2004, the genome of the most intensively studied lignin-degrading fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, was published (21). This milestone lead to additional progress on this important model system (6, 10, 12, 13, 16, 28-31) and was further complemented by genome analysis of other important cellulose-degrading fungi (19, 20). These accomplishments have been highly cited and have paved the way for whole new research areas.

  18. Weak decay of hypernuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, R.

    1983-01-01

    The Moby Dick spectrometer (at BNL) in coincidence with a range spectrometer and a TOF neutron detector will be used to study the weak decay modes of /sup 12/C. The Moby Dick spectrometer will be used to reconstruct and tag events in which specific hypernuclear states are formed in the reaction K/sup -/ + /sup 12/C ..-->.. ..pi../sup -/ + /sup 12/C. Subsequent emission of decay products (pions, protons and neutrons) in coincidence with the fast forward pion will be detected in a time and range spectrometer, and a neutron detector.

  19. Search for the decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casanova Mohr, R.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C.-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garofoli, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gastaldi, U.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Geraci, A.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Gianì, S.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Matthieu, K.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Ninci, D.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skillicorn, I.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Sterpka, F.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Stroili, R.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tekampe, T.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wiedner, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.

    2015-08-01

    A search for decays is performed using 3 .0 fb1- of pp collision data recorded by the LHCb experiment during 2011 and 2012. The f 0(980) meson is reconstructed through its decay to the π + π - final state in the mass window 900 MeV /c 2 < m( π + π -) < 1080 MeV /c 2. No significant signal is observed. The first upper limits on the branching fraction of are set at 90 % (95 %) confidence level. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. Decay of relativistic hypernuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Majlingova, Olga

    2008-05-12

    The contribution is focused on the analysis of the hypernuclei decay. Hypernuclei, nuclei composed of nucleons and hyperon, enable us to more precise study baryon-baryon interaction, both weak and strong. Several experiments for study new hypernuclear objects are presently taking data or are planned in several laboratories in Italy, Germany, Russia, Japan and USA. The aim of the contribution is the introduction the catalogue of all possible decays of light hypernuclei (A{<=}12). Created catalogue could be exploited for planning next experiments.

  1. Fun Microbiology: How To Measure Growth of a Fungus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, James K.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experiment to demonstrate a simple method for measuring fungus growth by monitoring the effect of temperature on the growth of Trichoderma viride. Among the advantages that this experimental model provides is introducing students to the importance of using the computer as a scientific tool for analyzing and presenting data. (AIM)

  2. PESTALOTIOPSIS MACULANS IS A PARASYMBIONTIC FUNGUS IN NORTH AMERICAN LICHENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    By culturing small thallus portions in nutrient medium, it could be shown that Pestalotiopisis maculans (Corda) Nag Raj is a dominant parasymbiontic fungus in North American lichens. P. maculans was present in all twelve lichen specimens (10 Cladina, 1 Usnea, and 1 Parmetroma) collected in the east...

  3. OXIDATIVE DEGRADATION OF PHENANTHRENE BY THE LIGNINOLYTIC FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ligninolytic fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium oxidized phenanthrene and phenanthrene-9,10-quinone (PQ) at their C-9 and C-10 positions to give a ring-fission product, 2,2'-diphenic acid (DPA), which was identified in chromatographic and isotope dilution experiments. PA form...

  4. Controlling fungus on channel catfish eggs with peracetic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is much interest in the use of peracetic acid (PAA) to treat pathogens in aquaculture. It is a relatively new compound and is approved for use in Europe, but not in the United States. This study determined the effectiveness of PAA for fungus control on channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus egg...

  5. Directed Evolution of a Filamentous Fungus for Thermotolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Filamentous fungi represent the most widely used eukaryotic biocatalysts in industrial and chemical applications. Metarhizium anisopliae is a broad-host-range entomopathogenic fungus currently under intensive investigation as a biologically based alternative to chemical pesticides. One of the most p...

  6. Using copper sulfate to control fungus on fish eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is widely used by the catfish industry as an economical treatment to control fungus (Saprolegnia spp.) on catfish eggs. This is an overview of our effectiveness and safety studies. Channel catfish spawns were 24 - 48 hrs old. Comparable portions of a single spawn were place...

  7. Analysis of a Functional Lactate Permease in the Fungus Rhizopus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Rhizopus is frequently used for fermentative production of lactic acid, but little is known about the mechanisms or proteins for transporting this carboxylic acid. Since transport of the lactate anion across the plasma membrane is critical to prevent acidification of the cytoplasm, we ev...

  8. Inferring dispersal patterns of the generalist root fungus Armillaria mellea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Investigating the dispersal of the root-pathogenic fungus Armillaria mellea is necessary to understand its population biology. Such an investigation is complicated by both its subterranean habit and the persistence of genotypes over successive host generations. As such, host colonization by resident...

  9. OXIDATION OF PERSISTANT ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY A WHITE ROT FUNGUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium degraded DDT [1,1,-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane], 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,4,5,2',-4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, lindane (1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocylohexane), and benzo[a]pyrene t...

  10. Genetic variability in the pistachio late blight fungus, Alternaria alternata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic variation in the pistachio late blight fungus, Alternaria alternata, was investigated by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in the rDNA region. Southern hybridization of EcoRI, HindIII, and Xbal digested fungal DNA with a RNA probe derived from Alt1, an rDNA clone isolated from ...

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of the Fungus Trametes hirsuta 072

    PubMed Central

    Tyazhelova, Tatiana V.; Moiseenko, Konstantin V.; Vasina, Daria V.; Mosunova, Olga V.; Fedorova, Tatiana V.; Maloshenok, Lilya G.; Landesman, Elena O.; Bruskin, Sergei A.; Psurtseva, Nadezhda V.; Slesarev, Alexei I.; Kozyavkin, Sergei A.; Koroleva, Olga V.

    2015-01-01

    A standard draft genome sequence of the white rot saprotrophic fungus Trametes hirsuta 072 (Basidiomycota, Polyporales) is presented. The genome sequence contains about 33.6 Mb assembled in 141 scaffolds with a G+C content of ~57.6%. The draft genome annotation predicts 14,598 putative protein-coding open reading frames (ORFs). PMID:26586872

  12. The development and endophytic nature of the fungus Heteroconium chaetospira.

    PubMed

    Hashiba, Teruyoshi; Narisawa, Kazuhiko

    2005-11-15

    The root endophytic fungus Heteroconium chaetospira was isolated from roots of Chinese cabbage grown in field soil in Japan. This fungus penetrates through the outer epidermal cells of its host, passes into the inner cortex, and grows throughout the cortical cells, including those of the root tip region, without causing apparent pathogenic symptoms. There are no ultrastructural signs of host resistance responses. H. chaetospira has been recovered from 19 plant species in which there was no disruption of host growth. H. chaetospira has a symbiotic association with Chinese cabbage. The fungus provides nitrogen in exchange for carbon. These associations are beneficial for the inoculated plants, as demonstrated by increased growth rate. When used as a preinoculum, H. chaetospira suppresses the incidence of clubroot and Verticillium yellows when the test plant is post-inoculated with the causal agents of these diseases. H. chaetospira is an effective biocontrol agent against clubroot in Chinese cabbage at a low to moderate soil moisture range and a pathogen resting spore density of 10(5) resting spores per gram of soil in situ. Disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. macricola and Alternaria brassicae on leaves can be suppressed by treatment with H. chaetospira. The fungus persists in the roots and induces systemic resistance to the foliar disease. PMID:16168582

  13. Characterization of a basidiomycete fungus from sugarbeet in Idaho

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A fungus of unknown etiology was observed on stored sugarbeet roots exhibiting signs of white cottony growth in 2006 and 2007 in Idaho. Eighteen isolates obtained from sugarbeet roots were examined for growth characteristics on nutrient medium, production of phenol oxidases and ITS rDNA sequence. On...

  14. On-farm Production and Utilization of AM Fungus Inoculum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On-farm production of arbuscular mycorrhizal [AM] fungus inoculum can make the benefits to crop growth and yield of inoculation with AM fungi available to more farmers by reducing costs. This article details the step by step procedure and management decisions that are needed for the on-farm product...

  15. A new polyoxygenated farnesylcyclohexenone from Fungus Penicillium sp.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yabin; Yang, Fangfang; Zhao, Lixing; Duang, Rongting; Chen, Guangyi; Li, Xiaozhan; Li, Qiling; Qin, Shaohuan; Ding, Zhongtao

    2016-01-01

    A new polyoxygenated farnesylcyclohexenone, peniginsengin A (1), was isolated from the fermentation of Penicillium sp. YIM PH30003, an endophytic fungus associated with Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen. The structure was assigned based on a combination of 1 D and 2 D NMR and mass spectral data. The cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activities of compound 1 were investigated. PMID:25906789

  16. Microsatellites from the charcoal rot fungus (Macrophomina phaseolina)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsatellite loci were identified from the charcoal rot fungus Macrophomina phaseolina. Primer pairs for 46 loci were developed and of these 13 were optimized and screened using genomic DNA from 44 fungal isolates collected predominantly from two soybean fields in MS. All optimized loci were poly...

  17. A Brazilian social bee must cultivate fungus to survive.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Cristiano; Vollet-Neto, Ayrton; Marsaioli, Anita Jocelyne; Zampieri, Davila; Fontoura, Isabela Cardoso; Luchessi, Augusto Ducati; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera Lucia

    2015-11-01

    The nests of social insects provide suitable microenvironments for many microorganisms as they offer stable environmental conditions and a rich source of food [1-4]. Microorganisms in turn may provide several benefits to their hosts, such as nutrients and protection against pathogens [1, 4-6]. Several examples of symbiosis between social insects and microorganisms have been found in ants and termites. These symbioses have driven the evolution of complex behaviors and nest structures associated with the culturing of the symbiotic microorganisms [5, 7, 8]. However, while much is known about these relationships in many species of ants and termites, symbiotic relationships between microorganisms and social bees have been poorly explored [3, 4, 9, 10]. Here, we report the first case of an obligatory relationship between the Brazilian stingless bee Scaptotrigona depilis and a fungus of the genus Monascus (Ascomycotina). Fungal mycelia growing on the provisioned food inside the brood cell are eaten by the larva. Larvae reared in vitro on sterilized larval food supplemented with fungal mycelia had a much higher survival rate (76%) compared to larvae reared under identical conditions but without fungal mycelia (8% survival). The fungus was found to originate from the material from which the brood cells are made. Since the bees recycle and transport this material between nests, fungus would be transferred to newly built cells and also to newly founded nests. This is the first report of a fungus cultivation mutualism in a social bee. PMID:26592344

  18. Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Attine ants live in symbiosis with a basidiomycetous fungus that they rear on a substrate of plant material. This indirect herbivory implies that the symbiosis is likely to be nitrogen deprived, so that specific mechanisms may have evolved to enhance protein availability. We therefore hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing eight genera. We mapped these activity profiles on an independently obtained molecular phylogeny of the symbionts and show that total proteinase activity in lower attine symbionts peaks at ca. pH 6. The higher attine symbionts that have no known free-living relatives had much higher proteinase activities than the lower attine symbionts. Their total in vitro proteinase activity peaked at pH values around 5, which is close to the pH that the ants maintain in their fungus gardens, suggesting that the pH optimum of fungal proteinases may have changed after the irreversible domestication of evolutionary more derived fungal symbionts. This notion is also supported by buffering capacities of fungus gardens at pH 5.2 being remarkably high, and suggests that the fungal symbiont actively helps to maintain garden acidity at this specific level. Metalloproteinases dominated the activity profiles of lower attine gardens and may thus represent the ancestral type of proteinase production, whereas serine proteinase activity dominated the activity profiles of the higher attine gardens reared by Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex, suggesting that there may be trade-offs in the production of these enzyme classes. Remarkably, the single symbiont that is shared by species of the crown group of Atta and Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants mostly showed metalloproteinase activity, suggesting that recurrent

  19. Decay Time of Cathodoluminescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2009-01-01

    Simple measurements of the decay time of cathodoluminescence are described. Cathodoluminescence is used in many devices, including computer monitors, oscilloscopes, radar displays and television tubes. The experimental setup is simple and easy to build. Two oscilloscopes, a function generator, and a fast photodiode are needed for the experiments.…

  20. Chiral quirkonium decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fok, R.; Kribs, Graham D.

    2011-08-01

    We calculate the two-body decay rates of quirkonium states formed from quirks that acquire mass solely through electroweak symmetry breaking. We consider SU(N)ic infracolor with two flavors of quirks transforming under the electroweak group (but not QCD) of the standard model. In one case, the quirks are in a chiral representation of the electroweak group, while in the other case, a vectorlike representation. The differences in the dominant decay channels between “chiral quirkonia” versus “vectorlike quirkonia” are striking. Several chiral quirkonia states can decay into the unique two-body resonance channels WH, ZH, tt¯, tb¯/bt¯, and γH, which never dominate for vectorlike quirkonia. Additionally, the channels WW, WZ, ZZ, and Wγ, are shared among both chiral and vectorlike quirkonia. Resonances of dileptons or light quarks (dijets) can dominate for some vectorlike quirkonia states throughout their mass range, while these modes never dominate for chiral quirkonia unless the decays into pairs of gauge or Higgs bosons are kinematically forbidden.

  1. Chiral Quirkonium Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Fok, R.; Kribs, Graham D.; /Fermilab

    2011-06-01

    We calculate the two-body decay rates of quirkonium states formed from quirks that acquire mass solely through electroweak symmetry breaking. We consider SU(N){sub ic} infracolor with two flavors of quirks transforming under the electroweak group (but not QCD) of the standard model. In one case, the quirks are in a chiral representation of the electroweak group, while in the other case, a vectorlike representation. The differences in the dominant decay channels between 'chiral quirkonia' versus 'vectorlike quirkonia' are striking. Several chiral quirkonia states can decay into the unique two-body resonance channels WH, ZH, t{bar t}, t{bar b}/b{bar t}, and {gamma}H, which never dominate for vectorlike quirkonia. Additionally, the channels WW, WZ, ZZ, and W{gamma}, are shared among both chiral and vectorlike quirkonia. Resonances of dileptons or light quarks (dijets) can dominate for some vectorlike quirkonia states throughout their mass range, while these modes never dominate for chiral quirkonia unless the decays into pairs of gauge or Higgs bosons are kinematically forbidden.

  2. Anatomy of decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bel, Lennaert; De Bruyn, Kristof; Fleischer, Robert; Mulder, Mick; Tuning, Niels

    2015-07-01

    The decays B {/d 0} → D {/d -} D {/d +} and B {/s 0} → D {/s -} D {/s +} probe the CP-violating mixing phases ϕ d and ϕ s , respectively. The theoretical uncertainty of the corresponding determinations is limited by contributions from penguin topologies, which can be included with the help of the U-spin symmetry of the strong interaction. We analyse the currently available data for B {/d, s 0} → D {/d, s -} D {/d, s +} decays and those with similar dynamics to constrain the involved non-perturbative parameters. Using further information from semileptonic B {/d 0} → D {/d -} ℓ + ν ℓ decays, we perform a test of the factorisation approximation and take non-factorisable SU(3)-breaking corrections into account. The branching ratios of the B {/d 0} → D {/d -} D {/d +}, B {/s 0} → D {/s -} D {/d +} and B {/s 0} → D {/s -} D {/s +}, B {/d 0} → D {/d -} D {/s +} decays show an interesting pattern which can be accommodated through significantly enhanced exchange and penguin annihilation topologies. This feature is also supported by data for the B {/s 0} → D {/d -} D {/d +} channel. Moreover, there are indications of potentially enhanced penguin contributions in the B {/d 0} → D {/d -} D {/d +} and B {/s 0} → D {/s -} D {/s +} decays, which would make it mandatory to control these effects in the future measurements of ϕ d and ϕ s . We discuss scenarios for high-precision measurements in the era of Belle II and the LHCb upgrade.

  3. New Fungus-Insect Symbiosis: Culturing, Molecular, and Histological Methods Determine Saprophytic Polyporales Mutualists of Ambrosiodmus Ambrosia Beetles.

    PubMed

    Li, You; You, Li; Simmons, David Rabern; Bateman, Craig C; Short, Dylan P G; Kasson, Matthew T; Rabaglia, Robert J; Hulcr, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Ambrosia symbiosis is an obligate, farming-like mutualism between wood-boring beetles and fungi. It evolved at least 11 times and includes many notorious invasive pests. All ambrosia beetles studied to date cultivate ascomycotan fungi: early colonizers of recently killed trees with poor wood digestion. Beetles in the widespread genus Ambrosiodmus, however, colonize decayed wood. We characterized the mycosymbionts of three Ambrosiodmus species using quantitative culturing, high-throughput metabarcoding, and histology. We determined the fungi to be within the Polyporales, closely related to Flavodon flavus. Culture-independent sequencing of Ambrosiodmus minor mycangia revealed a single operational taxonomic unit identical to the sequences from the cultured Flavodon. Histological sectioning confirmed that Ambrosiodmus possessed preoral mycangia containing dimitic hyphae similar to cultured F. cf. flavus. The Ambrosiodmus-Flavodon symbiosis is unique in several aspects: it is the first reported association between an ambrosia beetle and a basidiomycotan fungus; the mycosymbiont grows as hyphae in the mycangia, not as budding pseudo-mycelium; and the mycosymbiont is a white-rot saprophyte rather than an early colonizer: a previously undocumented wood borer niche. Few fungi are capable of turning rotten wood into complete animal nutrition. Several thousand beetle-fungus symbioses remain unstudied and promise unknown and unexpected mycological diversity and enzymatic innovations. PMID:26367271

  4. New Fungus-Insect Symbiosis: Culturing, Molecular, and Histological Methods Determine Saprophytic Polyporales Mutualists of Ambrosiodmus Ambrosia Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, Craig C.; Short, Dylan P. G.; Kasson, Matthew T.; Rabaglia, Robert J.; Hulcr, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Ambrosia symbiosis is an obligate, farming-like mutualism between wood-boring beetles and fungi. It evolved at least 11 times and includes many notorious invasive pests. All ambrosia beetles studied to date cultivate ascomycotan fungi: early colonizers of recently killed trees with poor wood digestion. Beetles in the widespread genus Ambrosiodmus, however, colonize decayed wood. We characterized the mycosymbionts of three Ambrosiodmus species using quantitative culturing, high-throughput metabarcoding, and histology. We determined the fungi to be within the Polyporales, closely related to Flavodon flavus. Culture-independent sequencing of Ambrosiodmus minor mycangia revealed a single operational taxonomic unit identical to the sequences from the cultured Flavodon. Histological sectioning confirmed that Ambrosiodmus possessed preoral mycangia containing dimitic hyphae similar to cultured F. cf. flavus. The Ambrosiodmus-Flavodon symbiosis is unique in several aspects: it is the first reported association between an ambrosia beetle and a basidiomycotan fungus; the mycosymbiont grows as hyphae in the mycangia, not as budding pseudo-mycelium; and the mycosymbiont is a white-rot saprophyte rather than an early colonizer: a previously undocumented wood borer niche. Few fungi are capable of turning rotten wood into complete animal nutrition. Several thousand beetle-fungus symbioses remain unstudied and promise unknown and unexpected mycological diversity and enzymatic innovations. PMID:26367271

  5. Growth inhibition of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa and degradation of its microcystin toxins by the fungus Trichoderma citrinoviride.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Zakaria A; Hashem, Mohamed; Alamri, Saad A

    2014-08-01

    Harmful cyanobacterial blooms are recognized as a rapidly expanding global problem that threatens human and ecosystem health. Many bacterial strains have been reported as possible agents for inhibiting and controlling these blooms. However, such algicidal activity is largely unexplored for fungi. In this study, a fungal strain kkuf-0955, isolated from decayed cyanobacterial bloom was tested for its capability to inhibit phytoplankton species in batch cultures. The strain was identified as Trichoderma citrinoviride Based on its morphological characteristics and DNA sequence. Microcystis aeruginosa co-cultivated with living fungal mycelia rapidly decreased after one day of incubation, and all cells completely died and lysed after 2 days. The fungal filtrate of 5-day culture also exhibited an inhibitory effect on M. aeruginosa, and this inhibition increased with the amount of filtrate and incubation time. Conversely, green algae and diatoms have not been influenced by either living fungal mycelia or culture filtrate. Interestingly, the fungus was not only able to inhibit Microcystis growth but also degraded microcystin produced by this cyanobacterium. The toxins were completely degraded within 5 days of incubation with living fungal mycelia, but not significantly changed with fungal filtrate. This fungus could be a potential bioagent to selectively control Microcystis blooms and degrade microcystin toxins. PMID:24874888

  6. Candicidin-producing Streptomyces support leaf-cutting ants to protect their fungus garden against the pathogenic fungus Escovopsis

    PubMed Central

    Haeder, Susanne; Wirth, Rainer; Herz, Hubert; Spiteller, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    Leaf-cutting ants such as Acromyrmex octospinosus live in obligate symbiosis with fungi of the genus Leucoagaricus, which they grow with harvested leaf material. The symbiotic fungi, in turn, serve as a major food source for the ants. This mutualistic relation is disturbed by the specialized pathogenic fungus Escovopsis sp., which can overcome Leucoagaricus sp. and thus destroy the ant colony. Microbial symbionts of leaf-cutting ants have been suggested to protect the fungus garden against Escovopsis by producing antifungal compounds [Currie CR, Scott JA, Summerbell RC, Malloch D (1999) Fungus-growing ants use antibiotic-producing bacteria to control garden parasites. Nature 398:701–704.]. To date, however, the chemical nature of these compounds has remained elusive. We characterized 19 leaf-cutting ant–associated microorganisms (5 Pseudonocardia, 1 Dermacoccus, and 13 Streptomyces) from 3 Acromyrmex species, A. octospinosus, A. echinatior, and A. volcanus, using 16S-rDNA analysis. Because the strain Streptomyces sp. Ao10 proved highly active against the pathogen Escovopsis, we identified the molecular basis of its antifungal activity. Using bioassay-guided fractionation, high-resolution electrospray mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS), and UV spectroscopy, and comparing the results with an authentic standard, we were able identify candicidin macrolides. Candicidin macrolides are highly active against Escovopsis but do not significantly affect the growth of the symbiotic fungus. At least one of the microbial isolates from each of the 3 leaf-cutting ant species analyzed produced candicidin macrolides. This suggests that candicidins play an important role in protecting the fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants against pathogenic fungi. PMID:19270078

  7. An enigmatic fossil fungus from the 410 Ma Rhynie chert that resembles Macrochytrium (Chytridiomycota) and Blastocladiella (Blastocladiomycota).

    PubMed

    Krings, Michael; Taylor, Thomas N; Martin, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Litter layers in the Lower Devonian (~ 410 Ma) Rhynie chert were inhabited by a wide variety of saprotrophic fungi, however, only a few of these organisms have been described formally. A new microfungus, Trewinomyces annulifer gen. et sp. nov., occurs as tufts on decaying land plant axes from the Rhynie chert. The fungus consists of an intramatrical rhizoidal system and an erect extramatrical hypha (stalk) that bears a single, terminal sporangium. One or two successive rings often are present in the stalk immediately below the sporangium base. Overall morphology of T. annulifer resembles the extant genera Macrochytrium (Chytridiomycota) and Blastocladiella (Blastocladiomycota). However, the rhizoids are septate or pseudoseptate, a feature not known in extant zoosporic fungi, and thus render the systematic affinities of T. annulifer unresolved. Trewinomyces annulifer offers a rare view of the morphology of a distinctive Early Devonian saprotrophic microfungus. PMID:26740543

  8. [Isolation of wood-decaying fungi and evaluation of their enzymatic activity (Quindío, Colombia)].

    PubMed

    Chaparro, Deisy Fernanda; Rosas, Diana Carolina; Varela, Amanda

    2009-12-31

    White rot fungi (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) were collected on fallen trunks with different decay stages, in a subandean forest (La Montaña del Ocaso nature reserve), and it was evaluated their ligninolitic activity. They were cultured on malt extract agar. Then it was performed semiquantitative tests for laccase and cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) activity using ABTS and DCPIP as enzymatic inducers. Based on the results of these tests, the fungi with higher activities from trunks with different decay stages were selected: Cookeina sulcipes (for stage 1), a fungus from the family Corticiaceae (for stage 2), Xylaria polymorpha (for stage 3) and Earliella sp. (for stage 4). A fermentation was performed at 28 degrees C, during 11 days, in a rotatory shaker at 150 rpm. Biomass, glucose, proteins and enzyme activities measurements were performed daily. The fungi that were in the trunks with decay states from 1 to 3, showed higher laccase activity as the state of decay increased. A higher DCH activity was also associated with a higher. Also, there was a positive relationship between both enzymes' activities. Erliella was the fungus which presented the highest biomass production (1140,19 g/l), laccase activity (157 UL(-1)) and CDH activity (43,50 UL(-1)). This work is the first report of laccase and CDH activity for Cookeina sulcipes and Earliella sp. Moreover, it gives basis for the use of these native fungi in biotechnological applications and the acknowledgment of their function in the wood decay process in native forest. PMID:19796977

  9. Rare Down Quark Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Kwong-Kwai Humphrey

    1992-01-01

    The rare decays bto sX are sensitive to strong interaction corrections. The effects can be estimated by a renormalization group technique which requires the evaluation of QCD mixing among effective operators. In the dimensional reduction and the naive dimensional regularization methods, there are discrepancies in evaluating the QCD mixing of the four-quark operators with the bto sgamma and bto s+gluon dipole operators. In this thesis, the problem is investigated by considering the contributions of the epsilon -scalar field and the epsilon -dimensional operators that distinguish between the two methods. The discrepancies are shown to come from the epsilon-dimensional four-quark operators in dimensional reduction and not from the epsilon -scalar field. In the decay bto sl^+l^ -, the intermediate of cc pairs in the charm-penguin diagram can form the resonance states J/psi and psi^'. In the published literature, there is a sign discrepancy in the Breit-Wigner amplitude for the resonance effects. Here, the sign difference is settled by considering the unitarity limit of the amplitude in the Argand diagram. The effects of the resonances are quite substantial on the invariant mass spectrum for this decay. However, they are shown to be negligible on the dilepton energy spectrum below 0.95 GeV. The energy spectrum is, thus, more useful than the invariant mass spectrum for measurements of the top -quark mass. The decays Bto K^*X are well modeled by the quark-level decays bto sX. In the quark model, the hadronization is done using a nonrelativistic wave function. In the decay B to K^*gamma, the large K ^* recoil creates an uncertainty in calculating the branching ratio using the quark model. The problem is explored by considering other meson processes where data exist. The data on the pi form factor and the omegapi^0 transition form factor suggest the necessity to retain relativistic spinor and meson normalizations in the quark -model; however, the data do not resolve the

  10. B Decays Involving Light Mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Eschrich, Ivo Gough; /UC, Irvine

    2007-01-09

    Recent BABAR results for decays of B-mesons to combinations of non-charm mesons are presented. This includes B decays to two vector mesons, B {yields} {eta}{prime}({pi}, K, {rho}) modes, and a comprehensive Dalitz Plot analysis of B {yields} KKK decays.

  11. The plant cell wall decomposing machinery underlies the functional diversity of forest fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Eastwood, Daniel C.; Floudas, Dimitrios; Binder, Manfred; Majcherczyk, Andrzej; Schneider, Patrick; Aerts, Andrea; Asiegbu, Fred O.; Baker, Scott E.; Barry, Kerrie; Bendiksby, Mika; Blumentritt, Melanie; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Cullen, Dan; Vries, Ronald P. de; Gathman, Allen; Goodell, Barry; Henrissat, Bernard; Ihrmark, Katarina; Kauserud, Hä; vard,; Kohler, Annegret; LaButti, Kurt; Lapidus, Alla; Lavin, José; L.; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Lindquist, Erika; Lilly, Walt; Lucas, Susan; Morin, Emmanuelle; Murat, Claude; Oguiza, José; A.; Park, Jongsun; Pisabarro, Antonio G.; Riley, Robert; Rosling, Anna; Salamov, Asaf; Schmidt, Olaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Skrede, Inger; Stenlid, Jan; Wiebenga, Ad; Xie, Xinfeng; Kü; es, Ursula; Hibbett, David S.; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Hö; gberg, Nils; Martin, Francis; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Watkinson, Sarah C.

    2011-05-01

    Brown rot decay removes cellulose and hemicellulose from wood?residual lignin contributing up to 30percent of forest soil carbon?and is derived from an ancestral white rot saprotrophy in which both lignin and cellulose are decomposed. Comparative and functional genomics of the ?dry rot? fungus Serpula lacrymans, derived from forest ancestors, demonstrated that the evolution of both ectomycorrhizal biotrophy and brown rot saprotrophy were accompanied by reductions and losses in specific protein families, suggesting adaptation to an intercellular interaction with plant tissue. Transcriptome and proteome analysis also identified differences in wood decomposition in S. lacrymans relative to the brown rot Postia placenta. Furthermore, fungal nutritional mode diversification suggests that the boreal forest biome originated via genetic coevolution of above- and below-ground biota

  12. Decay Dynamics of Tumors

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The fractional cell kill is a mathematical expression describing the rate at which a certain population of cells is reduced to a fraction of itself. We investigate the mathematical function that governs the rate at which a solid tumor is lysed by a cell population of cytotoxic lymphocytes. We do it in the context of enzyme kinetics, using geometrical and analytical arguments. We derive the equations governing the decay of a tumor in the limit in which it is plainly surrounded by immune cells. A cellular automaton is used to test such decay, confirming its validity. Finally, we introduce a modification in the fractional cell kill so that the expected dynamics is attained in the mentioned limit. We also discuss the potential of this new function for non-solid and solid tumors which are infiltrated with lymphocytes. PMID:27310010

  13. Evolution of novel wood decay mechanisms in Agaricales revealed by the genome sequences of Fistulina hepatica and Cylindrobasidium torrendii

    PubMed Central

    Floudas, Dimitrios; Held, Benjamin W.; Riley, Robert; Nagy, Laszlo G.; Koehler, Gage; Ransdell, Anthony S.; Younus, Hina; Chow, Julianna; Chiniquy, Jennifer; Lipzen, Anna; Tritt, Andrew; Sun, Hui; Haridas, Sajeet; LaButti, Kurt; Ohm, Robin A.; Kües, Ursula; Blanchette, Robert A.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Minto, Robert E.; Hibbett, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Wood decay mechanisms in Agaricomycotina have been traditionally separated in two categories termed white and brown rot. Recently the accuracy of such a dichotomy has been questioned. Here, we present the genome sequences of the white rot fungus Cylindrobasidium torrendii and the brown rot fungus Fistulina hepatica both members of Agaricales, combining comparative genomics and wood decay experiments. Cylindrobasidium torrendii is closely related to the white-rot root pathogen Armillaria mellea, while F. hepatica is related to Schizophyllum commune, which has been reported to cause white rot. Our results suggest that C. torrendii and S. commune are intermediate between white-rot and brown-rot fungi, but at the same time they show characteristics of decay that resembles soft rot. Both species cause weak wood decay and degrade all wood components but leave the middle lamella intact. Their gene content related to lignin degradation is reduced, similar to brown-rot fungi, but both have maintained a rich array of genes related to carbohydrate degradation, similar to white-rot fungi. These characteristics appear to have evolved from white-rot ancestors with stronger ligninolytic ability. Fistulina hepatica shows characteristics of brown rot both in terms of wood decay genes found in its genome and the decay that it causes. However, genes related to cellulose degradation are still present, which is a plesiomorphic characteristic shared with its white-rot ancestors. Four wood degradation-related genes, homologs of which are frequently lost in brown-rot fungi, show signs of pseudogenization in the genome of F. hepatica. These results suggest that transition towards a brown rot lifestyle could be an ongoing process in F. hepatica. Our results reinforce the idea that wood decay mechanisms are more diverse than initially thought and that the dichotomous separation of wood decay mechanisms in Agaricomycotina into white rot and brown rot should be revisited. PMID:25683379

  14. Evolution of novel wood decay mechanisms in Agaricales revealed by the genome sequences of Fistulina hepatica and Cylindrobasidium torrendii.

    PubMed

    Floudas, Dimitrios; Held, Benjamin W; Riley, Robert; Nagy, Laszlo G; Koehler, Gage; Ransdell, Anthony S; Younus, Hina; Chow, Julianna; Chiniquy, Jennifer; Lipzen, Anna; Tritt, Andrew; Sun, Hui; Haridas, Sajeet; LaButti, Kurt; Ohm, Robin A; Kües, Ursula; Blanchette, Robert A; Grigoriev, Igor V; Minto, Robert E; Hibbett, David S

    2015-03-01

    Wood decay mechanisms in Agaricomycotina have been traditionally separated in two categories termed white and brown rot. Recently the accuracy of such a dichotomy has been questioned. Here, we present the genome sequences of the white-rot fungus Cylindrobasidium torrendii and the brown-rot fungus Fistulina hepatica both members of Agaricales, combining comparative genomics and wood decay experiments. C. torrendii is closely related to the white-rot root pathogen Armillaria mellea, while F. hepatica is related to Schizophyllum commune, which has been reported to cause white rot. Our results suggest that C. torrendii and S. commune are intermediate between white-rot and brown-rot fungi, but at the same time they show characteristics of decay that resembles soft rot. Both species cause weak wood decay and degrade all wood components but leave the middle lamella intact. Their gene content related to lignin degradation is reduced, similar to brown-rot fungi, but both have maintained a rich array of genes related to carbohydrate degradation, similar to white-rot fungi. These characteristics appear to have evolved from white-rot ancestors with stronger ligninolytic ability. F. hepatica shows characteristics of brown rot both in terms of wood decay genes found in its genome and the decay that it causes. However, genes related to cellulose degradation are still present, which is a plesiomorphic characteristic shared with its white-rot ancestors. Four wood degradation-related genes, homologs of which are frequently lost in brown-rot fungi, show signs of pseudogenization in the genome of F. hepatica. These results suggest that transition toward a brown-rot lifestyle could be an ongoing process in F. hepatica. Our results reinforce the idea that wood decay mechanisms are more diverse than initially thought and that the dichotomous separation of wood decay mechanisms in Agaricomycotina into white rot and brown rot should be revisited. PMID:25683379

  15. Production and Partial Characterization of an Alkaline Xylanase from a Novel Fungus Cladosporium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Guan, Guo-Qiang; Zhao, Peng-Xiang; Zhao, Jin; Wang, Mei-Juan; Huo, Shu-Hao; Cui, Feng-Jie; Jiang, Jian-Xin

    2016-01-01

    A new fungus Cladosporium oxysporum GQ-3 producing extracellular xylanase was isolated from decaying agricultural waste and identified based on the morphology and comparison of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA gene sequence. C. oxysporum produced maximum xylanase activity of 55.92 U/mL with wheat bran as a substrate and NH4Cl as a nitrogen source. Mg(2+) improved C. oxysporum xylanase production. Partially purified xylanase exhibited maximum activity at 50°C and pH 8.0, respectively, and showed the stable activity after 2-h treatment in pH 7.0-8.5 or below 55°C. Mg(2+) enhanced the xylanase activity by 2% while Cu(2+) had the highest inhibition ratio of 57.9%. Furthermore, C. oxysporum xylanase was resistant to most of tested neutral and alkaline proteases. Our findings indicated that Cladosporium oxysporum GQ-3 was a novel xylanase producer, which could be used in the textile processes or paper/feed industries. PMID:27213150

  16. Production and Partial Characterization of an Alkaline Xylanase from a Novel Fungus Cladosporium oxysporum

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Guo-Qiang; Zhao, Peng-Xiang; Zhao, Jin; Wang, Mei-Juan; Huo, Shu-Hao; Cui, Feng-Jie; Jiang, Jian-Xin

    2016-01-01

    A new fungus Cladosporium oxysporum GQ-3 producing extracellular xylanase was isolated from decaying agricultural waste and identified based on the morphology and comparison of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA gene sequence. C. oxysporum produced maximum xylanase activity of 55.92 U/mL with wheat bran as a substrate and NH4Cl as a nitrogen source. Mg2+ improved C. oxysporum xylanase production. Partially purified xylanase exhibited maximum activity at 50°C and pH 8.0, respectively, and showed the stable activity after 2-h treatment in pH 7.0–8.5 or below 55°C. Mg2+ enhanced the xylanase activity by 2% while Cu2+ had the highest inhibition ratio of 57.9%. Furthermore, C. oxysporum xylanase was resistant to most of tested neutral and alkaline proteases. Our findings indicated that Cladosporium oxysporum GQ-3 was a novel xylanase producer, which could be used in the textile processes or paper/feed industries. PMID:27213150

  17. Kretzschmaria quercicola sp. nov., an Undescribed Fungus from Living Oak in Mt. Daeryong, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Ji Ho; Jo, Jong Won; Lee, Jin Heung; Han, Sang Kuk

    2016-01-01

    We encountered an unfamiliar ascomycete fruiting body, fitting characteristics of the genus Kretzschmaria, which features in a stipitate ascigerous stroma with carbonaceous interior and disintegrating perithecia. In this study, we report and characterize a new species of the decaying fungus. Compared to other species, one of the notable features of this specimen (TPML150908-046) is its stromatal size (up to 15 cm). Although TPML150908-046 is morphologically similar to K. milleri and K. sandvicensis, it differs sharply from both species in apical ring size (TPML150908-046, 6.5~10.5 µm; K. milleri, 11~16 µm) and ascospore width (TPML150908-046, 10.5~17 µm; K. sandvicensis, 8.5~11.5 µm). Phylogenetic trees based on β-tubulin, ITS, and RPB2 sequences showed that our collection clustered with K. sandvicensis, with the respective similarities for these sequences being 95.6%, 91.3%, and 97.7%, signifying it as another species. With these results, we report it as a new species, which we call Kretzschmaria quercicola sp. nov. PMID:27433122

  18. White-nose syndrome fungus (Geomyces destructans) in bats, Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wibbelt, G.; Kurth, A.; Hellmann, D.; Weishaar, M.; Barlow, A.; Veith, M.; Pruger, J.; Gorfol, T.; Grosche, T.; Bontadina, F.; Zophel, U.; Seidl, Hans-Peter; Cryan, P.M.; Blehert, D.S.

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus.

  19. White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) in Bats, Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kurth, Andreas; Hellmann, David; Weishaar, Manfred; Barlow, Alex; Veith, Michael; Prüger, Julia; Görföl, Tamás; Grosche, Lena; Bontadina, Fabio; Zöphel, Ulrich; Seidl, Hans-Peter; Cryan, Paul M.; Blehert, David S.

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus. PMID:20678317

  20. Engineering a filamentous fungus for L-rhamnose extraction.

    PubMed

    Kuivanen, Joosu; Richard, Peter

    2016-03-01

    L-Rhamnose is a high value rare sugar that is used as such or after chemical conversions. It is enriched in several biomass fractions such as the pectic polysaccharides rhamnogalacturonan I and II and in naringin, hesperidin, rutin, quercitrin and ulvan. We engineered the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger to not consume L-rhamnose, while it is still able to produce the enzymes for the hydrolysis of L-rhamnose rich biomass. As a result we present a strain that can be used for the extraction of L-rhamnose in a consolidated process. In the process the biomass is hydrolysed to the monomeric sugars which are consumed by the fungus leaving the L-rhamnose. PMID:27033543

  1. Mutualistic fungi control crop diversity in fungus-growing ants.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Michael; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2005-02-01

    Leaf-cutting ants rear clonal fungi for food and transmit the fungi from mother to daughter colonies so that symbiont mixing and conflict, which result from competition between genetically different clones, are avoided. Here we show that despite millions of years of predominantly vertical transmission, the domesticated fungi actively reject mycelial fragments from neighboring colonies, and that the strength of these reactions are in proportion to the overall genetic difference between these symbionts. Fungal incompatibility compounds remain intact during ant digestion, so that fecal droplets, which are used for manuring newly grown fungus, elicit similar hostile reactions when applied to symbionts from other colonies. Symbiont control over new mycelial growth by manurial imprinting prevents the rearing of multiple crops in fungus gardens belonging to the same colony. PMID:15692054

  2. Transformation of the mycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor using Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Kemppainen, Minna J; Pardo, Alejandro G

    2011-01-01

    Most boreal and temperate forest trees form a mutualistic symbiosis with soil borne fungi called ectomycorrhiza (ECM). In this association both partners benefit due to nutrient exchange at the symbiotic interface. Laccaria bicolor is the first mycorrhizal fungus with its genome sequenced thus making possible for the first time to analyze genome scale gene expression profiles of a mutualistic fungus. However, in order to be able to take full advantage of the genome sequence, reverse genetic tools are needed. Among them a high throughput transformation system is crucial. Herein we present a detailed protocol for genetic transformation of L. bicolor by means of Agrobacterium tumefaciens with emphasis on critical steps affecting the success and efficiency of the approach. PMID:21636986

  3. Lactose enhances cellulase production by the filamentous fungus Acremonium cellulolyticus.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xu; Yano, Shinichi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Sawayama, Shigeki

    2008-08-01

    Acremonium cellulolyticus is a fungus that produces cellulase and has been exploited by enzyme industry. To promote cellulase production by A. cellulolyticus strain C-1, we evaluated the effects of the saccharides: Solka Floc (cellulose), soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS), pullulan, lactose, trehalose, sophorose, cellobiose, galactose, sorbose, lactobionic acid, and mixtures as carbon sources for cellulase production. Solka Floc with SSPS enhanced cellulase production. Lactose as the sole carbon source induced cellulase synthesis in this fungus, and the synergistic effects between lactose and Solka Floc was observed. Various enzyme activities and the protein composition of crude enzyme produced by cultures with or without addition of lactose were analyzed. The results showed that lactose addition greatly improves the production of various proteins with cellulase activity by A. cellulolyticus. To our knowledge, this is the first report on production of cellulases by lactose in the A. cellulolyticus. PMID:18804052

  4. Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Fusarium semitectum

    SciTech Connect

    Basavaraja, S.; Balaji, S.D.; Lagashetty, Arunkumar; Rajasab, A.H.; Venkataraman, A.

    2008-05-06

    Development of environmental friendly procedures for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles through biological processes is evolving into an important branch of nanobiotechnology. In this paper, we report on the use of fungus 'Fusarium semitectum' for the extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles from silver nitrate solution (i.e. through the reduction of Ag{sup +} to Ag{sup 0}). Highly stable and crystalline silver nanoparticles are produced in solution by treating the filtrate of the fungus F. semitectum with the aqueous silver nitrate solution. The formations of nanoparticles are understood from the UV-vis and X-ray diffraction studies. Transmission electron microscopy of the silver particles indicated that they ranged in size from 10 to 60 nm and are mostly spherical in shape. Interestingly the colloidal suspensions of silver nanoparticles are stable for many weeks. Possible medicinal applications of these silver nanoparticles are envisaged.

  5. RADIATIVE PENGUIN DECAYS FROM BABAR

    SciTech Connect

    Eigen, Gerald

    2003-08-28

    Electroweak penguin decays provide a promising hunting ground for Physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). The decay B {yields} X{sub s}{gamma}, which proceeds through an electromagnetic penguin loop, already provides stringent constraints on the supersymmetric (SUSY) parameter space. The present data samples of {approx}1 x 10{sup 8} B{bar B} events allow to explore radiative penguin decays with branching fractions of the order of 10{sup -6} or less. In this brief report they discuss a study of B {yields} K*{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} decay modes and a search for B {yields} {rho}({omega}){gamma} decays.

  6. Charmless b decays at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Donega, Mauro; /Geneva U.

    2005-07-01

    The authors report on the charmless B decays measurements performed on 180 pb{sup -1} of data collected with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. This paper describes: the first observation of the decay mode B{sub s} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -} and the measurement of the direct Cp asymmetry in the ({bar B}){sub d} {yields} K{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {-+}} decay; the first evidence of the decay mode B{sub s} {yields} {phi}{phi} and the branching ratio and Cp asymmetry for the B{sup {+-}} {yields} {phi}K{sup {+-}} decay.

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of the Endophytic Fungus Diaporthe (Phomopsis) ampelina

    PubMed Central

    Bhargavi, S. D.; Praveen, V. K.

