Science.gov

Sample records for decentralized electricity market

  1. Competition in decentralized electricity markets: Three papers on electricity auctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harbord, David William Cameron

    This thesis consists of three self-contained papers on the analysis of electricity auctions written over a period of twelve years. The first paper models price competition in a decentralized wholesale market for electricity as a first-price, sealed-bid, multi-unit auction. In both the pure and mixed-strategy equilibria of the model, above marginal cost pricing and inefficient despatch of generating units occur. An alternative regulatory pricing rule is considered and it is shown that offering to supply at marginal cost can be induced as a dominant strategy for all firms. The second paper analyses strategic interaction between long-term contracts and price competition in the British electricity wholesale market, and confirms that forward contracts will tend to put downward pressure on spot market prices. A 'strategic commitment' motive for selling forward contracts is also identified: a generator may commit itself to bidding lower prices into the spot market in order to ensure that it will be despatched with its full capacity. The third paper characterizes bidding behavior and market outcomes in uniform and discriminatory electricity auctions. Uniform auctions result in higher average prices than discriminatory auctions, but the ranking in terms of productive efficiency is ambiguous. The comparative effects of other market design features, such as the number of steps in suppliers' bid functions, the duration of bids and the elasticity of demand are analyzed. The paper also clarifies some methodological issues in the analysis of electricity auctions. In particular we show that analogies with continuous share auctions are misplaced so long as firms are restricted to a finite number of bids.

  2. Characteristics of decentralized electricity generation

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, B.; Bereano, P.L.; King, S.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics of decentralized electricity generation are examined at several different levels with the aid of twenty-three independent variables. This approach provides a systematic framework for assessing and comparing the decentralized nature of power generation facilities and systems. While the analysis reveals that decentralization is not an explicit measure of performance, the taxonomy provides a useful tool for improving the quality of the debate on this issue. 30 references, 2 figures.

  3. Characteristics of decentralized electricity generation

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, B.; Bereano, P.L.; King, S.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics of decentralized electricity generation are examined at several different levels with the aid of twenty-three independent variables. This approach provides a systematic framework for assessing and comparing the decentralized nature of power generation facilities and systems. While the analysis reveals that decentralization is not an explicit measure of performance, the taxonomy provides a useful tool for improving the quality of the debate on this issue.

  4. Optimal Decentralized Protocol for Electric Vehicle Charging

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, LW; Topcu, U; Low, SH

    2013-05-01

    We propose a decentralized algorithm to optimally schedule electric vehicle (EV) charging. The algorithm exploits the elasticity of electric vehicle loads to fill the valleys in electric load profiles. We first formulate the EV charging scheduling problem as an optimal control problem, whose objective is to impose a generalized notion of valley-filling, and study properties of optimal charging profiles. We then give a decentralized algorithm to iteratively solve the optimal control problem. In each iteration, EVs update their charging profiles according to the control signal broadcast by the utility company, and the utility company alters the control signal to guide their updates. The algorithm converges to optimal charging profiles (that are as "flat" as they can possibly be) irrespective of the specifications (e.g., maximum charging rate and deadline) of EVs, even if EVs do not necessarily update their charging profiles in every iteration, and use potentially outdated control signal when they update. Moreover, the algorithm only requires each EV solving its local problem, hence its implementation requires low computation capability. We also extend the algorithm to track a given load profile and to real-time implementation.

  5. Decentralized energy systems for clean electricity access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alstone, Peter; Gershenson, Dimitry; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2015-04-01

    Innovative approaches are needed to address the needs of the 1.3 billion people lacking electricity, while simultaneously transitioning to a decarbonized energy system. With particular focus on the energy needs of the underserved, we present an analytic and conceptual framework that clarifies the heterogeneous continuum of centralized on-grid electricity, autonomous mini- or community grids, and distributed, individual energy services. A historical analysis shows that the present day is a unique moment in the history of electrification where decentralized energy networks are rapidly spreading, based on super-efficient end-use appliances and low-cost photovoltaics. We document how this evolution is supported by critical and widely available information technologies, particularly mobile phones and virtual financial services. These disruptive technology systems can rapidly increase access to basic electricity services and directly inform the emerging Sustainable Development Goals for quality of life, while simultaneously driving action towards low-carbon, Earth-sustaining, inclusive energy systems.

  6. Policies to Spur Energy Access. Executive Summary; Volume 1, Engaging the Private Sector in Expanding Access to Electricity; Volume 2, Case Studies to Public-Private Models to Finance Decentralized Electricity Access

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, Terri; Rai, Neha; Esterly, Sean; Cox, Sadie; Reber, Tim; Muzammil, Maliha; Mahmood, Tasfiq; Kaur, Nanki; Tesfaye, Lidya; Mamuye, Simret; Knuckles, James; Morris, Ellen; de Been, Merijn; Steinbach, Dave; Acharya, Sunil; Chhetri, Raju Pandit; Bhushal, Ramesh

    2015-09-01

    Government policy is one of the most important factors in engaging the private sector in providing universal access to electricity. In particular, the private sector is well positioned to provide decentralized electricity products and services. While policy uncertainty and regulatory barriers can keep enterprises and investors from engaging in the market, targeted policies can create opportunities to leverage private investment and skills to expand electricity access. However, creating a sustainable market requires policies beyond traditional electricity regulation. The report reviews the range of policy issues that impact the development and expansion of a market for decentralized electricity services from establishing an enabling policy environment to catalyzing finance, building human capacity, and integrating energy access with development programs. The case studies in this report show that robust policy frameworks--addressing a wide range of market issues--can lead to rapid transformation in energy access. The report highlights examples of these policies in action Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Mali, Mexico, and Nepal.

  7. Vocational Training in Chile: A Decentralized and Market Oriented System. Training Policy Study No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Eduardo Martinez

    From 1976 to 1983 major reforms were enacted in Chile in the vocational training systems, based on four principles: decentralization, integration, diversification, and participation. The vocational training system in Chile is a legally established, market-oriented system in which many private training agencies compete to sell their services to…

  8. Electricity diversification, decentralization, and decarbonization: The role of U.S. state energy policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carley, Sanya

    In response to mounting concerns about climate change and an over-dependence on fossil fuels, U.S. state governments have assumed leadership roles in energy policy. State leaders across the country have constructed policies that target electricity sector operations, and aim to increase the percentage of renewable electricity generation, increase the use of distributed generation, and decrease carbon footprints. The policy literature, however, lacks compelling empirical evidence that state initiatives toward these ends are effective. This research seeks to contribute empirical insights that can help fill this void in the literature, and advance policy knowledge about the efficacy of these instruments. This three-essay dissertation focuses on the assessment of state energy policy instruments aimed at the diversification, decentralization, and decarbonization of the U.S. electricity sector. The first essay considers the effects of state efforts to diversify electricity portfolios via increases in renewable energy. This essay asks: are state-level renewable portfolio standards (RPS) effective at increasing renewable energy deployment, as well as the share of renewable energy out of the total generation mix? Empirical results demonstrate that RPS policies so far are effectively encouraging total renewable energy deployment, but not the percentage of renewable energy generation. The second essay considers state policy efforts to decentralize the U.S. electricity sector via instruments that remove barriers to distributed generation (DG) deployment. The primary question this essay addresses is whether the removal of legal barriers acts as a primary motivating factor for DG deployment. Empirical results reveal that net metering policies are positively associated with DG deployment; interconnection standards significantly increase the likelihood that end-users will adopt DG capacity; and utility DG adoption is related to standard market forces. The third essay asks: what are

  9. Design and analysis of electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sioshansi, Ramteen Mehr

    Restructured competitive electricity markets rely on designing market-based mechanisms which can efficiently coordinate the power system and minimize the exercise of market power. This dissertation is a series of essays which develop and analyze models of restructured electricity markets. Chapter 2 studies the incentive properties of a co-optimized market for energy and reserves that pays reserved generators their implied opportunity cost---which is the difference between their stated energy cost and the market-clearing price for energy. By analyzing the market as a competitive direct revelation mechanism we examine the properties of efficient equilibria and demonstrate that generators have incentives to shade their stated costs below actual costs. We further demonstrate that the expected energy payments of our mechanism is less than that in a disjoint market for energy only. Chapter 3 is an empirical validation of a supply function equilibrium (SFE) model. By comparing theoretically optimal supply functions and actual generation offers into the Texas spot balancing market, we show the SFE to fit the actual behavior of the largest generators in market. This not only serves to validate the model, but also demonstrates the extent to which firms exercise market power. Chapters 4 and 5 examine equity, incentive, and efficiency issues in the design of non-convex commitment auctions. We demonstrate that different near-optimal solutions to a central unit commitment problem which have similar-sized optimality gaps will generally yield vastly different energy prices and payoffs to individual generators. Although solving the mixed integer program to optimality will overcome such issues, we show that this relies on achieving optimality of the commitment---which may not be tractable for large-scale problems within the allotted timeframe. We then simulate and compare a competitive benchmark for a market with centralized and self commitment in order to bound the efficiency

  10. Electricity Market Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Documents the Electricity Market Module as it was used for the Annual Energy Outlook 2013. The Electricity Market Module (EMM) is the electricity supply component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). The EMM represents the generation, transmission, and pricing of electricity. It consists of four submodules: the Electricity Capacity Planning (ECP) Submodule, the Electricity Fuel Dispatch (EFD) Submodule, the Electricity Finance and Pricing (EFP) Submodule, and the Electricity Load and Demand (ELD) Submodule.

  11. Decentralized conversion of biomass to energy, fuels and electricity with fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, P.

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cells, new processes, advanced equipment and total system approaches will allow biomass to become a larger source of energy to make electricity, fuel and chemicals. These innovative new approaches allow smaller scale operations and allow decentralization of biomass to energy. The pivotal role of biomass will change and expand. Biomass will become a significant near term and a long term energy source.

  12. Testing Neoclassical Competitive Theory in Multilateral Decentralized Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    List, John A.

    2004-01-01

    Walrasian tatonnement has been a fundamental assumption in economics ever since Walras' general equilibrium theory was introduced in 1874. Nearly a century after its introduction, Vernon Smith relaxed the Walrasian tatonnement assumption by showing that neoclassical competitive market theory explains the equilibrating forces in "double-auction"…

  13. Northeastern Summer Electricity Market Alert

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    The National Weather Service declared an excessive-heat warning for much of the Mid-Atlantic and northeastern United States, including major electric markets covering Philadelphia, Boston, Washington, D.C., and New York City. This report highlights the wholesale electricity market activity occurring in response to the higher-than-normal electricity demand caused by the heat wave.

  14. E-laboratories : agent-based modeling of electricity markets.

    SciTech Connect

    North, M.; Conzelmann, G.; Koritarov, V.; Macal, C.; Thimmapuram, P.; Veselka, T.

    2002-05-03

    Electricity markets are complex adaptive systems that operate under a wide range of rules that span a variety of time scales. These rules are imposed both from above by society and below by physics. Many electricity markets are undergoing or are about to undergo a transition from centrally regulated systems to decentralized markets. Furthermore, several electricity markets have recently undergone this transition with extremely unsatisfactory results, most notably in California. These high stakes transitions require the introduction of largely untested regulatory structures. Suitable laboratories that can be used to test regulatory structures before they are applied to real systems are needed. Agent-based models can provide such electronic laboratories or ''e-laboratories.'' To better understand the requirements of an electricity market e-laboratory, a live electricity market simulation was created. This experience helped to shape the development of the Electricity Market Complex Adaptive Systems (EMCAS) model. To explore EMCAS' potential as an e-laboratory, several variations of the live simulation were created. These variations probed the possible effects of changing power plant outages and price setting rules on electricity market prices.

  15. Electricity Market Complex Adaptive System

    SciTech Connect

    2004-10-14

    EMCAS is a model developed for the simulation and analysis of electricity markets. As power markets are relatively new and still continue to evolve, there is a growing need for advanced modeling approaches that simulate the behavior of electricity markets over time and how market participants may act and react to the changing economic, financial, and regulatory environments in which they operate. A new and rather promising approach applied in the EMCAS software is to model the electricity market as a complex adaptive system using an agent-based modeling and simulation scheme. With its unique combination of various novel approaches, the Agent Based Modeling System (ABMS) provides the ability to capture and investigate the complex interactions between the physical infrastructures (generation, transmission, and distribution) and the economic behavior of market participants that are a trademark of the newly emerging markets.

  16. Electricity Market Complex Adaptive System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-10-14

    EMCAS is a model developed for the simulation and analysis of electricity markets. As power markets are relatively new and still continue to evolve, there is a growing need for advanced modeling approaches that simulate the behavior of electricity markets over time and how market participants may act and react to the changing economic, financial, and regulatory environments in which they operate. A new and rather promising approach applied in the EMCAS software is tomore » model the electricity market as a complex adaptive system using an agent-based modeling and simulation scheme. With its unique combination of various novel approaches, the Agent Based Modeling System (ABMS) provides the ability to capture and investigate the complex interactions between the physical infrastructures (generation, transmission, and distribution) and the economic behavior of market participants that are a trademark of the newly emerging markets.« less

  17. Essays on restructured electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Emma Leah

    This dissertation focuses on the performance of restructured electricity markets in the United States. In chapter 1, I study bidder-specific offer caps ("BSOCs") which are used to mitigate market power in three wholesale electricity markets. The price of electricity is determined through multi-unit uniform price auctions and BSOCs impose an upper limit, which is increasing in marginal cost, on each generator's bid. I apply BSOCs in both the uniform and discriminatory price auctions and characterize the equilibria in a two firm model with stochastic demand. BSOCs unambiguously increase expected production efficiency in the uniform price auction and they can increase the expected profit of the generator with the lower cap. Chapter 2, coauthored with Ramteen Sioshansi, Ph.D., compares two types of uniform price auction formats used in wholesale electricity markets, centrally committed markets and self committed markets. In centrally committed markets, generators submit two-part bids consisting of a fixed startup cost and a variable (per MWh) energy cost, and the auctioneer ensures that no generator operates at a loss. Generators in self committed markets must incorporate their startup costs into their one part energy bids. We derive Nash equilibria for both the centrally and self committed electricity markets in a model with two symmetric generators with nonconvex costs and deterministic demand. Using a numerical example, we demonstrate that if the caps on the bid elements are chosen appropriately, the two market designs are equivalent in terms of generator revenues and settlement costs. Regulators and prominent academic experts believe that electric restructuring polices have stifled investment in new generation capacity. In chapter 3 I seek to determine whether these fears are supported by empirical evidence. I examine both total investment in megawatts and the number of new investments across regions that adopted different electric restructuring policies to

  18. Trends in international electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Toner, P.; Vera, I.

    1995-12-31

    The electric power industry is expected to continue experiencing significant changes throughout the beginning of the next century as the world becomes increasingly dependent on electricity. Three major trends characterize the industry worldwide: growth in demand, changes in its structure, and shifts in generation fuel mix. Electricity will remain the fastest growing form of end-use energy worldwide throughout 2010. Non-OECD countries will experience the largest growth in electricity demand as governments attempt to satisfy electricity requirements indispensable to ensure economic development. Increasing world dependence on electricity is accompanied by dramatic changes in the electric power industry in key areas such as regulation structure, and ownership. These changes imply more competitive environments and greater efficiency. Another important trend expected to continue is the shifts in the fuel mix of world electricity generation. The next 15 years will be characterized by increasing shares of natural gas and renewable fuel consumption while nuclear, oil and coal shares will decrease. This paper summarizes major trends in international electricity markets and describes important developments in world regions such as North America, Europe, Asia and Central and South America.

  19. The inevitable commoditization of electric power markets

    SciTech Connect

    Mango, B.; Woodley, J.A.C.

    1994-11-01

    As competition grows between electric suppliers it is inevitable that a spot market in electricity will evolve. The impetus is the market demand for greater asset productivity. With prices revealed, a commodity market will follow. With spot and commodity markets will come the power to reallocate risk and make capital investment more productive. Given price volatility, separate markets will develop for near- and long-term hedging instruments.

  20. Autonomous, Decentralized Grid Architecture: Prosumer-Based Distributed Autonomous Cyber-Physical Architecture for Ultra-Reliable Green Electricity Networks

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-11

    GENI Project: Georgia Tech is developing a decentralized, autonomous, internet-like control architecture and control software system for the electric power grid. Georgia Tech’s new architecture is based on the emerging concept of electricity prosumers—economically motivated actors that can produce, consume, or store electricity. Under Georgia Tech’s architecture, all of the actors in an energy system are empowered to offer associated energy services based on their capabilities. The actors achieve their sustainability, efficiency, reliability, and economic objectives, while contributing to system-wide reliability and efficiency goals. This is in marked contrast to the current one-way, centralized control paradigm.

  1. Dynamics of electricity market correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Ramirez, J.; Escarela-Perez, R.; Espinosa-Perez, G.; Urrea, R.

    2009-06-01

    Electricity market participants rely on demand and price forecasts to decide their bidding strategies, allocate assets, negotiate bilateral contracts, hedge risks, and plan facility investments. However, forecasting is hampered by the non-linear and stochastic nature of price time series. Diverse modeling strategies, from neural networks to traditional transfer functions, have been explored. These approaches are based on the assumption that price series contain correlations that can be exploited for model-based prediction purposes. While many works have been devoted to the demand and price modeling, a limited number of reports on the nature and dynamics of electricity market correlations are available. This paper uses detrended fluctuation analysis to study correlations in the demand and price time series and takes the Australian market as a case study. The results show the existence of correlations in both demand and prices over three orders of magnitude in time ranging from hours to months. However, the Hurst exponent is not constant over time, and its time evolution was computed over a subsample moving window of 250 observations. The computations, also made for two Canadian markets, show that the correlations present important fluctuations over a seasonal one-year cycle. Interestingly, non-linearities (measured in terms of a multifractality index) and reduced price predictability are found for the June-July periods, while the converse behavior is displayed during the December-January period. In terms of forecasting models, our results suggest that non-linear recursive models should be considered for accurate day-ahead price estimation. On the other hand, linear models seem to suffice for demand forecasting purposes.

  2. Electric power market agent design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hyungseon

    The electric power industry in many countries has been restructured in the hope of a more economically efficient system. In the restructured system, traditional operating and planning tools based on true marginal cost do not perform well since information required is strictly confidential. For developing a new tool, it is necessary to understand offer behavior. The main objective of this study is to create a new tool for power system planning. For the purpose, this dissertation develops models for a market and market participants. A new model is developed in this work for explaining a supply-side offer curve, and several variables are introduced to characterize the curve. Demand is estimated using a neural network, and a numerical optimization process is used to determine the values of the variables that maximize the profit of the agent. The amount of data required for the optimization is chosen with the aid of nonlinear dynamics. To suggest an optimal demand-side bidding function, two optimization problems are constructed and solved for maximizing consumer satisfaction based on the properties of two different types of demands: price-based demand and must-be-served demand. Several different simulations are performed to test how an agent reacts in various situations. The offer behavior depends on locational benefit as well as the offer strategies of competitors.

  3. Three essays on "making" electric power markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kench, Brian Thomas

    2000-10-01

    Technological change over the past three decades has altered most of the basic conditions in the electric power industry. Because of technical progress, the dominant paradigm has shifted from the provision of electric power by regulated and vertically integrated local natural monopolies to competition and vertical separation. In the first essay I provide a historical context of the electric industry's power current deregulation debate. Then a dynamic model of induced institutional change is used to investigate how endogenous technological advancements have induced radical institutional change in the generation and transmission segments of the electric power industry. Because the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) ordered regulated utilities to provide open access to their transmission networks and to separate their generation and transmission functions, transmission networks have been used more intensively and in much different ways then in the past. The second essay tests experimentally the predictions of neoclassical theory for a radial electric power market under two alternative deregulated transmission institutions: financial transmission rights and physical transmission rights. Experimental evidence presented there demonstrates that an electric power market with physical transmission rights governing its transmission network generates more "right" market signals relative to a transmission network governed by financial transmission rights. The move to a greater reliance on markets for electric power is an idea that has animated sweeping and dramatic changes in the traditional business of electric power. The third essay examines two of the most innovative and complex initiatives of making electric power markets in the United States: California and PJM. As those markets mature and others are made, they must revise their governance mechanisms to eliminate rules that create inefficiency and adopt rules that work efficiently elsewhere. I argue that

  4. Understanding Price Formation in Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadoya, Toshihisa; Sasaki, Tetsuo; Yokoyama, Akihiko; Ihara, Satoru

    The electricity price will influence the future growth and mix of generation capacity that will in turn influence the future electricity price, and therefore, it is important to understand how electricity price is formed as well as its short-term and long-term impacts on the economy. This paper describes evaluation of PJM day-ahead market bidding data and comparison of various electricity markets in terms of the market clearing price and volatility. The objective is to find critical factors and mechanisms determining the movements of electricity price. It was found that speculation by a small number of bidders can cause price spikes, that a Nash equilibrium may exist during a delayed response of the electricity price to a decline of the fuel price, and that the hydro generation with storage capability effectively stabilizes the electricity price.

  5. Market Model Considering Bilateral Transactions in the Deregulated Electricity Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Monroy, José Joaquín; Kita, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Eiichi; Hasegawa, Jun

    This paper proposes an algorithm to simulate the transactions that take place in a free market of electricity. The algorithm presented is used for Bilateral Transaction Matrix (BTM) creation assuming that a day ahead load forecast is previously known. Bids can be made by both the generation side and the demand side to determine transaction prices, then the algorithm allocates the transactions according to market rules until the demand is satisfied. This creates feasible BTMs that can be used to study system security and to find future methods to regulate bilateral transactions through market mechanisms like the application of penalties to the transactions that affect the system’s security. Results show that the proposed algorithm is a good option for electricity market analysis. The proposed algorithm provides system planners with a practical tool for data creation to further study the effects of bilateral transactions in a deregulated electricity market.

  6. Briding the gap. [Marketing by electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    McChesney, S.

    1994-02-01

    Like the telephone and natural gas industries before them, electric utilities are restaffing, rebuilding, and revitalizing their marketing departments to deal with emerging and often unknown competition. Until the 1970s, the electric utility industry was a marketer's dream, consisting principally of closing and counting sales. Strategy, if it existed, was little more than a sales plan. Understanding and selling to customers was a simple task, with customers secondary to sales. In the late 70s, the sales orientation changed. Faced with rising costs and rigid regulators, many utilities disbanded their marketing departments. For those that remained, saving-not selling-energy became the order. Many utilities became adept at marketing load management and conservation. But instead of focusing on customer needs, their actions were largely driven by the goals of rate, regulatory, and forecasting departments. Rather than researching and influencing customers, marketers studied load shapes and supplies. As the process became more of a regulatory chore than a competitive choice, many marketers admitted they knew less about marketing (and their customers) than ever before. That admission-the recognition that marketing starts with customers and drives corporate strategy-was an important turning point for electric utility marketers. Now they must use their own evolving mindset to change the image of marketing in the minds of colleagues, executives, and regulators. They must position marketing as an opportunity to help their companies as well as their customers.

  7. Electricity Market Manipulation: How Behavioral Modeling Can Help Market Design

    SciTech Connect

    Gallo, Giulia

    2015-12-18

    The question of how to best design electricity markets to integrate variable and uncertain renewable energy resources is becoming increasingly important as more renewable energy is added to electric power systems. Current markets were designed based on a set of assumptions that are not always valid in scenarios of high penetrations of renewables. In a future where renewables might have a larger impact on market mechanisms as well as financial outcomes, there is a need for modeling tools and power system modeling software that can provide policy makers and industry actors with more realistic representations of wholesale markets. One option includes using agent-based modeling frameworks. This paper discusses how key elements of current and future wholesale power markets can be modeled using an agent-based approach and how this approach may become a useful paradigm that researchers can employ when studying and planning for power systems of the future.

  8. Model documentation: Electricity Market Module, Electricity Fuel Dispatch Submodule

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-08

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System Electricity Fuel Dispatch Submodule (EFD), a submodule of the Electricity Market Module (EMM). The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components.

  9. Measuring market performance in restructured electricity markets: An empirical analysis of the PJM energy market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Russell Jay

    2002-09-01

    Today the electric industry in the U.S. is transitioning to competitive markets for wholesale electricity. Independent system operators (ISOs) now manage broad regional markets for electrical energy in several areas of the U.S. A recent rulemaking by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) encourages the development of regional transmission organizations (RTOs) and restructured competitive wholesale electricity markets nationwide. To date, the transition to competitive wholesale markets has not been easy. The increased reliance on market forces coupled with unusually high electricity demand for some periods have created conditions amenable to market power abuse in many regions throughout the U.S. In the summer of 1999, hot and humid summer conditions in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, Delaware, and the District of Columbia pushed peak demand in the PJM Interconnection to record levels. These demand conditions coincided with the introduction of market-based pricing in the wholesale electricity market. Prices for electricity increased on average by 55 percent, and reached the $1,000/MWh range. This study examines the extent to which generator market power raised prices above competitive levels in the PJM Interconnection during the summer of 1999. It simulates hourly market-clearing prices assuming competitive market behavior and compares these prices with observed market prices in computing price markups over the April 1-August 31, 1999 period. The results of the simulation analysis are supported with an examination of actual generator bid data of incumbent generators. Price markups averaged 14.7 percent above expected marginal cost over the 5-month period for all non-transmission-constrained hours. The evidence presented suggests that the June and July monthly markups were strongly influenced by generator market power as price inelastic peak demand approached the electricity generation capacity constraint of the market. While this analysis of the

  10. A decentralized charging control strategy for plug-in electric vehicles to mitigate wind farm intermittency and enhance frequency regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiao; Xia, Shiwei; Chan, Ka Wing

    2014-02-01

    This paper proposes a decentralized charging control strategy for a large population of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) to neutralize wind power fluctuations so as to improve the regulation of system frequency. Without relying on a central control entity, each PEV autonomously adjusts its charging or discharging power in response to a communal virtual price signal and based on its own urgency level of charging. Simulation results show that under the proposed charging control, the aggregate PEV power can effectively neutralize wind power fluctuations in real-time while differential allocation of neutralization duties among the PEVs can be realized to meet the PEV users' charging requirements. Also, harmful wind-induced cyclic operations in thermal units can be mitigated. As shown in economic analysis, the proposed strategy can create cost saving opportunities for both PEV users and utility.

  11. Essays on environmental regulations in electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yanming

    Reducing the Greenhouse Gas pollution and promoting energy efficiency among consumers' energy use have been major public policy issues recently. Currently, both the United States and the European Union have set up explicit percentage requirements that require energy generators or consumers to undertake a certain percentage of their energy production or consumption from renewable sources. To achieve their renewable targets, the Tradable Green Certificates (TGC) system has been introduced in their electricity markets. Moreover, in order to promote energy conservation and achieve energy efficiency targets, price policies and price changes derived from environmental regulations have played a more important role in reducing electricity consumption. My research studies problems associated with these policy implementations. In Chapter 1, I analyze a competitive electricity market with two countries operated under a common TGC system. By using geometric illustrations, I compare the two countries' welfare when the renewable quota is chosen optimally under the common certificate market with three different situations. The policy recommendation is that when the value of damage parameter is sufficiently small, full integration with a TGC market is welfare superior to full integration of an all fossil-fuel based market with an optimal emissions standard. In Chapter 2, by analyzing a stylized theoretical model and numerical examples, I investigate the performance of the optimal renewables policy under full separation and full integration scenarios for two countries' electricity markets operated under TGC systems. In my third chapter, I look at residential electricity consumption responsiveness to increases of electricity price in the U.S. and the different effect of a price increase on electricity use for states of different income levels. My analysis reveals that raising the energy price in the short run will not give consumers much incentive to adjust their appliances and make

  12. Chinese Education Policy in the Context of Decentralization and Marketization: Evolution and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngok, Kinglun

    2007-01-01

    Education policy has been undergoing great transformation in China since the initiation of economic reforms and the open-door policy in the late 1970s. These market-oriented reforms and the pursuit of rapid economic growth in a globalized economy have significantly impacted China's education policy and development. In line with the development of…

  13. Essays on pricing electricity and electricity derivatives in deregulated markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, Julia

    2008-10-01

    This dissertation is composed of four essays on the behavior of wholesale electricity prices and their derivatives. The first essay provides an empirical model that takes into account the spatial features of a transmission network on the electricity market. The spatial structure of the transmission grid plays a key role in determining electricity prices, but it has not been incorporated into previous empirical models. The econometric model in this essay incorporates a simple representation of the transmission system into a spatial panel data model of electricity prices, and also accounts for the effect of dynamic transmission system constraints on electricity market integration. Empirical results using PJM data confirm the existence of spatial patterns in electricity prices and show that spatial correlation diminishes as transmission lines become more congested. The second essay develops and empirically tests a model of the influence of natural gas storage inventories on the electricity forward premium. I link a model of the effect of gas storage constraints on the higher moments of the distribution of electricity prices to a model of the effect of those moments on the forward premium. Empirical results using PJM data support the model's predictions that gas storage inventories sharply reduce the electricity forward premium when demand for electricity is high and space-heating demand for gas is low. The third essay examines the efficiency of PJM electricity markets. A market is efficient if prices reflect all relevant information, so that prices follow a random walk. The hypothesis of random walk is examined using empirical tests, including the Portmanteau, Augmented Dickey-Fuller, KPSS, and multiple variance ratio tests. The results are mixed though evidence of some level of market efficiency is found. The last essay investigates the possibility that previous researchers have drawn spurious conclusions based on classical unit root tests incorrectly applied to

  14. Model documentation: Electricity Market Module, Electricity Capacity Planning submodule

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-07

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer modeling system developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The NEMS produces integrated forecasts for energy markets in the United States by achieving a general equilibrium solution for energy supply and demand. Currently, for each year during the period from 1990 through 2010, the NEMS describes energy supply, conversion, consumption, and pricing. The Electricity Market Module (EMM) is the electricity supply component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). The supply of electricity is a conversion activity since electricity is produced from other energy sources (e.g., fossil, nuclear, and renewable). The EMM represents the generation, transmission, and pricing of electricity. The EMM consists of four main submodules: Electricity Capacity Planning (ECP), Electricity Fuel Dispatching (EFD), Electricity Finance and Pricing (EFP), and Load and Demand-Side Management (LDSM). The ECP evaluates changes in the mix of generating capacity that are necessary to meet future demands for electricity and comply with environmental regulations. The EFD represents dispatching (i.e., operating) decisions and determines how to allocate available capacity to meet the current demand for electricity. Using investment expenditures from the ECP and operating costs from the EFD, the EFP calculates the price of electricity, accounting for state-level regulations involving the allocation of costs. The LDSM translates annual demands for electricity into distributions that describe hourly, seasonal, and time-of-day variations. These distributions are used by the EFD and the ECP to determine the quantity and types of generating capacity that are required to insure reliable and economical supplies of electricity. The EMM also represents nonutility suppliers and interregional and international transmission and trade. These activities are included in the EFD and the ECP.

  15. Emissions markets, power markets and market power: A study of the interactions between contemporary emissions markets and deregulated electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dormady, Noah Christopher

    Chapter 1: A Monte Carlo Approach. The use of auctions to distribute tradeable property rights to firms in already heavily concentrated markets may further exacerbate the problems of market power that exist within those markets. This chapter provides a model of a two-stage emissions market modeled after a contemporary regional permit trading market in the United States, the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, Inc. (RGGI). It then introduces Oligopsony 1.0, a C# software package constructed in the .NET environment that simulates uniform-price auctions using stochastic Monte Carlo simulation for modeling market power in tradeable property rights auctions. Monte Carlo methods add a probabilistic element to standard auction theoretic equilibria. The results of these simulations indicate that there can be significant non-linearities between profit and market power as exercised through strategic demand reduction. This analysis finds the optimum point of strategic demand reduction that enables the firm to exploit these non-linearities, and it determines the probability distributions of these optima using kernel density analysis. Chapter 2: An Experimental Approach. How will emerging auction-based emissions markets function within the context of today's deregulated auction-based electricity markets? This chapter provides an experimental analysis of a joint energy-emissions market. The impact of market power and collusion among dominant firms is evaluated to determine the extent to which an auction-based tradeable permit market influences performance in an adjacent electricity market. The experimental treatment design controls for a variety of real-world institutional features, including variable demand, permit banking, inter-temporal (multi-round) dynamics, a tightening cap, and resale. Results suggest that the exercise of market power significantly increases electricity auction clearing prices, without significantly increasing emissions

  16. Market penetration of electric passenger vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Froker, D.

    1983-01-01

    The assumptions and criteria used to estimate the cost, performance and comfort of electric vehicles (EV) and to compare these aspects of internal combustion vehicles and EVs are explained, and the method used to forecast the market share of EVs for future personal transportation needs is described. The results forecast an approximate total market share of EVs sold in the passenger vehicle market to be 10% for 1990 and 20% for the year 2000. The sensitivity analysis disclosed that the parameters mainly responsible for changes of EV market share were range, purchase price, year purchased, and to some extent, the maximum cruising speed, in order of importance. Surprisingly, fuel prices, whether for electricity or gasoline, did not have much effect on market share even when considering much greater increases than we have seen in the past 10 years. As might be expected with fuel prices having negligible effects, changes in the efficiencies of EVs and ICVs also altered our expected market share very little. (LCL)

  17. Electricity market design for the prosumer era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parag, Yael; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2016-04-01

    Prosumers are agents that both consume and produce energy. With the growth in small and medium-sized agents using solar photovoltaic panels, smart meters, vehicle-to-grid electric automobiles, home batteries and other ‘smart’ devices, prosuming offers the potential for consumers and vehicle owners to re-evaluate their energy practices. As the number of prosumers increases, the electric utility sector of today is likely to undergo significant changes over the coming decades, offering possibilities for greening of the system, but also bringing many unknowns and risks that need to be identified and managed. To develop strategies for the future, policymakers and planners need knowledge of how prosumers could be integrated effectively and efficiently into competitive electricity markets. Here we identify and discuss three promising potential prosumer markets related to prosumer grid integration, peer-to-peer models and prosumer community groups. We also caution against optimism by laying out a series of caveats and complexities.

  18. Essays on competition in electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos Salvagno, Ricardo Javier

    The first chapter shows how technology decisions affect entry in commodity markets with oligopolistic competition, like the electricity market. I demonstrate an entry deterrence effect that works through cost uncertainty. Technology's cost uncertainty affects spot market expected profits through forward market trades. Therefore, incentives to engage in forward trading shape firms' decisions on production technologies. I show that high-cost but low-risk technologies are adopted by risk-averse incumbents to deter entry. Strategic technology adoption can end in a equilibrium where high-cost technologies prevail over low-cost but riskier ones. In the case of incumbents who are less risk-averse than entrants, entry deterrence is achieved by choosing riskier technologies. The main results do not depend on who chooses their technology first. Chapter two examines the Chilean experience on auctions for long-term supply contracts in electricity markets from 2006 to 2011. Using a divisible-good auction model, I provide a theoretical framework that explains bidding behavior in terms of expected spot prices and contracting positions. The model is extended to include potential strategic behavior on contracting decisions. Empirical estimations confirm the main determinants of bidding behavior and show heterogeneity in the marginal cost of over-contracting depending on size and incumbency. Chapter three analyzes the lag in capacity expansion in the Chilean electricity market from 2000 to 2004. Regarded as a result of regulatory uncertainty, the role of delays in the construction of a large hydro-power plant has been overlooked by the literature. We argue that those delays postponed projected investment and gave small windows of opportunity that only incumbents could take advantage of. We are able to retrace the history of investments through real-time information from the regulator's reports and a simple model enables us to explain the effect of those delays on suggested and under

  19. Electricity market pricing, risk hedging and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xu

    In this dissertation, we investigate the pricing, price risk hedging/arbitrage, and simplified system modeling for a centralized LMP-based electricity market. In an LMP-based market model, the full AC power flow model and the DC power flow model are most widely used to represent the transmission system. We investigate the differences of dispatching results, congestion pattern, and LMPs for the two power flow models. An appropriate LMP decomposition scheme to quantify the marginal costs of the congestion and real power losses is critical for the implementation of financial risk hedging markets. However, the traditional LMP decomposition heavily depends on the slack bus selection. In this dissertation we propose a slack-independent scheme to break LMP down into energy, congestion, and marginal loss components by analyzing the actual marginal cost of each bus at the optimal solution point. The physical and economic meanings of the marginal effect at each bus provide accurate price information for both congestion and losses, and thus the slack-dependency of the traditional scheme is eliminated. With electricity priced at the margin instead of the average value, the market operator typically collects more revenue from power sellers than that paid to power buyers. According to the LMP decomposition results, the revenue surplus is then divided into two parts: congestion charge surplus and marginal loss revenue surplus. We apply the LMP decomposition results to the financial tools, such as financial transmission right (FTR) and loss hedging right (LHR), which have been introduced to hedge against price risks associated to congestion and losses, to construct a full price risk hedging portfolio. The two-settlement market structure and the introduction of financial tools inevitably create market manipulation opportunities. We investigate several possible market manipulation behaviors by virtual bidding and propose a market monitor approach to identify and quantify such

  20. A decentralized adaptive fuzzy robust strategy for control of upright standing posture in paraplegia using functional electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kobravi, Hamid-Reza; Erfanian, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel decentralized robust methodology for control of quiet upright posture during arm-free paraplegic standing using functional electrical stimulation (FES). Each muscle-joint complex is considered as a subsystem and individual controllers are designed for each one. Each controller operates solely on its associated subsystem, with no exchange of information between them, and the interaction between the subsystems are taken as external disturbances. In order to achieve robustness with respect to external disturbances, unmodeled dynamics, model uncertainty and time-varying properties of muscle-joint dynamics, a robust control framework is proposed. The method is based on the synergistic combination of an adaptive nonlinear compensator with sliding mode control (SMC). Fuzzy logic system is used to represent unknown system dynamics for implementing SMC and an adaptive updating law is designed for online estimating the system parameters such that the global stability and asymptotic convergence to zero of tracking errors is guaranteed. The proposed controller requires no prior knowledge about the dynamics of system to be controlled and no offline learning phase. The results of experiments on three paraplegic subjects show that the proposed control strategy is able to maintain the vertical standing posture using only FES control of ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion without using upper limbs for support and to compensate the effect of external disturbances and muscle fatigue. PMID:21764350

  1. The creation of a global electricity market

    SciTech Connect

    DePinto, D.; Anderson, A.

    1998-07-01

    The global embrace of market-based economics has led to significant growth and prosperity resulting in increased needs for electricity. The burgeoning demand for energy has created requirements for capital investment at time when the state-owned energy companies cannot provide it. Governments, busy trying to find ways to manage already inflated debt burdens, have little capacity for funding the capital needed to expand energy production. In these strategic industries, governments are beginning to embrace the principles of free market capitalism and private ownership, recognizing the significant benefits to be realized: reduced national deficits, a more efficient energy sector, access to foreign capital, greater internal capital generation, and more energy to fuel economic growth. This is driving the governments to embrace privatization and is creating a market for the sale of electric utilities. On the other side of this equation are the fast developing global electric companies that are prepared to expand in both developing and developed countries through significant acquisitions of either companies or strategic assets. This scenario is further enhanced as the Independent Power Developers chase projects from Brazil to China and bring competition to the development of new generation. Never before has there been such a movement to the complete transformation of the energy industry. Countries on every continent are exploring how they can reform and restructure the energy sector. The analysis will address: Global transformation sweeping the various regions of the world; Impact on developers and the strategy required for success; Global electric companies and their impact on the transformation process; and Future of the electric power industry: Will it bring the world closer together?

  2. Financial methods in competitive electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Shijie

    The restructuring of electric power industry has become a global trend. As reforms to the electricity supply industry spread rapidly across countries and states, many political and economical issues arise as a result of people debating over which approach to adopt in restructuring the vertically integrated electricity industry. This dissertation addresses issues of transmission pricing, electricity spot price modeling, as well as risk management and asset valuation in a competitive electricity industry. A major concern in the restructuring of the electricity industries is the design of a transmission pricing scheme that will ensure open-access to the transmission networks. I propose a priority-pricing scheme for zonal access to the electric power grid that is uniform across all buses in each zone. The Independent System Operator (ISO) charges bulk power traders a per unit ex ante transmission access fee based on the expected option value of the generated power with respect to the random zonal spot prices. The zonal access fee depends on the injection zone and a self-selected strike price determining the scheduling priority of the transaction. Inter zonal transactions are charged (or credited) with an additional ex post congestion fee that equals the zonal spot price difference. The unit access fee entitles a bulk power trader to either physical injection of one unit of energy or a compensation payment that equals to the difference between the realized zonal spot price and the selected strike price. The ISO manages congestion so as to minimize net compensation payments and thus, curtailment probabilities corresponding to a particular strike price may vary by bus. The rest of the dissertation deals with the issues of modeling electricity spot prices, pricing electricity financial instruments and the corresponding risk management applications. Modeling the spot prices of electricity is important for the market participants who need to understand the risk factors in

  3. Carbon pricing, nuclear power and electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, R.; Keppler, J. H.

    2012-07-01

    In 2010, the NEA in conjunction with the International Energy Agency produced an analysis of the Projected Costs of Electricity for almost 200 power plants, covering nuclear, fossil fuel and renewable electricity generation. That analysis used lifetime costs to consider the merits of each technology. However, the lifetime cost analysis is less applicable in liberalised markets and does not look specifically at the viewpoint of the private investor. A follow-up NEA assessment of the competitiveness of nuclear energy against coal- and gas-fired generation under carbon pricing has considered just this question. The economic competition in electricity markets is today between nuclear energy and gas-fired power generation, with coal-fired power generation not being competitive as soon as even modest carbon pricing is introduced. Whether nuclear energy or natural gas comes out ahead in their competition depends on a number of assumptions, which, while all entirely reasonable, yield very different outcomes. The analysis in this study has been developed on the basis of daily data from European power markets over the last five-year period. Three different methodologies, a Profit Analysis looking at historic returns over the past five years, an Investment Analysis projecting the conditions of the past five years over the lifetime of plants and a Carbon Tax Analysis (differentiating the Investment Analysis for different carbon prices) look at the issue of competitiveness from different angles. They show that the competitiveness of nuclear energy depends on a number of variables which in different configurations determine whether electricity produced from nuclear power or from CCGTs generates higher profits for its investors. These are overnight costs, financing costs, gas prices, carbon prices, profit margins (or mark-ups), the amount of coal with carbon capture and electricity prices. This paper will present the outcomes of the analysis in the context of a liberalised

  4. Modeling spot markets for electricity and pricing electricity derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Yumei

    Spot prices for electricity have been very volatile with dramatic price spikes occurring in restructured market. The task of forecasting electricity prices and managing price risk presents a new challenge for market players. The objectives of this dissertation are: (1) to develop a stochastic model of price behavior and predict price spikes; (2) to examine the effect of weather forecasts on forecasted prices; (3) to price electricity options and value generation capacity. The volatile behavior of prices can be represented by a stochastic regime-switching model. In the model, the means of the high-price and low-price regimes and the probabilities of switching from one regime to the other are specified as functions of daily peak load. The probability of switching to the high-price regime is positively related to load, but is still not high enough at the highest loads to predict price spikes accurately. An application of this model shows how the structure of the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland market changed when market-based offers were allowed, resulting in higher price spikes. An ARIMA model including temperature, seasonal, and weekly effects is estimated to forecast daily peak load. Forecasts of load under different assumptions about weather patterns are used to predict changes of price behavior given the regime-switching model of prices. Results show that the range of temperature forecasts from a normal summer to an extremely warm summer cause relatively small increases in temperature (+1.5%) and load (+3.0%). In contrast, the increases in prices are large (+20%). The conclusion is that the seasonal outlook forecasts provided by NOAA are potentially valuable for predicting prices in electricity markets. The traditional option models, based on Geometric Brownian Motion are not appropriate for electricity prices. An option model using the regime-switching framework is developed to value a European call option. The model includes volatility risk and allows changes

  5. Essays in the California electricity reserves markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxoglou, Konstantinos

    This dissertation examines inefficiencies in the California electricity reserves markets. In Chapter 1, I use the information released during the investigation of the state's electricity crisis of 2000 and 2001 by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to diagnose allocative inefficiencies. Building upon the work of Wolak (2000), I calculate a lower bound for the sellers' price-cost margins using the inverse elasticities of their residual demand curves. The downward bias in my estimates stems from the fact that I don't account for the hierarchical substitutability of the reserve types. The margins averaged at least 20 percent for the two highest quality types of reserves, regulation and spinning, generating millions of dollars in transfers to a handful of sellers. I provide evidence that the deviations from marginal cost pricing were due to the markets' high concentration and a principal-agent relationship that emerged from their design. In Chapter 2, I document systematic differences between the markets' day- and hour-ahead prices. I use a high-dimensional vector moving average model to estimate the premia and conduct correct inferences. To obtain exact maximum likelihood estimates of the model, I employ the EM algorithm that I develop in Chapter 3. I uncover significant day-ahead premia, which I attribute to market design characteristics too. On the demand side, the market design established a principal-agent relationship between the markets' buyers (principal) and their supervisory authority (agent). The agent had very limited incentives to shift reserve purchases to the lower priced hour-ahead markets. On the supply side, the market design raised substantial entry barriers by precluding purely speculative trading and by introducing a complicated code of conduct that induced uncertainty about which actions were subject to regulatory scrutiny. In Chapter 3, I introduce a state-space representation for vector autoregressive moving average models that enables

  6. Electricity Markets, Smart Grids and Smart Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcey, Jonathan M.

    A smart grid is an electricity network that accommodates two-way power flows, and utilizes two-way communications and increased measurement, in order to provide more information to customers and aid in the development of a more efficient electricity market. The current electrical network is outdated and has many shortcomings relating to power flows, inefficient electricity markets, generation/supply balance, a lack of information for the consumer and insufficient consumer interaction with electricity markets. Many of these challenges can be addressed with a smart grid, but there remain significant barriers to the implementation of a smart grid. This paper proposes a novel method for the development of a smart grid utilizing a bottom up approach (starting with smart buildings/campuses) with the goal of providing the framework and infrastructure necessary for a smart grid instead of the more traditional approach (installing many smart meters and hoping a smart grid emerges). This novel approach involves combining deterministic and statistical methods in order to accurately estimate building electricity use down to the device level. It provides model users with a cheaper alternative to energy audits and extensive sensor networks (the current methods of quantifying electrical use at this level) which increases their ability to modify energy consumption and respond to price signals The results of this method are promising, but they are still preliminary. As a result, there is still room for improvement. On days when there were no missing or inaccurate data, this approach has R2 of about 0.84, sometimes as high as 0.94 when compared to measured results. However, there were many days where missing data brought overall accuracy down significantly. In addition, the development and implementation of the calibration process is still underway and some functional additions must be made in order to maximize accuracy. The calibration process must be completed before a reliable

  7. Market mature 1998 hybrid electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Wyczalek, F.A.

    1998-07-01

    Beginning in 1990, the major automotive passenger vehicle manufacturers once again re-evaluated the potential of the battery powered electric vehicle (EV). This intensive effort to reduce the battery EV to commercial practice focused attention on the key issue of limited vehicle range, resulting from the low energy density and high mass characteristics of batteries, in comparison to the high energy density of liquid hydrocarbon (HC) fuels. Consequently, by 1995, vehicle manufacturers turned their attention to hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). This redirection of EV effort was highlighted finally, in 1997, at the 57th Frankfurt Motor Show, the Audi Duo parallel type hybrid was released for the domestic market as a 1998 model vehicle. Also at the 1997 32nd Tokyo Motor Show, the Toyota Hybrid System (THS) Prius was released for the domestic market as a 1998 model vehicle. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the key features of these two 1998 model year production hybrid propulsion systems. Among the conclusions, two issues are evident: one, the major manufacturers have turned to the hybrid concept in their search for solutions to the key EV issues of limited range and heating/air conditioning; and, two, the focus is now on introducing hybrid EV for test marketing domestically.

  8. Turkey opens electricity markets as demand grows

    SciTech Connect

    McKeigue, J.; Da Cunha, A.; Severino, D.

    2009-06-15

    Turkey's growing power market has attracted investors and project developers for over a decade, yet their plans have been dashed by unexpected political or financial crises or, worse, obstructed by a lengthy bureaucratic approval process. Now, with a more transparent retail electricity market, government regulators and investors are bullish on Turkey. Is Turkey ready to turn the power on? This report closely examine Turkey's plans to create a power infrastructure capable of providing the reliable electricity supplies necessary for sustained economic growth. It was compiled with on-the-ground research and extensive interview with key industrial and political figures. Today, hard coal and lignite account for 21% of Turkey's electricity generation and gas-fired plants account for 50%. The Alfin Elbistan-B lignite-fired plant has attracted criticism for its lack of desulfurization units and ash dam facilities that have tarnished the industry's image. A 1,100 MW hard-coal fired plant using supercritical technology is under construction. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Experimental Economics for Teaching the Functioning of Electricity Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guevara-Cedeno, J. Y.; Palma-Behnke, R.; Uribe, R.

    2012-01-01

    In the field of electricity markets, the development of training tools for engineers has been extremely useful. A novel experimental economics approach based on a computational Web platform of an electricity market is proposed here for the practical teaching of electrical engineering students. The approach is designed to diminish the gap that…

  10. Micro-economic analysis of the physical constrained markets: game theory application to competitive electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bompard, E.; Ma, Y. C.; Ragazzi, E.

    2006-03-01

    Competition has been introduced in the electricity markets with the goal of reducing prices and improving efficiency. The basic idea which stays behind this choice is that, in competitive markets, a greater quantity of the good is exchanged at a lower price, leading to higher market efficiency. Electricity markets are pretty different from other commodities mainly due to the physical constraints related to the network structure that may impact the market performance. The network structure of the system on which the economic transactions need to be undertaken poses strict physical and operational constraints. Strategic interactions among producers that game the market with the objective of maximizing their producer surplus must be taken into account when modeling competitive electricity markets. The physical constraints, specific of the electricity markets, provide additional opportunity of gaming to the market players. Game theory provides a tool to model such a context. This paper discussed the application of game theory to physical constrained electricity markets with the goal of providing tools for assessing the market performance and pinpointing the critical network constraints that may impact the market efficiency. The basic models of game theory specifically designed to represent the electricity markets will be presented. IEEE30 bus test system of the constrained electricity market will be discussed to show the network impacts on the market performances in presence of strategic bidding behavior of the producers.

