Science.gov

Sample records for deception

  1. Mathematical analysis of deception.

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Deanna Tamae Koike; Durgin, Nancy Ann

    2003-10-01

    This report describes the results of a three year research project about the use of deception in information protection. The work involved a collaboration between Sandia employees and students in the Center for Cyber Defenders (CCD) and at the University of California at Davis. This report includes a review of the history of deception, a discussion of some cognitive issues, an overview of previous work in deception, the results of experiments on the effects of deception on an attacker, and a mathematical model of error types associated with deception in computer systems.

  2. Deception and self-deception in health care.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Jan M A; Timmins, Fiona

    2016-07-01

    Deception is part of the natural repertoire of adaptive behaviours in many organisms. In humans we see it in all domains of human activity including health care. Within health care, deception can be a matter of concern, but it is also used to protect patients, for instance against overwhelming and negative diagnostics. This paper demonstrates that deception and self-deception are closely interlinked and that self-deception facilitates deception. Furthermore, self-deception tends to be used to reduce the discomfort we feel when we are dishonest (cognitive dissonance). The paper includes references to core psychological mechanisms and ethical aspects. PMID:27245269

  3. Defining Acts of Journalistic Deception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Deni; Culver, Charles M.

    To determine when, if ever, deceptive acts can be morally justified in investigative reporting, it is important to distinguish a deceptive act that is morally justified from an act that is not deceptive in the first place. This paper seeks to provide an account of what counts as deception and identify the kinds of journalistic practice that are…

  4. Psychopathy and deception detection.

    PubMed

    Martin, Krystle; Leach, Amy-May

    2013-05-01

    Researchers have found that most people have difficulty detecting deception; however, certain individuals are able to consistently detect deception above the level of chance. This study examined whether psychopathic traits are related to deception detection. Undergraduate participants (n = 117) indicated whether individuals in video clips were lying or telling the truth and completed a measure of psychopathy. Overall, participants' performance was significantly greater than chance. Scores on the psychopathy measure were unrelated to participants' performance and their confidence on the lie detection task. Possible explanations for the findings are briefly discussed. PMID:24343941

  5. Medicine, lies and deceptions

    PubMed Central

    Benn, P.

    2001-01-01

    This article offers a qualified defence of the view that there is a moral difference between telling lies to one's patients, and deceiving them without lying. However, I take issue with certain arguments offered by Jennifer Jackson in support of the same conclusion. In particular, I challenge her claim that to deny that there is such a moral difference makes sense only within a utilitarian framework, and I cast doubt on the aptness of some of her examples of non-lying deception. But I argue that lies have a greater tendency to damage trust than does non-lying deception, and suggest that since many doctors do believe there is a moral boundary between the two types of deception, encouraging them to violate that boundary may have adverse general effects on their moral sensibilities. Key Words: Lies • non-lying deception • concealment PMID:11314158

  6. Proton NMR Spectra: Deceptively Simple and Deceptively Complex Examples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurst, J. E.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes relatively simple nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments that demonstrate unexpected results of the deceptively simple and deceptively complex types. Background information, experimental procedures, and typical results obtained are included. (JN)

  7. Accuracy of deception judgments.

    PubMed

    Bond, Charles F; DePaulo, Bella M

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the accuracy of deception judgments, synthesizing research results from 206 documents and 24,483 judges. In relevant studies, people attempt to discriminate lies from truths in real time with no special aids or training. In these circumstances, people achieve an average of 54% correct lie-truth judgments, correctly classifying 47% of lies as deceptive and 61% of truths as nondeceptive. Relative to cross-judge differences in accuracy, mean lie-truth discrimination abilities are nontrivial, with a mean accuracy d of roughly .40. This produces an effect that is at roughly the 60th percentile in size, relative to others that have been meta-analyzed by social psychologists. Alternative indexes of lie-truth discrimination accuracy correlate highly with percentage correct, and rates of lie detection vary little from study to study. Our meta-analyses reveal that people are more accurate in judging audible than visible lies, that people appear deceptive when motivated to be believed, and that individuals regard their interaction partners as honest. We propose that people judge others' deceptions more harshly than their own and that this double standard in evaluating deceit can explain much of the accumulated literature. PMID:16859438

  8. Deceptive Advertising: Unprotected and Unknown.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducoffe, Robert Hal

    The Supreme Court tentatively extended First Amendment protection to commercial speech, but left the issue of defining and regulating deceptive advertising to the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), which has employed tools such as the cease-and-desist order, affirmative disclosure, and corrective advertising. The FTC Act did not define deception, but…

  9. Patient Deception: Nursing Students' Beliefs and Attitudes.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Drew A

    2015-01-01

    This study examined nursing students' beliefs about indicators of deception and their attitudes toward patient deception. Fifty-eight participants from various nursing programs at a southwestern university completed a Detection of Deception Questionnaire and Attitudes Toward Patient Deception Scale. Findings indicated that nursing students have a number of inaccurate beliefs about deception and possess a number of negative attitudes toward patients who lie. Implications for nursing education are discussed. PMID:25783815