    2016-01-01

    Diaporthe ampelina was isolated as an endophytic fungus from the root of Commiphora wightii, a medicinal plant collected from Dhanvantri Vana, Bangalore University, Bangalore, India. The whole genome is 59 Mb, contains a total of 905 scaffolds, and has a G+C content of 51.74%. The genome sequence of D. ampelina shows a complete absence of lovastatin (an anticholesterol drug) gene cluster. PMID:27257198

  8. Biotransformation of Malachite Green by the Fungus Cunninghamella elegans

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Chang-Jun; Doerge, Daniel R.; Cerniglia, Carl E.

    2001-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Cunninghamella elegans ATCC 36112 metabolized the triphenylmethane dye malachite green with a first-order rate constant of 0.029 μmol h−1 (mg of cells)−1. Malachite green was enzymatically reduced to leucomalachite green and also converted to N-demethylated and N-oxidized metabolites, including primary and secondary arylamines. Inhibition studies suggested that the cytochrome P450 system mediated both the reduction and the N-demethylation reactions. PMID:11526047

  9. Metabolism of p-cresol by the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.H.; Trudgill, P.W.; Hopper, D.J. )

    1993-04-01

    Cresols are phenolic compounds that are industrial pollutants. Degradation of p-cresol by several species of fungus has been reported. Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 28282 metabolizes both phenylacetic and homogentisic acids. This study shows that A. fumigatus ATCC 28282 also is capable of growth on p-cresol as its sole carbon source. Two metabolic routes for p-cresol degradation are described in the paper, but the relative contributions of each pathway is not evaluated. 21 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of the Endophytic Fungus Diaporthe (Phomopsis) ampelina.

    PubMed

    Savitha, J; Bhargavi, S D; Praveen, V K

    2016-01-01

    Diaporthe ampelina was isolated as an endophytic fungus from the root of Commiphora wightii, a medicinal plant collected from Dhanvantri Vana, Bangalore University, Bangalore, India. The whole genome is 59 Mb, contains a total of 905 scaffolds, and has a G+C content of 51.74%. The genome sequence of D. ampelina shows a complete absence of lovastatin (an anticholesterol drug) gene cluster. PMID:27257198

  11. Biotransformation of fluorene by the fungus Cunninghamella elegans

    SciTech Connect

    Pothuluri, J.V.; Freeman, J.P.; Evans, F.E.; Cerniglia, C.E. )

    1993-06-01

    Fluorene, a tricyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is formed during the combustion of fossil fuels and is an important pollutant of aquatic ecosystems where it is highly toxic to fish and algae. Few studies on microbial biodegradation of fluorene have been reported. This investigation describes the metabolism of fluorene by the fungus Cunninghamella elegans ATCC 36112 and the identification of major metabolites. 26 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Fungus mediated synthesis of biomedically important cerium oxide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Shadab Ali; Ahmad, Absar

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • First time biological synthesis of cerium oxide oxide nanoparticles using fungus Humicola sp. • Complete characterization of cerium oxide nanoparticles. • Biosynthesis of naturally protein capped, luminescent and water dispersible CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles. • Biosynthesized CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles can be used for many biomedical applications. - Abstract: Nanomaterials can be synthesized by chemical, physical and the more recently discovered biological routes. The biological routes are advantageous over the chemical and physical ones as unlike these, the biological synthesis protocols occur at ambient conditions, are cheap, non-toxic and eco-friendly. Although purely biological and bioinspired methods for the synthesis of nanomaterials are environmentally benign and energy conserving processes, their true potential has not been explored yet and attempts are being made to extend the formation of technologically important nanoparticles using microorganisms like fungi. Though there have been reports on the biosynthesis of oxide nanoparticles by our group in the past, no attempts have been made to employ fungi for the synthesis of nanoparticles of rare earth metals or lanthanides. Here we report for the first time, the bio-inspired synthesis of biomedically important cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) nanoparticles using the thermophilic fungus Humicola sp. The fungus Humicola sp. when exposed to aqueous solutions of oxide precursor cerium (III) nitrate hexahydrate (CeN{sub 3}O{sub 9}·6H{sub 2}O) results in the extracellular formation of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles containing Ce (III) and Ce (IV) mixed oxidation states, confirmed by X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS). The formed nanoparticles are naturally capped by proteins secreted by the fungus and thus do not agglomerate, are highly stable, water dispersible and are highly fluorescent as well. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy

  13. Lasiodiplodins from mangrove endophytic fungus Lasiodiplodia sp. 318.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Xue, Yanyu; Yuan, Jie; Lu, Yongjun; Zhu, Xun; Lin, Yongcheng; Liu, Lan

    2016-04-01

    Four new lasiodiplodins (1-4), together with three known analogues, have been isolated from a mangrove endophytic fungus, Lasiodiplodia sp. 318#. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques. Cytotoxic activities of compounds 1-7 were evaluated in vitro against human cancer lines THP1, MDA-MB-435, A549, HepG2 and HCT-116. Compound 4 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activities. PMID:26222141

  14. The infrabuccal pellet piles of fungus-growing ants.

    PubMed

    Little, Ainslie E F; Murakami, Takahiro; Mueller, Ulrich G; Currie, Cameron R

    2003-12-01

    Fungus-growing ants (Attini) live in an obligate mutualism with the fungi they cultivate for food. Because of the obligate nature of this relationship, the success of the ants is directly dependent on their ability to grow healthy fungus gardens. Attine ants have evolved complex disease management strategies to reduce their garden's exposure to potential parasitic microbes, to prevent the establishment of infection in their gardens, and to remove infected garden sections. The infrabuccal pocket, a filtering device located in the oral cavity of all ants, is an integral part of the mechanisms that leaf-cutter ants use to prevent the invasion and spread of general microbial parasites and the specific fungal-garden parasite Escovopsis. Fungus-growing ants carefully groom their garden, collecting general debris and pathogenic spores of Escovopsis in their infrabuccal pocket, the contents of which are later expelled in dump chambers inside the nest or externally. In this study we examined how a phylogenetically diverse collection of attine ants treat their infrabuccal pellets. Unlike leaf-cutters that deposit their infrabuccal pellets directly in refuse piles, ants of the more basal attine lineages stack their infrabuccal pellets in piles located close to their gardens, and a separate caste of workers is devoted to the construction, management, and eventual disposal of these piles. PMID:14676952

  15. Relationships between Swiss needle cast and ectomycorrhizal fungus diversity.

    PubMed

    Luoma, Daniel L; Eberhart, Joyce L

    2014-01-01

    Swiss needle cast (SNC) is a disease specific to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) caused by the ascomycete Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii. Here we examine characteristics of the EM fungus community that are potentially useful in predictive models that would monitor forest health. We found that mean EM density (number of colonized root tips/soil core) varied nearly 10-fold among sites of varying levels of SNC, while mean EM fungus species richness (number of species/soil core) varied by about 2.5 times. Strong relationships were found between EM and SNC parameters: EM species richness was positively correlated with both Douglas-fir needle retention (R(2) = 0.93) and EM density (R(2) = 0.65); EM density also was significantly correlated with Douglas-fir needle retention (R(2) = 0.70). These simple characteristics of the EM fungus community could be used to monitor forest health and generate predictive models of site suitability for Douglas-fir. Based on previous findings that normally common EM types were reduced in frequency on sites with severe SNC, we also hypothesized that some EM fungi would be stress tolerant-dominant species. Instead, we found that various fungi were able to form EM with the stressed trees, but none were consistently dominant across samples in the severely diseased areas. PMID:24895426

  16. Solubilization of lignin by the ruminal anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum.

    PubMed Central

    McSweeney, C S; Dulieu, A; Katayama, Y; Lowry, J B

    1994-01-01

    The ability of the ruminal anaerobic phycomycete Neocallimastix patriciarum to digest model lignin compounds and lignified structures in plant material was studied in batch culture. The fungus did not degrade or transform model lignin compounds that were representative of the predominant intermonomer linkages in lignin, nor did it solubilize acid detergent lignin that had been isolated from spear grass. In a stem fraction of sorghum, 33.6% of lignin was apparently solubilized by the fungus. Solubilization of ester- and either-linked phenolics accounted for 9.2% of the lignin released. The amounts of free phenolic acids detected in culture fluid were equivalent to the apparent loss of ester-linked phenolics from the sorghum substrate. However, the fungus was unable to cleave the ether bond in hydroxycinnamic acid bridges that cross-link lignin and polysaccharide. It is suggested that the majority of the solubilized lignin fraction was a lignin carbohydrate complex containing ether-linked hydroxycinnamic acids. The lignin carbohydrate complex was probably solubilized through dissolution of xylan in the lignin-xylan matrix rather than by lignin depolymerization. PMID:8085834

  17. Efficient xylose fermentation by the brown rot fungus Neolentinus lepideus.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Kenji; Kanawaku, Ryuichi; Masumoto, Masaru; Yanase, Hideshi

    2012-02-10

    The efficient production of bioethanol on an industrial scale requires the use of renewable lignocellulosic biomass as a starting material. A limiting factor in developing efficient processes is identifying microorganisms that are able to effectively ferment xylose, the major pentose sugar found in hemicellulose, and break down carbohydrate polymers without pre-treatment steps. Here, a basidiomycete brown rot fungus was isolated as a new biocatalyst with unprecedented fermentability, as it was capable of converting not only the 6-carbon sugars constituting cellulose, but also the major 5-carbon sugar xylose in hemicelluloses, to ethanol. The fungus was identified as Neolentinus lepideus and was capable of assimilating and fermenting xylose to ethanol in yields of 0.30, 0.33, and 0.34 g of ethanol per g of xylose consumed under aerobic, oxygen-limited, and anaerobic conditions, respectively. A small amount of xylitol was detected as the major by-product of xylose metabolism. N. lepideus produced ethanol from glucose, mannose, galactose, cellobiose, maltose, and lactose with yields ranging from 0.34 to 0.38 g ethanol per g sugar consumed, and also exhibited relatively favorable conversion of non-pretreated starch, xylan, and wheat bran. These results suggest that N. lepideus is a promising candidate for cost-effective and environmentally friendly ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. To our knowledge, this is the first report on efficient ethanol fermentation from various carbohydrates, including xylose, by a naturally occurring brown rot fungus. PMID:22226194

  18. Rare B Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, P.D.; /Victoria U.

    2006-02-24

    Recent results from Belle and BaBar on rare B decays involving flavor-changing neutral currents or purely leptonic final states are presented. Measurements of the CP asymmetries in B {yields} K*{gamma} and b {yields} s{gamma} are reported. Also reported are updated limits on B{sup +} {yields} K{sup +}{nu}{bar {nu}}, B{sup +} {yields} {tau}{sup +}{nu}, B{sup +} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{nu} and the recent measurement of B {yields} X{sub s}{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}.

  19. E6 Gamma Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, B. Alex; Rae, W. D. M.

    2011-05-06

    Rare electric hexacontatetrapole (E6) transitions are studied in the full (f{sub 7/2},f{sub 5/2},p{sub 3/2},p{sub 1/2}) shell-model basis. Comparison of theory to the results from the gamma decay in {sup 53}Fe and from inelastic electron scattering on {sup 52}Cr provides unique and interesting tests of the valence wavefunctions, the models used for energy density functionals and into the origin of effective charge.

  20. The origin of the attine ant-fungus mutualism.

    PubMed

    Mueller, U G; Schultz, T R; Currie, C R; Adams, R M; Malloch, D

    2001-06-01

    Cultivation of fungus for food originated about 45-65 million years ago in the ancestor of fungus-growing ants (Formicidae, tribe Attini), representing an evolutionary transition from the life of a hunter-gatherer of arthropod prey, nectar, and other plant juices, to the life of a farmer subsisting on cultivated fungi. Seven hypotheses have been suggested for the origin of attine fungiculture, each differing with respect to the substrate used by the ancestral attine ants for fungal cultivation. Phylogenetic information on the cultivated fungi, in conjunction with information on the nesting biology of extant attine ants and their presumed closest relatives, reveal that the attine ancestors probably did not encounter their cultivars-to-be in seed stores (von Ihering 1894), in rotting wood (Forel 1902), as mycorrhizae (Garling 1979), on arthropod corpses (von Ihering 1894) or ant faeces in nest middens (Wheeler 1907). Rather, the attine ant-fungus mutualism probably arose from adventitious interactions with fungi that grew on walls of nests built in leaf litter (Emery 1899), or from a system of fungal myrmecochory in which specialized fungi relied on ants for dispersal (Bailey 1920) and in which the ants fortuitously vectored these fungi from parent to offspring nests prior to a true fungicultural stage. Reliance on fungi as a dominant food source has evolved only twice in ants: first in the attine ants, and second in some ant species in the solenopsidine genus Megalomyrmex that either coexist as trophic parasites in gardens of attine hosts or aggressively usurp gardens from them. All other known ant-fungus associations are either adventitious or have nonnutritional functions (e.g., strengthening of carton-walls in ant nests). There exist no unambiguous reports of facultative mycophagy in ants, but such trophic ant-fungus interactions would most likely occur underground or in leaf litter and thus escape easy observation. Indirect evidence of fungivory can be deduced

  1. Wood decay at sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, François; Coston-Guarini, Jennifer; Guarini, Jean-Marc; Fanfard, Sandrine

    2016-08-01

    The oceans and seas receive coarse woody debris since the Devonian, but the kinetics of wood degradation remains one of many unanswered questions about the fate of driftwood in the marine environment. A simple gravimetric experiment was carried out at a monitoring station located at the exit of a steep, forested Mediterranean watershed in the Eastern Pyrenees. The objective was to describe and quantify, with standardized logs (in shape, structure and constitution), natural degradation of wood in the sea. Results show that the mass decrease of wood logs over time can be described by a sigmoidal curve. The primary process of wood decay observed at the monitoring station was due to the arrival and installation of wood-boring species that consumed more than half of the total wood mass in six months. Surprisingly, in a region where there is little remaining wood marine infrastructure, "shipworms", i.e. xylophagous bivalves, are responsible for an important part of this wood decay. This suggests that these communities are maintained probably by a frequent supply of a large quantity of riparian wood entering the marine environment adjacent to the watershed. By exploring this direct link between terrestrial and marine ecosystems, our long term objective is to determine how these supplies of terrestrial organic carbon can sustain wood-based marine communities as it is observed in the Mediterranean Sea.

  2. Isolated Fungal Promoters and Gene Transcription Terminators and Methods of Protein and Chemical Production in a Fungus

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Ziyu; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnuson, Jon K.

    2008-11-11

    The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

  3. Isolated fungal promoters and gene transcription terminators and methods of protein and chemical production in a fungus

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Ziyu; Lasure, Linda L; Magnuson, Jon K

    2014-05-27

    The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

  4. Isolated fungal promoters and gene transcription terminators and methods of protein and chemical production in a fungus

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Ziyu; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnuson, Jon K.

    2008-11-11

    The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

  5. Ultrastructural analysis of the behavior of the dimorphic fungus Microbotryum violaceum in fungus-induced anthers of female Silene latifolia flowers.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Wakana; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2005-12-01

    The development of male organs is induced in female flowers of the dioecious plant Silene latifolia by infection with the fungus Microbotryum violaceum. Stamens in a healthy female flower grow only to stage 6, whereas those in an infected female flower develop to the mature stage (stage 12), at which the stamens are filled with fungal teliospores instead of pollen grains. To investigate these host-parasite interactions, young floral buds and fungus-induced anthers of infected female flowers were examined by electron microscopy following fixation by a high-pressure freezing method. Using this approach, we found that parasitic hyphae of this fungus contain several extracellular vesicles and have a consistent appearance up to stage 8. At that stage, parasitic hyphae are observed adjacent to dying sporogenous cells in the infected female anther. At stage 9, an increased number of dead and dying sporogenous cells is observed, among which the sporogenous hyphae of the fungus develop and form initial teliospores. Several types of electron-dense material are present in proximity to some fungi at this stage. The initial teliospores contain two types of vacuoles, and the fungus cell wall contains abundant carbohydrate, as revealed by silver protein staining. The sporogenous cell is probably sensitive to infection by the fungus, resulting in disruption. In addition, the fungus accelerates cell death in the anther and utilizes constituents of the dead host cell to form the mature teliospore. PMID:16333578

  6. Alpha decay in electron surrounding

    SciTech Connect

    Igashov, S. Yu.; Tchuvil’sky, Yu. M.

    2013-12-15

    The influence of atomic electron shells on the constant of alpha decay of heavy and mediummass nuclei was considered in detail. A method for simultaneously taking into account the change in the potential-barrier shape and the effect of reflection of a diverging Coulomb wave in the classically allowed region was developed. The ratios of decay probabilities per unit time for a bare nucleus and the respective neutral atom were found for some alpha-decaying isotopes.

  7. Search for rare B decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, H.; Hamacher, T.; Hofmann, R. P.; Kirchhoff, T.; Mankel, R.; Nau, A.; Nowak, S.; Reßing, D.; Schröder, H.; Schulz, H. D.; Walter, M.; Wurth, R.; Hast, C.; Kapitza, H.; Kolanoski, H.; Kosche, A.; Lange, A.; Lindner, A.; Schieber, M.; Siegmund, T.; Spaan, B.; Thurn, H.; Töpfer, D.; Wegener, D.; Eckstein, P.; Frankl, C.; Graf, J.; Schmidtler, M.; Schramm, M.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Waldi, R.; Reim, K.; Wegener, H.; Eckmann, R.; Kuipers, H.; Mai, O.; Mundt, R.; Oest, T.; Reiner, R.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Stiewe, J.; Werner, S.; Ehret, K.; Hofmann, W.; Hüpper, A.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Spengler, J.; Krieger, P.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Prentice, J. D.; Saull, P. R. B.; Tzamariudaki, K.; van de Water, R. G.; Yoon, T.-S.; Schneider, M.; Weseler, S.; Kernel, G.; Križan, P.; Križnič, E.; Podobnik, T.; Živko, T.; Balagura, V.; Barsuk, S.; Belyaev, I.; Chistov, R.; Danilov, M.; Gershtein, L.; Gershtein, Yu.; Golutyin, A.; Korolko, I.; Kostina, G.; Litvintsev, D.; Pakhlov, P.; Semenov, S.; Snizhko, A.; Tichomirov, I.; Zaitsev, Yu.; Argus Collaboration

    1995-02-01

    Using the ARGUS detector at the e +e - storage ring DORIS II at DESY, we have searched for decays b → sgluon through full reconstruction of a whole event. Two B overlineB decays were found with one of B meson decaying into a final state without charmed particles. We also obtained an upper limit of Br(B + → τ+ντ) of 1.04% at 90% CL.

  8. CP violation in K decays and rare decays

    SciTech Connect

    Buchalla, G.

    1996-12-01

    The present status of CP violation in decays of neutral kaons is reviewed. In addition selected rare decays of both K and B mesons are discussed. The emphasis is in particular on observables that can be reliably calculated and thus offer the possibility of clean tests of standard model flavor physics. 105 refs.

  9. Effect of decay on ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements in wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGovern, Megan; Senalik, Adam; Chen, George; Beall, Frank C.; Reis, Henrique

    2011-04-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) wood cube specimens were exposed to Gloeophyllum fungus (Gloeophyllum trabeum) for increasing periods of time ranging from one week to twelve weeks. The corresponding mass of each of these specimens was recorded before and after they were subjected to the controlled decay. Using X-ray computed tomography (CT) the specimens' corresponding mass loss due to decay and corresponding densities were calculated. For each of the three principal material directions of these specimens with controlled decay, ultrasonic longitudinal and (polarized) shear velocity measurements along with the corresponding attenuation measurements are presented. The measurements were carried out using longitudinal and shear ultrasonic transducers with a center frequency of 100 kHz. A steel delay line was used because of the relative small size of the wooden specimens relative to the used wavelengths. Waveform averaging was used along with the phase-slope method to measure velocities. It was observed that the velocities increase with increasing frequency and decrease with increasing amount of decay, while the corresponding attenuations increase with increasing frequency and with amount of decay.

  10. Carbohydrate Storage in the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana

    PubMed Central

    Bidochka, Michael J.; Low, Nicholas H.; Khachatourians, George G.

    1990-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana was grown in 1% (wt/vol) gelatin-liquid media singly supplemented with a monosaccharide (glucose or fructose), a disaccharide (maltose or trehalose), a polyol (glycerol, mannitol, or sorbitol), or the amino sugar N-acetyl-d-glucosamine. The relative contributions of the carbohydrate, protein, and water contents in the fungal biomass were determined. Carbohydrates composed 18 to 42% of the mycelial dry weight, and this value was lowest in unsupplemented medium and highest in medium supplemented with glucose, glycerol, or trehalose. Biomass production was highest in liquid cultures supplemented with trehalose. When liquid cultures were grown in medium supplemented with 0 to 1% (wt/vol) glucose, trehalose, or N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, there was an increase in the biomass production and the contribution of carbohydrate to mycelial dry weight. Regardless of the glucose concentration in the culture, water content of the mycelia remained about 77.5% (wt/wt). Mycelial storage carbohydrates were determined by capillary gas chromatography. In gelatin-liquid medium supplemented with 1% (wt/vol) glucose, B. bassiana stored glycogen (12.0%, wt/dry wt) and the polyols mannitol (2.2%), erythritol (1.6%), glycerol (0.4%), and arabitol (0.1%). Without glucose, B. bassiana stored glycogen (5.4%), mannitol (0.8%), glycerol (0.6%), and erythritol (0.6%) but not arabitol. To our knowledge, this is the first report of carbohydrate storage in an entomopathogenic fungus, and the results are discussed in relation to other fungi and the potential implications to commercial formulation and insect-fungus interactions. PMID:16348325

  11. Cytotoxic cytochalasins from marine-derived fungus Arthrinium arundinis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junfeng; Wang, Zhen; Ju, Zhiran; Wan, Junting; Liao, Shengrong; Lin, Xiuping; Zhang, Tianyu; Zhou, Xuefeng; Chen, Hao; Tu, Zhengchao; Liu, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    Four new cytochalasins, arthriniumnins A-D (1-4), a new natural product, ketocytochalasin (5), as well as five known cytochalasin analogues (6-10) were isolated and identified from the fungus Arthrinium arundinis ZSDS1-F3 from the sponge Phakellia fusca. Their structures were elucidated by NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses, as well as single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 6 and 9 showed cytotoxicity against K562, A549, Huh-7, H1975, MCF-7, U937, BGC823, HL60, Hela, and MOLT-4 cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 1.13 to 47.4 µM. PMID:25626143

  12. Two new antimicrobial metabolites from the endophytic fungus, Seimatosporium sp.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Hidayat; Krohn, Karsten; Schulz, Barbara; Draeger, Siegfried; Nazir, Mamona; Saleem, Muhammad

    2012-03-01

    Two new acaranoic acids, named seimatoporic acid A and B (1, and 2), together with six known compounds, R-(-)-mellein (3), cis-4-hydroxymellein (4), trans-4-hydroxymellein (5), 4R-hydroxy-5-methylmellein (6), (-)-5-hydroxymethylmellein (7), and ergosterol (8) were isolated from an endophytic fungus, Seimatosporium sp, by a bioassay-guided procedure. The structures of the new compounds have been assigned from analysis of the 1H and 13C NMR spectra, DEPT, and by 2D COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY experiments. A mixture of compounds 1 and 2 showed strong antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea, Septoria tritici, and Pyricularia oryzae. PMID:22545398

  13. Polyoxygenated methyl cyclohexanoids from a terrestrial ampelomyces fungus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiye; Xue, Jinghua; Wu, Ping; Xu, Liangxiong; Xie, Haihui; Wei, Xiaoyi

    2009-02-27

    Seven structurally related new polyoxygenated methyl cyclohexanoids, ampelomins A-G (1-7), were isolated from the mycelial solid culture of a soil-derived Ampelomyces fungus. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic and chemical means. Ampelomins A (1), C (3), E (5), and G (7) exhibited weak activity against alpha-glucosidase with IC(50) values of 1.74-5.93 mM, and ampelomin A (1) showed moderate antibacterial activity with MIC(90) values ranging from 202.4 to 1015.9 microM. A plausible polyketide biogenetic pathway is postulated for these compounds. PMID:19193024

  14. Bioactive isocoumarins isolated from the endophytic fungus Microdochium bolleyi.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Krohn, Karsten; Draeger, Siegfried; Schulz, Barbara

    2008-06-01

    Three new isocoumarin derivatives ( 2- 4) were isolated together with monocerin ( 1) from Microdochium bolleyi, an endophytic fungus from Fagonia cretica, a herbaceous plant of the semiarid coastal regions of Gomera. Compounds 2 and 3 are both 12-oxo epimers of 1, and 4 is a ring-opened derivative of 1. The structures were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis and comparison with reported data. The absolute configurations were determined by a modified Mosher's method. Compounds 1, 3, and 4 showed good antifungal, antibacterial, and antialgal activities against Microbotryum violaceum, Escherichia coli, Bacillus megaterium, and Chlorella fusca. Compound 2 was moderately antifungal and antialgal. PMID:18510362

  15. Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of fungus Phomopsis stipata

    PubMed Central

    de Prince, Karina Andrade; Sordi, Renata; Pavan, Fernando Rogério; Barreto Santos, Adolfo Carlos; Araujo, Angela R.; Leite, Sergio R.A.; Leite, Clarice Q. F.

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose was to determine the anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of the metabolites produced by the endophitic fungus Phomopsis stipata (Lib.) B. Sutton, (Diaporthaceae), cultivated in different media. The antimycobacterial activity was assessed through the Resazurin Microtiter Assay (REMA) and the cytotoxicity test performed on macrophage cell line. The extracts derived from fungi grown on Corn Medium and Potato Dextrose Broth presented the smallest values of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and low cytotoxicity, which implies a high selectivity index. This is the first report on the chemical composition and antitubercular activity of metabolites of P. stipata, as well as the influence of culture medium on these properties. PMID:24031821

  16. Bioactive compounds from the endophytic fungus Fusarium proliferatum.

    PubMed

    Dame, Zerihun T; Silima, Beauty; Gryzenhout, Marieka; van Ree, Teunis

    2016-06-01

    The crude extract of an endophytic fungus isolated from Syzygium cordatum and identified as Fusarium proliferatum showed 100% cytotoxicity against the brine shrimp Artemia salina at 100 μg/mL. Seven coloured, biologically active metabolites - including ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β-ol, nectriafurone-8-methyl ether, 9-O-methyl fusarubin, bostrycoidin, bostrycoidin-9-methyl ether and 8-hydroxy-5,6-dimethoxy-2-methyl-3-(2-oxo-propyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone- were isolated from the extract. PMID:26158312

  17. [Fungus patents: from Pasteur to the present day].

    PubMed

    Bernardo-Álvarez, María Ángela

    2012-01-01

    At the end of the 19(th) century, the American Patent Office granted the patent known as "Pasteur's application", claiming the protection of a yeast strain. Since that date, the debate around biotechnology patents, especially for those that affect living organisms or part of them, has grown exponentially. In the present article, the Patent Law is reviewed, pointing out the particular problems about fungi or parts of them. Also, some of the fungus patents are discussed from the perspective of the ethical, economical, social and environmental aspects of these kind of patents. PMID:22677466

  18. Caryophyllene sesquiterpenoids from the endophytic fungus, Pestalotiopsis sp.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Yang, Ming-Hua; Wang, Xiao-Bing; Li, Tian-Xiao; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2016-03-01

    Eight new caryophyllene sesquiterpenoids named pestaloporinates A-G (1-7) and 14-acetylhumulane (8) have been isolated from the solid cultures of an endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis sp., which was obtained from the fresh stem bark of Melia azedarach Linn. Their structures as well as absolute configurations were determined by spectroscopic data, ECD experimentation, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Among all the isolates, compound 2 displayed potent inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 19.0 μM during the evaluation of nitric oxide (NO) inhibition in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. PMID:26687557

  19. Elemental variations in the germinating fungus Phytophthora palmivora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzolini, A. P.; Grant, B. R.; Sealock, R. M.; Legge, G. J. F.

    1991-03-01

    We have measured the elemental variations between zoospores and germinating cystospores of the fungus Phytophthora palmivora, using a scanning proton microprobe. Averaged over a number of individual cells, our results indicate that the level of Ca is much lower in germinating cystospores than in zoospores. The levels of S, Cl, and Zn also appear to be lower, and the level of K appears to be higher. The spatial distribution of elements within the germinating cystospore is very similar for P, S, Cl, K, Mn, Fe, and Cu, but significantly different for Ca and Zn.

  20. Cepstrum based feature extraction method for fungus detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorulmaz, Onur; Pearson, Tom C.; Çetin, A. Enis

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, a method for detection of popcorn kernels infected by a fungus is developed using image processing. The method is based on two dimensional (2D) mel and Mellin-cepstrum computation from popcorn kernel images. Cepstral features that were extracted from popcorn images are classified using Support Vector Machines (SVM). Experimental results show that high recognition rates of up to 93.93% can be achieved for both damaged and healthy popcorn kernels using 2D mel-cepstrum. The success rate for healthy popcorn kernels was found to be 97.41% and the recognition rate for damaged kernels was found to be 89.43%.

  1. Nucleoside derivatives from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Fu, Xiu-Mei; Kong, Chui-Jian; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Four nucleoside derivatives (1-4) were isolated from the fungus Aspergillus versicolor derived from the gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea collected in the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic method of NMR and MS analysis. All isolated metabolites were evaluated for their cytotoxicity, antibacterial activity and lethality towards brine shrimp Artemia salina. Compounds 1/2 exhibited selective antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis with an MIC value of 12.5 μM. It should be noted that 1 and 2, whose structures were listed in SciFinder Scholar, had no associated reference. This is the first report about their isolation, structure elucidation and biological activities. PMID:24670197

  2. BIODEGRADATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHATETE CHRYSOSPORIUM: INVOLVEMENT OF THE LIGNIN DEGRADING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade's wide variety of structurally diverse organic compounds, including a number of environmentall3 persistent organopollutants. he unique biodegradative abilities of this fungus appears to be dependent upon ...

  3. Biological activities of ophiobolin K and 6-epi-ophiobolin K produced by the endophytic fungus Aspergillus calidoustus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The endophytic fungus, Aspergillus calidoustus, was isolated from the plant species Acanthospermum australe (Asteraceae). A dichloromethane extract of the fungus displayed antifungal, antiprotozoal, and cytotoxic activities. Aspergillus calidoustus was identified using molecular, physiological and m...

  4. Tau decays: A theoretical perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Marciano, W.J.

    1992-11-01

    Theoretical predictions for various tau decay rates are reviewed. Effects of electroweak radiative corrections are described. Implications for precision tests of the standard model and ``new physics`` searches are discussed. A perspective on the tau decay puzzle and 1-prong problem is given.

  5. Tau decays: A theoretical perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Marciano, W.J.

    1992-11-01

    Theoretical predictions for various tau decay rates are reviewed. Effects of electroweak radiative corrections are described. Implications for precision tests of the standard model and new physics'' searches are discussed. A perspective on the tau decay puzzle and 1-prong problem is given.

  6. Theoretical understanding of charm decays

    SciTech Connect

    Bigi, I.I.

    1986-08-01

    A detailed description of charm decays has emerged. The various concepts involved are sketched. Although this description is quite successful in reproducing the data the chapter on heavy flavour decays is far from closed. Relevant questions like on th real strength of weak annihilation, Penguin operators, etc. are still unanswered. Important directions in future work, both on the experimental and theoretical side are identified.

  7. Counterflow driven by swirl decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shtern, Vladimir N.; Borissov, Anatoli A.

    2010-06-01

    The global meridional circulation of a viscous fluid, caused by swirl decay in a cylindrical container, is studied. To this end, a new solution to the Navier-Stokes equations is obtained, and simple experiments are performed to verify the predictions of the theory. The swirl decay mechanism explains elongated counterflows in hydrocyclones and vortex tubes sometimes extending over a hundred diameters.

  8. Impact of Phanerochaete chrysosporium on the Functional Diversity of Bacterial Communities Associated with Decaying Wood

    PubMed Central

    Hervé, Vincent; Ketter, Elodie; Pierrat, Jean-Claude; Gelhaye, Eric; Frey-Klett, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria and fungi naturally coexist in various environments including forest ecosystems. While the role of saprotrophic basidiomycetes in wood decomposition is well established, the influence of these fungi on the functional diversity of the wood-associated bacterial communities has received much less attention. Based on a microcosm experiment, we tested the hypothesis that both the presence of the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium and the wood, as a growth substrate, impacted the functional diversity of these bacterial communities. Microcosms containing sterile sawdust were inoculated with a microbial inoculum extracted from a forest soil, in presence or in absence of P. chrysosporium and subsequently, three enrichment steps were performed. First, bacterial strains were isolated from different microcosms previously analyzed by 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing. Strains isolated from P. chrysosporium mycosphere showed less antagonism against this fungus compared to the strains isolated from the initial forest soil inoculum, suggesting a selection by the fungus of less inhibitory bacterial communities. Moreover, the presence of the fungus in wood resulted in a selection of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacterial strains, highlighting the role of mycospheric bacteria in wood decomposition. Additionally, the proportion of siderophore-producing bacteria increased along the enrichment steps, suggesting an important role of bacteria in iron mobilization in decaying-wood. Finally, taxonomic identification of 311 bacterial isolates revealed, at the family level, strong similarities with the high-throughput sequencing data as well as with other studies in terms of taxonomic composition of the wood-associated bacterial community, highlighting that the isolated strains are representative of the wood-associated bacterial communities. PMID:26824755

  9. Impact of Phanerochaete chrysosporium on the Functional Diversity of Bacterial Communities Associated with Decaying Wood.

    PubMed

    Hervé, Vincent; Ketter, Elodie; Pierrat, Jean-Claude; Gelhaye, Eric; Frey-Klett, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria and fungi naturally coexist in various environments including forest ecosystems. While the role of saprotrophic basidiomycetes in wood decomposition is well established, the influence of these fungi on the functional diversity of the wood-associated bacterial communities has received much less attention. Based on a microcosm experiment, we tested the hypothesis that both the presence of the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium and the wood, as a growth substrate, impacted the functional diversity of these bacterial communities. Microcosms containing sterile sawdust were inoculated with a microbial inoculum extracted from a forest soil, in presence or in absence of P. chrysosporium and subsequently, three enrichment steps were performed. First, bacterial strains were isolated from different microcosms previously analyzed by 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing. Strains isolated from P. chrysosporium mycosphere showed less antagonism against this fungus compared to the strains isolated from the initial forest soil inoculum, suggesting a selection by the fungus of less inhibitory bacterial communities. Moreover, the presence of the fungus in wood resulted in a selection of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacterial strains, highlighting the role of mycospheric bacteria in wood decomposition. Additionally, the proportion of siderophore-producing bacteria increased along the enrichment steps, suggesting an important role of bacteria in iron mobilization in decaying-wood. Finally, taxonomic identification of 311 bacterial isolates revealed, at the family level, strong similarities with the high-throughput sequencing data as well as with other studies in terms of taxonomic composition of the wood-associated bacterial community, highlighting that the isolated strains are representative of the wood-associated bacterial communities. PMID:26824755

  10. Microsatellite variability in the entomopathogenic fungus Paeciolomyces fumosoroseus: genetic diversity and population structure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hyphomycete Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Pfr) is a geographically widespread fungus capable of infecting various insect hosts. The fungus has been used for the biological control of several important insect pests of agriculture. However knowledge of the fungus’ genetic diversity and population str...

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of the Ant-Associated Fungus Phialophora attae (CBS 131958)

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Leandro F.; Stielow, J. Benjamin; de Vries, Michel; Weiss, Vinicius A.; Vicente, Vania A.

    2015-01-01

    The black yeast Phialophora attae was isolated from the cuticle of tropical ant gynes. The ant-fungus association is sustained due to symbiotic evolutionary adaptations that allow fungal assimilation and tolerance of toxic compounds produced by the ant. The genome sequence of the first ant-associated fungus, P. attae, is presented here. PMID:26586868

  12. First unusual case of keratitis in Europe due to the rare fungus Metarhizium anisopliae.

    PubMed

    Dorin, Josephine; Debourgogne, Anne; Zaïdi, Mohamed; Bazard, Marie-Christine; Machouart, Marie

    2015-05-01

    Metarhizium anisopliae is a fungus utilized worldwide for insect-pest biocontrol. Few M. anisopliae infections have been reported previously. Here, M. anisopliae was isolated from a corneal ulcer in a healthy man. It is the first ocular case in France and Europe of this extremely rare fungus in humans. PMID:25813244

  13. Detection of fungus-infected corn kernels using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy and color imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of grain products by fungus can lead to economic losses and is deleterious to human and livestock health. Detection and quantification of fungus-infected corn kernels would be adventitious for producers and breeders in evaluating quality and in selecting hybrids with resistance to inf...

  14. Melaleuca quinquenervia plants differ in susceptibility towards fungus Puccinia psidii infection and disease development.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Puccinia psidii (rust fungus) attacks immature healthy foliage of Melaleuca quinquenervia (melaleuca), an invasive plant in southern Florida, U.S.A. Melaleuca plants grown under same growing conditions manifest either susceptible or resistant reactions towards this fungus. We hypothesize that the va...

  15. Potential control of choke in orchardgrass with the fungus Dicyma pulvinata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Dicyma pulvinata colonizes the reproductive structure (stroma) of the plant pathogenic fungus Epichloë typhina, which causes choke disease in orchardgrass seed production fields in the Willamette Valley, OR. In greenhouse trials, D. pulvinata significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the reproduct...

  16. Using copper sulfate to control egg fungus at Keo Fish Farm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Keo Fish Farm is the biggest producer of hybrid striped bass fry in the world. The hatchery manager asked about treatments to control fungus on eggs which occurred fairly often. Our lab has been working on gaining FDA-approval to use copper sulfate to control fungus on catfish eggs, so we were con...

  17. Fun Microbiology: Using a Plant Pathogenic Fungus To Demonstrate Koch's Postulates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, James K.; Orsted, Kathy M.; Warnes, Carl E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experiment using a plant pathogenic fungus in which students learn to follow aseptic techniques, grow and produce spores of a fungus, use a hemacytometer for enumerating spores, prepare serial dilutions, grow and inoculate plants, isolate a pure culture using agar streak plates, and demonstrate the four steps of Koch's postulates.…

  18. Genome Sequence of the Mucoromycotina Fungus Umbelopsis isabellina, an Effective Producer of Lipids

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, Itaru; Tamano, Koichi; Yamane, Noriko; Ishii, Tomoko; Miura, Ai; Umemura, Myco; Terai, Goro; Baker, Scott E.; Koike, Hideaki; Machida, Masayuki

    2014-02-27

    Umbelopsis isabellina is a fungus in the subdivision Mucoromycotina, many members of which have been shown to be oleaginous and have become important organisms for producing oil because of their high level of intracellular lipid accumulation from various feedstocks. The genome sequence of U. isabellina NBRC 7884 was determined and annotated, and this information might provide insights into the oleaginous properties of this fungus.

  19. Specificity in the symbiotic association between fungus-growing ants and protective Pseudonocardia bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Cafaro, Matías J.; Poulsen, Michael; Little, Ainslie E. F.; Price, Shauna L.; Gerardo, Nicole M.; Wong, Bess; Stuart, Alison E.; Larget, Bret; Abbot, Patrick; Currie, Cameron R.

    2011-01-01

    Fungus-growing ants (tribe Attini) engage in a mutualism with a fungus that serves as the ants' primary food source, but successful fungus cultivation is threatened by microfungal parasites (genus Escovopsis). Actinobacteria (genus Pseudonocardia) associate with most of the phylogenetic diversity of fungus-growing ants; are typically maintained on the cuticle of workers; and infection experiments, bioassay challenges and chemical analyses support a role of Pseudonocardia in defence against Escovopsis through antibiotic production. Here we generate a two-gene phylogeny for Pseudonocardia associated with 124 fungus-growing ant colonies, evaluate patterns of ant–Pseudonocardia specificity and test Pseudonocardia antibiotic activity towards Escovopsis. We show that Pseudonocardia associated with fungus-growing ants are not monophyletic: the ants have acquired free-living strains over the evolutionary history of the association. Nevertheless, our analysis reveals a significant pattern of specificity between clades of Pseudonocardia and groups of related fungus-growing ants. Furthermore, antibiotic assays suggest that despite Escovopsis being generally susceptible to inhibition by diverse Actinobacteria, the ant-derived Pseudonocardia inhibit Escovopsis more strongly than they inhibit other fungi, and are better at inhibiting this pathogen than most environmental Pseudonocardia strains tested. Our findings support a model that many fungus-growing ants maintain specialized Pseudonocardia symbionts that help with garden defence. PMID:21106596

  20. Bioproducts and morphological features of diverse isolates of the fungus Aureobasidium pullulans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aureobasidium pullulans is a fungus included among the “black yeasts.” Although many strains are predominantly yeast-like, the species is actually polymorphic, exhibiting a variety of complex forms. The fungus is ubiquitous, routinely found on the surface of leaves, wood, painted walls, etc. We rece...

  1. Nigrosphaerin A., a new isachromene derivative from the endophytic fungus Nigrospora sphaerica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nigrosphaerin A, a new isochromene derivative (1) was isolated from the endophytic fungus Nigrospora sphaerica and chemically identified as 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-4,6,8-trihydroxy-1H-isochromen-1-one-6-O-ß-D- glucopyranoside. In addition nineteen known compounds (2-20) isolated from the same fungus...

  2. Differential response by Melaleuca quinquenervia trees to attack by the rust fungus Puccinia psidii in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Melaleuca quinquenervia (melaleuca, paperbark tree) is an exotic invasive tree in Florida, Hawaii, and some Caribbean islands. Puccinia psidii (guava rust-fungus) is a Neotropical rust fungus, reported to attack many species in the Myrtaceae and one genus in the Heteropyxidaceae, both members of the...

  3. Top decays in extended models

    SciTech Connect

    Gaitan, R.; Miranda, O. G.; Cabral-Rosetti, L. G.

    2009-04-20

    Top quark decays are interesting as a mean to test the Standard Model (SM) predictions. The Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM)-suppressed process t{yields}cWW, and the rare decays t{yields}cZ, t{yields}H{sup 0}+c, and t{yields}c{gamma} an excellent window to probe the predictions of theories beyond the SM. We evaluate the flavor changing neutral currents (FCNC) decay t{yields}H{sup 0}+c in the context of Alternative Left-Right symmetric Models (ALRM) with extra isosinglet heavy fermions; the FCNC decays may place at tree level and are only supressed by the mixing between ordinary top and charm quarks. We also comment on the decay process t{yields}c+{gamma}, which involves radiative corrections.

  4. Logarithmic decays of unstable states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraldi, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    It is known that the survival amplitude of unstable quantum states deviates from exponential relaxations and exhibits decays that depend on the integral and analytic properties of the energy distribution density. In the same scenario, model independent dominant logarithmic decays t -1- α0log t of the survival amplitude are induced over long times by special conditions on the energy distribution density. While the instantaneous decay rate exhibits the dominant long time relaxation 1 / t, the instantaneous energy tends to the minimum value of the energy spectrum with the dominant logarithmic decay 1/( tlog 2 t) over long times. Similar logarithmic relaxations have already been found in the dynamics of short range potential systems with even dimensional space or in the Weisskopf-Wigner model of spontaneous emission from a two-level atom. Here, logarithmic decays are obtained as a pure model independent quantum effect in general unstable states.