  11. Market power in electric power markets: Indications of competitiveness in spatial prices for wholesale electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, Michael John

    The issue of market delineation and power in the wholesale electric energy market is explored using three separate approaches: two of these are analyses of spatial pricing data to explore the functional size of the markets, and the third is a series of experimental tests of the effects of different cost structures and market mechanisms on oligopoly strength in those markets. An equilibrium model of spatial network competition is shown to yield linear relationships between spatial prices. A data set comprising two years of spatial weekly peak and off-peak prices and weather for 6 locations in the Western States Coordinating Council and the Southwest Power Pool is subjected to a pairwise cointegration analysis. The use of dummy variables to account the the flow directions is found to significantly improve model performance. The second analytical technique utilizes the extraction of principal components from a spatial price correlation matrix to identify the extent of natural markets. One year of daily price observations for eleven locations within the WSCC is compiled and eigenvectors are extracted and subjected to oblique rotation, each of which is then interpreted as representing a separate geographic market. The results show that two distinct natural markets, correlated at 84%, account for over 96% of the variation in the spatial prices in the WSSC. Together, the findings support the assertion that the wholesale electricity market in the Western U.S. is large and highly competitive. The experimental analysis utilizes a radial three node network in which suppliers located at the outer nodes sell to buyers located at the central node. The parameterization captures the salient characteristics of the existing bulk power markets, and includes cyclical demand, transmission losses, as well as fixed and avoidable fixed costs for all agents. Treatments varied the number of sellers, the avoidable fixed cost structures, and the trading mechanism. Results indicated that

  12. A Study of Central Auction Based Wholesale Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceppi, Sofia; Gatti, Nicola

    The deregulation of electricity markets produced significant economic benefits, reducing prices to customers and opening several opportunities for new actors, e.g., new generators and distributors. A prominent scientific and technological challenge is the automation of such markets. In particular, we focus our attention on wholesale electricity markets based on a central auction. In these markets, generators sell electricity by means of a central auction to a public authority. Instead, the distribution of electricity to customers takes part in retail markets. The main works presented in the literature model wholesale markets as oligopolies, neglecting thus the specific auction mechanism. In this paper, we enrich these models by introducing an auction mechanism shaped on that used in the Italian wholesale electricity market, we solve the winner determination problem, and we preliminarily study the problem of searching for equilibria.

  13. Electricity system expansion studies to consider uncertainties and interactions in restructured markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shan

    This dissertation concerns power system expansion planning under different market mechanisms. The thesis follows a three paper format, in which each paper emphasizes a different perspective. The first paper investigates the impact of market uncertainties on a long term centralized generation expansion planning problem. The problem is modeled as a two-stage stochastic program with uncertain fuel prices and demands, which are represented as probabilistic scenario paths in a multi-period tree. Two measurements, expected cost (EC) and Conditional Value-at-Risk (CVaR), are used to minimize, respectively, the total expected cost among scenarios and the risk of incurring high costs in unfavorable scenarios. We sample paths from the scenario tree to reduce the problem scale and determine the sufficient number of scenarios by computing confidence intervals on the objective values. The second paper studies an integrated electricity supply system including generation, transmission and fuel transportation with a restructured wholesale electricity market. This integrated system expansion problem is modeled as a bi-level program in which a centralized system expansion decision is made in the upper level and the operational decisions of multiple market participants are made in the lower level. The difficulty of solving a bi-level programming problem to global optimality is discussed and three problem relaxations obtained by reformulation are explored. The third paper solves a more realistic market-based generation and transmission expansion problem. It focuses on interactions among a centralized transmission expansion decision and decentralized generation expansion decisions. It allows each generator to make its own strategic investment and operational decisions both in response to a transmission expansion decision and in anticipation of a market price settled by an Independent System Operator (ISO) market clearing problem. The model poses a complicated tri-level structure

  14. Markets and commercialization scenarios for emerging fuel cells in evolving electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Rastler, D.M.

    1996-12-31

    Electricity markets in the United States are undergoing unprecedented structural changes as a result of the confluence of regulatory, competitive, and technological forces. This paper introduces these structural changes and forces and discuss the implications, markets and commercialization scenarios for emerging fuel cells in evolving US electricity markets.

  15. Industry market research, China: Electrical power systems. Transmission equipment market. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The market survey covers the electric power transmission equipment market in China. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Chinese consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information.

  16. EIA model documentation: Electricity market module - electricity fuel dispatch

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the National Energy Modeling System Electricity Fuel Dispatch Submodule (EFD), a submodule of the Electricity Market Module (EMM) as it was used for EIA`s Annual Energy Outlook 1997. It replaces previous documentation dated March 1994 and subsequent yearly update revisions. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components. This document serves four purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of the model for reviewers and potential users of the EFD including energy experts at the Energy Information Administration (EIA), other Federal agencies, state energy agencies, private firms such as utilities and consulting firms, and non-profit groups such as consumer and environmental groups. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports. Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation which details model enhancements that were undertaken for AE097 and since the previous documentation. Last, because the major use of the EFD is to develop forecasts, this documentation explains the calculations, major inputs and assumptions which were used to generate the AE097.

  17. [Space Weather Impact on the Electricity Market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SaintCyr, O. Chris

    2007-01-01

    Forbes & St. Cyr (2004, hereafter "FISC") have provided evidence that the electricity market can be impacted by space weather. Our analysis indicated that the estimated market impact for PJM was 3.7 % or approximately $500 million dollars over the 19 month sample period. Kappenman has taken exception to this estimate and contends that we have exaggerated the magnitude of the problem that space weather poses to PJM. There are four specific issues: (1) he claims that we have ignored relevant literature; (2) he asserts that Dst is not an appropriate proxy for GICs in PJM; (3) he charges that our findings are inconsistent with the impact of the 17 September 2000 storm; and (4) he alleges that our discussion of October 2003 storms is misleading. In our article, we have explained our methodology, multivariate regression analysis, with a particular focus on how it compares to correlation analysis. We have also explained the limitations of our analysis. We noted that "...While the Dstlprice relationship was found to be robust, the precise estimate should be treated with a relatively high degree of caution given that econometric modeling is not an exact science as well as the fact that the measure of space weather may be a poor proxy for GICs" (paragraph 96). We have also noted that additional research using local magnetometer data are needed (paragraph 97). We did not claim that that our findings for PJM are representative of the impact of space weather on other power grids. On the contrary, we noted that ... "Only analysis of other power grids will tell. " (paragraph 97). Kappenman inaccurately asserts that we have indicated that our findings . . . "imply much higher total costs are likely across the US and elsewhere in the world." He also inaccurately asserts that we have claimed that " . . . Dst is the most suited proxy for GIC in the PJM grid.. ." Moreover, he inaccurately refers to our analysis as a correlation study that uses Dst as quasi-binary indicator.

  18. Decentral Smart Grid Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Benjamin; Matthiae, Moritz; Timme, Marc; Witthaut, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Stable operation of complex flow and transportation networks requires balanced supply and demand. For the operation of electric power grids—due to their increasing fraction of renewable energy sources—a pressing challenge is to fit the fluctuations in decentralized supply to the distributed and temporally varying demands. To achieve this goal, common smart grid concepts suggest to collect consumer demand data, centrally evaluate them given current supply and send price information back to customers for them to decide about usage. Besides restrictions regarding cyber security, privacy protection and large required investments, it remains unclear how such central smart grid options guarantee overall stability. Here we propose a Decentral Smart Grid Control, where the price is directly linked to the local grid frequency at each customer. The grid frequency provides all necessary information about the current power balance such that it is sufficient to match supply and demand without the need for a centralized IT infrastructure. We analyze the performance and the dynamical stability of the power grid with such a control system. Our results suggest that the proposed Decentral Smart Grid Control is feasible independent of effective measurement delays, if frequencies are averaged over sufficiently large time intervals.

  19. Market opportunities in electric residential cooking. Final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bassill, S.

    1996-03-01

    At present, gas ovens and ranges are garnering an increasing share of the electric cooking market. This report evaluates the marketplace and explains the technological and educational reasons that an increasing number of consumers, dealers, builders, contractors, and original equipment manufacturers are opting for gas appliances. The report then identifies opportunities for the electric utility industry to regain residential electric cooking market shares by promoting the development and benefits of new electrotechnologies.

  20. Wind power forecasting in U.S. Electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Botterud, Audun; Wang, Jianhui; Miranda, Vladimiro; Bessa, Ricardo J.

    2010-04-15

    Wind power forecasting is becoming an important tool in electricity markets, but the use of these forecasts in market operations and among market participants is still at an early stage. The authors discuss the current use of wind power forecasting in U.S. ISO/RTO markets, and offer recommendations for how to make efficient use of the information in state-of-the-art forecasts. (author)

  1. Adaptive Portfolio Optimization for Multiple Electricity Markets Participation.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Tiago; Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago M; Sousa, Tiago; Vale, Zita; Praca, Isabel; Faia, Ricardo; Pires, Eduardo Jose Solteiro

    2016-08-01

    The increase of distributed energy resources, mainly based on renewable sources, requires new solutions that are able to deal with this type of resources' particular characteristics (namely, the renewable energy sources intermittent nature). The smart grid concept is increasing its consensus as the most suitable solution to facilitate the small players' participation in electric power negotiations while improving energy efficiency. The opportunity for players' participation in multiple energy negotiation environments (smart grid negotiation in addition to the already implemented market types, such as day-ahead spot markets, balancing markets, intraday negotiations, bilateral contracts, forward and futures negotiations, and among other) requires players to take suitable decisions on whether to, and how to participate in each market type. This paper proposes a portfolio optimization methodology, which provides the best investment profile for a market player, considering different market opportunities. The amount of power that each supported player should negotiate in each available market type in order to maximize its profits, considers the prices that are expected to be achieved in each market, in different contexts. The price forecasts are performed using artificial neural networks, providing a specific database with the expected prices in the different market types, at each time. This database is then used as input by an evolutionary particle swarm optimization process, which originates the most advantage participation portfolio for the market player. The proposed approach is tested and validated with simulations performed in multiagent simulator of competitive electricity markets, using real electricity markets data from the Iberian operator-MIBEL. PMID:26353382

  2. Decentralized adaptive robust control based on sliding mode and nonlinear compensator for the control of ankle movement using functional electrical stimulation of agonist-antagonist muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobravi, Hamid-Reza; Erfanian, Abbas

    2009-08-01

    A decentralized control methodology is designed for the control of ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion in paraplegic subjects with electrical stimulation of tibialis anterior and calf muscles. Each muscle joint is considered as a subsystem and individual controllers are designed for each subsystem. Each controller operates solely on its associated subsystem, with no exchange of information between the subsystems. The interactions between the subsystems are taken as external disturbances for each isolated subsystem. In order to achieve robustness with respect to external disturbances, unmodeled dynamics, model uncertainty and time-varying properties of muscle-joint dynamics, a robust control framework is proposed which is based on the synergistic combination of an adaptive nonlinear compensator with a sliding mode control and is referred to as an adaptive robust control. Extensive simulations and experiments on healthy and paraplegic subjects were performed to demonstrate the robustness against the time-varying properties of muscle-joint dynamics, day-to-day variations, subject-to-subject variations, fast convergence, stability and tracking accuracy of the proposed method. The results indicate that the decentralized robust control provides excellent tracking control for different reference trajectories and can generate control signals to compensate the muscle fatigue and reject the external disturbance. Moreover, the controller is able to automatically regulate the interaction between agonist and antagonist muscles under different conditions of operating without any preprogrammed antagonist activities.

  3. Taming instabilities in power grid networks by decentralized control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, B.; Grabow, C.; Auer, S.; Kurths, J.; Witthaut, D.; Timme, M.

    2016-05-01

    Renewables will soon dominate energy production in our electric power system. And yet, how to integrate renewable energy into the grid and the market is still a subject of major debate. Decentral Smart Grid Control (DSGC) was recently proposed as a robust and decentralized approach to balance supply and demand and to guarantee a grid operation that is both economically and dynamically feasible. Here, we analyze the impact of network topology by assessing the stability of essential network motifs using both linear stability analysis and basin volume for delay systems. Our results indicate that if frequency measurements are averaged over sufficiently large time intervals, DSGC enhances the stability of extended power grid systems. We further investigate whether DSGC supports centralized and/or decentralized power production and find it to be applicable to both. However, our results on cycle-like systems suggest that DSGC favors systems with decentralized production. Here, lower line capacities and lower averaging times are required compared to those with centralized production.

  4. The analytical approach to measuring horizontal market power in electric utility markets: A historical perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Surratt, W.

    1998-07-01

    Market power remains an important issue in electricity markets. FERC has taken important steps to clarify the process it uses in analyzing market power in merger, market-pricing, and ISO settings. Further change may be expected, although the policy goals remain the same: ensuring that consumer interests are protected and that competition may thrive. Section 1 of this article examines the history of market power measurement at FERC and details the changes in market power analysis, including the issuance of Order 592 and the methodology it prescribes. Section 2 contains some thoughts on future market power analyses and how those might be constructed. Section 3 presents conclusions.

  5. 77 FR 41184 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Notice of Technical Conferences

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Notice of... regional technical conferences on Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets. The regional... jurisdiction over the rates or terms of service in wholesale electricity markets doing business wholly...

  6. Equilibrium pricing in electricity markets with wind power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Ofir David

    Estimates from the World Wind Energy Association assert that world total wind power installed capacity climbed from 18 Gigawatt (GW) to 152 GW from 2000 to 2009. Moreover, according to their predictions, by the end of 2010 global wind power capacity will reach 190 GW. Since electricity is a unique commodity, this remarkable expansion brings forward several key economic questions regarding the integration of significant amount of wind power capacity into deregulated electricity markets. The overall dissertation objective is to develop a comprehensive theoretical framework that enables the modeling of the performance and outcome of wind-integrated electricity markets. This is relevant because the state of knowledge of modeling electricity markets is insufficient for the purpose of wind power considerations. First, there is a need to decide about a consistent representation of deregulated electricity markets. Surprisingly, the related body of literature does not agree on the very economic basics of modeling electricity markets. That is important since we need to capture the fundamentals of electricity markets before we introduce wind power to our study. For example, the structure of the electric industry is a key. If market power is present, the integration of wind power has large consequences on welfare distribution. Since wind power uncertainty changes the dynamics of information it also impacts the ability to manipulate market prices. This is because the quantity supplied by wind energy is not a decision variable. Second, the intermittent spatial nature of wind over a geographical region is important because the market value of wind power capacity is derived from its statistical properties. Once integrated into the market, the distribution of wind will impact the price of electricity produced from conventional sources of energy. Third, although wind power forecasting has improved in recent years, at the time of trading short-term electricity forwards, forecasting

  7. Synergistic application of cardiac sympathetic decentralization and comprehensive psychiatric treatment in the management of anxiety and electrical storm

    PubMed Central

    Khalsa, Sahib S.; Shahabi, Leila; Ajijola, Olujimi A.; Bystritsky, Alexander; Naliboff, Bruce D.; Shivkumar, Kalyanam

    2014-01-01

    We report here, for the first time, two cases demonstrating a synergistic application of bilateral cardiac sympathetic decentralization and multimodal psychiatric treatment for the assessment and management of anxiety following recurrent Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) shocks. In a first case the combination of bilateral cardiac sympathetic decentralization (BCSD), cognitive behavioral psychotherapy and anxiolytic medication was sufficient to attenuate the patient's symptoms and maladaptive behaviors, with a maintained benefit at 1 year. Among the more prominent subjective changes in the post-lesion state we observed a decrease in aversive interoceptive sensations, particularly of the heartbeat. The patient continued to experience cognitive threat appraisals on a frequent basis, although these were no longer incapacitating. In a second case, we report the effect of BCSD on autonomic tone and subjective state. In the post-lesion state we observed attenuated sympathetic responses to the valsalva maneuver, isometric handgrip and mental arithmetic stressor, including decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure and, decreased skin conductance. Collectively, these preliminary findings suggest that an integrative, multidisciplinary approach to treating anxiety disorders in the setting of ventricular arrhythmias and recurrent ICD shocks can result in sustained improvements in physical, psychological, and functional status. These findings raise the possibility of a potential role for the stellate ganglion in the modulation of emotional experience and afferent transmission of interoceptive information to the central nervous system. PMID:24427121

  8. Two essays on problems of deregulated electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perekhodtsev, Dmitri

    Empirical test of models of unilateral and collusive market power in California's electricity market in 2000. The data from California energy crisis of 2000 suggests that the largest departures of observed electricity prices from the estimates of the competitive price occur when demand approaches market capacity. This paper studies models of unilateral and collusive market power applicable to electricity markets. Both suggest a unique mechanism explaining the increase of the price-cost margin with demand. The empirical test of these models provides more evidence for unilateral market power than for behavior suggesting tacit collusion. Economics of hydro generating plants operating in markets for energy and ancillary services. In order to preserve the stability of electricity supply, electric generators have to provide ancillary services in addition to energy production. Hydro generators are believed to be the most efficient source of ancillary services because of their good dynamic flexibility. This paper studies optimal operation decisions for river dams and pumped storage facilities operating in markets for energy and ancillary services as well as the change in the water shadow price in presence of ancillary services markets. The analysis is applied to valuation of the ancillary services provided by hydro resources in the Tennessee Valley Authority. A simulation of ancillary services markets shows that TVA's hydro resources providing ancillary services can allow for substantial savings in total costs of energy provision. Optimal hydro scheduling in markets for energy and ancillary services increases the value of TVA's hydro resources by 9% on average and up to 26% for particular units. As a result of hydro participation in ancillary services markets water shadow prices of river dams drop significantly allowing for tightening hydro constraints in favor of other water uses.

  9. Economic-efficiency considerations in restructuring electric markets

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.J.

    1996-12-01

    In response to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s subsequent rulemaking on transmission access, many states are exploring options to restructure their electric industries. In their deliberations on restructuring, policymakers should consider (1) the reliability of the electric system; (2) income-distribution effects on ratepayers and utilities; (3) social consequences such as effects on energy conservation, renewable energy, and the environment; and (4) economic efficiency. We address economic-efficiency considerations in this study. Economic efficiency is important because it is one of the primary reasons that policymakers should consider restructuring in the first place: improving the electric-industry`s efficiency lowers costs and, hence, electric prices. In this study, we look at the sources of (in)efficiency in existing and proposed electric markets with the objective of guiding policymakers to design efficient electric markets. The advantages of a competitive market are well known: it leads to lower costs for the utility, lower prices for consumers, more product choices, better customer service, and often the need for less regulation by federal and state agencies. In the short run, firms who cannot produce at the market-clearing price are forced to leave the industry, ensuring that customers have the lowest price possible. In the long run, competition promotes innovation and lower costs. The physical and institutional characteristics of the U.S. electric industry, however, could be impediments to attaining efficiently run, competitive markets. Because of these characteristics, there are multiple sources of efficiencies and inefficiencies in existing electric markets, and there will be multiple sources in restructured ones. The objective of policymakers should not be to trade one set of inefficiencies in existing electric markets for another set in restructured markets.

  10. Converging markets: The first real electric/gas merger

    SciTech Connect

    Studness, C.M.

    1996-10-01

    Enron`s bid to acquire Portland General heralds a new phase in utility competition. Why the Holding Company Act doesn`t matter. The merger agreement between Enron and Portland General Corp. has reshuffled the electric restructuring deck. It makes electric utilities takeover targets for outside suitors after 60 years of peaceful immunity. It drives home the fact that electric utilities will be thrust squarely into the zero-sum game of head-to-head competition. It demonstrates that market forces will limit the ability of regulators to control restructuring. It brings the convergence of gas and electric markets to center stage.

  11. Electricity market reforms: Institutional developments, investment dynamics and game modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineau, Pierre-Olivier

    The reform trend of the 1990's in electricity markets recreates, to some extent, the institutional framework from which they developed one century ago. Although these reforms do not endeavor to completely remove regulation, the basic objectives of deregulation dwell on limiting central and governmental control over the industry in order to promote free competition at all possible levels. To assess whether the electricity industry is or is not moving back to a 19th century structure is not the goal of this thesis. We will rather try to understand on what grounds deregulation reforms stand and review how different countries and large utilities have reacted to this trend. The special nature of electricity (non-storable basic good, centrally produced) creates different obstacles in the restructuring of electricity markets, compared to other industries like the airline or telecommunication ones. For example, the dominant positions of some utilities, the production structure and the importance of electricity in modern life could transform these reforms in a threatening move for consumers. Another specific issue arising from deregulation, now that national energy policy goals no longer rule the behavior of utilities, is how investment will be coordinated in the new market. A key element to keep in sight is the competition level targeted by these reforms. To which extent full competition can really occur in electricity markets remains an unanswered question. Indeed, the oligopolistic structure of the market could prevent such an outcome. An investigation of the investment dynamics in such a context seems therefore appropriate, and this will be an important theme of the thesis. This work offers an analysis of deregulated electricity markets and studies the oligopolistic market dynamics that could prevail in the new structure. Two complementary approaches are used for these purposes. The first is institutional and presents a thorough illustration of the economic arguments

  12. Measuring efficiency in wholesale electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Bowden, Nicholas S.

    2009-06-15

    The mechanisms of the bid-based economic dispatch and market power mitigation algorithms which result in the market clearing price epitomize the complexity of the new regulatory regime. The augmented Lerner Index presented here offers a method to objectively assess the efficiency of the new structure. (author)

  13. Modeling EU electricity market competition using the residual supply index

    SciTech Connect

    Swinand, Gregory; Scully, Derek; Ffoulkes, Stuart; Kessler, Brian

    2010-11-15

    An econometric approach to related hourly Residual Supply Index to price-cost margins in the major EU electricity generation markets suggests that market structure, as measured by the RSI, is a significant explanatory factor for markups, even when scarcity and other explanatory variables are included. (author)

  14. Export demand response in the Ontario electricity market

    SciTech Connect

    Peerbocus, Nash; Melino, Angelo

    2007-11-15

    Export responses to unanticipated price shocks can be a key contributing factor to the rapid mean reversion of electricity prices. The authors use event analysis - a technique more familiar from financial applications - to demonstrate how hourly export transactions respond to negative supply shocks in the Ontario electricity market. (author)

  15. Fast Market Splitting Matching Method for Spot Electric Power Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawa, Toshiyuki; Nakata, Yuji; Tsurugai, Mitsuo; Sugiyama, Shigenari

    We have developed a fast, innovative matching method for the spot power market, considering network constraints. In this method, buy and sell order bids are respectively divided into the aggregated volume of several band prices. Then the aggregated volume and the center of each band price are used to calculate a band clearing price, which contains the real clearing price. The dividing and calculating process is iterated until the band price is less than the tick size of the bidding price. We applied this method to a real problem in the Japanese power market with 9 areas, 10 area-connecting lines, and 9000 orders (volume/price pairs). Our simulation results show that the new method is ten times faster than conventional linear programming. This demonstrates the effectiveness of the developed method.

  16. Price-elastic demand in deregulated electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.

    2003-05-01

    The degree to which any deregulated market functions efficiently often depends on the ability of market agents to respond quickly to fluctuating conditions. Many restructured electricity markets, however, experience high prices caused by supply shortages and little demand-side response. We examine the implications for market operations when a risk-averse retailer's end-use consumers are allowed to perceive real-time variations in the electricity spot price. Using a market-equilibrium model, we find that price elasticity both increases the retailers revenue risk exposure and decreases the spot price. Since the latter induces the retailer to reduce forward electricity purchases, while the former has the opposite effect, the overall impact of price responsive demand on the relative magnitudes of its risk exposure and end-user price elasticity. Nevertheless, price elasticity decreases cumulative electricity consumption. By extending the analysis to allow for early settlement of demand, we find that forward stage end-user price responsiveness decreases the electricity forward price relative to the case with price-elastic demand only in real time. Moreover, we find that only if forward stage end-user demand is price elastic will the equilibrium electricity forward price be reduced.

  17. Electric retail market options: The customer perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, S.W.; Hillsman, E.L.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes various options that are now available for retail electric customers, or that may become available during the next few years as the electric utility industry restructures. These options include different ways of meeting demand for energy services, different providers of service or points of contact with providers, and different pricing structures for purchased services. Purpose of this document is to examine these options from the customer`s perspective: how might being a retail electric customer in 5--10 years differ from now? Seizing opportunities to reduce cost of electric service is likely to entail working with different service providers; thus, transaction costs are involved. Some of the options considered are speculative. Some transitional options include relocation, customer-built/operated transmission lines, municipalization, self-generation, and long-term contracts with suppliers. All these may change or diminish in a restructured industry. Brokers seem likely to become more common unless restructuring takes the form of mandatory poolcos (wholesale). Some options appear robust, ie, they are likely to become more common regardless of how restructuring is accomplished: increased competition among energy carriers (gas vs electric), real-time pricing, etc. This report identified some of the qualitative differences among the various options. For customers using large amounts of electricity, different alternatives are likely to affect greatly service price, transaction costs, tailoring service to customer preferences, and risks for customer. For retail customers using small amounts of electricity, there may be little difference among the options except service price.

  18. 75 FR 38514 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Brookfield Energy Marketing LP

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Brookfield Energy Marketing LP AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Brookfield Energy Marketing LP... power marketing agencies and other entities within the United States. The existing...

  19. Modeling market power in electricity markets: Is the devil only in the details?

    SciTech Connect

    Bautista, Guillermo; Anjos, Miguel F.; Vannelli, Anthony

    2007-01-15

    Basic approximations of the transmission system are ubiquitous in the literature on modeling competition in electricity markets. Because the main concern of market power is with active power, reactive power and voltage-related issues are commonly neglected, even though they are inherent features of an electrical power system. However, the usefulness of stylized formulations that do not comprise these system elements may be severely limited. (author)

  20. Energy Market Transparency: Analyzing the Impacts of Constraint Relaxation and Out-of-Market Correction Practices in Electric Energy Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Abdullah, Yousef Mohammad

    This work presents research on practices in the day-ahead electric energy market, including replication practices and reliability coordinators used by some market operators to demonstrate the impact these practices have on market outcomes. The practice of constraint relaxations similar to those an Independent System Operator (ISO) might perform in day-ahead market models is implemented. The benefits of these practices are well understood by the industry; however, the implications these practices have on market outcomes and system security have not been thoroughly investigated. By solving a day-ahead market model with and without select constraint relaxations and comparing the resulting market outcomes and possible effects on system security, the effect of these constraint relaxation practices is demonstrated. Proposed market solutions are often infeasible because constraint relaxation practices and approximations that are incorporated into market models. Therefore, the dispatch solution must be corrected to ensure its feasibility. The practice of correcting the proposed dispatch solution after the market is solved is known as out-of-market corrections (OMCs), defined as any action an operator takes that modifies a proposed day-ahead dispatch solution to ensure operating and reliability requirements. The way in which OMCs affect market outcomes is illustrated through the use of different corrective procedures. The objective of the work presented is to demonstrate the implications of these industry practices and assess the impact these practices have on market outcomes.

  1. Models for electricity market efficiency and bidding strategy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Hui

    This dissertation studies models for the analysis of market efficiency and bidding behaviors of market participants in electricity markets. Simulation models are developed to estimate how transmission and operational constraints affect the competitive benchmark and market prices based on submitted bids. This research contributes to the literature in three aspects. First, transmission and operational constraints, which have been neglected in most empirical literature, are considered in the competitive benchmark estimation model. Second, the effects of operational and transmission constraints on market prices are estimated through two models based on the submitted bids of market participants. Third, these models are applied to analyze the efficiency of the Electric Reliability Council Of Texas (ERCOT) real-time energy market by simulating its operations for the time period from January 2002 to April 2003. The characteristics and available information for the ERCOT market are considered. In electricity markets, electric firms compete through both spot market bidding and bilateral contract trading. A linear asymmetric supply function equilibrium (SFE) model with transmission constraints is proposed in this dissertation to analyze the bidding strategies with forward contracts. The research contributes to the literature in several aspects. First, we combine forward contracts, transmission constraints, and multi-period strategy (an obligation for firms to bid consistently over an extended time horizon such as a day or an hour) into the linear asymmetric supply function equilibrium framework. As an ex-ante model, it can provide qualitative insights into firms' behaviors. Second, the bidding strategies related to Transmission Congestion Rights (TCRs) are discussed by interpreting TCRs as linear combination of forwards. Third, the model is a general one in the sense that there is no limitation on the number of firms and scale of the transmission network, which can have

  2. Misconceptions of Electric Propulsion Aircraft and Their Emergent Aviation Markets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Mark D.; Fredericks, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Over the past several years there have been aircraft conceptual design and system studies that have reached conflicting conclusions relating to the feasibility of full and hybrid electric aircraft. Some studies and propulsion discipline experts have claimed that battery technologies will need to improve by 10 to 20 times before electric aircraft can effectively compete with reciprocating or turbine engines. However, such studies have approached comparative assessments without understanding the compelling differences that electric propulsion offers, how these technologies will fundamentally alter the way propulsion integration is approached, or how these new technologies can not only compete but far exceed existing propulsion solutions in many ways at battery specific energy densities of only 400 watt hours per kilogram. Electric propulsion characteristics offer the opportunity to achieve 4 to 8 time improvements in energy costs with dramatically lower total operating costs, while dramatically improving efficiency, community noise, propulsion system reliability and safety through redundancy, as well as life cycle Green House Gas emissions. Integration of electric propulsion will involve far greater degrees of distribution than existing propulsion solutions due to their compact and scale-free nature to achieve multi-disciplinary coupling and synergistic integration with the aerodynamics, highlift system, acoustics, vehicle control, balance, and aeroelasticity. Appropriate metrics of comparison and differences in analysis/design tools are discussed while comparing electric propulsion to other disruptive technologies. For several initial applications, battery energy density is already sufficient for competitive products, and for many additional markets energy densities will likely be adequate within the next 7 years for vibrant introduction. Market evolution and early adopter markets are discussed, along with the investment areas that will fill technology gaps and

  3. Model documentation: Electricity market module, electricity finance and pricing submodule

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-07

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the model, describe its basic approach, and provide detail on how it works. The EFP is a regulatory accounting model that projects electricity prices. The model first solves for revenue requirements by building up a rate base, calculating a return on rate base, and adding the allowed expenses. Average revenues (prices) are calculated based on assumptions regarding regulator lag and customer cost allocation methods. The model then solves for the internal cash flow and analyzes the need for external financing to meet necessary capital expenditures. Finally, the EFP builds up the financial statements. The EFP is used in conjunction with the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). Inputs to the EFP include the forecast generating capacity expansion plans, operating costs, regulator environment, and financial data. The outputs include forecasts of income statements, balance sheets, revenue requirements, and electricity prices.

  4. Space weather and the electricity market: An initial assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Kevin F.; St. Cyr, O. C.

    2004-10-01

    The paper examines the economic impact of space weather by drawing on hourly data from the PJM power grid over the period 1 June 2000 through 31 December 2001. The PJM grid is one of the largest power pools in North America. As of 31 December 2001, its service area had a population of approximately 22 million and included all or part of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, and the District of Columbia. Market prices are determined for every hour of the day. As of June 2000, there are actually two markets for energy: a real-time market in which market participants can buy and sell electricity in "real time" and a day ahead market that allows participants to enter into transactions one day ahead of time. The existence of these two markets allows us to disentangle the effect of space weather conditions from other factors (such as fuel prices and expected demand) that affect the baseline price (as established in the day ahead market) for wholesale electricity. Several econometric analyses are conducted. The first examines the contribution of space weather to transmission congestion within the power grid. Building on the first analysis, the second analysis constructs an econometric model that examines the impact of space weather on the real-time market. Factors considered in the model include the outcome in the day ahead market, the level of generation utilization, unexpected demand, generation outages, unexpected transmission outages that are believed to be terrestrial in origin, and space weather. The results indicate the presence of space weather effects on the real-time price even after controlling for the other factors. A third model examines whether these space weather impacts affect subsequent prices in the far larger day ahead market.

  5. Load As A Reliability Resource in the Restructured Electricity Market

    SciTech Connect

    Kueck, J.D.

    2002-06-10

    Recent electricity price spikes are painful reminders of the value that meaningful demand-side responses could bring to the restructuring US electricity system. Review of the aggregate offers made by suppliers confirms that even a modest increase in demand elasticity could dramatically reduce these extremes in price volatility. There is a strong need for dramatically increased customer participation in these markets to enhance system reliability and reduce price volatility. Indeed, allowing customers to manage their loads in response to system conditions might be thought of as the ultimate reliability resource. Most would agree that meaningful demand-side responses to price are the hallmark of a well-functioning competitive market [1]. Yet, in today's markets for electricity, little or no such response is evident. The reason is simple: customers currently do not experience directly the time-varying costs of their consumption decisions. Consequently, they have no incentive to modify these decisions in ways that might enhance system reliability or improve the efficiency of the markets in which electricity is traded. Increased customer participation is a necessary step in the evolution toward more efficient markets for electricity and ancillary services. This scoping report provides a three-part assessment of the current status of efforts to enhance the ability of customer's load to participate in competitive markets with a specific focus on the role of customer loads in enhancing electricity system reliability. First, this report considers the definitions of electricity-reliability-enhancing ancillary services (Section 2) and a preliminary assessment of the ability of customer's loads to provide these services. Second, is a review a variety of programs in which load has been called on as a system reliability resource (Section 3). These experiences, drawn from both past and current utility and ISO programs, focus on programs triggered by system condition (e

  6. Essays on wholesale auctions in deregulated electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltaduonis, Rimvydas

    2007-12-01

    The early experience in the restructured electric power markets raised several issues, including price spikes, inefficiency, security, and the overall relationship of market clearing prices to generation costs. Unsatisfactory outcomes in these markets are thought to have resulted in part from strategic generator behaviors encouraged by inappropriate market design features. In this dissertation, I examine the performance of three auction mechanisms for wholesale power markets - Offer Cost Minimization auction, Payment Cost Minimization auction and Simple-Offer auction - when electricity suppliers act strategically. A Payment Cost Minimization auction has been proposed as an alternative to the traditional Offer Cost Minimization auction with the intention to solve the problem of inflated wholesale electricity prices. Efficiency concerns for this proposal were voiced due to insights predicated on the assumption of true production cost revelation. Using a game theoretic approach and an experimental method, I compare the two auctions, strictly controlling for the level of unilateral market power. A specific feature of these complex-offer auctions is that the sellers submit not only the quantities and the minimum prices that they are willing to sell at, but also the start-up fees, which are designed to reimburse the fixed start-up costs of the generation plants. I find that the complex structure of the offers leaves considerable room for strategic behavior, which consequently leads to anti-competitive and inefficient market outcomes. In the last chapter of my dissertation, I use laboratory experiments to contrast the performance of two complex-offer auctions against the performance of a simple-offer auction, in which the sellers have to recover all their generation costs - fixed and variable - through a uniform market-clearing price. I find that a simple-offer auction significantly reduces consumer prices and lowers price volatility. It mitigates anti-competitive effects

  7. 77 FR 51795 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... Conferences) ( http://elibrary.ferc.gov/idmws/common/opennat.asp?fileID=13023450 ); 77 FR 41184 (July 12, 2012) ( http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-07-12/pdf/2012-16997.pdf ). \\2\\ Coordination between Natural Gas... Energy Regulatory Commission Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets Supplemental...

  8. 75 FR 65942 - Credit Reforms in Organized Wholesale Electric Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... Transmitting Utilities, Order No. 888, 61 FR 21540 (May 10, 1996), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,036, at 31,937 (1996) (pro forma OATT, section 11 (Creditworthiness)), order on reh'g, Order No. 888-A, 62 FR 12274... Reforms in Organized Wholesale Electric Markets, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 75 FR 4310 (Jan. 27,...

  9. 76 FR 10492 - Credit Reforms in Organized Wholesale Electric Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... discussed below. \\1\\ Credit Reforms in Organized Wholesale Electric Markets, Order No. 741, 75 FR 65942 (Oct.... 888, 61 FR 21540 (May 10, 1996), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,036, at 31,937 (1996) (pro forma OATT, section 11 (Creditworthiness)), order on reh'g, Order No. 888-A, 62 FR 12274 (Mar. 14, 1997), FERC...

  10. Essays on carbon abatement and electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taber, John Timothy

    In the first chapter of this dissertation, I study the effects of a number of policies which affect the electric grid using the SuperOPF, a full AC optimization/simulation framework with optimal investment developed at Cornell University. A 36-node model of the Northeast Power Coordinating Council is used to test policies that aim to reduce CO2, other emissions, or otherwise impact the operation of the electric grid: a base case, with no new environmental legislation; enactment of the Kerry-Lieberman CO2 allowance proposal in 2012; following Fukishima, a retirement of all US nuclear plants by 2022 with and without Kerry-Lieberman; marginal damages from SO2 and NOX emissions charged to coal, gas and oil-fired generation; plug-in hybrid electric vehicle load filling; wind incentives in place; and two cases which combine these. The cases suggest that alternative policies may have very different outcomes in terms of electricity prices, emissions, and health outcomes. In all cases, however, the optimal strategy for future investment is investment in new natural gas combined cycle plants. Policies can change how much new generation is built, whether other plants are built, or what types of plants are retired. The second chapter of my dissertation utilizes the SuperOPF and the model of the Northeast Power Coordinating Council to analyze the issue of carbon leakage. I analyze the effects of a regionally-limited carbon cap and trade program, the Regional Greenhouse Initiative (RGGI), when additional generating assets in non-affected states are included in the analysis. In the face of different carbon prices on generating assets in covered and non-covered states, generation is expected to shift from states bound by RGGI to states outside of RGGI. This carbon leakage may undermine some or all of the benefits of RGGI while simultaneously increasing prices for customers in the area. Even though carbon prices under RGGI are very low, some leakage is occurring, and this leakage

  11. How electric cooperatives can thrive in the retail wheeling market

    SciTech Connect

    Yasbick, A.

    1995-05-01

    Electric cooperatives provide an urban convenience to a rural community. The convenience provided today is electric power, but most have realized it can be much more. Their ``product line`` is being diversified to provide their members with other urban conveniences. The state of Virginia has passed a bill permitting rural cooperatives to provide water and sewage to its members. Telephone, home alarm systems, day care, transportation, tree trimming, medical services and computer time-sharing services are just a few of the other products a cooperative can provide. This diversification of product line is a classic, textbook marketing strategy to hedge against competitive market penetration by providing an advantage over competition. Of course, the first thing that comes to mind is what competition? Today, cooperatives have protective territories. However, state regulators may change that tomorrow. Furthermore, FERC and other authorities continue to debate over the transmission cost and pricing of wheeling charges. To thrive in the future retail wheeling market, cooperatives need to take action now. They should start their marketing efforts today in order to gain the competitive advantage necessary to actually increase system load. Here are a few ideas: (1) Increase loyalty of the cooperative members through extensive public relations works. This will decrease the number of members ``switching over`` to the utilities. (2) Conduct a marketing survey that delves into the perceptions, attitudes and concepts of the members concerning possible expanded services. (3) Provide other cost effective services that the members indicate they want from the marketing survey. These ideas are discussed.

  12. Electricity Market Module: Electricity finance and pricing submodule

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the updates to the Electricity Financial Pricing Module (EFP) to reflect the rate impacts of nuclear decommissioning. The EFP is part of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). The updates to the EFP related to nuclear decommissioning include both changes to the underlying data base and the methodology. Nuclear decommissioning refers to the activities performed to take a nuclear plant permanently out of service. The costs of nuclear decommissioning are substantial and uncertain. The recovery of these costs from ratepayers is to occur over the operating life of the nuclear plant. Utilities are obligated to make estimates of the nuclear decommissioning cost every few years. Given this estimate, utilities are to assess a charge upon ratepayers, such that over the operating life of the plant they collect sufficient funds to pay for the decommissioning. However, cost estimates for decommissioning have been increasing and it appears that utilities have not been collecting adequate funds to date. In addition, there is a real risk that many nuclear plants may be closed earlier than originally planned, further exacerbating the under collection problem. The updates performed in this project provide the EFP with the capability to analyze these issues. The remainder of this document is divided into two discussions: (1) Nuclear Decommissioning Data Base, and (2) Methodology. Appendix A contains the actual data base developed during the project.

  13. Dynamic Interaction between Cap & Trade and Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeev, Kumar

    Greenhouse Gases (GHG), such as Carbon-Dioxide (CO2), which is released in the atmosphere due to anthropogenic activities like power production, are now accepted as the main culprits for global warming. The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), an initiative of the North East and Mid-Atlantic States of the United States (US) for limiting the emission of GHG, has developed a regional cap-and-trade program for CO2 emissions for power plants. Existing cap-and-trade programs in US and Europe for Greenhouse Gases have recently been plagued by over-allocation. Carbon prices recently collapsed in all these markets during the global recession. Since then, there have been significant policy changes, which have resulted in the adoption of aggressive emission cap targets by most major carbon emission markets. This is expected to make carbon emissions availability more restrictive, raising the prices of these credits. These emissions markets are expected to have a major impact on the wholesale electricity markets. Two models to study the interaction of these two markets are presented. These models assess the impact of the emissions market on wholesale electricity prices. The first model characterizes the competition between two types of power plants (coal and gas) in both the electricity and emissions markets as a dynamic game using the Cournot approximation. Under this approximation, we find that in the Nash equilibrium the plants increase their permit allocation to high-demand periods and the marginal value of each credit for a plant is identical in all periods under their optimal equilibrium strategy. The second numerical model allows us to explicitly evaluate the closed loop equilibrium of the dynamic interaction of two competitors in these markets. We find that plants often try to corner the market and push prices all the way to the price cap. Power plants derive most of their profits from these extreme price regimes. In the experiments where trading is allowed

  14. Stratum Electricity Markets: Toward Multi-temporal Distributed Risk Management for Sustainable Electricity Provision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhiyong (Richard)

    Motivated by the overall challenge of ensuring long-term sustainable electricity service, we view this challenge as a long-term decision making problem under uncertainties. We start by recognizing that, independent of the industry organization, the uncertainties are enormous and often exogenous to the energy service providers. They are multi-dimensional and are result of fundamental drivers, ranging from the supply side, through the demand side, to the regulatory and policy sides. The basic contribution of this thesis comes from the recognition that long-term investments for ensuring reliable and stable electricity service critically depend on how these uncertainties are perceived, valued and managed by the different stakeholders within the complex industry organization such as the electric power industry. We explain several reasons why price signals obtained from current short-term electricity markets alone are not sufficient enough for long-term sustainable provision. Some enhancements are presented in the thesis to improve the short-term electricity market price signals to reflect the true cost of operation. New market mechanisms and instruments are needed to facilitate the stakeholders to better deal with long-term risks. The problems of ensuring long-term stable reliable service in the sense of the traditional resource adequacy requirements are revisited in both the restructuring industry and regulated industry. We introduce a so-called Stratum Electricity Market (SEM) design as the basic market mechanism for solving the problem of long-term reliable electricity service through a series of interactive multi-lateral market exchange platforms for risks communication, management and evaluations over various time horizons and by the different groups of stakeholders. In other words, our proposed SEM is a basic IT-enabled framework for the decision making processes by various parties over different time. Because of the uniqueness of electricity as a commodity, the

  15. 75 FR 78980 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Direct Energy Marketing, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Application to Export Electric Energy; Direct Energy Marketing, Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Application. SUMMARY: Direct Energy Marketing,...

  16. 78 FR 65978 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Brookfield Energy Marketing Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Application to Export Electric Energy; Brookfield Energy Marketing Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Brookfield Energy Marketing...

  17. Fast Change Point Detection for Electricity Market Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Berkeley, UC; Gu, William; Choi, Jaesik; Gu, Ming; Simon, Horst; Wu, Kesheng

    2013-08-25

    Electricity is a vital part of our daily life; therefore it is important to avoid irregularities such as the California Electricity Crisis of 2000 and 2001. In this work, we seek to predict anomalies using advanced machine learning algorithms. These algorithms are effective, but computationally expensive, especially if we plan to apply them on hourly electricity market data covering a number of years. To address this challenge, we significantly accelerate the computation of the Gaussian Process (GP) for time series data. In the context of a Change Point Detection (CPD) algorithm, we reduce its computational complexity from O($n^{5}$) to O($n^{2}$). Our efficient algorithm makes it possible to compute the Change Points using the hourly price data from the California Electricity Crisis. By comparing the detected Change Points with known events, we show that the Change Point Detection algorithm is indeed effective in detecting signals preceding major events.

  18. 75 FR 45111 - Electric Quarterly Reports; Strategic Energy Management Corp.; Solaro Energy Marketing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ...] Electric Quarterly Reports; Strategic Energy Management Corp.; Solaro Energy Marketing Corporation; Notice... Order, the Commission directed Strategic Energy Management Corp. and Solaro Energy Marketing Corporation... Energy Management Corp. and Solaro Energy Marketing Corporation) have failed to file their...

  19. Lithium Battery Power Delivers Electric Vehicles to Market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid Technologies Inc., a manufacturer and marketer of lithium-ion battery electric vehicles, based in Las Vegas, Nevada, and with research and manufacturing facilities in Mooresville, North Carolina, entered into a Space Act Agreement with Kennedy Space Center to determine the utility of lithium-powered fleet vehicles. NASA contributed engineering expertise for the car's advanced battery management system and tested a fleet of zero-emission vehicles on the Kennedy campus. Hybrid Technologies now offers a series of purpose-built lithium electric vehicles dubbed the LiV series, aimed at the urban and commuter environments.

  20. Strategic bidding for load serving entity in electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlZahrani, Hashim A.

    The objective of this thesis is to study different options of load serving entities (LSEs) in electricity markets. Two models of pool-based electricity market have been studied. The difference between them is in the effect of transmission constraints. Transmission Constraints are neglected in the first model. Various bidding scenarios are presented in the first model to study the effect of retail, interruptible, and bidding prices on the profit of single LSE utilizing Monte Carlo simulation method. Genetic algorithm optimization tool is used to get the optimal bidding. In the second model, a new approach is presented to study the impact of transmission constraints (TCs) on the profit of LSE and its bidding strategy utilizing IEEE 30 bus system. Different pricing settlements then tested the effects of TCs to investigate the best pricing option. It has been shown that the first rejected bid settlement is the best selection for load serving entity.

  1. 78 FR 21934 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental... between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No. AD12-12-000 (Mar. 5, 2013) (Notice of Technical.... TN12AP13.001 Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets Docket No. AD12-12-000 April 25,...

  2. 77 FR 11515 - Application to Export Electric Energy; NRG Power Marketing LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; NRG Power Marketing LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ] ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: NRG Power Marketing LLC (NRGPML) has... would be surplus energy purchased from electric utilities and Federal power marketing agencies...

  3. 75 FR 80482 - Application To Export Electric Energy; TransCanada Power Marketing Ltd.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; TransCanada Power Marketing Ltd. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Application. SUMMARY: TransCanada Power Marketing Ltd... electric utilities, Federal power marketing agencies, and other entities within the United States....

  4. Locational electricity capacity markets: Alternatives to restore the missing signals

    SciTech Connect

    Nieto, Amparo D.; Fraser, Hamish

    2007-03-15

    In the absence of a properly functioning electricity demand side, well-designed capacity payment mechanisms hold more promise for signaling the value of capacity than non-CPM alternatives. Locational CPMs that rely on market-based principles, such as forward capacity auctions, are superior to cost-based payments directed to specific must-run generators, as CPMs at least provide a meaningful price signal about the economic value of resources to potential investors. (author)

  5. Electricity generation and transmission planning in deregulated power markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yang

    This dissertation addresses the long-term planning of power generation and transmission facilities in a deregulated power market. Three models with increasing complexities are developed, primarily for investment decisions in generation and transmission capacity. The models are presented in a two-stage decision context where generation and transmission capacity expansion decisions are made in the first stage, while power generation and transmission service fees are decided in the second stage. Uncertainties that exist in the second stage affect the capacity expansion decisions in the first stage. The first model assumes that the electric power market is not constrained by transmission capacity limit. The second model, which includes transmission constraints, considers the interactions between generation firms and the transmission network operator. The third model assumes that the generation and transmission sectors make capacity investment decisions separately. These models result in Nash-Cournot equilibrium among the unregulated generation firms, while the regulated transmission network operator supports the competition among generation firms. Several issues in the deregulated electric power market can be studied with these models such as market powers of generation firms and transmission network operator, uncertainties of the future market, and interactions between the generation and transmission sectors. Results deduced from the developed models include (a) regulated transmission network operator will not reserve transmission capacity to gain extra profits; instead, it will make capacity expansion decisions to support the competition in the generation sector; (b) generation firms will provide more power supplies when there is more demand; (c) in the presence of future uncertainties, the generation firms will add more generation capacity if the demand in the future power market is expected to be higher; and (d) the transmission capacity invested by the

  6. Electric power competition & the economic doctrine of contestable markets

    SciTech Connect

    Owan, R.E.

    1995-06-01

    This paper addresses electric power competition and ascribes a prototypical market structure for the utility industry. The advent of {open_quotes}limited{close_quotes} competition in the electric utility industry has created interesting market challenges for incumbent companies and those eager to enter the fray. Competition is viewed as limited in the sense that not all aspects of the utility industry have been deregulated. While transmission and distribution remain protected market segments, the metamorphosis is most evident in the generation component of the utility industry. The changes have been orchestrated by favorable actions by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). Because of the industry changes, the classical view of the electric utility company as a vertical monopoly is arguable. Welfare considerations not withstanding, part of the rationale for the deregulation of power generation is that the technology and techniques are sufficiently common (i.e. not proprietary) as to allow others to provide the same product or service at competitive prices.

  7. Demand Response in U.S. Electricity Markets: Empirical Evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Kathan, David

    2009-06-01

    Empirical evidence concerning demand response (DR) resources is needed in order to establish baseline conditions, develop standardized methods to assess DR availability and performance, and to build confidence among policymakers, utilities, system operators, and stakeholders that DR resources do offer a viable, cost-effective alternative to supply-side investments. This paper summarizes the existing contribution of DR resources in U.S. electric power markets. In 2008, customers enrolled in existing wholesale and retail DR programs were capable of providing ~;;38,000 MW of potential peak load reductions in the United States. Participants in organized wholesale market DR programs, though, have historically overestimated their likely performance during declared curtailments events, but appear to be getting better as they and their agents gain experience. In places with less developed organized wholesale market DR programs, utilities are learning how to create more flexible DR resources by adapting legacy load management programs to fit into existing wholesale market constructs. Overall, the development of open and organized wholesale markets coupled with direct policy support by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission has facilitated new entry by curtailment service providers, which has likely expanded the demand response industry and led to product and service innovation.