  10. Information asymmetry and deception

    PubMed Central

    Clots-Figueras, Irma; Hernán-González, Roberto; Kujal, Praveen

    2015-01-01

    Situations such as an entrepreneur overstating a project's value, or a superior choosing to under or overstate the gains from a project to a subordinate are common and may result in acts of deception. In this paper we modify the standard investment game in the economics literature to study the nature of deception. In this game a trustor (investor) can send a given amount of money to a trustee (or investee). The amount received is multiplied by a certain amount, k, and the investee then decides on how to divide the total amount received. In our modified game the information on the multiplier, k, is known only to the investee and she can send a non-binding message to the investor regarding its value. We find that 66% of the investees send false messages with both under and over, statement being observed. Investors are naive and almost half of them believe the message received. We find greater lying when the distribution of the multiplier is unknown by the investors than when they know the distribution. Further, messages make beliefs about the multiplier more pessimistic when the investors know the distribution of the multiplier, while the opposite is true when they do not know the distribution. PMID:26257615

  11. Information asymmetry and deception.

    PubMed

    Clots-Figueras, Irma; Hernán-González, Roberto; Kujal, Praveen

    2015-01-01

    Situations such as an entrepreneur overstating a project's value, or a superior choosing to under or overstate the gains from a project to a subordinate are common and may result in acts of deception. In this paper we modify the standard investment game in the economics literature to study the nature of deception. In this game a trustor (investor) can send a given amount of money to a trustee (or investee). The amount received is multiplied by a certain amount, k, and the investee then decides on how to divide the total amount received. In our modified game the information on the multiplier, k, is known only to the investee and she can send a non-binding message to the investor regarding its value. We find that 66% of the investees send false messages with both under and over, statement being observed. Investors are naive and almost half of them believe the message received. We find greater lying when the distribution of the multiplier is unknown by the investors than when they know the distribution. Further, messages make beliefs about the multiplier more pessimistic when the investors know the distribution of the multiplier, while the opposite is true when they do not know the distribution. PMID:26257615

  12. 16 CFR 20.1 - Deception generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., 16 CFR 260.7(e). (c) It is unfair or deceptive to place any means or instrumentality in the hands of..., RECONDITIONED AND OTHER USED AUTOMOBILE PARTS INDUSTRY § 20.1 Deception generally. (a) It is unfair or...

  13. 16 CFR 20.1 - Deception generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., 16 CFR 260.7(e). (c) It is unfair or deceptive to place any means or instrumentality in the hands of..., RECONDITIONED AND OTHER USED AUTOMOBILE PARTS INDUSTRY § 20.1 Deception generally. (a) It is unfair or...

  14. 16 CFR 20.1 - Deception generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., 16 CFR 260.7(e). (c) It is unfair or deceptive to place any means or instrumentality in the hands of..., RECONDITIONED AND OTHER USED AUTOMOBILE PARTS INDUSTRY § 20.1 Deception generally. (a) It is unfair or...

  15. 16 CFR 20.1 - Deception generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., 16 CFR 260.7(e). (c) It is unfair or deceptive to place any means or instrumentality in the hands of..., RECONDITIONED AND OTHER USED AUTOMOBILE PARTS INDUSTRY § 20.1 Deception generally. (a) It is unfair or...

  16. 16 CFR 20.1 - Deception generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., 16 CFR 260.7(e). (c) It is unfair or deceptive to place any means or instrumentality in the hands of..., RECONDITIONED AND OTHER USED AUTOMOBILE PARTS INDUSTRY § 20.1 Deception generally. (a) It is unfair or...

  17. Deception of children in research.

    PubMed

    Spriggs, Merle; Gillam, Lynn

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this article is to draw attention to an under-recognised but ethically important phenomenon involving the deception of children in research. The type of deception we are referring to is not planned deception that is part of the research design. Instead it is deception that occurs in individual cases where parents ask researchers not to reveal something about the research to their child. Our focus is children who do not have ultimate decisional authority--children around the ages of 7-14 years old who may have the cognitive capacity to understand but not to consent for themselves; children whose agreement is required but not sufficient to authorise research. We provide three illustrative scenarios for analysis. Then, we identify circumstances in which non-disclosure might be justified and set out reasons why providing information to non-competent children is ethically required. On this basis, we argue that non-planned deception requested by parents is very unlikely to be ethically acceptable. Finally, we recommend that guidelines should (a) require researchers to consider what to do if parents do not want to disclose information to a child and (b) clarify that the most ethical response is to simply not include that child in the research. PMID:24307618

  18. Testing simple deceptive honeypot tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahyaoui, Aymen; Rowe, Neil C.

    2015-05-01

    Deception can be a useful defensive technique against cyber-attacks; it has the advantage of unexpectedness to attackers and offers a variety of tactics. Honeypots are a good tool for deception. They act as decoy computers to confuse attackers and exhaust their time and resources. This work tested the effectiveness of two free honeypot tools in real networks by varying their location and virtualization, and the effects of adding more deception to them. We tested a Web honeypot tool, Glastopf and an SSH honeypot tool Kippo. We deployed the Web honeypot in both a residential network and our organization's network and as both real and virtual machines; the organization honeypot attracted more attackers starting in the third week. Results also showed that the virtual honeypots received attacks from more unique IP addresses. They also showed that adding deception to the Web honeypot, in the form of additional linked Web pages and interactive features, generated more interest by attackers. For the purpose of comparison, we used examined log files of a legitimate Web-site www.cmand.org. The traffic distributions for the Web honeypot and the legitimate Web site showed similarities (with much malicious traffic from Brazil), but the SSH honeypot was different (with much malicious traffic from China). Contrary to previous experiments where traffic to static honeypots decreased quickly, our honeypots received increasing traffic over a period of three months. It appears that both honeypot tools are useful for providing intelligence about cyber-attack methods, and that additional deception is helpful.