  5. Long-term priority effects among insects and fungi colonizing decaying wood

    PubMed Central

    Weslien, Jan; Djupström, Line B; Schroeder, Martin; Widenfalk, Olof

    2011-01-01

    1. Priority effects have been hypothesized to have long-lasting impact on community structure in natural ecosystems. Long-term studies of priority effects in natural ecosystems are however sparse, especially in terrestrial ecosystems. 2. Wood decay is a slow process involving a high diversity of insect and fungus species. Species interactions that drive change in communities of insects and fungi during wood decay are poorly understood because of a lack of sufficient long-term studies. 3. In this paper, we followed the colonization and succession of wood-living insects and fungi on cut trees during 15 years, from tree death and onwards, in a boreal forest landscape. We test the long-term priority effects hypothesis that the identity and abundance of species that colonize first affect the colonization success of later-arriving species. We also hypothesize that species interact in both facilitative and inhibitory ways, which ultimately affect habitat quality for a red-listed late-succession beetle species. 4. Possible causal associations between species were explored by path analysis. The results indicate that one bark beetle species, Hylurgops palliatus, and one wood-borer species, Monochamus sutor, which colonized the wood during the first year after cutting, influenced the occurrence of a rare, wood-living beetle, Peltis grossa, that started to emerge from the stumps about 10 years later. The positive effects of Hylurgops palliatus and negative effects of M. sutor were largely mediated through the wood-decaying fungus species Fomitopsis pinicola. 5. The study shows that variable priority effects may have long-lasting impact on community assembly in decaying wood. The study also exemplifies new possibilities for managing populations of threatened species by exploring links between early, well-understood species guilds and late, more poorly understood species guilds. PMID:21569031

  6. Long-term priority effects among insects and fungi colonizing decaying wood.

    PubMed

    Weslien, Jan; Djupström, Line B; Schroeder, Martin; Widenfalk, Olof

    2011-11-01

    1. Priority effects have been hypothesized to have long-lasting impact on community structure in natural ecosystems. Long-term studies of priority effects in natural ecosystems are however sparse, especially in terrestrial ecosystems. 2. Wood decay is a slow process involving a high diversity of insect and fungus species. Species interactions that drive change in communities of insects and fungi during wood decay are poorly understood because of a lack of sufficient long-term studies. 3. In this paper, we followed the colonization and succession of wood-living insects and fungi on cut trees during 15 years, from tree death and onwards, in a boreal forest landscape. We test the long-term priority effects hypothesis that the identity and abundance of species that colonize first affect the colonization success of later-arriving species. We also hypothesize that species interact in both facilitative and inhibitory ways, which ultimately affect habitat quality for a red-listed late-succession beetle species. 4. Possible causal associations between species were explored by path analysis. The results indicate that one bark beetle species, Hylurgops palliatus, and one wood-borer species, Monochamus sutor, which colonized the wood during the first year after cutting, influenced the occurrence of a rare, wood-living beetle, Peltis grossa, that started to emerge from the stumps about 10 years later. The positive effects of Hylurgops palliatus and negative effects of M. sutor were largely mediated through the wood-decaying fungus species Fomitopsis pinicola. 5. The study shows that variable priority effects may have long-lasting impact on community assembly in decaying wood. The study also exemplifies new possibilities for managing populations of threatened species by exploring links between early, well-understood species guilds and late, more poorly understood species guilds. PMID:21569031

  7. The carbon starvation response of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus

    PubMed Central

    Ellström, Magnus; Shah, Firoz; Johansson, Tomas; Ahrén, Dag; Persson, Per; Tunlid, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The amounts of carbon allocated to the fungal partner in ectomycorrhizal associations can vary substantially depending on the plant growth and the soil nutrient conditions, and the fungus may frequently be confronted with limitations in carbon. We used chemical analysis and transcriptome profiling to examine the physiological response of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus to carbon starvation during axenic cultivation. Carbon starvation induced a decrease in the biomass. Concomitantly, ammonium, cell wall material (chitin) and proteolytic enzymes were released into the medium, which suggest autolysis. Compared with the transcriptome of actively growing hyphae, about 45% of the transcripts analyzed were differentially regulated during C-starvation. Induced during starvation were transcripts encoding extracellular enzymes such as peptidases, chitinases and laccases. In parallel, transcripts of N-transporters were upregulated, which suggest that some of the released nitrogen compounds were re-assimilated by the mycelium. The observed changes suggest that the carbon starvation response in P. involutus is associated with complex cellular changes that involves autolysis, recycling of intracellular compounds by autophagy and reabsorption of the extracellular released material. The study provides molecular markers that can be used to examine the role of autolysis for the turnover and survival of the ectomycorrhizal mycelium in soils. PMID:25778509

  8. Modulation of antimicrobial metabolites production by the fungus Aspergillus parasiticus

    PubMed Central

    Bracarense, Adriana A.P.; Takahashi, Jacqueline A.

    2014-01-01

    Biosynthesis of active secondary metabolites by fungi occurs as a specific response to the different growing environments. Changes in this environment alter the chemical and biological profiles leading to metabolites diversification and consequently to novel pharmacological applications. In this work, it was studied the influence of three parameters (fermentation length, medium composition and aeration) in the biosyntheses of antimicrobial metabolites by the fungus Aspergillus parasiticus in 10 distinct fermentation periods. Metabolism modulation in two culturing media, CYA and YES was evaluated by a 22 full factorial planning (ANOVA) and on a 23 factorial planning, role of aeration, medium composition and carbohydrate concentration were also evaluated. In overall, 120 different extracts were prepared, their HPLC profiles were obtained and the antimicrobial activity against A. flavus, C. albicans, E. coli and S. aureus of all extracts was evaluated by microdilution bioassay. Yield of kojic acid, a fine chemical produced by the fungus A. parasiticus was determined in all extracts. Statistical analyses pointed thirteen conditions able to modulate the production of bioactive metabolites by A. parasiticus. Effect of carbon source in metabolites diversification was significant as shown by the changes in the HPLC profiles of the extracts. Most of the extracts presented inhibition rates higher than that of kojic acid as for the extract obtained after 6 days of fermentation in YES medium under stirring. Kojic acid was not the only metabolite responsible for the activity since some highly active extracts showed to possess low amounts of this compound, as determined by HPLC. PMID:24948950

  9. No sex in fungus-farming ants or their crops.

    PubMed

    Himler, Anna G; Caldera, Eric J; Baer, Boris C; Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2009-07-22

    Asexual reproduction imposes evolutionary handicaps on asexual species, rendering them prone to extinction, because asexual reproduction generates novel genotypes and purges deleterious mutations at lower rates than sexual reproduction. Here, we report the first case of complete asexuality in ants, the fungus-growing ant Mycocepurus smithii, where queens reproduce asexually but workers are sterile, which is doubly enigmatic because the clonal colonies of M. smithii also depend on clonal fungi for food. Degenerate female mating anatomy, extensive field and laboratory surveys, and DNA fingerprinting implicate complete asexuality in this widespread ant species. Maternally inherited bacteria (e.g. Wolbachia, Cardinium) and the fungal cultivars can be ruled out as agents inducing asexuality. M. smithii societies of clonal females provide a unique system to test theories of parent-offspring conflict and reproductive policing in social insects. Asexuality of both ant farmer and fungal crop challenges traditional views proposing that sexual farmer ants outpace coevolving sexual crop pathogens, and thus compensate for vulnerabilities of their asexual crops. Either the double asexuality of both farmer and crop may permit the host to fully exploit advantages of asexuality for unknown reasons or frequent switching between crops (symbiont reassociation) generates novel ant-fungus combinations, which may compensate for any evolutionary handicaps of asexuality in M. smithii. PMID:19369264

  10. Reciprocal genomic evolution in the ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Sanne; Hu, Haofu; Li, Cai; Schiøtt, Morten; Chen, Zhensheng; Yang, Zhikai; Xie, Qiaolin; Ma, Chunyu; Deng, Yuan; Dikow, Rebecca B; Rabeling, Christian; Nash, David R; Wcislo, William T; Brady, Seán G; Schultz, Ted R; Zhang, Guojie; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2016-01-01

    The attine ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis evolved over tens of millions of years, producing complex societies with industrial-scale farming analogous to that of humans. Here we document reciprocal shifts in the genomes and transcriptomes of seven fungus-farming ant species and their fungal cultivars. We show that ant subsistence farming probably originated in the early Tertiary (55-60 MYA), followed by further transitions to the farming of fully domesticated cultivars and leaf-cutting, both arising earlier than previously estimated. Evolutionary modifications in the ants include unprecedented rates of genome-wide structural rearrangement, early loss of arginine biosynthesis and positive selection on chitinase pathways. Modifications of fungal cultivars include loss of a key ligninase domain, changes in chitin synthesis and a reduction in carbohydrate-degrading enzymes as the ants gradually transitioned to functional herbivory. In contrast to human farming, increasing dependence on a single cultivar lineage appears to have been essential to the origin of industrial-scale ant agriculture. PMID:27436133

  11. Metabolism and the rise of fungus cultivation by ants.

    PubMed

    Shik, Jonathan Z; Santos, Juan C; Seal, Jon N; Kay, Adam; Mueller, Ulrich G; Kaspari, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Most ant colonies are comprised of workers that cooperate to harvest resources and feed developing larvae. Around 50 million years ago (MYA), ants of the attine lineage adopted an alternative strategy, harvesting resources used as compost to produce fungal gardens. While fungus cultivation is considered a major breakthrough in ant evolution, the associated ecological consequences remain poorly understood. Here, we compare the energetics of attine colony-farms and ancestral hunter-gatherer colonies using metabolic scaling principles within a phylogenetic context. We find two major energetic transitions. First, the earliest lower-attine farmers transitioned to lower mass-specific metabolic rates while shifting significant fractions of biomass from ant tissue to fungus gardens. Second, a transition 20 MYA to specialized cultivars in the higher-attine clade was associated with increased colony metabolism (without changes in garden fungal content) and with metabolic scaling nearly identical to hypometry observed in hunter-gatherer ants, although only the hunter-gatherer slope was distinguishable from isometry. Based on these evolutionary transitions, we propose that shifting living-tissue storage from ants to fungal mutualists provided energetic storage advantages contributing to attine diversification and outline critical assumptions that, when tested, will help link metabolism, farming efficiency, and colony fitness. PMID:25141145

  12. Reciprocal genomic evolution in the ant–fungus agricultural symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Nygaard, Sanne; Hu, Haofu; Li, Cai; Schiøtt, Morten; Chen, Zhensheng; Yang, Zhikai; Xie, Qiaolin; Ma, Chunyu; Deng, Yuan; Dikow, Rebecca B.; Rabeling, Christian; Nash, David R.; Wcislo, William T.; Brady, Seán G.; Schultz, Ted R.; Zhang, Guojie; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2016-01-01

    The attine ant–fungus agricultural symbiosis evolved over tens of millions of years, producing complex societies with industrial-scale farming analogous to that of humans. Here we document reciprocal shifts in the genomes and transcriptomes of seven fungus-farming ant species and their fungal cultivars. We show that ant subsistence farming probably originated in the early Tertiary (55–60 MYA), followed by further transitions to the farming of fully domesticated cultivars and leaf-cutting, both arising earlier than previously estimated. Evolutionary modifications in the ants include unprecedented rates of genome-wide structural rearrangement, early loss of arginine biosynthesis and positive selection on chitinase pathways. Modifications of fungal cultivars include loss of a key ligninase domain, changes in chitin synthesis and a reduction in carbohydrate-degrading enzymes as the ants gradually transitioned to functional herbivory. In contrast to human farming, increasing dependence on a single cultivar lineage appears to have been essential to the origin of industrial-scale ant agriculture. PMID:27436133

  13. Homoharringtonine production by endophytic fungus isolated from Cephalotaxus hainanensis Li.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoping; Li, Wu; Yuan, Mu; Li, Congfa; Liu, Sixin; Jiang, Chunjie; Wu, Yanchun; Cai, Kun; Liu, Yan

    2016-07-01

    Homoharringtonine (HHT), a natural plant alkaloid derived from Cephalotaxus, has demonstrated to have a broad antitumor activity and efficacy in treating human chronic myeloid leukemia. An alternative source is required to substitute for the slow-growing and scarce Cephalotaxus to meet the increasing demand of the drug market. The objective of this study was to screen HHT-producing endophytic fungi from Cephalotaxus hainanensis Li. By screening 213 fungal isolates obtained from the bark parts of Cephalotaxus hainanensis Li, one isolate was found to be capable of biosynthesizing HHT. The fungus was identified as Alternaria tenuissima by morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis and was named as CH1307. HHT obtained from CH1307 was analyzed through the HPLC and LC-MS/MS and NMR spectroscopy. The extract of the fermentation broth of CH1307 showed antiproliferative activities against K562 (chronic myelocytic leukemia), NB4 (acute promyelocytic leukemia), and HL-60 (promyelocytic leukemia) human cancer cell lines with IC50 values of 67.25 ± 4.26, 65.02 ± 4.75, and 99.23 ± 4.26 μg/mL, respectively. The findings suggest that HHT-producing endophytic fungus, Alternaria tenuissima CH1307 might provide a promising source for the research and application of HHT. PMID:27263005

  14. Transformation of Metalaxyl by the Fungus Syncephalastrum racemosum†

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhong; Liu, Shu-Yen; Freyer, Alan J.; Bollag, Jean-Marc

    1989-01-01

    The fungus Syncephalastrum racemosum (Cohn) Schroeter was found to transform the fungicide metalaxyl [N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-N-(methoxyacetyl)-alanine methyl ester] in pure culture. After 21 days of incubation in a basal medium amended with 5 μg of metalaxyl per ml, more than 80% of the compound was transformed by the fungus. The transformation rates decreased as the concentrations of metalaxyl increased from 5 to 100 μg/ml. No transformation was observed when the concentration of metalaxyl was higher than 200 μg/ml. Two isomeric metabolites and a mixture of two other isomeric metabolites were isolated from the organic extract of the growth medium and identified as N-(2-methyl-6-hydroxymethylphenyl)-N- and N-(2-hydroxymethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(methoxyacetyl)-alanine methyl ester and N-(3-hydroxy- and N-(5-hydroxy-2,6-dimethyl-phenyl)-N-(methoxyacetyl)-alanine methyl ester according to their mass-spectral and nuclear magnetic resonance-spectral characteristics. Benzylic hydroxylation of the methyl side chains and/or aromatic hydroxylation appeared to be the major reactions involved in the metabolism of metalaxyl. PMID:16347836

  15. Accumulation and chemical states of radiocesium by fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Yamasaki, Shinya; Yu, Qianqian

    2014-05-01

    After accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the fall-out radiocesium was deposited on the ground. Filamentous fungus is known to accumulate radiocesium in environment, even though many minerals are involved in soil. These facts suggest that fungus affect the migration behavior of radiocesium in the environment. However, accumulation mechanism of radiocesium by fungus is not understood. In the present study, accumulation and chemical states change of Cs by unicellular fungus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been studied to elucidate the role of microorganisms in the migration of radiocesium in the environment. Two different experimental conditions were employed; one is the accumulation experiments of radiocesium by S. cerevisiae from the agar medium containing 137Cs and a mineral of zeolite, vermiculite, smectite, mica, or illite. The other is the experiments using stable cesium to examine the chemical states change of Cs. In the former experiment, the cells were grown on membrane filter of 0.45 μm installed on the agar medium. After the grown cells were weighed, radioactivity in the cells was measured by an autoradiography technique. The mineral weight contents were changed from 0.1% to 1% of the medium. In the latter experiment, the cells were grown in the medium containing stable Cs between 1 mM and 10mM. The Cs accumulated cells were analyzed by SEM-EDS and EXAFS. The adsorption experiments of cesium by the cells under resting condition were also conducted to test the effect of cells metabolic activity. Without mineral in the medium, cells of S. cerevisiae accumulated 1.5x103 Bq/g from the medium containing 137Cs of 2.6x102 Bq/g. When mineral was added in the medium, concentration of 137Cs in the cells decreased. The concentration of 137Cs in the cells from the medium containing different minerals were in the following order; smectite, illite, mica > vermiculite > zeolite. This order was nearly the same as the inverse of distribution coefficient of

  16. Host deception: Predaceous fungus, esteya vermicola, entices pine wood nematode by mimicking the scent of its host pine for nutrient

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A nematophagous fungus, Esteya vermicola, is recorded as the first endoparasitic fungus of pine wood nematode (PWN), Burasphelenchus xylophilus, in the last century. E. vermicola exhibited high infectivity toward PWN in the laboratory conditions and conidia spraying of this fungus on Japanese red pi...

  17. Utilization of inoculum produced on-farm for production of AM fungus colonized pepper and tomato seedlings under conventional management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal [AM] fungus inoculum may be used to produce colonized vegetable seedlings for outplanting. Success depends, in part, upon a nutrient regime in the greenhouse that is conducive to AM fungus hyphal growth and signaling/recognition events between host and fungus. Experiments we...

  18. Beauty meson decays to charmonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ershov, Alexey Valerievich

    2001-10-01

    We study decays of beauty (B) mesons into the final states containing charmonium mesons. The data were collected by the CLEO experiment at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring from 1990 to 1999. First, we describe a technique that significantly improves the reconstruction efficiency for decays of J/ y and y (2S) mesons into a pair of leptons. This reconstruction method is used in all the analyses presented in this dissertation. Then we present a study of B decays to the χc 1 and χc2 charmonium states and compare our results with the predictions of different theoretical models of charmonium production. After that we report the first observation of the decay B --> J/ y φK, which is the first B meson decay requiring a creation of an additional ss¯ quark pair. Then we measure the B0 and B+ meson masses from B0 --> y (') K0S and B+ --> y (') K+ decays. The method employed eliminates the dominant systematic uncertainty associated with the previous B meson mass measurements at the e+e- colliders and results in a significant improvement in precision. After that we present a study of three B0 decay modes useful for time-dependent CP asymmetry measurements. In this study we reconstruct B0 --> J/ y K0S , B0 --> χc 1 K0S , and B0 --> J/ y π0 decays. The latter two decay modes are observed for the first time. We describe a K0S --> π0π0 detection technique and its application to the reconstruction of the decay B 0 --> J/ y K0S . Then we present a sensitivity study for the measurement of the mixing-induced CP violation in the neutral B meson system (parameter sin 2β) at CLEO using the method that requires a measurement of the decay time of only one meson in a B0overline B0 pair. Finally, we search for direct CP violation in decays B+/- --> J/ y K+/- and B +/- --> y (2S) K+/- . The results of this search are consistent with the Standard Model expectations and provide the first experimental test of the assumption that direct CP violation is negligible in B --> y (') K decays.

  19. Primordial nucleosynthesis with decaying particles. I - Entropy-producing decays. II - Inert decays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherrer, Robert J.; Turner, Michael S.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of a nonrelativistic particle X, which decays out of equilibrium, on primordial nucleosynthesis is investigated, including both the energy density of the X particle and the electromagnetic entropy production from its decay. The results are parametrized in terms of the X particle lifetime and the density parameter rm(X), where m(X) is the X particle mass and r is the ratio of X number density to photon number density prior to nucleosynthesis. The results rule out particle lifetimes greater than 1-10 s for large values of rm(X). The question of a decaying particle which produces no electromagnetic entropy in the course of its decay is addressed, and particles which produce both entropy and an inert component in their decay are discussed.

  20. 7 CFR 51.898 - Decay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1... bacterial or fungus infection. Slight surface development of green mold (Cladosporium) shall not...

  1. A comparative genomic analysis of the oxidative enzymes potentially involved in lignin degradation by Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Subramanian, Venkataramanan; Fu, Bolei; Cullen, Dan

    2013-06-01

    The oxidative enzymatic machinery for degradation of organic substrates in Agaricus bisporus (Ab) is at the core of the carbon recycling mechanisms in this fungus. To date, 156 genes have been tentatively identified as part of this oxidative enzymatic machinery, which includes 26 peroxidase encoding genes, nine copper radical oxidase [including three putative glyoxal oxidase-encoding genes (GLXs)], 12 laccases sensu stricto and 109 cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. Comparative analyses of these enzymes in Ab with those of the white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, the brown-rot fungus, Postia placenta, the coprophilic litter fungus, Coprinopsis cinerea and the ectomychorizal fungus, Laccaria bicolor, revealed enzyme diversity consistent with adaptation to substrates rich in humic substances and partially degraded plant material. For instance, relative to wood decay fungi, Ab cytochrome P450 genes were less numerous (109 gene models), distributed among distinctive families, and lacked extensive duplication and clustering. Viewed together with P450 transcript accumulation patterns in three tested growth conditions, these observations were consistent with the unique Ab lifestyle. Based on tandem gene arrangements, a certain degree of gene duplication seems to have occurred in this fungus in the copper radical oxidase (CRO) and the laccase gene families. In Ab, high transcript levels and regulation of the heme-thiolate peroxidases, two manganese peroxidases and the three GLX-like genes are likely in response to complex natural substrates, including lignocellulose and its derivatives, thereby suggesting an important role in lignin degradation. On the other hand, the expression patterns of the related CROs suggest a developmental role in this fungus. Based on these observations, a brief comparative genomic overview of the Ab oxidative enzyme machinery is presented. PMID:23583597

  2. Towards an integrated understanding of the consequences of fungus domestication on the fungus-growing termite gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Approximately 30 million years ago (MYA), the subfamily of higher termites Macrotermitinae domesticated a fungus, Termitomyces, as the main plant decomposer and food source for the termite host. The origin of fungiculture shifted the composition of the termite gut microbiota, and some of the functional implications of this shift have recently been established. I review reports on the composition of the Macrotermitinae gut microbiota, evidence for a subfamily core gut microbiota, and the first insight into functional complementarity between fungal and gut symbionts. In addition, I argue that we need to explore the capacities of all members of the symbiotic communities, including better solidifying Termitomyces role(s) in order to understand putative complementary gut bacterial contributions. Approaches that integrate natural history and sequencing data to elucidate symbiont functions will be powerful, particularly if executed in comparative analyses across the well-established congruent termite-fungus phylogenies. This will allow for testing if gut communities have evolved in parallel with their hosts, with implications for our general understanding of the evolution of gut symbiont communities with hosts. PMID:25581852

  3. Charm counting in b decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buskulic, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Lucotte, A.; Minard, M.-N.; Nief, J.-Y.; Odier, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Casado, M. P.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, Ll.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Orteu, S.; Padilla, C.; Park, I. C.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Riu, I.; Sanchez, F.; Teubert, F.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Gelao, G.; Girone, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marinelli, N.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Tricomi, A.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Alemany, R.; Bazarko, A. O.; Bonvicini, G.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Cattaneo, M.; Cerutti, F.; Comas, P.; Coyle, P.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kneringer, E.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Lutters, G.; Martin, E. B.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Mir, Ll. M.; Moneta, L.; Oest, T.; Pacheco, A.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rensing, P.; Rizzo, G.; Rolandi, L.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Venturi, A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wagner, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Barrès, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rosnet, P.; Rossignol, J.-M.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Nilsson, B. S.; Rensch, B.; Wäänänen, A.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Bourdon, P.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Valassi, A.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Casper, D.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Curtis, L.; Dorris, S. J.; Halley, A. W.; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, F.; Thorn, S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Becker, U.; Geweniger, C.; Graefe, G.; Hanke, P.; Hansper, G.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Schmidt, M.; Sommer, J.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Abbaneo, D.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P. J.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Stacey, A. M.; Williams, M. D.; Dissertori, G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Betteridge, A. P.; Bowdery, C. K.; Colrain, P.; Crawford, G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Sloan, T.; Williams, M. I.; Galla, A.; Giehl, I.; Greene, A. M.; Hoffmann, C.; Jakobs, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.-G.; van Gemmeren, P.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J. J.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Bujosa, G.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Diaconu, C.; Etienne, F.; Konstantinidis, N.; Payre, P.; Rousseau, D.; Talby, M.; Sadouki, A.; Thulasidas, M.; Trabelsi, K.; Aleppo, M.; Ragusa, F.; Bauer, C.; Berlich, R.; Blum, W.; Büscher, V.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Ganis, G.; Gotzhein, C.; Kroha, H.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Richter, R.; Rosado-Schlosser, A.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Denis, R. St.; Stenzel, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Choi, Y.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Höcker, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacquet, M.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Nikolic, I.; Park, H. J.; Schune, M.-H.; Simion, S.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zerwas, D.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; Dell'Orso, R.; Fantechi, R.; Ferrante, I.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P. G.; Blair, G. A.; Bryant, L. M.; Chambers, J. T.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Medcalf, T.; Perrodo, P.; Strong, J. A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Maley, P.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Wright, A. E.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Black, S. N.; Dann, J. H.; Johnson, R. P.; Kim, H. Y.; Litke, A. M.; McNeil, M. A.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C. N.; Boswell, R.; Brew, C. A. J.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Koksal, A.; Letho, M.; Newton, W. M.; Reeve, J.; Thompson, L. F.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Minguet-Rodriguez, J.; Rivera, F.; Saraiva, P.; Smolik, L.; Stephan, F.; Apollonio, M.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Musolino, G.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Armstrong, S. R.; Elmer, P.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; González, S.; Grahl, J.; Greening, T. C.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; McNamara, P. A.; Nachtman, J. M.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Scott, I. J.; Walsh, A. M.; Walsh, J.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J. M.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.; Aleph Collaboration

    1996-02-01

    The inclusive production of charmed particles in Z → b overlineb decays has been measured from the yield of D0, D+, Ds+ and Λc+ decays in a sample of q overlineq events with high b purity collected with the ALEPH detector from 1992 to 1995. From these measurements, adding the charmonia production rate and an estimate of the charmed strange baryon contribution, the average number of charm quarks per b decay is determined to be nc = 1.230 ± 0.036 ± 0.038 ± 0.053, where the uncertainties are due to statistics, systematic effects and branching ratios, respectively.

  4. Glueball decay in holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Koji; Tan, C.-I; Terashima, Seiji

    2008-04-15

    Using holographic QCD based on D4-branes and D8-anti-D8-branes, we have computed couplings of glueballs to light mesons. We describe glueball decay by explicitly calculating its decay widths and branching ratios. Interestingly, while glueballs remain less well understood both theoretically and experimentally, our results are found to be consistent with the experimental data for the scalar glueball candidate f{sub 0}(1500). More generally, holographic QCD predicts that decay of any glueball to 4{pi}{sup 0} is suppressed, and that mixing of the lightest glueball with qq mesons is small.

  5. Optimizing VANDLE for Decay Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, N. T.; Taylor, S. Z.; Grzywacz, R.; Madurga, M.; Paulauskas, S. V.; Cizewski, J. A.; Peters, W. A.; Vandle Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the decay properties of neutron rich isotopes has well established importance to the path of the r-process and to the total decay heat for reactor physics. Specifically, the half-life, branching ratio and spectra for β-n decay is of particular interest. With that in mind, we have continued attempts to improve upon the Versatile Array of Neutron Detectors at Low Energy (VANDLE) in terms of efficiency and TOF resolution through the use of new and larger scintillators. Details of the new implementation, design and characterization of the array will be shown and compared to previous results.

  6. Radiative Leptonic B Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Edward Tann

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of a search for B+ meson decays into γℓ+v, where ℓ = e,μ. We use a sample of 232 million B$\\bar{B}$ meson pairs recorded at the Υ(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B factory. We measure a partial branching fraction Δβ in a restricted region of phase space that reduces the effect of theoretical uncertainties, requiring the lepton energy to be in the range 1.875 and 2.850 GeV, the photon energy to be in the range 0.45 and 2.35 GeV, and the cosine of the angle between the lepton and photon momenta to be less than -0.36, with all quantities computed in the Υ(4S) center-of-mass frame. We find Δβ(B+ → γℓ+v) = (-0.31.5+1.3(statistical) -0.6+0.6(systematic) ± 0.1(theoretical)) x 10-6, under the assumption of lepton universality. Interpreted as a 90% confidence-level Bayesian upper limit, the result corresponds to 1.7 x 10-6 for a prior at in amplitude, and 2.3 x 10-6 for a prior at in branching fraction.

  7. Chelating efficiency and thermal, mechanical and decay resistance performances of chitosan copper complex in wood-polymer composites.

    PubMed

    Lu, John Z; Duan, Xinfang; Wu, Qinglin; Lian, Kun

    2008-09-01

    Wood-polymer composites (WPC) have been extensively used for building products, outdoor decking, automotive, packaging materials, and other applications. WPC is subject to fungal and termite attacks due to wood components enveloped in the thermoplastic matrix. Much effort has been made to improve decay resistance of WPC using zinc borate and other chemicals. In this study, chitosan copper complex (CCC) compounds were used as a potential preservative for wood-HDPE composites. CCC was formulated by reacting chitosan with copper salts under controlled conditions. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analytical results indicated that chitosan had high chelating efficiency with copper cations. CCC-treated wood-HDPE composites had a thermal behavior similar to untreated and zinc borate-treated wood-HDPE composites. Incorporation of CCC in wood-HDPE composites did not significantly influence board density of the resultant composites, but had a negative effect on tensile strength at high CCC concentration. In comparison with solid wood and the untreated wood-HDPE composites, 3% CCC-treated wood-HDPE composites significantly improved the decay resistance against white rot fungus Trametes versicolor and brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum. Especially, CCC-treated wood-HDPE composites were more effectively against the brown rot than the untreated and chitosan-treated wood-HDPE composites. Moreover, CCC-treated wood-HDPE composites performed well as zinc borate-treated wood-HDPE composites on fungal decay resistance. Accordingly, CCC can be effectively used as a preservative for WPC. PMID:18248812

  8. The decay of hot nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Moretto, L.G.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1988-11-01

    The formation of hot compound nuclei in intermediate-energy heavy ion reactions is discussed. The statistical decay of such compound nuclei is responsible for the abundant emission of complex fragments and high energy gamma rays. 43 refs., 23 figs.

  9. Questions Students Ask: Beta Decay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Jordan; Hartt, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    Answers a student's question about the emission of a positron from a nucleus. Discusses the problem from the aspects of the uncertainty principle, beta decay, the Fermi Theory, and modern physics. (YP)

  10. The Search for Proton Decay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshak, Marvin L.

    1984-01-01

    Provides the rationale for and examples of experiments designed to test the stability of protons and bound neutrons. Also considers the unification question, cosmological implications, current and future detectors, and current status of knowledge on proton decay. (JN)

  11. Overview of rare K decays

    SciTech Connect

    Littenberg, L.

    1995-05-01

    The status and future prospects of searches for and studies of forbidden and highly suppressed K decays are reviewed. Here the author discusses three areas of recent activity in rare K decay. These are lepton-flavor violating decays, which are entirely forbidden in the Standard Model, K{sub S} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}}{pi}{sup 0}, which is of interest from the point of view of CP-violation, and `one loop` decays of the form K{sup 0,{+-}} {yields} ({pi}{sup 0,{+-}})l{bar l}, that can throw light on Standard Model CP-violation and determine parameters such as V{sub td}.

  12. CP violation in K decays

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, F.J.

    1989-05-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental progress on the manifestation of CP violation in K decays, and toward understanding whether CP violation originates in a phase, or phases, in the weak mixing matrix of quarks is reviewed. 23 refs., 10 figs.

  13. A role for antioxidants in acclimation of marine derived pathogenic fungus (NIOCC 1) to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, Chinnarajan; Varatharajan, Govindaswamy R; Rajasabapathy, Raju; Vijayakanth, S; Kumar, Alagu Harish; Meena, Ram M

    2012-09-01

    Salinity tolerance a key factor helps in understanding the ionic homeostasis in general, which is a fundamental cellular phenomenon in all living cells. Here, a marine derived pathogenic fungus was examined for its adaptation under salt stress using antioxidant properties. The aqueous extracts of halophilic fungus exhibited different levels of antioxidant activity in all the in vitro tests such as α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(·)), Hydroxyl Radical Scavenging Assay (HRSA), Metal chelating assay and β-carotene-linoleic acid model system. The antioxidant capacity of marine fungus exposed to high salt condition showed an increase in activity. In addition, the production of intra and extracellular antioxidant enzymes of the fungus at various salt stresses were analyzed and discussed for their possible role in the stress mechanism. The marine derived fungus was identified as Phialosimplex genus, which is associated with infections in dogs. Thus the present study elucidates that the scavenging activity is one of the protective mechanisms developed in the fungus to avoid the deleterious effect of salt stress. In addition, the study also helps in understanding how the pathogenic fungus tackles the oxidative burst i.e. hypersensitivity reaction performed by host to kill the pathogens. PMID:22809619

  14. Proton decay and nuclear dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Alvioli, M.; Strikman, M.; Benhar, O.; Ericson, M.

    2010-04-15

    The kinematics of the decay of a bound proton is governed by the proton spectral function. We evaluate this quantity in {sup 16}O using the information from nuclear physics experiments. It also includes a correlated part. The reliability of this evaluation is sufficient to open the possibility of correlated cuts in the missing mass and momentum variables to identify the decay events from the bound protons with a possible increase of the signal-to-noise ratio.

  15. Thermal corrections to Electroweak Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masood, Samina

    2016-03-01

    We study the electroweak processes at finite temperatures. This includes the decay rates of electroweak gauge bosons and beta decays. Major thermal corrections come from QED type radiative corrections. Heavy mass of the electroweak gauge bosons helps to suppress the radiative corrections due to the electroweak gauge boson loops. Therefore, dominant thermal corrections are due to the photon loops. We also discuss the relevance of our results to astrophysics and cosmology.

  16. Semileptonic B-Meson Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Volk, Alexei; /Dresden, Tech. U.

    2010-08-26

    The study of the semileptonic B-meson decays is the most accessible and cleanest way to determine the CKM matrix elements |V{sub cb}| and V{sub ub}. These decays also provide experimental access to study the QCD form-factors, heavy quark masses, and HQE parameters. The theoretical description of semileptonic B-meson decays at the parton level is very simple because there is no interaction between leptonic and hadronic currents. At the hadron level one needs to introduce corrections due to the strong interaction between quarks. Especially in the description of the inclusive B-meson decays the motion of the b-quark inside the B-meson plays a crucial role. All these effects are described in the frameworks of Heavy Quark Effective Theory (HQET) and Lattice QCD (LQCD). We give an overview about results of studies of semileptonic B-meson decays collected with the BABAR and Belle detectors at the PEP-II and the KEKB e{sup +}e{sup -}-storage rings. We present recent results on hadronic moments measured in inclusive B {yields} X{sub c}lv and B {yields} X{sub u}lv decays and extracted heavy quark masses m{sub b} and m{sub c} and dominant non-perturbative Heavy Quark Expansion (HQE) parameters. We also report the measurements of the CKM matrix elements |V{sub cb}| and |V{sub ub}| in inclusive and in exclusive semileptonic B-meson decays. We describe the studies of the form-factor parameters for the decay B{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup -}l{sup +}v and present the measurement of the B{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup -}l{sup +}v form-factor shape.

  17. Asteltoxins from the Entomopathogenic Fungus Pochonia bulbillosa 8-H-28.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Hayamitsu; Doi, Hiroyasu; Kasahara, Yuichi; Sawa, Ryuichi; Nakajima, Kaori; Kubota, Yumiko; Hosokawa, Nobuo; Tateishi, Ken; Nomoto, Akio

    2015-07-24

    New asteltoxins C (3) and D (4) were found in the extract of the entomopathogenic fungus Pochonia bulbillosa 8-H-28. Compound 2, which was spectroscopically identical with the known asteltoxin B, was isolated, and structural analysis led to a revision of the structure of asteltoxin B. Compounds 2 and 4 have a novel tricyclic ring system connected to a dienyl α-pyrone structure. Compound 3 has a 2,8-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane ring similar to that of asteltoxin (1). Compound 3 showed potent antiproliferative activity against NIAS-SL64 cells derived from the fat body of Spodoptera litura larvae, while 2 and 4 were inactive. PMID:26120875

  18. Cadmium-responsive thiols in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus.

    PubMed

    Courbot, Mikael; Diez, Laurent; Ruotolo, Roberta; Chalot, Michel; Leroy, Pierre

    2004-12-01

    Molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the sustained metal tolerance of ectomycorrhizal fungi are largely unknown. Some of the main mechanisms involved in metal detoxification appear to involve the chelation of metal ions in the cytosol with thiol-containing compounds, such as glutathione, phytochelatins, or metallothioneins. We used an improved high-performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous measurement of thiol-containing compounds from cysteine and its derivatives (gamma-glutamylcysteine, glutathione) to higher-molecular-mass compounds (phytochelatins). We found that glutathione and gamma-glutamylcysteine contents increased when the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus was exposed to cadmium. An additional compound with a 3-kDa molecular mass, most probably related to a metallothionein, increased drastically in mycelia exposed to cadmium. The relative lack of phytochelatins and the presence of a putative metallothionein suggest that ectomycorrhizal fungi may use a different means to tolerate heavy metals, such as Cd, than do their plant hosts. PMID:15574943

  19. Garden sharing and garden stealing in fungus-growing ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Rachelle M. M.; Mueller, U. G.; Holloway, Alisha K.; Green, Abigail M.; Narozniak, Joanie

    Fungi cultivated by fungus-growing ants (Attini: Formicidae) are passed on between generations by transfer from maternal to offspring nest (vertical transmission within ant species). However, recent phylogenetic analyses revealed that cultivars are occasionally also transferred between attine species. The reasons for such lateral cultivar transfers are unknown. To investigate whether garden loss may induce ants to obtain a replacement cultivar from a neighboring colony (lateral cultivar transfer), pairs of queenright colonies of two Cyphomyrmex species were set up in two conjoined chambers; the garden of one colony was then removed to simulate the total crop loss that occurs naturally when pathogens devastate gardens. Garden-deprived colonies regained cultivars through one of three mechanisms: joining of a neighboring colony and cooperation in a common garden; stealing of a neighbor's garden; or aggressive usurpation of a neighbor's garden. Because pathogens frequently devastate attine gardens under natural conditions, garden joining, stealing and usurpation emerge as critical behavioral adaptations to survive garden catastrophes.

  20. Antiviral butyrolactones from the endophytic fungus Aspergillus versicolor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Min; Du, Gang; Yang, Hai-Ying; Xia, Cong-Fang; Yang, Juan-Xia; Ye, Yan-qing; Gao, Xue-Mei; Li, Xiao-Nian; Hu, Qiu-Fen

    2015-02-01

    Versicolactones A-D (1-4), four new butyrolactones, along with four known butyrolactones (5-8) were isolated from the fermentation products of the endophytic fungus Aspergillus versicolor. The structures of compounds 1-4, including absolute configuration, were elucidated by interpretation of the NMR and CD data. Compound 2 was further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In particular, compound 1 is the first naturally occurring butyrolactone possessing an unusual 2-oxopropyl group. More importantly, compounds 1 and 8 displayed significant antitobacco mosaic virus activities with inhibition rates of 46.4 % and 35.4 %, even more potent than the positive control ningnanmycin (30.8 %). Compound 1 also showed moderate cytotoxicity against A549 and MCF7 cells with IC50 values of 3.2 and 2.5 µM, respectively. PMID:25590371

  1. Cytotoxic sesquiterpenes from the endophytic fungus Pseudolagarobasidium acaciicola.

    PubMed

    Wibowo, Mario; Prachyawarakorn, Vilailak; Aree, Thammarat; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Kittakoop, Prasat

    2016-02-01

    Twenty previously unknown compounds and two known metabolites, merulin A and merulin D, were isolated from the endophytic fungus Pseudolagarobasidium acaciicola, which was isolated from a mangrove tree, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. Structures of the 20 compounds were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of seven of these compounds was addressed by a single crystal X-ray analysis using CuKα radiation and an estimate of the Flack parameter. Three compounds also possessed a tricyclic ring system. Terpene endoperoxides isolated exhibited cytotoxic activity, while those without an endoperoxide moiety did not show activity. The endoperoxide moiety of sesquiterpenes has significant impact on cytotoxic activity, and thus is an important functionality for cytotoxicity. One terpene endoperoxide displayed potent cytotoxic activity (IC50 0.28μM), and selectively exhibited activity against the HL-60 cell line. PMID:26701647

  2. Vincamine-producing endophytic fungus isolated from Vinca minor.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hong; Sun, Yu-Hong

    2011-06-15

    Vinca minor is a plant containing the alkaloid vincamine, which is used in the pharmaceutical industry as a cerebral stimulant and vasodilator. The objective of this study was to determine whether endophytic fungi isolated from V. minor produce vincamine. Primary screening was carried out using Dragendorff's and Mayer's reactions, and strain re-selection was made by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to identify the fermentation products of the selected strain. We isolated 10 endophytic fungal strains from V. minor. An extract from one (Vm-J2), showed positive reactions with both Dragendorff's and Mayer's reagents. The strain had a component with the same TLC R(f) value and HPLC retention time as authentic vincamine. Therefore, the fungus appeared to produce the same bioactive ingredient, vincamine, as the host plant. The prospect of using endophytic fungi to produce the phytoactive compound by fungal fermentation is discussed. PMID:21315568

  3. Molecular Karyotype of the White Rot Fungus Pleurotus ostreatus

    PubMed Central

    Larraya, Luis M.; Pérez, Gumer; Peñas, María M.; Baars, Johan J. P.; Mikosch, Thomas S. P.; Pisabarro, Antonio G.; Ramírez, Lucía

    1999-01-01

    The white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus is an edible basidiomycete with increasing agricultural and biotechnological importance. Genetic manipulation and breeding of this organism are restricted because of the lack of knowledge about its genomic structure. In this study, we analyzed the genomic constitution of P. ostreatus by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis optimized for the separation of its chromosomes. We have determined that it contains 11 pairs of chromosomes with sizes ranging from 1.4 to 4.7 Mbp. In addition to chromosome separation, the use of single-copy DNA probes allowed us to resolve the ambiguities caused by chromosome comigration. When the two nuclei present in the dikaryon were separated by protoplasting, analysis of their karyotypes revealed length polymorphisms affecting various chromosomes. This is, to our knowledge, the clearest chromosome separation available for this species. PMID:10427028

  4. Identification of Oxaphenalenone Ketals from the Ascomycete Fungus Neonectria sp.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jinwei; Niu, Shubing; Li, Li; Geng, Zhufeng; Liu, Xingzhong; Che, Yongsheng

    2015-06-26

    Neonectrolides B-E (4-7), four new oxaphenalenone ketals incorporating the new furo[2,3-b]isochromeno[3,4,5-def]chromen-11(6aH)-one skeleton, were isolated from the fermentation extract of the ascomycete fungus Neonectria sp. in an in-depth investigation guided by HPLC fingerprint and a cytotoxicity assay. The previously identified oxaphenalenone spiroketal neonectrolide A (1) and its putative biosynthetic precursors (2 and 3) were also reisolated in the current work. The structures of 4-7 were primarily elucidated by interpretation of NMR spectroscopic data, and the absolute configurations were deduced by electronic circular dichroism calculations. Compound 6 showed cytotoxic effects against four of the six human tumor cell lines tested. Biosynthetically, compounds 4-7 could be derived via the Diels-Alder reaction cascades starting from derivatives of the co-isolated metabolites 2 and 3. PMID:25978132

  5. Extracellular microbial synthesis of gold nanoparticles using fungus Hormoconis resinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Anuj Narayan; Bhadauria, Seema; Gaur, Mulayam Singh; Pasricha, Renu

    2010-11-01

    In this study, the fungus Hormoconis resinae was screened from soil near a refinery and was found to produce stable gold nanoparticles extracellularly. The kinetics of the reaction was studied using UV-Vis spectroscopy and was further characterized by x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. These analyses revealed that the gold nanoparticles are spherical and in nano-regime. The most important feature of Hormoconis resinae fungi is the following fact: they have a widespread presence in soil and can produce huge biomass. Such a cheap source of material gives the opportunity for cost-effective preparation of various gold-based nanostructures.

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of the nematophagous fungus Acremonium implicatum.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yurong; Lin, Runmao; Tian, Xueliang; Shen, Baoming; Mao, Zhenchuan; Xie, Bingyan

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the nematophagous fungus Acremonium implicatum is reported for the first time. The genome is concatenated with 22,367 bp in length, encoding 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and a set of 17 transfer RNA genes. The synteny analysis reveals that 50.35% of A. implicatum mitochondrial sequences matched to 48.21% of Acremonium chrysogenum mitochondrial sequences with 85.68% identity. Two proteins of cox3 and nad6, as well as seven tRNAs are lost in A. implicatum mitogenome compared to A. chrysogenum mitogenome. The gene orders in A. implicatum and A. chrysogenum mitogenome is different, which is mainly due to the location of nad4 and cox2. In addition, one transposition event related to tRNAs is identified in these two mitogenomes. This study may provide valuable mitochondrial information for research on A. implicatum and facilitate the study of mitochondrial evolution. PMID:25630733

  7. New Bergamotane Sesquiterpenoids from the Plant Endophytic Fungus Paraconiothyrium brasiliense.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhe; Ren, Fengxia; Che, Yongsheng; Liu, Gang; Liu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Brasilamides K-N (1-4), four new bergamotane sesquiterpenoids; with 4-oxatricyclo (3.3.1.0 (2,7))nonane (1)and 9-oxatricyclo(4.3.0.0 (4,7))nonane (2-4) skeletons; were isolated from the scale-up fermentation cultures of the plant endophytic fungus Paraconiothynium brasiliense Verkley. The previously identified sesquiterpenoids brasilamides A and C (5 and 6) were also reisolated in the current work. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated primarily by interpretation of NMR spectroscopic data. The absolute configurations of 1-3 were deduced by analogy to the co-isolated metabolites 5 and 6; whereas that of C-12 in 4 was assigned using the modified Mosher method. The cytotoxicity of all compounds against a panel of eight human tumor cell lines were assayed. PMID:26274948

  8. Enzymes and bioproducts produced by the ascomycete fungus Paecilomyces variotii.

    PubMed

    Herrera Bravo de Laguna, I; Toledo Marante, F J; Mioso, R

    2015-12-01

    Due its innate ability to produce extracellular enzymes which can provide eco-friendly solutions for a variety of biotechnological applications, Paecilomyces variotii is a potential source of industrial bioproducts. In this review, we report biotechnological records on the biochemistry of different enzymes produced by the fermentation of the P. variotii fungus, including tannases, phytases, cellulases, xylanases, chitinases, amylases and pectinases. Additionally, the main physicochemical properties which can affect the enzymatic reactions of the enzymes involved in the conversion of a huge number of substrates to high-value bioproducts are described. Despite all the background information compiled in this review, more research is required to consolidate the catalytic efficiency of P. variotii, which must be optimized so that it is more accurate and reproducible on a large scale. PMID:26274842

  9. Reionization and dark matter decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldengott, Isabel M.; Boriero, Daniel; Schwarz, Dominik J.