  8. Essays on microgrids, asymmetric pricing and market power in electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Prete, Chiara

    This dissertation presents four studies of the electricity industry. The first and second essays use economic-engineering models to assess different aspects of microgrid penetration in regional electricity markets, while the last two studies contain empirical analyses aimed at evaluating the performance of wholesale electricity markets. Chapter 2 develops a framework to quantify economic, environmental, efficiency and reliability impacts of different power production scenarios in a regional system, focusing on the interaction of microgrids with the existing transmission and distribution grid. The setting is the regional network formed by Belgium, France, Germany and the Netherlands. The study presents simulations of power market outcomes under various policies and levels of microgrid penetration, and evaluates them using a diverse set of metrics. Chapter 3 studies the interaction between a microgrid and a regulated electric utility in a regional electricity market. I consider the interaction among the utility, the microgrid developer and consumers in the framework of cooperative game theory (assuming exchangeable utility), and use regional market models to simulate scenarios in which microgrid introduction may or may not be socially beneficial. Under the assumptions of this chapter, customer participation is essential to the development of socially beneficial microgrids, while the utility has little or no gain from it. Discussed incentives to avoid that utilities block microgrid entry include additional revenue drivers related to microgrid connection, decoupling and performance-based mechanisms targeted at service quality. When prices are below marginal costs of utility provided power, microgrid development may be socially beneficial, but unprofitable for microgrid customers and its developer. By imposing lower charges and higher remuneration for its services, the regulator could ensure that microgrid value is positive, without adversely impacting the utility

  9. Market Evolution: Wholesale Electricity Market Design for 21st Century Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, Jaquelin; Miller, Mackay; Milligan, Michael; Ela, Erik; Arent, Douglas; Bloom, Aaron; Futch, Matthew; Kiviluoma, Juha; Holtinnen, Hannele; Orths, Antje; Gomez-Lazaro, Emilio; Martin-Martinez, Sergio; Kukoda, S.; Garcia, Glycon; Mikkelsen, Kim M.; Yongqiang, Zhao; Sandholt, Kaare

    2013-10-01

    Demand for affordable, reliable, domestically sourced, and low-carbon electricity is on the rise. This growing demand is driven in part by evolving public policy priorities, especially reducing the health and environmental impacts of electricity service and expanding energy access to under-served customers. Consequently, variable renewable energy resources comprise an increasing share ofelectricity generation globally. At the same time, new opportunities for addressing the variability of renewables are being strengthened through advances in smart grids, communications, and technologies that enable dispatchable demand response and distributed generation to extend to the mass market. A key challenge of merging these opportunities is market design -- determining how to createincentives and compensate providers justly for attributes and performance that ensure a reliable and secure grid -- in a context that fully realizes the potential of a broad array of sources of flexibility in both the wholesale power and retail markets. This report reviews the suite of wholesale power market designs in use and under consideration to ensure adequacy, security, and flexibilityin a landscape of significant variable renewable energy. It also examines considerations needed to ensure that wholesale market designs are inclusive of emerging technologies, such as demand response, distributed generation, and storage.

  10. The value of electricity storage in energy-only electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, D.; Forcey, T.; Sandiford, M.

    2015-12-01

    Price volatility and the prospect of increasing renewable energy generation have raised interest in the potential opportunities for storage technologies in energy-only electricity markets. In this paper we explore the value of a price-taking storage device in such a market, the National Electricity Market (NEM) in Australia. Our analysis suggests that under optimal operation, there is little value in having more than six hours of storage in this market. However, the inability to perfectly forecast wholesale prices, particularly extreme price spikes, may warrant some additional storage. We found that storage devices effectively provide a similar service as peak generators (such as Open Cycle Gas Turbines) and are similarly dependent on and exposed to extreme price events, with revenue for a merchant generator highly skewed to a few days of the year. In contrast to previous studies, this results in the round trip efficiency of the storage being relatively insignificant. Financing using hedging strategies similar to a peak generator effectively reduces the variability of revenue and exposure of storage to extreme prices. Our case study demonstrates that storage may have a competitive advantage over other peaking generators on the NEM, due to its ability to earn revenue outside of extreme peak events. As a consequence the outlook for storage options on the NEM is dependent on volatility, in turn dependent on capacity requirements. Further to this, increased integration of renewable energy may both depend on storage and improve the outlook for storage in technologies in electricity markets.

  11. Decentralized Online Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Anwitaman; Buchegger, Sonja; Vu, Le-Hung; Strufe, Thorsten; Rzadca, Krzysztof

    Current Online social networks (OSN) are web services run on logically centralized infrastructure. Large OSN sites use content distribution networks and thus distribute some of the load by caching for performance reasons, nevertheless there is a central repository for user and application data. This centralized nature of OSNs has several drawbacks including scalability, privacy, dependence on a provider, need for being online for every transaction, and a lack of locality. There have thus been several efforts toward decentralizing OSNs while retaining the functionalities offered by centralized OSNs. A decentralized online social network (DOSN) is a distributed system for social networking with no or limited dependency on any dedicated central infrastructure. In this chapter we explore the various motivations of a decentralized approach to online social networking, discuss several concrete proposals and types of DOSN as well as challenges and opportunities associated with decentralization.

  12. Decentralized energy studies: bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Ohi, J.M.; Unseld, C.T.; Levine, A.; Silversmith, J.A.

    1980-05-01

    This bibliography is a compilation of literature on decentralized energy systems. It is arranged according to topical (e.g., lifestyle and values, institutions, and economics) and geographical scale to facilitate quick reference to specific areas of interest. Also included are articles by and about Amory B. Lovins who has played a pivotal role in making energy decentralization an important topic of national debate. Periodicals, other bibliographies, and directories are also listed.

  13. Multifractal cross-correlation analysis in electricity spot market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Qingju; Li, Dan

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate the multiscale cross-correlations between electricity price and trading volume in Czech market based on a newly developed algorithm, called Multifractal Cross-Correlation Analysis (MFCCA). The new algorithm is a natural multifractal generalization of the Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis (DCCA), and is sensitive to cross-correlation structure and free from limitations of other algorithms. By considering the original sign of the cross-covariance, it allows us to properly quantify and detect the subtle characteristics of two simultaneous recorded time series. First, the multifractality and the long range anti-persistent auto-correlations of price return and trading volume variation are confirmed using Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MF-DFA). Furthermore, we show that there exist long-range anti-persistent cross-correlations between price return and trading volume variation by MFCCA. And we also identify that the cross-correlations disappear on the level of relative small fluctuations. In order to obtain deeper insight into the dynamics of the electricity market, we analyze the relation between generalized Hurst exponent and the multifractal cross-correlation scaling exponent λq. We find that the difference between the generalized Hurst exponent and the multifractal cross-correlation scaling exponent is significantly different for smaller fluctuation, which indicates that the multifractal character of cross-correlations resembles more each other for electricity price and trading volume on the level of large fluctuations and weakens for the smaller ones.

  14. Electricity Bill Savings from Residential Photovoltaic Systems: Sensitivities to Changes in Future Electricity Market Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Darghouth, Naim; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan

    2013-01-09

    This scoping study investigates the impact of, and interactions among, three key sources of uncertainty in the future value of bill savings from customer-sited PV, focusing in particular on residential customers. These three sources of uncertainty are: changes to electricity market conditions that would affect retail electricity prices, changes to the types of retail rate structures available to residential customers with PV, and shifts away from standard net-metering toward other compensation mechanisms for residential PV. We investigate the impact of a range of electricity market scenarios on retail electricity prices and rate structures, and the resulting effects on the value of bill savings from PV. The scenarios include various levels of renewable and solar energy deployment, high and low natural gas prices, the possible introduction of carbon pricing, and greater or lesser reliance on utility-scale storage and demand response. We examine the bill savings from PV with time-invariant, flat residential retail rates, as well as with time-varying retail rates, including time-of-use (TOU) rates and real-time pricing (RTP). In addition, we explore a flat rate with increasing-block pricing (IBP). We evaluate the bill savings from PV with net metering, as currently allowed in many states, as well as scenarios with hourly netting, a partial form of net metering. This scoping study is the first known effort to evaluate these types of interactions in a reasonably comprehensive fashion, though by no means have we considered every possible change to electricity market conditions, retail rate structures, or PV compensation mechanisms. It focuses solely on the private value of bill savings for residential PV and does not seek to quantify the broader social or economic cost or value of solar electricity. Our analysis applies assumptions based loosely on California’s electricity market in a future year (2030); however, it is neither intended to forecast California’s future

  15. Determining the Effects on Residential Electricity Prices and Carbon Emissions of Electricity Market Restructuring in Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahangir, Junaid Bin

    When electricity restructuring initiatives were introduced in Alberta, and finalized with the institution of retail electricity market competition in 2001, it was argued that the changes would deliver lower electricity prices to residential consumers. However, residential electricity prices in Alberta increased dramatically in 2001, and have never returned to their pre-restructuring levels. Proponents of restructuring argue that electricity prices would have been even higher under continued regulation, citing the effect of considerably higher natural gas prices and the roles of other variables. However, many Alberta residential electricity consumers tend to attribute their higher electricity prices to factors such as market power and manipulation associated with restructuring. Since the effects of restructuring on electricity prices cannot be evaluated by simply comparing prices before and after it occurred, the main objective of this thesis is to determine what electricity prices would have been under continued regulation, and to compare them with what was actually observed. To determine these counterfactual electricity prices, a structural model of the determinants of Alberta residential electricity prices is developed, estimated for the prerestructuring period, and used to forecast (counterfactual) prices in the postrestructuring period. However, in forming these forecasts it is necessary to separately account for changes in explanatory variables that could be viewed as occurring due to the restructuring (endogenous) from those changes that would Since the effects of restructuring on electricity prices cannot be evaluated by simply comparing prices before and after it occurred, the main objective of this thesis is to determine what electricity prices would have been under continued regulation, and to compare them with what was actually observed. To determine these counterfactual electricity prices, a structural model of the determinants of Alberta residential

  16. 76 FR 19069 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Cargill Power Markets, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Cargill Power Markets, LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Cargill Power Markets, LLC (CPM) has... directly with Eugene J. Becker, Vice President, Cargill Power Markets, LLC, 9350 Excelsior Blvd., MS...

  17. 75 FR 57911 - Application To Export Electric Energy; GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing NA, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing NA, Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing NA... utilities, Federal power marketing agencies and other entities within the United States. The...

  18. 75 FR 75994 - Application To Export Electric Energy; NRG Power Marketing LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; NRG Power Marketing LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: NRG Power Marketing LLC (NRGPML) has..., Federal power marketing agencies, and other entities within the United States. The existing...

  19. 18 CFR 42.1 - Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term Firm Transmission Rights. 42.1... ELECTRICITY MARKETS § 42.1 Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets... with one or more organized electricity markets (administered either by it or by another entity) to...

  20. 18 CFR 42.1 - Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term Firm Transmission Rights. 42.1... ELECTRICITY MARKETS § 42.1 Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets... with one or more organized electricity markets (administered either by it or by another entity) to...

  1. 18 CFR 42.1 - Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term Firm Transmission Rights. 42.1... ELECTRICITY MARKETS § 42.1 Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets... with one or more organized electricity markets (administered either by it or by another entity) to...

  2. 18 CFR 42.1 - Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term Firm Transmission Rights. 42.1... ELECTRICITY MARKETS § 42.1 Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets... with one or more organized electricity markets (administered either by it or by another entity) to...

  3. 18 CFR 42.1 - Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term Firm Transmission Rights. 42.1... ELECTRICITY MARKETS § 42.1 Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets... with one or more organized electricity markets (administered either by it or by another entity) to...

  4. Oligopoly market models applied to electric utilities: How will generating companies behave in a deregulated industry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Lance Brian

    An oligopoly market is analyzed which compares the oligopoly uniform market price to a fully competitive market price. The oligopoly consists of three electric utilities that behave as Cournot and Stackelberg leader---followers. A market simulation of the ERCOT market is also presented which includes the impact on market price when there are new market entrants into the oligopoly. The two case studies analyze the market with and without transmission constraints and identify how various transmission limitations can support strategic behavior by the utilities and ultimately impact the market price.

  5. 75 FR 12737 - Applications To Export Electric Energy; Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corp.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... Applications To Export Electric Energy; Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corp. AGENCY: Office of Electricity... applications, Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corp. (NEMT) has applied for authority to transmit electric... using international transmission facilities located at the United States borders with Mexico and...

  6. 77 FR 20375 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation (Rainbow) has applied to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from the United States...

  7. 75 FR 57912 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation (Rainbow) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to...

  8. Indirect decentralized repetitive control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Soo Cheol; Longman, Richard W.

    1993-01-01

    Learning control refers to controllers that learn to improve their performance at executing a given task, based on experience performing this specific task. In a previous work, the authors presented a theory of indirect decentralized learning control based on use of indirect adaptive control concepts employing simultaneous identification and control. This paper extends these results to apply to the indirect repetitive control problem in which a periodic (i.e., repetitive) command is given to a control system. Decentralized indirect repetitive control algorithms are presented that have guaranteed convergence to zero tracking error under very general conditions. The original motivation of the repetitive control and learning control fields was learning in robots doing repetitive tasks such as on an assembly line. This paper starts with decentralized discrete time systems, and progresses to the robot application, modeling the robot as a time varying linear system in the neighborhood of the desired trajectory. Decentralized repetitive control is natural for this application because the feedback control for link rotations is normally implemented in a decentralized manner, treating each link as if it is independent of the other links.

  9. Generation capacity expansion planning in deregulated electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Deepak

    With increasing demand of electric power in the context of deregulated electricity markets, a good strategic planning for the growth of the power system is critical for our tomorrow. There is a need to build new resources in the form of generation plants and transmission lines while considering the effects of these new resources on power system operations, market economics and the long-term dynamics of the economy. In deregulation, the exercise of generation planning has undergone a paradigm shift. The first stage of generation planning is now undertaken by the individual investors. These investors see investments in generation capacity as an increasing business opportunity because of the increasing market prices. Therefore, the main objective of such a planning exercise, carried out by individual investors, is typically that of long-term profit maximization. This thesis presents some modeling frameworks for generation capacity expansion planning applicable to independent investor firms in the context of power industry deregulation. These modeling frameworks include various technical and financing issues within the process of power system planning. The proposed modeling frameworks consider the long-term decision making process of investor firms, the discrete nature of generation capacity addition and incorporates transmission network modeling. Studies have been carried out to examine the impact of the optimal investment plans on transmission network loadings in the long-run by integrating the generation capacity expansion planning framework within a modified IEEE 30-bus transmission system network. The work assesses the importance of arriving at an optimal IRR at which the firm's profit maximization objective attains an extremum value. The mathematical model is further improved to incorporate binary variables while considering discrete unit sizes, and subsequently to include the detailed transmission network representation. The proposed models are novel in the

  10. Decentralizing Agricultural Extension: Alternative Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, William M.

    1997-01-01

    Examines government strategies for decentralizing agricultural extension, concluding that such changes are largely determined by the country's constitutional status. Reviews decentralization guidelines for structural and fiscal reforms and participatory management systems. (SK)

  11. Cap-and-Trade Modeling and Analysis: Congested Electricity Market Equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limpaitoon, Tanachai

    This dissertation presents an equilibrium framework for analyzing the impact of cap-and-trade regulation on transmission-constrained electricity market. The cap-and-trade regulation of greenhouse gas emissions has gained momentum in the past decade. The impact of the regulation and its efficacy in the electric power industry depend on interactions of demand elasticity, transmission network, market structure, and strategic behavior of firms. I develop an equilibrium model of an oligopoly electricity market in conjunction with a market for tradable emissions permits to study the implications of such interactions. My goal is to identify inefficiencies that may arise from policy design elements and to avoid any unintended adverse consequences on the electric power sector. I demonstrate this modeling framework with three case studies examining the impact of carbon cap-and-trade regulation. In the first case study, I study equilibrium results under various scenarios of resource ownership and emission targets using a 24-bus IEEE electric transmission system. The second and third case studies apply the equilibrium model to a realistic electricity market, Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) 225-bus system with a detailed representation of the California market. In the first and second case studies, I examine oligopoly in electricity with perfect competition in the permit market. I find that under a stringent emission cap and a high degree of concentration of non-polluting firms, the electricity market is subject to potential abuses of market power. Also, market power can occur in the procurement of non-polluting energy through the permit market when non-polluting resources are geographically concentrated in a transmission-constrained market. In the third case study, I relax the competitive market structure assumption of the permit market by allowing oligopolistic competition in the market through a conjectural variation approach. A short-term equilibrium

  12. Territorial Decentration and Geographic Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoltman, Joseph P.

    Territorial decentration is a question of major significance to geographic educators. This paper reports the findings of a research project designed to determine the territorial decentration of an American sample of children. The primary purpose of the research was to determine if Piaget's territorial decentration stages are appropriate for…

  13. Unbundling generation and transmission services for competitive electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.; Kirby, B.

    1998-01-01

    Ancillary services are those functions performed by the equipment and people that generate, control, and transmit electricity in support of the basic services of generating capacity, energy supply, and power delivery. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) defined such services as those `necessary to support the transmission of electric power from seller to purchaser given the obligations of control areas and transmitting utilities within those control areas to maintain reliable operations of the interconnected transmission system.` The nationwide cost of ancillary services is about $12 billion a year, roughly 10% of the cost of the energy commodity. More important than the cost, however, is the necessity of these services for bulk-power reliability and for the support of commercial transactions. FERC`s landmark Order 888 included a pro forma tariff with provision for six key ancillary services. The Interconnected Operations Services Working Group identified another six services that it felt were essential to the operation of bulk-power systems. Several groups throughput the United States have created or are forming independent system operators, which will be responsible for reliability and commerce. To date, the electricity industry (including traditional vertically integrated utilities, distribution utilities, power markets and brokers, customers, and state and federal regulators) has paid insufficient attention to these services. Although the industry had made substantial progress in identifying and defining the key services, much remains to be doe to specify methods to measure the production, delivery, and consumption of these services; to identify the costs and cost-allocation factors for these services; and to develop market and operating rules for their provision and pricing. Developing metrics, determining costs, and setting pricing rules are important because most of these ancillary services are produced by the same pieces of equipment that

  14. 78 FR 28583 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Notice of Commission Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Notice of... necessary. Commission members will be present. \\1\\ Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity...

  15. Self-Organized Synchronization in Decentralized Power Grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohden, Martin; Sorge, Andreas; Timme, Marc; Witthaut, Dirk

    2012-08-01

    Robust synchronization (phase locking) of power plants and consumers centrally underlies the stable operation of electric power grids. Despite current attempts to control large-scale networks, even their uncontrolled collective dynamics is not fully understood. Here we analyze conditions enabling self-organized synchronization in oscillator networks that serve as coarse-scale models for power grids, focusing on decentralizing power sources. Intriguingly, we find that whereas more decentralized grids become more sensitive to dynamical perturbations, they simultaneously become more robust to topological failures. Decentralizing power sources may thus facilitate the onset of synchronization in modern power grids.

  16. Cournot games with network effects for electric power markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spezia, Carl John

    The electric utility industry is moving from regulated monopolies with protected service areas to an open market with many wholesale suppliers competing for consumer load. This market is typically modeled by a Cournot game oligopoly where suppliers compete by selecting profit maximizing quantities. The classical Cournot model can produce multiple solutions when the problem includes typical power system constraints. This work presents a mathematical programming formulation of oligopoly that produces unique solutions when constraints limit the supplier outputs. The formulation casts the game as a supply maximization problem with power system physical limits and supplier incremental profit functions as constraints. The formulation gives Cournot solutions identical to other commonly used algorithms when suppliers operate within the constraints. Numerical examples demonstrate the feasibility of the theory. The results show that the maximization formulation will give system operators more transmission capacity when compared to the actions of suppliers in a classical constrained Cournot game. The results also show that the profitability of suppliers in constrained networks depends on their location relative to the consumers' load concentration.

  17. Indirect decentralized learning control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longman, Richard W.; Lee, Soo C.; Phan, M.

    1992-01-01

    The new field of learning control develops controllers that learn to improve their performance at executing a given task, based on experience performing this specific task. In a previous work, the authors presented a theory of indirect learning control based on use of indirect adaptive control concepts employing simultaneous identification and control. This paper develops improved indirect learning control algorithms, and studies the use of such controllers in decentralized systems. The original motivation of the learning control field was learning in robots doing repetitive tasks such as on an assembly line. This paper starts with decentralized discrete time systems, and progresses to the robot application, modeling the robot as a time varying linear system in the neighborhood of the nominal trajectory, and using the usual robot controllers that are decentralized, treating each link as if it is independent of any coupling with other links. The basic result of the paper is to show that stability of the indirect learning controllers for all subsystems when the coupling between subsystems is turned off, assures convergence to zero tracking error of the decentralized indirect learning control of the coupled system, provided that the sample time in the digital learning controller is sufficiently short.

  18. 76 FR 20651 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Cargill Power Markets, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; Cargill Power Markets, LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and... applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico pursuant to section 202..., 2011, DOE received an application from CPM for authority to transmit electric energy from the...

  19. 77 FR 50684 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    .../opennat.asp?fileID=13023450 ); 77 Fed. Reg. 41184 (July 12, 2012) ( http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012... Energy Regulatory Commission Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental... participate in the conference. \\1\\ Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No....

  20. 77 FR 43280 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ...?fileID=13023450 ); 77 FR 41184 (July 12, 2012) ( http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-07-12/pdf/2012... Energy Regulatory Commission Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental... the conferences. \\1\\ Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No....

  1. 78 FR 8511 - Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental... Electricity Markets, Docket No. AD12-12-000 (December 7, 2012) (Notice Of Request for Comments and...

  2. 77 FR 45600 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ...?fileID=13023450 ); 77 FR 41184 (July 12, 2012) ( http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-07-12/pdf/2012... Energy Regulatory Commission Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental... the conference. \\1\\ Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No....

  3. 77 FR 35374 - Independence Electricity; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Independence Electricity; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Independence Electricity's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  4. 77 FR 74180 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Notice of Request for Comments and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Notice of Request... Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, 141 FERC ] 61,125, at P 5 (2012) (November 15 Order)....

  5. 78 FR 15719 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Notice of... between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, 141 FERC ] 61,125, at P 11 (2012) (November 15 Order)....

  6. 77 FR 50100 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ...?fileID=13023450 ); 77 Fed. Reg. 41184 (July 12, 2012) ( http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-07-12/pdf... Energy Regulatory Commission Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental... the conference. \\1\\ Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No....

  7. 18 CFR 35.47 - Tariff provisions regarding credit practices in organized wholesale electric markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... regarding credit practices in organized wholesale electric markets. 35.47 Section 35.47 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER... Electric Markets § 35.47 Tariff provisions regarding credit practices in organized wholesale...

  8. Impact of climate change on electricity systems and markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandramowli, Shankar N.

    (Section 111 (d)) rules for the U.S. Northeast region. This dissertation applies an analytical model and an optimization model to investigate the implications of co-implementing an emission cap and an RPS policy for this region. A simplified analytical model of LP-CEM is specified and the first order optimality conditions are derived. The results from this analytical model are corroborated by running LP-CEM simulations under different carbon cap and RPS policy assumptions. A combination of these policies is shown to have a long-term beneficial effect for the final ratepayers in the region. This research conceptually explores the future implications of climate change and extreme weather events on the regional electricity market framework. The significant findings from this research and future policy considerations are discussed in the conclusion chapter.

  9. 18 CFR 1c.2 - Prohibition of electric energy market manipulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... energy market manipulation. 1c.2 Section 1c.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES PROHIBITION OF ENERGY MARKET MANIPULATION § 1c.2 Prohibition of electric energy market manipulation. (a) It shall be unlawful for any entity, directly...

  10. 18 CFR 1c.2 - Prohibition of electric energy market manipulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... energy market manipulation. 1c.2 Section 1c.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES PROHIBITION OF ENERGY MARKET MANIPULATION § 1c.2 Prohibition of electric energy market manipulation. (a) It shall be unlawful for any entity, directly...

  11. 18 CFR 1c.2 - Prohibition of electric energy market manipulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... energy market manipulation. 1c.2 Section 1c.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES PROHIBITION OF ENERGY MARKET MANIPULATION § 1c.2 Prohibition of electric energy market manipulation. (a) It shall be unlawful for any entity, directly...

  12. Multiagent Analysis for Effect of Cogeneration Spread in an Electricity Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Hidenori; Kurumatani, Koichi; Ohuchi, Azuma

    In this paper, in order to investigate the effect of cogeneration spread senario in electricity market we constructed a multiagent model of an electricity trade market with distributor and power generator agents. In this model, we analyzed the effect of reducing generators' surplus facilities to market price formation and stability through some computer experiments. As a result of the experimental simulations, the market price was decreased by the increase of sell bids according to the demand reduction by congeneration spread, and by the increase of commercial use of cogeneration facilities, the market price was more economical and stable because such agents supplied more electricity generated by surplus cogenerations. However, if power generators diminished power generating facilities in the situation that distributors' cogeneration facilities were not major; the fluctuation of market price took large. We confirmed that cogeneration spread played the important role for stabilizing market price formation.

  13. Linear decentralized learning control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Soo C.; Longman, Richard W.; Phan, Minh

    1992-01-01

    The new field of learning control develops controllers that learn to improve their performance at executing a given task, based on experience performing this task. The simplest forms of learning control are based on the same concept as integral control, but operating in the domain of the repetitions of the task. This paper studies the use of such controllers in a decentralized system, such as a robot with the controller for each link acting independently. The basic result of the paper is to show that stability of the learning controllers for all subsystems when the coupling between subsystems is turned off, assures stability of the decentralized learning in the coupled system, provided that the sample time in the digital learning controller is sufficiently short.

  14. Barriers to healthcare coordination in market-based and decentralized public health systems: a qualitative study in healthcare networks of Colombia and Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Ingrid; Mogollón-Pérez, Amparo Susana; De Paepe, Pierre; Ferreira da Silva, Maria Rejane; Unger, Jean-Pierre; Vázquez, María-Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Although integrated healthcare networks (IHNs) are promoted in Latin America in response to health system fragmentation, few analyses on the coordination of care across levels in these networks have been conducted in the region. The aim is to analyse the existence of healthcare coordination across levels of care and the factors influencing it from the health personnel’ perspective in healthcare networks of two countries with different health systems: Colombia, with a social security system based on managed competition and Brazil, with a decentralized national health system. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive–interpretative study was conducted, based on a case study of healthcare networks in four municipalities. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with a three stage theoretical sample of (a) health (112) and administrative (66) professionals of different care levels, and (b) managers of providers (42) and insurers (14). A thematic content analysis was conducted, segmented by cases, informant groups and themes. The results reveal poor clinical information transfer between healthcare levels in all networks analysed, with added deficiencies in Brazil in the coordination of access and clinical management. The obstacles to care coordination are related to the organization of both the health system and the healthcare networks. In the health system, there is the existence of economic incentives to compete (exacerbated in Brazil by partisan political interests), the fragmentation and instability of networks in Colombia and weak planning and evaluation in Brazil. In the healthcare networks, there are inadequate working conditions (temporary and/or part-time contracts) which hinder the use of coordination mechanisms, and inadequate professional training for implementing a healthcare model in which primary care should act as coordinator in patient care. Reforms are needed in these health systems and networks in order to modify incentives

  15. Barriers to healthcare coordination in market-based and decentralized public health systems: a qualitative study in healthcare networks of Colombia and Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Ingrid; Mogollón-Pérez, Amparo Susana; De Paepe, Pierre; Ferreira da Silva, Maria Rejane; Unger, Jean-Pierre; Vázquez, María-Luisa

    2016-07-01

    Although integrated healthcare networks (IHNs) are promoted in Latin America in response to health system fragmentation, few analyses on the coordination of care across levels in these networks have been conducted in the region. The aim is to analyse the existence of healthcare coordination across levels of care and the factors influencing it from the health personnel' perspective in healthcare networks of two countries with different health systems: Colombia, with a social security system based on managed competition and Brazil, with a decentralized national health system. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive-interpretative study was conducted, based on a case study of healthcare networks in four municipalities. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with a three stage theoretical sample of (a) health (112) and administrative (66) professionals of different care levels, and (b) managers of providers (42) and insurers (14). A thematic content analysis was conducted, segmented by cases, informant groups and themes. The results reveal poor clinical information transfer between healthcare levels in all networks analysed, with added deficiencies in Brazil in the coordination of access and clinical management. The obstacles to care coordination are related to the organization of both the health system and the healthcare networks. In the health system, there is the existence of economic incentives to compete (exacerbated in Brazil by partisan political interests), the fragmentation and instability of networks in Colombia and weak planning and evaluation in Brazil. In the healthcare networks, there are inadequate working conditions (temporary and/or part-time contracts) which hinder the use of coordination mechanisms, and inadequate professional training for implementing a healthcare model in which primary care should act as coordinator in patient care. Reforms are needed in these health systems and networks in order to modify incentives, strengthen

  16. A Q-Learning-Based Supplier Bidding Strategy in Electricity Auction Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Gaofeng; Hashiyama, Tomonori; Okuma, Shigeru

    One of the most important issues for power suppliers in the deregulated electric industry is how to bid into the electricity auction market to satisfy their profit-maximizing goals. Based on the Q-Learning algorithm, this paper presents a novel supplier bidding strategy to maximize supplier’s profit in the long run. In this approach, the supplier bidding strategy is viewed as one kind of stochastic optimal control problem and each supplier can learn from experience. A competitive day-ahead electricity auction market with hourly bids is assumed here, where no supplier possesses the market power and all suppliers winning the market are paid based on their own bid prices. The dynamics and the incomplete information of the market are considered. The impact of suppliers’ strategic bidding on the market price is analyzed. Agent-based simulations are presented. The simulation results show the feasibility of the proposed bidding strategy.

  17. Price forecast in the competitive electricity market by support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ciwei; Bompard, Ettore; Napoli, Roberto; Cheng, Haozhong

    2007-08-01

    The electricity market has been widely introduced in many countries all over the world and the study on electricity price forecast technology has drawn a lot of attention. In this paper, with different parameter C i and ε i assigned to each training data, the flexible C i Support Vector Regression (SVR) model is developed in terms of the particularity of the price forecast in electricity market. For Day Ahead Market (DAM) price forecast, the load, time of use index and index of day type are taken as the major factors to characterize the market price, therefore, they are selected as the inputs for the flexible SVR forecast model. For the long-term price forecast, we take the reserve margin Rm, HHI and the fuel price index as the inputs, since they are the major factors that drive the market price variation in long run. For short-term price forecast, besides the detailed analysis with the young Italian electricity market, the new model is tested on the experimental stage of the Spanish market, the New York market and the New England market. The long-term forecast with the SVR model presented is justified by the forecast with the data from the Long Run Market Simulator (LREMS).

  18. Risk management and market efficiency on the Midwest Independent System Operator electricity exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Kevin

    Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc. (MISO) is a non-profit regional transmission organization (RTO) that oversees electricity production and transmission across thirteen states and one Canadian province. MISO also operates an electronic exchange for buying and selling electricity for each of its five regional hubs. MISO oversees two types of markets. The forward market, which is referred to as the day-ahead (DA) market, allows market participants to place demand bids and supply offers on electricity to be delivered at a specified hour the following day. The equilibrium price, known as the locational marginal price (LMP), is determined by MISO after receiving sale offers and purchase bids from market participants. MISO also coordinates a spot market, which is known as the real-time (RT) market. Traders in the real-time market must submit bids and offers by thirty minutes prior to the hour for which the trade will be executed. After receiving purchase and sale offers for a given hour in the real time market, MISO then determines the LMP for that particular hour. The existence of the DA and RT markets allows producers and retailers to hedge against the large fluctuations that are common in electricity prices. Hedge ratios on the MISO exchange are estimated using various techniques. No hedge ratio technique examined consistently outperforms the unhedged portfolio in terms of variance reduction. Consequently, none of the hedge ratio methods in this study meet the general interpretation of FASB guidelines for a highly effective hedge. One of the major goals of deregulation is to bring about competition and increased efficiency in electricity markets. Previous research suggests that electricity exchanges may not be weak-form market efficient. A simple moving average trading rule is found to produce statistically and economically significant profits on the MISO exchange. This could call the long-term survivability of the MISO exchange into question.

  19. Simulation of trading strategies in the electricity market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charkiewicz, Kamil; Nowak, Robert

    2011-10-01

    The main objective of the energy market existence is reduction of the total cost of production, transport and distribution of energy, and so the prices paid by terminal consumers. Energy market contains few markets that are varying on operational rules, the important segments: the Futures Contract Market and Next Day Market are analyzed in presented approach. The computer system was developed to simulate the Polish Energy Market. This system use the multi-agent approach, where each agent is the separate shared library with defined interface. The software was used to compare strategies for players in energy market, where the strategies uses auto-regression, k-nearest neighbours, neural network and mixed algorithm, to predict the next price.

  20. 76 FR 3881 - Application To Export Electric Energy; TransAlta Energy Marketing (U.S.) Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; TransAlta Energy Marketing (U.S.) Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: TransAlta Energy Marketing (U... be surplus energy purchased from electric utilities, Federal power marketing agencies, and...

  1. Three essays on pricing and risk management in electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsan, Serhiy

    2005-07-01

    A set of three papers forms this dissertation. In the first paper I analyze an electricity market that does not clear. The system operator satisfies fixed demand at a fixed price, and attempts to minimize "cost" as indicated by independent generators' supply bids. No equilibrium exists in this situation, and the operator lacks information sufficient to minimize actual cost. As a remedy, we propose a simple efficient tax mechanism. With the tax, Nash equilibrium bids still diverge from marginal cost but nonetheless provide sufficient information to minimize actual cost, regardless of the tax rate or number of generators. The second paper examines a price mechanism with one price assigned for each level of bundled real and reactive power. Equilibrium allocation under this pricing approach raises system efficiency via better allocation of the reactive power reserves, neglected in the traditional pricing approach. Pricing reactive power should be considered in the bundle with real power since its cost is highly dependent on real power output. The efficiency of pricing approach is shown in the general case, and tested on the 30-bus IEEE network with piecewise linear cost functions of the generators. Finally the third paper addresses the problem of optimal investment in generation based on mean-variance portfolio analysis. It is assumed the investor can freely create a portfolio of shares in generation located on buses of the electrical network. Investors are risk averse, and seek to minimize the variance of the weighted average Locational Marginal Price (LMP) in their portfolio, and to maximize its expected value. I conduct simulations using a standard IEEE 68-bus network that resembles the New York - New England system and calculate LMPs in accordance with the PJM methodology for a fully optimal AC power flow solution. Results indicate that the network topology is a crucial determinant of the investment decision as line congestion makes it difficult to deliver power to

  2. A bid solicitation and selection method for developing a competitive spot priced electric market

    SciTech Connect

    Ancona, J.J.

    1997-05-01

    The electric utility industry is in the beginning throes of a transformation from a cost-based regulated structure to a more market based less regulated system. Traditional unit commitment and economic dispatch methodologies can continue to provide reliable least-cost solutions, providing they are modified to accommodate a larger sphere of market participants. This paper offers a method for an entity such as an Independent System Operator (ISO) to solicit and evaluate bids for developing a spot priced electric market by replicating existing utility practices that are effective and efficient, while creating an open and equitable competitive marketplace for electricity.

  3. On the battleground of environmental and competition policy: The renewable electricity market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meszaros, Matyas Tamas

    Renewable energy sources have become increasingly important in the efforts to provide energy security and to fight global warming. In the last decade environmental policy has increased the support for renewable electricity. At the same time the electricity sector was often subject of antitrust investigation because of relevant market concentration, and market power. This dissertation looks at the renewable electricity market to analyze the effect of environmental policy on competition. The first chapter provides a short introduction into the regulatory schemes of electricity markets. The second chapter analyzes the demand side of the electricity market. The estimations show that there was no significant change in the income and price elasticity in the electricity consumption of the US households between 1993 an 2001, although there was several policy initiatives to increase energy efficiency and decrease consumption. The third chapter derives a theoretical model where the feed-in tariff and the tradable green certificate system can be analyzed under oligopolistic market structure. The results of the model suggest that the introduction of the environmentally friendly regulatory schemes can decrease the electricity prices compared to the case when there is no support for renewable energy. The other findings of this model is that the price of electricity rises when the requirement for renewable energy increases. In the fourth chapter a simulation model of the UK electricity market is used to test the effect of mergers and acquisitions under the environmental support scheme. The results emphasize the importance of the capacity limit, because it can constrain the strategic action of the electricity producers. The results of the simulation also suggest that the increasing concentration can increase the production and lower the price of electricity and renewable energy certificates in the British Renewable Obligation system.

  4. Decentralized adaptive control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, B. J.; Jamshidi, M.; Seraji, H.

    1988-01-01

    A decentralized adaptive control is proposed to stabilize and track the nonlinear, interconnected subsystems with unknown parameters. The adaptation of the controller gain is derived by using model reference adaptive control theory based on Lyapunov's direct method. The adaptive gains consist of sigma, proportional, and integral combination of the measured and reference values of the corresponding subsystem. The proposed control is applied to the joint control of a two-link robot manipulator, and the performance in computer simulation corresponds with what is expected in theoretical development.

  5. A Supplier Bidding Strategy Through Q-Learning Algorithm in Electricity Auction Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Gaofeng; Hashiyama, Tomonori; Okuma, Shigeru

    One of the most important issues for power suppliers in the deregulated electric industry is how to bid into the electricity auction market to satisfy their profit-maximizing goals. Based on the Q-Learning algorithm, this paper presents a novel supplier bidding strategy to maximize supplier’s profit in the long run. In this approach, the supplier bidding strategy is viewed as a kind of stochastic optimal control problem and each supplier can learn from experience. A competitive day-ahead electricity auction market with hourly bids is assumed here, where no supplier possesses the market power. The dynamics and the incomplete information of the market are considered. The impacts of suppliers’ strategic bidding on the market price are analyzed under uniform pricing rule and discriminatory pricing rule. Agent-based simulations are presented. The simulation results show the feasibility of the proposed bidding strategy.

  6. Smart computer-assisted markets.

    PubMed

    McCabe, K A; Rassenti, S J; Smith, V L

    1991-10-25

    The deregulation movement has motivated the experimental study of auction markets designed for interdependent network industries such as natural gas pipelines or electric power systems. Decentralized agents submit bids to buy commodity and offers to sell transportation and commodity to a computerized dispatch center. Computer algorithms determine prices and allocations that maximize the gains from exchange in the system relative to the submitted bids and offers. The problem is important, because traditionally the scale and coordination economies in such industries were thought to require regulation. Laboratory experiments are used to study feasibility, limitations, incentives, and performance of proposed market designs for deregulation, providing motivation for new theory. PMID:17806969

  7. 18 CFR 1c.2 - Prohibition of electric energy market manipulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prohibition of electric energy market manipulation. 1c.2 Section 1c.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES PROHIBITION OF ENERGY MARKET MANIPULATION §...

  8. 18 CFR 1c.2 - Prohibition of electric energy market manipulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibition of electric energy market manipulation. 1c.2 Section 1c.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES PROHIBITION OF ENERGY MARKET MANIPULATION §...

  9. Social Welfare implications of demand response programs in competitive electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Boisvert, Richard N.; Neenan, Bernard F.

    2003-08-01

    The price volatility exhibited by wholesale electricity markets has stymied the movement to restructure the industry, and may derail it altogether. Market designers argue that prices are superior to regulation for directing long-term investments to the proper location and function, and that price volatility is a natural manifestation of a robustly competitive market. However, episodes of prices that soar to previously unimaginable heights try customers' patience and cause policy makers to reconsider if the prize is worth the consequences.

  10. Analysis of the Pricing Process in Electricity Market using Multi-Agent Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimomura, Takahiro; Saisho, Yuichi; Fujii, Yasumasa; Yamaji, Kenji

    Many electric utilities world-wide have been forced to change their ways of doing business, from vertically integrated mechanisms to open market systems. We are facing urgent issues about how we design the structures of power market systems. In order to settle down these issues, many studies have been made with market models of various characteristics and regulations. The goal of modeling analysis is to enrich our understanding of fundamental process that may appear. However, there are many kinds of modeling methods. Each has drawback and advantage about validity and versatility. This paper presents two kinds of methods to construct multi-agent market models. One is based on game theory and another is based on reinforcement learning. By comparing the results of the two methods, they can advance in validity and help us figure out potential problems in electricity markets which have oligopolistic generators, demand fluctuation and inelastic demand. Moreover, this model based on reinforcement learning enables us to consider characteristics peculiar to electricity markets which have plant unit characteristics, seasonable and hourly demand fluctuation, real-time regulation market and operating reserve market. This model figures out importance of the share of peak-load-plants and the way of designing operating reserve market.

  11. Evolution of Wholesale Electricity Market Design with Increasing Levels of Renewable Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Bloom, A.; Botterud, A.; Townsend, A.; Levin, T.

    2014-09-01

    Variable generation such as wind and photovoltaic solar power has increased substantially in recent years. Variable generation has unique characteristics compared to the traditional technologies that supply energy in the wholesale electricity markets. These characteristics create unique challenges in planning and operating the power system, and they can also influence the performance and outcomes from electricity markets. This report focuses on two particular issues related to market design: revenue sufficiency for long-term reliability and incentivizing flexibility in short-term operations. The report provides an overview of current design and some designs that have been proposed by industry or researchers.

  12. 77 FR 52020 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice for Mid-Atlantic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ....ferc.gov/idmws/common/opennat.asp?fileID=13023450 ); 77 FR 41184 (July 12, 2012) ( http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-07-12/pdf/2012-16997.pdf ). \\2\\ Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity... Energy Regulatory Commission Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets;...

  13. Management of busbar costs and spending tradeoffs for the transition to competitive markets in electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Corio, M.R.; Boyd, G.

    1995-09-01

    Competition is changing the fundamental basis for doing business in the electricity generation market. As the market moves toward competitive market conditions, electricity will be viewed increasingly as a commodity--not only supplied to customers within a utility`s service area, but brokered and marketed outside its area as well. With movement toward retail wheeling being considered in California, Michigan, and New York, it may soon become a reality as well. This means that a utility can no longer feel secure as the monopoly supplier of electricity within its own franchise area. To remain the main supplier in its current service area and compete for customers in other service areas, utilities will need to understand and examine all the components of ``busbar costs`` at its generating units. As competition drives the market to marginal costs, generating units with costs exceeding the market clearing price for electricity may soon have a limited role in the generation market. As the industry evolves, competition in the marketplace will force uneconomic plants to reduce costs or go out of business. This paper discusses results of studies addressing the evaluation of cost effectiveness, benchmarking of cost-efficiency, and development of marginal cost curves for busbar costs based on the development and aggregation of the three key measures which determine the cost and level of output (generation): (1) reliability; (2) heat rate; and (3) planned outage factor.

  14. Bidding strategy with forecast technology based on support vector machine in the electricity market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ciwei; Bompard, Ettore; Napoli, Roberto; Wan, Qiulan; Zhou, Jian

    2008-06-01

    The participants in the electricity market are concerned very much with the market price evolution. Various technologies have been developed for price forecasting. The SVM (Support Vector Machine) has shown its good performance in market price forecasting. Two approaches for forming the market bidding strategies based on SVM are proposed. One is based on the price forecasting accuracy, with which the rejection risk is defined. The other takes into account the impact of the producer’s own bid. The risks associated with the bidding are controlled by the parameter settings. The proposed approaches have been tested on a numerical example.

  15. 77 FR 39689 - Application To Export Electric Energy; IPR-GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing North America, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; IPR-GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing North America, Inc. AGENCY: Office of... Marketing North America, Inc. (GSEMNA) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United..., Federal power marketing agencies, and other entities within the United States. The existing...

  16. Decentralization Calls for Internal Audits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCello, Jim

    1995-01-01

    Outlines internal-auditing strategies necessitated by decentralization. Describes the following areas of concern: the student activities account, student attendance, and funding delegated to the site level. Guidelines for conducting an internal audit are also included. (LMI)

  17. Role of CCTs in the evolving domestic electricity market

    SciTech Connect

    Grahame, T.J.

    1997-12-31

    The paper summarizes the key points and issues in the role of clean coal technologies in the domestic marketplace. Then suggested solutions to bringing precommercial CCTs to the market are presented. Finally, the outlook for possible actions by government and the private sector are briefly discussed.

  18. Cooling the Campus: Experiences from a Pilot Study to Reduce Electricity Use at Tufts University, USA, Using Social Marketing Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcell, Kristin; Agyeman, Julian; Rappaport, Ann

    2004-01-01

    A community-based social marketing (CBSM) campaign to reduce student electricity use and greenhouse gas emissions was undertaken at Tufts University in Medford, Massachusetts. Social marketing methods follow a commercial marketing model and involve market research into the planning, pricing, communication, distribution, and evaluation of methods…

  19. Evaluation of wholesale electric power market rules and financial risk management by agent-based simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Nanpeng

    As U.S. regional electricity markets continue to refine their market structures, designs and rules of operation in various ways, two critical issues are emerging. First, although much experience has been gained and costly and valuable lessons have been learned, there is still a lack of a systematic platform for evaluation of the impact of a new market design from both engineering and economic points of view. Second, the transition from a monopoly paradigm characterized by a guaranteed rate of return to a competitive market created various unfamiliar financial risks for various market participants, especially for the Investor Owned Utilities (IOUs) and Independent Power Producers (IPPs). This dissertation uses agent-based simulation methods to tackle the market rules evaluation and financial risk management problems. The California energy crisis in 2000-01 showed what could happen to an electricity market if it did not go through a comprehensive and rigorous testing before its implementation. Due to the complexity of the market structure, strategic interaction between the participants, and the underlying physics, it is difficult to fully evaluate the implications of potential changes to market rules. This dissertation presents a flexible and integrative method to assess market designs through agent-based simulations. Realistic simulation scenarios on a 225-bus system are constructed for evaluation of the proposed PJM-like market power mitigation rules of the California electricity market. Simulation results show that in the absence of market power mitigation, generation company (GenCo) agents facilitated by Q-learning are able to exploit the market flaws and make significantly higher profits relative to the competitive benchmark. The incorporation of PJM-like local market power mitigation rules is shown to be effective in suppressing the exercise of market power. The importance of financial risk management is exemplified by the recent financial crisis. In this

  20. Modeling hydro power plants in deregulated electricity markets : integration and application of EMCAS and VALORAGUA.

    SciTech Connect

    Thimmapuram, P.; Veselka, T.; Koritarov, V.; Vilela, S.; Pereira, R.; Silva, R.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present details of integrating an agent-based model, Electricity Market Complex Adaptive System (EMCAS) with a hydro-thermal coordination model, VALORAGUA. EMCAS provides a framework for simulating deregulated markets with flexible regulatory structure along with bidding strategies for supply offers and demand bids. VALORAGUA provides longer-term operation plans by optimizing hydro and thermal power plant operation for the entire year. In addition, EMCAS uses the price forecasts and weekly hydro schedules from VALORAGUA to provide intra-week hydro plant optimization for hourly supply offers. The integrated model is then applied to the Iberian electricity market which includes about 111 thermal plants and 38 hydro power plants. We then analyze the impact of hydro plant supply offers on the market prices and ways to minimize the Gencospsila exposure to price risk.

  1. Understanding electricity market reforms and the case of Philippine deregulation

    SciTech Connect

    Santiago, Andrea; Roxas, Fernando

    2010-03-15

    The experience of the Philippines offers lessons that should be relevant to any country seeking to deregulate its power industry. Regardless of structure, consumers must face the real price of electricity production and delivery that is closer to marginal cost. Politically motivated prices merely shift the burden from ratepayers to taxpayers. And any reform should work within a reasonable timetable. (author)

  2. Cross-correlation detection and analysis for California's electricity market based on analogous multifractal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang; Liao, Gui-ping; Li, Jian-hui; Zou, Rui-biao; Shi, Wen

    2013-03-01

    A novel method, which we called the analogous multifractal cross-correlation analysis, is proposed in this paper to study the multifractal behavior in the power-law cross-correlation between price and load in California electricity market. In addition, a statistic ρAMF -XA, which we call the analogous multifractal cross-correlation coefficient, is defined to test whether the cross-correlation between two given signals is genuine or not. Our analysis finds that both the price and load time series in California electricity market express multifractal nature. While, as indicated by the ρAMF -XA statistical test, there is a huge difference in the cross-correlation behavior between the years 1999 and 2000 in California electricity markets.

  3. Study on economic withholding in electricity market of Zhejiang Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, H.; Chen, B.; Han, Z. X.; Zhang, F. Q.

    2009-05-01

    Power suppliers with market power intend to bid high-price to obtain excessive profit when intensions in the balance of electricity supply and demand emerge. New index is thus necessary to be defined to assess the economic withholding behavior associated with both bidding prices and corresponding bidding capacity. Stages of low price section, economic withholding section and reasonable adventure section were classified in this paper. Based on bidding prices and capacity, absolute index and relative index were proposed to measure the economic withholding degree, with the former used for estimation of the total power system while the latter for comparisons amongst different units. A case study on Zhejiang electricity market indicated that these two proposed indices can accurately assess the economic withholding behavior in the electricity market. Finally, upper limit was suggested to be set for the relative index to suppress the behavior of excessive bidding prices in short of capacity.