  19. 16 CFR 24.1 - Deception (general).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deception (general). 24.1 Section 24.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR SELECT LEATHER AND IMITATION LEATHER PRODUCTS § 24.1 Deception (general). It is unfair or deceptive to misrepresent,...

  20. 16 CFR 24.1 - Deception (general).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deception (general). 24.1 Section 24.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR SELECT LEATHER AND IMITATION LEATHER PRODUCTS § 24.1 Deception (general). It is unfair or deceptive to misrepresent,...

  1. 16 CFR 24.1 - Deception (general).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deception (general). 24.1 Section 24.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR SELECT LEATHER AND IMITATION LEATHER PRODUCTS § 24.1 Deception (general). It is unfair or deceptive to misrepresent,...

  2. 16 CFR 24.1 - Deception (general).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deception (general). 24.1 Section 24.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR SELECT LEATHER AND IMITATION LEATHER PRODUCTS § 24.1 Deception (general). It is unfair or deceptive to misrepresent,...

  3. 16 CFR 24.1 - Deception (general).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deception (general). 24.1 Section 24.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR SELECT LEATHER AND IMITATION LEATHER PRODUCTS § 24.1 Deception (general). It is unfair or deceptive to misrepresent,...

  4. Attributions of Deception in Dating Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benz, Joseph J.; Anderson, Mary K.; Miller, Richard L.

    2005-01-01

    Mate selection criteria for humans, and the concept of deception as a mating strategy, have both been demonstrated by past research. This study provides evidence that men and women believe that the mate selection criteria used by one sex corresponds to the deceptive tactics used by the opposite sex. A survey of the deceptive techniques used by men…

  5. 16 CFR 23.1 - Deception (general).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deception (general). 23.1 Section 23.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.1 Deception (general). It is unfair or deceptive...

  6. 16 CFR 23.1 - Deception (general).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deception (general). 23.1 Section 23.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.1 Deception (general). It is unfair or deceptive...

  7. 16 CFR 23.1 - Deception (general).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deception (general). 23.1 Section 23.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.1 Deception (general). It is unfair or deceptive...

  8. 16 CFR 23.1 - Deception (general).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deception (general). 23.1 Section 23.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.1 Deception (general). It is unfair or deceptive...

  9. 16 CFR 23.1 - Deception (general).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deception (general). 23.1 Section 23.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.1 Deception (general). It is unfair or deceptive...

  10. Deceptive Business Practices: State Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

    Although much has been done at the federal level to control deceptive advertising practices, many states have no criminal laws designed to regulate advertising, and several states recently repealed such laws. This paper examines states' efforts to balance the advertiser's freedom of speech with the consumer's need for information about products by…

  11. Deceptive Business Practices: Federal Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

    Federal regulations to prevent deceptive advertising seek to balance the advertiser's freedom of speech with protection of the consumer. This paper discusses what the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has done to regulate advertising and evaluates the adequacy of its controls. The commission uses cease-and-desist orders, affirmative disclosure,…

  12. Placebo and Deception: A Commentary

    PubMed Central

    Barnhill, Anne; Miller, Franklin G.

    2015-01-01

    In a recent article in this Journal, Shlomo Cohen and Haim Shapiro (2013) introduce the concept of “comparable placebo treatments” (CPTs)—placebo treatments with biological effects similar to the drugs they replace—and argue that doctors are not being deceptive when they prescribe or administer CPTs without revealing that they are placebos. We critique two of Cohen and Shapiro’s primary arguments. First, Cohen and Shapiro argue that offering undisclosed placebos is not lying to the patient, but rather is making a self-fulfilling prophecy—telling a “lie” that, ideally, will become true. We argue that offering undisclosed placebos is not a “lie” but is a straightforward case of deceptively misleading the patient. Second, Cohen and Shapiro argue that offering undisclosed CPTs is not equivocation. We argue that it typically is equivocation or deception of another sort. If justifiable, undisclosed placebo use will have to be justified as a practice that is deceptive in most instances. PMID:25503605

  13. Toward detecting deception in intelligent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Eugene, Jr.; Johnson, Gregory, Jr.

    2004-08-01

    Contemporary decision makers often must choose a course of action using knowledge from several sources. Knowledge may be provided from many diverse sources including electronic sources such as knowledge-based diagnostic or decision support systems or through data mining techniques. As the decision maker becomes more dependent on these electronic information sources, detecting deceptive information from these sources becomes vital to making a correct, or at least more informed, decision. This applies to unintentional disinformation as well as intentional misinformation. Our ongoing research focuses on employing models of deception and deception detection from the fields of psychology and cognitive science to these systems as well as implementing deception detection algorithms for probabilistic intelligent systems. The deception detection algorithms are used to detect, classify and correct attempts at deception. Algorithms for detecting unexpected information rely upon a prediction algorithm from the collaborative filtering domain to predict agent responses in a multi-agent system.