    2016-08-01

    Cosmic reionization and dark matter decay can impact observations of the cosmic microwave sky in a similar way. A simultaneous study of both effects is required to constrain unstable dark matter from cosmic microwave background observations. We compare two reionization models with and without dark matter decay. We find that a reionization model that fits also data from quasars and star forming galaxies results in tighter constraints on the reionization optical depth τreio, but weaker constraints on the spectral index ns than the conventional parametrization. We use the Planck 2015 data to constrain the effective decay rate of dark matter to Γeff < 2.9 × 10‑25/s at 95% C.L. This limit is robust and model independent. It holds for any type of decaying dark matter and it depends only weakly on the chosen parametrization of astrophysical reionization. For light dark matter particles that decay exclusively into electromagnetic components this implies a limit of Γ < 5.3 × 10‑26/s at 95% C.L. Specifying the decay channels, we apply our result to the case of keV-mass sterile neutrinos as dark matter candidates and obtain constraints on their mixing angle and mass, which are comparable to the ones from the diffuse X-ray background.

  10. Disposable diapers biodegradation by the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Valdemar, Rosa María; Turpin-Marion, Sylvie; Delfín-Alcalá, Irma; Vázquez-Morillas, Alethia

    2011-08-01

    This research assesses the feasibility of degrading used disposable diapers, an important component (5-15% in weight) of urban solid waste in Mexico, by the activity of the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus, also known as oyster mushroom. Disposable diapers contain polyethylene, polypropylene and a super absorbent polymer. Nevertheless, its main component is cellulose, which degrades slowly. P. ostreatus has been utilized extensively to degrade cellulosic materials of agroindustrial sources, using in situ techniques. The practice has been extended to the commercial farming of the mushroom. This degradation capacity was assayed to reduce mass and volume of used disposable diapers. Pilot laboratory assays were performed to estimate the usefulness of the following variables on conditioning of used diapers before they act as substrate for P. ostreatus: (1) permanence vs removal of plastic cover; (2) shredding vs grinding; (3) addition of grape wastes to improve structure, nitrogen and trace elements content. Wheat straw was used as a positive control. After 68 days, decrease of the mass of diapers and productivity of fungus was measured. Weight and volume of degradable materials was reduced up to 90%. Cellulose content was diminished in 50% and lignine content in 47%. The highest efficiency for degradation of cellulosic materials corresponded to the substrates that showed highest biological efficiency, which varied from 0% to 34%. Harvested mushrooms had good appearance and protein content and were free of human disease pathogens. This research indicates that growing P. ostreatus on disposable diapers could be a good alternative for two current problems: reduction of urban solid waste and availability of high protein food sources. PMID:21474296

  11. Characterization of manganese peroxidases from the hyperlignolytic fungus IZU-154.

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, M; Suzuki, J; Deguchi, T; Miura, M; Kitaoka, Y

    1996-01-01

    Four isozymes of manganese peroxidase (MnP) were identified in the culture fluid of the hyperlignolytic fungus IZU-154 under nitrogen starvation conditions. One of them was purified and characterized kinetically. The specific activity and Kcat/K(m) value of the MnP from IZU-154 were 1.6 times higher than those of the MnP from a typical lignin-degrading fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Two cDNAs encoding MnP isozymes from IZU-154 were isolated. The coding sequence of the two cDNAs, IZ-MnP1 cDNA and IZ-MnP2 cDNA, were 1,152 (384 amino acids) and 1,155 (385 amino acids) bp in length, respectively. They exhibit 96.2% identity at the nucleotide level and 95.1% identity at the amino acid level. Southern blot analysis indicated that two MnP isozyme genes exist in IZU-154 genomic DNA. The primary structures of two MnPs from IZU-154 were similar to those of MnPs from P. chrysosporium. The amino acid sequences including the important residues identified in MnPs from P. chrysosporium, such as the manganese-binding residues, the calcium-binding residues, the disulfide bonds, and the N-glycosylation site, were conserved in the two deduced IZ-MnPs. However, several discrepancies were found in the context around the distal histidine residue between MnP from IZU-154 and MnP from P. chrysosporium, which likely led to the difference in the kinetic parameters for MnP function. PMID:8899997

  12. Bioremediation with white rot fungus. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of white rot fungus to degrade a variety of hazardous materials. The citations examine the application of the fungus to the remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentachlorophenol, herbicides, insecticides, and other environmentally persistent organic compounds. The results of laboratory and field studies are presented. The use of white rot fungus in biological pulping and delignification is also discussed. (Contains a minimum of 50 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Degradation of chlorbromuron and related compounds by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Weinberger, M; Bollag, J M

    1972-11-01

    The ability of the soil fungus Rhizoctonia solani to degrade phenyl-substituted urea herbicides was investigated. The fungus was able to transform chlorbromuron [3-(3-chloro-4-bromophenyl)-1-methyl-1-methoxyurea] to the demethylated product [3-(3-chloro-4-bromophenyl)-1-methoxyurea], which was isolated and identified. Evidence was obtained that further degradation of chlorbromuron occurred. Several other phenylurea compounds (chloroxuron, diuron, fenuron, fluometuron, linuron, metobromuron, neburon, and siduron) were also metabolized by the fungus, indicating that R. solani may possess a generalized ability to attack this group of herbicides. PMID:4640737

  14. [Scytalidium dimidiatum an opportunistic fungus for both man and Mangifera indica trees in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Padin, Carmiña; Fernández-Zeppenfeldt, Guillermo; Yegres, Francisco; Richard-Yegres, Nicole

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to confirm the presence of Scytalidium dimidiatum on Mangifera indica (mango) trees, in a plantation managed by a diabetic patient with a white grain mycetoma of the foot caused by the same fungus. Samples from necrotic apices, roots, burned leaves and rotten stems from eight trees were processed by the Smith and Furcolow's mineral oil technique (modified). Several isolates from the apex material and clinical samples from the diabetic patient isolated in pure culture a fungus with the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of that in S. dimidiatum. This fungus should be considered as an opportunistic microorganism for both humans and M. indica. PMID:16309356

  15. 7 CFR 51.898 - Decay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Decay. 51.898 Section 51.898 Agriculture Regulations... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.898 Decay. Decay means.... Slight surface development of green mold (Cladosporium) shall not be considered decay....

  16. Involutin Is an Fe3+ Reductant Secreted by the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Paxillus involutus during Fenton-Based Decomposition of Organic Matter

    PubMed Central

    Schwenk, Daniel; Nicolás, César; Persson, Per; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Tunlid, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi play a key role in mobilizing nutrients embedded in recalcitrant organic matter complexes, thereby increasing nutrient accessibility to the host plant. Recent studies have shown that during the assimilation of nutrients, the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus decomposes organic matter using an oxidative mechanism involving Fenton chemistry (Fe2+ + H2O2 + H+ → Fe3+ + ˙OH + H2O), similar to that of brown rot wood-decaying fungi. In such fungi, secreted metabolites are one of the components that drive one-electron reductions of Fe3+ and O2, generating Fenton chemistry reagents. Here we investigated whether such a mechanism is also implemented by P. involutus during organic matter decomposition. Activity-guided purification was performed to isolate the Fe3+-reducing principle secreted by P. involutus during growth on a maize compost extract. The Fe3+-reducing activity correlated with the presence of one compound. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) identified this compound as the diarylcyclopentenone involutin. A major part of the involutin produced by P. involutus during organic matter decomposition was secreted into the medium, and the metabolite was not detected when the fungus was grown on a mineral nutrient medium. We also demonstrated that in the presence of H2O2, involutin has the capacity to drive an in vitro Fenton reaction via Fe3+ reduction. Our results show that the mechanism for the reduction of Fe3+ and the generation of hydroxyl radicals via Fenton chemistry by ectomycorrhizal fungi during organic matter decomposition is similar to that employed by the evolutionarily related brown rot saprotrophs during wood decay. PMID:26431968

  17. Involutin is an Fe3+ reductant secreted by the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus during Fenton-based decomposition of organic matter.

    PubMed

    Shah, Firoz; Schwenk, Daniel; Nicolás, César; Persson, Per; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Tunlid, Anders

    2015-12-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi play a key role in mobilizing nutrients embedded in recalcitrant organic matter complexes, thereby increasing nutrient accessibility to the host plant. Recent studies have shown that during the assimilation of nutrients, the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus decomposes organic matter using an oxidative mechanism involving Fenton chemistry (Fe(2+) + H2O2 + H(+) → Fe(3+) + ˙OH + H2O), similar to that of brown rot wood-decaying fungi. In such fungi, secreted metabolites are one of the components that drive one-electron reductions of Fe(3+) and O2, generating Fenton chemistry reagents. Here we investigated whether such a mechanism is also implemented by P. involutus during organic matter decomposition. Activity-guided purification was performed to isolate the Fe(3+)-reducing principle secreted by P. involutus during growth on a maize compost extract. The Fe(3+)-reducing activity correlated with the presence of one compound. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) identified this compound as the diarylcyclopentenone involutin. A major part of the involutin produced by P. involutus during organic matter decomposition was secreted into the medium, and the metabolite was not detected when the fungus was grown on a mineral nutrient medium. We also demonstrated that in the presence of H2O2, involutin has the capacity to drive an in vitro Fenton reaction via Fe(3+) reduction. Our results show that the mechanism for the reduction of Fe(3+) and the generation of hydroxyl radicals via Fenton chemistry by ectomycorrhizal fungi during organic matter decomposition is similar to that employed by the evolutionarily related brown rot saprotrophs during wood decay. PMID:26431968

  18. Unsolved problems in hadronic charm decay

    SciTech Connect

    Browder, T.E.

    1989-08-01

    This paper describes several outstanding problems in the study of hadronic decays of charmed mesons where further experimental work and theoretical understanding is needed. Four topics are stressed: double Cabibbo suppressed decays (DCSD) of D/sup +/ mesons, hadronic D/sub s/ decays, weak hadronic quasi-two-body decays to pairs of vector mesons, and penguin decays of D mesons. 24 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Deciphering the molecular mechanisms behind cellulase production in Trichoderma reesei, the hyper-cellulolytic filamentous fungus.

    PubMed

    Shida, Yosuke; Furukawa, Takanori; Ogasawara, Wataru

    2016-09-01

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is a potent cellulase producer and the best-studied cellulolytic fungus. A lot of investigations not only on glycoside hydrolases produced by T. reesei, but also on the machinery controlling gene expression of these enzyme have made this fungus a model organism for cellulolytic fungi. We have investigated the T. reesei strain including mutants developed in Japan in detail to understand the molecular mechanisms that control the cellulase gene expression, the biochemical and morphological aspects that could favor this phenotype, and have attempted to generate novel strains that may be appropriate for industrial use. Subsequently, we developed recombinant strains by combination of these insights and the heterologous-efficient saccharifing enzymes. Resulting enzyme preparations were highly effective for saccharification of various biomass. In this review, we present some of the salient findings from the recent biochemical, morphological, and molecular analyses of this remarkable cellulase hyper-producing fungus. PMID:27075508

  20. Development of 11 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the blackberry rust fungus Phragmidium violaceum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the Uredinales fungus Phragmidium violaceum, which causes leaf rust on European blackberry (Rubus fruticosus L. aggregate). Allele frequency ranged between two and seventeen alleles per locus with no evidence of linkage disequilibrium amon...

  1. Biodegradation of hazardous waste using white rot fungus: Project planning and concept development document

    SciTech Connect

    Luey, J.; Brouns, T.M.; Elliott, M.L.

    1990-11-01

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been shown to effectively degrade pollutants such as trichlorophenol, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and other halogenated aromatic compounds. These refractory organic compounds and many others have been identified in the tank waste, groundwater and soil of various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The treatment of these refractory organic compounds has been identified as a high priority for DOE's Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT E) waste treatment programs. Unlike many bacteria, the white rot fungus P. chrysosporium is capable of degrading these types of refractory organics and may be valuable for the treatment of wastes containing multiple pollutants. The objectives of this project are to identify DOE waste problems amenable to white rot fungus treatment and to develop and demonstrate white rot fungus treatment process for these hazardous organic compounds. 32 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Investigating the biology of plant infection by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Martin-Urdiroz, Magdalena; Oses-Ruiz, Miriam; Ryder, Lauren S; Talbot, Nicholas J

    2016-05-01

    The rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, is responsible for the most serious disease of rice and is a continuing threat to ensuring global food security. The fungus has also, however, emerged as a model experimental organism for understanding plant infection processes by pathogenic fungi. This is largely due to its amenability to both classical and molecular genetics, coupled with the efforts of a very large international research community. This review, which is based on a plenary presentation at the 28th Fungal Genetics Conference in Asilomar, California in March 2015, describes recent progress in understanding how M. oryzae uses specialised cell called appressoria to bring about plant infection and the underlying biology of this developmental process. We also review how the fungus is then able to proliferate within rice tissue, deploying effector proteins to facilitate its spread by suppressing plant immunity and promoting growth and development of the fungus. PMID:26703899

  3. Limited transmission of the ectoparasitic fungus Hesperomyces virescens between lady beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ectoparasitic fungus Hesperomyces virescens Thaxter (Ascomycota: Laboulbeniales) commonly infects the invasive lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) and several other aphidophagous lady beetles in North America and Europe. We tested the hypothesis that bodily contact between adults of differen...

  4. Decay curve study in a standard electron capture decay

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, D.; Fukuda, M.; Kisamori, K.; Kuwada, Y.; Makisaka, K.; Matsumiya, R.; Matsuta, K.; Mihara, M.; Takagi, A.; Yokoyama, R.; Izumikawa, T.; Ohtsubo, T.; Suzuki, T.; Yamaguchi, T.

    2010-05-12

    We have searched for a time-modulated decay in a standard electron capture experiment for {sup 140}Pr, in order to confirm a report from GSI, where an oscillatory decay has been observed for hydrogen-like {sup 140}Pr and {sup 142}Pm ions in the cooler storage ring. {sup 140}Pr has been produced with the {sup 140}Ce(p, n) reaction by a pulsed proton beam accelerated from the Van de Graaff accelerator at Osaka University. Resultant time dependence of the K{sub a}lpha and K{sub b}eta X-ray intensities from the daughter shows no oscillatory behavior.

  5. Genome Sequence of Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae, a Quarantine Plant-Pathogenic Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ruifang; Cheng, Yinghui; Wang, Ying; Wang, Ying; Guo, Liyun

    2015-01-01

    Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae is a serious plant-pathogenic fungus causing red core disease in strawberries, resulting in a larger number of fruit produced, and the fungus has been regulated as a quarantine pest of many countries and regions. Here, we announce the genome sequence of P. fragariae var. fragariae, and this information might provide insight into the mechanism of pathogenicity and host specificity of this pathogen, as well as help us further identify targets for fungicides. PMID:25814589

  6. Exploring the potential for actinobacteria as defensive symbionts in fungus-growing termites.

    PubMed

    Visser, Anna A; Nobre, Tânia; Currie, Cameron R; Aanen, Duur K; Poulsen, Michael

    2012-05-01

    In fungus-growing termites, fungi of the subgenus Pseudoxylaria threaten colony health through substrate competition with the termite fungus (Termitomyces). The potential mechanisms with which termites suppress Pseudoxylaria have remained unknown. Here we explore if Actinobacteria potentially play a role as defensive symbionts against Pseudoxylaria in fungus-growing termites. We sampled for Actinobacteria from 30 fungus-growing termite colonies, spanning the three main termite genera and two geographically distant sites. Our isolations yielded 360 Actinobacteria, from which we selected subsets for morphological (288 isolates, grouped in 44 morphotypes) and for 16S rRNA (35 isolates, spanning the majority of morphotypes) characterisation. Actinobacteria were found throughout all sampled nests and colony parts and, phylogenetically, they are interspersed with Actinobacteria from origins other than fungus-growing termites, indicating lack of specificity. Antibiotic-activity screening of 288 isolates against the fungal cultivar and competitor revealed that most of the Actinobacteria-produced molecules with antifungal activity. A more detailed bioassay on 53 isolates, to test the specificity of antibiotics, showed that many Actinobacteria inhibit both Pseudoxylaria and Termitomyces, and that the cultivar fungus generally is more susceptible to inhibition than the competitor. This suggests that either defensive symbionts are not present in the system or that they, if present, represent a subset of the community isolated. If so, the antibiotics must be used in a targeted fashion, being applied to specific areas by the termites. We describe the first discovery of an assembly of antibiotic-producing Actinobacteria occurring in fungus-growing termite nests. However, due to the diversity found, and the lack of both phylogenetic and bioactivity specificity, further work is necessary for a better understanding of the putative role of antibiotic-producing bacteria in the fungus

  7. Three Native Cellulose-Depolymerizing Endoglucanases from Solid-Substrate Cultures of the Brown Rot Fungus Meruliporia (Serpula) incrassata

    PubMed Central

    Kleman-Leyer, Karen M.; Kirk, T. Kent

    1994-01-01

    Three extracellular cellulose-depolymerizing enzymes from cotton undergoing decay by the brown rot fungus Meruliporia (Serpula) incrassata were isolated by anion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatographies. Depolymerization was detected by analyzing the changes in the molecular size distribution of cotton cellulose by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography. The average degree of polymerization (DP; number of glucosyl residues per cellulose chain) was calculated from the size-exclusion chromatography data. The very acidic purified endoglucanases, Cel 25, Cel 49, and Cel 57, were glycosylated and had molecular weights of 25,200, 48,500, and 57,100, respectively. Two, Cel 25 and Cel 49, depolymerized cotton cellulose and were also very active on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). Cel 57, by contrast, significantly depolymerized cotton cellulose but did not release reducing sugars from CMC and only very slightly reduced the viscosity of CMC solutions. Molecular size distributions of cotton cellulose attacked by the three endoglucanases revealed single major peaks that shifted to lower DP positions. A second smaller peak (DP, 10 to 20) was also observed in the size-exclusion chromatograms of cotton attacked by Cel 49 and Cel 57. Under the reaction conditions used, Cel 25, the most active of the cellulases, reduced the weight average DP from 3,438 to 315, solubilizing approximately 20% of the cellulose. The weight average DP values of cotton attacked under the same conditions by Cel 49 and Cel 57 were 814 and 534; weight losses were 9 and 11% respectively. Images PMID:16349351

  8. The search for proton decay

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, T.; Kaneyuki, K.; McGrew, C.; Mohapatra, R.; Peterson, E.; Cline, D.B.

    1994-12-31

    The conservation of the quantum number called baryon number, like lepton (or family) number, is an empirical fact even though there are very good reasons to expect otherwise. Experimentalists have been searching for baryon number violating decays of the proton and neutron for decades now without success. Theorists have evolved deep understanding of the relationship between the natural forces in the development of various Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) that nearly universally predict baryon number violating proton decay, or related phenomena like n-{bar n} oscillations. With this in mind, the Proton Decay Working Group reviewed the current experimental and theoretical status of the search for baryon number violation with an eye to the advancement in the next decade.

  9. Tunneling decay of false kinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, Éric; Gobeil, Yan; MacKenzie, Richard; Marleau, Luc; Paranjape, M. B.; Ung, Yvan

    2015-07-01

    We consider the decay of "false kinks," that is, kinks formed in a scalar field theory with a pair of degenerate symmetry-breaking false vacua in 1 +1 dimensions. The true vacuum is symmetric. A second scalar field and a peculiar potential are added in order for the kink to be classically stable. We find an expression for the decay rate of a false kink. As with any tunneling event, the rate is proportional to exp (-SE) where SE is the Euclidean action of the bounce describing the tunneling event. This factor varies wildly depending on the parameters of the model. Of interest is the fact that for certain parameters SE can get arbitrarily small, implying that the kink is only barely stable. Thus, while the false vacuum itself may be very long-lived, the presence of kinks can give rise to rapid vacuum decay.

  10. Observable signatures of inflaton decays

    SciTech Connect

    Battefeld, Diana; Battefeld, Thorsten; Giblin, John T. Jr.; Pease, Evan K. E-mail: tbattefe@astro.physik.uni-goettingen.de E-mail: peasee@kenyon.edu

    2011-02-01

    We numerically compute features in the power-spectrum that originate from the decay of fields during inflation. Using a simple, phenomenological, multi-field setup, we increase the number of fields from a few to thousands. Whenever a field decays, its associated potential energy is transferred into radiation, causing a jump in the equation of state parameter and mode mixing at the perturbed level. We observe discrete steps in the power-spectrum if the number of fields is low, in agreement with analytic arguments in the literature. These features become increasingly smeared out once many fields decay within a given Hubble time. In this regime we confirm the validity of the analytic approach to staggered inflation, which is based on a coarse-graining procedure. Our numerical approach bridges the aforementioned analytic treatments, and can be used in more complicated scenarios.

  11. Free radical decay in adamantane

    SciTech Connect

    Tegowski, A.T.; Pratt, D.W.

    1984-01-11

    Kinetic electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques have been used to characterize the decay behavior of the ''stable'' free radical 2-cyclohexanonyl in the plastic crystal phase f an adamantane matrix over the temperature range 257-313 K. Typical plots of the EPR signal intensity as a function of time are biexponential in nature, suggesting the existence of at least two channels for free radical decay. The activation parameters for both processes have been measured in both protonated and deuterated samples. A comparison of these results with those in other systems suggests that the host does, as expected, considerably reduce the pre-exponential factors for decay of the radical by bimolecular processes but has relatively little influence on the corresponding activation energies. 3 figures.

  12. EC decay of 244Bk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodaye, Suparna; Tripathi, R.; Sudarshan, K.; Sharma, S. K.; Pujari, P. K.; Palit, R.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2014-12-01

    Berkelium isotopes have been produced in 11B-induced reaction on 238U. The EC decay of 244Bk → 244Cm has been studied by carrying out the single and coincidence measurements of the γ-rays emitted during the de-excitation of the 244Cm levels. Radiochemical separations have been carried out to minimize the contribution from the fission products and target. The new half-life of 244Bk is obtained as 5.02 ± 0.03 h, which is close to the theoretically calculated value. The relative intensities of the decay γ-rays have been re-evaluated. Based on the coincidence measurements, a tentative partial level scheme for 244Bk → 244Cm decay has been proposed.

  13. Heavy quark spectroscopy and decay

    SciTech Connect

    Schindler, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    The understanding of q anti q systems containing heavy, charmed, and bottom quarks has progressed rapidly in recent years, through steady improvements in experimental techniques for production and detection of their decays. These lectures are meant to be an experimentalist's review of the subject. In the first of two lectures, the existing data on the spectroscopy of the bound c anti c and b anti b systems will be discussed. Emphasis is placed on comparisons with the theoretical models. The second lecture covers the rapidly changing subject of the decays of heavy mesons (c anti q and b anti q), and their excited states. In combination, the spectroscopy and decays of heavy quarks are shown to provide interesting insights into both the strong and electroweak interactions of the heavy quarks. 103 refs., 39 figs.

  14. Deciphering the salinity adaptation mechanism in Penicilliopsis clavariiformis AP, a rare salt tolerant fungus from mangrove.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Prem Lal; Rai, Anuradha; Singh, Ruchi; Chakdar, Hillol; Kumar, Sudheer; Srivastava, Alok Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Penicilliopsis clavariiformis AP, a rare salt tolerant fungus reported for the first time from India was identified through polyphasic taxonomy. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the fungus has unique features such as biverticillate penicilli bearing masses of oval to ellipsoidal conidia. The fungus has been characterized for salt tolerance and to understand the relevance of central carbon metabolism in salt stress adaptation. It showed optimal growth at 24 °C and able to tolerate up to 10% (w/v) NaCl. To understand the mechanism of adaptation to high salinity, activities of the key enzymes regulating glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, and tricarboxylic acid cycle were investigated under normal (0% NaCl) and saline stress environment (10% NaCl). The results revealed a re-routing of carbon metabolism away from glycolysis to the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), served as a cellular stress-resistance mechanism in fungi under saline environment. The detection and significant expression of fungus genes (Hsp98, Hsp60, HTB, and RHO) under saline stress suggest that these halotolerance conferring genes from the fungus could have a role in fungus protection and adaptation under saline environment. Overall, the present findings indicate that the rearrangement of the metabolic fluxes distribution and stress related genes play an important role in cell survival and adaptation under saline environment. PMID:26663001

  15. Identification and evaluation of SERI-NF1 fungus for ethanol production from xylose fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Antonopoulos, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    This work aimed at identifying the SERI-NF1 fungus isolated by Solar Energy Research Institute investigators, as well as evaluating the fungus as an ethanol producer from xylose fermentations. Microscopic and physiological observations led to the conclusion that the fungus is Paecilomyces varioti Bainier 1907. The fungus grows relatively fast in PDA plates, and its cultures release a light sweet aromatic odor. In liquid cultures the fungus forms round mycelial balls (1--12 mm in diameter). It showed to be thermophilic (grown well at 26--36/degree/C) and thermotolerant (exposed for two hours to 60/degree/C resumed its growth), and to prefer pH levels close to neutrality. Cultures of the fungus were tested (in 125 ml flasks) for fermenting xylose to ethanol. Its growth in the liquid cultures was slow and formed mycelial balls. The yield of ethanol production was low. The amount of fungal mass has to be more than a few mycelial balls per flask to get a reasonable yield of ethanol. 17 refs., 1 fig.

  16. The fungus gardens of leaf-cutter ants undergo a distinct physiological transition during biomass degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Eric L.; Aylward, Frank O.; Kim, Young-Mo; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Hu, Zeping; Metz, Thomas O.; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.; Currie, Cameron R.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.

    2014-08-01

    Leaf-cutter ants are dominant herbivores in ecosystems throughout the Neotropics. Rather than directly consuming the fresh foliar biomass they harvest, these ants use it to cultivate specialized fungus gardens. Although recent investigations have shed light on how plant biomass is degraded in fungus gardens, the cycling of nutrients that takes place in these specialized microbial ecosystems is still not well understood. Here, using metametabolomics and metaproteomics techniques, we examine the dynamics of nutrient turnover and biosynthesis in these gardens. Our results reveal that numerous free amino acids and sugars are depleted throughout the process of biomass degradation, indicating that easily accessible nutrients from plant material are readily consumed by microbes in these ecosystems. Accumulation of cellobiose and lignin derivatives near the end of the degradation process is consistent with previous findings of cellulases and laccases produced by Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the fungus cultivated by leaf-cutter ants. Our results also suggest that ureides may be an important source of nitrogen in fungus gardens, especially during nitrogen-limiting conditions. No free arginine was detected in our metametabolomics experiments despite evidence that the host ants cannot produce this amino acid, suggesting that biosynthesis of this metabolite may be tightly regulated in the fungus garden. These results provide new insights into the dynamics of nutrient cycling that underlie this important ant-fungus symbiosis.

  17. The Dynamics of Plant Cell-Wall Polysaccharide Decomposition in Leaf-Cutting Ant Fungus Gardens

    PubMed Central

    Harholt, Jesper; Willats, William G. T.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2011-01-01

    The degradation of live plant biomass in fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants is poorly characterised but fundamental for understanding the mutual advantages and efficiency of this obligate nutritional symbiosis. Controversies about the extent to which the garden-symbiont Leucocoprinus gongylophorus degrades cellulose have hampered our understanding of the selection forces that induced large scale herbivory and of the ensuing ecological footprint of these ants. Here we use a recently established technique, based on polysaccharide microarrays probed with antibodies and carbohydrate binding modules, to map the occurrence of cell wall polymers in consecutive sections of the fungus garden of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior. We show that pectin, xyloglucan and some xylan epitopes are degraded, whereas more highly substituted xylan and cellulose epitopes remain as residuals in the waste material that the ants remove from their fungus garden. These results demonstrate that biomass entering leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens is only partially utilized and explain why disproportionally large amounts of plant material are needed to sustain colony growth. They also explain why substantial communities of microbial and invertebrate symbionts have evolved associations with the dump material from leaf-cutting ant nests, to exploit decomposition niches that the ant garden-fungus does not utilize. Our approach thus provides detailed insight into the nutritional benefits and shortcomings associated with fungus-farming in ants. PMID:21423735

  18. Fungal garden making inside bamboos by a non-social fungus-growing beetle.

    PubMed

    Toki, Wataru; Takahashi, Yukiko; Togashi, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    In fungus-growing mutualism, it is indispensable for host animals to establish gardens of the symbiotic fungus as rapidly as possible. How to establish fungal gardens has been well-documented in social fungus-farming insects, whereas poorly documented in non-social fungus-farming insects. Here we report that the non-social, fungus-growing lizard beetle Doubledaya bucculenta (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Languriinae) transmits the symbiotic yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus from the ovipositor-associated mycangium into bamboo internode cavities and disperses the yeast in the cavities to make gardens. Microbial isolation and cryo-scanning electron microscopy observation revealed that W. anomalus was constantly located on the posterior ends of eggs, where larvae came out, and on the inner openings of oviposition holes. Direct observation of oviposition behavior inside internodes revealed that the distal parts of ovipositors showed a peristaltic movement when they were in contact with the posterior ends of eggs. Rearing experiments showed that W. anomalus was spread much more rapidly and widely on culture media and internodes in the presence of the larvae than in the absence. These results suggest that the ovipositors play a critical role in vertical transmission of W. anomalus and that the larvae contribute actively to the garden establishment, providing a novel case of fungal garden founding in non-social insect-fungus mutualism. PMID:24223958

  19. Dense fouling in acid transfer pipelines by an acidophilic rubber degrading fungus.

    PubMed

    Joshi, M Hiren; Balamurugan, P; Venugopalan, V P; Rao, T S

    2011-07-01

    An unique case of dense fouling by an acidophilic, hard rubber (polymerized rubber) degrading fungus in the acid transfer pipelines of a boron enrichment plant located at Kalpakkam, India is reported. In spite of a highly adverse environment for survival (pH 1.5, no dissolved nutrients), the fungus thrived and clogged the pipeline used for transferring 0.1N hydrochloric acid (HCl). Detailed investigations were carried out to isolate and identify the fungus and examine the nutrient source for such profuse growth inside the system. Microscopic observation showed the presence of a thick filamentous fungal biomass. Molecular characterization by 18S rRNA gene sequencing showed 98% similarity of the isolate with the acidophilic fungus Bispora sp. In laboratory studies the fungus showed luxuriant growth (specific growth rate of 13 mg day⁻¹) when scrapings of the hard rubber were used as the sole source of carbon. Scanning electron microscopy revealed extensive incursion of the fungus into the hard rubber matrix. In the laboratory, fungal growth was completely inhibited by the antifungal agent sodium omadine. The study illustrates an interesting example of biofouling under extreme conditions and demonstrates that organisms can physiologically adapt to grow under unfavourable conditions, provided that a nutrient source is available and competition is low. The use of this fungal strain in biodegradation and in development of environmentally compatible processes for disposal of rubber wastes is envisaged. PMID:21722066

  20. Microalgae harvesting via co-culture with filamentous fungus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gultom, Sarman Oktovianus

    Microalgae harvesting is a labor- and energy-intensive process. For instance, classical harvesting technologies such as chemical addition and mechanical separation are economically prohibiting for biofuel production. Newer approaches to harvest microalgae have been developed in order to decrease costs. Among these new methods, fungal co-pelletization seems to be a promising technology. By co-culturing filamentous fungi with microalgae, it is possible to form pellets, which can easily be separated. In this study, different parameters for the cultivation of filamentous fungus (Aspergillus niger) and microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) to efficiently form cell pellets were evaluated under heterotrophic and phototrophic conditions, including organic carbon source (glucose, glycerol and sodium acetate) concentration, pH, initial concentration of fungal spores, initial concentration of microalgal cells, concentration of ionic strength (Calcium and Magnesium) and concentration of salinity (NaCl). In addition, zeta-potential measurements were carried out in order to get a better understanding of the mechanism of attraction. It was found that 2 g/L of glucose, a fungus to microalgae ratio of 1:300, and uncontrolled pH (around 7) are the best culturing conditions for co-pelletization. Under these conditions, it was possible to achieve a high harvesting performance (>90%). In addition, it was observed that most pellets formed in the co-culture were spherical with an average diameter of 3.5 mm and in concentrations of about 5 pellets per mL of culture media. Under phototrophic conditions, co-pelletization required the addition of glucose as organic carbon source to sustain the growth of fungi and to allow the harvesting of microalgae. Zeta-potential measurements indicated that (i) both microalgae and fungi have low zeta-potential values regardless of the pH on the bulk (i.e. <-10 mV) (ii) fungi can have a positive electric charge at low pH (ie. pH=3). These values suggest that it

  1. The study of rare decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Wan-Li; Wang, Guo-Li; Fu, Hui-Feng; Wang, Tian-Hong; Jiang, Yue

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we study rare decays within the Standard Model. The penguin, box, annihilation, color-favored cascade and color-suppressed cascade contributions are included. Based on our calculation, the annihilation and color-favored cascade diagrams play important roles in the differential branching fractions, forward-backward asymmetries, longitudinal polarizations of the final vector mesons and leptonic longitudinal polarization asymmetries. More importantly, color-favored cascade decays largely enhance the resonance cascade contributions. To avoid the resonance cascade contribution pollution, new cutting regions are put forward.

  2. Laser-Assisted Muon Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Aihua; Li Shumin; Berakdar, Jamal

    2007-06-22

    We show theoretically that the muon lifetime can be changed dramatically by embedding the decaying muon in a strong linearly polarized laser field. Evaluating the S-matrix elements taking all electronic multiphoton processes into account we find that a CO{sub 2} laser with an electric field amplitude of 10{sup 6} V cm{sup -1} results in an order of magnitude shorter lifetime of the muon. We also analyze the dependencies of the decay rate on the laser frequency and intensity.

  3. Decay Data Evaluation Project (DDEP): evaluation of the main 233Pa decay characteristics.

    PubMed

    Chechev, Valery P; Kuzmenko, Nikolay K

    2006-01-01

    The results of a decay data evaluation are presented for 233Pa (beta-) decay to nuclear levels in 233U. These evaluated data have been obtained within the Decay Data Evaluation Project using information published up to 2005. PMID:16574422

  4. Metabolism of phenanthrene by the white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed Central

    Bezalel, L; Hadar, Y; Fu, P P; Freeman, J P; Cerniglia, C E

    1996-01-01

    The white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus, grown for 11 days in basidiomycetes rich medium containing [14C] phenanthrene, metabolized 94% of the phenanthrene added. Of the total radioactivity, 3% was oxidized to CO2. Approximately 52% of phenanthrene was metabolized to trans-9,10-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (phenanthrene trans-9,10-dihydrodiol) (28%), 2,2'-diphenic acid (17%), and unidentified metabolites (7%). Nonextractable metabolites accounted for 35% of the total radioactivity. The metabolites were extracted with ethyl acetate, separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and characterized by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, and UV spectroscopy analyses. 18O2-labeling experiments indicated that one atom of oxygen was incorporated into the phenanthrene trans-9,10-dihydrodiol. Circular dichroism spectra of the phenanthrene trans-9,10-dihydrodiol indicated that the absolute configuration of the predominant enantiomer was 9R,10R, which is different from that of the principal enantiomer produced by Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Significantly less phenanthrene trans-9,10-dihydrodiol was observed in incubations with the cytochrome P-450 inhibitor SKF 525-A (77% decrease), 1-aminobenzotriazole (83% decrease), or fluoxetine (63% decrease). These experiments with cytochrome P-450 inhibitors and 18O2 labeling and the formation of phenanthrene trans-9R,10R-dihydrodiol as the predominant metabolite suggest that P. ostreatus initially oxidizes phenanthrene stereoselectively by a cytochrome P-450 monoxygenase and that this is followed by epoxide hydrolase-catalyzed hydration reactions. PMID:8779594

  5. ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS ENTOMOPHAGA MAIMAIGA AND INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT IN SERBIA.

    PubMed

    Tabaković-Tosić, Mara

    2015-01-01

    During the latest outbreak of the gypsy moth in Serbia (2009-2014), some areas of Central Serbia were particularly endangered, and one of them was Krusevac region, where the forests give way to orchards in the pattern resembling the tiger's skin. Since the number of the laid egg masses in the autumn 2013 guaranteed the defoliation of both forest tree species and agricultural crops, and the presence of E. maimaigo, in Central Serbia had already been determined, at 30 selected plots the assisted spread of it was performed, through the introduction of the infectious inoculum in the beech and oak forests which border the orchards. Since there was dealt with the living organism--fungus, which is particularly susceptible to the weather conditions (temperature and air humidity, as well as the precipitation), and under the conditions of the global warming and great drought, the special recipe for the preparation of inoculum was made. In the following year the mass epizootic of the gypsy moth caterpillars, of the younger instars (L2 and L3), occurred, which implies that E. maimaiga caused the crash of the outbreak of this most harmful species of the defoliating insects of the forests and orchards. PMID:27145580

  6. Structural analysis of fungus-derived FAD glucose dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Hiromi; Sakai, Genki; Mori, Kazushige; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Kamitori, Shigehiro; Sode, Koji

    2015-01-01

    We report the first three-dimensional structure of fungus-derived glucose dehydrogenase using flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) as the cofactor. This is currently the most advanced and popular enzyme used in glucose sensor strips manufactured for glycemic control by diabetic patients. We prepared recombinant nonglycosylated FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (FADGDH) derived from Aspergillus flavus (AfGDH) and obtained the X-ray structures of the binary complex of enzyme and reduced FAD at a resolution of 1.78 Å and the ternary complex with reduced FAD and D-glucono-1,5-lactone (LGC) at a resolution of 1.57 Å. The overall structure is similar to that of fungal glucose oxidases (GOxs) reported till date. The ternary complex with reduced FAD and LGC revealed the residues recognizing the substrate. His505 and His548 were subjected for site-directed mutagenesis studies, and these two residues were revealed to form the catalytic pair, as those conserved in GOxs. The absence of residues that recognize the sixth hydroxyl group of the glucose of AfGDH, and the presence of significant cavity around the active site may account for this enzyme activity toward xylose. The structural information will contribute to the further engineering of FADGDH for use in more reliable and economical biosensing technology for diabetes management. PMID:26311535

  7. Characterization of Transposable Elements in the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Laccaria bicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Labbe, Jessy L; Murat, Claude; Morin, Emmanuelle; Tuskan, Gerald A; Le Tacon, F; Martin, Francis

    2012-01-01

    Background: The publicly available Laccaria bicolor genome sequence has provided a considerable genomic resource allowing systematic identification of transposable elements (TEs) in this symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungus. Using a TEspecific annotation pipeline we have characterized and analyzed TEs in the L. bicolor S238N-H82 genome. Methodology/Principal Findings: TEs occupy 24% of the 60 Mb L. bicolor genome and represent 25,787 full-length and partial copy elements distributed within 171 families. The most abundant elements were the Copia-like. TEs are not randomly distributed across the genome, but are tightly nested or clustered. The majority of TEs exhibits signs of ancient transposition except some intact copies of terminal inverted repeats (TIRS), long terminal repeats (LTRs) and a large retrotransposon derivative (LARD) element. There were three main periods of TE expansion in L. bicolor: the first from 57 to 10 Mya, the second from 5 to 1 Mya and the most recent from 0.5 Mya ago until now. LTR retrotransposons are closely related to retrotransposons found in another basidiomycete, Coprinopsis cinerea. Conclusions: This analysis 1) represents an initial characterization of TEs in the L. bicolor genome, 2) contributes to improve genome annotation and a greater understanding of the role TEs played in genome organization and evolution and 3) provides a valuable resource for future research on the genome evolution within the Laccaria genus.