  4. Information management in retail market design in the electricity supply industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrow, Elizabeth Florence

    The retail electricity market is no different from any other market in the need to know how much of a good is bought and by whom and when. However what sets the electricity market apart is the time definition of the "when" and therein lies the problem. It is not enough to know how much a customer uses; it is when that use takes place that is important. In an ideal world all customers would have their consumption measured accurately and in real time. Costs however are a problem in the real world and other less costly approaches are needed. Market designers then have to decide which measurement approach to apply to which group of customers. Affordability has been the main criterion used. If the costs of measurement are a small percentage annual outlay on electricity (usually based on a fixed rate) then that measurement approach is deemed appropriate. This dissertation presents a method for determining a solution that is optimal for customer and retailer. Retailers are assumed to maximize profit in providing a fixed rate and a market-based pricing option. The latter has a measurement cost attached. Customers choose the pricing option that minimizes their costs and reflects their ability to respond to market prices. The threshold level determined from this optimization depends not only on the cost of measurement but also on the level and variability of electricity prices, but most importantly it depends on the ability of an individual customer to change the pattern of electricity use across the day. The optimization method does more than replace affordability in the determination of appropriate threshold levels between measurement options. The method: (1) underscores the need to look at threshold levels not on a consumption basis but on an individual customer's ability to modify usage patterns in response to market prices, in other words ability to substitute across time periods; (2) highlights the need for a flexible approach to measurement; there must be a choice of

  5. Generator Bidding Strategies in a Competitive Electricity Market with Derating and Bid-Segment Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ning; Chow, Joe H.; Desrochers, Alan A.

    2009-07-31

    This paper develops optimal generator bidding strategies in a competitive electricity market. Starting from a generator’s cost curve, basic bidding concepts such as the break-even bid curve and the maximum profit bid curve can be readily derived. The maximum profit bid curve can be extended to account for generator availability and derating. In addition, multiple-segment block energy bids can be optimized based on the maximum profit curve and the probabilistic distribution of market clearing prices.

  6. Role of Pumped Storage Hydro Resources in Electricity Markets and System Operation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Botterud, A.; Milostan, C.; Krad, I.; Koritarov, V.

    2013-05-01

    The most common form of utility- sized energy storage system is the pumped storage hydro system. Originally, these types of storage systems were economically viable simply because they displace more expensive generating units. However, over time, as those expensive units became more efficient and costs declined, pumped hydro storage units no longer have the operational edge. As a result, in the current electricity market environment, pumped storage hydro plants are struggling. To offset this phenomenon, certain market modifications should be addressed. This paper will introduce some of the challenges faced by pumped storage hydro plants in today's markets and purpose some solutions to those problems.

  7. Analyzing interaction of electricity markets and environmental policies using equilibrium models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yihsu

    Around the world, the electric sector is evolving from a system of regulated vertically-integrated monopolies to a complex system of competing generation companies, unregulated traders, and regulated transmission and distribution. One emerging challenge faced by environmental policymakers and electricity industry is the interaction between electricity markets and environmental policies. The objective of this dissertation is to examine these interactions using large-scale computational models of electricity markets based on noncooperative game theory. In particular, this dissertation is comprised of four essays. The first essay studies the interaction of the United States Environmental Protection Agency NOx Budget Program and the mid-Atlantic electricity market. This research quantifies emissions, economic inefficiencies, price distortions, and overall social welfare under various market assumptions using engineering-economic models. The models calculate equilibria for imperfectly competitive markets---Cournot oligopoly---considering the actual landscape of power plants and transmission lines, and including the possibility of market power in the NOx allowances market. The second essay extends the results from first essay and models imperfectly competitive markets using a Stackelberg or leader-follower formulation. A leader in the power and NO x markets is assumed to have perfect foresight of its rivals' responses. The rivals' best response functions are explicitly embedded in the leader's constraints. The solutions quantify the extent to which a leader in the markets can extract economic rents on the expense of its followers. The third essay investigates the effect of implementing the European Union (EU) CO2 Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) on wholesale power prices in the Western European electricity market. This research uses theoretical and computational modeling approaches to quantify the degree to which CO2 costs were passed on to power prices, and quantifies the

  8. Analysis of an Agent-based Electricity Market Model with Renewable Energy Power Plants by Wind and Solar Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwagami, Akio; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    In recent years, electricity markets were organized in many developed countries in the deregulation process of electric power industries. There have been many studies on electricity markets from the viewpoints of economics, mathematics, computer science, etc. Especially, agent-based models of electricity markets have been extensively studied. Meanwhile, many countries promote use of renewable energy for electricity generation. In this paper, we construct and analyze an agent-based model of electricity markets in which wind and photovoltaic power generation firms are introduced. Our results suggest that wind power generation needs to be improved in efficiency to survive in the market, and that bid prices of photovoltaic power generation are rather affected by change of the insolation amount than by change of the total demand.

  9. The welfare effects of integrating renewable energy into electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamadrid, Alberto J.

    The challenges of deploying more renewable energy sources on an electric grid are caused largely by their inherent variability. In this context, energy storage can help make the electric delivery system more reliable by mitigating this variability. This thesis analyzes a series of models for procuring electricity and ancillary services for both individuals and social planners with high penetrations of stochastic wind energy. The results obtained for an individual decision maker using stochastic optimization are ambiguous, with closed form solutions dependent on technological parameters, and no consideration of the system reliability. The social planner models correctly reflect the effect of system reliability, and in the case of a Stochastic, Security Constrained Optimal Power Flow (S-SC-OPF or SuperOPF), determine reserve capacity endogenously so that system reliability is maintained. A single-period SuperOPF shows that including ramping costs in the objective function leads to more wind spilling and increased capacity requirements for reliability. However, this model does not reflect the inter temporal tradeoffs of using Energy Storage Systems (ESS) to improve reliability and mitigate wind variability. The results with the multiperiod SuperOPF determine the optimum use of storage for a typical day, and compare the effects of collocating ESS at wind sites with the same amount of storage (deferrable demand) located at demand centers. The collocated ESS has slightly lower operating costs and spills less wind generation compared to deferrable demand, but the total amount of conventional generating capacity needed for system adequacy is higher. In terms of the total system costs, that include the capital cost of conventional generating capacity, the costs with deferrable demand is substantially lower because the daily demand profile is flattened and less conventional generation capacity is then needed for reliability purposes. The analysis also demonstrates that the

  10. Regulatory environment and its impact on the market value of investor-owned electric utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishwanathan, Raman

    While other regulated industries have one by one been exposed to competitive reform, electric power, for over eighty years, has remained a great monopoly. For all those years, the vertically integrated suppliers of electricity in the United States have been assigned exclusive territorial (consumer) franchises and have been closely regulated. This environment is in the process change because the electric power industry is currently undergoing some dramatic adjustments. Since 1992, a number of states have initiated regulatory reform and are moving to allow retail customers to choose their energy supplier. There has also been a considerable federal government role in encouraging competition in the generation and transmission of electricity. The objective of this research is to investigate the reaction of investors to the prevailing regulatory environment in the electric utility industry by analyzing the market-to-book value for investor-owned electric utilities in the United States as a gauge of investor concern or support for change. In this study, the variable of interest is the market valuation of utilities, as it captures investor confidence to changes in the regulatory environment. Initially a classic regression model is analyzed on the full sample (of the 96 investor-owned utilities for the years 1992 through 1996), providing a total number of 480 (96 firms over 5 years) observations. Later fixed- and random-effects models are analyzed for the same full-sample model specified in the previous analysis. Also, the analysis is carried forward to examine the impact of the size of the utility and its degree of reliability on nuclear power generation on market values. In the period of this study, 1992--1996, the financial security markets downgraded utilities that were still operating in a regulated environment or had a substantial percentage of their power generation from nuclear power plants. It was also found that the financial market was sensitive to the size of

  11. Capacity withholding in wholesale electricity markets: The experience in England and Wales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, James Arnold

    This thesis examines the incentives wholesale electricity generators face to withhold generating capacity from centralized electricity spot markets. The first chapter includes a brief history of electricity industry regulation in England and Wales and in the United States, including a description of key institutional features of England and Wales' restructured electricity market. The first chapter also includes a review of the literature on both bid price manipulation and capacity bid manipulation in centralized electricity markets. The second chapter details a theoretical model of wholesale generator behavior in a single price electricity market. A duopoly model is specified under the assumption that demand is non-stochastic. This model assumes that duopoly generators offer to sell electricity at their marginal cost, but can withhold a continuous segment of their capacity from the market. The Nash equilibrium withholding strategy of this model involves each duopoly generator withholding so that it produces the Cournot equilibrium output. A monopoly model along the lines of the duopoly model is specified and simulated under the assumption that demand is stochastic. The optimal strategy depends on the degree of demand uncertainty. When there is a moderate degree of demand uncertainty, the optimal withholding strategy involves production inefficiencies. When there is a high degree of demand uncertainty, the optimal monopoly quantity is greater than the optimal output level when demand is non-stochastic. The third chapter contains an empirical examination of the behavior of generators in the wholesale electricity market in England and Wales in the early 1990's. The wholesale market in England and Wales is analyzed because the industry structure in the early 1990's created a natural experiment, which is described in this chapter, whereby one of the two dominant generators had no incentive to behave non-competitively. This chapter develops a classification methodology

  12. Quantifying the value of hydropower in the electric grid : role of hydropower in existing markets.

    SciTech Connect

    Loose, Verne W.

    2011-01-01

    The electrical power industry is facing the prospect of integrating a significant addition of variable generation technologies in the next several decades, primarily from wind and solar facilities. Overall, transmission and generation reserve levels are decreasing and power system infrastructure in general is aging. To maintain grid reliability modernization and expansion of the power system as well as more optimized use of existing resources will be required. Conventional and pumped storage hydroelectric facilities can provide an increasingly significant contribution to power system reliability by providing energy, capacity and other ancillary services. However, the potential role of hydroelectric power will be affected by another transition that the industry currently experiences - the evolution and expansion of electricity markets. This evolution to market-based acquisition of generation resources and grid management is taking place in a heterogeneous manner. Some North American regions are moving toward full-featured markets while other regions operate without formal markets. Yet other U.S. regions are partially evolved. This report examines the current structure of electric industry acquisition of energy and ancillary services in different regions organized along different structures, reports on the current role of hydroelectric facilities in various regions, and attempts to identify features of market and scheduling areas that either promote or thwart the increased role that hydroelectric power can play in the future. This report is part of a larger effort led by the Electric Power Research Institute with purpose of examining the potential for hydroelectric facilities to play a greater role in balancing the grid in an era of greater penetration of variable renewable energy technologies. Other topics that will be addressed in this larger effort include industry case studies of specific conventional and hydro-electric facilities, systemic operating constraints

  13. FACTS Devices Cost Recovery During Congestion Management in Deregulated Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ashwani Kumar; Mittapalli, Ram Kumar; Pal, Yash

    2015-07-01

    In future electricity markets, flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) devices will play key role for providing ancillary services. Since huge cost is involved for the FACTS devices placement in the power system, the cost invested has to be recovered in their life time for the replacement of these devices. The FACTS devices in future electricity markets can act as an ancillary services provider and have to be remunerated. The main contributions of the paper are: (1) investment recovery of FACTS devices during congestion management such as static VAR compensator and unified power flow controller along with thyristor controlled series compensator using non-linear bid curves, (2) the impact of ZIP load model on the FACTS cost recovery of the devices, (3) the comparison of results obtained without ZIP load model for both pool and hybrid market model, (4) secure bilateral transactions incorporation in hybrid market model. An optimal power flow based approach has been developed for maximizing social welfare including FACTS devices cost. The optimal placement of the FACTS devices have been obtained based on maximum social welfare. The results have been obtained for both pool and hybrid electricity market for IEEE 24-bus RTS.

  14. Efficiency measurement for regulatory market-structure regimes of the electric power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briceno, Cecilia Maria

    This dissertation provides an empirical evaluation of market structure reforms that have been implemented in the Electric Power Industry between 1980 and 1999. The analysis is based on the experience of Latin American countries and to some extent of OECD countries. Market structure reforms pose certain tradeoffs. Economic theory suggests that such tradeoffs depend on parameters that can only be estimated econometrically. The tradeoffs arise in industries where vertical relationships between production layers result from the interaction between competitive markets and regulated markets. The implications of different structural arrangements can be clarified by empirical work. This comparative analysis of the recent international experience in the electric power industry addresses these implications. The results of this research support the claim that vertical separation between generation, transmission and distribution is the most efficient regulatory regime, and, as such, a central feature of reform processes in the electric power industry. The empirical analysis uses the distance function as an analytical tool to estimate relative efficiency for each market structure arrangement. For this purpose, the present study assembles a panel set covering 40 countries during a 20-year period.

  15. 76 FR 66211 - Enhancement of Electricity Market Surveillance and Analysis Through Ongoing Electronic Delivery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    .... at 31,730-32. \\12\\ Regional Transmission Organizations, Order No. 2000, 65 FR 809 (Jan. 6, 2000... Filings, Order No. 714, 73 FR 57515, FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,276 (2008). \\44\\ Order No. 714, FERC Stats... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 35 Enhancement of Electricity Market Surveillance and...

  16. 77 FR 26674 - Enhancement of Electricity Market Surveillance and Analysis Through Ongoing Electronic Delivery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... Regional Transmission Organizations and Independent System Operators, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 76 FR... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 35 Enhancement of Electricity Market Surveillance and Analysis... ensure just and reasonable rates. \\1\\ 16 U.S.C. 825(b), 825f(a). II. Background 2. Wholesale...

  17. 75 FR 27330 - Credit Reforms in Organized Wholesale Electric Markets; Notice of Agenda for Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Credit Reforms in Organized Wholesale Electric Markets; Notice of Agenda for Technical Conference May 5, 2010. As announced in the Notice of Technical Conference issued on April 15, 2010, Commission staff will hold...

  18. 78 FR 43198 - Flexible and Local Resources Needed for Reliability in the California Wholesale Electric Market...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Flexible and Local Resources Needed for Reliability in the California Wholesale Electric Market; Notice of Staff Technical Conference This notice establishes the agenda and topics for discussion at the...

  19. Forward and Spot Prices in Multi-Settlement Wholesale Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrieu, Jeremy

    In organized wholesale electricity markets, power is sold competitively in a multi-unit multi-settlement single-price auction comprised of a forward and a spot market. This dissertation attempts to understand the structure of the forward premium in these markets, and to identify the factors that may lead forward and spot prices to converge or diverge. These markets are unique in that the forward demand is price-sensitive, while spot residual demand is perfectly inelastic and must be met in full, a crucial design feature the literature often glosses over. An important contribution of this dissertation is the explicit modeling of each market separately in order to understand how generation and load choose to act in each one, and the consequences of these actions on equilibrium prices and quantities given that firms maximize joint profits over both markets. In the first essay, I construct a two-settlement model of electricity prices in which firms that own asymmetric capacity-constrained units facing convex costs compete to meet demand from consumers, first in quantities, then in prices. I show that the forward premium depends on the costliness of spot production relative to firms' ability to exercise market power by setting quantities in the forward market. In the second essay, I test the model from the first essay with unit-level capacity and marginal cost data from the California Independent System Operator (CAISO). I show that the model closely replicates observed price formation in the CAISO. In the third essay, I estimate a time series model of the CAISO forward premium in order to measure the impact that virtual bidding has had on forward and spot price convergence in California between April 2009 and March 2014. I find virtual bidding to have caused forward and spot prices to diverge due to the large number of market participants looking to hedge against - or speculate on - the occurrence of infrequent but large spot price spikes by placing virtual demand bids.

  20. Benefits and Challenges of Achieving a Mainstream Market for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Ungar, Edward; Mueller, Howard; Smith, Brett

    2010-08-01

    The Plug-in Hybrid electric Vehicle (PHEV) Market Introduction Study Final Report identified a range of policies, incentives and regulations designed to enhance the probability of success in commercializing PHEVs as they enter the automotive marketplace starting in 2010. The objective of the comprehensive PHEV Value Proposition study, which encompasses the PHEV Market Introduction Study, is to better understand the value proposition that PHEVs (as well as other plug-in electric vehicle platforms - PEVs) provide to the auto companies themselves, to the consumer and to the public at large as represented by the government and its public policies. In this report we use the more inclusive term PEVs, to include PHEVs, BEVs (battery electric vehicles that operate only on battery) and EREVs (extended range electric vehicles that combine battery electric vehicles with an internal combustion engine that charges the battery as needed). The objective of Taratec's contribution to Phase 2 of the PHEV Value Proposition Study is to develop a clear understanding of the benefits of PEVs to three stakeholders - auto original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), utilities, and the government - and of the technical and commercial challenges and risks to be overcome in order to achieve commercial success for these vehicles. The goal is to understand the technical and commercial challenges in moving from the 'early adopters' at the point of market introduction of these vehicles to a 'sustainable' mainstream market in which PEVs and other PEVs represent a normal, commercially available and attractive vehicle to the mainstream consumer. For the purpose of this study, that sustainable market is assumed to be in place in the 2030 timeframe. The principal focus of the study is to better understand the technical and commercial challenges in the transition from early adopters to a sustainable mainstream consumer market. Effectively, that translates to understanding the challenges to be overcome

  1. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on electric utility systems

    SciTech Connect

    Veselka, T.D.; Portante, E.C.; Koritarov, V.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum estimates the effects of alternative contractual commitments that may be initiated by the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Office. It also studies hydropower operational restrictions at the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects in combination with these alternatives. Power marketing and hydropower operational effects are estimated in support of Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Electricity production and capacity expansion for utility systems that will be directly affected by alternatives specified in the EIS are simulated. Cost estimates are presented by utility type and for various activities such as capacity expansion, generation, long-term firm purchases and sales, fixed operation and maintenance expenses, and spot market activities. Operational changes at hydropower facilities are also investigated.

  2. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Market Introduction Study: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sikes, Karen; Gross, Thomas; Lin, Zhenhong; Sullivan, John; Cleary, Timothy; Ward, Jake

    2010-02-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Sentech, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)/University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have conducted a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Market Introduction Study to identify and assess the effect of potential policies, regulations, and temporary incentives as key enablers for a successful market debut. The timeframe over which market-stimulating incentives would be implemented - and the timeframe over which they would be phased out - are suggested. Possible sources of revenue to help fund these mechanisms are also presented. In addition, pinch points likely to emerge during market growth are identified and proposed solutions presented. Finally, modeling results from ORNL's Market Acceptance of Advanced Automotive Technologies (MA3T) Model and UMTRI's Virtual AutoMotive MarketPlace (VAMMP) Model were used to quantify the expected effectiveness of the proposed policies and to recommend a consensus strategy aimed at transitioning what begins as a niche industry into a thriving and sustainable market by 2030. The primary objective of the PHEV Market Introduction Study is to identify the most effective means for accelerating the commercialization of PHEVs in order to support national energy and economic goals. Ideally, these mechanisms would maximize PHEV sales while minimizing federal expenditures. To develop a robust market acceleration program, incentives and policies must be examined in light of: (1) clarity and transparency of the market signals they send to the consumer; (2) expenditures and resources needed to support them; (3) expected impacts on the market for PHEVs; (4) incentives that are compatible and/or supportive of each other; (5) complexity of institutional and regulatory coordination needed; and (6) sources of funding.

  3. Green marketing in the Massachusetts electric company retail competition pilot program

    SciTech Connect

    Rothstein, S.M.; Fang, J.M.

    1997-10-01

    With electric industry restructuring initiatives being introduced on the state and federal levels, retail access pilot programs serve an important function for examining competitive market issues, as well as marketing strategies and customer reactions to different power supply options. The experience gained through these pilots provides important insights into future power market operations, including the market for green power. The Massachusetts Electric Company`s (MECo`s) Choice: New England pilot for residential and small-business customers was a voluntary program developed primarily to test the billing and metering logistics that distribution companies will need in the competitive market. The pilot also offered a preview of program implementation and marketing under customer choice. It was the first retail competition pilot to explicitly include green power options in program design. The MECo pilot`s energy suppliers were selected through the issuance of a request for proposals (RFP). Respondents were asked to submit bids in one or more of three energy supply categories-price, green, and other options. These options were developed by the pilot administrator through internal meetings, discussions with state officials and other stakeholders, and a review of information from other similar pilots. For the green option, the pilot administrator did not establish a green standard. Instead, suppliers were allowed to submit offers that promoted environmental stewardship. Customer response to the different green options are reported. The pilot results clearly demonstrate that, in a competitive situation, there is interest in a variety of energy supply options, including green options. 2 tabs.

  4. 77 FR 62510 - C.N. Brown Electricity, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission C.N. Brown Electricity, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of C.N. Brown Electricity, LLC's application for market-based...

  5. 77 FR 73650 - Electricity NH, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Electricity NH, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Electricity NH, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  6. 77 FR 68768 - Electricity Market Transparency Provisions of Section 220 of the Federal Power Act; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... Commission Meeting Room at 888 First Street NE., Washington, DC 20426. \\1\\ Electricity Market Transparency Provisions of Section 220 of the Federal Power Act, Order No. 768, 77 FR 61896 (Oct. 11, 2012), FERC Stats... Energy Regulatory Commission Electricity Market Transparency Provisions of Section 220 of the...

  7. 78 FR 29131 - Electricity MASS, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Electricity MASS, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Electricity MASS, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  8. 47 CFR 2.924 - Marketing of electrically identical equipment having multiple trade names and models or type...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marketing of electrically identical equipment having multiple trade names and models or type numbers under the same FCC Identifier. 2.924 Section 2.924... Authorizations § 2.924 Marketing of electrically identical equipment having multiple trade names and models...

  9. 76 FR 77815 - Ethical Electric Benefit Co.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Ethical Electric Benefit Co.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Ethical Electric Benefit Co.'s application for market-based...

  10. 77 FR 9227 - AP Gas & Electric (NJ), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AP Gas & Electric (NJ), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of AP Gas & Electric (NJ), LLC's application for market-based rate...

  11. 77 FR 9227 - AP Gas & Electric (NY), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AP Gas & Electric (NY), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of AP Gas & Electric (NY), LLC's application for market-based rate...

  12. 77 FR 9228 - AP Gas & Electric (IL), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AP Gas & Electric (IL), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of AP Gas & Electric (IL), LLC's application for market-based rate...

  13. 77 FR 9227 - AP Gas & Electric (OH), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AP Gas & Electric (OH), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of AP Gas & Electric (OH), LLC's application for market-based rate...

  14. 77 FR 9228 - AP Gas & Electric (MD), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AP Gas & Electric (MD), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of AP Gas & Electric (MD), LLC's application for market-based rate...

  15. Utility cost accounting and market pricing of electricity at the Naval Postgraduate School. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Murdter, M.J.

    1994-06-01

    This thesis demonstrates that significant cost savings may be realized at the Naval Postgraduate School by accounting for utilities costs with market pricing methods instead of engineering estimates of consumption for nonmetered users and by streamlining the current invoice processing procedures. Electricity demand curves for each element of the supplier rate structure were constructed from recent consumption data and price elasticities of demand from the literature. The deadweight losses from overconsumption were calculated and compared to the costs of installing meters capable of recording time-of-use and peak demand. The current invoice processing procedures were analyzed and spreadsheet tools were developed to streamline the processes and avoid interest charges from late payment. The results of the research indicate that market pricing of electricity and accelerated invoice processing would result in significant savings to the Naval Postgraduate School. Utilities, Electricity, Deadweight loss.

  16. Issues concerning centralized versus decentralized power deployment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalf, Kenneth J.; Harty, Richard B.; Robin, James F.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a study of proposed lunar base architectures to identify issues concerning centralized and decentralized power system deployment options are presented. The power system consists of the energy producing system (power plant), the power conditioning components used to convert the generated power into the form desired for transmission, the transmission lines that conduct this power from the power sources to the loads, and the primary power conditioning hardware located at the user end. Three power system architectures, centralized, hybrid, and decentralized, were evaluated during the course of this study. Candidate power sources were characterized with respect to mass and radiator area. Two electrical models were created for each architecture to identify the preferred method of power transmission, dc or ac. Each model allowed the transmission voltage level to be varied at assess the impact on power system mass. The ac power system models also permitted the transmission line configurations and placements to determine the best conductor construction and installation location. Key parameters used to evaluate each configuration were power source and power conditioning component efficiencies, masses, and radiator areas; transmission line masses and operating temperatures; and total system mass.

  17. Optimal Rescheduling of Generators for Congestion Management and Benefit Maximization in a Decentralized Bilateral Multi-transactions Power Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Brijesh; Mahanty, Ranjit; Singh, S. P.

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a framework to achieve an optimal power flow solution in a decentralized bilateral multitransaction-based market. An independent optimal dispatch solution has been used for each market. The interior point (IP)-based optimization technique has been used for finding a global economic optimal solution of the whole system. In this method, all the participants try to maximize their own profits with the help of system information announced by the operator. In the present work, a parallel algorithm has been used to find out a global optimum solution in decentralized market model. The study has been carried out on a modified IEEE-30 bus system. The results show that the suggested decentralized approach can provide a better optimal solution. The obtained results show the effectiveness of IP optimization-based optimal generator schedule and congestion management in the decentralized market.

  18. Nuclear power and the market value of the shares of electric utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Joseph T.

    The most basic principle of security valuation is that market prices are determined by investors' expectations of the firm's performance in the future. These expectations are generally understood to be related to the risk that investors will bear by holding the firm's equity. There is considerable evidence that financial statements prepared in accordance with accrual-based accounting standards consistent with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) have information content relevant to the establishment of market prices. In 2001, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Statement of Financial Accounting Standard No. 143, "Accounting for Asset Retirement Obligations," changing the accounting standards that must be used to prepare financial statements. This paper investigates the effect that investment in nuclear power has on the market value of electric utilities and the impact on the securities markets of the significant changes in financial statement presentation mandated by this new standard.

  19. Oligopolistic competition in wholesale electricity markets: Large-scale simulation and policy analysis using complementarity models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helman, E. Udi

    This dissertation conducts research into the large-scale simulation of oligopolistic competition in wholesale electricity markets. The dissertation has two parts. Part I is an examination of the structure and properties of several spatial, or network, equilibrium models of oligopolistic electricity markets formulated as mixed linear complementarity problems (LCP). Part II is a large-scale application of such models to the electricity system that encompasses most of the United States east of the Rocky Mountains, the Eastern Interconnection. Part I consists of Chapters 1 to 6. The models developed in this part continue research into mixed LCP models of oligopolistic electricity markets initiated by Hobbs [67] and subsequently developed by Metzler [87] and Metzler, Hobbs and Pang [88]. Hobbs' central contribution is a network market model with Cournot competition in generation and a price-taking spatial arbitrage firm that eliminates spatial price discrimination by the Cournot firms. In one variant, the solution to this model is shown to be equivalent to the "no arbitrage" condition in a "pool" market, in which a Regional Transmission Operator optimizes spot sales such that the congestion price between two locations is exactly equivalent to the difference in the energy prices at those locations (commonly known as locational marginal pricing). Extensions to this model are presented in Chapters 5 and 6. One of these is a market model with a profit-maximizing arbitrage firm. This model is structured as a mathematical program with equilibrium constraints (MPEC), but due to the linearity of its constraints, can be solved as a mixed LCP. Part II consists of Chapters 7 to 12. The core of these chapters is a large-scale simulation of the U.S. Eastern Interconnection applying one of the Cournot competition with arbitrage models. This is the first oligopolistic equilibrium market model to encompass the full Eastern Interconnection with a realistic network representation (using

  20. A comparison of pay-as-bid and marginal pricing in electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yongjun

    This thesis investigates the behaviour of electricity markets under marginal and pay-as-bid pricing. Marginal pricing is believed to yield the maximum social welfare and is currently implemented by most electricity markets. However, in view of recent electricity market failures, pay-as-bid has been extensively discussed as a possible alternative to marginal pricing. In this research, marginal and pay-as-bid pricing have been analyzed in electricity markets with both perfect and imperfect competition. The perfect competition case is studied under both exact and uncertain system marginal cost prediction. The comparison of the two pricing methods is conducted through two steps: (i) identify the best offer strategy of the generating companies (gencos); (ii) analyze the market performance under these optimum genco strategies. The analysis results together with numerical simulations show that pay-as-bid and marginal pricing are equivalent in a perfect market with exact system marginal cost prediction. In perfect markets with uncertain demand prediction, the two pricing methods are also equivalent but in an expected value sense. If we compare from the perspective of second order statistics, all market performance measures exhibit much lower values under pay-as-bid than under marginal pricing. The risk of deviating from the mean is therefore much higher under marginal pricing than under pay-as-bid. In an imperfect competition market with exact demand prediction, the research shows that pay-as-bid pricing yields lower consumer payments and lower genco profits. This research provides quantitative evidence that challenges some common claims about pay-as-bid pricing. One is that under pay-as-bid, participants would soon learn how to offer so as to obtain the same or higher profits than what they would have obtained under marginal pricing. This research however shows that, under pay-as-bid, participants can at best earn the same profit or expected profit as under marginal

  1. Deregulation of the California electric power industry: An analysis of electric and natural gas corporate mergers and their effect on the California electric power market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornbuckle, James Dixon

    Deregulation of the electric utility industry in California is moving in a direction that places greater reliance on the market forces of competition. Investor owned utilities (IOU's) are using mergers and acquisitions to improve their ability to compete in this new environment. Two large mergers were proposed in 1996 that could affect the California market. The first is between Enron Corporation, a large power marketer and Portland General Corporation, owner of Portland General Electric. The second is between Pacific Enterprises Inc., owner of Southern California Gas Company, the largest natural gas utility in the U. S., and Enova Corporation, owner of San Diego Gas and Electric Company. Understanding the impact of these mergers on the California electric power market is the focus of this study. This study examines hypotheses dealing with: (1) Merger Strategy, (2) Efficiency, and (3) Market Power. Using the Miles and Snow (1978) typology, I develop a strategic orientation model for the merger participants and their competitors. The results suggest a two-stage strategic orientation: (1) regulated core business stage, where the firms follow a Defender strategy, and (2) unregulated business stage, where the firms follow a Prospector strategy. Further, the results show the mergers are consistent with the strategy of Enron and Pacific Enterprises. Event study methodology, dollar gains/losses and market value weighted returns are used to determine if the mergers support the efficiency hypothesis. The evidence suggests the mergers lead to increased competitive advantage through improved efficiency for the participants. The results also suggest the mergers do not harm the rivals. The results of structural changes made by the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) in deregulation of the California market and analysis of the mergers by the CPUC and the Public Utility Commission of Oregon suggest that the exercise of market power is not a significant issue. Finally

  2. Next-generation building energy management systems and implications for electricity markets.

    SciTech Connect

    Zavala, V. M.; Thomas, C.; Zimmerman, M.; Ott, A.

    2011-08-11

    The U.S. national electric grid is facing significant changes due to aggressive federal and state targets to decrease emissions while improving grid efficiency and reliability. Additional challenges include supply/demand imbalances, transmission constraints, and aging infrastructure. A significant number of technologies are emerging under this environment including renewable generation, distributed storage, and energy management systems. In this paper, we claim that predictive energy management systems can play a significant role in achieving federal and state targets. These systems can merge sensor data and predictive statistical models, thereby allowing for a more proactive modulation of building energy usage as external weather and market signals change. A key observation is that these predictive capabilities, coupled with the fast responsiveness of air handling units and storage devices, can enable participation in several markets such as the day-ahead and real-time pricing markets, demand and reserves markets, and ancillary services markets. Participation in these markets has implications for both market prices and reliability and can help balance the integration of intermittent renewable resources. In addition, these emerging predictive energy management systems are inexpensive and easy to deploy, allowing for broad building participation in utility centric programs.

  3. Decentralized Management and School Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odden, Allan

    1994-01-01

    Student achievement needs to rise much faster than resources to attain high levels of cognitive achievement for all. The article discusses the nature of funding changes, changes in achievement, productivity problems, central notions of systemic reform (decentralized management), and the new type of school finance policy structure. (SM)

  4. Implementation of Decentralized School Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Brian J.

    Decentralized school budgeting or school-based budgeting is relatively new to Canada. It means that school boards or central office administrators delegate to principals authority to make some budget decisions. High expectations for effects of the practice include greater efficiency in the allocation of resources, increased flexibility in the…

  5. Organizational precedents for ownership and management of decentralized renewable-energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Meunier, R.; Silversmith, J.A.

    1981-03-01

    Three existing organizational types that meet the decentralization criteria of local consumer ownership and control - cooperatives, Rural Electric Cooperatives, and municipal utilities - are examined. These three organizational precedents are analyzed in terms of their histories, structures, legal powers, sources of capital, and social and political aspects. Examples of related experiments with renewable energy technologies are given, and inferences are drawn regarding the organizations' suitability as vehicles for future implementation of decentralized renewable energy systems.

  6. Price Responsive Demand in New York Wholesale Electricity Market using OpenADR

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Joyce Jihyun; Kiliccote, Sila

    2012-06-01

    In New York State, the default electricity pricing for large customers is Mandatory Hourly Pricing (MHP), which is charged based on zonal day-ahead market price for energy. With MHP, retail customers can adjust their building load to an economically optimal level according to hourly electricity prices. Yet, many customers seek alternative pricing options such as fixed rates through retail access for their electricity supply. Open Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) is an XML (eXtensible Markup Language) based information exchange model that communicates price and reliability information. It allows customers to evaluate hourly prices and provide demand response in an automated fashion to minimize electricity costs. This document shows how OpenADR can support MHP and facilitate price responsive demand for large commercial customers in New York City.

  7. Electric and gas utility marketing of residential energy conservation case studies

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-01

    The objective of this research was to obtain information about utility conservation marketing techniques from companies actively engaged in performing residential conservation services. Many utilities currently are offering comprehensive services (audits, listing of contractors and lenders, post-installation inspection, advertising, and performing consumer research). Activities are reported for the following utilities: Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation; Tampa Electric Company; Memphis Light, Gas, and Water Division; Northern States Power-Wisconsin; Public Service Company of Colorado; Arizona Public Service Company; Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Sacramento Municipal Utility District; and Pacific Power and Light Company.

  8. A Primer on Electric Utilities, Deregulation, and Restructuring of U.S. Electricity Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, William M.

    2002-06-03

    This primer is offered as an introduction to utility restructuring to better prepare readers for ongoing changes in public utilities and associated energy markets. It is written for use by individuals with responsibility for the management of facilities that use energy, including energy managers, procurement staff, and managers with responsibility for facility operations and budgets. The primer was prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory under sponsorship from the U.S. Department of Energy?s Federal Energy Management Program. The impetus for this primer originally came from the Government Services Administration who supported its initial development.

  9. The United States industrial electric motor systems market opportunities assessment: Key results

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, M.; Olszewski, M.; Scheihing, P.

    1999-07-01

    This paper summarizes the findings of the US Industrial Electric Motor Systems Market Opportunities Assessment. The Market Assessment was sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The project's principal objectives were to create a detailed portrait of the inventory of motor systems currently in use in US industrial facilities, estimate motor system energy use and potential for energy savings. The research and analysis to support these objectives consisted primarily of on-site motor system inventories of a probability sample of 354 manufacturing facilities nationwide. In addition to characterizing the motor systems in use, the research effort also gathered detailed information on motor system management and purchasing practices. This paper presents key findings from the Market Assessment in regard to patterns of motor energy use, saturation of energy efficiency measures such as efficient motors and adjustable speed drives, and motor system purchase and maintenance practices.

  10. The role of clean coal technologies in the evolving domestic electricity market

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, K.

    1997-12-31

    The paper discusses the following: What will the future electric industry look like; The industry as it has been until recently; The critical factors of price and cost; The movement to allow customer choice in the states; The role of the federal government; Elements of the process, rationales, implications and new requirements. The paper then describes what the restructured market will look like and the transition process to that end.

  11. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets. Best Practices from International Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, Jaquelin; Bird, Lori; Heeter, Jenny; Arent, Douglas J.

    2012-04-30

    Many countries—reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems—are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This document summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. There is no one-size-fits-all approach; each country studied has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. This study also emphatically underscores the value of countries sharing their experiences. The more diverse and robust the experience base from which a country can draw, the more likely that it will be able to implement an appropriate, optimized, and system-wide approach.

  12. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.; Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Arent, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    Many countries -- reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems -- are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This study documents the diverse approaches to effective integration of variable renewable energy among six countries -- Australia (South Australia), Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Spain, and the United States (Western region-Colorado and Texas)-- and summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. Each country has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. The ability to maintain a broad ecosystem perspective, to organize and make available the wealth of experiences, and to ensure a clear path from analysis to enactment should be the primary focus going forward.

  13. An Integrated Design approach to Power Systems: from Power Flows to Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Subhonmesh

    Power system is at the brink of change. Engineering needs, economic forces and environmental factors are the main drivers of this change. The vision is to build a smart electrical grid and a smarter market mechanism around it to fulfill mandates on clean energy. Looking at engineering and economic issues in isolation is no longer an option today; it needs an integrated design approach. In this thesis, I shall revisit some of the classical questions on the engineering operation of power systems that deals with the nonconvexity of power flow equations. Then I shall explore some issues of the interaction of these power flow equations on the electricity markets to address the fundamental issue of market power in a deregulated market environment. Finally, motivated by the emergence of new storage technologies, I present an interesting result on the investment decision problem of placing storage over a power network. The goal of this study is to demonstrate that modern optimization and game theory can provide unique insights into this complex system. Some of the ideas carry over to applications beyond power systems.

  14. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets. Best Practices from International Experience, Summary for Policymakers

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, Jaquelin; Bird, Lori; Heeter, Jenny; Arent, Douglas J.

    2012-04-30

    Many countries - reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems - are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This document summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. There is no one-size-fits-all approach; each country studied has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. This study also emphatically underscores the value of countries sharing their experiences. The more diverse and robust the experience base from which a country can draw, the more likely that it will be able to implement an appropriate, optimized, and system-wide approach.

  15. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience, Summary for Policymakers

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.; Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Arent, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    Many countries -- reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems -- are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This document summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. There is no one-size-fits-all approach; each country studied has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. This study also emphatically underscores the value of countries sharing their experiences. The more diverse and robust the experience base from which a country can draw, the more likely that it will be able to implement an appropriate, optimized, and system-wide approach.

  16. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Explores the role of marketing in the modern firm and the key tasks of marketing management. Defines the term "marketing" and discusses it as an economic concept. Discusses three key marketing principals. (RKM)

  17. Incentivizing Decentralized Sanitation: The Role of Discount Rates.

    PubMed

    Wood, Alison; Blackhurst, Michael; Garland, Jay L; Lawler, Desmond F

    2016-06-21

    In adoption decisions for decentralized sanitation technologies, two decision makers are involved: the public utility and the individual homeowner. Standard life cycle cost is calculated from the perspective of the utility, which uses a market-based discount rate in these calculations. However, both decision-makers must be considered, including their differing perceptions of the time trade-offs inherent in a stream of costs and benefits. This study uses the discount rate as a proxy for these perceptions and decision-maker preferences. The results in two case studies emphasize the dependence on location of such analyses. Falmouth, Massachusetts, appears to be a good candidate for incentivizing decentralized sanitation while the Allegheny County Sanitary Authority service area in Pennsylvania appears to have no need for similar incentives. This method can be applied to any two-party decision in which the parties are expected to have different discount rates. PMID:27183382

  18. Electricity Market Forecasting via Low-Rank Multi-Kernel Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kekatos, Vassilis; Zhang, Yu; Giannakis, Georgios B.

    2014-12-01

    The smart grid vision entails advanced information technology and data analytics to enhance the efficiency, sustainability, and economics of the power grid infrastructure. Aligned to this end, modern statistical learning tools are leveraged here for electricity market inference. Day-ahead price forecasting is cast as a low-rank kernel learning problem. Uniquely exploiting the market clearing process, congestion patterns are modeled as rank-one components in the matrix of spatio-temporally varying prices. Through a novel nuclear norm-based regularization, kernels across pricing nodes and hours can be systematically selected. Even though market-wide forecasting is beneficial from a learning perspective, it involves processing high-dimensional market data. The latter becomes possible after devising a block-coordinate descent algorithm for solving the non-convex optimization problem involved. The algorithm utilizes results from block-sparse vector recovery and is guaranteed to converge to a stationary point. Numerical tests on real data from the Midwest ISO (MISO) market corroborate the prediction accuracy, computational efficiency, and the interpretative merits of the developed approach over existing alternatives.

  19. Electricity for the CPI: Free wheeling in a deregulated market. [Chemical Processing Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, G.

    1995-01-01

    US process plant operators who think that they're paying too much for electric power may soon have a new option: buying power from a less-expensive supplier and having it delivered through local utility power lines. Known as retail wheeling, the prospective open-market purchase of electricity reflects a deregulation in the electrical power industry that has already taken place in the US telecommunications and natural gas businesses. Epact, the US Energy Policy Act of 1992, has already opened up the nation's transmission lines to wholesale competition, and offers a way to open up retail competition as well. Implementation at the retail level is up to each state, as regulations must be approved by state utility regulatory commissions. The paper describes deregulation, how wheeling works in other countries, and implementation of retail wheeling by some of the states.

  20. The social control of energy: A case for the promise of decentralized solar technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmer, R. W.

    1980-05-01

    Decentralized solar technology and centralized electric utilities were contrasted in the ways they assign property rights in capital and energy output; in the assignment of operational control; and in the means of monitoring, policing, and enforcing property rights. An analogy was drawn between the decision of an energy consumer to use decentralized solar and the decision of a firm to vertically integrate, that is, to extend the boundary of a the firm to vertically integrate, that is, to extend the boundary of the firm by making inputs or further processing output. Decentralized solar energy production offers the small energy consumer the chance to cut ties to outside suppliers--to vertically integrate energy production into the home or business. The development of this analogy provides insight into important noneconomic aspects of solar energy, and it points clearly to the lighter burdens of social management offered by decentralized solar technology.

  1. Contract-based electricity markets in developing countries: Overcoming inefficiency constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, M. N. Susantha

    The electric utility sector throughout the world has been undergoing significant changes. It is changing from its traditional, central-station generation model managed under a vertically integrated monopoly to a more market-dependent business. In the rich industrialized countries, this change has progressed rapidly with the emergence of competitive markets---not only in the area of electricity generation, but also in the extension of such markets down to the level of retail domestic consumer. Developing countries, on the other hand, are trying to attract much-needed investment capital for their power sector expansion activities, particularly for the expansion of generating capacity, through the involvement of the private sector. Unlike their industrialized counterparts, they are facing many limitations in transforming the mostly government-owned monopolies into market-driven businesses, thereby creating an environment that is conducive to private sector participation. Amongst these limitations are the lack of a well-developed, local private sector or domestic financial market that can handle the sophisticated power sector financing; inadequate legal and regulatory frameworks that can address the many complexities of private power development; and numerous risk factors including political risks. This dissertation research addresses an important inefficiency faced by developing countries in the new contract-based market structure that has emerged within these countries. It examines the inefficiencies brought on by restrictions in the contracts, specifically those arising from the guaranteed purchase conditions that are typically included in contracts between the purchasing utility and independent power producers in this new market. The research attempts to provide a solution for this problem and proposes a methodology that enables the parties to conduct their businesses in a cost-efficient manner within a cooperative environment. The situation described above is

  2. Decentralization, democratization, and health: the Philippine experiment.

    PubMed

    Langran, Irene V

    2011-01-01

    In 1991, the Philippines joined a growing list of countries that reformed health planning through decentralization. Reformers viewed decentralization as a tool that would solve multiple problems, leading to more meaningful democracy and more effective health planning. Today, nearly two decades after the passage of decentralization legislation, questions about the effectiveness of the reforms persist. Inadequate financing, inequity, and a lack of meaningful participation remain challenges, in many ways mirroring broader weaknesses of Philippine democracy. These concerns pose questions regarding the nature of contemporary decentralization, democratization, and health planning and whether these three strategies are indeed mutually enforcing. PMID:22073430

  3. Vulnerability of industrial natural-gas markets to electricity and coal: a context for R and D planning. Working paper

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, M.O.; Kothari, V.S.; Salama, S.Y.

    1982-11-01

    Current trends in electric- and coal-technology developments and the outlook for natural-gas prices indicate the possibility of strong competition and possible natural-gas market-share losses in the industrial sector. The report develops an initial classification of industrial energy-consuming processes and estimates the extent to which future natural-gas consumption in each class is vulnerable to competition from electricity and coal. The discussion also addresses reasons why specific gas markets are considered vulnerable.

  4. Impacts of demand response and renewable generation in electricity power market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhechong

    This thesis presents the objective of the research which is to analyze the impacts of uncertain wind power and demand response on power systems operation and power market clearing. First, in order to effectively utilize available wind generation, it is usually given the highest priority by assigning zero or negative energy bidding prices when clearing the day-ahead electric power market. However, when congestion occurs, negative wind bidding prices would aggravate locational marginal prices (LMPs) to be negative in certain locations. A load shifting model is explored to alleviate possible congestions and enhance the utilization of wind generation, by shifting proper amount of load from peak hours to off peaks. The problem is to determine proper amount of load to be shifted, for enhancing the utilization of wind generation, alleviating transmission congestions, and making LMPs to be non-negative values. The second piece of work considered the price-based demand response (DR) program which is a mechanism for electricity consumers to dynamically manage their energy consumption in response to time-varying electricity prices. It encourages consumers to reduce their energy consumption when electricity prices are high, and thereby reduce the peak electricity demand and alleviate the pressure to power systems. However, it brings additional dynamics and new challenges on the real-time supply and demand balance. Specifically, price-sensitive DR load levels are constantly changing in response to dynamic real-time electricity prices, which will impact the economic dispatch (ED) schedule and in turn affect electricity market clearing prices. This thesis adopts two methods for examining the impacts of different DR price elasticity characteristics on the stability performance: a closed-loop iterative simulation method and a non-iterative method based on the contraction mapping theorem. This thesis also analyzes the financial stability of DR load consumers, by incorporating

  5. An R and D Agenda to enhance electricity system reliability by increasing customer participation in emerging competitive markets

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, J.; Marnay, C.; Goldman, C.; Kueck, J.; Kirby, B.; Dagle, J.; Alvarado, F.; Mount, T.; Oren, S.; Martinez, C.

    2000-10-01

    Recent electricity price spikes are painful reminders of the value that meaningful demand-side responses could bring to the restructuring US electricity system. Review of the aggregate offers made by suppliers confirms that even a modest increase demand elasticity could dramatically reduce these extremes in price volatility. We submit that dramatically increased customer participation in these markets to enhance system reliability and reduce price volatility is sorely needed. Indeed, allowing customers to manage their loads in response to system conditions might be thought of as the ultimate reliability resource. Most would agree that meaningful demand-side responses to price are the hallmark of a well-functioning competitive market (Kirby and Kueck 1999). Yet, in today's markets for electricity, little or no such response is evident. In effect, today's markets are incomplete; they represent only half of what a truly competitive market requires. The reason is simple: customers currently do not experience directly the time-varying costs of their consumption decisions. Consequently, they have no incentive to modify these decisions in ways that might enhance system reliability or improve the efficiency of the markets in which electricity is traded. We submit that increased customer participation is a necessary step in the evolution toward more efficient markets for electricity and ancillary services. Toward this end, this paper outlines an agenda for public-interest R&D in support of this objective.

  6. Decentralized control of units in smart grids for the support of renewable energy supply

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnenschein, Michael; Lünsdorf, Ontje; Bremer, Jörg; Tröschel, Martin

    2015-04-15

    controlled appliance sets is necessary. We introduce a method for self-organized clustering for this purpose and show how control of such clusters can affect load peaks in distribution grids. Subsequently, we give a short overview on how we are going to expand the idea of self-organized clusters of units into creating a virtual control center for dynamic virtual power plants (DVPP) offering products at a power market. For an efficient organization of DVPPs, the flexibilities of units have to be represented in a compact and easy to use manner. We give an introduction how the problem of representing a set of possibly 10{sup 100} feasible schedules can be solved by a machine-learning approach. In summary, this article provides an overall impression how we use agent based control techniques and methods of self-organization to support the further integration of distributed and renewable energy sources into power grids and energy markets. - Highlights: • Distributed load management for electrical vehicles supports local supply from PV. • Appliances can self-organize into so called virtual appliances for load control. • Dynamic VPPs can be controlled by extensively decentralized control centers. • Flexibilities of units can efficiently be represented by support-vector descriptions.

  7. Optimization models and techniques for implementation and pricing of electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madrigal Martinez, Marcelino

    Vertically integrated electric power systems extensively use optimization models and solution techniques to guide their optimal operation and planning. The advent of electric power systems re-structuring has created needs for new optimization tools and the revision of the inherited ones from the vertical integration era into the market environment. This thesis presents further developments on the use of optimization models and techniques for implementation and pricing of primary electricity markets. New models, solution approaches, and price setting alternatives are proposed. Three different modeling groups are studied. The first modeling group considers simplified continuous and discrete models for power pool auctions driven by central-cost minimization. The direct solution of the dual problems, and the use of a Branch-and-Bound algorithm to solve the primal, allows to identify the effects of disequilibrium, and different price setting alternatives over the existence of multiple solutions. It is shown that particular pricing rules worsen the conflict of interest that arise when multiple solutions exist under disequilibrium. A price-setting alternative based on dual variables is shown to diminish such conflict. The second modeling group considers the unit commitment problem. An interior-point/cutting-plane method is proposed for the solution of the dual problem. The new method has better convergence characteristics and does not suffer from the parameter tuning drawback as previous methods The robustness characteristics of the interior-point/cutting-plane method, combined with a non-uniform price setting alternative, show that the conflict of interest is diminished when multiple near optimal solutions exist. The non-uniform price setting alternative is compared to a classic average pricing rule. The last modeling group concerns to a new type of linear network-constrained clearing system models for daily markets for power and spinning reserve. A new model and

  8. Comparisons of auction mechanisms in a multiple unit setting: A consideration for restructuring electric power markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, John Charles

    The objective of this study was to compare the performance of five single sided auctions that could be used in restructured electric power markets across different market sizes in a multiple unit setting. Auction selection would profoundly influence an industry over $200 billion in size in the United States, and the consequences of implementing an inappropriate mechanism would be great. Experimental methods were selected to analyze the auctions. Two rounds of experiments were conducted, the first testing the sealed offer last accepted offer (LAO) and first rejected offer (FRO), and the clock English (ENG) and sealed offer English (SOE) in markets of sizes two and six. The FRO, SOE, and ENG used the same pricing rule. Second round testing was on the LAO, FRO, and the nonuniform price multiple unit Vickrey (MUV) in markets of sizes two, four, and six. Experiments lasted 23 and 75 periods for rounds 1 and 2 respectively. Analysis of variance and contrast analysis were used to examine the data. The four performance measures used were price, efficiency, profits per unit, and supply revelation. Five basic principles were also assessed: no sales at losses, all low cost capacity should be offered and sold, no high cost capacity should sell, and the market should clear. It was expected group size and auction type would affect performance. For all performance measures, group size was a significant variable, with smaller groups showing poorer performance. Auction type was significant only for the efficiency performance measure, where clock auctions outperformed the others. Clock auctions also proved superior for the first four principles. The FRO performed poorly in almost all situations, and should not be a preferred mechanism in any market. The ENG was highly efficient, but expensive for the buyer. The SOE appeared superior to the FRO and ENG. The clock improves efficiency over the FRO while less information kept prices under the ENG. The MUV was superior in revealing costs

  9. Public Policy and Economic Efficiency in Ontario's Electricity Market: 2002 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmstead, Derek E. H.