  14. Global Collembola on Deception Island.

    PubMed

    Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites. PMID:23438196

  15. Motivated Self-Deception in Child Molesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Robert C.; Schneider, Sandra L.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces the concept of motivated self-deception as a way to explain how cognitive distortions develop in the thinking of child molesters. Several different everyday heuristics and patterns of self-deception are described, with examples of how the resulting biased information is activated and progressively organized by molesters. Provides a…

  16. fNIRS-based online deception decoding.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-Su; Hong, Keum-Shik; Ge, Shuzhi Sam

    2012-04-01

    Deception involves complex neural processes in the brain. Different techniques have been used to study and understand brain mechanisms during deception. Moreover, efforts have been made to develop schemes that can detect and differentiate deception and truth-telling. In this paper, a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-based online brain deception decoding framework is developed. Deploying dual-wavelength fNIRS, we interrogate 16 locations in the forehead when eight able-bodied adults perform deception and truth-telling scenarios separately. By combining preprocessed oxy-hemoglobin and deoxy-hemoglobin signals, we develop subject-specific classifiers using the support vector machine. Deception and truth-telling states are classified correctly in seven out of eight subjects. A control experiment is also conducted to verify the deception-related hemodynamic response. The average classification accuracy is over 83.44% from these seven subjects. The obtained result suggests that the applicability of fNIRS as a brain imaging technique for online deception detection is very promising. PMID:22337819

  17. Deception discovery and employment with linguistic geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stilman, Boris; Yakhnis, Vladimir; Curry, Pat; Umanskiy, Oleg

    2005-05-01

    No battle plan survives first contact with the enemy - this is a famous adage attributed to a great many military thinkers from Belisarius to Clausewitz, but which is essentially timeless. Indeed, while the Blue side is trying to anticipate and predict the enemy action, this enemy is actively trying to do the same with respect to Blue while simultaneously trying to deny Blue sufficient information on which to predict Red's actions. It becomes even worse when the Red side is actively engaged in deceptive behavior leading to ambushes and other deceptive schemes causing losses to the Blue side. Linguistic Geometry (LG), a new game-theoretical approach, permits uncovering enemy deceptive schemes via indicators and probes. We will describe the theory behind the LG approach to deception and discuss a specific example of discerning enemy deception via LG algorithms.

  18. Debriefing and accountability in deceptive research.

    PubMed

    Miller, Franklin G; Gluck, John P; Wendler, David

    2008-09-01

    Debriefing is a standard ethical requirement for human research involving the use of deception. Little systematic attention, however, has been devoted to explaining the ethical significance of debriefing and the specific ethical functions that it serves. In this article, we develop an account of debriefing as a tool of moral accountability for the prima facie wrong of deception. Specifically, we contend that debriefing should include a responsibility to promote transparency by explaining the deception and its rationale, to provide an apology to subjects for infringing the principle of respect for persons, and to offer subjects an opportunity to withdraw their data. We also present recommendations concerning the discussion of deception in scientific articles reporting the results of research using deception. PMID:18935922

  19. Orchid pollination by sexual deception: pollinator perspectives.

    PubMed

    Gaskett, A C

    2011-02-01

    The extraordinary taxonomic and morphological diversity of orchids is accompanied by a remarkable range of pollinators and pollination systems. Sexually deceptive orchids are adapted to attract specific male insects that are fooled into attempting to mate with orchid flowers and inadvertently acting as pollinators. This review summarises current knowledge, explores new hypotheses in the literature, and introduces some new approaches to understanding sexual deception from the perspective of the duped pollinator. Four main topics are addressed: (1) global patterns in sexual deception, (2) pollinator identities, mating systems and behaviours, (3) pollinator perception of orchid deceptive signals, and (4) the evolutionary implications of pollinator responses to orchid deception, including potential costs imposed on pollinators by orchids. A global list of known and putative sexually deceptive orchids and their pollinators is provided and methods for incorporating pollinator perspectives into sexual deception research are provided and reviewed. At present, almost all known sexually deceptive orchid taxa are from Australia or Europe. A few sexually deceptive species and genera are reported for New Zealand and South Africa. In Central and Southern America, Asia, and the Pacific many more species are likely to be identified in the future. Despite the great diversity of sexually deceptive orchid genera in Australia, pollination rates reported in the literature are similar between Australian and European species. The typical pollinator of a sexually deceptive orchid is a male insect of a species that is polygynous, monandrous, haplodiploid, and solitary rather than social. Insect behaviours involved in the pollination of sexually deceptive orchids include pre-copulatory gripping of flowers, brief entrapment, mating, and very rarely, ejaculation. Pollinator behaviour varies within and among pollinator species. Deception involving orchid mimicry of insect scent signals is

  20. [fMRI study of deliberate deception].

    PubMed

    Kireev, M V; Korotkov, A D; Medvedev, C V

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to study the deliberate deception. Event related functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) imaging technique was used to assess the changes in functional brain activity by virtue of recording blood oxygen level dependant signal (BOLD-signal). 12 right-handed healthy volunteers aged 19-44 participated in the study. BOLD images were acquired in three different experimental trials. There were deliberate deception, manipulative honest and control truthful trials (catch trials). The main finding of the present study is that the deliberate deception and manipulative honest actions in comparison with instructed truthful responding was characterized by BOLD signal increase within the anterior cingulated cortex (ACC), frontal and parietal areas as well. Comparison of present fMRI data with results demonstrated in our previous research implemented with event related potentials technique points to the involvement of the brain mechanism of error detection to brain processing of deliberate deception. PMID:22567835