  8. A phosphate transporter from the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus versiforme.

    PubMed

    Harrison, M J; van Buuren, M L

    1995-12-01

    Vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal fungi form symbiotic associations with the roots of most terrestrial plants, including many agriculturally important crop species. The fungi colonize the cortex of the root to obtain carbon from their plant host, while assisting the plant with the uptake of phosphate and other mineral nutrients from the soil. This association is beneficial to the plant, because phosphate is essential for plant growth and development, especially during growth under nutrient-limiting conditions. Molecular genetic studies of these fungi and their interaction with plants have been limited owing to the obligate symbiotic nature of the VA fungi, so the molecular mechanisms underlying fungal-mediated uptake and translocation of phosphate from the soil to the plant remain unknown. Here we begin to investigate this process by identifying a complementary DNA that encodes a transmembrane phosphate transporter (GvPT) from Glomus versiforme, a VA mycorrhizal fungus. The function of the protein encoded by GvPT was confirmed by complementation of a yeast phosphate transport mutant. Expression of GvPT was localized to the external hyphae of G. versiforme during mycorrhizal associations, these being the initial site of phosphate uptake from the soil. PMID:8524398

  9. Acrophialophora, a Poorly Known Fungus with Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval-Denis, Marcelo; Sutton, Deanna A.; Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Guarro, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Acrophialophora fusispora is an emerging opportunistic fungus capable of causing human infections. The taxonomy of the genus is not yet resolved and, in order to facilitate identification of clinical specimens, we have studied a set of clinical and environmental Acrophialophora isolates by morphological and molecular analyses. This set included the available type strains of Acrophialophora species and similar fungi, some of which were considered by various authors to be synonyms of A. fusispora. Sequence analysis of the large subunit (LSU) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear ribosomal DNA and a fragment of the β-tubulin (Tub) gene revealed that Acrophialophora belongs in the family Chaetomiaceae and comprises three different species, i.e., A. fusispora, Acrophialophora levis, and Acrophialophora seudatica; the latter was previously included in the genus Ampullifera. The most prevalent species among clinical isolates was A. levis (72.7%), followed by A. fusispora (27.3%), both of which were isolated mostly from respiratory specimens (72.7%), as well as subcutaneous and corneal tissue samples. In general, of the eight antifungal drugs tested, voriconazole had the greatest in vitro activity, while all other agents showed poor in vitro activity against these fungi. PMID:25716450

  10. Denitrification of nitrate by the fungus Cylindrocarpon tonkinense.

    PubMed

    Watsuji, Tomo-o; Takaya, Naoki; Nakamura, Akira; Shoun, Hirofumi

    2003-05-01

    The denitrifying fungus Cylindrocarpon tonkinense was thought to be able to denitrify only nitrite (NO2-) but not nitrate (NO3-) to form nitrous oxide (N2O). Here we found, however, that C. tonkinense can denitrify NO3- under certain conditions. Presence of ammonium (NH3+) in addition to NO3- and the use of a fermentable sugar as an electron donor were key conditions for inducing the denitrifying activity. Such induction accompanied a remarkable increase in the intracellular level of the enzyme activities related to NO3- metabolism. These activities contained assimilatory type NADPH (or NADH)-dependent NO3- reductase (aNar), dissimilatory nitrite reductase (dNir), and nitric oxide reductase (P450nor), but did not contain ubiquinol-dependent, dissimilatory NO3- reductase (dNar). The denitrification was inhibited by tungstate, an inhibitor of Nar. These results demonstrated occurrence of a novel type of denitrification in C. tonkinense, in which assimilatory type Nar is possibly involved. PMID:12834290

  11. Fitness-associated sexual reproduction in a filamentous fungus.

    PubMed

    Schoustra, Sijmen; Rundle, Howard D; Dali, Rola; Kassen, Rees

    2010-08-10

    Sex is a long-standing evolutionary enigma. Although the majority of eukaryotes reproduce sexually at least sometimes [1-3], the evolution of sex from an asexual ancestor has been difficult to explain because it requires sexually reproducing lineages to overcome the manifold costs of sex, including the destruction of favorable gene combinations created by selection [4, 5]. Conditions for the evolution of sex are much broader if individuals can reproduce either sexually or asexually (i.e., facultative sex) and allocate disproportionately more resources to sex when their fitness is low (fitness-associated-sex or FAS [6-10]). Although facultatively sexual organisms have been shown to engage in more sex when stressed [11], direct evidence for FAS is lacking. We provide evidence using 53 genotypes of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans in a reciprocal transplant experiment across three environments. Different genotypes achieved highest fitness in different environments and genotypes invested relatively more in sex in environments in which their fitness was lower, showing that allocation to sexual reproduction is a function of how well-adapted a genotype is to its environment. FAS in A. nidulans is unlikely to have evolved as a strategy to resist or avoid stress because asexual spores are more dispersive and equally resistant [12, 13]. PMID:20598542

  12. Antibacterial Azaphilones from an Endophytic Fungus, Colletotrichum sp. BS4.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Xuan; Kusari, Souvik; Laatsch, Hartmut; Golz, Christopher; Kusari, Parijat; Strohmann, Carsten; Kayser, Oliver; Spiteller, Michael

    2016-04-22

    Three new compounds, colletotrichones A-C (1-3), and one known compound, chermesinone B (4a), were isolated from an endophytic fungus, Colletotrichum sp. BS4, harbored in the leaves of Buxus sinica, a well-known boxwood plant used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D and 2D NMR, HRMS, ECD spectra, UV, and IR, as well as single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and shown to be azaphilones sharing a 3,6a-dimethyl-9-(2-methylbutanoyl)-9H-furo[2,3-h]isochromene-6,8-dione scaffold. Owing to the remarkable antibacterial potency of known azaphilones coupled to the usage of the host plant in TCM, we evaluated the antibacterial efficacy of the isolated compounds against two commonly dispersed environmental strains of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, as well as against two human pathogenic clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Compound 1 exhibited marked antibacterial potencies against the environmental strains that were comparable to the standard antibiotics. Compound 3 was also active against E. coli. Finally, compound 2a exhibited the same efficacy as streptomycin against the clinically relevant bacterium S. aureus. The in vitro cytotoxicity of these compounds on a human acute monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1) was also assessed. Our results provide a scientific rationale for further investigations into endophyte-mediated host chemical defense against specialist and generalist pathogens. PMID:26905687

  13. Bioturbation by the Fungus-Gardening Ant, Trachymyrmex septentrionalis.

    PubMed

    Tschinkel, Walter R; Seal, Jon N

    2016-01-01

    Soil invertebrates such as ants are thought to be important manipulators of soils in temperate and tropical ecosystems. The fungus gardening ant, Trachymyrmex septentrionalis, is an important agent of biomantling, that is, of depositing soil excavated from below onto the surface, and has been suggested as an agent of bioturbation (moving soil below ground) as well. The amount of bioturbation by this ant was quantified by planting queenright colonies in sand columns consisting of 5 layers of different colored sand. The amount of each color of sand deposited on the surface was determined from April to November 2015. In November, colonies were excavated and the color and amount of sand deposited below ground (mostly as backfill in chambers) was determined. Extrapolated to one ha, T. septentrionalis deposited 800 kg of sand per annum on the surface, and an additional 200 kg (17% of the total excavated) below ground. On average, this mixes 1.3% of the sand from other layers within the top meter of soil per millennium, but this mixing is unlikely to be homogeneous, and probably occurs as "hotspots" in both horizontal and vertical space. Such mixing is discussed as a challenge to sediment dating by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). PMID:27391485

  14. Clinical Evaluation and Management of Patients with Suspected Fungus Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Larenas-Linnemann, Desiree; Baxi, Sachin; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Portnoy, Jay M

    2016-01-01

    Fungus-sensitized patients usually present with symptoms that are similar to symptoms presented by those who are sensitized to other aeroallergens. Therefore, diagnosis and management should follow the same pathways used for patients with allergic conditions in general. The physician should consider that a relationship between fungal exposure and symptoms is not necessarily caused by an IgE-mediated mechanism, even when specific fungal IgE is detected. Until recently, IgE-mediated allergy has been documented only for a limited number of fungi. We propose a series of questions to be used to identify symptoms that occur in situations with high fungal exposure and a limited skin-prick-test panel (Alternaria, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Candida) that can be amplified only in cases of high suspicion of other fungal exposure (eg, postfloods). We also review in vitro testing for fungi-specific IgE. Treatment includes environmental control, medical management, and, when appropriate, specific immunotherapy. Low-quality evidence exists supporting the use of subcutaneous immunotherapy for Alternaria to treat allergic rhinitis and asthma, and very low quality evidence supports the use of subcutaneous immunotherapy for Cladosporium and sublingual immunotherapy for Alternaria. As is the case for many allergens, evidence for immunotherapy with other fungal extracts is lacking. The so-called toxic mold syndrome is also briefly discussed. PMID:26755100

  15. Acrophialophora, a poorly known fungus with clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Denis, Marcelo; Gené, Josepa; Sutton, Deanna A; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Guarro, Josep

    2015-05-01

    Acrophialophora fusispora is an emerging opportunistic fungus capable of causing human infections. The taxonomy of the genus is not yet resolved and, in order to facilitate identification of clinical specimens, we have studied a set of clinical and environmental Acrophialophora isolates by morphological and molecular analyses. This set included the available type strains of Acrophialophora species and similar fungi, some of which were considered by various authors to be synonyms of A. fusispora. Sequence analysis of the large subunit (LSU) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear ribosomal DNA and a fragment of the β-tubulin (Tub) gene revealed that Acrophialophora belongs in the family Chaetomiaceae and comprises three different species, i.e., A. fusispora, Acrophialophora levis, and Acrophialophora seudatica; the latter was previously included in the genus Ampullifera. The most prevalent species among clinical isolates was A. levis (72.7%), followed by A. fusispora (27.3%), both of which were isolated mostly from respiratory specimens (72.7%), as well as subcutaneous and corneal tissue samples. In general, of the eight antifungal drugs tested, voriconazole had the greatest in vitro activity, while all other agents showed poor in vitro activity against these fungi. PMID:25716450

  16. Fungus mediated biosynthesis and characterization of zinc oxide nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesh, K. S.; Palani, N. S.; Krishnamoorthi, S. R.; Thirumal, V.; Ilangovan, R.

    2013-06-01

    Recently nanomaterials have been synthesized through biological approach due to its biocompatibility, inexpensive, eco friendly and it offers easiest experimental protocol and so on. ZnO can be potentially used in various applications. This present study reports the fungus mediated extra-cellular bio synthesis of ZnO nanorods using Fusarium Solani. The dried powder was calcined at 350°C for 1 hour in air. The thermal property of the as synthesized ZnO nanopowder was analyzed through Thermo gravimetric /Differential Thermo gravimetric (TGA / DTG) analysis. The structural and morphological properties of the calcined ZnO nanopowder were studied by XRD and SEM analysis respectively. X ray diffraction result revealed that a peak located at 2θ = 36.2° with (101) plane confirms the presence of Zinc oxide with Hexagonal crystal system. The morphology of the calcined ZnO powder was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and it clearly indicates the presence of ZnO nanorods. The diameter of the nanorods is in the range of 60 to 95 nm.

  17. Garden sharing and garden stealing in fungus-growing ants.

    PubMed

    Adams, R M; Mueller, U G; Holloway, A K; Green, A M; Narozniak, J

    2000-11-01

    Fungi cultivated by fungus-growing ants (Attini: Formicidae) are passed on between generations by transfer from maternal to offspring nest (vertical transmission within ant species). However, recent phylogenetic analyses revealed that cultivars are occasionally also transferred between attine species. The reasons for such lateral cultivar transfers are unknown. To investigate whether garden loss may induce ants to obtain a replacement cultivar from a neighboring colony (lateral cultivar transfer), pairs of queenright colonies of two Cyphomyrmex species were set up in two conjoined chambers; the garden of one colony was then removed to simulate the total crop loss that occurs naturally when pathogens devastate gardens. Garden-deprived colonies regained cultivars through one of three mechanisms: joining of a neighboring colony and cooperation in a common garden; stealing of a neighbor's garden; or aggressive usurpation of a neighbor's garden. Because pathogens frequently devastate attine gardens under natural conditions, garden joining, stealing and usurpation emerge as critical behavioral adaptations to survive garden catastrophes. PMID:11151668

  18. Transcriptional response to hypoxia in the aquatic fungus Blastocladiella emersonii.

    PubMed

    Camilo, César M; Gomes, Suely L

    2010-06-01

    Global gene expression analysis was carried out with Blastocladiella emersonii cells subjected to oxygen deprivation (hypoxia) using cDNA microarrays. In experiments of gradual hypoxia (gradual decrease in dissolved oxygen) and direct hypoxia (direct decrease in dissolved oxygen), about 650 differentially expressed genes were observed. A total of 534 genes were affected directly or indirectly by oxygen availability, as they showed recovery to normal expression levels or a tendency to recover when cells were reoxygenated. In addition to modulating many genes with no putative assigned function, B. emersonii cells respond to hypoxia by readjusting the expression levels of genes responsible for energy production and consumption. At least transcriptionally, this fungus seems to favor anaerobic metabolism through the upregulation of genes encoding glycolytic enzymes and lactate dehydrogenase and the downregulation of most genes coding for tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes. Furthermore, genes involved in energy-costly processes, like protein synthesis, amino acid biosynthesis, protein folding, and transport, had their expression profiles predominantly downregulated during oxygen deprivation, indicating an energy-saving effort. Data also revealed similarities between the transcriptional profiles of cells under hypoxia and under iron(II) deprivation, suggesting that Fe(2+) ion could have a role in oxygen sensing and/or response to hypoxia in B. emersonii. Additionally, treatment of fungal cells prior to hypoxia with the antibiotic geldanamycin, which negatively affects the stability of mammalian hypoxia transcription factor HIF-1alpha, caused a significant decrease in the levels of certain upregulated hypoxic genes. PMID:20418381

  19. Direct electrochemistry of nitrate reductase from the fungus Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Kalimuthu, Palraj; Ringel, Phillip; Kruse, Tobias; Bernhardt, Paul V

    2016-09-01

    We report the first direct (unmediated) catalytic electrochemistry of a eukaryotic nitrate reductase (NR). NR from the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, is a member of the mononuclear molybdenum enzyme family and contains a Mo, heme and FAD cofactor which are involved in electron transfer from NAD(P)H to the (Mo) active site where reduction of nitrate to nitrite takes place. NR was adsorbed on an edge plane pyrolytic graphite (EPG) working electrode. Non-turnover redox responses were observed in the absence of nitrate from holo NR and three variants lacking the FAD, heme or Mo cofactor. The FAD response is due to dissociated cofactor in all cases. In the presence of nitrate, NR shows a pronounced cathodic catalytic wave with an apparent Michaelis constant (KM) of 39μM (pH7). The catalytic cathodic current increases with temperature from 5 to 35°C and an activation enthalpy of 26kJmol(-1) was determined. In spite of dissociation of the FAD cofactor, catalytically activity is maintained. PMID:27060250

  20. Conidial germination in the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Seong, Kye-Yong; Zhao, Xinhua; Xu, Jin-Rong; Güldener, Ulrich; Kistler, H Corby

    2008-04-01

    The ascomycetous fungus Fusarium graminearum is an important plant pathogen causing Fusarium head blight disease of wheat and barley. To understand early developmental stages of this organism, we followed the germination of macroconidia microscopically to understand the timing of key events. These events, recorded after suspension of spores in liquid germination medium, included spore swelling at 2h, germination tube emergence and elongation from conidia at 8h and hyphal branching at 24h. To understand changes in gene expression during these developmental changes, RNA was isolated from spores and used to interrogate the F. graminearum Affymetrix GeneChip. RNAs corresponding to 5813 genes were detected in fresh spores and 5146, 5249 and 5993, respectively, in spores incubated in germination medium after 2, 8 or 24h (P<0.001). Gene expression data were used to predict the cellular and physiological state of each developmental stage for known processes. Predictions were confirmed microscopically for several previously unreported developmental events such as manifestation of peroxisomes in fresh spores and nuclear division resulting in binuclear cells within macroconidia prior to spore germination. Knowledge of stage-specific gene expression and changes in gene expression levels between developmental stages are an important first step to understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for spore germination and development. PMID:17950638

  1. Bioturbation by the Fungus-Gardening Ant, Trachymyrmex septentrionalis

    PubMed Central

    Tschinkel, Walter R.; Seal, Jon N.

    2016-01-01

    Soil invertebrates such as ants are thought to be important manipulators of soils in temperate and tropical ecosystems. The fungus gardening ant, Trachymyrmex septentrionalis, is an important agent of biomantling, that is, of depositing soil excavated from below onto the surface, and has been suggested as an agent of bioturbation (moving soil below ground) as well. The amount of bioturbation by this ant was quantified by planting queenright colonies in sand columns consisting of 5 layers of different colored sand. The amount of each color of sand deposited on the surface was determined from April to November 2015. In November, colonies were excavated and the color and amount of sand deposited below ground (mostly as backfill in chambers) was determined. Extrapolated to one ha, T. septentrionalis deposited 800 kg of sand per annum on the surface, and an additional 200 kg (17% of the total excavated) below ground. On average, this mixes 1.3% of the sand from other layers within the top meter of soil per millennium, but this mixing is unlikely to be homogeneous, and probably occurs as "hotspots" in both horizontal and vertical space. Such mixing is discussed as a challenge to sediment dating by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). PMID:27391485

  2. Devonian landscape heterogeneity recorded by a giant fungus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, C. Kevin; Hotton, Carol L.; Fogel, Marilyn L.; Cody, George D.; Hazen, Robert M.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Hueber, Francis M.

    2007-05-01

    The enigmatic Paleozoic fossil Prototaxites Dawson 1859 consists of tree-like trunks as long as 8 m constructed of interwoven tubes <50 mm in diameter. Prototaxites specimens from five localities differ from contemporaneous vascular plants by exhibiting a carbon isotopic range, within and between localities, of as much as 13‰ δ13C. Pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry highlights compositional differences between Prototaxites and co-occurring plant fossils and supports interpretation of isotopic distinctions as biological rather than diagenetic in origin. Such a large isotopic range is difficult to reconcile with an autotrophic metabolism, suggesting instead that, consistent with anatomy-based interpretation as a fungus, Prototaxites was a heterotroph that lived on isotopically heterogeneous substrates. Light isotopic values of Prototaxites approximate those of vascular plants from the same localities; in contrast, heavy extremes seen in the Lower Devonian appear to reflect consumption of primary producers with carbon-concentrating mechanisms, such as cryptobiotic soil crusts, or possibly bryophytes. Prototaxites biogeochemistry thus suggests that a biologically heterogeneous mosaic of primary producers characterized land surfaces well into the vascular plant era.

  3. Multiple photon emission in heavy particle decays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asakimori, K.; Burnett, T. H.; Cherry, M. L.; Christl, M. J.; Dake, S.; Derrickson, J. H.; Fountain, W. F.; Fuki, M.; Gregory, J. C.; Hayashi, T.

    1994-01-01

    Cosmic ray interactions, at energies above 1 TeV/nucleon, in emulsion chambers flown on high altitude balloons have yielded two events showing apparent decays of a heavy particle into one charged particle and four photons. The photons converted into electron pairs very close to the decay vertex. Attempts to explain this decay topology with known particle decays are presented. Unless both events represent a b yields u transition, which is statistically unlikely, then other known decay modes for charmed or bottom particles do not account satisfactorily for these observations. This could indicate, possibly, a new decay channel.

  4. Rare B decays at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Farrington, Sinead M.; /Liverpool U.

    2006-10-01

    The confidence level limits of the CDF search for the B{sub s}{sup 0} and B{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} rare decays and the branching ratio measurement of B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup +} D{sub s}{sup -} are presented.

  5. Fermi's β-DECAY Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chen Ning

    2013-05-01

    Throughout his lifetime Enrico Fermi (1901-1954) had considered his 1934 β-decay theory as his most important contribution to theoretical physics. E. Segrè (1905-1989) had vividly written about an episode at the inception of that paper:1...

  6. Review of tau lepton decays

    SciTech Connect

    Stoker, D.P.

    1991-07-01

    Measurements of the {tau} decay modes are reviewed and compared with the predictions of the Standard Model. While the agreement is generally good, the status of the 1-prong puzzle'' remains controversial and a discrepancy between the measured leptonic branching fractions and the {tau} lifetime persists. Prospects for precision measurements at a Tau-Charm Factory are also reviewed. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Nuclear structure from radioactive decay

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.L.

    1990-09-30

    This report discusses the nuclear structure of the following isotopes as a result of radioactive decays: neutron-deficient iridium isotopes; neutron-deficient platinum isotopes; neutron-deficient gold isotopes; neutron-deficient mercury isotopes; neutron-deficient thallium isotopes; neutron-deficient lead isotopes; neutron-deficient promethium isotopes; and neutron-deficient samarium isotopes.

  8. Entanglement entropy in particle decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lello, Louis; Boyanovsky, Daniel; Holman, Richard

    2013-11-01

    The decay of a parent particle into two or more daughter particles results in an entangled quantum state as a consequence of conservation laws in the decay process. Recent experiments at Belle and BaBar take advantage of quantum entanglement and the correlations in the time evolution of the product particles to study CP and T violations. If one (or more) of the product particles are not observed, their degrees of freedom are traced out of the pure state density matrix resulting from the decay, leading to a mixed state density matrix and an entanglement entropy. This entropy is a measure of the loss of information present in the original quantum correlations of the entangled state. We use the Wigner-Weisskopf method to construct an approximation to this state that evolves in time in a manifestly unitary way. We then obtain the entanglement entropy from the reduced density matrix of one of the daughter particles obtained by tracing out the unobserved states, and follow its time evolution. We find that it grows over a time scale determined by the lifetime of the parent particle to a maximum, which when the width of the parent particle is narrow, describes the phase space distribution of maximally entangled Bell-like states. The method is generalized to the case in which the parent particle is described by a wave packet localized in space. Possible experimental avenues to measure the entanglement entropy in the decay of mesons at rest are discussed.

  9. Antiviral activity of Inonotus obliquus fungus extract towards infection caused by hepatitis C virus in cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Shibnev, V A; Mishin, D V; Garaev, T M; Finogenova, N P; Botikov, A G; Deryabin, P G

    2011-09-01

    Fractions of Inonotus obliquus fungus water extract exhibited a virucidal effect towards hepatitis C virus: it 100-fold reduced its infective properties within 10 min. The antiviral effects of fungus extracts manifested after preventive (24 h before infection) and therapeutic use (during infection of porcine embryo kidney cells). Moreover, the data indicate that the birch fungus extracts inhibit production of infective virus by porcine embryo kidney cells. PMID:22462058

  10. Fungi of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.)-Their Deteriorative Ability, Quality Stability and the Role of the Fungus-Eating Insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuku, E. C.; Ogbalu, O. K.; Osakwe, J. A.

    Studies on the deteriorative ability and quality stability of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) and the effect of the fungus-eating insects (Necrobia rufipes, Alphitobius diaperinus, Crematogaster sp. and Tenebrio molitor) were carried out in the Post Graduate Entomology and Plant Pathology Laboratories of the Department of Applied and Environmental Biology and also in Food Science Laboratory of the Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt. Results showed Aspergillus niger van Tieghem, Rhizopus stolonifer Lind and Penicillium italiucum Wehmer as the seed-borne fungi of coconut. Frequency of occurrence was 80% for Aspergillus niger and 100% for both Rhizopus stolonifer and Penicillium italicum. On storage stability, heat drying offered significantly higher protection to coconut copra. Percentage consumption of fungal hyphae by the fungus-eating insects varied with Tenebrio molitor consuming 100% of the three aforementioned fungi. A. diaperinius contributed up to 84.1% reduction of A. niger as against 80.3% reduction by Necrobia rufipes of A. niger, Crematogaster sp. offered the least reduction (64.2%).

  11. Visualization of the mycelia of wood-rotting fungi by fluorescence in situ hybridization using a peptide nucleic acid probe.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Yuji; Nakaba, Satoshi; Matsunaga, Hiroshi; Funada, Ryo; Yoshida, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    White rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and brown rot fungus, Postia placenta, grown on agar plates, were visualized by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe. Mycelia grown on wood chips were also clearly detected by PNA-FISH following blocking treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the visualization of fungi in wood by FISH. PMID:23391931

  12. Monitoring of white-rot fungus during bioremediation of polychlorinated dioxin-contaminated fly ash.

    PubMed

    Suhara, H; Daikoku, C; Takata, H; Suzuki, S; Matsufuji, Y; Sakai, K; Kondo, R

    2003-10-01

    Bioremediation is a low-cost treatment alternative for the cleanup of polychlorinated-dioxin-contaminated soils and fly ash when pollution spread is wide-ranging. An interesting fungus, Ceriporia sp. MZ-340, with a high ability to degrade dioxin, was isolated from white rotten wood of a broadleaf tree from Kyushu Island in Japan. We have attempted to use the fungus for bioremediation of polychlorinated-dioxin-contaminated soil on site. However, we have to consider that this trial has the potential problem of introducing a biohazard to a natural ecosystem if this organism is naturalized. We have therefore developed a monitoring system for the introduced fungus as a part of the examination and evaluation of bioremediation in our laboratory. We have also developed a PCR-based assay to reliably detect the fungus at the bioremediation site. DNA isolated from the site was amplified by PCR using a specific primer derived from internal transcribed spacer region (ITS: ITS1, 5.8S rDNA and ITS2) sequences of Ceriporia sp. MZ-340. We successfully monitored Ceriporia sp. MZ-340 down to 100 fg/ micro l DNA and down to 2 mg/g mycelium. We also successfully monitored the fungus specifically at the bioremediation site. The polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran content was observed to decrease in response to treatment with the fungus. The species-specific PCR technique developed in the present work is useful in evaluating the possibility of on-site bioremediation using the fungus Ceriporia sp. MZ-340. PMID:12827316

  13. Characterization of fungus-specific microsatellite markers in the lichen-forming fungus Parmelina carporrhizans (Parmeliaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Alors, David; Dal Grande, Francesco; Schmitt, Imke; Kraichak, Ekaphan; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten; Crespo, Ana; Divakar, Pradeep K.

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed to study the lichen-forming fungus Parmelina (Parmeliaceae) in different habitats of western Europe and the Mediterranean for baseline studies to understand the effects of climate change on its distribution. • Methods and Results: We cultured P. carporrhizans from ascospores for genomic sequencing with Illumina HiSeq. We successfully developed 11 polymorphic microsatellite markers and associated primer sets and assessed them with 30 individuals from two of the Canary Islands. The average number of alleles per locus was 8.8. Nei’s unbiased gene diversity of these loci ranged from 0.53 to 0.91 in the tested populations. Amplification in two closely related species (P. tiliacea, P. cryptotiliacea) yielded only limited success. • Conclusions: The new microsatellite markers will allow the study of genetic diversity and population structure in P. carporrhizans. We propose eight markers to combine in two multiplex reactions for further studies on a larger set of populations. PMID:25506522

  14. Diversity and structure of bacterial communities associated with Phanerochaete chrysosporium during wood decay.

    PubMed

    Hervé, Vincent; Le Roux, Xavier; Uroz, Stéphane; Gelhaye, Eric; Frey-Klett, Pascale

    2014-07-01

    Wood recycling is key to forest biogeochemical cycles, largely driven by microorganisms such as white-rot fungi which naturally coexist with bacteria in the environment. We have tested whether and to what extent the diversity of the bacterial community associated with wood decay is determined by wood and/or by white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. We combined a microcosm approach with an enrichment procedure, using beech sawdust inoculated with or without P.chrysosporium. During 18 weeks, we used 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing to monitor the forest bacterial community inoculated into these microcosms. We found bacterial communities associated with wood to be substantially less diverse than the initial forest soil inoculum. The presence of most bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) varied over time and between replicates, regardless of their treatment, suggestive of the stochastic processes. However, we observed two OTUs belonging to Xanthomonadaceae and Rhizobium, together representing 50% of the relative bacterial abundance, as consistently associated with the wood substrate, regardless of fungal presence. Moreover, after 12 weeks, the bacterial community composition based on relative abundance was significantly modified by the presence of the white-rot fungus. Effectively, members of the Burkholderia genus were always associated with P.chrysosporium, representing potential taxonomic bioindicators of the white-rot mycosphere. PMID:24286477

  15. Neutron Beta Decay Studies with Nab

    SciTech Connect

    Baessler, S.; Alarcon, R.; Alonzi, L. P.; Balascuta, S.; Barron-Palos, L.; Bowman, James David; Bychkov, M. A.; Byrne, J.; Calarco, J; Chupp, T.; Cianciolo, T. V.; Crawford, C.; Frlez, E.; Gericke, M. T.; Glück, F.; Greene, G. L.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Gudkov, V.; Harrison, D.; Hersman, F. W.; Ito, T.; Makela, M.; Martin, J.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGovern, S.; Page, S.; Penttila, Seppo I; Pocanic, Dinko; Salas-Bacci, A.; Tompkins, Z.; Wagner, D.; Wilburn, W. S.; Young, A. R.

    2013-01-01

    Precision measurements in neutron beta decay serve to determine the coupling constants of beta decay and allow for several stringent tests of the standard model. This paper discusses the design and the expected performance of the Nab spectrometer.

  16. Decay Spectroscopy for Nuclear Astrophysics: {beta}-delayed Proton Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Trache, L.; Simmons, E.; Spiridon, A.; McCleskey, M.; Roeder, B. T.; Tribble, R. E.; Saastamoinen, A.; Jokinen, A.; Aysto, J.; Davinson, T.; Woods, P. J.; Pollacco, E.; Kebbiri, M.

    2011-11-30

    Decay spectroscopy is one of the oldest indirect methods in nuclear astrophysics. We have developed at TAMU techniques to measure beta- and beta-delayed proton decay of sd-shell, proton-rich nuclei. The short-lived radioactive species are produced in-flight, separated, then slowed down (from about 40 MeV/u) and implanted in the middle of very thin Si detectors. These allowed us to measure protons with energies as low as 200 keV from nuclei with lifetimes of 100 ms or less. At the same time we measure gamma-rays up to 8 MeV with high resolution HPGe detectors. We have studied the decay of {sup 23}Al, {sup 27}P, {sup 31}Cl, all important for understanding explosive H-burning in novae. The technique has shown a remarkable selectivity to beta-delayed charged-particle emission and works even at radioactive beam rates of a few pps. The states populated are resonances for the radiative proton capture reactions {sup 22}Na(p,{gamma}){sup 23}Mg(crucial for the depletion of {sup 22}Na in novae), {sup 26m}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 27}Si and {sup 30}P(p,{gamma}){sup 31}S(bottleneck in novae and XRB burning), respectively. More recently we have radically improved the technique using a gas based detector we call AstroBox.

  17. Decays of near BPS heterotic strings

    SciTech Connect

    Gutperle, Michael; Krym, Darya

    2006-10-15

    The decay of highly excited massive string states in compactified heterotic string theories is discussed. We calculate the decay rate and spectrum of states carrying momentum and winding in the compactified direction. The longest lived states in the spectrum are near Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) states whose decay is dominated by a single decay channel of massless radiation which brings the state closer to being BPS.

  18. Pathogenic fungus Microsporum canis activates the NLRP3 inflammasome.

    PubMed

    Mao, Liming; Zhang, Liping; Li, Hua; Chen, Wei; Wang, Hongbin; Wu, Shuxian; Guo, Caiqin; Lu, Ailing; Yang, Guiwen; An, Liguo; Abliz, Paride; Meng, Guangxun

    2014-02-01

    Microsporum canis is a pathogenic fungus with worldwide distribution that causes tinea capitis in animals and humans. M. canis also causes invasive infection in immunocompromised patients. To defy pathogenic fungal infection, the host innate immune system is the first line of defense. As an important arm of innate immunity, the inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein complexes that control the activation of caspase-1, which cleaves proinflammatory cytokine pro-interleukin-1β (IL-1β) into its mature form. To determine whether the inflammasome is involved in the host defense against M. canis infection, we challenged human monocytic THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells with a clinical strain of M. canis isolated from patients with tinea capitis. We found that M. canis infection triggered rapid secretion of IL-1β from both THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells. Moreover, by using gene-specific shRNA and competitive inhibitors, we determined that M. canis-induced IL-1β secretion was dependent on NLRP3. The pathways proposed for NLRP3 inflammasome activation, namely, cathepsin B activity, K(+) efflux, and reactive oxygen species production, were all required for the inflammasome activation triggered by M. canis. Meanwhile, Syk, Dectin-1, and Card9 were found to be involved in M. canis-induced IL-1β secretion via regulation of pro-IL-1β transcription. More importantly, our data revealed that M. canis-induced production of IL-1β was dependent on the NLRP3 inflammasome in vivo. Together, this study unveils that the NLRP3 inflammasome exerts a critical role in host innate immune responses against M. canis infection, and our data suggest that diseases that result from M. canis infection might be controlled by regulating the activation of inflammasomes. PMID:24478101

  19. Peroxisome dynamics during development of the fungus Podospora anserina.

    PubMed

    Takano-Rojas, Harumi; Zickler, Denise; Peraza-Reyes, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisomes are versatile and dynamic organelles that are required for the development of diverse eukaryotic organisms. We demonstrated previously that in the fungus Podospora anserina different peroxisomal functions are required at distinct stages of sexual development, including the initiation and progression of meiocyte (ascus) development and the differentiation and germination of sexual spores (ascospores). Peroxisome assembly during these processes relies on the differential activity of the protein machinery that drives the import of proteins into the organelle, indicating a complex developmental regulation of peroxisome formation and activity. Here we demonstrate that peroxisome dynamics is also highly regulated during development. We show that peroxisomes in P. anserina are highly dynamic and respond to metabolic and environmental cues by undergoing changes in size, morphology and number. In addition, peroxisomes of vegetative and sexual cell types are structurally different. During sexual development peroxisome number increases at two stages: at early ascus differentiation and during ascospore formation. These processes are accompanied by changes in peroxisome structure and distribution, which include a cell-polarized concentration of peroxisomes at the beginning of ascus development, as well as a morphological transition from predominantly spherical to elongated shapes at the end of the first meiotic division. Further, the mostly tubular peroxisomes present from second meiotic division to early ascospore formation again become rounded during ascospore differentiation. Ultimately the number of peroxisomes dramatically decreases upon ascospore maturation. Our results reveal a precise regulation of peroxisome dynamics during sexual development and suggest that peroxisome constitution and function during development is defined by the coordinated regulation of the proteins that control peroxisome assembly and dynamics. PMID:26908647

  20. [Kinetics model for batch culture of white rot fungus].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiao-ping; Wen, Xiang-hua; Xu, Kang-ning; Bian, Bing-hui

    2008-02-01

    In order to understand ligninolytic enzymes production process during culture of white rot fungus, accordingly to direct the design of fermentation process, a kinetics model was built for the batch culture of Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The parameters in the model were calibrated based on the experimental data from free and immobilized culture separately. The difference between each variable's values calculated based on kinetics model and experimental data is within 15%. Comparing parameters for the free and the immobilized culture, it is found that maximum biomass concentrations are both 1.78 g/L; growth rate ratio of immobilized culture (0.6683 d(-1)) is larger than that of free culture (0.5144 d(-1)); very little glucose is consumed for biomass growth in free culture while in immobilized culture much glucose is used and ammonium nitrogen is consumed at a greater rate. Ligninolytic enzymes production process is non-growth related; fungal pellets can produce MnP (231 U/L) in free culture with a production rate of 115.8 U x (g x d)(-1) before peak and 26.1 U x (g x d)(-1) after peak, thus fed-batch is a possible mode to improve MnP production and fermentation efficiency. MnP (410 U/L) and LiP (721 U/L) can be produced in immobilized culture, but MnP and LiP production rate decrease from 80.1 U x (g x d)(-1) and 248.9 U x (g x d)(-1) to 6.04 U x (g x d)(-1) and 0 U x (g x d)(-1), respectively, indicating a proper feed moment is before the enzymes peak during fed-batch culture. PMID:18613526

  1. Genome Characterization of the Oleaginous Fungus Mortierella alpina

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yun; Ren, Yan; Gu, Zhennan; Chen, Haiqin; Wang, Hongchao; Thomas, Michael J.; Zhang, Baixi; Berquin, Isabelle M.; Li, Yang; Wu, Jiansheng; Zhang, Huanxin; Song, Yuanda; Liu, Xiang; Norris, James S.; Wang, Suriguga; Du, Peng; Shen, Junguo; Wang, Na; Yang, Yanlin; Wang, Wei; Feng, Lu; Ratledge, Colin; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yong Q.

    2011-01-01

    Mortierella alpina is an oleaginous fungus which can produce lipids accounting for up to 50% of its dry weight in the form of triacylglycerols. It is used commercially for the production of arachidonic acid. Using a combination of high throughput sequencing and lipid profiling, we have assembled the M. alpina genome, mapped its lipogenesis pathway and determined its major lipid species. The 38.38 Mb M. alpina genome shows a high degree of gene duplications. Approximately 50% of its 12,796 gene models, and 60% of genes in the predicted lipogenesis pathway, belong to multigene families. Notably, M. alpina has 18 lipase genes, of which 11 contain the class 2 lipase domain and may share a similar function. M. alpina's fatty acid synthase is a single polypeptide containing all of the catalytic domains required for fatty acid synthesis from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA, whereas in many fungi this enzyme is comprised of two polypeptides. Major lipids were profiled to confirm the products predicted in the lipogenesis pathway. M. alpina produces a complex mixture of glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. In contrast, only two major sterol lipids, desmosterol and 24(28)-methylene-cholesterol, were detected. Phylogenetic analysis based on genes involved in lipid metabolism suggests that oleaginous fungi may have acquired their lipogenic capacity during evolution after the divergence of Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota and Mucoromycota. Our study provides the first draft genome and comprehensive lipid profile for M. alpina, and lays the foundation for possible genetic engineering of M. alpina to produce higher levels and diverse contents of dietary lipids. PMID:22174787

  2. Five New Cytotoxic Metabolites from the Marine Fungus Neosartorya pseudofischeri.

    PubMed

    Lan, Wen-Jian; Fu, Sheng-Jiao; Xu, Meng-Yang; Liang, Wan-Ling; Lam, Chi-Keung; Zhong, Guo-Hua; Xu, Jun; Yang, De-Po; Li, Hou-Jin

    2016-01-01

    The marine fungus Neosartorya pseudofischeri was isolated from Acanthaster planci from the South China Sea. In a preliminary bioactivity screening, the crude methanol extract of the fungal mycelia showed significant inhibitory activity against the Sf9 cell line from the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda. Five novel compounds, including 5-olefin phenylpyropene A (1), 13-dehydroxylpyripyropene A (4), deacetylsesquiterpene (7), 5-formyl-6-hydroxy-8-isopropyl-2- naphthoic acid (9) and 6,8-dihydroxy-3-((1E,3E)-penta-1,3-dien-1-yl)isochroman-1-one (10), together with eleven known compounds, phenylpyropene A (2) and C (3), pyripyropene A (5), 7-deacetylpyripyropene A (6), (1S,2R,4aR,5R,8R,8aR)-1,8a-dihydroxy-2-acetoxy-3,8-dimethyl-5- (prop-1-en-2-yl)-1,2,4a, 5,6,7,8,8a-octahydronaphthalene (8), isochaetominine C (11), trichodermamide A (12), indolyl-3-acetic acid methyl ester (13), 1-acetyl-β-carboline (14), 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-hydroxyl-2-methyl-l,3,4-trioxopyrazino[l,2-a]-indole (15) and fumiquinazoline F (16), were obtained. The structures of these compounds were determined mainly by MS and NMR data. The absolute configuration of 9 was assigned by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Compounds 1-11 and 15 showed significant cytotoxicity against the Sf9 cells from S. frugiperda. PMID:26771621

  3. Five New Cytotoxic Metabolites from the Marine Fungus Neosartorya pseudofischeri

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Wen-Jian; Fu, Sheng-Jiao; Xu, Meng-Yang; Liang, Wan-Ling; Lam, Chi-Keung; Zhong, Guo-Hua; Xu, Jun; Yang, De-Po; Li, Hou-Jin

    2016-01-01

    The marine fungus Neosartorya pseudofischeri was isolated from Acanthaster planci from the South China Sea. In a preliminary bioactivity screening, the crude methanol extract of the fungal mycelia showed significant inhibitory activity against the Sf9 cell line from the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda. Five novel compounds, including 5-olefin phenylpyropene A (1), 13-dehydroxylpyripyropene A (4), deacetylsesquiterpene (7), 5-formyl-6-hydroxy-8-isopropyl-2- naphthoic acid (9) and 6,8-dihydroxy-3-((1E,3E)-penta-1,3-dien-1-yl)isochroman-1-one (10), together with eleven known compounds, phenylpyropene A (2) and C (3), pyripyropene A (5), 7-deacetylpyripyropene A (6), (1S,2R,4aR,5R,8R,8aR)-1,8a-dihydroxy-2-acetoxy-3,8-dimethyl-5- (prop-1-en-2-yl)-1,2,4a, 5,6,7,8,8a-octahydronaphthalene (8), isochaetominine C (11), trichodermamide A (12), indolyl-3-acetic acid methyl ester (13), 1-acetyl-β-carboline (14), 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-hydroxyl-2-methyl-l,3,4-trioxopyrazino[l,2-a]-indole (15) and fumiquinazoline F (16), were obtained. The structures of these compounds were determined mainly by MS and NMR data. The absolute configuration of 9 was assigned by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Compounds 1–11 and 15 showed significant cytotoxicity against the Sf9 cells from S. frugiperda. PMID:26771621

  4. Genes involved in virulence of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Valero-Jiménez, Claudio A; Wiegers, Harm; Zwaan, Bas J; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M; van Kan, Jan A L

    2016-01-01

    Pest insects cause severe damage to global crop production and pose a threat to human health by transmitting diseases. Traditionally, chemical pesticides (insecticides) have been used to control such pests and have proven to be effective only for a limited amount of time because of the rapid spread of genetic insecticide resistance. The basis of this resistance is mostly caused by (co)dominant mutations in single genes, which explains why insecticide use alone is an unsustainable solution. Therefore, robust solutions for insect pest control need to be sought in alternative methods such as biological control agents for which single-gene resistance is less likely to evolve. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has shown potential as a biological control agent of insects, and insight into the mechanisms of virulence is essential to show the robustness of its use. With the recent availability of the whole genome sequence of B. bassiana, progress in understanding the genetics that constitute virulence toward insects can be made more quickly. In this review we divide the infection process into distinct steps and provide an overview of what is currently known about genes and mechanisms influencing virulence in B. bassiana. We also discuss the need for novel strategies and experimental methods to better understand the infection mechanisms deployed by entomopathogenic fungi. Such knowledge can help improve biocontrol agents, not only by selecting the most virulent genotypes, but also by selecting the genotypes that use combinations of virulence mechanisms for which resistance in the insect host is least likely to develop. PMID:26628209

  5. Penguin and rare decays in BABAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akar, Simon; Babar Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    We present recent results from the BABAR Collaboration on radiative decays. These include searches for new physics via measurements of several observables such as the time- dependent CP asymmetry in B0 → K0Sπ-π+γ exclusive decays, as well as direct CP asymmetries and branching fractions in B → Xsγ and B → Xsl+l- inclusive decays.

  6. Weak radiative baryonic decays of B mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Kohara, Yoji

    2004-11-01

    Weak radiative baryonic B decays B{yields}B{sub 1}B{sub 2}-bar{gamma} are studied under the assumption of the short-distance b{yields}s{gamma} electromagnetic penguin transition dominance. The relations among the decay rates of various decay modes are derived.

  7. Review of B and Bs decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozzi, Concezio

    2014-05-01

    A review of B and Bs decays is presented. Emphasis is given to processes most sensitive to physics beyond the Standard Model, such as radiative, electroweak and "Higgs" penguin decays, and tree-level decays involving tau leptons in the final state. An outlook on future perspectives is also given.

  8. Beauty baryon decays: a theoretical overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu-Ming

    2014-11-01

    I overview the theoretical status and recent progress on the calculations of beauty baryon decays focusing on the QCD aspects of the exclusive semi-leptonic Λb → plμ decay at large recoil and theoretical challenges of radiative and electro-weak penguin decays Λb → Λγ,Λl+l-.

  9. 7 CFR 51.2087 - Decay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Decay. 51.2087 Section 51.2087 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Almonds in the Shell Definitions § 51.2087 Decay. Decay means that part or all...

  10. 7 CFR 51.2962 - Decay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Decay. 51.2962 Section 51.2962 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.2962 Decay. Decay means that any portion...

  11. 7 CFR 51.490 - Decay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Decay. 51.490 Section 51.490 Agriculture Regulations... Standards for Grades of Cantaloups 1 Definitions § 51.490 Decay. Decay means breakdown, disintegration or fermentation of the flesh or rind of the cantaloup caused by bacteria or fungi; except that dry type...

  12. 7 CFR 51.2962 - Decay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Decay. 51.2962 Section 51.2962 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.2962 Decay. Decay means that any portion...

  13. 7 CFR 51.2120 - Decay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Decay. 51.2120 Section 51.2120 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2120 Decay. Decay means that part or all of...

  14. 7 CFR 51.2120 - Decay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Decay. 51.2120 Section 51.2120 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2120 Decay. Decay means that part or all of...

  15. 7 CFR 51.2087 - Decay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Decay. 51.2087 Section 51.2087 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Almonds in the Shell Definitions § 51.2087 Decay. Decay means that part or all...

  16. 7 CFR 51.490 - Decay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Decay. 51.490 Section 51.490 Agriculture Regulations... Standards for Grades of Cantaloups 1 Definitions § 51.490 Decay. Decay means breakdown, disintegration or fermentation of the flesh or rind of the cantaloup caused by bacteria or fungi; except that dry type...

  17. The hidden habit of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana: first demonstration of vertical plant transmission.