    A competitive wholesale electricity market began operation in Ontario in 2002. The institutional features and development process are described, and the outcomes associated with certain features are assessed. First, a six-equation model of the market is specified and estimated. The results are used to undertake analysis of the province's renewable energy program. The impacts of the program on consumers' and producers' surplus, as well as the resulting degree of carbon dioxide (CO2) emission-abatement, are estimated. These results are used to infer the per-unit cost of CO 2 abatement resulting from the program. Under the assumption that the renewable-fuelled energy displaces coal-fuelled energy from the market, the estimated cost is approximately 93/tonne of CO2; under the alternative assumption that natural gas-fuelled generation is displaced, the estimated cost is 207/tonne of CO2. Comparison to costs observed in other markets and jurisdictions reveals the program to cost approximately one order of magnitude greater than elsewhere. It is concluded that Ontario pays substantially more for emission abatement than is necessary or, alternatively, that Ontario achieves substantially less abatement than is feasible for each dollar of economic resources expended. Second, the market model is also used to assess the treatment of electricity exports with respect to the so-called global adjustment charge. The analysis reveals that the current practise of exempting exports from the charge is not socially optimal from a total surplus-maximisation standpoint. That objective would be achieved if global adjustment was allocated to exports at approximately 32% of the rate at which it is applied to Ontario-based consumers, a result consistent with a Ramsey-type inverse elasticity rule. Third, the forward market unbiasedness hypothesis is assessed in the context of the market for financial transmission rights (FTR). Issues related to left-censoring of payouts at $0 and overlapping

  10. The political effects of ideas and markets on China's economic reforms: The case of electrical power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodge, Laura Washington

    This study examines factors influencing contemporary economic policy-making and reform in China's electric power industry. Results of the study suggest that there is an ongoing paradigm change in China's policy-making. However, institutional resistance to changes in the policy process is strong. Policy outcomes in the case of electric power reforms reflect the interaction of both dynamics. In the early 1990s, the central government in Beijing began to consider restructuring the electric power industry to introduce competition and establish markets for electricity supply. Until then, economic policies had resulted from a process of deliberation within the upper echelons of the Communist Party. Although the Party considered the interests of dominant economic actors, particularly the large State-owned sector, its channels for participation in the policy process were closed to most economic actors. Central bureaucratic and provincial interests largely governed policy processes, leading observers to describe the Chinese State as bureaucratic authoritarian. Bureaucracy's heavy role in the economy led to what some called a corporatist State, whereby organs of government infiltrated most aspects of the economy. This institutional arrangement perpetuated bureaucracy's influence in policy-making. This study hypothesizes that transformation in domestic financial markets poses a threat to the entrenched institutions of the electric power industry. The integration of China's economy with foreign firms and markets enabled actors outside of the dominant State-owned economy to improve their positions vis-a-vis the state-owned sector, and eventually to play a role in the policy process. At the same time, Beijing's adaptation of foreign-designed restructuring policies threatened the deep-rooted institutions. The study analyzes the behavior, statements and channels utilized by those actors affected by power sector policies. Based on interviews conducted between 2000 through 2002

  11. Measuring volatility in the Nordic spot electricity market using Recurrence Quantification Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strozzi, F.; Gutiérrez, E.; Noè, C.; Rossi, T.; Serati, M.; Zaldívar, J. M.

    2008-10-01

    In this work, we have applied Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA)to data sets taken from the Nordic spot electricity market. Our main interest was in trying to correlate their volatility with variables obtained from the quantification of recurrence plots (RP). For this reason we have based our analysis on known historical events: the evolution of the Nord Pool market and climatic factors, i.e. dry and wet years, and we have compared several dispersion measures with RQA measures in correspondence of these events. The analysis suggests that two RQA measures: DET and LAM can be used as a measure of the inverse of the volatility. The main advantage of using DET and LAM is that these measures provide also information about the underlying dynamics. This fact is shown using shuffled and linear Gaussian surrogates of the real time series.

  12. Participation of the Nuclear Power Plants in the New Brazilian Electric Energy Market

    SciTech Connect

    Mathias, S.G.

    2004-10-06

    A new regulation framework has been established for the Brazilian electric energy market by a law put into effect on March 15,2004. The main overall goals of this new regulation are: to allow the lowest possible tariffs for end users, while providing the necessary economic incentives for the operation of present installations (generating plants, transmission lines, distribution networks) and the expansion of the system; long-term planning of the extension of the installations required to meet the demand growth; separation of the generation, transmission and distribution activities by allocating them into different companies; new contracts between generating and distribution companies must result from bidding processes based on lowest-tariff criteria; and energy from new generating units required to meet the demand growth must be contracted by all distributing companies integrated to the National Interconnected Grid, in individual amounts proportional to their respective markets.

  13. Consensus algorithms in decentralized networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coduti, Leonardo Phillip

    We consider a decentralized network with the following goal: the state at each node of the network iteratively converges to the same value. Ensuring that this goal is achieved requires certain properties of the topology of the network and the function describing the evolution of the network. We will present these properties for deterministic systems, extending current results in the literature. As an additional contribution, we will show how the convergence results for stochastic systems are direct consequences of the corresponding deterministic systems, drastically simplifying many other current results. In general, these consensus systems can be both time invariant and time varying, and we will extend all our deterministic and stochastic results to include time varying systems as well. We will then consider a more complex consensus problem, the resource allocation problem. In this situation each node of the network has both a state and a capacity. The capacity is a monotone increasing function of the state, and the goal is for the nodes to exchange capacity in a decentralized manner in order to drive all of the states to the same value. Conditions ensuring consensus in the deterministic setting will be presented, and we will show how convergence in this system also comes from the fundamental deterministic result for consensus algorithms. The main results will again be extended to stochastic and time varying systems. The linear consensus system requires the construction of a matrix of weighting parameters with specific properties. We present an iterative algorithm for determining the weighting parameters in a decentralized fashion; the weighting parameters are specified by the nodes and each node only specifies the weighting parameters as sociated with that node. The results assume that the communication graph of the network is directed, and we consider both synchronous communication, and stochastic asynchronous networks.

  14. Nash equilibrium strategy in the deregulated power industry and comparing its lost welfare with Iran wholesale electricity market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, Seyed Hosein; Nazemi, Ali; Hafezalkotob, Ashkan

    2016-07-01

    With the increasing use of different types of auctions in market designing, modeling of participants' behaviors to evaluate the market structure is one of the main discussions in the studies related to the deregulated power industries. In this article, we apply an approach of the optimal bidding behavior to the Iran wholesale electricity market as a restructured electric power industry and model how the participants of the market bid in the spot electricity market. The problem is formulated analytically using the Nash equilibrium concept composed of large numbers of players having discrete and very large strategy spaces. Then, we compute and draw supply curve of the competitive market in which all generators' proposed prices are equal to their marginal costs and supply curve of the real market in which the pricing mechanism is pay-as-bid. We finally calculate the lost welfare or inefficiency of the Nash equilibrium and the real market by comparing their supply curves with the competitive curve. We examine 3 cases on November 24 (2 cases) and July 24 (1 case), 2012. It is observed that in the Nash equilibrium on November 24 and demand of 23,487 MW, there are 212 allowed plants for the first case (plants are allowed to choose any quantity of generation except one of them that should be equal to maximum Power) and the economic efficiency or social welfare of Nash equilibrium is 2.77 times as much as the real market. In addition, there are 184 allowed plants for the second case (plants should offer their maximum power with different prices) and the efficiency or social welfare of Nash equilibrium is 3.6 times as much as the real market. On July 24 and demand of 42,421 MW, all 370 plants should generate maximum energy due to the high electricity demand that the economic efficiency or social welfare of the Nash equilibrium is about 2 times as much as the real market.

  15. 75 FR 59707 - Electric Quarterly Reports; BM2 LLC; DJGW, LLC; Order on Intent To Revoke Market-Based Rate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Quarterly Reports, 75 FR 45,111 (Aug. 2, 2010); Electric Quarterly Reports, 75 FR 19,646 (Apr. 15, 2010). 6...] Electric Quarterly Reports; BM2 LLC; DJGW, LLC; Order on Intent To Revoke Market-Based Rate Authority... rate authorizations will be revoked unless they comply with the Commission's requirements within...

  16. 76 FR 41239 - L&P Electric, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission L&P Electric, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of L&P Electric,...

  17. 77 FR 11531 - Electric Quarterly Reports, Acacia Energy, Inc., et al.; Notice of Revocation of Market-Based...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    .... 2001, 67 FR 31,043, FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,127, reh'g denied, Order No. 2001-A, 100 FERC ] 61,074... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Electric Quarterly Reports, Acacia Energy, Inc., et al.; Notice of Revocation of Market-Based Rate Tariff Electric Quarterly Reports....... Docket No. ER02-2001-017...

  18. 75 FR 70738 - AP Gas & Electric (PA), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AP Gas & Electric (PA), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding AP Gas & Electric (PA), LLC's application for...

  19. 76 FR 6613 - AP Gas & Electric (TX), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AP Gas & Electric (TX), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of AP Gas & Electric (TX), LLC's application for...

  20. Decentralized learning in Markov games.

    PubMed

    Vrancx, Peter; Verbeeck, Katja; Nowé, Ann

    2008-08-01

    Learning automata (LA) were recently shown to be valuable tools for designing multiagent reinforcement learning algorithms. One of the principal contributions of the LA theory is that a set of decentralized independent LA is able to control a finite Markov chain with unknown transition probabilities and rewards. In this paper, we propose to extend this algorithm to Markov games--a straightforward extension of single-agent Markov decision problems to distributed multiagent decision problems. We show that under the same ergodic assumptions of the original theorem, the extended algorithm will converge to a pure equilibrium point between agent policies. PMID:18632387

  1. Multifractal Detrended Cross-correlation Analysis of Market Clearing Price of electricity and SENSEX in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Dipak; Dutta, Srimonti; Chakraborty, Sayantan

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports a study on the cross-correlation between the electric bid price and SENSEX using Multifractal Detrended Cross-correlation Analysis (MF-DXA). MF-DXA is a very rigorous and robust technique for assessment of cross-correction between two non-linear time series. The study reveals power law cross-correlation between Market Clearing Price (MCP) and SENSEX which suggests that a change in the value of one can create a subjective change in the value of the other.

  2. Supporting Decentralized Education with Personal Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedestig, Ulf; Kaptelinin, Victor; Orre, Carl Johan

    This paper deals with the use of personal technologies in decentralized university education. Decentralized education, delivered to off-campus students located in the same geographical area, is a hybrid genre combining features of both on-campus and distance education. The paper reports two studies. The first study focused on communication…

  3. Effects of Decentralization on School Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahlin, Asa; Mork, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Sweden has undertaken major national reforms of its school sector, which, consequently, has been classified as one of the most decentralized ones in the OECD. This paper investigates whether local tax base, grants, and preferences affected local school resources differently as decentralization took place. We find that municipal tax base affects…

  4. Visualizing the Collective Learner through Decentralized Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Understandings of decentralized networks are increasingly used to describe a way to structure curriculum and pedagogy. It is often understood as a structural model to organize pedagogical and curricular relationships in which there is no center. While this is important it also bears introducing into the discourse that decentralized networks are…

  5. Optimal decentralized control for multimachine power systems--

    SciTech Connect

    Quali, A. ); Fantin, J. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper provides a method for determining an optimal decentralized control for multimachine power systems with quadratic performance measure. An iterative algorithm is developed whereby a local minimum is attained. The constraint of decentralization is tackled with in minimization algorithm by using the method of feasible directions. An example of three synchronous machines is given to illustrate the proposed algorithm.

  6. Educational Decentralization: Weak State or Strong State?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinn, Noel; Street, Susan

    1986-01-01

    A government is a complex system of competing factions that adopts a decentralization policy when the dominant group sees current government structures or procedures as an obstacle to the realization of group interests. Case studies of educational decentralization in Peru, Chile, and Mexico demonstrate that the "state" tends to share power only…

  7. A framework for analyzing the impact of data integrity/quality on electricity market operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Dae Hyun

    This dissertation examines the impact of data integrity/quality in the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system on real-time locational marginal price (LMP) in electricity market operations. Measurement noise and/or manipulated sensor errors in a SCADA system may mislead system operators about real-time conditions in a power system, which, in turn, may impact the price signals in real-time power markets. This dissertation serves as a first attempt to analytically investigate the impact of bad/malicious data on electric power market operations. In future power system operations, which will probably involve many more sensors, the impact of sensor data integrity/quality on grid operations will become increasingly important. The first part of this dissertation studies from a market participant's perspective a new class of malicious data attacks on state estimation, which subsequently influences the result of the newly emerging look-ahead dispatch models in the real-time power market. In comparison with prior work of cyber-attack on static dispatch where no inter-temporal ramping constraint is considered, we propose a novel attack strategy, named ramp-induced data (RID) attack, with which the attacker can manipulate the limits of ramp constraints of generators in look-ahead dispatch. It is demonstrated that the proposed attack can lead to financial profits via malicious capacity withholding of selected generators, while being undetected by the existing bad data detection algorithm embedded in today's state estimation software. In the second part, we investigate from a system operator's perspective the sensitivity of locational marginal price (LMP) with respect to data corruption-induced state estimation error in real-time power market. Two data corruption scenarios are considered, in which corrupted continuous data (e.g., the power injection/flow and voltage magnitude) falsify power flow estimate whereas corrupted discrete data (e.g., the on/off status of

  8. Individual welfare maximization in electricity markets including consumer and full transmission system modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, James Daniel

    1999-11-01

    This dissertation presents a new algorithm that allows a market participant to maximize its individual welfare in the electricity spot market. The use of such an algorithm in determining market equilibrium points, called Nash equilibria, is also demonstrated. The start of the algorithm is a spot market model that uses the optimal power flow (OPF), with a full representation of the transmission system. The OPF is also extended to model consumer behavior, and a thorough mathematical justification for the inclusion of the consumer model in the OPF is presented. The algorithm utilizes price and dispatch sensitivities, available from the Hessian matrix of the OPF, to help determine an optimal change in an individual's bid. The algorithm is shown to be successful in determining local welfare maxima, and the prospects for scaling the algorithm up to realistically sized systems are very good. Assuming a market in which all participants maximize their individual welfare, economic equilibrium points, called Nash equilibria, are investigated. This is done by iteratively solving the individual welfare maximization algorithm for each participant until a point is reached where all individuals stop modifying their bids. It is shown that these Nash equilibria can be located in this manner. However, it is also demonstrated that equilibria do not always exist, and are not always unique when they do exist. It is also shown that individual welfare is a highly nonconcave function resulting in many local maxima. As a result, a more global optimization technique, using a genetic algorithm (GA), is investigated. The genetic algorithm is successfully demonstrated on several systems. It is also shown that a GA can be developed using special niche methods, which allow a GA to converge to several local optima at once. Finally, the last chapter of this dissertation covers the development of a new computer visualization routine for power system analysis: contouring. The contouring algorithm is

  9. Future Market Share of Space Solar Electric Power Under Open Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. J.; Mahasenan, N.; Clarke, J. F.; Edmonds, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper assesses the value of Space Solar Power deployed under market competition with a full suite of alternative energy technologies over the 21st century. Our approach is to analyze the future energy system under a number of different scenarios that span a wide range of possible future demographic, socio-economic, and technological developments. Scenarios both with, and without, carbon dioxide concentration stabilization policies are considered. We use the comprehensive set of scenarios created for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (Nakicenovic and Swart 2000). The focus of our analysis will be the cost of electric generation. Cost is particularly important when considering electric generation since the type of generation is, from a practical point of view, largely irrelevant to the end-user. This means that different electricity generation technologies must compete on the basis of price. It is important to note, however, that even a technology that is more expensive than average can contribute to the overall generation mix due to geographical and economic heterogeneity (Clarke and Edmonds 1993). This type of competition is a central assumption of the modeling approach used here. Our analysis suggests that, under conditions of full competition of all available technologies, Space Solar Power at 7 cents per kW-hr could comprise 5-10% of global electric generation by the end of the century, with a global total generation of 10,000 TW-hr. The generation share of Space Solar Power is limited due to competition with lower-cost nuclear, biomass, and terrestrial solar PV and wind. The imposition of a carbon constraint does not significantly increase the total amount of power generated by Space Solar Power in cases where a full range of advanced electric generation technologies are also available. Potential constraints on the availability of these other electric generation options can increase the amount of

  10. The market potential for SMES in electric utility applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is an emerging technology with features that are potentially attractive in electric utility applications. This study evaluates the potential for SMES technology in the generation, transmission, distribution, and use of electric energy; the time frame of the assessment is through the year 2030. Comparisons are made with other technology options, including both commercially available and advanced systems such as various peaking generation technologies, transmission stability improvement technologies, and power quality enhancement devices. The methodology used for this study focused on the needs of the market place, the capabilities of S and the characteristics of the competing technologies. There is widespread interest within utilities for the development of SMES technology, but there is no general consensus regarding the most attractive size. Considerable uncertainty exists regarding the eventual costs and benefits of commercial SMES systems, but general trends have been developed based on current industry knowledge. Results of this analysis indicate that as storage capacity increases, cost increases at a rate faster than benefits. Transmission system applications requiring dynamic storage appear to have the most attractive economics. Customer service applications may be economic in the near term, but improved ride-through capability of end-use equipment may limit the size of this market over time. Other applications requiring greater storage capacity appear to be only marginally economic at best.

  11. Promoting the Market for Plug-in Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicles: Role of Recharge Availability

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhenhong; Greene, David L

    2012-01-01

    Much recent attention has been drawn to providing adequate recharge availability as a means to promote the battery electric vehicle (BEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) market. The possible role of improved recharge availability in developing the BEV-PHEV market and the priorities that different charging options should receive from the government require better understanding. This study reviews the charging issue and conceptualizes it into three interactions between the charge network and the travel network. With travel data from 3,755 drivers in the National Household Travel Survey, this paper estimates the distribution among U.S. consumers of (a) PHEV fuel-saving benefits by different recharge availability improvements, (b) range anxiety by different BEV ranges, and (c) willingness to pay for workplace and public charging in addition to home recharging. With the Oak Ridge National Laboratory MA3T model, the impact of three recharge improvements is quantified by the resulting increase in BEV-PHEV sales. Compared with workplace and public recharging improvements, home recharging improvement appears to have a greater impact on BEV-PHEV sales. The impact of improved recharging availability is shown to be amplified by a faster reduction in battery cost.

  12. A Bidding Methodology by Nash Equilibrium for Finite Generators Participating in Imperfect Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satyaramesh, P. V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an application of finite n-person non-cooperative game theory for analyzing bidding strategies of generators in a deregulated energy marketplace with Pool Bilateral contracts so as to maximize their net profits. A new methodology to build bidding methodology for generators participating in oligopoly electricity market has been proposed in this paper. It is assumed that each generator bids a supply function. This methodology finds out the coefficients in the supply function of generators in order to maximize benefits in an environment of competing rival bidders. A natural choice for developing strategies is Nash Equilibrium (NE) model incorporating mixed strategies, for solving the bidding problem of electrical market. Associated optimal profits are evaluated for a combination of set of pure strategies of bidding of generators, and payoff matrix has been constructed. The optimal payoff is calculated by using NE. An attempt has also been made to minimize the gap between the optimal payoff and the payoff obtained by a possible mixed strategies combination. The algorithm is coded in MATLAB. A numerical example is used to illustrate the essential features of the approach and the results are proved to be the optimal values.

  13. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 1, Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams) are influenced by Western`s power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Western`s firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action altemative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  14. Design and market considerations for axial flux superconducting electric machine design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainslie, M. D.; George, A.; Shaw, R.; Dawson, L.; Winfield, A.; Steketee, M.; Stockley, S.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, the authors investigate a number of design and market considerations for an axial flux superconducting electric machine design that uses high temperature superconductors. The axial flux machine design is assumed to utilise high temperature superconductors in both wire (stator winding) and bulk (rotor field) forms, to operate over a temperature range of 65-77 K, and to have a power output in the range from 10s of kW up to 1 MW (typical for axial flux machines), with approximately 2-3 T as the peak trapped field in the bulk superconductors. The authors firstly investigate the applicability of this type of machine as a generator in small- and medium-sized wind turbines, including the current and forecasted market and pricing for conventional turbines. Next, a study is also carried out on the machine's applicability as an in-wheel hub motor for electric vehicles. Some recommendations for future applications are made based on the outcome of these two studies. Finally, the cost of YBCO-based superconducting (2G HTS) wire is analysed with respect to competing wire technologies and compared with current conventional material costs and current wire costs for both 1G and 2G HTS are still too great to be economically feasible for such superconducting devices.

  15. Three Essays on Renewable Energy Policy and its Effects on Fossil Fuel Generation in Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Eric

    In this dissertation, I investigate the effectiveness of renewable policies and consider their impact on electricity markets. The common thread of this research is to understand how renewable policy incentivizes renewable generation and how the increasing share of generation from renewables affects generation from fossil fuels. This type of research is crucial for understanding whether policies to promote renewables are meeting their stated goals and what the unintended effects might be. To this end, I use econometric methods to examine how electricity markets are responding to an influx of renewable energy. My dissertation is composed of three interrelated essays. In Chapter 1, I employ recent scholarship in spatial econometrics to assess the spatial dependence of Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS), a prominent state-based renewable incentive. In Chapter 2, I explore the impact of the rapid rise in renewable generation on short-run generation from fossil fuels. And in Chapter 3, I assess the impact of renewable penetration on coal plant retirement decisions.

  16. Security for decentralized health information systems.

    PubMed

    Bleumer, G

    1994-02-01

    Health care information systems must reflect at least two basic characteristics of the health care community: the increasing mobility of patients and the personal liability of everyone giving medical treatment. Open distributed information systems bear the potential to reflect these requirements. But the market for open information systems and operating systems hardly provides secure products today. This 'missing link' is approached by the prototype SECURE Talk that provides secure transmission and archiving of files on top of an existing operating system. Its services may be utilized by existing medical applications. SECURE Talk demonstrates secure communication utilizing only standard hardware. Its message is that cryptography (and in particular asymmetric cryptography) is practical for many medical applications even if implemented in software. All mechanisms are software implemented in order to be executable on standard-hardware. One can investigate more or less decentralized forms of public key management and the performance of many different cryptographic mechanisms. That of, e.g. hybrid encryption and decryption (RSA+DES-PCBC) is about 300 kbit/s. That of signing and verifying is approximately the same using RSA with a DES hash function. The internal speed, without disk accesses etc., is about 1.1 Mbit/s. (Apple Quadra 950 (MC 68040, 33 MHz, RAM: 20 MB, 80 ns. Length of RSA modulus is 512 bit). PMID:8188407

  17. Modeling strategic competition in hydro-thermal electricity generation markets with cascaded reservoir-hydroelectric generation plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uluca, Basak

    This dissertation aims to achieve two goals. The first is to model the strategic interactions of firms that own cascaded reservoir-hydro plants in oligopolistic and mixed oligopolistic hydrothermal electricity generation markets. Although competition in thermal generation has been extensively modeled since the beginning of deregulation, the literature on competition in hydro generation is still limited; in particular, equilibrium models of oligopoly that study the competitive behavior of firms that own reservoir-hydro plants along the same river in hydrothermal electricity generation markets are still under development. In competitive markets, when the reservoirs are located along the same river, the water released from an upstream reservoir for electricity generation becomes input to the immediate downstream reservoir, which may be owned by a competitor, for current or future use. To capture the strategic interactions among firms with cascaded reservoir-hydro plants, the Upstream-Conjecture approach is proposed. Under the Upstream-Conjecture approach, a firm with an upstream reservoir-hydro plant assumes that firms with downstream reservoir-hydro plants will respond to changes in the upstream firm's water release by adjusting their water release by the same amount. The results of the Upstream Conjecture experiments indicate that firms that own upstream reservoirs in a cascade may have incentive to withhold or limit hydro generation, forcing a reduction in the utilization of the downstream hydro generation plants that are owned by competitors. Introducing competition to hydroelectricity generation markets is challenging and ownership allocation of the previously state-owned cascaded reservoir-hydro plants through privatization can have significant impact on the competitiveness of the generation market. The second goal of the dissertation is to extract empirical guidance about best policy choices for the ownership of the state-owned generation plants, including the

  18. Secure provision of reactive power ancillary services in competitive electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Samahy, Ismael

    The research work presented in this thesis discusses various complex issues associated with reactive power management and pricing in the context of new operating paradigms in deregulated power systems, proposing appropriate policy solutions. An integrated two-level framework for reactive power management is set forth, which is both suitable for a competitive market and ensures a secure and reliable operation of the associated power system. The framework is generic in nature and can be adopted for any electricity market structure. The proposed hierarchical reactive power market structure comprises two stages: procurement of reactive power resources on a seasonal basis, and real-time reactive power dispatch. The main objective of the proposed framework is to provide appropriate reactive power support from service providers at least cost, while ensuring a secure operation of the power system. The proposed procurement procedure is based on a two-step optimization model. First, the marginal benefits of reactive power supply from each provider, with respect to system security, are obtained by solving a loadability-maximization problem subject to transmission security constraints imposed by voltage and thermal limits. Second, the selected set of generators is determined by solving an optimal power flow (OPF)-based auction. This auction maximizes a societal advantage function comprising generators' offers and their corresponding marginal benefits with respect to system security, and considering all transmission system constraints. The proposed procedure yields the selected set of generators and zonal price components, which would form the basis for seasonal contracts between the system operator and the selected reactive power service providers. The main objective of the proposed reactive power dispatch model is to minimize the total payment burden on the Independent System Operator (ISO), which is associated with reactive power dispatch. The real power generation is

  19. Strategic Genco offers in electric energy markets cleared by merit order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Ebrahim A. Rahman

    In an electricity market cleared by merit-order economic dispatch we identify necessary and sufficient conditions under which the market outcomes supported by pure strategy Nash equilibria (NE) exist when generating companies (Gencos) game through continuously variable incremental cost (IC) block offers. A Genco may own any number of units, each unit having multiple blocks with each block being offered at a constant IC. Next, a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) scheme devoid of approximations or iterations is developed to identify all possible NE. The MILP scheme is systematic and general but computationally demanding for large systems. Thus, an alternative significantly faster lambda-iterative approach that does not require the use of MILP was also developed. Once all NE are found, one critical question is to identify the one whose corresponding gaming strategy may be considered by all Gencos as being the most rational. To answer this, this thesis proposes the use of a measure based on the potential profit gain and loss by each Genco for each NE. The most rational offer strategy for each Genco in terms of gaming or not gaming that best meets their risk/benefit expectations is the one corresponding to the NE with the largest gain to loss ratio. The computation of all NE is tested on several systems of up to ninety generating units, each with four incremental cost blocks. These NE are then used to examine how market power is influenced by market parameters, specifically, the number of competing Gencos, their size and true ICs, as well as the level of demand and price cap.

  20. Decentralized coordination through digital technology, dynamic pricing, and Customer-Driven control: the GridWise testbed demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.; Kiesling, Lynne

    2008-10-15

    The project highlights the idea that technology-enabled decentralized coordination can achieve the same, or better, economic and reliability benefits when compared to utility-focused centralized physical and economic control. Among the design's unique features was a retail double auction with five-minute market-clearing intervals that included residential customers as direct, active market participants. (author)

  1. Electricity without carbon dioxide: Assessing the role of carbon capture and sequestration in United States electric markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Timothy Lawrence

    2002-09-01

    Stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations will likely require significant cuts in electric sector carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The ability to capture and sequester CO2 in a manner compatible with today's fossil-fuel based power generating infrastructure offers a potentially low-cost contribution to a larger climate change mitigation strategy. This thesis fills a niche between economy-wide studies of CO 2 abatement and plant-level control technology assessments by examining the contribution that carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) might make toward reducing US electric sector CO2 emissions. The assessment's thirty year perspective ensures that costs sunk in current infrastructure remain relevant and allows time for technological diffusion, but remains free of assumptions about the emergence of unidentified radical innovations. The extent to which CCS might lower CO2 mitigation costs will vary directly with the dispatch of carbon capture plants in actual power-generating systems, and will depend on both the retirement of vintage capacity and competition from abatement alternatives such as coal-to-gas fuel switching and renewable energy sources. This thesis therefore adopts a capacity planning and dispatch model to examine how the current distribution of generating units, natural gas prices, and other industry trends affect the cost of CO2 control via CCS in an actual US electric market. The analysis finds that plants with CO2 capture consistently provide significant reductions in base-load emissions at carbon prices near 100 $/tC, but do not offer an economical means of meeting peak demand unless CO2 reductions in excess of 80 percent are required. Various scenarios estimate the amount by which turn-over of the existing generating infrastructure and the severity of criteria pollutant constraints reduce mitigation costs. A look at CO2 sequestration in the seabed beneath the US Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) complements this model

  2. Partially decentralized control for ALSTOM gasifier.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wen; Lou, Guannan; Liang, Luping

    2011-07-01

    The gasifier plays a key role in the operation of the whole IGCC power plant. It is a typical multivariable control system with strict constraints on the inputs and outputs which makes it very difficult to control. This paper presents a partially decentralized controller design method based on the stabilizer idea. The method only requires identifying some closed-loop transfer functions and solving an H(∞) optimization problem. The final partially decentralized controller is easy to implement and test in practice. Two partially decentralized controllers are designed for the ALSTOM gasifier benchmark problem, and simulation results show that they both meet the design specifications. PMID:21356534

  3. Automated decentralized pharmacy dispensing systems.

    PubMed

    1996-12-01

    Automated decentralized pharmacy dispensing systems (ADPDSs) are medication management systems that allow hospitals to store and dispense drugs near the point of use. These systems, which can be compared with the automated teller machines used by banks, provide nurses with ready access to medications while maintaining tight control of drug distribution. In this study, we evaluated three ADPDSs from two suppliers, focusing on whether these systems can store and dispense drugs in a safe, secure, and effective manner. When rating the systems, we considered their applicability to two different implementation schemes: The use of a system with a pharmacy profile interface. This feature broadens the capabilities of the system by allowing more information to be provided at the dispensing cabinet and by providing better integration of the information from this cabinet with the pharmacy's information system. Two of the evaluated systems have this feature and were rated Acceptable. The use of a system without a pharmacy profile interface. We rated all three of the evaluated systems Acceptable for such implementations. To decide which scheme is most appropriate for a particular hospital, the facility will need to determine both how it intends to use the ADPDS and what it hopes to achieve by implementing the system. By performing this type of analysis, the facility can then determine which ADPDS features and capabilities are needed to accomplish its goals. To help facilities make these decisions, we have provided an Equipment Management Guide, "Improving the Drug Distribution Process-Do You Need an Automated Decentralized Pharmacy Dispensing System?," which precedes this Evaluation. In addition, readers unfamiliar with the roles of both the pharmacy and the pharmacist within the hospital can refer to the Primer, "Functions of a Hospital Pharmacy," also published in this issue. PMID:8968721

  4. An Economic Evalution of Demand-side Energy Storage Systems by using a Multi-agent based Electricity Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furusawa, Ken; Sugihara, Hideharu; Tsuji, Kiichiro

    Opened wholesale electric power market in April 2005, deregulation of electric power industry in Japan has faced a new competitive environment. In the new environment, Independent Power Producer (: IPP), Power Producer and Supplier (: PPS), Load Service Entity (: LSE) and electric utility can trade electric energy through both bilateral contracts and single-price auction at the electricity market. In general, the market clearing price (: MCP) is largely changed by amount of total load demand in the market. The influence may cause price spike, and consequently the volatility of MCP will make LSEs and their customers to face a risk of revenue and cost. DSM is attracted as a means of load leveling, and has effect on decreasing MCP at peak load period. Introducing Energy Storage systems (: ES) is one of DSM in order to change demand profile at customer-side. In case that customers decrease their own demand at jumped MCP, a bidding strategy of generating companies may be changed their strategy. As a result, MCP is changed through such complex mechanism. In this paper the authors evaluate MCP by multi-agent. It is considered that customer-side ES has an effect on MCP fluctuation. Through numerical examples, this paper evaluates the influence on MCP by controlling customer-side ES corresponding to variation of MCP.

  5. The recycling and disposal of electrical and electronic waste in China-legislative and market responses

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, C. . E-mail: charlotte@eecz.org; Dietmar, R. . E-mail: dietmar@eecz.org; Eugster, M. . E-mail: martin.eugster@empa.ch

    2005-07-15

    The development of new legislation on collection, recycling and disposal of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) as well as the scaling-up and privatisation of the WEEE processing industry, are indications of major changes for WEEE management in China. However, China's attempts to regulate the industry and establish a financially viable, environmentally benign and safe WEEE management system are facing significant challenges. The existence of an extensive informal sector, combined with a lack of environmental awareness among WEEE collectors, recyclers and consumers, are contributing to China's difficulties in developing a financially and environmentally sound recycling and disposal system. This paper discusses the current status of WEEE recycling and disposal in China, and its impacts on the environment, human health, and the economy. It also examines the legislative and market responses to the WEEE issue, and how these will be affected by Chinese attitudes and practices towards WEEE recycling.

  6. How electric and gas companies can leverage their systems for a changing market

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, A.C.

    1995-06-01

    This article lists a number of examples in which electric and gas utilities can leverage their technical assets in a de-regulated market and provide additional services, especially in the communications industry. In addition to the extensive internal communications systems owned by most utilities, it is felt that the installed technical assets of many utilities can be easily modified or adapted to provide wider-ranging telecommunications services. The example is given of a pipeline company that installed fiber-optics cables inside its unused pipes. Costing $120M to build, this network was sold recently for $2.5B. Several other examples of utility initiatives in this arena are noted, as is the present regulatory climate.

  7. Determination of the potential market size and opportunities for biomass to electricity projects in China

    SciTech Connect

    Perlack, R.D.

    1995-08-01

    Efforts are currently underway to assess the market potential and prospects for the US private sector in biomass energy development in Yunnan Province. Among the specific objectives of the study are to: estimate the likely market size and competitiveness of biomass energy, assess the viability of US private sector ventures; assess non-economic factors (e.g., resource, environmental, social, political, institutional) that could affect the viability of biomass energy; and recommend appropriate actions to help stimulate biomass initiatives. Feasibility studies show that biomass projects in Yunnan Province are financially and technically viable. Biomass can be grown and converted to electricity at costs lower than other alternatives. These projects if implemented can ease power shortages and help to sustain the region`s economic growth. The external environmental benefits of integrated biomass projects are also potentially significant. This paper summarizes a two-step screening and rank-ordering process that is being used to identify the best candidate projects for possible US private sector investment. The process uses a set of initial screens to eliminate projects that are not technically feasible to develop. The remaining projects are then rank-ordered using a multicriteria technique.

  8. Extended Decentralized Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. Russell

    2000-01-01

    A straightforward extension of a solution to the decentralized linear-Quadratic-Gaussian problem is proposed that allows its use for commonly encountered classes of problems that are currently solved with the extended Kalman filter. This extension allows the system to be partitioned in such a way as to exclude the nonlinearities from the essential algebraic relationships that allow the estimation and control to be optimally decentralized.

  9. Partially Decentralized Control Architectures for Satellite Formations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Bauer, Frank H.

    2002-01-01

    In a partially decentralized control architecture, more than one but less than all nodes have supervisory capability. This paper describes an approach to choosing the number of supervisors in such au architecture, based on a reliability vs. cost trade. It also considers the implications of these results for the design of navigation systems for satellite formations that could be controlled with a partially decentralized architecture. Using an assumed cost model, analytic and simulation-based results indicate that it may be cheaper to achieve a given overall system reliability with a partially decentralized architecture containing only a few supervisors, than with either fully decentralized or purely centralized architectures. Nominally, the subset of supervisors may act as centralized estimation and control nodes for corresponding subsets of the remaining subordinate nodes, and act as decentralized estimation and control peers with respect to each other. However, in the context of partially decentralized satellite formation control, the absolute positions and velocities of each spacecraft are unique, so that correlations which make estimates using only local information suboptimal only occur through common biases and process noise. Covariance and monte-carlo analysis of a simplified system show that this lack of correlation may allow simplification of the local estimators while preserving the global optimality of the maneuvers commanded by the supervisors.

  10. Evaluating the potential impact of transmission constraints on the operation of a competitive electricity market in Illinois.

    SciTech Connect

    Cirillo, R.; Thimmapuram, P.; Veselka, T.; Koritarov, V.; Conzelmann, G.; Macal, C.; Boyd, G.; North, M.; Overbye, T.; Cheng, X.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Illinois

    2006-04-30

    Despite the current adequacy of the generation and transmission system in Illinois, there is concern that the uncertainties of electricity restructuring warrant a more detailed analysis to determine if there might be pitfalls that have not been identified under current conditions. The problems experienced elsewhere in the country emphasize the need for an evaluation of how Illinois might fare under a restructured electricity market. The Illinois Commerce Commission (ICC) commissioned this study to be undertaken as a joint effort by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Argonne National Laboratory to evaluate the Illinois situation in the 2007 period when restructuring is scheduled to be fully implemented in the State. The purpose of this study is to make an initial determination if the transmission system in Illinois and the surrounding region would be able to support a competitive electricity market, would allow for effective competition to keep prices in check, and would allow for new market participants to effectively compete for market share. The study seeks to identify conditions that could reasonably be expected to occur that would enable a company to exercise market power in one or more portions of the State and thereby create undue pressure on the prices charged to customers and/or inhibit new market participants from entering the market. The term 'market power' has many different definitions, and there is no universal agreement on how to measure it. For the purposes of this study, the term is defined as the ability to raise prices and increase profitability by unilateral action. A more complete definition is provided later. With this definition, the central question of this analysis becomes: 'Can a company, acting on its own, raise electricity prices and increase its profits?' It should be noted that the intent of the study is not to predict whether or not such market power would be exercised by any company. Rather, it is designed to determine

  11. Important Factors for Early Market Microgrids: Demand Response and Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, David Masaki

    Microgrids are evolving concepts that are growing in interest due to their potential reliability, economic and environmental benefits. As with any new concept, there are many unresolved issues with regards to planning and operation. In particular, demand response (DR) and plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging are viewed as two key components of the future grid and both will likely be active technologies in the microgrid market. However, a better understanding of the economics associated with DR, the impact DR can have on the sizing of distributed energy resource (DER) systems and how to accommodate and price PEV charging is necessary to advance microgrid technologies. This work characterizes building based DR for a model microgrid, calculates the DER systems for a model microgrid under DR through a minimization of total cost, and determines pricing methods for a PEV charging station integrated with an individual building on the model microgrid. It is shown that DR systems which consist only of HVAC fan reductions provide potential economic benefits to the microgrid through participation in utility DR programs. Additionally, peak shaving DR reduces the size of power generators, however increasing DR capacity does not necessarily lead to further reductions in size. As it currently stands for a microgrid that is an early adopter of PEV charging, current installation costs of PEV charging equipment lead to a system that is not competitive with established commercial charging networks or to gasoline prices for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV).

  12. 78 FR 64207 - Application To Export Electric Energy; New Brunswick Energy Marketing Corporation (f/k/a New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; New Brunswick Energy Marketing Corporation (f/k/a New Brunswick Power... 301(b) and 402(f) of the Department of Energy Organization Act (42 U.S.C. 7151(b), 7172(f)) and require authorization under section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (16 U.S.C. 824a(e)). On December...

  13. 75 FR 9203 - Guidance on Preparation of Market-Based Rate Filings and Electric Quarterly Reports by Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Guidance on Preparation of Market-Based Rate Filings and Electric Quarterly... held on March 3, 2010, from 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. (EST) in the Commission Meeting Room at the Federal...

  14. 75 FR 5784 - Guidance on Preparation of Market-Based Rate Filings and Electric Quarterly Reports by Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Guidance on Preparation of Market-Based Rate Filings and Electric Quarterly Reports by Public Utilities; Notice of Technical Conference January 28, 2010. Take notice that...

  15. Connecting Colorado's Renewable Resources to the Markets in a Cabon-Constrained Electricity Sector

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-31

    The benchmark goal that drives the report is to achieve a 20 percent reduction in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in Colorado's electricity sector below 2005 levels by 2020. We refer to this as the '20 x 20 goal.' In discussing how to meet this goal, the report concentrates particularly on the role of utility-scale renewable energy and high-voltage transmission. An underlying recognition is that any proposed actions must not interfere with electric system reliability and should minimize financial impacts on customers and utilities. The report also describes the goals of Colorado's New Energy Economy5 - identified here, in summary, as the integration of energy, environment, and economic policies that leads to an increased quality of life in Colorado. We recognize that a wide array of options are under constant consideration by professionals in the electric industry, and the regulatory community. Many options are under discussion on this topic, and the costs and benefits of the options are inherently difficult to quantify. Accordingly, this report should not be viewed as a blueprint with specific recommendations for the timing, siting, and sizing of generating plants and high-voltage transmission lines. We convened the project with the goal of supplying information inputs for consideration by the state's electric utilities, legislators, regulators, and others as we work creatively to shape our electricity sector in a carbon-constrained world. The report addresses various issues that were raised in the Connecting Colorado's Renewable Resources to the Markets report, also known as the SB07-91 Report. That report was produced by the Senate Bill 2007-91 Renewable Resource Generation Development Areas Task Force and presented to the Colorado General Assembly in 2007. The SB07-91 Report provided the Governor, the General Assembly, and the people of Colorado with an assessment of the capability of Colorado's utility-scale renewable resources to contribute electric

  16. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, David L.

    This booklet suggests ways in which institutions--Catholic schools in particular--can move beyond public relations and advertising to engage in the broader arena of marketing with its focus on consumer satisfaction. The first of the book's three chapters reviews the concept of marketing, providing definitions of key terms, clarification of…

  17. Optimal operational strategies for a day-ahead electricity market in the presence of market power using multi-objective evolutionary algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo, Deepal

    2007-12-01

    This dissertation introduces a novel approach for optimally operating a day-ahead electricity market not only by economically dispatching the generation resources but also by minimizing the influences of market manipulation attempts by the individual generator-owning companies while ensuring that the power system constraints are not violated. Since economic operation of the market conflicts with the individual profit maximization tactics such as market manipulation by generator-owning companies, a methodology that is capable of simultaneously optimizing these two competing objectives has to be selected. Although numerous previous studies have been undertaken on the economic operation of day-ahead markets and other independent studies have been conducted on the mitigation of market power, the operation of a day-ahead electricity market considering these two conflicting objectives simultaneously has not been undertaken previously. These facts provided the incentive and the novelty for this study. A literature survey revealed that many of the traditional solution algorithms convert multi-objective functions into either a single-objective function using weighting schemas or undertake optimization of one function at a time. Hence, these approaches do not truly optimize the multi-objectives concurrently. Due to these inherent deficiencies of the traditional algorithms, the use of alternative non-traditional solution algorithms for such problems has become popular and widely used. Of these, multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEA) have received wide acceptance due to their solution quality and robustness. In the present research, three distinct algorithms were considered: a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA II), a multi-objective tabu search algorithm (MOTS) and a hybrid of multi-objective tabu search and genetic algorithm (MOTS/GA). The accuracy and quality of the results from these algorithms for applications similar to the problem investigated here

  18. Possibility of controlling nonregulated prices in the electricity market by means of varying the parameters of a power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaskovskaya, T. A.

    2014-12-01

    This paper offers a new approach to the analysis of price signals from the wholesale electricity and capacity market that is based on the analysis of the influence exerted by input data used in the problem of optimization of the power system operating conditions, namely: parameters of a power grid and power-receiving equipment that might vary under the effect of control devices. It is shown that it would be possible to control nonregulated prices for electricity in the wholesale electricity market by varying the parameters of control devices and energy-receiving equipment. An increase in the effectiveness of power transmission and the cost-effective use of fuel-and-energy resources (energy saving) can become an additional effect of controlling the nonregulated prices.

  19. Customer Strategies for Responding to Day-Ahead Market HourlyElectricity Pricing

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, Chuck; Hopper, Nicole; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Neenan,Bernie; Boisvert, Dick; Cappers, Peter; Pratt, Donna; Butkins, Kim

    2005-08-25

    Real-time pricing (RTP) has been advocated as an economically efficient means to send price signals to customers to promote demand response (DR) (Borenstein 2002, Borenstein 2005, Ruff 2002). However, limited information exists that can be used to judge how effectively RTP actually induces DR, particularly in the context of restructured electricity markets. This report describes the second phase of a study of how large, non-residential customers' adapted to default-service day-ahead hourly pricing. The customers are located in upstate New York and served under Niagara Mohawk, A National Grid Company (NMPC)'s SC-3A rate class. The SC-3A tariff is a type of RTP that provides firm, day-ahead notice of hourly varying prices indexed to New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) day-ahead market prices. The study was funded by the California Energy Commission (CEC)'s PIER program through the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC). NMPC's is the first and longest-running default-service RTP tariff implemented in the context of retail competition. The mix of NMPC's large customers exposed to day-ahead hourly prices is roughly 30% industrial, 25% commercial and 45% institutional. They have faced periods of high prices during the study period (2000-2004), thereby providing an opportunity to assess their response to volatile hourly prices. The nature of the SC-3A default service attracted competitive retailers offering a wide array of pricing and hedging options, and customers could also participate in demand response programs implemented by NYISO. The first phase of this study examined SC-3A customers' satisfaction, hedging choices and price response through in-depth customer market research and a Constant Elasticity of Substitution (CES) demand model (Goldman et al. 2004). This second phase was undertaken to answer questions that remained unresolved and to quantify price response to a higher level of granularity. We accomplished these objectives with a second customer

  20. Direct participation of electrical loads in the California independent system operator markets during the Summer of 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Marnay, Chris; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Khavkin, Mark; Siddiqui, Afzal S.

    2001-04-01

    California's restructured electricity markets opened on 1 April 1998. The former investor-owned utilities were functionally divided into generation, transmission, and distribution activities, all of their gas-fired generating capacity was divested, and the retail market was opened to competition. To ensure that small customers shared in the expected benefit of lower prices, the enabling legislation mandated a 10% rate cut for all customers, which was implemented in a simplistic way that fossilized 1996 tariff structures. Rising fuel and environmental compliance costs, together with a reduced ability to import electricity, numerous plant outages, and exercise of market power by generators drove up wholesale electricity prices steeply in 2000, while retail tariffs remained unchanged. One of the distribution/supply companies entered bankruptcy in April 2001, and another was insolvent. During this period, two sets of interruptible load programs were in place, longstanding ones organized as special tariffs by the distribution/supply companies and hastily established ones run directly by the California Independent System Operator (CAISO). The distribution/supply company programs were effective at reducing load during the summer of 2000, but because of the high frequency of outages required by a system on the brink of failure, customer response declined and many left the tariff. The CAISO programs failed to attract enough participation to make a significant difference to the California supply demand imbalance. The poor performance of direct load participation in California's markets reinforces the argument for accurate pricing of electricity as a stimulus to energy efficiency investment and as a constraint on market volatility.

  1. Strategies of Educational Decentralization: Key Questions and Core Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, E. Mark

    1998-01-01

    Explains key issues and forces that shape organization and management strategies of educational decentralization, using examples from Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina, Nicaragua, and Spain. Core decentralization issues include national and regional goals, planning, political stress, resource distribution, infrastructure development, and job…

  2. Disturbance decoupling, decentralized control and the Riccati equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garzia, M. R.; Loparo, K. A.; Martin, C. F.

    1981-01-01

    The disturbance decoupling and optimal decentralized control problems are looked at using identical mathematical techniques. A statement of the problems and the development of their solution approach is presented. Preliminary results are given for the optimal decentralized control problem.

  3. Why Do Electricity Policy and Competitive Markets Fail to Use Advanced PV Systems to Improve Distribution Power Quality?

    DOE PAGESBeta

    McHenry, Mark P.; Johnson, Jay; Hightower, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The increasing pressure for network operators to meet distribution network power quality standards with increasing peak loads, renewable energy targets, and advances in automated distributed power electronics and communications is forcing policy-makers to understand new means to distribute costs and benefits within electricity markets. Discussions surrounding how distributed generation (DG) exhibits active voltage regulation and power factor/reactive power control and other power quality capabilities are complicated by uncertainties of baseline local distribution network power quality and to whom and how costs and benefits of improved electricity infrastructure will be allocated. DG providing ancillary services that dynamically respond to the networkmore » characteristics could lead to major network improvements. With proper market structures renewable energy systems could greatly improve power quality on distribution systems with nearly no additional cost to the grid operators. Renewable DG does have variability challenges, though this issue can be overcome with energy storage, forecasting, and advanced inverter functionality. This paper presents real data from a large-scale grid-connected PV array with large-scale storage and explores effective mitigation measures for PV system variability. We discuss useful inverter technical knowledge for policy-makers to mitigate ongoing inflation of electricity network tariff components by new DG interconnection requirements or electricity markets which value power quality and control.« less

  4. Acquiring competitive power supplies in the new restructured electricity markets -- Aggregation opportunities, choosing the right supplier, and negotiating contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, K.L.

    1999-07-01

    While demand-side and energy efficiency measures conventionally bring more substantive cost savings than procuring competitive energy supplies, the new opportunity to create added electricity savings has been gaining momentum as deregulated electricity markets mature from their infancy to adolescence. As these markets evolve, more and more small and medium sized facilities are being approached by new entrants to switch electricity providers. Many of these new providers seem to have come from nowhere, while other don't seem any different than the current utility. Managers struggle to find an easy way to validate the claims and promises that often seem too good to be true; no matter how much assistance the incumbent utility offers. This paper will discuss the impact of Customer Choice for electricity as a commodity and will present the key issues that energy decisionmakers will contend with when deciding whether or not to switch. It will also address critical elements vital to contract negotiations that will protect a business' financial risk in the new deregulated market.