  1. Making Activity Recognition Robust against Deceptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Saeb, Sohrab; Körding, Konrad; Mohr, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare services increasingly use the activity recognition technology to track the daily activities of individuals. In some cases, this is used to provide incentives. For example, some health insurance companies offer discount to customers who are physically active, based on the data collected from their activity tracking devices. Therefore, there is an increasing motivation for individuals to cheat, by making activity trackers detect activities that increase their benefits rather than the ones they actually do. In this study, we used a novel method to make activity recognition robust against deceptive behavior. We asked 14 subjects to attempt to trick our smartphone-based activity classifier by making it detect an activity other than the one they actually performed, for example by shaking the phone while seated to make the classifier detect walking. If they succeeded, we used their motion data to retrain the classifier, and asked them to try to trick it again. The experiment ended when subjects could no longer cheat. We found that some subjects were not able to trick the classifier at all, while others required five rounds of retraining. While classifiers trained on normal activity data predicted true activity with ~38% accuracy, training on the data gathered during the deceptive behavior increased their accuracy to ~84%. We conclude that learning the deceptive behavior of one individual helps to detect the deceptive behavior of others. Thus, we can make current activity recognition robust to deception by including deceptive activity data from a few individuals. PMID:26659118

  2. Making Activity Recognition Robust against Deceptive Behavior.

    PubMed

    Saeb, Sohrab; Körding, Konrad; Mohr, David C

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare services increasingly use the activity recognition technology to track the daily activities of individuals. In some cases, this is used to provide incentives. For example, some health insurance companies offer discount to customers who are physically active, based on the data collected from their activity tracking devices. Therefore, there is an increasing motivation for individuals to cheat, by making activity trackers detect activities that increase their benefits rather than the ones they actually do. In this study, we used a novel method to make activity recognition robust against deceptive behavior. We asked 14 subjects to attempt to trick our smartphone-based activity classifier by making it detect an activity other than the one they actually performed, for example by shaking the phone while seated to make the classifier detect walking. If they succeeded, we used their motion data to retrain the classifier, and asked them to try to trick it again. The experiment ended when subjects could no longer cheat. We found that some subjects were not able to trick the classifier at all, while others required five rounds of retraining. While classifiers trained on normal activity data predicted true activity with ~38% accuracy, training on the data gathered during the deceptive behavior increased their accuracy to ~84%. We conclude that learning the deceptive behavior of one individual helps to detect the deceptive behavior of others. Thus, we can make current activity recognition robust to deception by including deceptive activity data from a few individuals. PMID:26659118

  3. Anatomy of deception: a behavioral contingency analysis.

    PubMed

    Mechner, Francis

    2010-05-01

    Deception, a basic and pervasive biological phenomenon, takes many forms, variously referred to as mimicry, trickery, seduction, pretense, feigning, masquerading, impersonation, distraction, or false promises, and these share certain common distinguishing behavioral elements that permit them to be classified into categories. A symbolic language for the codification and analysis of behavioral contingencies shows that all instances of deception are based on a misperception, misprediction, non-perception, or non-prediction by the deceived party, and can be further categorized based on features of the contingencies that define them. Instances of particular interest are those in which a deceiving party predicts (and in that sense "intends") the deception. In those instances, the effect of the deception is usually to the deceiving party's benefit and to the deceived party's detriment. In economics, finance, business, military operations, public affairs, education, and everyday social interaction, deception takes numerous forms. Special forms, usually involving obfuscation, concealment, counterfeiting, and misrepresentation, occur in certain prevalent types of property transfer, including securitization, the creation of derivatives, and various types of Ponzi schemes. Such property transfers tend to be driven by opportunities for deception. They all involve blurring and clouding of the contingencies that defined the transferred properties, thus permitting their obfuscation. PMID:20152890

  4. Deception awareness improves P300-based deception detection in concealed information tests.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, J Peter; Hu, Xiaoqing; Pederson, Kristine

    2012-10-01

    We asked if increased awareness of deception enhanced P300-based detection of concealed information with two groups: 1) Control subjects saw a randomized series of either rare probes (subject home towns), frequent irrelevants (other towns), and rare targets, which are irrelevant stimuli but requiring Button 1 responses. Probes and non-target irrelevants required Button 2 responses. Controls were told to be sure they performed target/non-target discrimination correctly, and were so reminded throughout the run. 2) Deception subjects received an identical stimulus series and response instructions, but were also alerted about their deception (pressing a non-recognition button to probes) before and throughout the run. The deception group had significantly greater differences between probe and irrelevant P300s than controls, as well as significantly greater individual detections (10/10) than did controls (5/10), suggesting that the deception awareness manipulation enhances test sensitivity. PMID:22750420

  5. Detecting deceptive behaviour after the fact.

    PubMed

    von Hippel, William; Baker, Ernest; Wilson, Robbie; Brin, Loic; Page, Lionel

    2016-06-01

    This study examined whether people can detect deception after the fact if they initially accept someone's behaviour at face value but then learn that they have been duped. Fifty-four groups composed of four to six mutual friends engaged in a group discussion with a financial incentive for arriving at a correct decision. One member of each group was secretly assigned to sabotage the decision. Although none of the participants noticed the deception when it was committed, they showed substantial accuracy in identifying the saboteur once they were told that a deception had occurred. Nevertheless, interrogation did not increase the accuracy of their detection of deception. Participants showed a significant positive relationship between confidence and accuracy. Finally, participants also showed better-than-chance accuracy in their judgments of who believed them during the interrogation and who did not. These results suggest that the detection of deception might often be accomplished using information gained after the fact to reinterpret behaviours that were not initially suspected. PMID:26390987

  6. A Probability Model of Accuracy in Deception Detection Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hee Sun; Levine, Timothy R.