    PubMed

    Quesada-Moraga, Enrique; López-Díaz, Cristina; Landa, Blanca Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip, obtained from a larva of the opium poppy stem gall wasp Iraella luteipes (Hymenoptera; Cynipidae), endophytically colonizes opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) plants and protects them against this pest. The goal of this study was to monitor the dynamics of endophytic colonization of opium poppy by B. bassiana after the fungus was applied to the seed and to ascertain whether the fungus is transmitted vertically via seeds. Using a species-specific nested PCR protocol and DNA extracted from surface-sterilised leaf pieces or seeds of B. bassiana-inoculated opium poppy plants, the fungus was detected within the plant beginning at the growth stage of rosette building and them throughout the entire plant growth cycle (about 120-140 days after sowing). The fungus was also detected in seeds from 50% of the capsules sampled. Seeds that showed positive amplification for B. bassiana were planted in sterile soil and the endophyte was again detected in more than 42% of the plants sampled during all plant growth stages. Beauveria bassiana was transmitted to seeds in 25% of the plants from the second generation that formed a mature capsule. These results demonstrate for the first time the vertical transmission of an entomopathogenic fungus from endophytically colonised maternal plants. This information is crucial to better understand the ecological role of entomopathogenic fungi as plant endophytes and may allow development of a sustainable and cost effective strategy for I. luteipes management in P. somniferum. PMID:24551242

  18. Biodegradation of crystal violet by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed Central

    Bumpus, J A; Brock, B J

    1988-01-01

    Biodegradation of crystal violet (N,N,N',N',N'',N''-hexamethylpararosaniline) in ligninolytic (nitrogen-limited) cultures of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance of crystal violet and by the identification of three metabolites (N,N,N',N',N''-pentamethylpararosaniline, N,N,N',N''-tetramethylpararosaniline, and N,N',N''-trimethylpararosaniline) formed by sequential N-demethylation of the parent compound. Metabolite formation also occurred when crystal violet was incubated with the extracellular fluid obtained from ligninolytic cultures of this fungus, provided that an H2O2-generating system was supplied. This, as well as the fact that a purified ligninase catalyzed N-demethylation of crystal violet, demonstrated that biodegradation of crystal violet by this fungus is dependent, at least in part, upon its lignin-degrading system. In addition to crystal violet, six other triphenylmethane dyes (pararosaniline, cresol red, bromphenol blue, ethyl violet, malachite green, and brilliant green) were shown to be degraded by the lignin-degrading system of this fungus. An unexpected result was the finding that substantial degradation of crystal violet also occurred in nonligninolytic (nitrogen-sufficient) cultures of P. chrysosporium, suggesting that in addition to the lignin-degrading system, another mechanism exists in this fungus which is also able to degrade crystal violet. PMID:3389809

  19. Appressorium formation in the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis requires a G2 cell cycle arrest

    PubMed Central

    Castanheira, Sónia; Pérez-Martín, José

    2015-01-01

    Many of the most important plant diseases are caused by fungal pathogens that form specialized cell structures to breach the leaf surface as well as to proliferate inside the plant. To initiate pathogenic development, the fungus responds to a set of inductive cues. Some of them are of extracellular nature (environmental signals) while others respond to intracellular conditions (developmental signals). These signals have to be integrated into a single response that has as a major outcome changes in the morphogenesis of the fungus. The cell cycle regulation is pivotal during these cellular differentiations, and we hypothesized that cell cycle regulation would be likely to provide control points for infection development by fungal pathogens. Although efforts have been done in various fungal systems, there is still limited information available regarding the relationship of these processes with the induction of the virulence programs. Hence, the role of fungal cell cycle regulators –which are wide conserved elements– as true virulence factors, has yet to be defined. Here we discuss the recent finding that the formation of the appressorium, a structure required for plant penetration, in the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis seems to be incompatible with an active cell cycle and, therefore genetic circuits evolved in this fungus to arrest the cell cycle during the growth of this fungus on plant surface, before the appressorium-mediated penetration into the plant tissue. PMID:25876077

  20. Appressorium formation in the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis requires a G2 cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    Castanheira, Sónia; Pérez-Martín, José

    2015-01-01

    Many of the most important plant diseases are caused by fungal pathogens that form specialized cell structures to breach the leaf surface as well as to proliferate inside the plant. To initiate pathogenic development, the fungus responds to a set of inductive cues. Some of them are of extracellular nature (environmental signals) while others respond to intracellular conditions (developmental signals). These signals have to be integrated into a single response that has as a major outcome changes in the morphogenesis of the fungus. The cell cycle regulation is pivotal during these cellular differentiations, and we hypothesized that cell cycle regulation would be likely to provide control points for infection development by fungal pathogens. Although efforts have been done in various fungal systems, there is still limited information available regarding the relationship of these processes with the induction of the virulence programs. Hence, the role of fungal cell cycle regulators -which are wide conserved elements- as true virulence factors, has yet to be defined. Here we discuss the recent finding that the formation of the appressorium, a structure required for plant penetration, in the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis seems to be incompatible with an active cell cycle and, therefore genetic circuits evolved in this fungus to arrest the cell cycle during the growth of this fungus on plant surface, before the appressorium-mediated penetration into the plant tissue. PMID:25876077

  1. Palaeoanellus dimorphus gen. et sp. nov. (Deuteromycotina): a Cretaceous predatory fungus.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Alexander R; Dörfelt, Heinrich; Perrichot, Vincent

    2008-10-01

    In habitats where nitrogen is the limiting factor, carnivorous fungi gain an advantage by preying on nematodes and other microorganisms. These fungi are abundant in modern terrestrial ecosystems, but they are not predestined for preservation as fossils. Conclusions on their evolutionary history are therefore mainly based on molecular studies that are generally limited to those taxa that have survived until today. Here we present a fossil dimorphic fungus that was found in Late Albian amber from southwestern France. This fungus possessed unicellular hyphal rings as trapping devices and formed blastospores from which a yeast stage developed. The fossil probably represents an anamorph of an ascomycete and is described as Palaeoanellus dimorphus gen. et sp. nov. Because predatory fungi with regular yeast stages are not known from modern ecosystems, the fungus is assumed to not be related to any Recent carnivorous fungus and to belong to an extinct lineage of carnivorous fungi. The inclusions represent the only record of fossil fungi that developed trapping devices, so far. The fungus lived c. 100 million years ago in a limnetic-terrestrial microhabitat, and it was a part of a highly diverse biocenosis at the forest floor of a Cretaceous coastal amber forest. PMID:21632336

  2. Combining microtomy and confocal laser scanning microscopy for structural analyses of plant-fungus associations.

    PubMed

    Rath, Magnus; Grolig, Franz; Haueisen, Janine; Imhof, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    The serious problem of extended tissue thickness in the analysis of plant-fungus associations was overcome using a new method that combines physical and optical sectioning of the resin-embedded sample by microtomy and confocal microscopy. Improved tissue infiltration of the fungal-specific, high molecular weight fluorescent probe wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 633 resulted in high fungus-specific fluorescence even in deeper tissue sections. If autofluorescence was insufficient, additional counterstaining with Calcofluor White M2R or propidium iodide was applied in order to visualise the host plant tissues. Alternatively, the non-specific fluorochrome acid fuchsine was used for rapid staining of both, the plant and the fungal cells. The intricate spatial arrangements of the plant and fungal cells were preserved by immobilization in the hydrophilic resin Unicryl™. Microtomy was used to section the resin-embedded roots or leaves until the desired plane was reached. The data sets generated by confocal laser scanning microscopy of the remaining resin stubs allowed the precise spatial reconstruction of complex structures in the plant-fungus associations of interest. This approach was successfully tested on tissues from ectomycorrhiza (Betula pendula), arbuscular mycorrhiza (Galium aparine; Polygala paniculata, Polygala rupestris), ericoid mycorrhiza (Calluna vulgaris), orchid mycorrhiza (Limodorum abortivum, Serapias parviflora) and on one leaf-fungus association (Zymoseptoria tritici on Triticum aestivum). The method provides an efficient visualisation protocol applicable with a wide range of plant-fungus symbioses. PMID:24249491

  3. The Hidden Habit of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana: First Demonstration of Vertical Plant Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Quesada-Moraga, Enrique; López-Díaz, Cristina; Landa, Blanca Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip, obtained from a larva of the opium poppy stem gall wasp Iraella luteipes (Hymenoptera; Cynipidae), endophytically colonizes opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) plants and protects them against this pest. The goal of this study was to monitor the dynamics of endophytic colonization of opium poppy by B. bassiana after the fungus was applied to the seed and to ascertain whether the fungus is transmitted vertically via seeds. Using a species-specific nested PCR protocol and DNA extracted from surface-sterilised leaf pieces or seeds of B. bassiana-inoculated opium poppy plants, the fungus was detected within the plant beginning at the growth stage of rosette building and them throughout the entire plant growth cycle (about 120–140 days after sowing). The fungus was also detected in seeds from 50% of the capsules sampled. Seeds that showed positive amplification for B. bassiana were planted in sterile soil and the endophyte was again detected in more than 42% of the plants sampled during all plant growth stages. Beauveria bassiana was transmitted to seeds in 25% of the plants from the second generation that formed a mature capsule. These results demonstrate for the first time the vertical transmission of an entomopathogenic fungus from endophytically colonised maternal plants. This information is crucial to better understand the ecological role of entomopathogenic fungi as plant endophytes and may allow development of a sustainable and cost effective strategy for I. luteipes management in P. somniferum. PMID:24551242

  4. Metagenomic and metaproteomic insights into bacterial communities in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens

    SciTech Connect

    Aylward, Frank O.; Burnum, Kristin E.; Scott, Jarrod J.; Suen, Garret; Tringe, Susannah G.; Adams, Sandra M.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Starrett, Gabriel J.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2012-09-01

    Herbivores gain access to nutrients stored in plant biomass largely by harnessing the metabolic activities of microbes. Leaf-cutter ants of the genus Atta are a hallmark example; these dominant Neotropical herbivores cultivate symbiotic fungus gardens on massive quantities of fresh plant forage. As the external digestive system of the ants, fungus gardens facilitate the production and sustenance of millions of workers in mature Atta colonies. Here we use metagenomic, and metaproteomic techniques to characterize the bacterial diversity and overall physiological potential of fungus gardens from two species of Atta. Our analysis of over 1.2 Gbp of community metagenomic sequence and three 16S pyrotag libraries reveals that, in addition to harboring the dominant fungal crop, these ecosystems contain abundant populations of Enterobacteriaceae, including the genera Enterobacter, Pantoea, Klebsiella, Citrobacter, and Escherichia. We show that these bacterial communities possess genes commonly associated with lignocellulose degradation, and likely participate in the processing of plant biomass. Additionally, we demonstrate that bacteria in these environments encode a diverse suite of biosynthetic pathways, and that they may enrich the nitrogen-poor forage of the ants with B-vitamins, amino acids, and proteins. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that fungus gardens are highly-specialized fungus-bacteria communities that efficiently convert plant material into usable energy for their ant hosts. Together with recent investigations into the microbial symbionts of vertebrates, our work underscores the importance of microbial communities to the ecology and evolution of herbivorous metazoans.

  5. Lyapunov decay in quantum irreversibility.

    PubMed

    García-Mata, Ignacio; Roncaglia, Augusto J; Wisniacki, Diego A

    2016-06-13

    The Loschmidt echo--also known as fidelity--is a very useful tool to study irreversibility in quantum mechanics due to perturbations or imperfections. Many different regimes, as a function of time and strength of the perturbation, have been identified. For chaotic systems, there is a range of perturbation strengths where the decay of the Loschmidt echo is perturbation independent, and given by the classical Lyapunov exponent. But observation of the Lyapunov decay depends strongly on the type of initial state upon which an average is carried out. This dependence can be removed by averaging the fidelity over the Haar measure, and the Lyapunov regime is recovered, as has been shown for quantum maps. In this work, we introduce an analogous quantity for systems with infinite dimensional Hilbert space, in particular the quantum stadium billiard, and we show clearly the universality of the Lyapunov regime. PMID:27140966

  6. Resolvability of positron decay channels

    SciTech Connect

    Fluss, M.J.; Howell, R.H.; Rosenberg, I.J.; Meyer, P.

    1985-03-07

    Many data analysis treatments of positron experiments attempt to resolve two or more positron decay or exist channels which may be open simultaneously. Examples of the need to employ such treatments of the experimental results can be found in the resolution of the constituents of a defect ensemble, or in the analysis of the complex spectra which arise from the interaction of slow positrons at or near the surfaces of solids. Experimental one- and two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation experiments in Al single crystals have shown that two defect species (mono- and divacancies) can be resolved under suitable conditions. Recent experiments at LLNL indicate that there are a variety of complex exit channels open to positrons interacting at surfaces, and ultimely these decay channels must also be suitably resolved from one another. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Decay of /sup 150/Er

    SciTech Connect

    Moltz, D.M.; Toth, K.S.; Ellis-Akovali, Y.A.; Cole, J.D.

    1982-09-01

    A new activity, T/sub 1/2/ = 20 +- 2 sec, was observed in /sup 12/C bombardments of /sup 144/Sm. Only one ..gamma.. ray, 476.0 +- 0.1 keV, was found to be associated with this nuclide. We identify the new isotope as /sup 150/Er and propose that it decays mainly to one level in /sup 150/Ho at an excitation energy of approx.476 keV by an allowed ..beta.. transition which connects states with the following configurations: O/sup +/(..pi..h/sub 11/2/, ..pi..h/sub 11/2/)..-->..1/sup +/(..pi..h/sub 11/2/,..nu..h/sub 9/2/). As part of the investigation, the decay properties of the high- and low-spin /sup 150/Ho isomers were reexamined.

  8. Flavor mixing and quark decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu Wang, Ling-Lie

    1981-01-01

    Since this is an experimental conference I shall begin my talk with that spirit. We can view that the subject of my talk as a result of ''the ORY Collaboration'' with more than fifty theorists involved. The topics covered are the results of four task forces: I. The mixing Matrix Task Force, II.. The D-decay Task Force, III. the Boredom-Escaping Group and IV. the Far-and-Beyond Group.

  9. Optical spectroscopy and tooth decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, P.; De, T.; Singh, R.

    2005-11-01

    Optical spectroscopy in the ultraviolet, visible and mid-infrared spectral regions has been used to discriminate between healthy and diseased teeth of patients in the age range 15-75 years. Spectral scans of absorbance versus wavenumber and fluorescence intensity versus wavelength have been recorded and investigated for caries and periodontal disease. Such optical diagnostics can prove very useful in the early detection and treatment of tooth decay.

  10. Nuclear structure from radioactive decay

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.L.

    1991-09-30

    This report discusses nuclear structure from radioactive decay of the following: Neutron-Deficient Iridium Isotopes; Neutron-Deficient Platinum Isotopes; Neutron-Deficient Gold Isotopes; Neutron-Deficient Mercury Isotopes; Neutron-Deficient Thallium Isotopes; Neutron-Deficient Lead Isotopes; Neutron-Deficient Samarium Isotopes; Neutron-Deficient Promethium Isotopes; Neutron-Deficient Neodymium Isotopes; and Neutron-Deficient Praseodymium Isotopes. Also discussed are Nuclear Systematics and Models.

  11. Tunneling decay of false vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo; MacKenzie, Richard; Paranjape, M. B.; Yajnik, U. A.; Yeom, Dong-han

    2013-10-01

    We consider the decay of vortices trapped in the false vacuum of a theory of scalar electrodynamics in 2+1 dimensions. The potential is inspired by models with intermediate symmetry breaking to a metastable vacuum that completely breaks a U(1) symmetry, while in the true vacuum, the symmetry is unbroken. The false vacuum is unstable through the formation of true vacuum bubbles; however, the rate of decay can be extremely long. On the other hand, the false vacuum can contain metastable vortex solutions. These vortices contain the true vacuum inside in addition to a unit of magnetic flux and the appropriate topologically nontrivial false vacuum outside. We numerically establish the existence of vortex solutions which are classically stable; however, they can decay via tunneling. In general terms, they tunnel to a configuration which is a large, thin-walled vortex configuration that is now classically unstable to the expansion of its radius. We compute an estimate for the tunneling amplitude in the semiclassical approximation. We believe our analysis would be relevant to superconducting thin films or superfluids.

  12. Spectrometers for Beta Decay Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yong; Hirshfield, Jay

    2015-04-01

    Inspired by the neutrino mass direct measurement experiment Project 8, precision spectrometers are proposed to simultaneously measure energy and momentum of beta-decay electrons produced in rare nuclear events with improved energy resolution. For detecting single beta decay electrons near the end-point from a gaseous source such as tritium, one type of spectrometer is proposed to utilize stimulated cyclotron resonance interaction of microwaves with electrons in a waveguide immersed in a magnetic mirror. In the external RF fields, on-resonance electrons will satisfy both the cyclotron resonance condition and waveguide dispersion relationship. By correlating the resonances at two waveguide modes, one can associate the frequencies with both the energy and longitudinal momentum of an on-resonance electron to account for the Doppler shifts. For detecting neutrino-less double-beta decay, another spectrometer is proposed with thin foil of double-beta-allowed material immersed in a magnetic field, and RF antenna array for detection of synchrotron radiation from electrons. It utilizes the correlation between the antenna signals including higher harmonics of radiation to reconstruct the total energy distribution.

  13. Radiative decay of nonstationary system.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sumana; Gangopadhyay, Gautam

    2004-04-01

    When a finite quantum system, say a fluorescent molecule is attached to a bulk surface and excited by a short laser pulse, the decay dynamics of the system is modulated by the surface and the signal is enhanced due to the bulk surface. We have considered the decay dynamics of a model of displaced distorted molecule whose excited potential surface is coupled to a continuum and then this first continuum is in turn coupled to a second continuum. In the short time scale there is a coherent exchange of energy between the system molecule and the first continuum states. In the long time scale the energy of the whole system plus first continuum drains out to the final continuum states. A dendrimer nanocomposite with the gold surface shows an enhanced light emission. This can be qualitatively understood from the model we proposed here. We have numerically studied the various potential parameters of the molecule which can affect the signal. When the potential surfaces are flat, the band structure of the first continuum states along with its initial excitation has some nontrivial effect on the profile of the radiative decay. PMID:15267501

  14. Nuclear Decay Data: On-going Studies to Address and Improve Radionuclide Decay Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Alan L.

    2005-05-01

    Representative decay data studies are described and reviewed, ranging from various measurement programmes to the maintenance of evaluated decay-data libraries. Gross beta-decay measurements are essential to address the decay-data requirements for short-lived fission products, well-defined half-lives are required in assessments of the storage of long-lived radionuclides in waste depositories, and improved decay data continue to be demanded in safeguards, to improve detector-calibration standards, and for medical and analytical applications. Such needs require the measurement of good quality decay data, along with multinational evaluations of decay schemes by means of agreed procedures.

  15. Constraints on hadronically decaying dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Garny, Mathias; Ibarra, Alejandro; Tran, David E-mail: alejandro.ibarra@ph.tum.de

    2012-08-01

    We present general constraints on dark matter stability in hadronic decay channels derived from measurements of cosmic-ray antiprotons. We analyze various hadronic decay modes in a model-independent manner by examining the lowest-order decays allowed by gauge and Lorentz invariance for scalar and fermionic dark matter particles and present the corresponding lower bounds on the partial decay lifetimes in those channels. We also investigate the complementarity between hadronic and gamma-ray constraints derived from searches for monochromatic lines in the sky, which can be produced at the quantum level if the dark matter decays into quark-antiquark pairs at leading order.

  16. Doubly charmful baryonic B decays

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, H.-Y.; Chua, C.-K.; Tsai, S.-Y.

    2006-04-01

    There are two apparent puzzles connected with the two-body and three-body doubly charmed baryonic B decays. First, earlier calculations based on QCD sum rules or the diquark model predict B(B{sup 0}{yields}{xi}{sub c}{sup +}{lambda}{sub c}{sup -}){approx_equal}B(B{sup 0}{yields}B{sub c}N), while experimentally the former has a rate 2 orders of magnitude larger than the latter. Second, a naive estimate of the branching ratio O(10{sup -9}) for the color-suppressed three-body decay B{yields}{lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{lambda}{sub c}{sup -}K, which is highly suppressed by phase space, is too small by 5 to 6 orders of magnitude compared to the experiment. We show that the great suppression for the {lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{lambda}{sub c}{sup -}K production can be alleviated provided that there exists a narrow hidden charm bound state with a mass near the {lambda}{sub c}{lambda}{sub c} threshold. This new state that couples strongly to the charmed baryon pair can be searched for in B decays and in pp collisions by studying the mass spectrum of D{sup (*)}D{sup (*)} or {lambda}{sub c}{lambda}{sub c}. The doubly charmful decay B{yields}{xi}{sub c}{lambda}{sub c} has a configuration more favorable than the singly charmful one such as B{sup 0}{yields}{lambda}{sub c}p since no hard gluon is needed to produce the energetic {xi}{sub c}{lambda}{sub c} pair in the former decay, while two hard gluons are needed for the latter process. Assuming that a soft qq quark pair is produced through the {sigma} and {pi} meson exchanges in the configuration for B{yields}{xi}{sub c}{lambda}{sub c}, it is found that its branching ratio is of order 10{sup -3}, in agreement with the experiment.

  17. Malassezia furfur: a fungus belonging to the physiological skin flora and its relevance in skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, A

    1997-01-01

    Malassezia furfur is an anthropophilic fungus that belongs to the physiological skin flora. The fungus can grow in a yeast phase as well as in a mycelial phase; on nonaffected skin the fungus is mainly prevalent in the yeast phase. The organism has complex lipid requirements for growth, which also explains its occurrence on the skin. This also leads to the requirement for specially supplemented media for in vitro cultivation. Malassezia furfur is the causative agent of pityriasis versicolor. It also seems to be associated with seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff formation, folliculitis, confluent and reticulate papillomatosis, and the provocation of psoriatic lesions. Many substances for topical application, such as azole antimycotics, ciclopirox olamine, piroctone-olamine, zinc pyrithione, or sulfur-containing substances are effective in the treatment of these diseases. In recent years rare cases of systemic infections and fungemias caused by Malassezia have been reported. PMID:9013067

  18. Sorption of cadmium, copper, and zinc onto soft coal and the fungus Rhizopus javanicus

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, H.D.; Chapman, S.K.

    1993-12-31

    Experiments involved testing the sorption properties of soft coal and the fungus Rhizopus javanicus to evaluate the feasibility of using these materials for acid mine reclamation. The metals cadmium, copper, and zinc were chosen since they are generally present in sulfide mine waste and are toxic. Their toxicity warrants their removal. To appropriate sulfide mine conditions, solutions of individual metals were prepared with concentrations between five and fifty milligrams/Liter and pH levels between three and seven. Results show forty to seventy percent metal removal for the fungus, and seventy-five to one-hundred percent removal by the coal. The pH of all the metal solutions equilibrated to between four and six when the fungus was used, and between five and seven for the coal. Sorption kinetics studies are currently underway and will be reported.

  19. Parasitic and Saprophytic Abilities of the Nematode-Attacking Fungus Hirsutella rhossiliensis.

    PubMed

    Jaffee, B A; Zehr, E I

    1985-07-01

    The ability of Hirsutella rhossiliensis to colonize various substrates in sterile and nonsterile soil was measured. Hirsutella rhossiliensis was recovered from 67% and 77% of living, inoculated Criconemella xenoplax incubated in sterile and nonsterile soil, respectively. In contrast, the fungus was recovered from 100% and 18% of heat-killed, inoculated nematodes incubated on sterile and nonsterile soil, respectively. Hirsutella rhossiliensis was readily recovered from inoculated, autoclaved wheat seeds incubated in sterile soil but not from seeds incubated in nonsterile soil. Autoclaved peach roots were a poor substrate for the fungus. Germination of H. rhossiliensis spores incubated on agar disks above soil was about 90% regardless of soil treatment. However, germ tube length was greatly suppressed by nonsterile soil. Our results suggest that H. rhossiliensis is a better parasite than saprophyte and that the fungus may be specialized for attacking nematodes. PMID:19294104

  20. Painful Bladder Syndrome: An Unusual Presentation in a Case of Upper Tract Fungus Balls.

    PubMed

    Bajic, Petar; Wetterlin, Jessica; Bresler, Larissa

    2016-05-01

    Urinary tract fungus balls are a rare pathologic entity which may be asymptomatic or have variable presentations. To date, there have been no documented cases of fungus balls presenting as painful bladder syndrome. Painful bladder syndrome is a constellation of symptoms which may include pelvic pain, urgency and frequency not explained by other causes. Here, we present the first case of these two entities concurrently. Our patient had a longstanding history of diabetes, nephrolithiasis and recurrent urinary tract infections. He presented with symptoms of painful bladder syndrome and work-up revealed filling defects within the renal collecting system concerning for malignancy. Subsequent ureteroscopy revealed dense white debris consistent with candida fungus balls. Following clearance of the debris and antifungal therapy, our patient has remained asymptomatic. PMID:27390583

  1. Painful Bladder Syndrome: An Unusual Presentation in a Case of Upper Tract Fungus Balls

    PubMed Central

    Bajic, Petar; Wetterlin, Jessica; Bresler, Larissa

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract fungus balls are a rare pathologic entity which may be asymptomatic or have variable presentations. To date, there have been no documented cases of fungus balls presenting as painful bladder syndrome. Painful bladder syndrome is a constellation of symptoms which may include pelvic pain, urgency and frequency not explained by other causes. Here, we present the first case of these two entities concurrently. Our patient had a longstanding history of diabetes, nephrolithiasis and recurrent urinary tract infections. He presented with symptoms of painful bladder syndrome and work-up revealed filling defects within the renal collecting system concerning for malignancy. Subsequent ureteroscopy revealed dense white debris consistent with candida fungus balls. Following clearance of the debris and antifungal therapy, our patient has remained asymptomatic. PMID:27390583

  2. Lifetime constraints for late dark matter decay

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Nicole F.; Galea, Ahmad J.; Petraki, Kalliopi

    2010-07-15

    We consider a class of late-decaying dark matter models, in which a dark matter particle decays to a heavy stable daughter of approximately the same mass, together with one or more relativistic particles which carry away only a small fraction of the parent rest mass. Such decays can affect galactic halo structure and evolution, and have been invoked as a remedy to some of the small-scale structure formation problems of cold dark matter. There are existing stringent limits on the dark matter lifetime if the decays produce photons. By considering examples in which the relativistic decay products instead consist of neutrinos or electron-position pairs, we derive stringent limits on these scenarios for a wide range of dark matter masses. We thus eliminate a sizable portion of the parameter space for these late-decay models if the dominant decay channel involves standard model final states.

  3. Effect of fungus gnat Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae) feeding on subsequent Pythium aphanidermatum infection of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dark-winged fungus gnats in the genus Bradysia (Diptera: Sciaridae) and root rot pathogens in the genus Pythium (Oomycetes) are important pests of greenhouse floriculture. Observations have pointed to a possible correlation between Pythium root rot disease and fungus gnat infestations; however, inte...

  4. BIODEGRADATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOPORIUM: INVOLVEMENT OF THE LIGNIN DEGRADING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The white-rot fungus Phanrochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade a wide variety of structurally diverse organic compounds, including a number of environmentally persistent organopollutants. The unique biodegradative abilities of this fungus appears to be depend...

  5. Characterization and host range of the symbiotic fungus Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov., vectored by the invasive ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel symbiotic Fusarium euwallaceae fungus that serves as a specific nutritional source for the invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) is farmed in the galleries of host plants. This beetle-fungus complex, which has invaded Israel and California, is clo...

  6. Speciation despite globally overlapping distributions in Penicillium chrysogenum: the population genetics of Alexander Fleming’s lucky fungus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eighty years ago, Alexander Fleming described the antibiotic effects of a fungus that had contaminated his bacterial culture, kick starting the antimicrobial revolution. The fungus was later ascribed to a globally distributed asexual species, Penicillium chrysogenum. Recently, the species has been...

  7. Optimizing copper sulfate treatments for fungus control on channel catfish eggs in high alkalinity/moderate hardness water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in the use of copper sulfate (CuSO4) for fungus (Saprolegnia sp.) control in catfish hatcheries has developed over the past few years. A range-finding study was designed to determine the optimum concentration needed for fungus control on channel catfish eggs in 23.5°C well water at the Stu...

  8. Enhancement of Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) Biomass Production under Drought Conditions by the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Sebacina vermifera ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Ghimire, Sita R.; Craven, Kelly D.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the effects of cocultivating the important bioenergy crop switchgrass with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Sebacina vermifera under severe drought conditions. Plants cocultivated with the fungus produced significantly higher biomass and had a higher macronutrient content than uninoculated control plants under both adequately watered and drought conditions. PMID:21841032

  9. Lack of Pythium aphanidermatum transmission by adult fungus gnats (Bradysia impatiens) and investigation of larval vectoring capacity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have provided evidence for transmission of plant pathogens by greenhouse-inhabiting fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.). The goal of this study was to determine if fungus gnats are vectors of Pythium aphanidermatum. In the first of a series of laboratory experiment, 10 adult gnats were released i...

  10. Temperature Modulates the Secretome of the Phytopathogenic Fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae

    PubMed Central

    Félix, Carina; Duarte, Ana S.; Vitorino, Rui; Guerreiro, Ana C. L.; Domingues, Pedro; Correia, António C. M.; Alves, Artur; Esteves, Ana C.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental alterations modulate host–microorganism interactions. Little is known about how climate changes can trigger pathogenic features on symbiont or mutualistic microorganisms. Current climate models predict increased environmental temperatures. The exposing of phytopathogens to these changing conditions can have particularly relevant consequences for economically important species and for humans. The impact on pathogen/host interaction and the shift on their biogeographical range can induce different levels of virulence in new hosts, allowing massive losses in agricultural and health fields. Lasiodiplodia theobromae is a phytopathogenic fungus responsible for a number of diseases in various plants. It has also been described as an opportunist pathogen in humans, causing infections with different levels of severity. L. theobromae has a high capacity of adaptation to different environments, such as woody plants, moist argillaceous soils, or even humans, being able to grow and infect hosts in a wide range of temperatures (9–39°C). Nonetheless, the effect of an increase of temperature, as predicted in climate change models, on L. theobromae is unknown. Here we explore the effect of temperature on two strains of L. theobromae – an environmental strain, CAA019, and a clinical strain, CBS339.90. We show that both strains are cytotoxic to mammalian cells but while the environmental strain is cytotoxic mainly at 25°C, the clinical strain is cytotoxic mainly at 30 and 37°C. Extracellular gelatinolytic, xylanolytic, amylolytic, and cellulolytic activities at 25 and 37°C were characterized by zymography and the secretome of both strains grown at 25, 30, and 37°C were characterized by electrophoresis and by Orbitrap LC-MS/MS. More than 75% of the proteins were identified, mostly enzymes (glycosyl hydrolases and proteases). The strains showed different protein profiles, which were affected by growth temperature. Also, strain specific proteins were identified

  11. Temperature Modulates the Secretome of the Phytopathogenic Fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae.

    PubMed

    Félix, Carina; Duarte, Ana S; Vitorino, Rui; Guerreiro, Ana C L; Domingues, Pedro; Correia, António C M; Alves, Artur; Esteves, Ana C

    2016-01-01

    Environmental alterations modulate host-microorganism interactions. Little is known about how climate changes can trigger pathogenic features on symbiont or mutualistic microorganisms. Current climate models predict increased environmental temperatures. The exposing of phytopathogens to these changing conditions can have particularly relevant consequences for economically important species and for humans. The impact on pathogen/host interaction and the shift on their biogeographical range can induce different levels of virulence in new hosts, allowing massive losses in agricultural and health fields. Lasiodiplodia theobromae is a phytopathogenic fungus responsible for a number of diseases in various plants. It has also been described as an opportunist pathogen in humans, causing infections with different levels of severity. L. theobromae has a high capacity of adaptation to different environments, such as woody plants, moist argillaceous soils, or even humans, being able to grow and infect hosts in a wide range of temperatures (9-39°C). Nonetheless, the effect of an increase of temperature, as predicted in climate change models, on L. theobromae is unknown. Here we explore the effect of temperature on two strains of L. theobromae - an environmental strain, CAA019, and a clinical strain, CBS339.90. We show that both strains are cytotoxic to mammalian cells but while the environmental strain is cytotoxic mainly at 25°C, the clinical strain is cytotoxic mainly at 30 and 37°C. Extracellular gelatinolytic, xylanolytic, amylolytic, and cellulolytic activities at 25 and 37°C were characterized by zymography and the secretome of both strains grown at 25, 30, and 37°C were characterized by electrophoresis and by Orbitrap LC-MS/MS. More than 75% of the proteins were identified, mostly enzymes (glycosyl hydrolases and proteases). The strains showed different protein profiles, which were affected by growth temperature. Also, strain specific proteins were identified, such

  12. Cytotoxic effects of oosporein isolated from endophytic fungus Cochliobolus kusanoi

    PubMed Central

    Ramesha, Alurappa; Venkataramana, M.; Nirmaladevi, Dhamodaran; Gupta, Vijai K.; Chandranayaka, S.; Srinivas, Chowdappa

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, oosporein, a fungal toxic secondary metabolite known to be a toxic agent causing chronic disorders in animals, was isolated from fungus Cochliobolus kusanoi of Nerium oleander L. Toxic effects of oosporein and the possible mechanisms of cytotoxicity as well as the role of oxidative stress in cytotoxicity to Madin-Darby canine kidney kidney cells and RAW 264.7 splene cells were evaluated in vitro. Also to know the possible in vivo toxic effects of oosporein on kidney and spleen, Balb/C mouse were treated with different concentrations of oosporein ranging from 20 to 200 μM). After 24 h of exposure histopathological observations were made to know the effects of oosporein on target organs. Oosporein induced elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and high levels of malondialdehyde, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, induced glutathione hydroxylase (GSH) production was observed in a dose depended manner. Effects oosporein on chromosomal DNA damage was assessed by Comet assay, and increase in DNA damage were observed in both the studied cell lines by increasing the oosporein concentration. Further, oosporein treatment to studied cell lines indicated significant suppression of oxidative stress related gene (Superoxide dismutase1 and Catalase ) expression, and increased levels of mRNA expression in apoptosis or oxidative stress inducing genes HSP70, Caspase3, Caspase6, and Caspase9 as measured by quantitative real time-PCR assay. Histopathological examination of oosporein treated mouse kidney and splenocytes further revealed that, oosporein treated target mouse tissues were significantly damaged with that of untreated sam control mice and these effects were in directly proportional to the the toxin dose. Results of the present study reveals that, ROS is the principle event prompting increased oosporein toxicity in studied in vivio and in vitro animal models. The high previlance of these fungi in temperate climates further

  13. Extraction of DNA from plant and fungus tissues in situ

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background When samples are collected in the field and transported to the lab, degradation of the nucleic acids contained in the samples is frequently observed. Immediate extraction and precipitation of the nucleic acids reduces degradation to a minimum, thus preserving accurate sequence information. An extraction method to obtain high quality DNA in field studies is described. Findings DNA extracted immediately after sampling was compared to DNA extracted after allowing the sampled tissues to air dry at 21°C for 48 or 72 hours. While DNA extracted from fresh tissues exhibited little degradation, DNA extracted from all tissues exposed to 21°C air for 48 or 72 hours exhibited varying degrees of degradation. Yield was higher for extractions from fresh tissues in most cases. Four microcentrifuges were compared for DNA yield: one standard electric laboratory microcentrifuge (max rcf = 16,000×g), two battery-operated microcentrifuges (max rcf = 5,000 and 3,000 ×g), and one manually-operated microcentrifuge (max rcf = 120×g). Yields for all centrifuges were similar. DNA extracted under simulated field conditions was similar in yield and quality to DNA extracted in the laboratory using the same equipment. Conclusions This CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) DNA extraction method employs battery-operated and manually-operated equipment to isolate high quality DNA in the field. The method was tested on plant and fungus tissues, and may be adapted for other types of organisms. The method produced high quality DNA in laboratory tests and under simulated field conditions. The field extraction method should prove useful for working in remote sites, where ice, dry ice, and liquid nitrogen are unavailable; where degradation is likely to occur due to the long distances between the sample site and the laboratory; and in instances where other DNA preservation and transportation methods have been unsuccessful. It may be possible to adapt this method for genomic

  14. [Antiviral activity of aqueous extracts of the birch fungus Inonotus obliquus on the human immunodeficiency virus].

    PubMed

    Shibnev, V A; Garaev, T M; Finogenova, M P; Kalnina, L B; Nosik, D N

    2015-01-01

    Fractions of aqueous and water-alcohol extracts of the birch fungus Inonotus obliquus have antiviral effect against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Antiviral properties of low toxic extracts were manifested in the concentration of 5.0 μg/ml upon simultaneous application with the virus in the lymphoblastoid cells culture MT-4. The extract of the birch fungus can be used for development of new antiviral drugs, inhibitors of HIV-replication when used both in the form of individual drugs and as a part of complex therapy. PMID:26182655

  15. Process for producing ethanol from plant biomass using the fungus Paecilomyces sp

    DOEpatents

    Wu, J.F.

    1985-08-08

    A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass is disclosed. The process includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the fungus Paecilomyces which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and xylose to ethanol is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this fungus, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. Finally, ethanol is recovered from the fermented substrate. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. The research of using Co-60 γ ray to sterilize different mediums for edible fungus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guozhu, Li; Zhenqian, Guan; Hengshou, Zhao

    1993-10-01

    The present experiment has been carried out by using different dosage of Co—60 γ ray for radiation sterilization of five kinds of cultural materials of edible fungus, The results indicated that sterilization dosage of sawdust is 22 kGy. that of cotton—seed shell and the rest are 26 kGy. We conclude that using Co-60 γ ray to sterilize the cultura 1 materials of edible fungus is a secure and saving labor and energy new method which could sterilize thoroughly.

  17. A virus in a fungus in a plant: Three-way symbiosis required for thermal tolerance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marquez, L.M.; Redman, R.S.; Rodriguez, R.J.; Roossinck, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    A mutualistic association between a fungal endophyte and a tropical panic grass allows both organisms to grow at high soil temperatures. We characterized a virus from this fungus that is involved in the mutualistic interaction. Fungal isolates cured of the virus are unable to confer heat tolerance, but heat tolerance is restored after the virus is reintroduced. The virus-infected fungus confers heat tolerance not only to its native monocot host but also to a eudicot host, which suggests that the underlying mechanism involves pathways conserved between these two groups of plants.

  18. Process for producing ethanol from plant biomass using the fungus paecilomyces sp.

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Jung Fu

    1989-01-01

    A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass is disclosed. The process in cludes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the fungus Paecilomyces, which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and xylose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this fungus, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. Finally, ethanol is recovered from the fermented substrate.

  19. A virus in a fungus in a plant: three-way symbiosis required for thermal tolerance.

    PubMed

    Márquez, Luis M; Redman, Regina S; Rodriguez, Russell J; Roossinck, Marilyn J

    2007-01-26

    A mutualistic association between a fungal endophyte and a tropical panic grass allows both organisms to grow at high soil temperatures. We characterized a virus from this fungus that is involved in the mutualistic interaction. Fungal isolates cured of the virus are unable to confer heat tolerance, but heat tolerance is restored after the virus is reintroduced. The virus-infected fungus confers heat tolerance not only to its native monocot host but also to a eudicot host, which suggests that the underlying mechanism involves pathways conserved between these two groups of plants. PMID:17255511

  20. Ureteric obstruction due to fungus-ball in a chronically immunosuppressed patient.

    PubMed

    Davis, Niall F; Smyth, Lisa G; Mulcahy, Elizabeth; Scanlon, Tim; Casserly, Liam; Flood, Hugh D

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans is a fungus that can cause opportunistic urinary tract infections in immunocompromised patients. Disseminated fungaemia secondary to Candida albicans is associated with considerable mortality and therefore merits aggressive treatment. Diagnostic investigations for urosepsis and disseminated fungaemaia secondary to Candida albicans include positive urine and blood cultures. Herein, we describe an extremely unusual case of disseminated fungaemia associated with an obstructive fungus-ball in the distal ureter of an immunosuppressed patient. We also describe a novel application of an established endourological technique for managing this clinical scenario and discuss appropriate perioperative management strategies. PMID:23766839

  1. Bio-liquefaction/solubilization of lignitic humic acids by white-rot fungus (Phanerochaete chrysosporium)

    SciTech Connect

    Elbeyli, I.Y.; Palantoken, A.; Piskin, S.; Peksel, A.; Kuzu, H.

    2006-08-15

    Humic acid samples obtained from lignite were liquefied/solubilized by using white-rot fungus, and chemical characterization of the products was investigated by FTIR and GC-MS techniques. Prior to the microbial treatment, raw lignite was oxidized with hydrogen peroxide and nitric acid separately, and then humic acids were extracted by alkali solution. The prepared humic acid samples were placed on the agar surface of the fungus and liquid products formed by microbial affects were collected. The products were analyzed and the chemical properties were compared. The results show that oxidation agent and oxidation degree affect composition of the liquid products formed by microbial attack.

  2. Characterisation of the initial degradation stage of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood after attack by brown-rot fungus Coniophora puteana.

    PubMed

    Irbe, Ilze; Andersone, Ingeborga; Andersons, Bruno; Noldt, Guna; Dizhbite, Tatiana; Kurnosova, Nina; Nuopponen, Mari; Stewart, Derek

    2011-07-01

    In our study, early period degradation (10 days) of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood by the brown-rot fungus Coniophora puteana (Schum.: Fr.) Karst. (BAM Ebw.15) was followed at the wood chemical composition and ultrastructure-level, and highlighted the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An advanced decay period of 50 days was chosen for comparison of the degradation dynamics. Scanning UV microspectrophotometry (UMSP) analyses of lignin distribution in wood cells revealed that the linkages of lignin and polysaccharides were already disrupted in the early period of fungal attack. An increase in the lignin absorption A(280) value from 0.24 (control) to 0.44 in decayed wood was attributed to its oxidative modification which has been proposed to be generated by Fenton reaction derived ROS. The wood weight loss in the initial degradation period was 2%, whilst cellulose and lignin content decreased by 6.7% and 1%, respectively. Lignin methoxyl (-OCH3) content decreased from 15.1% (control) to 14.2% in decayed wood. Diffuse reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (DRIFT) spectroscopy corroborated the moderate loss in the hemicellulose and lignin degradation accompanying degradation. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectra and spin trapping confirmed the generation of ROS, such as hydroxyl radicals (HO∙), in the early wood degradation period. Our results showed that irreversible changes in wood structure started immediately after wood colonisation by fungal hyphae and the results generated here will assist in the understanding of the biochemical mechanisms of wood biodegradation by brown-rot fungi with the ultimate aim of developing novel wood protection methods. PMID:21327804

  3. Ecology of Fungus Gnats (Bradysia spp.) in Greenhouse Production Systems Associated with Disease-Interactions and Alternative Management Strategies.

    PubMed

    Cloyd, Raymond A

    2015-01-01

    Fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.) are major insect pests of greenhouse-grown horticultural crops mainly due to the direct feeding damage caused by the larvae, and the ability of larvae to transmit certain soil-borne plant pathogens. Currently, insecticides and biological control agents are being used successively to deal with fungus gnat populations in greenhouse production systems. However, these strategies may only be effective as long as greenhouse producers also implement alternative management strategies such as cultural, physical, and sanitation. This includes elimination of algae, and plant and growing medium debris; placing physical barriers onto the growing medium surface; and using materials that repel fungus gnat adults. This article describes the disease-interactions associated with fungus gnats and foliar and soil-borne diseases, and the alternative management strategies that should be considered by greenhouse producers in order to alleviate problems with fungus gnats in greenhouse production systems. PMID:26463188

  4. Modification of Prenylated Stilbenoids in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Seedlings by the Same Fungi That Elicited Them: The Fungus Strikes Back.

    PubMed

    Aisyah, Siti; Gruppen, Harry; Slager, Mathijs; Helmink, Bianca; Vincken, Jean-Paul

    2015-10-28

    Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oryzae were compared for inducing the production of prenylated stilbenoids in peanut seedlings. The fungus was applied at two different time points: directly after soaking (day 1) or after 2 days of germination (day 3). Aspergillus- and Rhizopus-elicited peanut seedlings accumulated an array of prenylated stilbenoids, with overlap in compounds induced, but also with compounds specific to the fungal treatment. The differences were confirmed to be due to modification of prenylated stilbenoids by the fungus itself. Each fungus appeared to deploy different strategies for modification. The content of prenylated stilbenoids modified by fungi accounted for around 8% to 49% (w/w) of total stilbenoids. The contents of modified prenylated stilbenoids were higher when the fungus was applied on day 1 instead of day 3. Altogether, type of fungus and time point of inoculation appeared to be crucial parameters for optimizing accumulation of prenylated stilbenoids in peanut seedlings. PMID:26458982

  5. Nothing Special in the Specialist? Draft Genome Sequence of Cryomyces antarcticus, the Most Extremophilic Fungus from Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Sterflinger, Katja; Lopandic, Ksenija; Pandey, Ram Vinay; Blasi, Barbara; Kriegner, Albert

    2014-01-01

    The draft genome of the Antarctic endemic fungus Cryomyces antarcticus is presented. This rock inhabiting, microcolonial fungus is extremely stress tolerant and it is a model organism for exobiology and studies on stress resistance in Eukaryots. Since this fungus is a specialist in the most extreme environment of the Earth, the analysis of its genome is of important value for the understanding of fungal genome evolution and stress adaptation. A comparison with Neurospora crassa as well as with other microcolonial fungi shows that the fungus has a genome size of 24 Mbp, which is the average in the fungal kingdom. Although sexual reproduction was never observed in this fungus, 34 mating genes are present with protein homologs in the classes Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes and Dothideomycetes. The first analysis of the draft genome did not reveal any significant deviations of this genome from comparative species and mesophilic hyphomycetes. PMID:25296285

  6. Ecology of Fungus Gnats (Bradysia spp.) in Greenhouse Production Systems Associated with Disease-Interactions and Alternative Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Cloyd, Raymond A.