  5. Decentralized and Tactical Air Traffic Flow Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertsimas, Dimitris; Odoni, Amedeo R.

    1997-01-01

    This project dealt with the following topics: 1. Review and description of the existing air traffic flow management system (ATFM) and identification of aspects with potential for improvement. 2. Identification and review of existing models and simulations dealing with all system segments (enroute, terminal area, ground) 3. Formulation of concepts for overall decentralization of the ATFM system, ranging from moderate decentralization to full decentralization 4. Specification of the modifications to the ATFM system required to accommodate each of the alternative concepts. 5. Identification of issues that need to be addressed with regard to: determination of the way the ATFM system would be operating; types of flow management strategies that would be used; and estimation of the effectiveness of ATFM with regard to reducing delay and re-routing costs. 6. Concept evaluation through identification of criteria and methodologies for accommodating the interests of stakeholders and of approaches to optimization of operational procedures for all segments of the ATFM system.

  6. Transition-Independent Decentralized Markov Decision Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Raphen; Silberstein, Shlomo; Lesser, Victor; Goldman, Claudia V.; Morris, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    There has been substantial progress with formal models for sequential decision making by individual agents using the Markov decision process (MDP). However, similar treatment of multi-agent systems is lacking. A recent complexity result, showing that solving decentralized MDPs is NEXP-hard, provides a partial explanation. To overcome this complexity barrier, we identify a general class of transition-independent decentralized MDPs that is widely applicable. The class consists of independent collaborating agents that are tied up by a global reward function that depends on both of their histories. We present a novel algorithm for solving this class of problems and examine its properties. The result is the first effective technique to solve optimally a class of decentralized MDPs. This lays the foundation for further work in this area on both exact and approximate solutions.

  7. Robust Decentralized Controller Design: Subsystem Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosinová, Danica; Thuan, Nguyen Quang; Veselý, Vojtech; Marko, L'ubomír

    2012-01-01

    The paper addresses the problem of the robust output feedback PI controller design for complex large-scale stable systems with a state decentralized control structure. A decentralized control design procedure is proposed for static output feedback control which is based on solving robust control design problems of subsystems' size. The presented approach is based on the Generalized Gershgorin Theorem and uses the so-called equivalent subsystems approach to consider the interactions in the local robust controller design. The resulting decentralized control scheme has been successfully tested on two examples: a linearized model of three interconnected boiler-turbine subsystems and a linear model of four cooperating DC motors where the problem is to design four local PI controllers for a large scale system which will guarantee robust stability and performance of the closed-loop uncertain system.

  8. Decentralized Multisensory Information Integration in Neural Systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen-hao; Chen, Aihua

    2016-01-01

    How multiple sensory cues are integrated in neural circuitry remains a challenge. The common hypothesis is that information integration might be accomplished in a dedicated multisensory integration area receiving feedforward inputs from the modalities. However, recent experimental evidence suggests that it is not a single multisensory brain area, but rather many multisensory brain areas that are simultaneously involved in the integration of information. Why many mutually connected areas should be needed for information integration is puzzling. Here, we investigated theoretically how information integration could be achieved in a distributed fashion within a network of interconnected multisensory areas. Using biologically realistic neural network models, we developed a decentralized information integration system that comprises multiple interconnected integration areas. Studying an example of combining visual and vestibular cues to infer heading direction, we show that such a decentralized system is in good agreement with anatomical evidence and experimental observations. In particular, we show that this decentralized system can integrate information optimally. The decentralized system predicts that optimally integrated information should emerge locally from the dynamics of the communication between brain areas and sheds new light on the interpretation of the connectivity between multisensory brain areas. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To extract information reliably from ambiguous environments, the brain integrates multiple sensory cues, which provide different aspects of information about the same entity of interest. Here, we propose a decentralized architecture for multisensory integration. In such a system, no processor is in the center of the network topology and information integration is achieved in a distributed manner through reciprocally connected local processors. Through studying the inference of heading direction with visual and vestibular cues, we show that

  9. United States industrial electric motor systems market opportunities assessment: Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1998-12-01

    The Market Assessment is designed to be of value to manufacturers, distributors, engineers, and others in the supply channels for motor systems. It provides a detailed and highly differentiated portrait of their end-use markets.

  10. Institutional and Regulatory Economics of Electricity Market Reforms: the Evidence from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bipulendu

    Five South Asian countries-- India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka -- embarked on electricity market reforms in the 1990's. The dissertation uses the framework of New Institutional Economics to assess the effects on electricity sector performance of both observables elements of reform (i.e. privatization, unbundling, establishment of independent regulatory agencies etc.) as well as the unobservable elements (informal beliefs, habit, norms and culture of the actors involved in reforms). The first part of the dissertation -- econometric analysis of the relationship between observable electricity market reform measures and performance indicators -- finds that for the most part electricity market reforms in South Asia are having a positive impact on the performance of the sector. This is particularly the case for reforms that have increased private sector participation in generation and distribution and have vertically unbundled utilities into generation, transmission and distribution entities. Many of the reforms are positively correlated with higher tariffs, indicating a cost to the consumers from the reforms. The relationship between independent regulation and performance indicators , however, is not established. The second part of the dissertation - analytical narrative of the reform experiences of Gujarat and Nepal -- examines the informal elements (such as beliefs, norms, culture) that motivate behavior and explains how and why reform outcomes differed in these two places. The dissertation finds that the strength of formal institutions rules and the nature of social norms and customs have a significant influence on the outcome of reforms. Aided by the strength of its formal institutional framework and more evolved social norms and customs that encouraged people to follow formal rules, reforms in the Indian state of Gujarat were a success. The weakness of the formal institutional framework and the predominance of relation-based norms and customs in

  11. Decentralized digital adaptive control of robot motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarokh, M.

    1990-01-01

    A decentralized model reference adaptive scheme is developed for digital control of robot manipulators. The adaptation laws are derived using hyperstability theory, which guarantees asymptotic trajectory tracking despite gross robot parameter variations. The control scheme has a decentralized structure in the sense that each local controller receives only its joint angle measurement to produce its joint torque. The independent joint controllers have simple structures and can be programmed using a very simple and computationally fast algorithm. As a result, the scheme is suitable for real-time motion control.

  12. (Rural electrification: Grid extension, decentralization, and financing)

    SciTech Connect

    Perlack, R.D.

    1990-02-22

    H.G. (Mike) Jones and I had numerous meetings with EEGSA staff. We discussed rural electrification plans, reviewed documents, and collaborated on collecting information on decentralized energy alternatives. Meetings were also held with USAID/Guatemala, USAID/ROCAP, NRECA, MEM, PVOs, and equipment vendors. A preliminary draft report and spreadsheet for comparing decentralized power alternatives was completed. The report and findings were presented to EEGSA and the methodology transferred to EEGSA staff. A set of recommended followup activities was also presented to EEGSA.

  13. Decentralization of Government Agencies: What Does It Accomplish?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.

    1979-01-01

    Focuses on the decentralization of governmental agencies from the perspective of both municipal and federal experiences. The article first discusses the main lessons from municipal decentralization, then outlines the characteristics of recent federal initiatives, and concludes with comments on the likely effects of decentralization. (Author)

  14. Educational Decentralization, Public Spending, and Social Justice in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geo-Jaja, Macleans A.

    2006-01-01

    This study situates the process of educational decentralization in the narrower context of social justice. Its main object, however, is to analyze the implications of decentralization for strategies of equity and social justice in Nigeria. It starts from the premise that the early optimism that supported decentralization as an efficient and…

  15. Strategic Planning in a Decentralized Environment: The Death of Linearity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Bernard H.; And Others

    Although private industry has been decentralizing for the past decade, community colleges have been slow to follow. For those colleges that have decentralized, traditional structured planning methodologies do not apply. The focus of strategic planning efforts at decentralized institutions is on the development of strategic themes to which…

  16. Summary of Market Opportunities for Electric Vehicles and Dispatchable Load in Electrolyzers

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, Paul; Eichman, Joshua; Markel, Tony; Ma, Ookie

    2015-05-19

    Electric vehicles (EVs) and electrolyzers are potentially significant sources of new electric loads. Both are flexible in that the amount of electricity consumed can be varied in response to a variety of factors including the cost of electricity. Because both EVs and electrolyzers can control the timing of electricity purchases, they can minimize energy costs by timing the purchases of energy to periods of lowest costs.

  17. DOE: Integrating Southwest Power Pool Wind Energy into Southeast Electricity Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Daniel, EPRI; Tuohy, Aidan, EPRI; Deb, Sidart, LCG Consulting; Jampani, Srinivas, LCG Consulting; Kirby, Brendan, Consultant; King, Jack, Consultant

    2011-11-29

    Wind power development in the United States is outpacing previous estimates for many regions, particularly those with good wind resources. The pace of wind power deployment may soon outstrip regional capabilities to provide transmission and integration services to achieve the most economic power system operation. Conversely, regions such as the Southeastern United States do not have good wind resources and will have difficulty meeting proposed federal Renewable Portfolio Standards with local supply. There is a growing need to explore innovative solutions for collaborating between regions to achieve the least cost solution for meeting such a renewable energy mandate. The DOE-funded project 'Integrating Southwest Power Pool Wind Energy into Southeast Electricity Markets' aims to evaluate the benefits of coordination of scheduling and balancing for Southwest Power Pool (SPP) wind transfers to Southeastern Electric Reliability Council (SERC) Balancing Authorities (BAs). The primary objective of this project is to analyze the benefits of different balancing approaches with increasing levels of inter-regional cooperation. Scenarios were defined, modeled and investigated to address production variability and uncertainty and the associated balancing of large quantities of wind power in SPP and delivery to energy markets in the southern regions of the SERC. The primary analysis of the project is based on unit commitment (UC) and economic dispatch (ED) simulations of the SPP-SERC regions as modeled for the year 2022. The UC/ED models utilized for the project were developed through extensive consultation with the project utility partners, to ensure the various regions and operational practices are represented as accurately as possible realizing that all such future scenario models are quite uncertain. SPP, Entergy, Oglethorpe Power Company (OPC), Southern Company, and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) actively participated in the project providing input data for the models

  18. Wholesale electricity market design with increasing levels of renewable generation: Revenue sufficiency and long-term reliability

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Milligan, Michael; Frew, Bethany A.; Bloom, Aaron; Ela, Erik; Botterud, Audun; Townsend, Aaron; Levin, Todd

    2016-03-22

    This paper discusses challenges that relate to assessing and properly incentivizing the resources necessary to ensure a reliable electricity system with growing penetrations of variable generation (VG). The output of VG (primarily wind and solar generation) varies over time and cannot be predicted precisely. Therefore, the energy from VG is not always guaranteed to be available at times when it is most needed. This means that its contribution towards resource adequacy can be significantly less than the contribution from traditional resources. Variable renewable resources also have near-zero variable costs, and with production-based subsidies they may even have negative offer costs.more » Because variable costs drive the spot price of energy, this can lead to reduced prices, sales, and therefore revenue for all resources within the energy market. The characteristics of VG can also result in increased price volatility as well as the need for more flexibility in the resource fleet in order to maintain system reliability. Furthermore, we explore both traditional and evolving electricity market designs in the United States that aim to ensure resource adequacy and sufficient revenues to recover costs when those resources are needed for long-term reliability. We also investigate how reliability needs may be evolving and discuss how VG may affect future electricity market designs.« less

  19. The Australian electricity market's pre-dispatch process: Some observations on its efficiency using ordered probit model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainudin, Wan Nur Rahini Aznie; Becker, Ralf; Clements, Adam

    2015-12-01

    Many market participants in Australia Electricity Market had cast doubts on whether the pre-dispatch process in the electricity market is able to give them good and timely quantity and price information. In a study by [11], they observed a significant bias (mainly indicating that the pre-dispatch process tends to underestimate spot price outcomes), a seasonality features of the bias across seasons and/or trading periods and changes in bias across the years in our sample period (1999 to 2007). In a formal setting of an ordered probit model we establish that there are some exogenous variables that are able to explain increased probabilities of over- or under-predictions of the spot price. It transpires that meteorological data, expected pre-dispatch prices and information on past over- and under-predictions contribute significantly to explaining variation in the probabilities for over- and under-predictions. The results allow us to conjecture that some of the bids and re-bids provided by electricity generators are not made in good faith.

  20. Towards a Decentralized Magnetic Indoor Positioning System

    PubMed Central

    Kasmi, Zakaria; Norrdine, Abdelmoumen; Blankenbach, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Decentralized magnetic indoor localization is a sophisticated method for processing sampled magnetic data directly on a mobile station (MS), thereby decreasing or even avoiding the need for communication with the base station. In contrast to central-oriented positioning systems, which transmit raw data to a base station, decentralized indoor localization pushes application-level knowledge into the MS. A decentralized position solution has thus a strong feasibility to increase energy efficiency and to prolong the lifetime of the MS. In this article, we present a complete architecture and an implementation for a decentralized positioning system. Furthermore, we introduce a technique for the synchronization of the observed magnetic field on the MS with the artificially-generated magnetic field from the coils. Based on real-time clocks (RTCs) and a preemptive operating system, this method allows a stand-alone control of the coils and a proper assignment of the measured magnetic fields on the MS. A stand-alone control and synchronization of the coils and the MS have an exceptional potential to implement a positioning system without the need for wired or wireless communication and enable a deployment of applications for rescue scenarios, like localization of miners or firefighters. PMID:26690145

  1. Decentralized Modular Systems Versus Centralized Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossey, R. E.

    Building design, planning, and construction programing for modular decentralized mechanical building systems are outlined in terms of costs, performance, expansion and flexibility. Design strategy, approach, and guidelines for implementing such systems for buildings are suggested, with emphasis on mechanical equipment and building element…

  2. Decentralization and Policy Design. CPRE Policy Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consortium for Policy Research in Education, New Brunswick, NJ.

    This policy brief focuses on design issues surrounding decentralization policies, drawing from the following three reports: "Working Models of Choice in Public Education," by Richard F. Elmore; "Diversity Amidst Standardization: State Differential Treatment of Districts," by Susan H. Fuhrman; and "School District Restructuring in Santa Fe, New…

  3. Leadership and the Decentralized Control of Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Matthew P.

    2013-01-01

    This review examines the literature related to leadership and the decentralized control of schools. It first considers the distinctive goals of public and private agencies, the specific constraints that shape the autonomy of leaders in different sectors, and the ways in which new models of public management are infusing public agencies with…

  4. Decentralization of Management in Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, George M.

    1979-01-01

    Alfred University has developed a Management Information System intended to support decentralized management, with more decision-making responsibilities delegated to academic managers. Information systems, curriculum interaction modeling, program costs, budget preparation and planning, and a training program for academic managers are discussed.…

  5. Reclassification in a small decentralized medical library.

    PubMed

    Tong, J G; Brennen, P W; Byrd, G D

    1977-07-01

    This study describes procedures and indentifies problems in the reclassification of a small medical school library collection that is decentralized into five locations in three different communities. A total of 9,915 monographic titles (14,911 volumes) were reclassified in a nine-month period. The reclassification staff consisted of one professional, two nonprofessionals, and one partime student assistant. PMID:884347

  6. Decentralization and Educational Reform in Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Lawrence C.

    In 1973 Florida embarked on an ambitious adventure to improve the quality of public education by decentralizing many aspects of educational decision-making to the school site. The strategy incorporated a comprehensive reform of the state's school finance system, the development of a management information and accounting system, requirements for…

  7. Small Is Beautiful: Decentralizing Food Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spero, Sally

    1995-01-01

    A director of food services in an Indiana district analyzed costs of centralized versus decentralized food service. She discovered that preparing food at satellite schools, despite problems with inadequate equipment and outdated facilities, was more cost-effective. It is important for each district to analyze its own data and decide which system…

  8. Decentralization in Education in an International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amelsvoort, H. W. C. H. van; And Others

    Education in European countries has been characterized by a tendency toward decentralization and deregulation. The Dutch Ministry of Education commissioned the University of Twente to perform a comparative study of actual and future shifts in tasks, responsibilities, and authority in education in several European countries. This book presents…

  9. Towards a Decentralized Magnetic Indoor Positioning System.

    PubMed

    Kasmi, Zakaria; Norrdine, Abdelmoumen; Blankenbach, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Decentralized magnetic indoor localization is a sophisticated method for processing sampled magnetic data directly on a mobile station (MS), thereby decreasing or even avoiding the need for communication with the base station. In contrast to central-oriented positioning systems, which transmit raw data to a base station, decentralized indoor localization pushes application-level knowledge into the MS. A decentralized position solution has thus a strong feasibility to increase energy efficiency and to prolong the lifetime of the MS. In this article, we present a complete architecture and an implementation for a decentralized positioning system. Furthermore, we introduce a technique for the synchronization of the observed magnetic field on the MS with the artificially-generated magnetic field from the coils. Based on real-time clocks (RTCs) and a preemptive operating system, this method allows a stand-alone control of the coils and a proper assignment of the measured magnetic fields on the MS. A stand-alone control and synchronization of the coils and the MS have an exceptional potential to implement a positioning system without the need for wired or wireless communication and enable a deployment of applications for rescue scenarios, like localization of miners or firefighters. PMID:26690145

  10. Manual--Territorial Decentration Test (Revised Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoltman, Joseph P.

    A test for assessing the child's ability to identify territories and their relationship to each other--the Territorial Decentration Test--is discussed. In addition to a description of the test, the administration and scoring of the test and the assignment of score ranges and criterion levels (Territorial Stages) are described. A directions Form…

  11. Local Responses to Decentralization Policy in Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjork, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Ethnographic fieldwork in six junior high schools in East Java, Indonesia, focused on local responses to a national policy devolving authority over the curriculum to the schools. Interviews and observations in the schools revealed little change in teacher actions. The objectives of decentralization clashed with deeply rooted ideas about authority,…

  12. Decentralized nuclear materials management system at SNLA

    SciTech Connect

    James, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    This paper discusses the approach that Sandia took in deciding to implement a nuclear material control and accountability system on a stand-alone minicomputer despite the existence of a Univac 1108 and Univac 1100/82 centralized facility. The benefits which have been obtained by the decentralization and future applications are discussed.

  13. Electric power grid control using a market-based resource allocation system

    DOEpatents

    Chassin, David P.

    2015-07-21

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for distributing a resource (such as electricity) using a resource allocation system. In one exemplary embodiment, a plurality of requests for electricity are received from a plurality of end-use consumers. The requests indicate a requested quantity of electricity and a consumer-requested index value indicative of a maximum price a respective end-use consumer will pay for the requested quantity of electricity. A plurality of offers for supplying electricity are received from a plurality of resource suppliers. The offers indicate an offered quantity of electricity and a supplier-requested index value indicative of a minimum price for which a respective supplier will produce the offered quantity of electricity. A dispatched index value is computed at which electricity is to be supplied based at least in part on the consumer-requested index values and the supplier-requested index values.

  14. Electric power grid control using a market-based resource allocation system

    DOEpatents

    Chassin, David P

    2014-01-28

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for distributing a resource (such as electricity) using a resource allocation system. In one exemplary embodiment, a plurality of requests for electricity are received from a plurality of end-use consumers. The requests indicate a requested quantity of electricity and a consumer-requested index value indicative of a maximum price a respective end-use consumer will pay for the requested quantity of electricity. A plurality of offers for supplying electricity are received from a plurality of resource suppliers. The offers indicate an offered quantity of electricity and a supplier-requested index value indicative of a minimum price for which a respective supplier will produce the offered quantity of electricity. A dispatched index value is computed at which electricity is to be supplied based at least in part on the consumer-requested index values and the supplier-requested index values.

  15. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on retail electricity rates and utility financial viability

    SciTech Connect

    Bodmer, E.; Fisher, R.E.; Hemphill, R.C.

    1995-03-01

    Changes in power contract terms for customers of Western`s Salt Lake City Area Office affect electricity rates for consumers of electric power in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. The impacts of electricity rate changes on consumers are studied by measuring impacts on the rates charged by individual utility systems, determining the average rates in regional areas, and conducting a detailed rate analysis of representative utility systems. The primary focus is an evaluation of the way retail electricity rates for Western`s preference customers vary with alternative pricing and power quantity commitment terms under Western`s long-term contracts to sell power (marketing programs). Retail rate impacts are emphasized because changes in the price of electricity are the most direct economic effect on businesses and residences arising from different Western contractual and operational policies. Retail rates are the mechanism by which changes in cost associated with Western`s contract terms are imposed on ultimate consumers, and rate changes determine the dollar level of payments for electric power incurred by the affected consumers. 41 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. The Direct Results of Integrated Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevier, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Discussions among college and university administrators on improving marketing efforts often revolve around questions about whether the marketing function should be centralized or decentralized. An impetus of these discussions is the increased marketing sophistication of many boards. Many trustees are strongly urging their institutions to apply…

  17. On the Efficiency of the New York Independent System OperatorMarket for Transmission Congestion Contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Bartholomew, Emily S.; Marnay, Chris; Oren,Shmuel S.

    2003-04-01

    The physical nature of electricity generation and deliverycreates special problems for the design of efficient markets, notably theneed to manage delivery in real time and the volatile congestion andassociated costs that result. Proposals for the operation of thederegulated electricity industry tend towards one of two paradigms:centralized and decentralized. Transmission congestion management can beimplemented in the more centralized point-to-point approach, a in NewYork state, where derivative transmission congestion contracts (TCCs) aretraded, or in the more decentralized flowgate-based approach. While it iswidely accepted that theoretically TCCs have attractive properties ashedging instruments against congestion cost uncertainty, whetherefficient markets for them can be established in practice has beenquestioned. Based on an empirical analysis of publicly available datafrom years 2000 and 2001, it appears that New York TCCs providedmarketparticipants with a potentially effective hedge against volatilecongestion rents. However, the prices paid for TCCs systematicallydiverged from the resulting congestion rents for distant locations and athigh prices. The price paid for the hedge not being in line with thecongestion rents, i.e. unreasonably high risk premiums are being paid,suggests an inefficient market. The low liquidity of TCC markets and thedeviation of TCC feasibility requirements from actual energy flows arepossible explanations.

  18. Impacts on irrigated agriculture of changes in electricity costs resulting from Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, B.K.; Flaim, S.J.; Howitt, R.E.; Palmer, S.C.

    1995-03-01

    Irrigation is a major factor in the growth of US agricultural productivity, especially in western states, which account for more than 85% of the nation`s irrigated acreage. In some of these states, almost all cropland is irrigated, and nearly 50% of the irrigation is done with electrically powered pumps. Therefore, even small increases in the cost of electricity could have a disproportionate impact on irrigated agriculture. This technical memorandum examines the impacts that could result from proposed changes in the power marketing programs of the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Office. The changes could increase the cost of power to all Western customers, including rural municipalities and irrigation districts that rely on inexpensive federal power to pump water. The impacts are assessed by translating changes in Western`s wholesale power rate into changes in the cost of pumping water as an input for agricultural production. Farmers can adapt to higher electricity prices in many ways, such as (1) using different pumping fuels, (2) adding workers and increasing management to irrigate more efficiently, and (3) growing more drought-tolerant crops. This study projects several responses, including using less groundwater and planting fewer waterintensive crops. The study finds that when dependence on Western`s power is high, the cost of power can have a major effect on energy use, agricultural practices, and the distribution of planted acreage. The biggest percentage changes in farm income would occur (1) in Nevada and Utah (however, all projected changes are less than 2% of the baseline) and (2) under the marketing alternatives that represent the lowest capacity and energy offer considered in Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement. The aggregate impact on farm incomes and the value of total farm production would be much smaller than that suggested by the changes in water use and planted acreage.

  19. Generating electricity with wood chips: a promising market for loggers. [Vermont

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, N.

    1982-01-01

    The Burlington Electric Department in Vermont is on the verge of constructing a 50-megawatt plant fueled with green wood chips. B.E.D. and state foresters have agreed to a code of silvicultural ethics that will dictate absolutely every phase of whole tree chipping involved with procuring the vast amount of fuel. ''The Harvesting Policy for Whole Tree Chipping Operations in Vermont'' mandates that all refuse be removed from the logging site; that hiking trails remain unaffected; that visual impact be minimal; that wild-life, fisheries, and deeryards be considered, with the consultation of a state biologist when necessary; that archeological sites be protected; that remaining trees be safeguarded, and that erosion and fire prevention controls be enacted. Studies completed within the past three years show that there are 29 million green tons of rough and rotten trees within a 50-mile radius of the Burlington plant. A U.S. Forest Service survey has determined that there are 3.6 million green tons of annual unutilized growth within that 50-mile radius. There is enough rough and rotten wood to avoid competition between B.E.D. chippers and small loggers or home owners harvesting firewood. Because the State Public Service Board has mandated that 75% of the chips travel by rail to the plant, the shipping radius will be increased from the 80 trucking miles B.E.D. now pays for. Some of the chips will come from thinning stands on a selective basis and others from clear-cutting for farmland, new developments, or ski trails. Already B.E.D. has 2500 acres in the Tree Farm Family. B.E.D. has published an attractive brochure, aimed at convincing landowners to sign up for the program. Over much of New York and New England there are no markets for chips. Following a recent land-clearing operation in New Hampshire, a logger hauled his chips to B.E.D. B.E.D.'s payment barely covered the trucking costs.

  20. Centralization vs. decentralization in medical school libraries.

    PubMed

    Crawford, H

    1966-07-01

    Does the medical school library in the United States operate more commonly under the university library or the medical school administration? University-connected medical school libraries were asked to indicate (a) the source of their budgets, whether from the central library or the medical school, and (b) the responsibility for their acquisitions and cataloging. Returns received from sixtyeight of the seventy eligible institutions showed decentralization to be much the most common: 71 percent of the libraries are funded by their medical schools; 79 percent are responsible for their own acquisitions and processing. The factor most often associated with centralization of both budget and operation is public ownership. Decentralization is associated with service to one or two rather than three or more professional schools. Location of the medical school in a different city from the university is highly favorable to autonomy. Other factors associated with these trends are discussed. PMID:5945568

  1. Ecology Based Decentralized Agent Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peysakhov, Maxim D.; Cicirello, Vincent A.; Regli, William C.

    2004-01-01

    The problem of maintaining a desired number of mobile agents on a network is not trivial, especially if we want a completely decentralized solution. Decentralized control makes a system more r e bust and less susceptible to partial failures. The problem is exacerbated on wireless ad hoc networks where host mobility can result in significant changes in the network size and topology. In this paper we propose an ecology-inspired approach to the management of the number of agents. The approach associates agents with living organisms and tasks with food. Agents procreate or die based on the abundance of uncompleted tasks (food). We performed a series of experiments investigating properties of such systems and analyzed their stability under various conditions. We concluded that the ecology based metaphor can be successfully applied to the management of agent populations on wireless ad hoc networks.

  2. Centralized and Decentralized Control for Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shuai; Samaan, Nader A.; Diao, Ruisheng; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Jin, Chunlian; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Zhang, Yu; Kirkham, Harold

    2011-04-29

    Demand response has been recognized as an essential element of the smart grid. Frequency response, regulation and contingency reserve functions performed traditionally by generation resources are now starting to involve demand side resources. Additional benefits from demand response include peak reduction and load shifting, which will defer new infrastructure investment and improve generator operation efficiency. Technical approaches designed to realize these functionalities can be categorized into centralized control and decentralized control, depending on where the response decision is made. This paper discusses these two control philosophies and compares their relative advantages and disadvantages in terms of delay time, predictability, complexity, and reliability. A distribution system model with detailed household loads and controls is built to demonstrate the characteristics of the two approaches. The conclusion is that the promptness and reliability of decentralized control should be combined with the predictability and simplicity of centralized control to achieve the best performance of the smart grid.

  3. Analyzing Von Neumann machines using decentralized symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jie

    2013-10-01

    The artificial intelligence method to e-business is defined not only by the study of fiber-optic cables, but also by the unproven need for vacuum tubes. Given the current status of virtual archetypes, theorists clearly desire the exploration of semaphores, which embodies the compelling principles of cryptoanalysis. We present an algorithm for probabilistic theory (Buck), which we use to disprove that write-back caches can be made decentralized, lossless, and reliable.

  4. A novel coefficient for detecting and quantifying asymmetry of California electricity market based on asymmetric detrended cross-correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang

    2016-06-01

    In order to detect and quantify asymmetry of two time series, a novel cross-correlation coefficient is proposed based on recent asymmetric detrended cross-correlation analysis (A-DXA), which we called A-DXA coefficient. The A-DXA coefficient, as an important extension of DXA coefficient ρ D X A , contains two directional asymmetric cross-correlated indexes, describing upwards and downwards asymmetric cross-correlations, respectively. By using the information of directional covariance function of two time series and directional variance function of each series itself instead of power-law between the covariance function and time scale, the proposed A-DXA coefficient can well detect asymmetry between the two series no matter whether the cross-correlation is significant or not. By means of the proposed A-DXA coefficient conducted over the asymmetry for California electricity market, we found that the asymmetry between the prices and loads is not significant for daily average data in 1999 yr market (before electricity crisis) but extremely significant for those in 2000 yr market (during the crisis). To further uncover the difference of asymmetry between the years 1999 and 2000, a modified H statistic (MH) and ΔMH statistic are proposed. One of the present contributions is that the high MH values calculated for hourly data exist in majority months in 2000 market. Another important conclusion is that the cross-correlation with downwards dominates over the whole 1999 yr in contrast to the cross-correlation with upwards dominates over the 2000 yr.

  5. A novel coefficient for detecting and quantifying asymmetry of California electricity market based on asymmetric detrended cross-correlation analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang

    2016-06-01

    In order to detect and quantify asymmetry of two time series, a novel cross-correlation coefficient is proposed based on recent asymmetric detrended cross-correlation analysis (A-DXA), which we called A-DXA coefficient. The A-DXA coefficient, as an important extension of DXA coefficient ρDXA, contains two directional asymmetric cross-correlated indexes, describing upwards and downwards asymmetric cross-correlations, respectively. By using the information of directional covariance function of two time series and directional variance function of each series itself instead of power-law between the covariance function and time scale, the proposed A-DXA coefficient can well detect asymmetry between the two series no matter whether the cross-correlation is significant or not. By means of the proposed A-DXA coefficient conducted over the asymmetry for California electricity market, we found that the asymmetry between the prices and loads is not significant for daily average data in 1999 yr market (before electricity crisis) but extremely significant for those in 2000 yr market (during the crisis). To further uncover the difference of asymmetry between the years 1999 and 2000, a modified H statistic (MH) and ΔMH statistic are proposed. One of the present contributions is that the high MH values calculated for hourly data exist in majority months in 2000 market. Another important conclusion is that the cross-correlation with downwards dominates over the whole 1999 yr in contrast to the cross-correlation with upwards dominates over the 2000 yr. PMID:27368774

  6. Customer response to day-ahead wholesale market electricity prices: Case study of RTP program experience in New York

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, C.; Hopper, N.; Sezgen, O.; Moezzi, M.; Bharvirkar, R.; Neenan, B.; Boisvert, R.; Cappers, P.; Pratt, D.

    2004-07-01

    There is growing interest in policies, programs and tariffs that encourage customer loads to provide demand response (DR) to help discipline wholesale electricity markets. Proposals at the retail level range from eliminating fixed rate tariffs as the default service for some or all customer groups to reinstituting utility-sponsored load management programs with market-based inducements to curtail. Alternative rate designs include time-of-use (TOU), day-ahead real-time pricing (RTP), critical peak pricing, and even pricing usage at real-time market balancing prices. Some Independent System Operators (ISOs) have implemented their own DR programs whereby load curtailment capabilities are treated as a system resource and are paid an equivalent value. The resulting load reductions from these tariffs and programs provide a variety of benefits, including limiting the ability of suppliers to increase spot and long-term market-clearing prices above competitive levels (Neenan et al., 2002; Boren stein, 2002; Ruff, 2002). Unfortunately, there is little information in the public domain to characterize and quantify how customers actually respond to these alternative dynamic pricing schemes. A few empirical studies of large customer RTP response have shown modest results for most customers, with a few very price-responsive customers providing most of the aggregate response (Herriges et al., 1993; Schwarz et al., 2002). However, these studies examined response to voluntary, two-part RTP programs implemented by utilities in states without retail competition.1 Furthermore, the researchers had limited information on customer characteristics so they were unable to identify the drivers to price response. In the absence of a compelling characterization of why customers join RTP programs and how they respond to prices, many initiatives to modernize retail electricity rates seem to be stymied.

  7. Adoption of Emissions Abating Technologies by U.S. Electricity Producing Firms Under the SO2 Emission Allowance Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creamer, Gregorio Bernardo

    The objective of this research is to determine the adaptation strategies that coal-based, electricity producing firms in the United States utilize to comply with the emission control regulations imposed by the SO2 Emissions Allowance Market created by the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990, and the effect of market conditions on the decision making process. In particular, I take into consideration (1) the existence of carbon contracts for the provision of coal that may a affect coal prices at the plant level, and (2) local and geographical conditions, as well as political arrangements that may encourage firms to adopt strategies that appear socially less efficient. As the electricity producing sector is a regulated sector, firms do not necessarily behave in a way that maximizes the welfare of society when reacting to environmental regulations. In other words, profit maximization actions taken by the firm do not necessarily translate into utility maximization for society. Therefore, the environmental regulator has to direct firms into adopting strategies that are socially efficient, i.e., that maximize utility. The SO 2 permit market is an instrument that allows each firm to reduce marginal emissions abatement costs according to their own production conditions and abatement costs. Companies will be driven to opt for a cost-minimizing emissions abatement strategy or a combination of abatement strategies when adapting to new environmental regulations or markets. Firms may adopt one or more of the following strategies to reduce abatement costs while meeting the emission constraints imposed by the SO2 Emissions Allowance Market: (1) continue with business as usual on the production site while buying SO2 permits to comply with environmental regulations, (2) switch to higher quality, lower sulfur coal inputs that will generate less SO2 emissions, or (3) adopting new emissions abating technologies. A utility optimization condition is that the marginal value of each input

  8. Theory and applications survey of decentralized control methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athans, M.

    1975-01-01

    A nonmathematical overview is presented of trends in the general area of decentralized control strategies which are suitable for hierarchical systems. Advances in decentralized system theory are closely related to advances in the so-called stochastic control problem with nonclassical information pattern. The basic assumptions and mathematical tools pertaining to the classical stochastic control problem are outlined. Particular attention is devoted to pitfalls in the mathematical problem formulation for decentralized control. Major conclusions are that any purely deterministic approach to multilevel hierarchical dynamic systems is unlikely to lead to realistic theories or designs, that the flow of measurements and decisions in a decentralized system should not be instantaneous and error-free, and that delays in information exchange in a decentralized system lead to reasonable approaches to decentralized control. A mathematically precise notion of aggregating information is not yet available.

  9. Decentralized Energy Studies: compendium of U. S. studies and projects

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, J.; Ohi, J.M.

    1980-06-01

    This compendium was prepared as a part of the Decentralized Energy Studies task at the Solar Energy Research Institute. The compendium lists and briefly describes a number of studies, programs, and projects that involve decentralized energy systems. The purpose is to provide information about research activities in decentralized energy systems to researchers, government officials, and interested citizens. A contact person or address is given for each of the activities listed so that interested readers can obtain more information.

  10. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-10-01

    Many countries--reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems--are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy (RE) on the grid. Australia (South Australia), Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Spain, and the United States (Colorado and Texas), for example, have effectively integrated variable RE utilizing diverse approaches. Analysis of the results from these case studies reveals a wide range of mechanisms that can be used to accommodate high penetrations of variable RE (e.g., from new market designs to centralized planning). Nevertheless, the myriad approaches collectively suggest that governments can best enable variable RE grid integration by implementing best practices in five areas of intervention: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations.

  11. Environmental Externalities in Electric Power Markets: Acid Rain, Urban Ozone, and Climate Change

    EIA Publications

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the emissions resulting from the generation of electricity by utilities and their role in contributing to the environmental problems of acid rain, urban ozone, and climate change.

  12. USING MARKET INCENTIVES TO PROMOTE DECENTRALIZED STORMWATER MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces in urban and suburban areas has led to human safety risks and widespread stream ecosystem impairment. While centralized stormwater management can minimize large fluctuations in stream flows and flooding risk to urban areas, this approac...

  13. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 2, Sections 1-16

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  14. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 3, Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  15. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 4, Appendixes B-D

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  16. Consumer cost effectiveness of CO2 mitigation policies in restructured electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Jared; Apt, Jay

    2014-10-01

    We examine the cost of carbon dioxide mitigation to consumers in restructured USA markets under two policy instruments, a carbon price and a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). To estimate the effect of policies on market clearing prices, we constructed hourly economic dispatch models of the generators in PJM and in ERCOT. We find that the cost effectiveness of policies for consumers is strongly dependent on the price of natural gas and on the characteristics of the generators in the dispatch stack. If gas prices are low (˜4/MMBTU), a technology-agnostic, rational consumer seeking to minimize costs would prefer a carbon price over an RPS in both regions. Expensive gas (˜7/MMBTU) requires a high carbon price to induce fuel switching and this leads to wealth transfers from consumers to low carbon producers. The RPS may be more cost effective for consumers because the added energy supply lowers market clearing prices and reduces CO2 emissions. We find that both policies have consequences in capacity markets and that the RPS can be more cost effective than a carbon price under certain circumstances: continued excess supply of capacity, retention of nuclear generators, and high natural gas prices.

  17. Lead-acid and lithium-ion batteries for the Chinese electric bike market and implications on future technology advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Burke, Andrew F.; Wei, Xuezhe

    China has been experiencing a rapid increase in battery-powered personal transportation since the late 1990s due to the strong growth of the electric bike and scooter (i.e. e-bike) market. Annual sales in China reached 17 million bikes year -1 in 2006. E-bike growth has been in part due to improvements in rechargeable valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery technology, the primary battery type for e-bikes. Further improvements in technology and a transition from VRLA to lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries will impact the future market growth of this transportation mode in China and abroad. Battery performance and cost for these two types are compared to assess the feasibility of a shift from VRLA to Li-ion battery e-bikes. The requirements for batteries used in e-bikes are assessed. A widespread shift from VRLA to Li-ion batteries seems improbable in the near future for the mass market given the cost premium relative to the performance advantages of Li-ion batteries. As both battery technologies gain more real-world use in e-bike applications, both will improve. Cell variability is a key problematic area to be addressed with VRLA technology. For Li-ion technology, safety and cost are the key problem areas which are being addressed through the use of new cathode materials.

  18. An implementation of particle swarm optimization to evaluate optimal under-voltage load shedding in competitive electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini-Bioki, M. M.; Rashidinejad, M.; Abdollahi, A.

    2013-11-01

    Load shedding is a crucial issue in power systems especially under restructured electricity environment. Market-driven load shedding in reregulated power systems associated with security as well as reliability is investigated in this paper. A technoeconomic multi-objective function is introduced to reveal an optimal load shedding scheme considering maximum social welfare. The proposed optimization problem includes maximum GENCOs and loads' profits as well as maximum loadability limit under normal and contingency conditions. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) as a heuristic optimization technique, is utilized to find an optimal load shedding scheme. In a market-driven structure, generators offer their bidding blocks while the dispatchable loads will bid their price-responsive demands. An independent system operator (ISO) derives a market clearing price (MCP) while rescheduling the amount of generating power in both pre-contingency and post-contingency conditions. The proposed methodology is developed on a 3-bus system and then is applied to a modified IEEE 30-bus test system. The obtained results show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology in implementing the optimal load shedding satisfying social welfare by maintaining voltage stability margin (VSM) through technoeconomic analyses.

  19. Market maturity

    SciTech Connect

    Meade, B.; Bowden, S.; Ellis, M

    1995-02-01

    The power sector in the Philipines provides one of the most mature independent power markets in Asia. Over the past five years, National Power Corp. (NPC), the government owned utility, has actively invited the power sector into power generation. Distribution has remained in the hands of private and rural cooperative utilities. Private utilities have been operating as full requirements customers of NPC while the growth in capacity additions by independent power producers (IPPs) has outpaced NPC`s for the second year in a row. With a recovering economy and regulatory reform proceeding, the outlook for independent power remains strong through the end of the decade. The Philipine Congress is now reviewing draft legislation that will decentralize NPC and begin the process of privatization and market-based reforms throughout the country`s power sector.

  20. Impact of School Decentralization in New York City on Municipal Decentralization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Charter Revision Commission for New York City.

    In 1969, after much controversy and the submission of many bills, the New York State Legislature passed--and the Governor signed--a school decentralization law. The law went into effect on February 16, 1970, with the major transfers of power operative on July 1, 1970. This report examines those aspects of the three-year school decentralization…

  1. Innovative electricity marketing. Utilities must rethink how they can meet their customers' needs

    SciTech Connect

    Pierobon, J.R.

    1994-04-15

    Tradition-bound utility commissioners and electricity providers who believe electric utilities are insulated from competition until retail wheeling arrives should carefully assess just how quickly competition is remaking the electric power marketplace. The widely predicted industry evolution spawned by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 is becoming nothing less than a revolution. Some utilities and their regulators still don't seem to grasp the sea-change taking place. Others are genuinely rethinking how utilities can serve their most valued customers and try to win new ones-even if it means taking customers away from another utility. Electric utilities that respond by understanding, communicating, and meeting needs in the marketplace will likely thrive in the new era. Those that don't are tempting fate. And fate could arrive before a full-fledged retail wheeling proposal becomes law. Regulators fixated on retail wheeling per se or determined to defend the status quo are missing the point. Large users of electricity certainly want retail wheeling. They're applying pressure wherever and however they can to win it. But they're not waiting until they get retail wheeling to flex their purchasing clout. Some state commissioners need to recognize this and empower utilities to respond.

  2. Multi-period equilibrium/near-equilibrium in electricity markets based on locational marginal prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Bertrand, Raquel

    In this dissertation we propose an equilibrium procedure that coordinates the point of view of every market agent resulting in an equilibrium that simultaneously maximizes the independent objective of every market agent and satisfies network constraints. Therefore, the activities of the generating companies, consumers and an independent system operator are modeled: (1) The generating companies seek to maximize profits by specifying hourly step functions of productions and minimum selling prices, and bounds on productions. (2) The goals of the consumers are to maximize their economic utilities by specifying hourly step functions of demands and maximum buying prices, and bounds on demands. (3) The independent system operator then clears the market taking into account consistency conditions as well as capacity and line losses so as to achieve maximum social welfare. Then, we approach this equilibrium problem using complementarity theory in order to have the capability of imposing constraints on dual variables, i.e., on prices, such as minimum profit conditions for the generating units or maximum cost conditions for the consumers. In this way, given the form of the individual optimization problems, the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions for the generating companies, the consumers and the independent system operator are both necessary and sufficient. The simultaneous solution to all these conditions constitutes a mixed linear complementarity problem. We include minimum profit constraints imposed by the units in the market equilibrium model. These constraints are added as additional constraints to the equivalent quadratic programming problem of the mixed linear complementarity problem previously described. For the sake of clarity, the proposed equilibrium or near-equilibrium is first developed for the particular case considering only one time period. Afterwards, we consider an equilibrium or near-equilibrium applied to a multi-period framework. This model embodies binary

  3. Multisource Data Inversion Using Decentralized Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alzraiee, A. H.; Bau, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Field data pertaining hydrological systems typically come from multiple sources and are related to different hydraulic properties. The spatial and temporal coverage of these datasets is also variable. Data fusion techniques allow for the integration of multiple datasets with different quality in order to produce a more informative dataset than any of the original inputs. That is to say, the accuracy and the spatial coverage of the fused data are expected to be superior to any of the original datasets. In this work, we present a 'decentralized' data fusion method stemming from Millman's theory, which has been introduced in the field of signal processing to fuse multiple correlated estimates. Millman's equations are applied to integrate separate estimates of aquifer hydraulic properties, such as the spatial distributions of the hydraulic conductivity K and the specific elastic storage Ss, estimated through the inversion of drawdown data collected over multiple independent pumping tests. For each pumping test, 'local' estimates of K and Ss are obtained by applying an Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) algorithm to assimilate the first and second moments of aquifer drawdown into the response of a corresponding groundwater flow model. Since the application of Millman's theory may be computationally very intensive, we propose a more efficient Millman's fusion algorithm for merging local estimates into a global estimate of the hydraulic properties. Increased computational efficiency is achieved by distributing local estimation processes among multicore computers. Multiple numerical experiments are conducted to investigate the potential of this inversion method. In these experiments, a synthetic aquifer is explored by conducting multiple hypothetical pumping tests at different locations in the aquifer. Finally, the decentralized fusion method is compared to a centralized fusion method where all drawdown data corresponding to multiple pumping tests are fused simultaneously using

  4. Preliminary Assessment of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Wind Energy Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Short, W.; Denholm, P.

    2006-04-01

    This report examines a measure that may potentially reduce oil use and also more than proportionately reduce carbon emissions from vehicles. The authors present a very preliminary analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) that can be charged from or discharged to the grid. These vehicles have the potential to reduce gasoline consumption and carbon emissions from vehicles, as well as improve the viability of renewable energy technologies with variable resource availability. This paper is an assessment of the synergisms between plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and wind energy. The authors examine two bounding cases that illuminate this potential synergism.

  5. Short-term load forecasting using generalized regression and probabilistic neural networks in the electricity market

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, M.M.; Upadhyay, K.G.; Singh, S.N.

    2008-11-15

    For the economic and secure operation of power systems, a precise short-term load forecasting technique is essential. Modern load forecasting techniques - especially artificial neural network methods - are particularly attractive, as they have the ability to handle the non-linear relationships between load, weather temperature, and the factors affecting them directly. A test of two different ANN models on data from Australia's Victoria market is promising. (author)

  6. Regional economic impacts of changes in electricity rates resulting from Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, T.; Griffes, P.; Edwards, B.K.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum describes an analysis of regional economic impacts resulting from changes in retail electricity rates due to six power marketing programs proposed by Western Area Power Administration (Western). Regional economic impacts of changes in rates are estimated in terms of five key regional economic variables: population, gross regional product, disposable income, employment, and household income. The REMI (Regional Impact Models, Inc.) and IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning) models simulate economic impacts in nine subregions in the area in which Western power is sold for the years 1993, 2000, and 2008. Estimates show that impacts on aggregate economic activity in any of the subregions or years would be minimal for three reasons. First, the utilities that buy power from Western sell only a relatively small proportion of the total electricity sold in any of the subregions. Second, reliance of Western customers on Western power is fairly low in each subregion. Finally, electricity is not a significant input cost for any industry or for households in any subregion.

  7. Evaluation of the Impact of Wind Generation on the Electricity Market Prices and on the Profitability of New Wind Investments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, A. J.; Saraiva, J. T.

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes a Dynamic Model of the electricity sector that can be used to simulate the evolution of some key variables on the long term, namely the evolution of the electricity price, of the demand and of the capacity factors of the technologies in the generation mix. This model can be used in different ways and by several agents, for instance to estimate the impact on the electricity price of the increasing presence of renewable power stations, namely using wind power and PV systems. In several countries these stations are paid feed-in tariffs with a fixed price but in some cases this scheme is under discussion and there are opinions that payments determined by the market price are more adequate and would bring fewer costs to final consumers. Such a change has to be carefully evaluated given that the presence of renewable stations bidding at an infra marginal price will affect the price itself. The model described in this paper can be used in a profitable way both by governmental agencies when preparing or studying alternative remuneration schemes to renewable stations or by promoters themselves to get more insight to the profitability of their investments, namely if the fixed feed-in tariffs in force in several countries are changed.

  8. Two essays on electricity markets: Entry into hydroelectric generation industry and the political cycle of regulated prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moita, Rodrigo Menon Simoes

    This dissertation is about the electricity industry and the problems that arise with the liberalization and de-regulation of the industry. Characteristics intrinsic to the electricity market create problems that can compromise an efficient functioning of this market. Each of the two chapters of this dissertation focus on a specific aspect of this industry. The first chapter analyzes entry in the hydroelectric generation industry. The operation of a generator upstream regularizes the river flow for generators located downstream on the same river, increasing the production capacity of the latter. This positive externality increases the attractiveness of the locations downstream whenever a generator decides to enter upstream. Therefore, the entry decision of a generator in a given location may affect all entry decisions in potential locations for plants located downstream. I first model the problem of generators located in cascade on the same river and show the positive effect of the externality. Second, I use a panel of data on investment decisions of hydro-generation firms to estimate an entry model that takes into account the effect of the externality generated by entry upriver. The results show a positive incentive to locate downstream from existing plants and from locations where entry is likely to occur. Location characteristics also play an important role on the entrants' decisions. The model provides estimates of the average expected market price across the different years covered by the sample and shows that it rose one year before the energy crisis of 2001, evidencing that the market anticipated the crisis. This result has important implications on the evaluation of the Brazilian market design. It shows that entry responded to a rise in expectations about excess demand in the future, contradicting the argument that the crisis was a consequence of mis-designed market institutions. The second chapter deals with the problem of the political cycle in regulated

  9. Decentralized energy studies: compendium of international studies and research

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, C.

    1980-03-01

    The purpose of the compendium is to provide information about research activities in decentralized energy systems to researchers, government officials, and interested citizens. The compendium lists and briefly describes a number of studies in other industrialized nations that involve decentralized energy systems. A contact person is given for each of the activities listed so that interested readers can obtain more information.

  10. Decentralized Budgeting in Education: Model Variations and Practitioner Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, George; Metsinger, Jackie; McGinnis, Patricia

    In educational settings, decentralized budgeting refers to various fiscal practices that disperse budgeting responsibility away from central administration to the line education units. This distributed decision-making is common to several financial management models. Among the many financial management models that employ decentralized budgeting…

  11. Decentralized Budgeting: Getting the Most Out of Disbursements of Funds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Anne L.

    1995-01-01

    Decentralizing educational budgets allows the disbursement of funds aimed at maximizing student development. Three strategies for decentralizing budgets are program budgeting, which eliminates line-item budgeting and allows administrators to address questions regarding the relative value of educational programs; zero-based budgeting, which allows…

  12. Responsibility Center Management: Lessons from 25 Years of Decentralized Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Jon C.; Curry, John R.