    2001-01-01

    Extends the recent work on the veracity effect in deception detection. Explains the probabilistic nature of a receiver's accuracy in detecting deception and analyzes a receiver's detection of deception in terms of set theory and conditional probability. Finds that accuracy is shown to be a function of the relevant conditional probability and the…

  7. Deception in Advertising: A Receiver Oriented Approach to Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David M.

    The purpose of this paper is to examine deception in advertising from a behavioral perspective, and to attempt to formulate a definition that can guide both research and governmental regulation. Whether or not an advertisement is said to be "deceptive" depends on the definition of deception being used. The position advocated here is that the focus…

  8. Deceive It or Not: Deception in Interpersonal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Sheryl L.

    To obtain a comprehensive understanding of the nature of deception and how it functions in interpersonal relationships, this paper explores deception as a valid and essential part of human interaction processes. The paper includes an in-depth review of social science literature on deception, specifically, R. E. Turner, C. Edgley, and G. Olmstead's…

  9. Deception used for Cyber Defense of Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne F. Boyer; Miles A. McQueen

    2009-05-01

    Control system cyber security defense mechanisms may employ deception to make it more difficult for attackers to plan and execute successful attacks. These deceptive defense mechanisms are organized and initially explored according to a specific deception taxonomy and the seven abstract dimensions of security previously proposed as a framework for the cyber security of control systems.

  10. 16 CFR 24.2 - Deception as to composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deception as to composition. 24.2 Section 24... LEATHER AND IMITATION LEATHER PRODUCTS § 24.2 Deception as to composition. It is unfair or deceptive to... three parts are defined as follows: (1) The upper is the outer face of the structural element which...

  11. 16 CFR 24.2 - Deception as to composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deception as to composition. 24.2 Section 24... LEATHER AND IMITATION LEATHER PRODUCTS § 24.2 Deception as to composition. It is unfair or deceptive to... three parts are defined as follows: (1) The upper is the outer face of the structural element which...

  12. 16 CFR 24.2 - Deception as to composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deception as to composition. 24.2 Section 24... LEATHER AND IMITATION LEATHER PRODUCTS § 24.2 Deception as to composition. It is unfair or deceptive to... three parts are defined as follows: (1) The upper is the outer face of the structural element which...

  13. 16 CFR 24.2 - Deception as to composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deception as to composition. 24.2 Section 24... LEATHER AND IMITATION LEATHER PRODUCTS § 24.2 Deception as to composition. It is unfair or deceptive to... three parts are defined as follows: (1) The upper is the outer face of the structural element which...

  14. 16 CFR 24.2 - Deception as to composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deception as to composition. 24.2 Section 24... LEATHER AND IMITATION LEATHER PRODUCTS § 24.2 Deception as to composition. It is unfair or deceptive to... three parts are defined as follows: (1) The upper is the outer face of the structural element which...

  15. 16 CFR 254.7 - Deceptive sales practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deceptive sales practices. 254.7 Section 254.7 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.7 Deceptive sales practices. (a) It is deceptive for...

  16. 16 CFR 254.7 - Deceptive sales practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deceptive sales practices. 254.7 Section 254.7 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.7 Deceptive sales practices. (a) It is deceptive for...

  17. 16 CFR 254.7 - Deceptive sales practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deceptive sales practices. 254.7 Section 254.7 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.7 Deceptive sales practices. (a) It is deceptive for...

  18. 16 CFR 254.7 - Deceptive sales practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deceptive sales practices. 254.7 Section 254.7 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.7 Deceptive sales practices. (a) It is deceptive for...

  19. 16 CFR 254.7 - Deceptive sales practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deceptive sales practices. 254.7 Section 254.7 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.7 Deceptive sales practices. (a) It is deceptive for...

  20. Reading a Tale of Deception, Learning a Theory of Mind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratner, Nancy K.; Olver, Rose R.

    1998-01-01

    Explored the role of folktales of deception in developing 3- and 4-year-olds' theory of mind. Found that the story's deceptions elicit discussions that change over successive readings as the child shows increasing comprehension of the deceptions and decreasing need of parental support. Parent's and child's gender influenced frequency and…

  1. Counterfactual Consent and the Use of Deception in Research.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Alan T

    2015-09-01

    The use of deception for the purposes of research is a widespread practice within many areas of study. If we want to avoid either absolute acceptance or absolute rejection of this practice then we require some method of distinguishing between those uses of deception which are morally acceptable and those which are not. In this article I discuss the concept of counterfactual consent, and propose a related distinction between counterfactual-defeating deception and counterfactual-compatible deception. The aim is to show that this proposed distinction will be useful in furthering the debate regarding the use of deception for the purposes of research. PMID:25425459

  2. Good Liars Are Neither 'Dark' Nor Self-Deceptive.

    PubMed

    Wright, Gordon R T; Berry, Christopher J; Catmur, Caroline; Bird, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Deception is a central component of the personality 'Dark Triad' (Machiavellianism, Psychopathy and Narcissism). However, whether individuals exhibiting high scores on Dark Triad measures have a heightened deceptive ability has received little experimental attention. The present study tested whether the ability to lie effectively, and to detect lies told by others, was related to Dark Triad, Lie Acceptability, or Self-Deceptive measures of personality using an interactive group-based deception task. At a group level, lie detection accuracy was correlated with the ability to deceive others-replicating previous work. No evidence was found to suggest that Dark Triad traits confer any advantage either to deceive others, or to detect deception in others. Participants who considered lying to be more acceptable were more skilled at lying, while self-deceptive individuals were generally less credible and less confident when lying. Results are interpreted within a framework in which repeated practice results in enhanced deceptive ability. PMID:26083765