    2015-01-01

    Fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.) are major insect pests of greenhouse-grown horticultural crops mainly due to the direct feeding damage caused by the larvae, and the ability of larvae to transmit certain soil-borne plant pathogens. Currently, insecticides and biological control agents are being used successively to deal with fungus gnat populations in greenhouse production systems. However, these strategies may only be effective as long as greenhouse producers also implement alternative management strategies such as cultural, physical, and sanitation. This includes elimination of algae, and plant and growing medium debris; placing physical barriers onto the growing medium surface; and using materials that repel fungus gnat adults. This article describes the disease-interactions associated with fungus gnats and foliar and soil-borne diseases, and the alternative management strategies that should be considered by greenhouse producers in order to alleviate problems with fungus gnats in greenhouse production systems. PMID:26463188

  7. Nothing special in the specialist? Draft genome sequence of Cryomyces antarcticus, the most extremophilic fungus from Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Sterflinger, Katja; Lopandic, Ksenija; Pandey, Ram Vinay; Blasi, Barbara; Kriegner, Albert

    2014-01-01

    The draft genome of the Antarctic endemic fungus Cryomyces antarcticus is presented. This rock inhabiting, microcolonial fungus is extremely stress tolerant and it is a model organism for exobiology and studies on stress resistance in Eukaryots. Since this fungus is a specialist in the most extreme environment of the Earth, the analysis of its genome is of important value for the understanding of fungal genome evolution and stress adaptation. A comparison with Neurospora crassa as well as with other microcolonial fungi shows that the fungus has a genome size of 24 Mbp, which is the average in the fungal kingdom. Although sexual reproduction was never observed in this fungus, 34 mating genes are present with protein homologs in the classes Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes and Dothideomycetes. The first analysis of the draft genome did not reveal any significant deviations of this genome from comparative species and mesophilic hyphomycetes. PMID:25296285

  8. Interaction of Rhizobium sp. with Toxin-Producing Fungus in Culture Medium and in a Tropical Soil †

    PubMed Central

    Habte, Mitiku; Barrion, Melinda

    1984-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the influence of a toxin-producing fungus on a rhizobial population in yeast-mannitol medium and in a tropical soil. The fungus, which was isolated from a highly weathered soil (Tropeptic Eutrustox), was identified as a Metarhizum sp. The density of rhizobial populations established in yeast-mannitol medium in the absence of the fungus was 105 times higher than that established in its presence. However, the fungus did not exert similar antagonistic influence on the rhizobial population incubated with it in the sterilized test soil. Rhizobial growth activity in yeast-mannitol medium was also insensitive to the presence of the fungus when the medium was amended with 1% (wt/vol) kaolinite or montmorillonite. The results suggest that clay minerals may be responsible for protecting rhizobia against toxin-producing fungi in soil. PMID:16346537

  9. Interaction of Rhizobium sp. with Toxin-Producing Fungus in Culture Medium and in a Tropical Soil.

    PubMed

    Habte, M; Barrion, M

    1984-05-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the influence of a toxin-producing fungus on a rhizobial population in yeast-mannitol medium and in a tropical soil. The fungus, which was isolated from a highly weathered soil (Tropeptic Eutrustox), was identified as a Metarhizum sp. The density of rhizobial populations established in yeast-mannitol medium in the absence of the fungus was 10 times higher than that established in its presence. However, the fungus did not exert similar antagonistic influence on the rhizobial population incubated with it in the sterilized test soil. Rhizobial growth activity in yeast-mannitol medium was also insensitive to the presence of the fungus when the medium was amended with 1% (wt/vol) kaolinite or montmorillonite. The results suggest that clay minerals may be responsible for protecting rhizobia against toxin-producing fungi in soil. PMID:16346537

  10. Nest enlargement in leaf-cutting ants: relocated brood and fungus trigger the excavation of new chambers.

    PubMed

    Römer, Daniela; Roces, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    During colony growth, leaf-cutting ants enlarge their nests by excavating tunnels and chambers housing their fungus gardens and brood. Workers are expected to excavate new nest chambers at locations across the soil profile that offer suitable environmental conditions for brood and fungus rearing. It is an open question whether new chambers are excavated in advance, or will emerge around brood or fungus initially relocated to a suitable site in a previously-excavated tunnel. In the laboratory, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the excavation of new nest chambers in the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex lundi. Specifically, we asked whether workers relocate brood and fungus to suitable nest locations, and to what extent the relocated items trigger the excavation of a nest chamber and influence its shape. When brood and fungus were exposed to unfavorable environmental conditions, either low temperatures or low humidity, both were relocated, but ants clearly preferred to relocate the brood first. Workers relocated fungus to places containing brood, demonstrating that subsequent fungus relocation spatially follows the brood deposition. In addition, more ants aggregated at sites containing brood. When presented with a choice between two otherwise identical digging sites, but one containing brood, ants' excavation activity was higher at this site, and the shape of the excavated cavity was more rounded and chamber-like. The presence of fungus also led to the excavation of rounder shapes, with higher excavation activity at the site that also contained brood. We argue that during colony growth, workers preferentially relocate brood to suitable locations along a tunnel, and that relocated brood spatially guides fungus relocation and leads to increased digging activity around them. We suggest that nest chambers are not excavated in advance, but emerge through a self-organized process resulting from the aggregation of workers and their density-dependent digging behavior

  11. Proton decay studies at HRIBF

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelder, J. C.; Bingham, C. R.; Rykaczewski, K.; Toth, K. S.; Mas, J. F.; McConnell, J. W.; Yu, C.-H.; Davinson, T.; Slinger, R. C.; Woods, P. J.; Ginter, T. N.; Gross, C. J.; Grzywacz, R.; Kim, S. H.; Weintraub, W.; Janas, Z.; Karny, M.; MacDonald, B. D.; Piechaczek, A.; Zganjar, E. F.

    1998-12-21

    A double-sided Si-strip detector system has been installed and commissioned at the focal plane of the Recoil Mass Spectrometer at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility. The system can be used for heavy charged particle emission studies with half-lives as low as a few {mu}sec. In this paper we present identification and study of the decay properties of the five new proton emitters: {sup 140}Ho, {sup 141m}Ho, {sup 145}Tm, {sup 150m}Lu and {sup 151m}Lu.

  12. Gravitational effects on inflaton decay

    SciTech Connect

    Ema, Yohei; Jinno, Ryusuke; Mukaida, Kyohei; Nakayama, Kazunori

    2015-05-22

    We point out that the inflaton inevitably couples to all non-conformally coupled matters gravitationally through an oscillation in the Hubble parameter or the cosmic scale factor. It leads to particle production during the inflaton oscillation regime, which is most efficient just after inflation. Moreover, the analysis is extended to the model with non-minimal inflaton couplings to gravity, in which the Hubble parameter oscillates more violently. We apply our results to the graviton production by the inflaton: gravitons are also produced just after inflation, but the non-minimal coupling does not induce inflaton decay into the graviton pair.

  13. Classical picture of postexponential decay

    SciTech Connect

    Torrontegui, E.; Muga, J. G.; Martorell, J.; Sprung, D. W. L.

    2010-04-15

    Postexponential decay of the probability density of a quantum particle leaving a trap can be reproduced accurately, except for interference oscillations at the transition to the postexponential regime, by means of an ensemble of classical particles emitted with constant probability per unit time and the same half-life as the quantum system. The energy distribution of the ensemble is chosen to be identical to the quantum distribution, and the classical point source is located at the scattering length of the corresponding quantum system. A one-dimensional example is provided to illustrate the general argument.

  14. Dissipationless decay of Jovian jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirraglia, J. A.

    1989-05-01

    IRIS data have been taken as the bases of windshear calculations whose results imply a decrease of the Jovian planet's zonal jets with altitude. The simplified dynamical model developed to furnish a mechanism accounting for the decay involves a highly truncated set of dissipationless equations simulating the upper-tropospheric and stratospheric flow. While the model's lower boundary is constrained as a latitudinally periodic set of alternating jets, the upper boundary constraint maintains a constant potential temperature. The small perturbations to which the imposed zonal jets are unstable grow and interact nonlinearly, generating a zonal flow that opposes the imposed one and thereby leading to the apparent decrease of the jets with altitude.

  15. Proton decay studies at HRIBF

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelder, J.C.; Bingham, C.R.; Rykaczewski, K.; Toth, K.S.; Mas, J.F.; McConnell, J.W.; Yu, C.; Bingham, C.R.; Grzywacz, R.; Kim, S.H.; Weintraub, W.; Rykaczewski, K.; Janas, Z.; Karny, M.; Davinson, T.; Slinger, R.C.; Woods, P.J.; Ginter, T.N.; Gross, C.J.; MacDonald, B.D.; Piechaczek, A.; Zganjar, E.F.; Ressler, J.J.; Walters, W.B.; Szerypo, J.

    1998-12-01

    A double-sided Si-strip detector system has been installed and commissioned at the focal plane of the Recoil Mass Spectrometer at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility. The system can be used for heavy charged particle emission studies with half-lives as low as a few {mu}sec. In this paper we present identification and study of the decay properties of the five new proton emitters: {sup 140}Ho, {sup 141m}Ho, {sup 145}Tm, {sup 150m}Lu and {sup 151m}Lu. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Bremsstrahlung in {alpha} Decay Reexamined

    SciTech Connect

    Boie, H.; Scheit, H.; Jentschura, U. D.; Koeck, F.; Lauer, M.; Schwalm, D.; Milstein, A. I.; Terekhov, I. S.

    2007-07-13

    A high-statistics measurement of bremsstrahlung emitted in the {alpha} decay of {sup 210}Po has been performed, which allows us to follow the photon spectra up to energies of {approx}500 keV. The measured differential emission probability is in good agreement with our theoretical results obtained within the quasiclassical approximation as well as with the exact quantum mechanical calculation. It is shown that, due to the small effective electric dipole charge of the radiating system, a significant interference between the electric dipole and quadrupole contributions occurs, which is altering substantially the angular correlation between the {alpha} particle and the emitted photon.

  17. Tau decays into K* mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, H.; Hamacher, T.; Hofmann, R. P.; Kirchhoff, T.; Mankel, R.; Nau, A.; Nowak, S.; Schröder, H.; Schulz, H. D.; Walter, M.; Wurth, R.; Hast, C.; Kapitza, H.; Kolanoski, H.; Kosche, A.; Lange, A.; Lindner, A.; Schieber, M.; Siegmund, T.; Spaan, B.; Thurn, H.; Töpfer, D.; Wegener, D.; Eckstein, P.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Waldi, R.; Reim, K.; Wegener, H.; Eckmann, R.; Kuipers, H.; Mai, O.; Mundt, R.; Oest, T.; Reiner, R.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Stiewe, J.; Werner, S.; Ehret, K.; Hofmann, W.; Hüpper, A.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Spengler, J.; Krieger, P.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Saull, P. R. B.; Tzamariudaki, K.; van de Water, R. G.; Yoon, T.-S.; Frankl, C.; Reßing, D.; Schmidtler, M.; Schneider, M.; Weseler, S.; Kernel, G.; Križan, P.; Križnič, E.; Podobnik, T.; Živko, T.; Balagura, V.; Belyaev, I.; Schechelnitsky, S.; Danilov, M.; Doutskoy, A.; Gershtein, Yu.; Golutvin, A.; Korolko, I.; Kostina, G.; Litvintsev, D.; Lubimov, V.; Pakhlov, P.; Semenov, S.; Snizhko, A.; Tichomirov, I.; Zaitsev, Yu.

    1995-06-01

    Using the ARGUS detector at the storage ring DORIS II we have measured τ decays into three charged mesons containing K * mesons. Exploiting the good particle identification capabilities of the detector we have determined the following branching ratios:Brleft( {tau ^ - to overline {K^{*0} } π ^ - v_tau } right) = left( {0.25 ± 0.10 ± 0.05} right)% , B r (τ-→ K *0 K - v τ)= (0.20±0.05±0.04)%, and B r (τ-→ K *- X 0 v τ) =(1.15±0.15-0.18 +0.13)%.

  18. Exploring the simplest purely baryonic decay processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, C. Q.; Hsiao, Y. K.; Rodrigues, Eduardo

    2016-07-01

    Though not considered in general, purely baryonic decays could shed light on the puzzle of the baryon number asymmetry in the universe by means of a better understanding of the baryonic nature of our matter world. As such, they constitute a yet unexplored class of decay processes worth investigating. We propose to search for purely baryonic decay processes at the LHCb experiment. No such type of decay has ever been observed. In particular, we concentrate on the decay Λb0→p p ¯n , which is the simplest purely baryonic decay mode, with solely spin-1 /2 baryons involved. We predict its decay branching ratio to be B (Λb0→p p ¯ n )=(2. 0-0.2+0.3)×10-6 , which is sufficiently large to make the decay mode accessible to LHCb. Our study can be extended to other purely baryonic decays such as Λb0→p p ¯ Λ , Λb0→Λ p ¯ Λ , and Λb0→Λ Λ ¯Λ , as well as to similar decays of antitriplet b baryons such as Ξb0 ,-.

  19. Cascade decays of hollow ions

    SciTech Connect

    Omar, G. ); Hahn, Y. )

    1991-05-01

    A multiple-electron-emission process for atoms with one or more inner-shell vacancies is treated using the radiative- and Auger-electron-emission cascade model, in which inner-shell holes are assumed to decay by sequentially emitting radiations and/or Auger electrons. Such hollow ions are produced by synchrotron irradiation of atomic targets and in ion-surface interactions with multiple-electron transfers. The final charge-state distribution is determined by the Auger and radiative branching ratios at each stage of the decay sequence. At intermediate stages of cascade, hollow ions with more than one hole in different ionization stages are created. The Ne, Mg, and Fe{sup 14+} ions with the initial 1{ital s}, 2{ital s}, and 2{ital p} vacancies are considered in detail, and the core charge dependence of the maximum charge state is studied. The hollow Mg ion with double initial 1{ital s} holes is analyzed, and the result compared with that for the case of one 1{ital s} hole. The peak is shifted more than two units to a higher degree of ionization. The correlated shake-off and shake-up multiple-electron processes are not considered, but they are expected to cause further shifts.

  20. Bs decays at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Giurgiu, Gavril; /Johns Hopkins U.

    2010-09-01

    The authors present measurements of the branching ratio and of the polarization amplitudes in charmless B{sub s} {yields} {phi}{phi} decays using data corresponding to 2.9 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity, collected by the CDF experiment at the Tevatron. The branching ratio in B{sub s} {yields} {phi}{phi} decays is measured relative to the normalization mode B{sub s} {yields} J/{Psi}{phi} be {Beta}(B{sub s} {yields} {phi}{phi})/{Beta}(B{sub s} {yields} J/{Psi}{phi}) = [1.78 {+-} 0.14(stat) {+-} 0.20(syst)] x 10{sup -2}. Using the experimental value of {Beta}(B{sub s} {yields} J/{Psi}{phi}) they determine the B{sub s} {yields} {phi}{phi} branching ratio {Beta}(B{sub s} {yields} {phi}{phi}) = 2.40 {+-} 0.21(stat) {+-} 0.27(syst) {+-} 0.82(BR) x 10{sup -5}. The polarization fractions are measured for the first time in this analysis and found to be: |A{sub 0}|{sup 2} = 0.348 {+-} 0.041(stat) {+-} 0.021(syst); |A{sub {parallel}}|{sup 2} = 0.287 {+-} 0.043(stat) {+-} 0.011(syst); and |A{sub {perpendicular}}|{sup 2} = 0.365 {+-} 0.044(stat) {+-} 0.027(syst).

  1. Dark Decay of the Top Quark

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Kyoungchul; Lee, Hye-Sung; Park, Myeonghun

    2014-04-01

    We suggest top quark decays as a venue to search for light dark force carriers. The top quark is the heaviest particle in the standard model whose decays are relatively poorly measured, allowing sufficient room for exotic decay modes from new physics. A very light (GeV scale) dark gauge boson (Z') is a recently highlighted hypothetical particle that can address some astrophysical anomalies as well as the 3.6sigma deviation in the muon g-2 measurement. We present and study a possible scenario that top quark decays as t-->bW+Z's. This is the same as the dominant top quark decay (t-->bW) accompanied by one or multiple dark force carriers. The Z' can be easily boosted, and it can decay into highly collimated leptons (lepton-jet) with large branching ratio. We discuss the implications for the Large Hadron Collider experiments including the analysis based on the lepton-jets.

  2. Dark decay of the top quark

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Kyoungchul; Lee, Hye -Sung; Park, Myeonghun

    2014-04-01

    We suggest top quark decays as a venue to search for light dark force carriers. Top quark is the heaviest particle in the standard model whose decays are relatively poorly measured, allowing sufficient room for exotic decay modes from new physics. A very light (GeV scale) dark gauge boson (Z') is a recently highlighted hypothetical particle that can address some astrophysical anomalies as well as the 3.6 σ deviation in the muon g-2 measurement. We present and study a possible scenario that top quark decays as t → b W + Z's. This is the same as the dominant top quark decay (t → b W) accompanied by one or multiple dark force carriers. The Z' can be easily boosted, and it can decay into highly collimated leptons (lepton-jet) with large branching ratio. In addition, we discuss the implications for the Large Hadron Collider experiments including the analysis based on the lepton-jets.

  3. BIOLOGICAL OXIDATIONS OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS BY ENZYMES FROM A WHITE ROT FUNGUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade a wide variety of structurally diverse organopollutants is dependent upon the lignin-degrading system of this microorganism. n part, the lignin-degrading system-consists of a family of peroxidases, which a...

  4. Effect of biochar soil-amendments on Allium porrum growth, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus colonization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: Examine the interaction of biochar addition and arbuscular mycorrhizal [AM] fungus inoculation upon growth and Zn and Cu uptake by Allium porrum L. in heavy metal amended soil mix, and relate these responses to physicochemical properties of the biochars. Methods: The experiment was a complete ...

  5. De novo genome assembly of the soil-borne fungus and tomato pathogen Pyrenochaeta lycopersici

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pyrenochaeta lycopersici is a soil-dwelling ascomycete pathogen that causes corky root rot disease in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and other Solanaceous crops, reducing fruit yields by up to 75%. Fungal pathogens that infect roots receive less attention than those infecting the aerial parts of crops despite their significant impact on plant growth and fruit production. Results We assembled a 54.9Mb P. lycopersici draft genome sequence based on Illumina short reads, and annotated approximately 17,000 genes. The P. lycopersici genome is closely related to hemibiotrophs and necrotrophs, in agreement with the phenotypic characteristics of the fungus and its lifestyle. Several gene families related to host–pathogen interactions are strongly represented, including those responsible for nutrient absorption, the detoxification of fungicides and plant cell wall degradation, the latter confirming that much of the genome is devoted to the pathogenic activity of the fungus. We did not find a MAT gene, which is consistent with the classification of P. lycopersici as an imperfect fungus, but we observed a significant expansion of the gene families associated with heterokaryon incompatibility (HI). Conclusions The P. lycopersici draft genome sequence provided insight into the molecular and genetic basis of the fungal lifestyle, characterizing previously unknown pathogenic behaviors and defining strategies that allow this asexual fungus to increase genetic diversity and to acquire new pathogenic traits. PMID:24767544

  6. Isolation and identification of nematode-antagonistic compounds from the fungus Aspergillus candidus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An isolate of the fungus Aspergillus candidus was tested for production of nematicidal compounds. Adults of the nematode Ditylenchus destructor were completely inactive after 24 hr exposure to soy medium in which A. candidus was cultured. Column, thin layer and preparative chromatographies, and spec...

  7. Effectiveness of Defatted Mustard Meals Used to Control Fungus Gnats: 2000-2002

    SciTech Connect

    McCaffrey, J. P.; Morra, M. J.

    2005-07-01

    Our objective is to develop a pesticidal product from mustard meals that can be used to control insect pests. We have focused our efforts on fungus gnats. This report details our current progress in developing a pesticidal product that can be used to control this plant pest.

  8. Mechanisms of resistance to an azole fungicide in the grapevine powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We studied the mechanisms of azole resistance in the grapevine powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator, by quantifying the sensitivity to myclobutanil (EC50) in 65 isolates from the eastern U.S. and 12 from Chile. From each isolate, we sequenced the gene for sterol 14a-demethylase (CYP51), and measu...

  9. Biological pretreatment of corn stover with white-rot fungus for improved enzymatic hydrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass by white-rot fungus can represent a low-cost and eco-friendly alternative to harsh physical, chemical or physico-chemical pretreatment methods to facilitate enzymatic hydrolysis. However, fungal pretreatment can cause carbohydrate loss and it is, th...

  10. BIODEGRADATION OF CRYSTAL VIOLET BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOPORIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biodegradation of crystal violet (N,N,N',N',N",N"-hexamethylpararosaniline) in ligninolytic (nitrogen-limited) cultures of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance of crystal violet and by the identification of three metabolites (N,N,...

  11. Dissolved oxygen levels affect dimorphic growth by the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea is capable of dimorphic growth (hyphal or yeast-like) in submerged culture. In shake flask studies, we evaluated the impact of aeration on the mode of growth of I. fumosorosea. Using 250 mL baffled Erlenmeyer flasks, culture volumes of 50, 100, 150, a...

  12. BIODEGRADATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium secretes a unique hydrogen peroxide-dependent oxidase capable of degrading lignin, a highly complex, chemically resistant, non-repeating heteropolymer. ue to its ability to generate carbon-centered radicals, this enzyme is able to...

  13. Biodegradation of pentachlorophenol by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (1988)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extensive biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance and mineralization of [14C]PCP in nutrient nitrogen-limited culture. Mass balance analyses demonstrated the formation of water-soluble met...

  14. Peracetic acid is effective for controlling fungus on channel catfish eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is a relatively new compound suggested for use to treat pathogens in aquaculture. It is approved for use in Europe, but not in the United States. This study determined the effectiveness of PAA for fungus control on channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus eggs. The study consisted...

  15. Greater taxol yield of fungus Pestalotiopsis hainanensis from dermatitic scurf of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    PubMed

    Gu, Yu; Wang, Yanlin; Ma, Xiaoping; Wang, Chengdong; Yue, Guizhou; Zhang, Yuetian; Zhang, Yunyan; Li, Shanshan; Ling, Shanshan; Liu, Xiaomin; Wen, Xintian; Cao, Sanjie; Huang, Xiaobo; Deng, Junliang; Zuo, Zhicai; Yu, Shumin; Shen, Liuhong; Wu, Rui

    2015-01-01

    While taxol yields of fungi from non-animal sources are still low, whether Pestalotiopsis hainanensis isolated from the scurf of a dermatitic giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca, provides a greater taxol yield remains unknown. The objective of the study was to determine the corresponding taxol yield. The structure of the taxol produced by the fungus was evaluated by thin layer chromatography (TLC), ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR), and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS), with standard taxol as a control. The results demonstrated that the P. hainanensis fungus produced taxol, which had the same structure as the standard taxol and yield of 1,466.87 μg/L. This fungal taxol yield from the dermatitic giant panda was significantly greater than those of fungus from non-animal sources. The taxol-producing fungus may be a potential candidate for the production of taxol on an industrial scale. PMID:25245682

  16. Optimizing CuSO4 treatments for fungus control on channel catfish eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This range-finding study determined the optimum concentration of copper sulfate (CuSO4) for fungus (Saprolegnia sp.) control on channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus eggs. The study consisted of five CuSO4 concentrations (2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/L) and an untreated control. A single spawn was used ...

  17. Metabolites from the endophytic fungus Sporormiella minimoides isolated from Hintonia latiflora

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An extract of the solid cultures of Sporormiella minimoides (Sporormiaceae) isolated as an endophytic fungus from Hintonia latiflora (Rubiaceae), yielded three polyketides, 3,6-dimethoxy-8-methyl-1H,6H-benzo[de]isochromene-1,9-dione, 3-hydroxy-1,6,10-trimethoxy-8-methyl-1H,3H-benzo[de]isochromen-9-o...

  18. (+)-Ascosalitoxin and vermelhotin, a calmodulin inhibitor, from an endophytic fungus isolated from Hintonia latiflora

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical investigation of the endophytic fungus 39140-2, isolated from the medicinal plant Hintonia latiflora, yielded the known polyketide vermelhotin (1) and a new salycilic aldehyde derivative, namely 9S,11R-(+)-ascosalitoxin (2). The structure and absolute configuration of the new compound was ...

  19. Strategies for durable resistance to the grapevine powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nearly all cultivars of Vitis vinifera are highly susceptible to the grapevine powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator. Grape breeders around the world are working to introgress resistance from wild Vitis. Of the widely-used introgressions, most involve dominant, race-specific resistance phenotype...

  20. A survey of insect assemblages responding to volatiles from a ubiquitous fungus in an agricultural landscape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report here a first survey of insect orientation to fungal cultures and and fungal volatiles from a community ecology perspective. We tested whether volatiles from a ubiquitous yeast-like fungus (Aureobasidium pullulans) are broadly attractive to insects in an agricultural landscape. We evaluated...

  1. Using copper sulfate to control egg fungus at Keo Fish Farm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Keo Fish Farm is the biggest producer of hybrid striped bass fry in the world. The hatchery manager asked about treatments to control fungus on eggs which occurred fairly often. Our lab had just successfully completed an effectiveness study that was needed in our pursuit of gaining FDA-approval to...

  2. Using copper sulfate to control fungus on eggs in catfish hatcheries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is used by the catfish industry for controlling parasites and as an economical treatment to control fungus (Saprolegnia spp.) on channel catfish eggs. Several studies were designed at SNARC to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of CuSO4 to channel catfish eggs in pursuit o...

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF SIMPLE SEQUENCE REPEAT MARKERS FOR THE PLANT PATHOGENIC RUST FUNGUS, PUCCINIA TRITICINA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eighteen polymorphic di- and trinucleotide simple sequence repeat markers were developed for the phytopathogenic rust fungus, Puccinia triticina. The allelic diversity varied from 2 to 9 alleles per locus. Levels of observed heterozygosity (HO) ranged from 0.095 to 0.952. Seven of the loci deviated ...

  4. Ethanol Production from Various Sugars and Cellulosic Biomass by White Rot Fungus Lenzites betulinus.

    PubMed

    Im, Kyung Hoan; Nguyen, Trung Kien; Choi, Jaehyuk; Lee, Tae Soo

    2016-03-01

    Lenzites betulinus, known as gilled polypore belongs to Basidiomycota was isolated from fruiting body on broadleaf dead trees. It was found that the mycelia of white rot fungus Lenzites betulinus IUM 5468 produced ethanol from various sugars, including glucose, mannose, galactose, and cellobiose with a yield of 0.38, 0.26, 0.07, and 0.26 g of ethanol per gram of sugar consumed, respectively. This fungus relatively exhibited a good ethanol production from xylose at 0.26 g of ethanol per gram of sugar consumed. However, the ethanol conversion rate of arabinose was relatively low (at 0.07 g of ethanol per gram sugar). L. betulinus was capable of producing ethanol directly from rice straw and corn stalks at 0.22 g and 0.16 g of ethanol per gram of substrates, respectively, when this fungus was cultured in a basal medium containing 20 g/L rice straw or corn stalks. These results indicate that L. betulinus can produce ethanol efficiently from glucose, mannose, and cellobiose and produce ethanol very poorly from galactose and arabinose. Therefore, it is suggested that this fungus can ferment ethanol from various sugars and hydrolyze cellulosic materials to sugars and convert them to ethanol simultaneously. PMID:27103854

  5. Microsatellite loci for the fungus, Ascosphaera apis, cause of honey bee chalkbrood disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Ascosphaera apis (Ascomycota:Ascosphaeriaceae) is a worldwide fungal pathogen of honey bees. To provide tools for understanding the dispersal history of this pathogen, strain differences in virulence, and host-pathogen interactions, we developed and tested microsatellite loci for this sp...

  6. Clove oil and fungus compounds: Can nematode suppression be achieved without phytotoxicity?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural products from a plant (Syzygium aromaticum) and a fungus (Aspergillus sp.) were examined for the presence of compounds with potential for application as novel nematicides. The plant-derived material, clove oil, was tested in the greenhouse against the nematode Meloidogyne incognita on cucum...

  7. Functional analysis of the kinome of the wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As in many other eukaryotes, protein kinases play major regulatory roles in filamentous fungi. Although the genomes of numerous plant pathogenic fungi have been sequenced, systematic characterization of their kinomes has not been reported. The wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum has 116 putative ...

  8. Amphibians acquire resistance to live and dead fungus overcoming fungal immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Taegan A; Sears, Brittany F; Venesky, Matthew D; Bessler, Scott M; Brown, Jenise M; Deutsch, Kaitlin; Halstead, Neal T; Lentz, Garrett; Tenouri, Nadia; Young, Suzanne; Civitello, David J; Ortega, Nicole; Fites, J Scott; Reinert, Laura K; Rollins-Smith, Louise A; Raffel, Thomas R; Rohr, Jason R

    2014-07-10

    Emerging fungal pathogens pose a greater threat to biodiversity than any other parasitic group, causing declines of many taxa, including bats, corals, bees, snakes and amphibians. Currently, there is little evidence that wild animals can acquire resistance to these pathogens. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a pathogenic fungus implicated in the recent global decline of amphibians. Here we demonstrate that three species of amphibians can acquire behavioural or immunological resistance to B. dendrobatidis. Frogs learned to avoid the fungus after just one B. dendrobatidis exposure and temperature-induced clearance. In subsequent experiments in which B. dendrobatidis avoidance was prevented, the number of previous exposures was a negative predictor of B. dendrobatidis burden on frogs and B. dendrobatidis-induced mortality, and was a positive predictor of lymphocyte abundance and proliferation. These results suggest that amphibians can acquire immunity to B. dendrobatidis that overcomes pathogen-induced immunosuppression and increases their survival. Importantly, exposure to dead fungus induced a similar magnitude of acquired resistance as exposure to live fungus. Exposure of frogs to B. dendrobatidis antigens might offer a practical way to protect pathogen-naive amphibians and facilitate the reintroduction of amphibians to locations in the wild where B. dendrobatidis persists. Moreover, given the conserved nature of vertebrate immune responses to fungi and the fact that many animals are capable of learning to avoid natural enemies, these results offer hope that other wild animal taxa threatened by invasive fungi might be rescued by management approaches based on herd immunity. PMID:25008531

  9. Monodictyquinone A: a new antimicrobial anthraquinone from a sea urchin-derived fungus Monodictys sp.

    PubMed

    El-Beih, Ahmed Atef; Kawabata, Tetsuro; Koimaru, Keiichiro; Ohta, Tomihisa; Tsukamoto, Sachiko

    2007-07-01

    A new antimicrobial anthraquinone, 1,8-dihydroxy-2-methoxy-6-methylanthraquinone, monodictyquinone A (1), was isolated from a culture of a marine-derived fungus of the genus Monodictys which was isolated from the sea urchin, Anthocidaris crassispina, along with three known compounds, pachybasin (2), chrysophanol (3), and emodin (4). PMID:17603212

  10. Potential of entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea to protect potted ornamental plants against Bemisia tabaci during shipping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosoroesa has been evaluated under abiotic conditions similar to those typical for shipping of ornamental plants. When applied to a synchronized population of B. tabaci L4 nymphs on poinsettias, I. fumosorosea induced mortality even in regime of low t...

  11. Genome-Wide Analysis of Hypoxia-Responsive Genes in the Rice Blast Fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gir-Won; Koh, Sun-Ki; Chae, Suhn-Kee; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, is the most destructive pathogen in the rice-growing area. This fungus has a biotrophic phase early in infection and later switches to a necrotrophic lifestyle. During the biotrophic phase, the fungus competes with its host for nutrients and oxygen. Continuous uptake of oxygen is essential for successful establishment of blast disease of this pathogen. Here, we report transcriptional responses of the fungus to oxygen limitation. Transcriptome analysis using RNA-Seq identified that 1,047 genes were up-regulated in response to hypoxia. Those genes are involved in mycelial development, sterol biosynthesis, and metal ion transport based on hierarchical GO terms, and are well-conserved among three fungal species. In addition, null mutants of two hypoxia-responsive genes were generated and their roles in fungal development and pathogenicity tested. The mutant for the sterol regulatory element-binding protein gene, MoSRE1, exhibited increased sensitivity to a hypoxia-mimicking agent, increased conidiation, and delayed invasive growth within host cells, which is suggestive of important roles in fungal development. However, such defects did not cause any significant decrease in disease severity. The other null mutant, for the alcohol dehydrogenase gene MoADH1, showed no defect in the hypoxia-mimicking condition (using cobalt chloride) and fungal development. Taken together, this comprehensive transcriptional profiling in response to a hypoxic condition with experimental validations would provide new insights into fungal development and pathogenicity in plant pathogenic fungi. PMID:26241858

  12. Production of microsclerotia of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae in liquid culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this study was the development of a liquid culture method for producing stable, infective propagules of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for control of soil-dwelling insect pests. Three strains of M. anisopliae, F52, TM109, and MA1200, were evaluated using aerated, liq...

  13. Monitoring the rust fungus Puccinia jaceae var. solstitialis for biological control of yellow starthistle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis L.) is a noxious weed that infests over 7 million hectares of rangeland in California. The rust fungus Puccinia jaceae Otth var. solstitialis (P. j. solstitialis) was first released as a classical biological control for yellow starthistle in California in 2...

  14. Genome Sequence of Ustilaginoidea virens IPU010, a Rice Pathogenic Fungus Causing False Smut

    PubMed Central

    Kumagai, Toshitaka; Ishii, Tomoko; Terai, Goro; Machida, Masayuki; Asai, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Ustilaginoidea virens is a rice pathogenic fungus that causes false smut disease, a disease that seriously damages the yield and quality of the grain. Analysis of the U. virens IPU010 33.6-Mb genome sequence will aid in the understanding of the pathogenicity of the strain, particularly in regard to effector proteins and secondary metabolic genes. PMID:27151791

  15. Bacterial community composition and diversity in an ancestral ant fungus symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Katrin; Ishak, Heather D; Linksvayer, Timothy A; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2015-07-01

    Fungus-farming ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Attini) exhibit some of the most complex microbial symbioses because both macroscopic partners (ants and fungus) are associated with a rich community of microorganisms. The ant and fungal microbiomes are thought to serve important beneficial nutritional and defensive roles in these symbioses. While most recent research has investigated the bacterial communities in the higher attines (e.g. the leaf-cutter ant genera Atta and Acromyrmex), which are often associated with antibiotic-producing Actinobacteria, very little is known about the microbial communities in basal lineages, labeled as 'lower attines', which retain the ancestral traits of smaller and more simple societies. In this study, we used 16S amplicon pyrosequencing to characterize bacterial communities of the lower attine ant Mycocepurus smithii among seven sampling sites in central Panama. We discovered that ant and fungus garden-associated microbiota were distinct from surrounding soil, but unlike the situation in the derived fungus-gardening ants, which show distinct ant and fungal microbiomes, microbial community structure of the ants and their fungi were similar. Another surprising finding was that the abundance of actinomycete bacteria was low and instead, these symbioses were characterized by an abundance of Lactobacillus and Pantoea bacteria. Furthermore, our data indicate that Lactobacillus strains are acquired from the environment rather than acquired vertically. PMID:26113689

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF SIMPLE SEQUENCE REPEAT MARKERS FOR THE PLANT PATHOGENIC RUST FUNGUS, PUCCINIA GRAMINIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-four dinucleotide simple sequence repeat markers were developed for the phytopathogenic fungus, Puccinia graminis. The identified loci were polymorphic, with allelic diversity ranging from 2 to 11 alleles. Levels of heterozygosity ranged from 0.000 to 0.960 and 0.113 to 0.846 for observed and...

  17. Ethanol Production from Various Sugars and Cellulosic Biomass by White Rot Fungus Lenzites betulinus

    PubMed Central

    Im, Kyung Hoan; Nguyen, Trung Kien; Choi, Jaehyuk

    2016-01-01

    Lenzites betulinus, known as gilled polypore belongs to Basidiomycota was isolated from fruiting body on broadleaf dead trees. It was found that the mycelia of white rot fungus Lenzites betulinus IUM 5468 produced ethanol from various sugars, including glucose, mannose, galactose, and cellobiose with a yield of 0.38, 0.26, 0.07, and 0.26 g of ethanol per gram of sugar consumed, respectively. This fungus relatively exhibited a good ethanol production from xylose at 0.26 g of ethanol per gram of sugar consumed. However, the ethanol conversion rate of arabinose was relatively low (at 0.07 g of ethanol per gram sugar). L. betulinus was capable of producing ethanol directly from rice straw and corn stalks at 0.22 g and 0.16 g of ethanol per gram of substrates, respectively, when this fungus was cultured in a basal medium containing 20 g/L rice straw or corn stalks. These results indicate that L. betulinus can produce ethanol efficiently from glucose, mannose, and cellobiose and produce ethanol very poorly from galactose and arabinose. Therefore, it is suggested that this fungus can ferment ethanol from various sugars and hydrolyze cellulosic materials to sugars and convert them to ethanol simultaneously. PMID:27103854

  18. Antileukemic alpha-pyrone derivatives from the endophytic fungus Alternaria phragmospora

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four new (1–4) and two known (5 and 6)a-pyrone derivatives have been isolated from Alternaria phragmospora, an endophytic fungus from Vinca rosea, leaves. The isolated compounds were chemically identi'ed to be 5-butyl-4-methoxy-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one (2) 5-butyl-6-(hydroxymethyl)-4-methoxy-2H-py...

  19. [Biosynthesis of lipase by the mold fungus Rhizopus species, strain 3-3].

    PubMed

    Arends, I M; Dorokhov, V V; Goncharov, Iu I; Sverchkova, T M

    1979-01-01

    Cultivation of the microscopic fungus Rhizopus sp. str. 3-3--producer was investigated. Properties of lipase were studied. The technical preparation liparisopin G3x was obtained and examined. pH optimum of the preparation was within 6.0--7.0 and temperature optimum was 37 degrees C (olive oil used as substrate). PMID:42049

  20. Convergent coevolution in the domestication of coral mushrooms by fungus-growing ants.

    PubMed Central

    Munkacsi, A. B.; Pan, J. J.; Villesen, P.; Mueller, U. G.; Blackwell, M.; McLaughlin, D. J.

    2004-01-01

    Comparisons of phylogenetic patterns between coevolving symbionts can reveal rich details about the evolutionary history of symbioses. The ancient symbiosis between fungus-growing ants, their fungal cultivars, antibiotic-producing bacteria and cultivar-infecting parasites is dominated by a pattern of parallel coevolution, where the symbionts of each functional group are members of monophyletic groups. However, there is one outstanding exception in the fungus-growing ant system, the unidentified cultivar grown only by ants in the Apterostigma pilosum group. We classify this cultivar in the coral-mushroom family Pterulaceae using phylogenetic reconstructions based on broad taxon sampling, including the first mushroom collected from the garden of an ant species in the A. pilosum group. The domestication of the pterulaceous cultivar is independent from the domestication of the gilled mushrooms cultivated by all other fungus-growing ants. Yet it has the same overall assemblage of coevolved ant-cultivar-parasite-bacterium interactions as the other ant-grown fungal cultivars. This indicates a pattern of convergent coevolution in the fungus-growing ant system, where symbionts with both similar and very different evolutionary histories converge to functionally identical interactions. PMID:15315892

  1. Anacardic acid induces apoptosis-like cell death in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Muzaffar, Suhail; Bose, Chinchu; Banerji, Ashok; Nair, Bipin G; Chattoo, Bharat B

    2016-01-01

    Anacardic acid (6-pentadecylsalicylic acid), extracted from cashew nut shell liquid, is a natural phenolic lipid well known for its strong antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. Its effect has been well studied in bacterial and mammalian systems but remains largely unexplored in fungi. The present study identifies antifungal, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities of anacardic acid in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. It was found that anacardic acid causes inhibition of conidial germination and mycelial growth in this ascomycetous fungus. Phosphatidylserine externalization, chromatin condensation, DNA degradation, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential suggest that growth inhibition of fungus is mainly caused by apoptosis-like cell death. Broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK treatment indicated that anacardic acid induces caspase-independent apoptosis in M. oryzae. Expression of a predicted ortholog of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) was upregulated during the process of apoptosis, suggesting the possibility of mitochondria dependent apoptosis via activation of apoptosis-inducing factor. Anacardic acid treatment leads to decrease in reactive oxygen species rather than increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation normally observed during apoptosis, confirming the antioxidant properties of anacardic acid as suggested by earlier reports. Our study also shows that anacardic acid renders the fungus highly sensitive to DNA damaging agents like ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). Treatment of rice leaves with anacardic acid prevents M. oryzae from infecting the plant without affecting the leaf, suggesting that anacardic acid can be an effective antifungal agent. PMID:26381667

  2. Abundant Respirable Ergot Alkaloids from the Common Airborne Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus†

    PubMed Central

    Panaccione, Daniel G.; Coyle, Christine M.

    2005-01-01

    Ergot alkaloids are mycotoxins that interact with several monoamine receptors, negatively affecting cardiovascular, nervous, reproductive, and immune systems of exposed humans and animals. Aspergillus fumigatus, a common airborne fungus and opportunistic human pathogen, can produce ergot alkaloids in broth culture. The objectives of this study were to determine if A. fumigatus accumulates ergot alkaloids in a respirable form in or on its conidia, to quantify ergot alkaloids associated with conidia produced on several different substrates, and to measure relevant physical properties of the conidia. We found at least four ergot alkaloids, fumigaclavine C, festuclavine, fumigaclavine A, and fumigaclavine B (in order of abundance), associated with conidia of A. fumigatus. Under environmentally relevant conditions, the total mass of ergot alkaloids often constituted >1% of the mass of the conidium. Ergot alkaloids were extracted from conidia produced on all media tested, and the greatest quantities were observed when the fungus was cultured on latex paint or cultured maize seedlings. The values for physical properties of conidia likely to affect their respirability (i.e., diameter, mass, and specific gravity) were significantly lower for A. fumigatus than for Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus niger, and Stachybotrys chartarum. The demonstration of relatively high concentrations of ergot alkaloids associated with conidia of A. fumigatus presents opportunities for investigations of potential contributions of the toxins to adverse health effects associated with the fungus and to aspects of the biology of the fungus that contribute to its success. PMID:15933008

  3. Abundant respirable ergot alkaloids from the common airborne fungus Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Panaccione, Daniel G; Coyle, Christine M

    2005-06-01

    Ergot alkaloids are mycotoxins that interact with several monoamine receptors, negatively affecting cardiovascular, nervous, reproductive, and immune systems of exposed humans and animals. Aspergillus fumigatus, a common airborne fungus and opportunistic human pathogen, can produce ergot alkaloids in broth culture. The objectives of this study were to determine if A. fumigatus accumulates ergot alkaloids in a respirable form in or on its conidia, to quantify ergot alkaloids associated with conidia produced on several different substrates, and to measure relevant physical properties of the conidia. We found at least four ergot alkaloids, fumigaclavine C, festuclavine, fumigaclavine A, and fumigaclavine B (in order of abundance), associated with conidia of A. fumigatus. Under environmentally relevant conditions, the total mass of ergot alkaloids often constituted >1% of the mass of the conidium. Ergot alkaloids were extracted from conidia produced on all media tested, and the greatest quantities were observed when the fungus was cultured on latex paint or cultured maize seedlings. The values for physical properties of conidia likely to affect their respirability (i.e., diameter, mass, and specific gravity) were significantly lower for A. fumigatus than for Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus niger, and Stachybotrys chartarum. The demonstration of relatively high concentrations of ergot alkaloids associated with conidia of A. fumigatus presents opportunities for investigations of potential contributions of the toxins to adverse health effects associated with the fungus and to aspects of the biology of the fungus that contribute to its success. PMID:15933008

  4. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE (TNT) BY A PLANT-ASSOCIATED FUNGUS FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The capability of a plant-associated fungus, Fusarium oxyvorum, to transform TNT in liquid cultures was investigated. TNT was transformed into 2-amino-4, 6-dinitrotoluene (2-A-DNT), 4-amino-2, 6-dinitrotoluene (4-A- DNT), and 2, 4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2, 4-DAT) via 2- and 4-hy...

  5. Report membrane transport of lactic acid in the filamentous fungus Rhizopus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Rhizopus is frequently used for fermentative production of lactic acid, but little is known about the mechanisms or proteins for transporting this carboxylic acid. Since transport of the lactate anion across the plasma membrane is critical to prevent acidification of the cytoplasm, we ev...

  6. Differential gene expression during conidiation in the grape powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asexual sporulation (conidiation) is coordinately regulated in the grape powdery mildew fungus Erysiphe necator, but nothing is known about its genetic regulation. We hypothesized that genes required for conidiation in other fungi would be up-regulated at conidiophore initiation and/or full conidia...