    Decentralization of authority is a natural act in universities, but decentralization of responsibility is not. A problem faced by universities is the decoupling of academic authority from financial responsibility. The solution proposed in this book for the coupling is Responsibility Center Management (RCM), also called Revenue Responsibility…

  13. The Decentralization Mirage: Comparing Decisionmaking Arrangements in Four High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bimber, Bruce

    Decentralization has been one of the centerpieces of education reform in the United States over the past decade, yet the results so far are not encouraging. This booklet presents findings of a study that explored the hypothesis that decentralization efforts have failed to relax external constraints on schools or to enable school staffs to make…

  14. Decentralization: The Administrator's Guidebook to School District Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Daniel J.

    The school district decentralization process is described in this guidebook, which focuses on the administrator's role in implementation. Three chapters are organized around the three phases of decentralization--exploration, trial, and commitment. Each phase is examined in terms of the real-life experiences of administrators and other…

  15. Setting the Governmental Agenda for State Decentralization of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLendon, Michael K.

    2003-01-01

    State decentralization of higher education emerged as a significant governance trend of the 1980s to 1990s. Yet little is known about how or why decentralization first became an issue to which state governments paid serious attention. This study employs multiple theories to analyze the agenda-setting stage of policy formation in three states…

  16. On Deciding How to Decide: To Centralize or Decentralize.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle

    Issues concerning whether to centralize or decentralize decision-making are addressed, with applications for colleges. Centralization/decentralization (C/D) must be analyzed with reference to a particular decision. Three components of C/D are locus of authority, breadth of participation, and relative contribution by the decision-maker's staff. C/D…

  17. Microflora of drinking water distributed through decentralized supply systems (Tomsk)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khvaschevskaya, A. A.; Nalivaiko, N. G.; Shestakova, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The paper considers microbiological quality of waters from decentralized water supply systems in Tomsk. It has been proved that there are numerous microbial contaminants of different types. The authors claim that the water distributed through decentralized supply systems is not safe to drink without preliminary treatment.

  18. Application of Neural Network Technologies for Price Forecasting in the Liberalized Electricity Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerikh, Valentin; Kolosok, Irina; Kurbatsky, Victor; Tomin, Nikita

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the results of experimental studies concerning calculation of electricity prices in different price zones in Russia and Europe. The calculations are based on the intelligent software "ANAPRO" that implements the approaches based on the modern methods of data analysis and artificial intelligence technologies.

  19. University Policies under Varying Market Conditions: The Training of Electrical Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckstein, Zvi; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes an Israeli university's problem in optimizing the quality and quantity of electrical engineers in response to fluctuating enrollment. An equilibrium model considers the effect of students' occupation choice and the university's decision on the current and future demand and supply of engineers, in order to predict the equilibrium number of…

  20. Environmental Systems and Local Actors: Decentralizing Environmental Policy in Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oosterveer, Peter; van Vliet, Bas

    2010-02-01

    In Uganda, environmental and natural resource management is decentralized and has been the responsibility of local districts since 1996. This environmental management arrangement was part of a broader decentralization process and was intended to increase local ownership and improve environmental policy; however, its implementation has encountered several major challenges over the last decade. This article reviews some of the key structural problems facing decentralized environmental policy in this central African country and examines these issues within the wider framework of political decentralization. Tensions have arisen between technical staff and politicians, between various levels of governance, and between environmental and other policy domains. This review offers a critical reflection on the perspectives and limitations of decentralized environmental governance in Uganda. Our conclusions focus on the need to balance administrative staff and local politicians, the mainstreaming of local environmental policy, and the role of international donors.

  1. Future evolution of distributed systems for smart grid - The challenges and opportunities to using decentralized energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopko, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    A decentralized energy system is a relatively new approach in the power industry. Decentralized energy systems provide promising opportunities for deploying renewable energy sources locally available as well as for expanding access to clean energy services to remote communities. The electricity system of the future must produce and distribute electricity that is reliable and affordable. To accomplish these goals, both the electricity grid and the existing regulatory system must be smarter. In this paper, the major issues and challenges in distributed systems for smart grid are discussed and future trends are presented. The smart grid technologies and distributed generation systems are explored. A general overview of the comparison of the traditional grid and smart grid is also included.

  2. Decentralization and public services: the case of immunization.

    PubMed

    Khaleghian, Peyvand

    2004-07-01

    This study examines the impact of political decentralization on an essential public service provided in almost all countries: childhood immunization. The relationship is examined empirically using a time-series data set of 140 low- and middle-income countries from 1980 to 1997. The study finds that decentralization has different effects in low- and middle-income countries. In the low-income group, decentralized countries have higher coverage rates than centralized ones, with an average difference of 8.5 percent for the measles and DTP3 vaccines. In the middle-income group, the reverse effect is observed: decentralized countries have lower coverage rates than centralized ones, with an average difference of 5.2 percent for the same vaccines. Both results are significant at the 99 percent level. Modifiers of the decentralization-immunization relationship also differ in the two groups. In the low-income group, development assistance reduces the gains from decentralization. In the middle-income group, democratic government mitigates the negative effects of decentralization, and decentralization reverses the negative effects of ethnic tension and ethno-linguistic fractionalization, but institutional quality and literacy rates have no interactive effect either way. Similar results are obtained whether decentralization is measured with a dichotomous categorical variable or with more specific measures of fiscal decentralization. The study confirms predictions in the theoretical literature about the negative impact of local political control on services that have public goods characteristics and inter-jurisdictional externalities. Reasons for the difference between low- and middle-income countries are discussed. PMID:15087152

  3. Anti-correlation and multifractal features of Spain electricity spot market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norouzzadeh, P.; Dullaert, W.; Rahmani, B.

    2007-07-01

    We use multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) to numerically investigate correlation, persistence, multifractal properties and scaling behavior of the hourly spot prices for the Spain electricity exchange-Compania O Peradora del Mercado de Electricidad (OMEL). Through multifractal analysis, fluctuations behavior, the scaling exponents and generalized Hurst exponents are studied. Moreover, contribution of fat-tailed probability distributions and nonlinear temporal correlations to multifractality is studied.

  4. Modeling and Analysis of Wholesale Electricity Market Design. Understanding the Missing Money Problem. December 2013 - January 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Papalexopoulos, A.; Hansen, C.; Perrino, D.; Frowd, R.

    2015-05-31

    This project examined the impact of renewable energy sources, which have zero incremental energy costs, on the sustainability of conventional generation. This “missing money” problem refers to market outcomes in which infra-marginal energy revenues in excess of operations and maintenance (O&M) costs are systematically lower than the amortized costs of new entry for a marginal generator. The problem is caused by two related factors: (1) conventional generation is dispatched less, and (2) the price that conventional generation receives for its energy is lower. This lower revenue stream may not be sufficient to cover both the variable and fixed costs of conventional generation. In fact, this study showed that higher wind penetrations in the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) system could cause many conventional generators to become uneconomic.

  5. Electricity end-use efficiency: Experience with technologies, markets, and policies throughout the world

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, M.D.; Koomey, J.; Price, L.; Geller, H.; Nadel, S.

    1992-03-01

    In its August meeting in Geneva, the Energy and Industry Subcommittee (EIS) of the Policy Response Panel of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) identified a series of reports to be produced. One of these reports was to be a synthesis of available information on global electricity end-use efficiency, with emphasis on developing nations. The report will be reviewed by the IPCC and approved prior to the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), Brazil, June 1992. A draft outline for the report was submitted for review at the November 1991 meeting of the EIS. This outline, which was accepted by the EIS, identified three main topics to be addressed in the report: status of available technologies for increasing electricity end-use efficiency; review of factors currently limiting application of end-use efficiency technologies; and review of policies available to increase electricity end-use efficiency. The United States delegation to the EIS agreed to make arrangements for the writing of the report.

  6. The Power Scorecard: Helping consumers use the power of choice in new competitive electricity markets to choose the clean energy they want

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, S.; Marston, J.; Hirsh, N.; Carter, S.; Grant, W.; Smiley, S.B.

    1999-07-01

    The Pace Energy Project and the Green Group environmental organizations have developed the Power Scorecard, an environmental rating tool that ranks, on a scale of zero to ten, the relative environmental quality of electricity products. The Power Scorecard will provide consumers facing retail electricity choice with objective information on the relative environmental quality of all electricity products available in competitive retail markets. It enables consumers who value superior environmental quality to find clean electricity products. It enables service providers selling clean products, including especially those with grid connected PV supplies, to show consumers the environmental advantages of their products. Power Scorecard addresses eight environmental impact air, water and land issue based criteria. Power Scorecard scores are assigned to products based on the proportion of the product's mix provided by each generating resource. Plans are in place to apply the Power Scorecard initially to retail markets in California and Pennsylvania in 1999.

  7. Proposal of an Innovative Electric Power Distribution System based on Packet Power Transactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Jun; Fujii, Yasumasa

    Recently, the introduction of decentralized generators, such as photovoltaic power generations, has been promoted rapidly. In the future, extensive use of PV is thought to give rise to the daytime surplus electricity, and a household will manage the surplus electricity rationally. The purpose of this research is to propose an innovative electric power distribution system based on packet power transactions. First, this paper explains distributed markets of which the price can easily reflect the geographical diversity of renewable energy availability and load curve characteristic within the local area. Second, this paper exemplifies the specific electronic circuit that makes pulse-shaped power transmission to develop the packet power distribution system. Finally, this paper shows the results of multi-agent simulations of electricity trading to evaluate the usefulness of the proposed system.

  8. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    Net metering has become a widespread policy mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), allowing customers with PV systems to reduce their electric bills by offsetting their consumption with PV generation, independent of the timing of the generation relative to consumption. Although net metering is one of the principal drivers for the residential PV market in the U.S., the academic literature on this policy has been sparse and this dissertation contributes to this emerging body of literature. This dissertation explores the linkages between the availability of net metering, wholesale electricity market conditions, retail rates, and the residential bill savings from behind-the-meter PV systems. First, I examine the value of the bill savings that customers receive under net metering and alternatives to net metering, and the associated role of retail rate design, based on current rates and a sample of approximately two hundred residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities. I find that the bill savings per kWh of PV electricity generated varies greatly, largely attributable to the increasing block structure of the California utilities' residential retail rates. I also find that net metering provides significantly greater bill savings than alternative compensation mechanisms based on avoided costs. However, retail electricity rates may shift as wholesale electricity market conditions change. I then investigate a potential change in market conditions -- increased solar PV penetrations -- on wholesale prices in the short-term based on the merit-order effect. This demonstrates the potential price effects of changes in market conditions, but also points to a number of methodological shortcomings of this method, motivating my usage of a long-term capacity investment and economic dispatch model to examine wholesale price effects of various wholesale market scenarios in the subsequent analysis. By developing

  9. Co-optimization of Energy and Demand-Side Reserves in Day-Ahead Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surender Reddy, S.; Abhyankar, A. R.; Bijwe, P. R.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a new multi-objective day-ahead market clearing (DAMC) mechanism with demand-side reserves/demand response (DR) offers, considering realistic voltage-dependent load modeling. The paper proposes objectives such as social welfare maximization (SWM) including demand-side reserves, and load served error (LSE) minimization. In this paper, energy and demand-side reserves are cleared simultaneously through co-optimization process. The paper clearly brings out the unsuitability of conventional SWM for DAMC in the presence of voltage-dependent loads, due to reduction of load served (LS). Under such circumstances multi-objective DAMC with DR offers is essential. Multi-objective Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm 2+ (SPEA 2+) has been used to solve the optimization problem. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is confirmed with results obtained from IEEE 30 bus system.

  10. Approach to market-penetration analysis for advanced electric-power-generation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Lamontagne, J.; Love, P.; Queirolo, A.

    1980-12-01

    If commercialization of new technologies is the primary objective of the Department of Energy's Research, Development and Demonstration (RD and D) programs, the ultimate measure of benefit from RD and D programs is the extent of commercial acceptance of the developed technologies. Uncertainty about barriers to commercialization - government policy, fuel supply, etc. - make the task of estimating this acceptance very difficult. However, given that decisions must be made regarding allocation of RD and D funds, the best information available, with due regard for uncertainty, should serve as input to these decisions. An approach is presented for quantifying the range of market potential for new technologies (specifically in the utility sector) based on historical information and known plans for the future.

  11. Energy storage for the electricity grid : benefits and market potential assessment guide : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Eyer, James M.; Corey, Garth P.

    2010-02-01

    This guide describes a high-level, technology-neutral framework for assessing potential benefits from and economic market potential for energy storage used for electric-utility-related applications. The overarching theme addressed is the concept of combining applications/benefits into attractive value propositions that include use of energy storage, possibly including distributed and/or modular systems. Other topics addressed include: high-level estimates of application-specific lifecycle benefit (10 years) in $/kW and maximum market potential (10 years) in MW. Combined, these criteria indicate the economic potential (in $Millions) for a given energy storage application/benefit. The benefits and value propositions characterized provide an important indication of storage system cost targets for system and subsystem developers, vendors, and prospective users. Maximum market potential estimates provide developers, vendors, and energy policymakers with an indication of the upper bound of the potential demand for storage. The combination of the value of an individual benefit (in $/kW) and the corresponding maximum market potential estimate (in MW) indicates the possible impact that storage could have on the U.S. economy. The intended audience for this document includes persons or organizations needing a framework for making first-cut or high-level estimates of benefits for a specific storage project and/or those seeking a high-level estimate of viable price points and/or maximum market potential for their products. Thus, the intended audience includes: electric utility planners, electricity end users, non-utility electric energy and electric services providers, electric utility regulators and policymakers, intermittent renewables advocates and developers, Smart Grid advocates and developers, storage technology and project developers, and energy storage advocates.

  12. Energy and air emission implications of a decentralized wastewater system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shehabi, Arman; Stokes, Jennifer R.; Horvath, Arpad

    2012-06-01

    Both centralized and decentralized wastewater systems have distinct engineering, financial and societal benefits. This paper presents a framework for analyzing the environmental effects of decentralized wastewater systems and an evaluation of the environmental impacts associated with two currently operating systems in California, one centralized and one decentralized. A comparison of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and criteria air pollutants from the systems shows that the scale economies of the centralized plant help lower the environmental burden to less than a fifth of that of the decentralized utility for the same volume treated. The energy and emission burdens of the decentralized plant are reduced when accounting for high-yield wastewater reuse if it supplants an energy-intensive water supply like a desalination one. The centralized facility also reduces greenhouse gases by flaring methane generated during the treatment process, while methane is directly emitted from the decentralized system. The results are compelling enough to indicate that the life-cycle environmental impacts of decentralized designs should be carefully evaluated as part of the design process.

  13. Purchasing a decentralized medication management system.

    PubMed

    2006-03-01

    Decentralized medication management systems (DMMSs) are used in hospitals, long-term care facilities, prisons, outpatient clinics, surgery centers, and other places to manage the distribution of drugs. DMMSs consist of storage compartments for medications, with an internal computer that controls and records the administration of drugs. Some DMMSs are stationary cabinets and others are mobile carts. There have been important advances in DMMS technology since we evaluated these products in 1996, including enhanced computer memory and processing power, wider adoption of wireless networking, better user interfaces, and greater integration with other hospital information systems. To get the most out of a DMMS purchase or upgrade, facilities will need careful planning that involves assessing their own needs, selecting hardware and software configurations that meet those needs, and then choosing the right vendor and model. A properly selected DMMS can help to enforce medication distribution policies, prevent errors, and streamline processes. PMID:16610453

  14. Decentralized Grid Scheduling with Evolutionary Fuzzy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fölling, Alexander; Grimme, Christian; Lepping, Joachim; Papaspyrou, Alexander

    In this paper, we address the problem of finding workload exchange policies for decentralized Computational Grids using an Evolutionary Fuzzy System. To this end, we establish a non-invasive collaboration model on the Grid layer which requires minimal information about the participating High Performance and High Throughput Computing (HPC/HTC) centers and which leaves the local resource managers completely untouched. In this environment of fully autonomous sites, independent users are assumed to submit their jobs to the Grid middleware layer of their local site, which in turn decides on the delegation and execution either on the local system or on remote sites in a situation-dependent, adaptive way. We find for different scenarios that the exchange policies show good performance characteristics not only with respect to traditional metrics such as average weighted response time and utilization, but also in terms of robustness and stability in changing environments.

  15. Multi-vehicle decentralized fusion and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Fallah, A.; Zatezalo, A.; Mahler, R.; Mehra, R. K.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we introduce a decentralized fusion and tracking based on a distributed multi-source multitarget filtering and robust communication with the following features: (i) data reduction; (ii) a disruption tolerant dissemination procedure that takes advantage of storage and mobility; and (iii) efficient data set reconciliation algorithms. We developed and implemented complex high-fidelity marine application demonstration of this approach that encompasses all relevant environmental parameters. In the simulated example, multi-source information is fused by exploiting sensors from disparate Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUV) and Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV) multi-sensor platforms. Communications among the platforms are continuously establishing and breaking depending on the time-changing geometry. We compare and evaluate the developed algorithms by assessing their performance against different scenarios.

  16. Decentralized, continuous-flow gas anchor

    SciTech Connect

    Podio, A.L.; McCoy, J.N.; Woods, M.D.

    1995-12-31

    A novel gas separator design has been developed and successfully tested in several beam pumped wells which were subject to severe gas interference. This paper presents a detailed description of various designs to cover various ranges of fluid production for the most common sizes of completions (4-1/2 to 7 inch casing) and rates from 120 to 825 barrels of liquid per day. The new design is based on two innovations: decentralization of the gas separator in the casing, insures that a minimum amount of gas enters the separator; and the presence of two ports located on the narrow side of the annulus and placed a significant distance apart allow continuous flow of fluids into and out of the separator during both the upstroke and downstroke of the pump. These innovations have resulted in a gas separator efficiency much greater than that of conventional designs.

  17. Analysis and design of robust decentralized controllers for nonlinear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenwald, D.A.

    1993-07-01

    Decentralized control strategies for nonlinear systems are achieved via feedback linearization techniques. New results on optimization and parameter robustness of non-linear systems are also developed. In addition, parametric uncertainty in large-scale systems is handled by sensitivity analysis and optimal control methods in a completely decentralized framework. This idea is applied to alleviate uncertainty in friction parameters for the gimbal joints on Space Station Freedom. As an example of decentralized nonlinear control, singular perturbation methods and distributed vibration damping are merged into a control strategy for a two-link flexible manipulator.

  18. Survey of decentralized control methods. [for large scale dynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athans, M.

    1975-01-01

    An overview is presented of the types of problems that are being considered by control theorists in the area of dynamic large scale systems with emphasis on decentralized control strategies. Approaches that deal directly with decentralized decision making for large scale systems are discussed. It is shown that future advances in decentralized system theory are intimately connected with advances in the stochastic control problem with nonclassical information pattern. The basic assumptions and mathematical tools associated with the latter are summarized, and recommendations concerning future research are presented.

  19. Formation Flying With Decentralized Control in Libration Point Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Carpenter, J. Russell; Wagner, Christoph

    2000-01-01

    A decentralized control framework is investigated for applicability of formation flying control in libration orbits. The decentralized approach, being non-hierarchical, processes only direct measurement data, in parallel with the other spacecraft. Control is accomplished via linearization about a reference libration orbit with standard control using a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) or the GSFC control algorithm. Both are linearized about the current state estimate as with the extended Kalman filter. Based on this preliminary work, the decentralized approach appears to be feasible for upcoming libration missions using distributed spacecraft.

  20. Influence of Cardiac Decentralization on Cardioprotection

    PubMed Central

    Kingma, John G.; Simard, Denys; Voisine, Pierre; Rouleau, Jacques R.

    2013-01-01

    The role of cardiac nerves on development of myocardial tissue injury after acute coronary occlusion remains controversial. We investigated whether acute cardiac decentralization (surgical) modulates coronary flow reserve and myocardial protection in preconditioned dogs subject to ischemia-reperfusion. Experiments were conducted on four groups of anesthetised, open-chest dogs (n = 32): 1- controls (CTR, intact cardiac nerves), 2- ischemic preconditioning (PC; 4 cycles of 5-min IR), 3- cardiac decentralization (CD) and 4- CD+PC; all dogs underwent 60-min coronary occlusion and 180-min reperfusion. Coronary blood flow and reactive hyperemic responses were assessed using a blood volume flow probe. Infarct size (tetrazolium staining) was related to anatomic area at risk and coronary collateral blood flow (microspheres) in the anatomic area at risk. Post-ischemic reactive hyperemia and repayment-to-debt ratio responses were significantly reduced for all experimental groups; however, arterial perfusion pressure was not affected. Infarct size was reduced in CD dogs (18.6±4.3; p = 0.001, data are mean±1SD) compared to 25.2±5.5% in CTR dogs and was less in PC dogs as expected (13.5±3.2 vs. 25.2±5.5%; p = 0.001); after acute CD, PC protection was conserved (11.6±3.4 vs. 18.6±4.3%; p = 0.02). In conclusion, our findings provide strong evidence that myocardial protection against ischemic injury can be preserved independent of extrinsic cardiac nerve inputs. PMID:24236106

  1. A case study review of technical and technology issues for transition of a utility load management program to provide system reliability resources in restructured electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, G.H.

    2001-07-15

    Utility load management programs--including direct load control and interruptible load programs--were employed by utilities in the past as system reliability resources. With electricity industry restructuring, the context for these programs has changed; the market that was once controlled by vertically integrated utilities has become competitive, raising the question: can existing load management programs be modified so that they can effectively participate in competitive energy markets? In the short run, modified and/or improved operation of load management programs may be the most effective form of demand-side response available to the electricity system today. However, in light of recent technological advances in metering, communication, and load control, utility load management programs must be carefully reviewed in order to determine appropriate investments to support this transition. This report investigates the feasibility of and options for modifying an existing utility load management system so that it might provide reliability services (i.e. ancillary services) in the competitive markets that have resulted from electricity industry restructuring. The report is a case study of Southern California Edison's (SCE) load management programs. SCE was chosen because it operates one of the largest load management programs in the country and it operates them within a competitive wholesale electricity market. The report describes a wide range of existing and soon-to-be-available communication, control, and metering technologies that could be used to facilitate the evolution of SCE's load management programs and systems to provision of reliability services. The fundamental finding of this report is that, with modifications, SCE's load management infrastructure could be transitioned to provide critical ancillary services in competitive electricity markets, employing currently or soon-to-be available load control technologies.

  2. Does social approval stimulate prosocial behavior? Evidence from a field experiment in the residential electricity market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoeli, Erez

    At least since Veblen (1899), economists have proposed that people do good because they desire "social approval" and want to look good in front of others. Evidence from the laboratory supports this claim, but is difficult to generalize due to the unrealistic degree of scrutiny in a laboratory environment. I administer a field experiment to test the potency of social approval in a realistic and policy relevant setting. In the experiment I solicit 7893 customers of a large electric utility for a program that helps prevent blackouts. I vary whether their decision to participate in the program is revealed to their neighbors. Customers whose decision is revealed are 1.5% more likely to sign up than those whose decision is anonymous when their decision is framed as a contribution to a public good. Social approval increases participation more than offering subjects a $25 incentive, and its effect is large relative to the mean sign-up rate of 4.1%. I explore whether social approval contributes to crowding out and conditionally cooperative behavior, but the evidence is inconclusive.

  3. EVALUATION OF ECONOMIC INCENTIVES FOR DECENTRALIZED STORMWATER RUNOFF MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Impervious surfaces in urban and suburban areas can lead to excess stormwater runoff throughout a watershed, typically resulting in widespread hydrologic and ecological alteration of receiving streams. Decentralized stormwater management may improve stream ecosystems by reducing ...

  4. Educational decentralization, public spending, and social justice in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geo-Jaja, Macleans A.

    2007-01-01

    This study situates the process of educational decentralization in the narrower context of social justice. Its main object, however, is to analyze the implications of decentralization for strategies of equity and social justice in Nigeria. It starts from the premise that the early optimism that supported decentralization as an efficient and effective educational reform tool has been disappointed. The author maintains that decentralization — on its own — cannot improve education service delivery, the capacities of subordinate governments, or the integration of social policy in broader development goals. If the desired goals are to be met, public spending must be increased, greater tax revenues must be secured, and macro-economic stabilization must be achieved without re-instituting the welfare state.

  5. Engaging Social Capital for Decentralized Urban Stormwater Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Decentralized approaches to urban stormwater management, whereby installations of green infrastructure (e.g., rain gardens, bioswales, and constructed wetlands) are dispersed throughout a management area, are cost-effective solutions with co-benefits beyond water abatement. Inste...

  6. Campus' central boiler plant decentralized in share deal

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, N.

    1986-01-13

    The University of Rhode Island has already saved $160,000 in heating and hot water costs after only three months of a 12-year shared-savings arrangement to decentralize campus heating. The decentralization consisted of installing smaller capacity boilers and water heaters for use during the summer months and shutting down the central boiler plant from August through October. The article outlines a number of additional measures the college will take to reduce energy costs during the 12 years.

  7. The snow system: A decentralized medical data processing system.

    PubMed

    Bellika, Johan Gustav; Henriksen, Torje Starbo; Yigzaw, Kassaye Yitbarek

    2015-01-01

    Systems for large-scale reuse of electronic health record data is claimed to have the potential to transform the current health care delivery system. In principle three alternative solutions for reuse exist: centralized, data warehouse, and decentralized solutions. This chapter focuses on the decentralized system alternative. Decentralized systems may be categorized into approaches that move data to enable computations or move computations to the where data is located to enable computations. We describe a system that moves computations to where the data is located. Only this kind of decentralized solution has the capabilities to become ideal systems for reuse as the decentralized alternative enables computation and reuse of electronic health record data without moving or exposing the information to outsiders. This chapter describes the Snow system, which is a decentralized medical data processing system, its components and how it has been used. It also describes the requirements this kind of systems need to support to become sustainable and successful in recruiting voluntary participation from health institutions. PMID:25417082

  8. Coordination and decision making of regulation, operation, and market activities in power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Tomoaki

    are explored. Two typical ISO models, centralized and decentralized, have been identified and compared. These ISO models have been simulated to observe the advantages and disadvantages of the different systems. If no powerful players exist, the centralized system would achieve the maximum market efficiency. However, in decentralized systems, freedom of trade protects market participants from strategic bidding caused by powerful players. Reduced market efficiency is the price markets have to pay to prevent strategic bidding. Secondly, from the regulator's point of view, the effects of different policies imposed by regulators on power transactions are examined. The optimal schedule could be affected greatly by the ideal goals and their allowable values. Therefore, when the ISO defines its objectives and their allowable ranges, an agreeable conclusion among market participants is required. Fuzzy multiobjective optimization methods can be suitably applied to the scheduling of the ISO, reflecting its objectives and their allowable ranges properly. Thirdly, from market participants' point of view, models to represent and forecast the price and demand of power are developed. Electricity consumption and price are forecasted based on possibility theory and fuzzy autoregression. The fuzzy model can represent highly volatile demand-price relations as a range, and gives the possibility distribution of prices. Based on the proposed model, a procedure to help consumers decide whether to accept a bilateral transaction contract or market-based purchases of electricity has been developed. The same procedure can also be used by an electricity supplier or broker to determine an offering price.

  9. The enigmatic signifier and the decentred subject.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Ladson

    2009-11-01

    War, genocide, economic upheaval and terrorism have crushed belief in endlessly 'enlightened' progress. We more and more doubt the teleological nature of psychological events, including the activity of a Self or centre that guides the development of the subject. There is a growing view of a 'decentred' subject that develops in the face of an enigmatic Otherness. Jean Laplanche has created an extensive metapsychology describing this situation, emphasizing the original helplessness of an infant who is bathed in enigmatic messages from its very beginnings. These messages from the adult other are often sexualized, and are partly or largely unconscious to the sender. Laplanche calls this situation 'primal seduction'. The immature human cannot fully metabolize such adult messages, and through 'primal repression' they remain as the unconscious core of subjectivity. They disrupt psychological life, conveying a sense of signifying something to the subject. What they signify is an enigma, like finding a hieroglyph in the desert. The story of relationships and culture is the story of our repeated attempts to translate them, to respond to them. An analytic case illustrates these concepts as they appear in the transference, first as gaps and monsters, and then in the crucial and surprising appearance of transformative laughter. The vicissitudes of the clinical situation illustrate the vital importance of the enigmatic signifier in the development of the subject. PMID:19840157

  10. Establishing trust in decentralized smart sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagts, H.; Cosar, T.; Beyerer, J.

    2011-06-01

    Smart sensors can gather all kind of information and process it. Cameras are still dominating and smart cameras can offer services for face recognition or person tracking. Operators are building collaborations to cover a larger area, to save costs and to add more and different sensors. Cryptographic methods may achieve integrity and confidentiality between operators, but not trust. Even if a partner or one of his sensors is authenticated, no statements can be made about the quality of the sensor data. Hence, trust must be established between the partners and their sensors. Trust can be built based on past experience. A reputation system collects opinions of operators about the behavior of sensors and calculates trust based on these opinions. Many reputation systems have been proposed, e.g., for authentication of files in peer-topeer networks. This work presents a new reputation system, which is designed to calculate the trustworthiness of smart sensors and smart sensor systems. A new trust model, including functions to calculate and update trust on past experiences, is proposed. When fusing information of multiple sensors, it cannot always be reconstructed, which information led to a bad result. Hence, an approach for fair rating is shown. The proposed system has been realized in a Service-Oriented Architecture for easy integration in existing smart sensor systems, e.g., smart surveillance systems. The model itself can be used in every decentralized heterogeneous smart sensor network.

  11. Comparative LCA of decentralized wastewater treatment alternatives for non-potable urban reuse.

    PubMed

    Opher, Tamar; Friedler, Eran

    2016-11-01

    energy. Electricity is a major driver of the impacts in most categories, pertaining mostly to potable water production and supply. Infrastructure was found to have a notable effect on metal depletion, human toxicity and freshwater and marine ecotoxicity. Sensitivity to major model parameters was analyzed. A shift to a larger share of renewable energy sources in the electricity mix results in a dramatic improvement in most impact categories. Switching to a mix of water sources, rather than the marginal source, leads to a significant reduction in most impacts. It is concluded that under the conditions tested, a decentralized approach to urban wastewater management is environmentally preferable to the common centralized system. It is worth exploring such options under different conditions as well, in cases which new urban infrastructure is planned or replacement of old infrastructure is required. PMID:27526084

  12. An Agent-Based Optimization Framework for Engineered Complex Adaptive Systems with Application to Demand Response in Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghnevis, Moeed

    The main objective of this research is to develop an integrated method to study emergent behavior and consequences of evolution and adaptation in engineered complex adaptive systems (ECASs). A multi-layer conceptual framework and modeling approach including behavioral and structural aspects is provided to describe the structure of a class of engineered complex systems and predict their future adaptive patterns. The approach allows the examination of complexity in the structure and the behavior of components as a result of their connections and in relation to their environment. This research describes and uses the major differences of natural complex adaptive systems (CASs) with artificial/engineered CASs to build a framework and platform for ECAS. While this framework focuses on the critical factors of an engineered system, it also enables one to synthetically employ engineering and mathematical models to analyze and measure complexity in such systems. In this way concepts of complex systems science are adapted to management science and system of systems engineering. In particular an integrated consumer-based optimization and agent-based modeling (ABM) platform is presented that enables managers to predict and partially control patterns of behaviors in ECASs. Demonstrated on the U.S. electricity markets, ABM is integrated with normative and subjective decision behavior recommended by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). The approach integrates social networks, social science, complexity theory, and diffusion theory. Furthermore, it has unique and significant contribution in exploring and representing concrete managerial insights for ECASs and offering new optimized actions and modeling paradigms in agent-based simulation.

  13. Decentralized diagnosis in a spacecraft attitude determination and control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, C. G.; Travé-Massuyès, L.; Chanthery, E.; Sotomayor, J.

    2015-11-01

    In model-based diagnosis (MBD), structural models can provide useful information for fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control design. In particular, they are known for supporting the design of analytical redundancy relations (ARRs) which are widely used to generate residuals for diagnosis. On the other hand, systems are increasingly complex whereby it is necessary to develop decentralized architectures to perform the diagnosis task. Decentralized diagnosis is of interest for on-board systems as a way to reduce computational costs or for large geographically distributed systems that require to minimizing data transfer. Decentralized solutions allow proper separation of industrial knowledge, provided that inputs and outputs are clearly defined. This paper builds on the results of [1] and proposes an optimized approach for decentralized fault-focused residual generation. It also introduce the concept of Fault-Driven Minimal Structurally-Overdetermined set (FMSO) ensuring minimal redundancy. The method decreases communication cost involved in decentralization with respect to the algorithm proposed in [1] while still maintaining the same isolation properties as the centralized approach as well as the isolation on request capability.

  14. Privatization or Marketization: Educational Development in Post-Mao China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho

    1999-01-01

    Examines how the flourishing market economy and the policy of decentralization have affected the development of China's higher education, specifically the movement away from relying solely on public schools. Rather, private and minban educational institutions are becoming more popular in the new socialist market system. Concludes with a discussion…

  15. Is the avionics system of the Hermes Spaceplane centralized or decentralized?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannier, Jean-Claude

    The avionics system of Hermes is called spacionics. Spacionics is defined as a set of onboard items which treat, exchange, or store information in electrical form, and provide and distribute electrical power. The main drivers for spacionics design are mass and safety. The spacionics organization depends on the priorities assigned to different criteria. These priorities can lead to either a centralized or a decentralized data processing architecture. It has been necessary to centralize the widest part of the data processing, which is split into two pools of computers, one dedicated to guidance, navigation and control and one dedicated to mission and vehicle management. The first one, made of 4 computers and 4 data busses, is able to perform its functions autonomously and automatically even after 2 failures. The second one, including only 2 strings, requires the implementation of safety protection, activated, if necessary, either by the crew or by the control.

  16. Integrated constructed wetland systems: design, operation, and performance of low-cost decentralized wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Behrends, L L; Bailey, E; Jansen, P; Houke, L; Smith, S

    2007-01-01

    Several different types of constructed wetland systems are being used as decentralized treatment systems including surface-flow, subsurface-flow, vertical-flow, and hybrid systems. Archetypical wetland systems have design strengths and weaknesses, and therefore it should be possible to design combined (integrated) systems to optimize a number of important treatment processes. This study provides comparative efficacy data for two integrated wetland treatment systems (IWTS) designed to enhance treatment of medium strength wastewater generated from a pilot-scale intensive fish farm. Results from the twenty eight months study included consistently high removal of COD (84% +) and ammonia nitrogen (93%) in both systems. Initially, phosphorus removal was also high (>90%) in both systems, but removal efficacy declined significantly over time. Nitrate removal was significantly better in the system that provided sequential aerobic and anoxic environments. Short hydraulic retention times coupled with sustained removal of COD and ammonia indicate that the ReCip components could be a least-cost wastewater treatment technology in the decentralized market sector. PMID:17506433

  17. Introducing local property tax for fiscal decentralization and local authority autonomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimopoulos, Thomas; Labropoulos, Tassos; Hadjimitsis, Diafantos G.

    2015-06-01

    Charles Tiebout (1956), in his work "A Pure Theory of Local Expenditures", provides a vision of the workings of the local public sector, acknowledging many similarities to the features of a competitive market, however omitting any references to local taxation. Contrary to other researchers' claim that the Tiebout model and the theory of fiscal decentralization are by no means synonymous, this paper aims to expand Tiebout's theory, by adding the local property tax in the context, introducing a fair, ad valorem property taxation system based on the automated assessment of the value of real estate properties within the boundaries of local authorities. Computer Assisted Mass Appraisal methodology integrated with Remote Sensing technology and GIS analysis is applied to local authorities' property registries and cadastral data, building a spatial relational database and providing data to be statistically processed through Multiple Regression Analysis modeling. The proposed scheme accomplishes economy of scale using CAMA procedures on one hand, but also succeeds in making local authorities self-sufficient through a decentralized, fair, locally calibrated property taxation model, providing rational income administration.

  18. Health system performance at the district level in Indonesia after decentralization

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    fact, the decentralization has been limited in extent and structural problems make management of the system as a whole difficult. At the national level there has been no real attempt to envision the health system that Indonesia will need for the next 20 to 30 years or how the substantial public subsidy to this lightly regulated private system could be used in creative ways to stimulate innovation, mitigate market failures, improve equity and quality, and to enhance the performance of the system as a whole. PMID:20205724

  19. Decentralized Control of Sound Radiation Using Iterative Loop Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiller, Noah H.; Cabell, Randolph H.; Fuller, Chris R.

    2009-01-01

    A decentralized model-based control strategy is designed to reduce low-frequency sound radiation from periodically stiffened panels. While decentralized control systems tend to be scalable, performance can be limited due to modeling error introduced by the unmodeled interaction between neighboring control units. Since bounds on modeling error are not known in advance, it is difficult to ensure the decentralized control system will be robust without making the controller overly conservative. Therefore an iterative approach is suggested, which utilizes frequency-shaped loop recovery. The approach accounts for modeling error introduced by neighboring control loops, requires no communication between subsystems, and is relatively simple. The control strategy is evaluated numerically using a model of a stiffened aluminum panel that is representative of the sidewall of an aircraft. Simulations demonstrate that the iterative approach can achieve significant reductions in radiated sound power from the stiffened panel without destabilizing neighboring control units.

  20. Estimating design impact on waste reduction: examining decentralized nursing.

    PubMed

    Pati, Debajyoti; Harvey, Thomas E; Thurston, Terry

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the impact that decentralization of nursing support spaces may have on the total distances nurses walk and hence the magnitude of time that can be diverted to productive use. Reducing nurse walking has attracted attention from multiple perspectives-human factor, system performance, lean process, care quality, and safety. A simulation-based experimental study was designed that incorporated task frequency data from a nationwide sample of 700 RNs. The simulation runs were conducted on a 30-bed medical-surgical unit, over 12-hour day shifts, in which physical locations of 8 nursing support spaces were systematically manipulated. Findings suggest that total walking time can be reduced by as much as 67.9%, depending on the level of decentralization. Care quality and efficiency issues can be significantly addressed through appropriate levels of decentralization. PMID:23100002

  1. Decentralized Service Allocation in a Broker Overlay Based Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azab, Abdulrahman; Meling, Hein

    Grid computing is based on coordinated resource sharing in a dynamic environment of multi-institutional virtual organizations. Data exchanges, and service allocation, are challenging problems in the field of Grid computing. This is due to the decentralization of Grid systems. Building decentralized Grid systems with efficient resource management and software component mechanisms is a need for achieving the required efficiency and usability of Grid systems. In this work, a decentralized Grid system model is presented in which, the system is divided into virtual organizations each controlled by a broker. An overlay network of brokers is responsible for global resource management and managing allocation of services. Experimental results show that, the system achieves dependable performance with various loads of services, and broker failures.

  2. Modeling and stability of segmented reflector telescopes - A decentralized approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryaciotaki-Boussalis, Helen A.; Ih, Che-Hang Charles

    1990-01-01

    The decentralization of a segmented reflector telescope based on a finite-element model of its structure is considered. The decentralization of the system at the panel level is considered. Each panel is originally treated as an isolated subsystem so that the controller design is performed independently at the local level, and then applied to the composite system for stability analysis. The panel-level control laws were designed by means of pole placement using local output feedback. Simulation results show a better 1000:1 vibration attenuation in panel position when compared to the open-loop system. It is shown that the overall closed-loop system is exponentially stable provided that certain conditions are met. The advantage to the decentralized approach is that the design is performed in terms of the low-dimensionality subsystems, thus drastically reducing the design computational complexities.

  3. [Decentralization of epidemiological surveillance in Pernambuco State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Ana Coelho de; Mota, Eduardo Luiz Andrade; Felisberto, Eronildo

    2015-04-01

    The study aimed to analyze the relationship between decentralization of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) and the development of epidemiological surveillance activities in municipalities (counties) in Pernambuco State, Brazil. This was an exploratory descriptive qualitative and quantitative study, including a document search, completion of semi-structured interviews by key informants, and an ecological spatial and time trend study of selected health indicators, covering a 10-year period (2001-2010). The study showed that municipalities adhered to the decentralization process, which was making progress in Pernambuco, but with inequalities and weaknesses in its development. There was also a fluctuation in the time series for the selected indicators. Thus, even though the decentralization of epidemiological surveillance is still incipient in some municipalities, their protagonist role in implementing the activities promotes empowerment at the local level by producing key information for decision-making. PMID:25945994

  4. Decentralized control of sound radiation using iterative loop recovery.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Noah H; Cabell, Randolph H; Fuller, Chris R

    2010-10-01

    A decentralized model-based control strategy is designed to reduce low-frequency sound radiation from periodically stiffened panels. While decentralized control systems tend to be scalable, performance can be limited due to modeling error introduced by the unmodeled interaction between neighboring control units. Since bounds on modeling error are not known in advance, it is difficult to ensure the decentralized control system will be robust without making the controller overly conservative. Therefore an iterative approach is suggested, which utilizes frequency-shaped loop recovery. The approach accounts for modeling error introduced by neighboring control loops, requires no communication between subsystems, and is relatively simple. The control strategy is evaluated numerically using a model of a stiffened aluminum panel that is representative of the sidewall of an aircraft. Simulations demonstrate that the iterative approach can achieve significant reductions in radiated sound power from the stiffened panel without destabilizing neighboring control units. PMID:20968346

  5. Prospects for the medium- and long-term development of China`s electric power industry and analysis of the potential market for superconductivity technology

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z.

    1998-05-01

    First of all, overall economic growth objectives in China are concisely and succinctly specified in this report. Secondly, this report presents a forecast of energy supply and demand for China`s economic growth for 2000--2050. In comparison with the capability of energy construction in China in the future, a gap between supply and demand is one of the important factors hindering the sustainable development of Chain`s economy. The electric power industry is one of China`s most important industries. To adopt energy efficiency through high technology and utilizing energy adequately is an important technological policy for the development of China`s electric power industry in the future. After briefly describing the achievements of China`s electric power industry, this report defines the target areas and policies for the development of hydroelectricity and nuclear electricity in the 2000s in China, presents the strategic position of China`s electric power industry as well as objectives and relevant plans of development for 2000--2050. This report finds that with the discovery of superconducting electricity, the discovery of new high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials, and progress in materials techniques, the 21st century will be an era of superconductivity. Applications of superconductivity in the energy field, such as superconducting storage, superconducting transmission, superconducting transformers, superconducting motors, its application in Magneto-Hydro-Dynamics (MHD), as well as in nuclear fusion, has unique advantages. Its market prospects are quite promising. 12 figs.

  6. The health effects of decentralizing primary care in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Guanais, Frederico C; Macinko, James

    2009-01-01

    A renewed focus on primary health care could lead to improved health outcomes in developing countries. Moving more control to local authorities, or decentralization, is one approach to expanding primary care's reach. Proponents argue that it increases responsiveness to local needs and helps local resources reach those in need. Critics argue that it might increase fragmentation and disparities and provide opportunities for local economic and political gains that do not improve population health. We explore questions surrounding decentralization using the example of infant mortality in Brazil. Our study of two programs identified positive effects on health outcomes in the context of infant mortality. PMID:19597212

  7. Decentralized control of uncertain systems via sensitivity models

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenwald, D.A.; Oezguener, U.

    1993-06-01

    In this paper, we present a decentralized strategy for optimal control of interconnected systems exhibiting parametric uncertainty. First, we demonstrate that sensitivity models for linear interconnected systems can be generated at each subsystem using only locally available information. Second, we present an optimal control law that incorporates sensitivity functions in the feedback path. The control scheme is completely decentralized and is proposed as a means of making the closed loop system less sensitive to parameter deviations. Finally, we give an example of an interconnected system and show how this control strategy is implemented.

  8. Designing a Decentralized Traffic Information System — AutoNomos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegener, Axel; Hellbrück, Horst; Fischer, Stefan; Hendriks, Björn; Schmidt, Christiane; Fekete, Sándor P.

    We propose a decentralized traffic information system—Auto-Nomos—that is based on a thorough investigation of the properties of traffic and recommends a hierarchical data aggregation and forwarding for providing individualized information and support to road users. Our approach differs from work in the field by consequently applying local rules and local decentralized data processing, which turns out to be a key property of robust and scalable computing systems. We present a flexible VANET middleware that assists the application development by providing generic functionality for traffic applications. We discuss the architectural design of the overall system and provide solutions of important design concepts demonstrating the innovation of the approach.

  9. Decentralization: Why, How, and toward What Ends? Special Policy Report, No. 1. Policy Briefs Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinnette, Lynn J.

    Administrators are looking at decentralization as a solution to issues troubling schools, teachers, and students. The notion of decentralization is accompanied by two assumptions. First, decentralization will produce an improvement in education because classroom decision making will be more responsive to the specific needs of a school. Second, in…

  10. Commercializing light-duty plug-in/plug-out hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles: "Mobile electricity" technologies, early California household markets, and innovation management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Brett David

    Starting from the premise that new consumer value must drive hydrogen-fuel-cell-vehicle (H2FCV) commercialization, a group of opportunities collectively called "Mobile Electricity" (Me-) is characterized. Me- redefines H2 FCVs as innovative products able to provide home recharging and mobile power, for example for tools, mobile activities, emergencies, and electric-grid-support services. To characterize such opportunities, this study first integrates and extends previous analyses of H2FCVs, plug-in hybrids, and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) power. It uses a new model to estimate zero-emission-power vs. zero-emission-driving tradeoffs, costs, and grid-support revenues for various electric-drive vehicle types and levels of infrastructure service. Next, the initial market potential for Me- enabled vehicles, such as H2FCVs and plug-in hybrids, is estimated by eliminating unlikely households from consideration for early adoption. 5.2 million of 33.9 million Californians in the 2000 Census live in households pre-adapted to Me-, 3.9 million if natural gas is required for home refueling. The possible sales base represented by this population is discussed. Several differences in demographic and other characteristics between the target market and the population as a whole are highlighted, and two issues related to the design of H2FCVs and their supporting infrastructure are discussed: vehicle range and home hydrogen refueling. These findings argue for continued investigation of this and similar target segments-which represent more efficient research populations for subsequent study by product designers and other decision-makers wishing to understand the early market dynamics facing Me- innovations. Next, Me-H2FCV commercialization issues are raised from the perspectives of innovation, product development, and strategic marketing. Starting with today's internalcombustion hybrids, this discussion suggests a way to move beyond the battery vs. fuel-cell zero-sum game and towards the

  11. A low cost concept for data acquisition systems applied to decentralized renewable energy plants.

    PubMed

    Jucá, Sandro C S; Carvalho, Paulo C M; Brito, Fábio T

    2011-01-01

    The present paper describes experiences of the use of monitoring and data acquisition systems (DAS) and proposes a new concept of a low cost DAS applied to decentralized renewable energy (RE) plants with an USB interface. The use of such systems contributes to disseminate these plants, recognizing in real time local energy resources, monitoring energy conversion efficiency and sending information concerning failures. These aspects are important, mainly for developing countries, where decentralized power plants based on renewable sources are in some cases the best option for supplying electricity to rural areas. Nevertheless, the cost of commercial DAS is still a barrier for a greater dissemination of such systems in developing countries. The proposed USB based DAS presents a new dual clock operation philosophy, in which the acquisition system contains two clock sources for parallel information processing from different communication protocols. To ensure the low cost of the DAS and to promote the dissemination of this technology in developing countries, the proposed data acquisition firmware and the software for USB microcontrollers programming is a free and open source software, executable in the Linux and Windows® operating systems. PMID:22346600

  12. A Low Cost Concept for Data Acquisition Systems Applied to Decentralized Renewable Energy Plants

    PubMed Central

    Jucá, Sandro C. S.; Carvalho, Paulo C. M.; Brito, Fábio T.

    2011-01-01

    The present paper describes experiences of the use of monitoring and data acquisition systems (DAS) and proposes a new concept of a low cost DAS applied to decentralized renewable energy (RE) plants with an USB interface. The use of such systems contributes to disseminate these plants, recognizing in real time local energy resources, monitoring energy conversion efficiency and sending information concerning failures. These aspects are important, mainly for developing countries, where decentralized power plants based on renewable sources are in some cases the best option for supplying electricity to rural areas. Nevertheless, the cost of commercial DAS is still a barrier for a greater dissemination of such systems in developing countries. The proposed USB based DAS presents a new dual clock operation philosophy, in which the acquisition system contains two clock sources for parallel information processing from different communication protocols. To ensure the low cost of the DAS and to promote the dissemination of this technology in developing countries, the proposed data acquisition firmware and the software for USB microcontrollers programming is a free and open source software, executable in the Linux and Windows® operating systems. PMID:22346600

  13. Configuring load as a resource for competitive electricity markets--Review of demand response programs in the U.S. and around the world

    SciTech Connect

    Heffner, Grayson C.

    2002-09-01

    The restructuring of regional and national electricity markets in the U.S. and around the world has been accompanied by numerous problems, including generation capacity shortages, transmission congestion, wholesale price volatility, and reduced system reliability. These problems have created new opportunities for technologies and business approaches that allow load serving entities and other aggregators to control and manage the load patterns of wholesale and retail end-users they serve. Demand Response Programs, once called Load Management, have re-emerged as an important element in the fine-tuning of newly restructured electricity markets. During the summers of 1999 and 2001 they played a vital role in stabilizing wholesale markets and providing a hedge against generation shortfalls throughout the U.S.A. Demand Response Programs include ''traditional'' capacity reservation and interruptible/curtailable rates programs as well as voluntary demand bidding programs offered by either Load Serving Entities (LSEs) or regional Independent System Operators (ISOs). The Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL) has been monitoring the development of new types of Demand Response Programs both in the U.S. and around the world. This paper provides a survey and overview of the technologies and program designs that make up these emerging and important new programs.

  14. Autonomous Decentralized System and Its Strategic Approach for Research and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Kinji

    Autonomous Decentralized System (ADS) has been making progress in these 31 years since it was proposed in 1977. During these long years in the rapidly advancing computer and communication technologies, the ADS concept has not been changed but its technologies have been growing in accordance with the change and diversity of the social, economical and personal requirements and through the globalization of the market and the restructuring organizations. The ADS technologies are system-atized to cover all processes of system design, operation, maintenance and modification. This paper reviews the work done in fields of ADS in past 31 years from not only technological perspectives, but it also encompasses users requirements and value, system design, industrial activity, academic activity and standardization [1]-[26]. Moreover the new directions of the ADS are suggested.