  3. Online Deception Detection Using BDI Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritts, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    This research has two facets within separate research areas. The research area of Belief, Desire and Intention (BDI) agent capability development was extended. Deception detection research has been advanced with the development of automation using BDI agents. BDI agents performed tasks automatically and autonomously. This study used these…

  4. Hazard of deceptive advertising of athletic footwear.

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, S; Waked, E

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Athletic footwear are associated with frequent injury that are thought to result from repetitive impact. No scientific data suggest they protect well. Expensive athletic shoes are deceptively advertised to safeguard well through "cushioning impact", yet account for 123% greater injury frequency than the cheapest ones. This study tested the hypothesis that deceptive advertising creates a false sense of security with users of expensive athletic shoes, inducing attenuation of impact moderating behaviour, increased impact, and injury. METHODS: Fifteen young healthy male volunteers confronted four surfaces: a bare force moment platform, and three with this platform covered by identical shoe sole material made to appear different and advertised divergently. Advertising messages suggested superior impact absorption and protection (deceptive message), poor impact absorption and high injury risk (warning message), and unknown impact absorption and safety (neutral message). Ground reaction forces were recorded for 10 barefoot footfalls, according to a protocol requiring stepping forward from perch to a surface 4.5 cm below. RESULTS: Impact varied as a function of advertising message (p < 0.001). Deceptive message equalled neutral message in eliciting higher impact than the warning message and the bare platform. Differences grew with repetitions (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These data provide a plausible mechanism explaining higher injury frequency in users of expensive athletic shoes. This is the first report to suggest: (1) deceptive advertising of protective devices may represent a public health hazard and may have to be eliminated presumably through regulation; (2) a tendency in humans to be less cautious when using new devices of unknown benefit because of overly positive attitudes associated with new technology and novel devices. PMID:9429006

  5. Exploring the movement dynamics of deception

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Nicholas D.; Dale, Rick; Kello, Christopher T.; Street, Chris N. H.; Richardson, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    Both the science and the everyday practice of detecting a lie rest on the same assumption: hidden cognitive states that the liar would like to remain hidden nevertheless influence observable behavior. This assumption has good evidence. The insights of professional interrogators, anecdotal evidence, and body language textbooks have all built up a sizeable catalog of non-verbal cues that have been claimed to distinguish deceptive and truthful behavior. Typically, these cues are discrete, individual behaviors—a hand touching a mouth, the rise of a brow—that distinguish lies from truths solely in terms of their frequency or duration. Research to date has failed to establish any of these non-verbal cues as a reliable marker of deception. Here we argue that perhaps this is because simple tallies of behavior can miss out on the rich but subtle organization of behavior as it unfolds over time. Research in cognitive science from a dynamical systems perspective has shown that behavior is structured across multiple timescales, with more or less regularity and structure. Using tools that are sensitive to these dynamics, we analyzed body motion data from an experiment that put participants in a realistic situation of choosing, or not, to lie to an experimenter. Our analyses indicate that when being deceptive, continuous fluctuations of movement in the upper face, and somewhat in the arms, are characterized by dynamical properties of less stability, but greater complexity. For the upper face, these distinctions are present despite no apparent differences in the overall amount of movement between deception and truth. We suggest that these unique dynamical signatures of motion are indicative of both the cognitive demands inherent to deception and the need to respond adaptively in a social context. PMID:23543852

  6. Electrodermal differentiation of deception: the effect of choice versus no choice of deceptive items.

    PubMed

    Furedy, J J; Gigliotti, F; Ben-Shakhar, G

    1994-10-01

    In the differentiation-of-deception paradigm (DDP), the experimental and control conditions, respectively, consist of questions answered deceptively (D) and honestly (H). Previous DDP studies with the electrodermal SCR as the dependent variable have yielded the basic increase in responding to D relative to H questions (D > H), and have indicated that this effect is probably not due to cognitive factors such as differential retrieval difficulty, and is also relatively unaffected by motivational factors. To test the notion that the D > H effect does not represent genuine deception because of the elimination of the element of choice in the DDP, the present study varied, between two groups of 16 subjects, the degree to which subjects could choose which questions they would answer deceptively. If choice were necessary, or even important, for the differentiation-of-deception phenomenon, the D > H effect should have been greater in the free-choice condition, but the (nonsignificant) trend was in a direction opposite to this prediction. Another orthogonally-varied, between-subject manipulation, was the relative frequency of D and H items. The basic electrodermal D > H phenomenon, including the curious lack of response habituation during the session, has now been duplicated over a variety of conditions, but the mechanisms underlying the phenomenon are far from being well understood. PMID:7876035

  7. Detecting deception via eyeblink frequency modulation.

    PubMed

    Perelman, Brandon S

    2014-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of using eyeblink frequency modulation to detect deception about a third party, 32 participants were sent on a mission to deliver a package to an interviewer. 17 of the participants lied to the interviewer about the details of their mock mission and 15 responded truthfully. During the interview, eyeblink frequency data were collected via electromyography and recorded video. Liars displayed eyeblink frequency suppression while lying, while truth tellers exhibited an increase in eyeblink frequency during the mission relevant questioning period. The compensatory flurry of eyeblinks following deception observed in previous studies was absent in the present study. A discriminant function using eyeblink suppression to predict lying correctly classified 81.3% of cases, with a sensitivity of 88.2% and a specificity of 73.3%. This technique, yielding a reasonable sensitivity, shows promise for future testing as, unlike polygraph, it is compatible with distance technology. PMID:24688844