  7. Treatment of a textile effluent from dyeing with cochineal extracts using Trametes versicolor fungus.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Figueroa, Gabriela; Ruiz-Aguilar, Graciela M L; López-Martínez, Leticia; González-Sánchez, Guillermo; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Germán; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio

    2011-01-01

    Trametes versicolor (Tv) fungus can degrade synthetic dyes that contain azo groups, anthraquinone, triphenylmethane polymers, and heterocyclic groups. However, no references have been found related to the degradation of natural dyes, such as the carminic acid that is contained in the cochineal extract. Experiments to determine the decolorization of the effluent used in the cotton dyeing process with cochineal extract by means of Tv fungus were done. Treatments to determine decolorization in the presence or absence of Kirk's medium, glucose, and fungus, with an addition of 50% (v v-1) of nonsterilized effluent were performed. Physicochemical characterization was performed at the start and end of the treatment. Degradation kinetics were determined. A direct relationship was found between the dry weight of fungi, pH, and the decolorization system, with higher decolorization at lower pH levels (pH ~4.3). High decolorization (81% ± 0.09; 88% ± 0.17; and 99% ± 0.04) for three of the eight treatments (Kirk's medium without glucose, Kirk's medium with glucose, and without medium with glucose, respectively) was found. Toxicity tests determined an increase in the initial effluent toxicity (7.33 TU) compared with the final treatment (47.73 TU) in a period of 11 days. For this system, a degradation sequence of the carminic acid structure present in the effluent by the Tv fungus is suggested, in which it is seen that metabolites still containing aromatic structures are generated. PMID:21552764

  8. Allelochemical effects of volatile compounds from Muscodor yucatanensis, an endophytic fungus from Bursera simaruba

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Muscodor yucatanensis, a recently described endophytic fungus, was isolated from the leaves of Bursera simaruba. In the present study we tested in vitro the mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by M. yucatanensis for the allelochemical effects against phytopathogenic fungi and fungo...

  9. Metagenomic and metaproteomic insights into bacterial communities in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens

    PubMed Central

    Aylward, Frank O; Burnum, Kristin E; Scott, Jarrod J; Suen, Garret; Tringe, Susannah G; Adams, Sandra M; Barry, Kerrie W; Nicora, Carrie D; Piehowski, Paul D; Purvine, Samuel O; Starrett, Gabriel J; Goodwin, Lynne A; Smith, Richard D; Lipton, Mary S; Currie, Cameron R

    2012-01-01

    Herbivores gain access to nutrients stored in plant biomass largely by harnessing the metabolic activities of microbes. Leaf-cutter ants of the genus Atta are a hallmark example; these dominant neotropical herbivores cultivate symbiotic fungus gardens on large quantities of fresh plant forage. As the external digestive system of the ants, fungus gardens facilitate the production and sustenance of millions of workers. Using metagenomic and metaproteomic techniques, we characterize the bacterial diversity and physiological potential of fungus gardens from two species of Atta. Our analysis of over 1.2 Gbp of community metagenomic sequence and three 16S pyrotag libraries reveals that in addition to harboring the dominant fungal crop, these ecosystems contain abundant populations of Enterobacteriaceae, including the genera Enterobacter, Pantoea, Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Escherichia. We show that these bacterial communities possess genes associated with lignocellulose degradation and diverse biosynthetic pathways, suggesting that they play a role in nutrient cycling by converting the nitrogen-poor forage of the ants into B-vitamins, amino acids and other cellular components. Our metaproteomic analysis confirms that bacterial glycosyl hydrolases and proteins with putative biosynthetic functions are produced in both field-collected and laboratory-reared colonies. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that fungus gardens are specialized fungus–bacteria communities that convert plant material into energy for their ant hosts. Together with recent investigations into the microbial symbionts of vertebrates, our work underscores the importance of microbial communities in the ecology and evolution of herbivorous metazoans. PMID:22378535

  10. Characterization of a Brown Rot Fungus Isolated from Dwarf Flowering Almond in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Myoung Yong; Jeon, Young Jae

    2007-01-01

    The fruits showing brown rot symptom on dwarf flowering almond were found in Gongju, Chungchungnam-Do in Korea in July 2005. Small water-soaked lesions on the fruits were initiated, and gradually developed to soft rot covered with gray conidia. Then the diseased fruits were shrunk and became grayish-black mummies. A fungus was isolated from the diseased fruit and its morphological, cultural and molecular genetic characteristics were investigated. Typical blastospores of Monilinia spp. were observed under a light microscope both from tissues of the diseased fruits and from PDA-grown cultures. The fungus grew well at 25℃ and on PDA. The ITS ribosomal DNA region (650 bp) of the fungus was amplified by PCR and analyzed. Comparative data on ITS sequence homology among Monilinia spp., ITS sequence-based phylogram and morphological characteristics showed that the fungus is Monilinia fructicola. This is the first report on Monilinia fructicola causing brown rot on fruits of dwarf flowering almond in Korea. PMID:24015065

  11. Metacridamides A and B, bioactive macrocycles from conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium acridum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metarhizium acridum, an entomopathogenic fungus, has been commercialized and used successfully for biocontrol of grasshopper pests in Africa and Australia. Its conidia produce two novel 17-membered macrocycles, metacridamides A (1) and B (2), which consist of a Phe unit condensed with a nonaketide....

  12. Npc1 is involved in sterol trafficking in the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ortholog of the human gene NPC1 was identified in the plant pathogenic, filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum by shared amino acid sequence, protein domain structure and cellular localization of the mature fungal protein. The Fusarium Npc1 gene shares 34% amino acid sequence identity and 51% s...

  13. Biodegradation of crystal violet by the white rot fungus phanerochaete chrysosporium

    SciTech Connect

    Bumpus, J.A.; Brock, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    Biodegradation of crystal violet (N,N,N',N',N',N''- hexamethylpararosaniline) in ligninolytic (nitrogen-limited) cultures of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance of crystal violet and by the identification of three metabolites (N,N,N',N',N'' -pentamethylpararosaniline, N,N,N',N'' -tetramethylpararosaniline, and N,N',N'' -trimethylpararosaniline) formed by sequential N-demethylation of the parent compound. Metabolite formation also occurred when crystal violet was incubated with the extracellular fluid obtained from ligninolytic cultures of this fungus, provided that an H2O2-generating system was supplied. This, as well as the fact that a purified ligninase catalyzed N-demethylation of crystal violet, demonstrated that biodegradation of crystal violet by this fungus is dependent, at least in part, upon its lignin-degrading system. In addition to crystal violet, six other triphenylmethane dyes (pararosaniline, cresol red, bromphenol blue, ethyl violet, malachite green, and brilliant green) were shown to be degraded by the lignin-degrading system of this fungus.

  14. TESTING OF THE INSECT PEST CONTROL FUNGUS BEAUVERIA BASSIANA IN GRASS SHRIMP PALAEMONETES PUGIO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Embryos, larvae and adult grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio were exposed to spores of the insect-control fungus Beauveria bassiana. onidiospores attached to embryos held by gravid females and remained with the egg mass for at least 6 d. In the first experiment where individual deve...

  15. Treating sunshine bass eggs with copper sulfate controls fungus and increases survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major obstacle to sunshine bass production is fungal growth on eggs. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in channel catfish hatcheries that use troughs, but the effectiveness of it on fish eggs hatched using different systems was not known. Female white bass Morone chrysop...

  16. Using copper sulfate on hybrid striped bass eggs to control fungus and increase survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major obstacle in fish hatcheries is the inevitable fungal growth on eggs. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in channel catfish hatcheries that use troughs, but effectiveness on fish eggs hatched using different systems has only recently been investigated. Fish were spawn...

  17. Copper sulfate controls fungus on sunshine bass eggs and increases survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major obstacle to sunshine bass production is fungal growth on eggs. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in channel catfish hatcheries that use troughs, but the effectiveness of it on fish eggs hatched using different systems was not known. Female white bass Morone chrysop...

  18. Using copper sulfate on hybrid striped bass eggs to control fungus and increase survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major obstacle in fish hatcheries is reduced hatch rates due to fungal growth on eggs. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in catfish hatcheries that use troughs, but effectiveness on other species of fish eggs in different hatching systems has only recently been investigat...

  19. Mortality of Tilletia spp. teliospores caused by volatiles from the biofumigant fungus Muscodor albus.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatiles produced by the fungus Muscodor albus inhibit or kill numerous fungi. The effect of these volatiles was tested on teliospores of the smut fungi Tilletia horrida, T. indica, and T. tritici which cause kernel smut of rice, Karnal bunt of wheat, and common bunt of wheat, respectively. Ten g...

  20. Naphthoquinone spiroketal with allelochemical activity from the new endophytic fungus Edenia gomezpompae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassay-guided isolation from the culture of Edenia gomezpompae, a new endophytic fungus isolated from the leaves of Callicarpa acuminata (Verbenaceae) from the ecological reserve El Eden, Quintana Roo, Mexico, led to the isolation of four naphthoquinone spiroketals, including three new compounds. ...

  1. Koninginins N-Q, Polyketides from the Endophytic Fungus Trichoderma koningiopsis Harbored in Panax notoginseng.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Yang, Ya-Bin; Chen, Jin-Lian; Miao, Cui-Ping; Wang, Qiang; Zhou, Hao; Chen, You-Wei; Li, Yi-Qing; Ding, Zhong-Tao; Zhao, Li-Xing

    2016-02-01

    Four new fungal polyketides named koninginins N-Q (1-4), together with four known analogues (5-8), were isolated from the endophytic fungus Trichoderma koningiopsis YIM PH30002 harbored in Panax notoginseng. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectral data interpretation. These compounds were evaluated for their antifungal activity, nitric oxide inhibition, and anticoagulant activity. PMID:26753920

  2. Seasonal fungus prevalence inside and outside of domestic environments in the subtropical climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Yu-Mei; Li, Chin-Shan

    Airborne fungi were collected using the N6 Andersen sampler at 1-month intervals for I yr inside and outside of six apartments in Taipei. It was shown that seasonal variations of indoor and outdoor fungus number concentrations were remarkable and indoor and outdoor air spore counts varied considerably from residence to residence. The geometric mean concentrations of indoor and outdoor fungi were found to be higher than 1000 CFU m -3 during the summer months and abruptly decreased to below 100 CFU m -3 in the winter. A high correlation coefficient was found between fungus concentrations in living rooms and outdoors. Moreover, the ratios of indoor to outdoor fungus concentrations (0.21-3.81) were too low to indicate the presence of any indoor fungus sources. A large variety of mold genera was isolated, and Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, and yeast were observed to be predominant. Indoors, Penicillium showed the highest concentrations in the summer and autumn months, while Asperyillus and Cladosporium were also observed frequently. The outside air was dominated by Asperyillus, Penicillium, and Cladosporium in spring, summer, and autumn, but by Penicillium and yeast during winter months. In addition, Cladosporium was found to be absent indoors and outdoors in the winter.

  3. Carbon availability for the fungus triggers nitrogen uptake and transport in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is characterized by a transfer of nutrients in exchange for carbon. We tested the effect of the carbon availability for the AM fungus Glomus intraradices on nitrogen (N) uptake and transport in the symbiosis. We followed the uptake and transport of 15N and ...

  4. Control of common bunt of wheat under field conditions with the biofumigant fungus Muscodor albus.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the biological control potential of the fungus Muscodor albus, when applied as a seed treatment or an in furrow soil treatment, for control of common bunt (CB) of wheat caused by Tilletia caries. For seed treatments, dry rye grain culture of M. albus wa...

  5. Measurements of Rare B Decays at BABAR

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, Paul C.

    2003-03-05

    We present the results of searches for rare B meson decays. The measurements use all or part of a data sample of about 88 million {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} decays collected between 1999 and 2002 with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric energy B Factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. We study a variety of decays dominated by electromagnetic, electroweak and gluonic penguin transitions, and report measurements of branching fractions.

  6. Rare Z decays and neutrino flavor universality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durieux, Gauthier; Grossman, Yuval; König, Matthias; Kuflik, Eric; Ray, Shamayita

    2016-05-01

    We study rare four-body decays of the Z -boson involving at least one neutrino and one charged lepton. Large destructive interferences make these decays very sensitive to the Z couplings to neutrinos. As the identified charged leptons can determine the neutrino flavors, these decays probe the universality of the Z couplings to neutrinos. The rare four-body processes could be accurately measured at future lepton colliders, leading to percent level precision.

  7. Charm nonleptonic decays and final state interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buccella, F.; Lusignoli, M.; Pugliese, A.

    1996-02-01

    A global previous analysis of two-body nonleptonic decays of D mesons has been extended to the decays involving light scalar mesons. The allowance for final state interaction also in nonresonant channels provides a fit of much improved quality and with less symmetry breaking in the axial charges. We give predictions for about 50 decay branching ratios yet to be measured. We also discuss long distance contributions to the difference ΔΓ between the DS and DL widths.

  8. Effects of Neutrino Decay on Oscillation Probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Kayla; de Gouvêa, André

    2016-01-01

    It is now well accepted that neutrinos oscillate as a quantum mechanical result of a misalignment between their mass-eigenstates and the flavor-eigenstates. We study neutrino decay—the idea that there may be new, light states that the three Standard Model flavors may be able to decay into. We consider what effects this neutrino decay would have on the observed oscillation probabilities.The Hamiltonian governs how the states change with time, so we use it to calculate an oscillation amplitude, and from that, the oscillation probability. We simplify the theoretical probabilities using results from experimental data, such as the neutrino mixing angles and mass differences. By exploring what values of the decay parameters are physically allowable, we can begin to understand just how large the decay parameters can be. We compare the probabilities in the case of no neutrino decay and in the case of maximum neutrino decay to determine how much of an effect neutrino decay could have on observations, and discuss the ability of future experiments to detect these differences.We also examine neutrino decay in the realm of CP invariance, and found that it is a new source of CP violation. Our work indicates that there is a difference in the oscillation probabilities between particle transitions and their corresponding antiparticle transitions. If neutrino decay were proven true, it could be an important factor in understanding leptogenesis and the particle-antiparticle asymmetry present in our Universe.

  9. 7 CFR 51.898 - Decay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States.... Slight surface development of green mold (Cladosporium) shall not be considered decay....

  10. 7 CFR 51.898 - Decay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States.... Slight surface development of green mold (Cladosporium) shall not be considered decay....

  11. Unique forbidden beta decays and neutrino mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvornický, Rastislav; Šimkovic, Fedor

    2015-10-01

    The measurement of the electron energy spectrum in single β decays close to the endpoint provides a direct determination of the neutrino masses. The most sensitive experiments use β decays with low Q value, e.g. KATRIN (tritium) and MARE (rhenium). We present the theoretical spectral shape of electrons emitted in the first, second, and fourth unique forbidden β decays. Our findings show that the Kurie functions for these unique forbidden β transitions are linear in the limit of massless neutrinos like the Kurie function of the allowed β decay of tritium.

  12. Tensor mesons produced in tau lepton decays

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez Castro, G.; Munoz, J. H.

    2011-05-01

    Light tensor mesons (T=a{sub 2}, f{sub 2} and K{sub 2}*) can be produced in decays of {tau} leptons. In this paper we compute the branching ratios of {tau}{yields}T{pi}{nu} decays by assuming the dominance of intermediate virtual states to model the form factors involved in the relevant hadronic matrix elements. The exclusive f{sub 2}(1270){pi}{sup -} decay mode turns out to have the largest branching ratio, of O(10{sup -4}). Our results indicate that the contribution of tensor meson intermediate states to the three-pseudoscalar channels of {tau} decays are rather small.

  13. Unique forbidden beta decays and neutrino mass

    SciTech Connect

    Dvornický, Rastislav; Šimkovic, Fedor

    2015-10-28

    The measurement of the electron energy spectrum in single β decays close to the endpoint provides a direct determination of the neutrino masses. The most sensitive experiments use β decays with low Q value, e.g. KATRIN (tritium) and MARE (rhenium). We present the theoretical spectral shape of electrons emitted in the first, second, and fourth unique forbidden β decays. Our findings show that the Kurie functions for these unique forbidden β transitions are linear in the limit of massless neutrinos like the Kurie function of the allowed β decay of tritium.

  14. Spectroscopy of element 115 decay chains

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph, Dirk; Forsberg, U.; Golubev, P.; Sarmiento, L. G.; Yakushev, A.; Andersson, L.-L.; Di Nitto, A.; Duehllmann, Ch. E.; Gates, J. M.; Gregorich, K. E.; Gross, Carl J; Hessberger, F. P.; Herzberg, R.-D; Khuyagbaatar, J.; Kratz, J. V.; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Schaedel, M.; Aberg, S.; Ackermann, D.; Block, M.; Brand, H.; Carlsson, B. G.; Cox, D.; Derkx, X.; Eberhardt, K.; Even, J.; Fahlander, C.; Gerl, J.; Jaeger, E.; Kindler, B.; Krier, J.; Kojouharov, I.; Kurz, N.; Lommel, B.; Mistry, A.; Mokry, C.; Nitsche, H.; Omtvedt, J. P.; Papadakis, P.; Ragnarsson, I.; Runke, J.; Schaffner, H.; Schausten, B.; Thoerle-Pospiech, P.; Torres, T.; Traut, T.; Trautmann, N.; Tuerler, A.; Ward, A.; Ward, D. E.; Wiehl, N.

    2013-01-01

    A high-resolution a, X-ray and -ray coincidence spectroscopy experiment was conducted at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum fu r Schwerionenforschung. Thirty correlated a-decay chains were detected following the fusion-evaporation reaction 48Ca + 243Am. The observations are consistent with previous assignments of similar decay chains to originate from element Z = 115. The data includes first candidates of fingerprinting the decay step Mt --> Bh with characteristic X rays. For the first time, precise spectroscopy allows the derivation of excitation schemes of isotopes along the decay chains starting with elements Z > 112. Comprehensive Monte-Carlo simulations accompany the data analysis. Nuclear structure models provide a first level interpretation.

  15. Effects of a decaying cosmological fluctuation.

    PubMed

    Amendola, Luca; Finelli, Fabio

    2005-06-10

    We present the initial conditions for a decaying cosmological perturbation and study its signatures in the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and matter power spectra. An adiabatic decaying mode in the presence of components that are not described as perfect fluids (such as collisionless matter) decays slower than in a perfect-fluid dominated Universe and displays super-Hubble oscillations. Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe first year data constrain the decaying to growing ratio of scale invariant adiabatic fluctuations at the matter-radiation equality to less than 10%. PMID:16090380

  16. Impact of climate change on potential distribution of Chinese caterpillar fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) in Nepal Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Uttam Babu; Bawa, Kamaljit S

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has already impacted ecosystems and species and substantial impacts of climate change in the future are expected. Species distribution modeling is widely used to map the current potential distribution of species as well as to model the impact of future climate change on distribution of species. Mapping current distribution is useful for conservation planning and understanding the change in distribution impacted by climate change is important for mitigation of future biodiversity losses. However, the current distribution of Chinese caterpillar fungus, a flagship species of the Himalaya with very high economic value, is unknown. Nor do we know the potential changes in suitable habitat of Chinese caterpillar fungus caused by future climate change. We used MaxEnt modeling to predict current distribution and changes in the future distributions of Chinese caterpillar fungus in three future climate change trajectories based on representative concentration pathways (RCPs: RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, and RCP 6.0) in three different time periods (2030, 2050, and 2070) using species occurrence points, bioclimatic variables, and altitude. About 6.02% (8,989 km2) area of the Nepal Himalaya is suitable for Chinese caterpillar fungus habitat. Our model showed that across all future climate change trajectories over three different time periods, the area of predicted suitable habitat of Chinese caterpillar fungus would expand, with 0.11-4.87% expansion over current suitable habitat. Depending upon the representative concentration pathways, we observed both increase and decrease in average elevation of the suitable habitat range of the species. PMID:25180515

  17. Impact of Climate Change on Potential Distribution of Chinese Caterpillar Fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) in Nepal Himalaya

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Uttam Babu; Bawa, Kamaljit S.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has already impacted ecosystems and species and substantial impacts of climate change in the future are expected. Species distribution modeling is widely used to map the current potential distribution of species as well as to model the impact of future climate change on distribution of species. Mapping current distribution is useful for conservation planning and understanding the change in distribution impacted by climate change is important for mitigation of future biodiversity losses. However, the current distribution of Chinese caterpillar fungus, a flagship species of the Himalaya with very high economic value, is unknown. Nor do we know the potential changes in suitable habitat of Chinese caterpillar fungus caused by future climate change. We used MaxEnt modeling to predict current distribution and changes in the future distributions of Chinese caterpillar fungus in three future climate change trajectories based on representative concentration pathways (RCPs: RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, and RCP 6.0) in three different time periods (2030, 2050, and 2070) using species occurrence points, bioclimatic variables, and altitude. About 6.02% (8,989 km2) area of the Nepal Himalaya is suitable for Chinese caterpillar fungus habitat. Our model showed that across all future climate change trajectories over three different time periods, the area of predicted suitable habitat of Chinese caterpillar fungus would expand, with 0.11–4.87% expansion over current suitable habitat. Depending upon the representative concentration pathways, we observed both increase and decrease in average elevation of the suitable habitat range of the species. PMID:25180515

  18. Increasing Incidence of Geomyces destructans Fungus in Bats from the Czech Republic and Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Martínková, Natália; Bačkor, Peter; Bartonička, Tomáš; Blažková, Pavla; Červený, Jaroslav; Falteisek, Lukáš; Gaisler, Jiří; Hanzal, Vladimír; Horáček, Daniel; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Jahelková, Helena; Kolařík, Miroslav; Korytár, L'uboš; Kubátová, Alena; Lehotská, Blanka; Lehotský, Roman; Lučan, Radek K.; Májek, Ondřej; Matějů, Jan; Řehák, Zdeněk; Šafář, Jiří; Tájek, Přemysl; Tkadlec, Emil; Uhrin, Marcel; Wagner, Josef; Weinfurtová, Dita; Zima, Jan; Zukal, Jan; Horáček, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Background White-nose syndrome is a disease of hibernating insectivorous bats associated with the fungus Geomyces destructans. It first appeared in North America in 2006, where over a million bats died since then. In Europe, G. destructans was first identified in France in 2009. Its distribution, infection dynamics, and effects on hibernating bats in Europe are largely unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We screened hibernacula in the Czech Republic and Slovakia for the presence of the fungus during the winter seasons of 2008/2009 and 2009/2010. In winter 2009/2010, we found infected bats in 76 out of 98 surveyed sites, in which the majority had been previously negative. A photographic record of over 6000 hibernating bats, taken since 1994, revealed bats with fungal growths since 1995; however, the incidence of such bats increased in Myotis myotis from 2% in 2007 to 14% by 2010. Microscopic, cultivation and molecular genetic evaluations confirmed the identity of the recently sampled fungus as G. destructans, and demonstrated its continuous distribution in the studied area. At the end of the hibernation season we recorded pathologic changes in the skin of the affected bats, from which the fungus was isolated. We registered no mass mortality caused by the fungus, and the recorded population decline in the last two years of the most affected species, M. myotis, is within the population trend prediction interval. Conclusions/Significance G. destructans was found to be widespread in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, with an epizootic incidence in bats during the most recent years. Further development of the situation urgently requires a detailed pan-European monitoring scheme. PMID:21079781

  19. Identifying the core microbial community in the gut of fungus-growing termites.

    PubMed

    Otani, Saria; Mikaelyan, Aram; Nobre, Tânia; Hansen, Lars H; Koné, N'Golo A; Sørensen, Søren J; Aanen, Duur K; Boomsma, Jacobus J; Brune, Andreas; Poulsen, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Gut microbes play a crucial role in decomposing lignocellulose to fuel termite societies, with protists in the lower termites and prokaryotes in the higher termites providing these services. However, a single basal subfamily of the higher termites, the Macrotermitinae, also domesticated a plant biomass-degrading fungus (Termitomyces), and how this symbiont acquisition has affected the fungus-growing termite gut microbiota has remained unclear. The objective of our study was to compare the intestinal bacterial communities of five genera (nine species) of fungus-growing termites to establish whether or not an ancestral core microbiota has been maintained and characterizes extant lineages. Using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we show that gut communities have representatives of 26 bacterial phyla and are dominated by Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes, Proteobacteria and Synergistetes. A set of 42 genus-level taxa was present in all termite species and accounted for 56-68% of the species-specific reads. Gut communities of termites from the same genus were more similar than distantly related species, suggesting that phylogenetic ancestry matters, possibly in connection with specific termite genus-level ecological niches. Finally, we show that gut communities of fungus-growing termites are similar to cockroaches, both at the bacterial phylum level and in a comparison of the core Macrotermitinae taxa abundances with representative cockroach, lower termite and higher nonfungus-growing termites. These results suggest that the obligate association with Termitomyces has forced the bacterial gut communities of the fungus-growing termites towards a relatively uniform composition with higher similarity to their omnivorous relatives than to more closely related termites. PMID:25066007

  20. PCR Assays That Identify the Grapevine Dieback Fungus Eutypa lata

    PubMed Central

    Lecomte, Pascal; Péros, Jean-Pierre; Blancard, Dominique; Bastien, Nicolas; Délye, Christophe

    2000-01-01

    Eutypa lata is the causal fungal agent of Eutypa dieback, a serious grapevine necrotic disease. The erratic and delayed (1 to 2 months) appearance of characteristic conidia on culture media and the presence of numerous microorganisms in decaying wood make it difficult either to identify or to detect E. lata in grapevine wood samples. We designed six pairs of PCR primers for diagnosis of E. lata. Three primer pairs were derived from ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequences, and three pairs were derived from randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fragments. The six primer pairs could be used to amplify DNAs extracted from all of the E. lata isolates tested. They did not amplify DNAs from fungi and bacteria representing more than 50 different species of microorganisms associated with grapevine. We developed a simple protocol, leading to a rapid release of DNA, that enabled us to identify E. lata from pure or mixed cultures as well as from grapevine wood samples. Identification of E. lata in wood was achieved within a few hours, instead of the several weeks required for classical cultures on agar medium. We believe that the procedure described here can be adapted to detect other microorganisms involved in woody plant diseases. PMID:11010901

  1. Leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens are biphasic mixed microbial bioreactors that convert plant biomass to polyols with biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Somera, Alexandre F; Lima, Adriel M; Dos Santos-Neto, Álvaro J; Lanças, Fernando M; Bacci, Maurício

    2015-07-01

    Leaf-cutter ants use plant matter to culture the obligate mutualistic basidiomycete Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. This fungus mediates ant nutrition on plant resources. Furthermore, other microbes living in the fungus garden might also contribute to plant digestion. The fungus garden comprises a young sector with recently incorporated leaf fragments and an old sector with partially digested plant matter. Here, we show that the young and old sectors of the grass-cutter Atta bisphaerica fungus garden operate as a biphasic solid-state mixed fermenting system. An initial plant digestion phase occurred in the young sector in the fungus garden periphery, with prevailing hemicellulose and starch degradation into arabinose, mannose, xylose, and glucose. These products support fast microbial growth but were mostly converted into four polyols. Three polyols, mannitol, arabitol, and inositol, were secreted by L. gongylophorus, and a fourth polyol, sorbitol, was likely secreted by another, unidentified, microbe. A second plant digestion phase occurred in the old sector, located in the fungus garden core, comprising stocks of microbial biomass growing slowly on monosaccharides and polyols. This biphasic operation was efficient in mediating symbiotic nutrition on plant matter: the microbes, accounting for 4% of the fungus garden biomass, converted plant matter biomass into monosaccharides and polyols, which were completely consumed by the resident ants and microbes. However, when consumption was inhibited through laboratory manipulation, most of the plant polysaccharides were degraded, products rapidly accumulated, and yields could be preferentially switched between polyols and monosaccharides. This feature might be useful in biotechnology. PMID:25911490

  2. Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens Are Biphasic Mixed Microbial Bioreactors That Convert Plant Biomass to Polyols with Biotechnological Applications

    PubMed Central

    Somera, Alexandre F.; Lima, Adriel M.; dos Santos-Neto, Álvaro J.; Lanças, Fernando M.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf-cutter ants use plant matter to culture the obligate mutualistic basidiomycete Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. This fungus mediates ant nutrition on plant resources. Furthermore, other microbes living in the fungus garden might also contribute to plant digestion. The fungus garden comprises a young sector with recently incorporated leaf fragments and an old sector with partially digested plant matter. Here, we show that the young and old sectors of the grass-cutter Atta bisphaerica fungus garden operate as a biphasic solid-state mixed fermenting system. An initial plant digestion phase occurred in the young sector in the fungus garden periphery, with prevailing hemicellulose and starch degradation into arabinose, mannose, xylose, and glucose. These products support fast microbial growth but were mostly converted into four polyols. Three polyols, mannitol, arabitol, and inositol, were secreted by L. gongylophorus, and a fourth polyol, sorbitol, was likely secreted by another, unidentified, microbe. A second plant digestion phase occurred in the old sector, located in the fungus garden core, comprising stocks of microbial biomass growing slowly on monosaccharides and polyols. This biphasic operation was efficient in mediating symbiotic nutrition on plant matter: the microbes, accounting for 4% of the fungus garden biomass, converted plant matter biomass into monosaccharides and polyols, which were completely consumed by the resident ants and microbes. However, when consumption was inhibited through laboratory manipulation, most of the plant polysaccharides were degraded, products rapidly accumulated, and yields could be preferentially switched between polyols and monosaccharides. This feature might be useful in biotechnology. PMID:25911490

  3. Cosmology with decaying vacuum energy

    SciTech Connect

    Freese, K.; Adams, F.; Frieman, J.; Mottola, E.

    1987-09-01

    Motivated by recent attempts to solve the cosmological constant problem, we examine the observational consequences of a vacuum energy density which decays in time. For all times later than t approx. 1 sec, the ratio of the vacuum to the total energy density of the universe must be small. Although the vacuum cannot provide the ''missing mass'' required to close the universe today, its presence earlier in the history of the universe could have important consequences. We discuss restrictions on the vacuum energy arising from primordial nucleosynthesis, the microwave and gamma ray background spectra, and galaxy formation. A small vacuum component at the era of nucleosynthesis, 0.01 < rho/sub vac//rho/sup rad/ < 0.1, increase the number of allowed neutino species to N/sup nu/ > 5, but in some cases would severely distort the microwave spectrum. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Testing Supersymmetry with Neutron Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilburn, W. S.; Cirigliano, V.; Klein, A.; McGaughey, P. L.; Makela, M. F.; Morris, C. L.; Ramsey, J.; Salas-Bacci, A.; Saunders, A.; Broussard, L. J.; Young, A. R.

    2009-10-01

    It has been recently realized that the neutrino correlation parameter B in neutron decay is sensitive to Minimal Supersymmetric Models for the case of maximal mixing. B is currently known to a precision of 3x10-3, but a precision of better than 1x10-3 is required to test these models. Improvements in experimental techniques developed for the ongoing UCNA experiment and the planned abBA experiment may allow an improved measurement of B with a precision approaching 1x10-4. An emerging concept for combining these techniques into an experiment to measure B using ultracold neutrons and large-area silicon detectors will be discussed.

  5. Decaying neutrinos in galaxy clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melott, Adrian L.; Splinter, Randall J.; Persic, Massimo; Salucci, Paolo

    1994-01-01

    Davidsen et al. (1991) have argued that the failure to detect UV photons from the dark matter (DM) in cluster A665 excludes the decaying neutrino hypothesis. Sciama et al. (1993) argued that because of high central concentration the DM in that cluster must be baryonic. We study the DM profile in clusters of galaxies simulated using the Harrison-Zel'dovich spectrum of density fluctuations, and an amplitude previously derived from numerical simulations (Melott 1984b; Anninos et al. 1991) and in agreement with microwave background fluctuations (Smoot et al. 1992). We find that with this amplitude normalization cluster neutrino DM densities are comparable to observed cluster DM values. We conclude that given this normalization, the cluster DM should be at least largely composed of neutrinos. The constraint of Davidsen et al. can be somewhat weakened by the presence of baryonic DM; but it cannot be eliminated given our assumptions.

  6. Decaying neutrinos in galaxy clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melott, Adrian L.; Splinter, Randall J.; Persic, Massimo; Salucci, Paolo

    1993-01-01

    The DM profile in clusters of galaxies was studied and simulated using the Harrison-Zel'dovich spectrum of density fluctuations, and an amplitude previously derived from numerical simulations and in agreement with microwave background fluctuations. Neutrino DM densities, with this amplitude normalization cluster, are comparable to observed cluster DM values. It was concluded that given this normalization, the cluster DM should be al least largely composed of neutrinos. The constraint of Davidson et al., who argued that the failure to detect uv photons from the dark matter (DM) in cluster A665 excludes the decaying neutrino hypothesis, could be somewhat weakened by the presence of baryonic DM; but it cannot be eliminated given our assumptions.

  7. Properties of a Decaying Sunspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balthasar, H.; Beck, C.; Gömöry, P.; Muglach, K.; Puschmann, K. G.; Shimizu, T.; Verma, M.

    A small decaying sunspot was observed with the Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) on Tenerife and the Japanese Hinode satellite. We obtained full Stokes scans in several wavelengths covering different heights in the solar atmosphere. Imaging time series from Hinode and the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) complete our data sets. The spot is surrounded by a moat flow, which persists also on that side of the spot where the penumbra already had disappeared. Close to the spot, we find a chromospheric location with downflows of more than 10 km s^{-1} without photospheric counterpart. The height dependence of the vertical component of the magnetic field strength is determined in two different ways that yielded different results in previous investigations. Such a difference still exists in our present data, but it is not as pronounced as in the past.

  8. Predicting neutrinoless double beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, M.; Villanova del Moral, A.; Valle, J.W.F.

    2005-11-01

    We give predictions for the neutrinoless double beta decay rate in a simple variant of the A{sub 4} family symmetry model. We show that there is a lower bound for the {beta}{beta}{sub 0{nu}} amplitude even in the case of normal hierarchical neutrino masses, corresponding to an effective mass parameter vertical bar m{sub ee} vertical bar {>=}0.17{radical}({delta}m{sub ATM}{sup 2}). This result holds both for the CP conserving and CP violating cases. In the latter case we show explicitly that the lower bound on vertical bar m{sub ee} vertical bar is sensitive to the value of the Majorana phase. We conclude therefore that in our scheme, {beta}{beta}{sub 0{nu}} may be accessible to the next generation of high sensitivity experiments.

  9. New Physics in B decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crivellin, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    While the LHC did not observe direct evidence for physics beyond the standard model, indirect hints for new physics were uncovered in the flavour sector in the decays B → K*µ+ µ-, B → Kµ+ µ-/B → Ke+e-, Bs → øµ+µ-, B → D(*) τv and h → τ±µ∓. Each observable deviates from the SM predictions at the 2 - 3σ level only, but combining all b → sµ+µ- data via a global fit, one finds 4 - 5 σ difference for NP compared to the SM and combining B → D* τv with B → Dτv one obtains 3:9 σ. While B → D(*) τv and h → τv can be naturally explained by an extended Higgs sector, the b → sµ+µ- anomalies point at a Z' gauge boson. However, it is also possible to explain B → D(*) τv and b → sµ+ µ- simultaneously with leptoquarks while their effect in h → τ±µ∓ is far too small to account for current data. Combining a 2HDM with a gauged Lµ - Lτ symmetry allows for explaining the b → sµ+ µ- anomalies in combination with h → τ±µ∓, predicting interesting correlations with τ → 3µ. In the light of these deviations from the SM we also discuss the possibilities of observing lepton flavour violating B decays (e.g. B → K(*) τ±µ∓ and Bs → τ±µ∓).

  10. Use of a non-homologous end-joining-deficient strain (delta-ku70) of the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma virens to investigate the function of the laccase gene lcc1 in sclerotia degradation

    PubMed Central

    Catalano, Valentina; Vergara, Mariarosaria; Hauzenberger, Jasmin R.; Seiboth, Bernhard; Sarrocco, Sabrina; Vannacci, Giovanni; Kubicek, Christian P.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to apply a generated Δtku70 strain with increased homologous recombination efficiency from the mycoparasitic fungus Trichoderma virens for studying the involvement of laccases in the degradation of sclerotia of plant pathogenic fungi. Inactivation of the non-homologous end-joining pathway has become a successful tool in filamentous fungi to overcome poor targeting efficiencies for genetic engineering. Here, we applied this principle to the biocontrol fungus T. virens, strain I10, by deleting its tku70 gene. This strain was subsequently used to delete the laccase gene lcc1, which we found to be expressed after interaction of T. virens with sclerotia of the plant pathogenic fungi Botrytis cinerea and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Lcc1 was strongly upregulated at early colonization of B. cinerea sclerotia and steadily induced during colonization of S. sclerotiorum sclerotia. The Δtku70Δlcc1 mutant was altered in its ability to degrade the sclerotia of B. cinerea and S. sclerotiorum. Interestingly, while the decaying ability for B. cinerea sclerotia was significantly decreased, that to degrade S. sclerotiorum sclerotia was even enhanced, suggesting the operation of different mechanisms in the mycoparasitism of these two types of sclerotia by the laccase LCC1. PMID:20872221

  11. Synthesis of fungus-like MoS2 nanosheets with ultrafast adsorption capacities toward organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, HaoJie; You, Shengsheng; Jia, XiaoHua

    2015-11-01

    Fungus-like molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets with a thickness of a few nanometers have been successfully synthesized via one-pot hydrothermal method. The as-prepared MoS2 nanosheets with a high surface area of 106.989 m2 g-1 exhibited excellent wastewater treatment performance with high removal capacities toward organic dyes. In addition, the fungus-like MoS2 nanosheets can absorb Congo red completely within 2 min. Successful access to high quality fungus-like MoS2 nanosheets will make it possible for their potential application in catalysis and other fields.

  12. Semileptonic B Decays at the B Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Bozzi, Concezio; /INFN, Ferrara

    2006-09-25

    Recent results on inclusive and exclusive semileptonic B decays from B Factories are presented. The status and perspectives of the determination of the CKM matrix elements V{sub ub} and V{sub cb} with semileptonic B decays is discussed.

  13. Strawberry breeding selections for postharvest fruit decay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit from the annual replicated yield assessments for the USDA-ARS strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier) breeding program at Beltsville, MD in 2010 were evaluated for postharvest decay development after storage at 5 °C. A statistically significant correlation between percentage decay o...

  14. Spectroscopy and decays of charm and bottom

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.N.

    1997-10-01

    After a brief review of the quark model, we discuss our present knowledge of the spectroscopy of charm and bottom mesons and baryons. We go on to review the lifetimes, semileptonic, and purely leptonic decays of these particles. We conclude with a brief discussion B and D mixing and rare decays.

  15. Addressing Tooth Decay in Head Start Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlden, Adam P.; Hill, Lawrence F.; Alles-White, Monica L.; Cottrell, Randall R.

    2012-01-01

    Tooth decay is the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Oral health education and dental services are crucial to reducing the number of children afflicted with dental cavities. Due to limited access to preventative care, Head Start children are particularly vulnerable to tooth decay. This article outlines practical implications of a…

  16. QCD in heavy quark production and decay

    SciTech Connect

    Wiss, J.

    1997-06-01

    The author discusses how QCD is used to understand the physics of heavy quark production and decay dynamics. His discussion of production dynamics primarily concentrates on charm photoproduction data which are compared to perturbative QCD calculations which incorporate fragmentation effects. He begins his discussion of heavy quark decay by reviewing data on charm and beauty lifetimes. Present data on fully leptonic and semileptonic charm decay are then reviewed. Measurements of the hadronic weak current form factors are compared to the nonperturbative QCD-based predictions of Lattice Gauge Theories. He next discusses polarization phenomena present in charmed baryon decay. Heavy Quark Effective Theory predicts that the daughter baryon will recoil from the charmed parent with nearly 100% left-handed polarization, which is in excellent agreement with present data. He concludes by discussing nonleptonic charm decay which is traditionally analyzed in a factorization framework applicable to two-body and quasi-two-body nonleptonic decays. This discussion emphasizes the important role of final state interactions in influencing both the observed decay width of various two-body final states as well as modifying the interference between interfering resonance channels which contribute to specific multibody decays. 50 refs., 77 figs.

  17. a Selection Rule for Multiquark Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buccella, F.

    By assuming SU(6)CS symmetry for pentaquark decays one finds a selection rule, which strongly reduces the number of states able to decay into a baryon and a meson final state and allows an intriguing identification for the Θ+ particle recently discovered with the prediction of a narrow width.

  18. Search for proton decay: status report 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Goldhaber, M.

    1984-01-01

    From the various ongoing searches for proton decay (Kolar Goldfields, Nusex, IMB, Kamiokande and HPW experiments) about twenty candidate events for proton decay have so far been reported. Nevertheless, definite evidence for proton decay has not been claimed. There are two main reasons: (1) for any particular candidate event we cannot exclude the possibility that it is due to the interaction of an atmospheric neutrino, and (2) because of the limited resolution of existing detectors each candidate event can usually not be interpreted as a definite candidate decay branch. If we consider only decay branches in which no neutrino is emitted, the ambiguities in interpretation lead to nearly as many candidate decay branches as there are candidate events. We can already say that for most two-body branches the partial lifetime is > 10/sup 31/y. Since the present detectors, including improvements in progress, as well as new detectors under construction, are sensitive only to partial decay times < 10/sup 33/y, one can hope to decide in the next few years whether or not proton decay takes place within this window of opportunity (10/sup 31/-10/sup 33/y). Results for 204 live days of observation with no neutrino background subtracted in the calculation of lifetime limits are tabulated.

  19. Neutron Decay with PERC: a Progress Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konrad, G.; Abele, H.; Beck, M.; Drescher, C.; Dubbers, D.; Erhart, J.; Fillunger, H.; Gösselsberger, C.; Heil, W.; Horvath, M.; Jericha, E.; Klauser, C.; Klenke, J.; Märkisch, B.; Maix, R. K.; Mest, H.; Nowak, S.; Rebrova, N.; Roick, C.; Sauerzopf, C.; Schmidt, U.; Soldner, T.; Wang, X.; Zimmer, O.; Perc Collaboration

    2012-02-01

    The PERC collaboration will perform high-precision measurements of angular correlations in neutron beta decay at the beam facility MEPHISTO of the Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz in Munich, Germany. The new beam station PERC, a clean, bright, and versatile source of neutron decay products, is designed to improve the sensitivity of neutron decay studies by one order of magnitude. The charged decay products are collected by a strong longitudinal magnetic field directly from inside a neutron guide. This combination provides the highest phase space density of decay products. A magnetic mirror serves to perform precise cuts in phase space, reducing related systematic errors. The new instrument PERC is under development by an international collaboration. The physics motivation, sensitivity, and applications of PERC as well as the status of the design and preliminary results on uncertainties in proton spectroscopy are presented in this paper.

  20. Search for CP violation in hyperon decays.

    SciTech Connect

    Zyla, Piotr; Chan, A.; Chen, Y.C.; Ho, C.; Teng, P.K.; Choong, W.S.; Gidal, G.; Fu, Y.; Gu, P.; Jones, T.D.; Luk, K.B.; Turko, B.; James, C.; Volk, J.; Felix, J.; Burnstein, R.A.; Chakrovorty, A.; Kaplan, D.M.; Lederman, L.M.; Luebke, W.; Rajaram, D.; Rubin, H.A.; Solomey, N.; Torun, Y.; White, C.G.; White, S.L.; Leros, N.; Perroud, J.P.; Gustafson, H.R.; Longo, M.J.; Lopez, F.; Park H.K.; Clark, K.; Jenkins, M.; Dukes, E.C.; Durandet, C.; Holmstrom, T.; Huang, M.; Lu, L.; Nelson, K.S.

    2002-10-25

    Direct CP violation in nonleptonic hyperon decays can be established by comparing the decays of hyperons and anti-hyperons. For {Xi} decay to {Lambda} {pi} followed by {Lambda} to p{pi}, the proton distribution in the rest frame of Lambda is governed by the product of the decay parameters {alpha}{sub {Xi}} {alpha}{sub {Lambda}}. The asymmetry A{sub {Xi}{Lambda}}, proportional to the difference of {alpha}{sub {Xi}}{alpha}{sub {Lambda}} of the hyperon and anti-hyperon decays, vanishes if CP is conserved. We report on an analysis of a fraction of 1997 and 1999 data collected by the Hyper CP (E871) collaboration during the fixed-target runs at Fermilab. The preliminary measurement of the asymmetry is {Alpha}{sub {Xi}{Lambda}} = [-7 {+-} 12(stat) {+-} 6.2(sys)] x 10{sup -4}, an order of magnitude better than the present limit.