  15. The impossible dream? How Nuclear Electric, Ltd. pulled itself out of the ashes of government ownership and became highly competitive in a privatized and deregulating British power market

    SciTech Connect

    Maycock, P.

    1998-12-31

    The day was dark for Nuclear Electric plc. when the British government decided it would privatize and deregulate the electric utility industry. For years, Nuclear Electric and other UK-based fossil power producers had been operating in a regulated market where the state set and guaranteed the price of electricity. All that was changing in Britain as the government introduced competition and as customers looked forward to purchasing power from the lowest bidder. Essentially the situation in England was much the same as it is now in the US: there was major momentum toward deregulation. The reality of competition in Britain came as good news to many power producers--in particular those who kept the lights on cost effectively. Others, However, weren`t so optimistic, especially nuclear plants that traditionally bear higher safety and maintenance costs than their fossil counterparts. Taking its cues from the City (Britain`s Wall Street), the British government simply considered nuclear generators to be unreliable, high cost, unprofitable organizations incapable of surviving in a privatized environment. It therefore left its nuclear power plants off the docket when selling (privatizing) its generating capacity. This paper describes how Nuclear Electric Ltd. became competitive in a deregulated environment.

  16. Handbook for Decentralized Education Planning. Implementing National EFA Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Dakar 2000 goal of Education For All (EFA) is at the center of UNESCO's education activities worldwide. The wide-ranging efforts to achieve EFA in many countries involve education reform, development strategies and plans. Decentralization, a major component in modernizing the public sector, is also applicable to the education sector. The…

  17. Centralization and Decentralization of Schools' Physical Facilities Management in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikoya, Peter O.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This research aims to examine the difference in the availability, adequacy and functionality of physical facilities in centralized and decentralized schools districts, with a view to making appropriate recommendations to stakeholders on the reform programmes in the Nigerian education sector. Design/methodology/approach: Principals,…

  18. OPTIMIZATION OF DECENTRALIZED BMP CONTROLS IN URBAN AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper will present an overview of a recently completed project for the US EPA entitled, Optimization of Urban Wet-weather Flow Control Systems. The focus of this effort is on techniques that are suitable for evaluating decentralized BMP controls. The four major components ...

  19. OPTIMIZATION OF DECENTRALIZED BMP CONTROLS IN URBAN AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper will present an overview of a recently completed project for the US EPA entitled Optimization of Urban Wet-weather Flow Control Systems. The focus of this effort is on techniques that are suitable for evaluating decentralized BMP controls. The four major components o...

  20. Chronicling Decentralization Initiatives in the Philippine Basic Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Allan B.

    2007-01-01

    The Philippine school system is considered as one of the largest in the world with 41,989 public elementary and secondary schools and 7790 private schools under the supervision and regulation of the Department of Education (DepEd Fact Sheet, 2005). This paper chronicles various decentralization initiatives carried out by the basic education sector…

  1. Educational Reform in South Africa: Decentralization and Parent Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joubert, Rika; van Rooyen, Jean W.

    2011-01-01

    The promulgation of the South African Schools Act in 1996 was a critical moment in the process of making a compromise between a centralized and a decentralized system. The act describes the establishment, membership, and responsibilities of school governing bodies as the vehicle for parental engagement and decision making. The article touches on…

  2. Decentralized Management in Prison: A Comparative Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, J. Forbes

    1994-01-01

    Conducted comparative case study of organizational climates in two prisons Findings from 149 staff members and 442 inmates revealed that flattening organizational structure without decentralizing authority seemed to have negative effects on staff supervisory relations and job satisfaction. Inmates reported better quality of life and more effective…

  3. Decentralization 1973: A Second-Year Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles City Schools, CA. Office of Education and Management Assessment.

    The Los Angeles City Schools, following a plan of educational renewal, are experiencing major changes through an ongoing, orderly process called "decentralization." To assess the progress being made, a task force study was undertaken to determine what mid-course corrections might be necessary and what additional information might be needed by…

  4. Formula Funding of Schools, Decentralization and Corruption: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levacic, Rosalind; Downes, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This study sets out to examine the relationship, if any, between the decentralization of funding for schools and the prevalence of corruption and fraud. It is based upon work carried out in four countries: Australia (the State of Victoria), the United Kingdom (specifically England), Poland (with particular reference to two cities) and Brazil…

  5. Shifting the Curriculum: Decentralization in the Art Education Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    When a collaborative approach is embraced, decentralization in the art classroom can consist of a non-linear exchange of ideas between teacher and students, allowing for necessary dialogue and conversation, ultimately leading to innovative exploration of materials and concepts. In this situation, students can become active learners as opposed to…

  6. Decentralization and Faculty Ownership: Keys to a Successful Assessment Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Terrence; And Others

    In an effort to prepare for a North Central Association accreditation visit, Henry Ford Community College (HFCC), in Michigan, developed and implemented a decentralized and faculty-driven assessment plan. First, a faculty member was assigned to begin the groundwork for the assessment plan and an Instructional Assessment Committee was formed to…

  7. Decentralization, stabilization, and estimation of large-scale linear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siljak, D. D.; Vukcevic, M. B.

    1976-01-01

    In this short paper we consider three closely related aspects of large-scale systems: decentralization, stabilization, and estimation. A method is proposed to decompose a large linear system into a number of interconnected subsystems with decentralized (scalar) inputs or outputs. The procedure is preliminary to the hierarchic stabilization and estimation of linear systems and is performed on the subsystem level. A multilevel control scheme based upon the decomposition-aggregation method is developed for stabilization of input-decentralized linear systems Local linear feedback controllers are used to stabilize each decoupled subsystem, while global linear feedback controllers are utilized to minimize the coupling effect among the subsystems. Systems stabilized by the method have a tolerance to a wide class of nonlinearities in subsystem coupling and high reliability with respect to structural perturbations. The proposed output-decentralization and stabilization schemes can be used directly to construct asymptotic state estimators for large linear systems on the subsystem level. The problem of dimensionality is resolved by constructing a number of low-order estimators, thus avoiding a design of a single estimator for the overall system.

  8. Decentralization of operating reactor licensing reviews: NRR Pilot Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hannon, J.N.

    1984-07-01

    This report, which has incorporated comments received from the Commission and ACRS, describes the program for decentralization of selected operating reactor licensing technical review activities. The 2-year pilot program will be reviewed to verify that safety is enhanced as anticipated by the incorporation of prescribed management techniques and application of resources. If the program fails to operate as designed, it will be terminated.

  9. School Decentralization as a Process of Differentiation, Hierarchization and Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altrichter, Herbert; Heinrich, Martin; Soukup-Altrichter, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    The Austrian "school autonomy policy", which allowed schools to develop specific "curricular profiles", is taken as an example for discussing processes and effects of school decentralization policies. Data from school case studies (based on qualitative interviews and document analysis) are used to analyse and interpret the…

  10. Towards Decentralized Management in United Arab Emirate (UAE) Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Taneiji, Shaikah; McLeod, Lorraine

    2008-01-01

    The Ministry of Education in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has announced that changes will be made in the ways in which its schools are managed. At present, most decisions are made centrally by the Ministry of Education, but moves have begun to decentralize some responsibilities and decisions to schools. The success of such reform is likely to be…

  11. Understanding Educational Decentralization in Post-Apartheid South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayed, Yusef

    1997-01-01

    Examines administrative, political. and ideological aspects of decentralization in the South African educational system. Discusses current policy development with special focus on the South African Schools Act of 1996. Highlights the tension between national and provincial educational competencies and decision making. Contains 30 references. (MMU)

  12. Strategic Alignment: Recruiting Students in a Highly Decentralized Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Richard

    2016-01-01

    All enrollment managers face some level of challenge related to decentralized decision making and operations. Policies and practices can vary considerably by academic area, creating administrative complexity, restricting the scope and speed of institutional initiatives, and limiting potential efficiencies. Central attempts to standardize or…

  13. Taking someone else's spatial perspective: Natural stance or effortful decentring?

    PubMed

    Arnold, Gabriel; Spence, Charles; Auvray, Malika

    2016-03-01

    When perceiving stimuli, self-centred and decentred perspectives can be adopted. In the present study, we investigate whether perceivers have a natural perspective that constrains their spatial perception, with some people perceiving better with self-centred than decentred perspectives and vice versa for other people. We used a recognition task of tactile ambiguous letters (b, d, p, and q) presented on the stomach, for which three perspectives can be adopted (trunk-centred, head-centred, and decentred). At first, the participants were free to adopt any perspective they wanted. Then, either the same or a different perspective was imposed on them. Without constraints, 80% of the participants adopted a self-centred perspective (50% trunk-centred, 30% head-centred) and 20% a decentred one. The perspective adopted freely appears to be natural as recognition performance decreases with a different perspective and returns to its previous high level with the same perspective. Thus, to perceive space, some perceivers adopt naturally a perspective centred on themselves whereas others take naturally others' perspective. PMID:26722709

  14. Some notions of decentralization and coordination in large-scale dynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chong, C. Y.

    1975-01-01

    Some notions of decentralization and coordination in the control of large-scale dynamic systems are discussed. Decentralization and coordination have always been important concepts in the study of large systems. Roughly speaking decentralization is the process of dividing a large problem into subproblems so that it can be handled more easily. Coordination is the manipulation of the subproblem so that the original problem is solved. The various types of decentralization and coordination that have been used to control dynamic systems are discussed. The emphasis was to distinguish between on-line and off-line operations to understand the results available by indicating the aspects of the problem which are decentralized.

  15. Ancillary services market in California

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, T.; Marnay, C.; Siddiqui, A.; Liew, L.; Khavkin, M.

    1999-07-01

    This report includes sections on the following topics: (1) California restructured electricity system overview; (2) Reliability criteria; (3) Design of the California ISO ancillary services market; (4) Operation of ancillary services markets; (5) Ancillary services markets redesign; and (6) Conclusions.

  16. Decentralized robust frequency control for power systems subject to wind power variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Juhua

    As the penetration of wind energy generation increases in electric power systems, the frequency performance degrades mainly for two reasons. First, the intermittency of wind power introduces additional generation-load imbalance in the system, causing frequency to deviate from nominal values. Second, modern wind turbine generators are often decoupled from the grid by power electronics, making the wind turbines contribute no inertia to the grid. When more conventional generation is displaced by such wind generation, the total system inertia will decrease and the grid is more susceptible to generation-load imbalance. Therefore, frequency control must be revisited and enhanced in order to accommodate large-scale integration of wind energy. This dissertation mainly concerns the re-design of generator compensators to improve frequency performance of power systems when the penetration of wind power is high. Hinfinity methods can be used to synthesize controllers to achieve stability and robust performance in the presence disturbances. However, standard Hinfinity methods tend to produce complex controllers when the order of the system is high. Furthermore, when standard Hinfinity methods are continued with a naive decentralized control design, the resulting decentralized controllers may compete against each other and lead to instability. Therefore, we develop a passivity-based decentralized control framework for power system frequency control. A storage function is derived from the entropy of individual generators. Tellegen's theorem is invoked to derive the storage function for the entire power network. With this storage function, the power network is shown to be passive with respect to a supply rate, which is the sum of decentralized input-output products. Stability can then be assured when passive controllers are connected in negative feedback interconnection to the system. Proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers with positive gains are passive controllers

  17. U-Form vs. M-Form: How to Understand Decision Autonomy Under Healthcare Decentralization?

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Arturo Vargas

    2016-01-01

    For more than three decades healthcare decentralization has been promoted in developing countries as a way of improving the financing and delivery of public healthcare. Decision autonomy under healthcare decentralization would determine the role and scope of responsibility of local authorities. Jalal Mohammed, Nicola North, and Toni Ashton analyze decision autonomy within decentralized services in Fiji. They conclude that the narrow decision space allowed to local entities might have limited the benefits of decentralization on users and providers. To discuss the costs and benefits of healthcare decentralization this paper uses the U-form and M-form typology to further illustrate the role of decision autonomy under healthcare decentralization. This paper argues that when evaluating healthcare decentralization, it is important to determine whether the benefits from decentralization are greater than its costs. The U-form and M-form framework is proposed as a useful typology to evaluate different types of institutional arrangements under healthcare decentralization. Under this model, the more decentralized organizational form (M-form) is superior if the benefits from flexibility exceed the costs of duplication and the more centralized organizational form (U-form) is superior if the savings from economies of scale outweigh the costly decision-making process from the center to the regions. Budgetary and financial autonomy and effective mechanisms to maintain local governments accountable for their spending behavior are key decision autonomy variables that could sway the cost-benefit analysis of healthcare decentralization.

  18. Decentralization in Zambia: resource allocation and district performance.

    PubMed

    Bossert, Thomas; Chitah, Mukosha Bona; Bowser, Diana

    2003-12-01

    Zambia implemented an ambitious process of health sector decentralization in the mid 1990s. This article presents an assessment of the degree of decentralization, called 'decision space', that was allowed to districts in Zambia, and an analysis of data on districts available at the national level to assess allocation choices made by local authorities and some indicators of the performance of the health systems under decentralization. The Zambian officials in health districts had a moderate range of choice over expenditures, user fees, contracting, targeting and governance. Their choices were quite limited over salaries and allowances and they did not have control over additional major sources of revenue, like local taxes. The study found that the formula for allocation of government funding which was based on population size and hospital beds resulted in relatively equal per capita expenditures among districts. Decentralization allowed the districts to make decisions on internal allocation of resources and on user fee levels and expenditures. General guidelines for the allocation of resources established a maximum and minimum percentage to be allocated to district offices, hospitals, health centres and communities. Districts tended to exceed the maximum for district offices, but the large urban districts and those without public district hospitals were not even reaching the minimum for hospital allocations. Wealthier and urban districts were more successful in raising revenue through user fees, although the proportion of total expenditures that came from user fees was low. An analysis of available indicators of performance, such as the utilization of health services, immunization coverage and family planning activities, found little variation during the period 1995-98 except for a decline in immunization coverage, which may have also been affected by changes in donor funding. These findings suggest that decentralization may not have had either a positive or

  19. Decentralizing conservation and diversifying livelihoods within Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Parker, Pete; Thapa, Brijesh; Jacob, Aerin

    2015-12-01

    To alleviate poverty and enhance conservation in resource dependent communities, managers must identify existing livelihood strategies and the associated factors that impede household access to livelihood assets. Researchers increasingly advocate reallocating management power from exclusionary central institutions to a decentralized system of management based on local and inclusive participation. However, it is yet to be shown if decentralizing conservation leads to diversified livelihoods within a protected area. The purpose of this study was to identify and assess factors affecting household livelihood diversification within Nepal's Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project, the first protected area in Asia to decentralize conservation. We randomly surveyed 25% of Kanchenjunga households to assess household socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and access to livelihood assets. We used a cluster analysis with the ten most common income generating activities (both on- and off-farm) to group the strategies households use to diversify livelihoods, and a multinomial logistic regression to identify predictors of livelihood diversification. We found four distinct groups of household livelihood strategies with a range of diversification that directly corresponded to household income. The predictors of livelihood diversification were more related to pre-existing socioeconomic and demographic factors (e.g., more landholdings and livestock, fewer dependents, receiving remittances) than activities sponsored by decentralizing conservation (e.g., microcredit, training, education, interaction with project staff). Taken together, our findings indicate that without direct policies to target marginalized groups, decentralized conservation in Kanchenjunga will continue to exclude marginalized groups, limiting a household's ability to diversify their livelihood and perpetuating their dependence on natural resources. PMID:26363256

  20. Market assessment overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib-Agahi, H.

    1981-01-01

    Market assessment, refined with analysis disaggregated from a national level to the regional level and to specific market applications, resulted in more accurate and detailed market estimates. The development of an integrated set of computer simulations, coupled with refined market data, allowed progress in the ability to evaluate the worth of solar thermal parabolic dish systems. In-depth analyses of both electric and thermal market applications of these systems are described. The following market assessment studies were undertaken: (1) regional analysis of the near term market for parabolic dish systems; (2) potential early market estimate for electric applications; (3) potential early market estimate for industrial process heat/cogeneration applications; and (4) selection of thermal and electric application case studies for fiscal year 1981.

  1. 75 FR 14342 - Market-Based Rates for Wholesale Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... & Light Company, doing business as Progress Energy Carolinas, Inc., and Florida Power Corporation, doing... that companies must prepare a significant number of financial and operational reports at the end of... January 28, 2009, in response to Tampa Electric Company's (Tampa Electric) request for extension of...

  2. The marginal effects of the price for carbon dioxide: quantifying the effects on the market for electric generation in Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Kury, Theodore J.; Harrington, Julie

    2010-05-15

    Greater emphasis on public policy aimed at internalizing the societal cost of carbon dioxide emissions leads to more questions about the economic impacts of that policy. In cooperation with the State of Florida's Department of Environmental Protection, the authors have constructed a model to simulate the dispatch of electric generating units to serve electric load in the state - and obtained some counterintuitive results. (author)

  3. 75 FR 71425 - Border Energy Electric Services, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Border Energy Electric Services, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial... is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Border Energy Electric Services,...

  4. Costs in electric utilities in the US: A comparison of publicly-owned and privately-owned utilities in different market structures

    SciTech Connect

    Koh, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    This dissertation focuses the effects of ownership and market structure on cost in electric utilities in the U.S. and consists of three parts. The first part is a brief survey of the literature on the relative efficiency of the different types of ownership and on the relative importance of a competitive environment in attaining a successful privatization program. In the second part, the authors construct a theoretical and empirical model which can consider the relative efficiency of publicly-owned and privately-owned utilities allowing simultaneously for the impacts of ownership type, market structure and regulation. The concept is employed of shadow price rather that actual price to reflect the effect of government's regulation. The method of data construction and empirical results are presented in the third part. The estimation results indicate that privately-owned utilities are more cost efficient than publicly-owned utilities at very large output levels and are less efficient at very small output levels. Contrary to the authors' expectations, the estimates of parameters reflecting different market structure are insignificant. Estimates were also produced of economics of scale, demand, and elasticity of substitution.

  5. An optimization-based approach for facility energy management with uncertainties, and, Power portfolio optimization in deregulated electricity markets with risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jun

    Topic 1. An Optimization-Based Approach for Facility Energy Management with Uncertainties. Effective energy management for facilities is becoming increasingly important in view of the rising energy costs, the government mandate on the reduction of energy consumption, and the human comfort requirements. This part of dissertation presents a daily energy management formulation and the corresponding solution methodology for HVAC systems. The problem is to minimize the energy and demand costs through the control of HVAC units while satisfying human comfort, system dynamics, load limit constraints, and other requirements. The problem is difficult in view of the fact that the system is nonlinear, time-varying, building-dependent, and uncertain; and that the direct control of a large number of HVAC components is difficult. In this work, HVAC setpoints are the control variables developed on top of a Direct Digital Control (DDC) system. A method that combines Lagrangian relaxation, neural networks, stochastic dynamic programming, and heuristics is developed to predict the system dynamics and uncontrollable load, and to optimize the setpoints. Numerical testing and prototype implementation results show that our method can effectively reduce total costs, manage uncertainties, and shed the load, is computationally efficient. Furthermore, it is significantly better than existing methods. Topic 2. Power Portfolio Optimization in Deregulated Electricity Markets with Risk Management. In a deregulated electric power system, multiple markets of different time scales exist with various power supply instruments. A load serving entity (LSE) has multiple choices from these instruments to meet its load obligations. In view of the large amount of power involved, the complex market structure, risks in such volatile markets, stringent constraints to be satisfied, and the long time horizon, a power portfolio optimization problem is of critical importance but difficulty for an LSE to serve the

  6. Estimation of the Unregistered Inflow of Electrical and Electronic Equipment to a Domestic Market: A Case Study on Televisions in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ha Phuong; Wang, Feng; Dewulf, Jo; Huynh, Trung-Hai; Schaubroeck, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) constitutes one of the most problematic waste streams worldwide, and accurately estimating the scale of WEEE can assist in tackling its associated issues. However, obtaining an accurate estimation of WEEE remains a challenge because a share of the waste is difficult to calculate. This share stems from the administratively unregistered (so-called "invisible") inflow of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) into the domestic market. As a first attempt to qualitatively and quantitatively investigate this invisible inflow, this study discusses the nature of this flow in detail and proposes a calculation pathway for quantifying its magnitude. The size of the invisible inflow to a domestic market (assumed equal to invisible sales) is calculated by subtracting the registered, also called "visible", sales from the total sales. The total sales are modeled, whereas the visible sales are derived from statistical data. The method is illustrated by a case study on televisions (TVs) in Vietnam. The results show that from 2002 to 2013, the invisible TV inflow contributed, on average, 15% to the total TV sales (coefficient of variation: 0.21). This average share would increase by approximately 1.0% when the maximum number of TVs used per household increased by 1.0%. However, it would decrease by 1.7% when the visible sales increased by 1.0%. Additionally, the average share of the invisible TV inflow would change from 15% to 27% when an unadjusted constant instead of an adjusted time-varying lifespan is employed. This first estimation of the invisible EEE inflow to the domestic market can be improved with additional knowledge and data in the future. PMID:26820611

  7. Educational Decentralization in Communist and Post-Communist Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Cathy

    1997-01-01

    National political reorganization in a post-communist era has reconceptualized both the societal role of education and the cultural significance of schooling for citizens in emerging democracies. To date, attention has focused primarily on changing structures rather than on participant perceptions within those structures. In this policy analysis of Hungary's overlapping decentralization and de-sovietization process, the author constructs macro and micro depictions of contemporary social and educational change. These two columns of inquiry illuminate the interactive dynamics between political, economic, and educational systems and the reidentification process of individuals within evolving systems. Because the decentralization of Hungary's educational system began long before the political break with Moscow in 1989, this case enables a more comprehensive and comparative perspective regarding the reorganization of power between school and state.

  8. Model-Based Design of Tree WSNs for Decentralized Detection.

    PubMed

    Tantawy, Ashraf; Koutsoukos, Xenofon; Biswas, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    The classical decentralized detection problem of finding the optimal decision rules at the sensor and fusion center, as well as variants that introduce physical channel impairments have been studied extensively in the literature. The deployment of WSNs in decentralized detection applications brings new challenges to the field. Protocols for different communication layers have to be co-designed to optimize the detection performance. In this paper, we consider the communication network design problem for a tree WSN. We pursue a system-level approach where a complete model for the system is developed that captures the interactions between different layers, as well as different sensor quality measures. For network optimization, we propose a hierarchical optimization algorithm that lends itself to the tree structure, requiring only local network information. The proposed design approach shows superior performance over several contentionless and contention-based network design approaches. PMID:26307989

  9. Decentralized control experiments on the JPL flexible spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozguner, U.; Ossman, K.; Donne, J.; Boesch, M.; Ahmed, A.

    1990-01-01

    Decentralized control experiments were successfully demonstrated for the JPL/AFAL Flexible Structure. A simulation package using MATRIXx showed strong correlation between the simulations and experimental result, while providing a means for test and debug of the various control strategies. Implementation was simplified by a modular software design that was easily transported from the simulation environment to the experimental environment. Control designs worked well for suppression of the dominant modes of the structure. Static decentralized output feedback dampened the excited modes of the structure, but sometimes excited higher order modes upon startup of the controller. A second-order frequency shaping controller helped to eliminate excitation of the higher order modes by attenuating high frequencies in the control effort. However, it also resulted in slightly longer settling times.

  10. Efficient electric motor systems for industry. Report on roundtable discussions of market problems and ways to overcome them

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    Improving the efficiency of electric motor systems is one of the best energy-saving opportunities for the United States. The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies estimates that by the year 2010 in the industrial sector, the opportunities for savings from improved efficiency in electric motor systems could be roughly as follows: 240 billion kilowatthours per year. $13 billion per year from US industry`s energy bill. Up to 50,000 megawatts in new powerplant capacity avoided. Up to 44 million metric tons of carbon-equivalent emissions mitigated per year, corresponding to 3 percent of present US emissions. Recognizing the benefits of this significant opportunity for energy savings, DOE has targeted improvements in the efficiency of electric motor systems as a key initiative in the effort to promote flexibility and efficiency in the way electricity is produced and used. Efficient electric motor systems will help the United States reach its national goals for energy savings and greenhouse gas emission reductions.

  11. Decentralized authority, increased enforcement guide Mexico's environmental evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Ranger, E.M.; Alonzo, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental regulation in Mexico is evolving into a decentralized system where local authorities assume responsibility for compliance. Articles 25, 27 and 73 of Mexico's constitution establish federal, state and municipal jurisdictions for environmental protection, and empower the federal congress to promulgate environmental legislation. An established federal and local environmental legislative and normative framework, along with increased enforcement, provide the country with a comprehensive regulatory system to prevent and control industrial pollution.

  12. Evolutionary Concepts for Decentralized Air Traffic Flow Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Milton; Kolitz, Stephan; Milner, Joseph; Odoni, Amedeo

    1997-01-01

    Alternative concepts for modifying the policies and procedures under which the air traffic flow management system operates are described, and an approach to the evaluation of those concepts is discussed. Here, air traffic flow management includes all activities related to the management of the flow of aircraft and related system resources from 'block to block.' The alternative concepts represent stages in the evolution from the current system, in which air traffic management decision making is largely centralized within the FAA, to a more decentralized approach wherein the airlines and other airspace users collaborate in air traffic management decision making with the FAA. The emphasis in the discussion is on a viable medium-term partially decentralized scenario representing a phase of this evolution that is consistent with the decision-making approaches embodied in proposed Free Flight concepts for air traffic management. System-level metrics for analyzing and evaluating the various alternatives are defined, and a simulation testbed developed to generate values for those metrics is described. The fundamental issue of modeling airline behavior in decentralized environments is also raised, and an example of such a model, which deals with the preservation of flight bank integrity in hub airports, is presented.

  13. Land use and environmental impacts of decentralized solar energy use

    SciTech Connect

    Twiss, R.H.; Smith, P.L.; Gatzke, A.E.; McCreary, S.T.

    1980-01-01

    The physical, spatial and land-use impacts of decentralized solar technologies applied at the community level by the year 2000 are examined. The results of the study are intended to provide a basis for evaluating the way in which a shift toward reliance on decentralized energy technologies may eventually alter community form. Six land-use types representative of those found in most US cities are analyzed according to solar penetration levels identified in the maximum solar scenario for the year 2000. The scenario is translated into shares of end use demand in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors. These proportions become the scenario goals to be met by the use of decentralized solar energy systems. The percentage of total energy demand is assumed to be 36.5 percent, 18.8 percent and 22.6 percent in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors respectively. The community level scenario stipulated that a certain percentage of the total demand be met by on-site solar collection, i.e. photovoltaic and thermal collectors, and by passive design. This on-site solar goal is 31.9 percent (residential), 16.8 percent (commercial) and 13.1 percent (industrial).

  14. Decentralized energy development: the Hawaii experience, 1970-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Marlow, M.P.

    1983-01-01

    A multifaced debate over centralized versus decentralized renewable systems will certainly be the major element in any national renewable energy policy-making. With diverse renewable energy resources occurring in different forms and quantities in different parts of the country, the vulnerability of centralized energy policy control seems apparent. Typically, Federal organizations and agencies have developed policy research and analyses that do not emphasize particular climatic, socio-economic, and natural resource characteristics of specific regions. A decentralized energy policy implies a heightened planning and programming capacity for local communities, states and regions. However, if communities, states, and regions are to become increasingly responsible for energy policy, they will need not only to develop the necessary technical expertise but also efficient structures to initiate and implement these policies. There are few legal precedents and almost no organizational precedents in preparing such systems, plus a number of obstructions. The method used here was to analyze Hawaii's alternative energy program and compare it to several other developing programs to isolate workable methods and organizational structures. Results should be useful to planners and programmers of future local, state, or regional units. It was found that a successful program of decentralization most likely would contain the following components: (a) education of the public concerning potential alternatives and the possible means to develop them; (b) organization of committees to involve the community in problem solving and development of the resource; and (c) procuring of funds to finance research and development of the alternatives.

  15. Decentred comparative research: Context sensitive analysis of maternal health care.

    PubMed

    Wrede, Sirpa; Benoit, Cecilia; Bourgeault, Ivy Lynn; van Teijlingen, Edwin R; Sandall, Jane; De Vries, Raymond G

    2006-12-01

    Cross-national comparison is an important tool for health care research, but too often those who use this method fail to consider important inter-national differences in the social organisation of health care and in the relationship between health care practices and social experience. In this article we make the case for a context-sensitive and reflexive analysis of health care that allows researchers to understand the important ways that health care systems and practices are situated in time and place. Our approach--decentred comparative research--addresses the often unacknowledged ethnocentrism of traditional comparative research. Decentred cross-national research is a method that draws on the socially situated and distributed expertise of an international research team to develop key concepts and research questions. We used the decentred method to fashion a multilevel framework that used the meso level of organisation (i.e., health care organisations, professional groups and other concrete organisations) as an analytical starting point in our international study of maternity care in eight countries. Our method departs from traditional comparative health systems research that is most often conducted at the macro level. Our approach will help researchers develop new and socially robust knowledge about health care. PMID:16962695

  16. Game-Based Virtual Worlds as Decentralized Virtual Activity Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scacchi, Walt

    There is widespread interest in the development and use of decentralized systems and virtual world environments as possible new places for engaging in collaborative work activities. Similarly, there is widespread interest in stimulating new technological innovations that enable people to come together through social networking, file/media sharing, and networked multi-player computer game play. A decentralized virtual activity system (DVAS) is a networked computer supported work/play system whose elements and social activities can be both virtual and decentralized (Scacchi et al. 2008b). Massively multi-player online games (MMOGs) such as World of Warcraft and online virtual worlds such as Second Life are each popular examples of a DVAS. Furthermore, these systems are beginning to be used for research, deve-lopment, and education activities in different science, technology, and engineering domains (Bainbridge 2007, Bohannon et al. 2009; Rieber 2005; Scacchi and Adams 2007; Shaffer 2006), which are also of interest here. This chapter explores two case studies of DVASs developed at the University of California at Irvine that employ game-based virtual worlds to support collaborative work/play activities in different settings. The settings include those that model and simulate practical or imaginative physical worlds in different domains of science, technology, or engineering through alternative virtual worlds where players/workers engage in different kinds of quests or quest-like workflows (Jakobsson 2006).

  17. The ecology of markets.

    PubMed

    Nordhaus, W D

    1992-02-01

    Economies are sometimes viewed as analogous to ecological systems in which "everything is connected to everything else." In complex modern economies, the question arises whether the market mechanism can appropriately coordinate all the interconnections or whether instead some supramarket body is needed to coordinate the vast web of human activities. This study describes how an idealized decentralized competitive market in fact coordinates the different economic organisms in an efficient manner. The problems of pollution and other externalities can undo the efficient outcome unless corrected by appropriate property rights or corrective taxes. But in closing the economic circle, the internalized economy does not actually need to close the natural cycles by linking up all physical flows through recycling. PMID:11607264

  18. The ecology of markets.

    PubMed Central

    Nordhaus, W D

    1992-01-01

    Economies are sometimes viewed as analogous to ecological systems in which "everything is connected to everything else." In complex modern economies, the question arises whether the market mechanism can appropriately coordinate all the interconnections or whether instead some supramarket body is needed to coordinate the vast web of human activities. This study describes how an idealized decentralized competitive market in fact coordinates the different economic organisms in an efficient manner. The problems of pollution and other externalities can undo the efficient outcome unless corrected by appropriate property rights or corrective taxes. But in closing the economic circle, the internalized economy does not actually need to close the natural cycles by linking up all physical flows through recycling. PMID:11607264

  19. Improving the Federal/State response to potential patterns of market failure in electricity, gas, and telecommunications

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.N.

    1996-11-01

    Taking seriously the overall panel question, {open_quotes}Will Light Regulation Promote the Public Interest in Market-Driven Utility Industries?,{close_quotes} the answer depends on (1) the reality of the last phrase, {open_quotes}market-driven utility industries,{close_quotes} and (2) timing. My answer is, {open_quotes}Possibly, but it is by no means certain.{close_quotes} This article centers on what needs to happen in various consumer protection activities to enhance the chances of a satisfactory outcome as we {open_quotes}let down our guard{close_quotes} from more traditional public utility regulation. The topics that I will briefly treat are (1) the worsened information asymmetry, (2) where substitute help might be found for consumer protection, (3) the reemergence of the diversification phenomenon, (4) the opportunities/problems of a dual system of regulation (federal/state) in the current context, and (5) the needed theoretical contributions that I hope our economics profession can make in advancing our knowledge of how oligopolistic markets really work.

  20. The impact of fiscal decentralization on infant mortality rates: evidence from OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Rubio, Dolores

    2011-11-01

    This study re-examines the hypothesis that shifts towards more decentralization would be accompanied by improvements in population health on a panel of 20 OECD countries over a thirty year period (1970-2001). Decentralization is proxied using a conventional indicator of revenue decentralization and a new measure of fiscal decentralization that reflects better than previous measures the existence of autonomy in the decision-making authority of lower tiers of government, a crucial issue in the decentralization process. The results show a considerable and positive effect of fiscal decentralization on infant mortality only if a substantial degree of autonomy in the sources of revenue is devolved to local governments. The proportion of health care expenditure on GDP and, in particular, education, were found to have a larger contribution to the reduction of infant mortality in the sample of OECD countries analysed over the period of study. PMID:21920653

  1. 75 FR 63167 - San Diego Gas and Electric Company v. Sellers of Energy and Ancillary Services Into Markets...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission San Diego Gas and Electric Company v. Sellers of Energy and Ancillary... Power Exchange; Investigation of Practices of the California Independent System Operator and the California Power Exchange Corporation; Notice of Filing October 6, 2010. Take notice that on October 6,...

  2. Decentralized, cooperative control of multivehicle systems: Design and stability analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitz, Lesley Anne

    2009-12-01

    This dissertation addresses the design and stability analysis of decentralized, cooperative control laws for multivehicle systems. Advances in communication, navigation, and surveillance systems have enabled greater autonomy in multivehicle systems, and there is a shift toward decentralized, cooperative systems for computational efficiency and robustness. In a decentralized control scheme, control inputs are determined onboard each vehicle; therefore, decentralized controllers are more efficient for large numbers of vehicles, and the system is more robust to communication failures and reconfiguration. The design of decentralized, cooperative control laws is explored for a nonlinear vehicle model that can be represented in a double-integrator form. Cooperative controllers are functions of spacing errors with respect to other vehicles in the system, where the communication structure defines the information that is available to each vehicle. Control inputs are selected to achieve internal stability, or zero steady-state spacing errors, between vehicles in the system. Closed-loop equations of motion for the cooperative system can be written in a structural form, where damping and stiffness matrices contain control gains acting on the velocity and positions of the vehicles, respectively. The form of the stiffness matrix is determined by the communication structure, where different communication structures yield different control forms. Communication structures are compared using two structural analysis tools: modal cost and frequency-response functions, which evaluate the response of the multivehicle systems to disturbances. The frequency-response information is shown to reveal the string stability of different cooperative control forms. The effects of time delays in the feedback states of the cooperative control laws on system stability are also investigated. Closed-loop equations of motion are modeled as delay differential equations, and two stability notions are

  3. Decentralized receding horizon control of large scale dynamically decoupled systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keviczky, Tamas

    Decentralized control techniques today can be found in a broad spectrum of applications ranging from robotics and formation flight to civil engineering. Their importance for dynamically decoupled systems arises from the abundance of networks of independently actuated systems and the necessity of avoiding centralized design when this becomes computationally prohibitive or would require unrealistic expectations regarding information exchange. A decentralized optimal control framework using distributed Receding Horizon Control (RHC) schemes is proposed to address this problem, which helps overcome drawbacks of currently available methods. Stability of the proposed scheme is analyzed in detail and a number of methodologies are enlisted to address the problem of feasibility. In particular, a feasible decentralized RHC scheme based on hierarchical decomposition and feasible set projection is developed. Another approach for guaranteed constraint fulfillment is described as well using invariant sets of emergency controllers and switching. A hybrid decentralized RHC framework is also introduced based on coordinating functions and logic rules. The proposed framework makes use of algorithms that rely on results from computational geometry, mathematical programming solvers, constrained optimal control, invariant set computation and hybrid systems. These techniques allow the formulation of constrained optimal control problems and the computation of their equivalent look-up tables which are easily implementable in real-time. A summary of relevant background material related to these underlying techniques is provided in this thesis as well. Applicability of the proposed framework is explored using the formation control problem of multiple Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) as a motivating example. This particular application problem has a wide range of envisioned applications including distributed sensing and monitoring, which appear to be the most promising ones. The challenge in UAV

  4. The global decentralization of commercial aircraft production: Implications for United States-based manufacturing activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, David John

    This research explores the role of industrial offset agreements and international subcontracting patterns in the global decentralization of US commercial aircraft production. Particular attention is given to the manufacturing processes involved in the design and assembly of large passenger jets (100 seats or more). It is argued that the current geography of aircraft production at the global level has been shaped by a new international distribution of input costs and technological capability. Specifically, low-cost producers within several of the newly emerging markets (NEMs) have acquired front-end manufacturing expertise as a direct result of industrial offset contracts and/or other forms of technology transfer (e.g. international joint-ventures, imports of advanced machine tools). The economic and technological implications of industrial offset (compensatory trade) are examined with reference to the commercial future of US aircraft production. Evidence gathered via personal interviews with both US and foreign producers suggests that the current Western duopoly (Boeing and Airbus) faces a rather uncertain future. In particular, the dissertation shows that the growth of subcontracting and industrial offset portends the transformation of Boeing from an aircraft manufacturer to a systems integrator. The economic implications of this potential reconfiguration of the US aircraft industry are discussed in the context of several techno-market futures, some of which look rather bleak for US workers in this industry.

  5. Online Teaching Communities within Sociology: A Counter Trend to the Marketization of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Nathan; Schueths, April M.

    2013-01-01

    As higher education embraces the ideologies of the market, educators are being asked to teach evermore students with fewer resources. Running counter to the trend of marketization, a decentralized group of educators are taking advantage of Web 2.0 technologies (including Facebook, Twitter, and blogging platforms such as Wordpress, etc.) to…

  6. A market focus. [The changing power generation equipment market

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, M.T.

    1991-10-01

    This article is a compilation of the views of the changing power generation equipment market by executives of ASEA-Brown Boveri, General Electric Power Generation, Siemans Power Generation Group, and Westinghouse Electric Corporation Power Generation unit. The topics of the article include a changing market, the home market, the turnkey supplier, and back to baseload.

  7. Decentralized Formation Flying Control in a Multiple-Team Hierarchy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Joseph .; Thomas, Stephanie J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the prototype of a system that addresses these objectives-a decentralized guidance and control system that is distributed across spacecraft using a multiple-team framework. The objective is to divide large clusters into teams of manageable size, so that the communication and computational demands driven by N decentralized units are related to the number of satellites in a team rather than the entire cluster. The system is designed to provide a high-level of autonomy, to support clusters with large numbers of satellites, to enable the number of spacecraft in the cluster to change post-launch, and to provide for on-orbit software modification. The distributed guidance and control system will be implemented in an object-oriented style using MANTA (Messaging Architecture for Networking and Threaded Applications). In this architecture, tasks may be remotely added, removed or replaced post-launch to increase mission flexibility and robustness. This built-in adaptability will allow software modifications to be made on-orbit in a robust manner. The prototype system, which is implemented in MATLAB, emulates the object-oriented and message-passing features of the MANTA software. In this paper, the multiple-team organization of the cluster is described, and the modular software architecture is presented. The relative dynamics in eccentric reference orbits is reviewed, and families of periodic, relative trajectories are identified, expressed as sets of static geometric parameters. The guidance law design is presented, and an example reconfiguration scenario is used to illustrate the distributed process of assigning geometric goals to the cluster. Next, a decentralized maneuver planning approach is presented that utilizes linear-programming methods to enact reconfiguration and coarse formation keeping maneuvers. Finally, a method for performing online collision avoidance is discussed, and an example is provided to gauge its performance.

  8. Management decentralization and montane forest conditions in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Persha, Lauren; Blomley, Tom

    2009-12-01

    We examined how differences in local forest-management institutions relate to disparate anthropogenic forest disturbance and forest conditions among three neighboring montane forests in Tanzania under centralized, comanaged, or communal management. Institutional differences have been shaped by decentralization reforms. We conducted semistructured interviews with members of forest management committees, local government, and village households and measured anthropogenic disturbance, tree structure, and species composition in forest plots. We assessed differences in governance system components of local institutions, including land tenure, decision-making autonomy by forest users, and official and de facto processes of rule formation, monitoring, and enforcement among the three management strategies. We also assessed differences in frequencies of prohibited logging and subsistence pole cutting, and measures of forest condition. An adjacent research forest served as an ecological reference for comparison of forest conditions. Governance was similar for comanaged and centralized management, whereas communal managers had greater tenure security and decision-making autonomy over the use and management of their forest. There was significantly less illegal logging in the communal forest, but subsistence pole cutting was common across all management strategies. The comanaged forest was most disturbed by recent logging and pole cutting, as were peripheral areas of the larger centralized forest. This manifested in more degraded indicators of forest conditions (lower mean tree size, basal area, density of trees >or= 90 cm dbh, and aboveground biomass and higher overall stem density). Greater tenure security and institutional autonomy of the communal strategy contributed to more effective management, less illegal logging, and maintenance of good forest conditions, but generating livelihood benefits was a challenge for both decentralized strategies. Our results underscore the

  9. A two-level discount model for coordinating a decentralized supply chain considering stochastic price-sensitive demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heydari, Jafar; Norouzinasab, Yousef

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a discount model is proposed to coordinate pricing and ordering decisions in a two-echelon supply chain (SC). Demand is stochastic and price sensitive while lead times are fixed. Decentralized decision making where downstream decides on selling price and order size is investigated. Then, joint pricing and ordering decisions are extracted where both members act as a single entity aim to maximize whole SC profit. Finally, a coordination mechanism based on quantity discount is proposed to coordinate both pricing and ordering decisions simultaneously. The proposed two-level discount policy can be characterized from two aspects: (1) marketing viewpoint: a retail price discount to increase the demand, and (2) operations management viewpoint: a wholesale price discount to induce the retailer to adjust its order quantity and selling price jointly. Results of numerical experiments demonstrate that the proposed policy is suitable to coordinate SC and improve the profitability of SC as well as all SC members in comparison with decentralized decision making.

  10. Decentralized and efficient control of transboundary pollution in federal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, E.C.D.

    1997-01-01

    Decentralized control of transboundary pollution in federal systems can be efficient when population crowding is socially costly. In this paper, an upstream region abates pollution or makes an interregional income transfer to the downstream region with the sole intent of deterring immigration. Because either instrument, abatement expenditure or interregional income transfer, alone implements an efficient population distribution between the regions, interregional income transfers are unnecessary for efficiency. Without explicit income transfers, each region provides the efficient portion of the aggregate level of pollution abatement in the Nash equilibrium. 12 refs.

  11. Decentralized optimal control of dynamical systems under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabasov, R.; Dmitruk, N. M.; Kirillova, F. M.

    2011-07-01

    The problem of optimal control of a group of interconnected dynamical objects under uncertainty is considered. The cases are examined in which the centralized control of the group of objects is impossible due to delay in the channel for information exchange between the group members. Optimal self-control algorithms in real time for each dynamical object are proposed. Various types of a priori and current information about the behavior of the group members and about uncertainties in the system are examined. The proposed methods supplement the earlier developed optimal control methods for an individual dynamical system and the methods of decentralized optimal control of deterministic objects. The results are illustrated with examples.

  12. Genetic Algorithm based Decentralized PI Type Controller: Load Frequency Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Atul; Ray, Goshaidas; Sharma, Arun Kumar

    2016-05-01

    This work presents a design of decentralized PI type Linear Quadratic (LQ) controller based on genetic algorithm (GA). The proposed design technique allows considerable flexibility in defining the control objectives and it does not consider any knowledge of the system matrices and moreover it avoids the solution of algebraic Riccati equation. To illustrate the results of this work, a load-frequency control problem is considered. Simulation results reveal that the proposed scheme based on GA is an alternative and attractive approach to solve load-frequency control problem from both performance and design point of views.

  13. A decentralized square root information filter/smoother

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bierman, G. J.; Belzer, M. R.

    1985-01-01

    A number of developments has recently led to a considerable interest in the decentralization of linear least squares estimators. The developments are partly related to the impending emergence of VLSI technology, the realization of parallel processing, and the need for algorithmic ways to speed the solution of dynamically decoupled, high dimensional estimation problems. A new method is presented for combining Square Root Information Filters (SRIF) estimates obtained from independent data sets. The new method involves an orthogonal transformation, and an information matrix filter 'homework' problem discussed by Schweppe (1973) is generalized. The employed SRIF orthogonal transformation methodology has been described by Bierman (1977).

  14. Decentralized multi-robot simultaneous localization and mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaai, R.; Chopra, N.; Balachandran, B.; Karki, H.

    2011-04-01

    In the simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) problem, one addresses the problem of using mobile sensor platforms or robotic systems to map unknown environments while simultaneously localizing the mobile systems relative to the map. Applications include mapping in oil storage tanks, oil pipes, search and rescue operations, surveillance operations, exploration operations. In this effort, a previously proposed multi-robot localization algorithm is extended to implement SLAM. The decentralized algorithm is demonstrated to work in dynamic robot networks. Experimental and numerical studies conducted with multiple networked mobile platforms are also discussed to validate the analytical findings.

  15. Optimal decentralized feedback control for a truss structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cagle, A.; Ozguner, U.

    1989-01-01

    One approach to the decentralized control of large flexible space structures involves the design of controllers for the substructures of large systems and their subsequent application to the entire coupled system. This approach is presently developed for the case of active vibration damping on an experimental large struss structure. The isolated boundary loading method is used to define component models by FEM; component controllers are designed using an interlocking control concept which minimizes the motion of the boundary nodes, thereby reducing the exchange of mechanical disturbances among components.

  16. Informatics requirements for a restructured competitive electric power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Pickle, S.; Marnay, C.; Olken, F.

    1996-08-01

    The electric power industry in the United States is undergoing a slow but nonetheless dramatic transformation. It is a transformation driven by technology, economics, and politics; one that will move the industry from its traditional mode of centralized system operations and regulated rates guaranteeing long-run cost recovery, to decentralized investment and operational decisionmaking and to customer access to true spot market prices. This transformation will revolutionize the technical, procedural, and informational requirements of the industry. A major milestone in this process occurred on December 20, 1995, when the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) approved its long-awaited electric utility industry restructuring decision. The decision directed the three major California investor-owned utilities to reorganize themselves by the beginning of 1998 into a supply pool, at the same time selling up to a half of their thermal generating plants. Generation will be bid into this pool and will be dispatched by an independent system operator. The dispatch could potentially involve bidders not only from California but from throughout western North America and include every conceivable generating technology and scale of operation. At the same time, large customers and aggregated customer groups will be able to contract independently for their supply and the utilities will be required to offer a real-time pricing tariff based on the pool price to all their customers, including residential. In related proceedings concerning competitive wholesale power markets, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) has recognized that real-time information flows between buyers and sellers are essential to efficient equitable market operation. The purpose of this meeting was to hold discussions on the information technologies that will be needed in the new, deregulated electric power industry.

  17. A Labor Market Analysis of the Electricity Sector for 2030 using the National Energy with Weather System Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terry, L.; Clack, C.; Marquis, M.; Paine, J.; Picciano, P.

    2015-12-01

    We conducted an analysis that utilized the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models to estimate the temporary and permanent jobs, earnings, and state sales tax revenues that would be created by various scenarios of the National Energy with Weather System (NEWS) simulator. This simulator was created by a collaboration between the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) at the University of Colorado and the Earth Systems Research Laboratory (ESRL NOAA). The NEWS simulator used three years of high-resolution (13-km, hourly) weather and power data to select the most cost-efficient, resource-maximizing, and complementary locations for wind, solar photovoltaic, and natural gas power plants along with high-voltage direct-current transmission, thereby providing the cheapest possible electricity grid that facilitates the incorporation of large amounts of wind and solar PV. We applied various assumptions to ensure that we produced conservative estimates, while keeping costs in line with those of the NEWS simulator. Our analysis shows that under the lowest carbon-emitting scenario of the NEWS carried out (80% reduction in CO2 compared with 1990 levels), almost ten million new jobs could be created by 2030. Of those jobs, over 400,000 would be permanently supporting the operations of the power plants. That particular scenario would also add over 500 billion to the paychecks of American workers and 75 billion to state tax revenues by 2030. All of this is achieved with average electricity costs of 10.7¢/kWh, because the electric system relies less heavily on fuel and more on jobs constructing, operating, and maintaining infrastructure. We use the current presentation to describe the methods used to reach these findings and examine some potential impacts of our estimates on public policy. Although we are able to identify some systematic problems with the JEDI model, we find that these problems

  18. A PLAN FOR EDUCATIONAL POLICY AND ADMINISTRATIVE UNITS, FURTHER DECENTRALIZATION OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY.

    THIS PLAN CONTAINS LEGISLATIVE PROPOSALS AND GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE DECENTRALIZATION OF THE NEW YORK CITY PUBLIC SCHOOLS AND FOR INCREASED PARENT AND COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION. IN PART IT RESPONDS TO AN EARLIER PLAN PROPOSED BY THE MAYOR'S PANEL ON DECENTRALIZATION. THE PRESENT PROPOSAL SUGGESTS THAT THE ADMINISTRATIVE RESTRUCTURING OF THE…

  19. Academic Dynasties: Decentralization and Familism in the Italian Academia. NBER Working Paper No. 17572

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durante, Ruben; Labartino, Giovanna; Perotti, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Decentralization can lead to "good" or "bad" outcomes depending on the socio-cultural norms of the targeted communities. We investigate this issue by looking at the evolution of familism and nepotism in the Italian academia before and after the 1998 reform, which decentralized the recruitment of professors from the national to the university…

  20. The Effect of Political Decentralization on School Leadership in German Vocational Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gessler, Michael; Ashmawy, Iman K.

    2016-01-01

    In this explorative qualitative study the effect of political decentralization on vocational school leadership is investigated. Through conducting structural interviews with 15 school principals in the states of Bremen and Lower Saxony in Germany, the study was able to conclude that political decentralization entails the creation of elected bodies…