  8. Can Ordinary People Detect Deception After All?

    PubMed

    Ten Brinke, Leanne; Vohs, Kathleen D; Carney, Dana R

    2016-08-01

    The tipping point framework of lie detection posits that people can, and do, accurately detect deception. This framework pinpoints three circumstances that aid accuracy: (i) using methods of measurement that circumvent controlled, conscious cognition; (ii) when individual differences or situational factors portend potent risks to lie detection failure, such as in high-stakes or threatening settings; and (iii) when factors diminish concern over the relationship or reputation costs of asserting that someone has lied. We thus depict a psychological system that registers lie detection consistently in nonconscious reactions (e.g., brain based, bodily, indirect social evaluations) and that allows information into consciousness to inform overt assessments of lies when the costs of failing to detect deception exceed those of signaling distrust. PMID:27353575

  9. Appearing truthful generalizes across different deception situations.

    PubMed

    Frank, Mark G; Ekman, Paul

    2004-03-01

    The authors investigated whether the ability to appear truthful is specific to deception situations. Male participants were interrogated after they took part in 2 high-stake deception situations, one involving a mock crime and another involving a false opinion. The videotaped interrogations from each situation were shown to independent groups of undergraduate observers. The proportion of observers who judged each participant as truthful in one situation correlated highly with the proportion of observers who judged the same participant as truthful in the other situation. This was not correlated with physiognomy judgments. Follow-up studies revealed that although the participants showed consistency in their facial, body, and paralinguistic behaviors across situations, observers' judgments seemed to be driven only by the consistency of the dynamic facial behaviors. These results are discussed in terms of the evolutionary importance of the face in communication. PMID:15008651

  10. Detecting deception via eyeblink frequency modulation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of using eyeblink frequency modulation to detect deception about a third party, 32 participants were sent on a mission to deliver a package to an interviewer. 17 of the participants lied to the interviewer about the details of their mock mission and 15 responded truthfully. During the interview, eyeblink frequency data were collected via electromyography and recorded video. Liars displayed eyeblink frequency suppression while lying, while truth tellers exhibited an increase in eyeblink frequency during the mission relevant questioning period. The compensatory flurry of eyeblinks following deception observed in previous studies was absent in the present study. A discriminant function using eyeblink suppression to predict lying correctly classified 81.3% of cases, with a sensitivity of 88.2% and a specificity of 73.3%. This technique, yielding a reasonable sensitivity, shows promise for future testing as, unlike polygraph, it is compatible with distance technology. PMID:24688844

  11. A cognitive neurobiological account of deception: evidence from functional neuroimaging.

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Sean A; Hunter, Mike D; Farrow, Tom F D; Green, Russell D; Leung, David H; Hughes, Catherine J; Ganesan, Venkatasubramanian

    2004-01-01

    An organism may use misinformation, knowingly (through deception) or unknowingly (as in the case of camouflage), to gain advantage in a competitive environment. From an evolutionary perspective, greater tactical deception occurs among primates closer to humans, with larger neocortices. In humans, the onset of deceptive behaviours in childhood exhibits a developmental trajectory, which may be regarded as 'normal' in the majority and deficient among a minority with certain neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. autism). In the human adult, deception and lying exhibit features consistent with their use of 'higher' or 'executive' brain systems. Accurate detection of deception in humans may be of particular importance in forensic practice, while an understanding of its cognitive neurobiology may have implications for models of 'theory of mind' and social cognition, and societal notions of responsibility, guilt and mitigation. In recent years, functional neuroimaging techniques (especially functional magnetic resonance imaging) have been used to study deception. Though few in number, and using very different experimental protocols, studies published in the peer-reviewed literature exhibit certain consistencies. Attempted deception is associated with activation of executive brain regions (particularly prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices), while truthful responding has not been shown to be associated with any areas of increased activation (relative to deception). Hence, truthful responding may comprise a relative 'baseline' in human cognition and communication. The subject who lies may necessarily engage 'higher' brain centres, consistent with a purpose or intention (to deceive). While the principle of executive control during deception remains plausible, its precise anatomy awaits elucidation. PMID:15590616

  12. Replication of Functional MRI Detection of Deception

    PubMed Central

    Kozel, F. Andrew; Laken, Steven J.; Johnson, Kevin A.; Boren, Bryant; Mapes, Kimberly S.; Morgan, Paul S.; George, Mark S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Several studies support the use of fMRI for detecting deception. There have been, however, no reported replications on different scanners or at different locations. In a previous study, deception was accurately detected in at least 90% of the participants in two independent cohorts. This study attempted to replicate those findings using a different scanner and location. Methods Healthy participants 18–50 years of age were recruited from the local community. After providing written informed consent, participants were screened to ensure that they were healthy, not taking any medications, and safe to have an MRI. For the testing paradigm, subjects chose one of two objects (ring or watch) to “steal” and placed it in their locker. Participants were then scanned while being visually presented with a series of questions. Functional MRI analysis was performed in the same manner as described in Kozel et al. 2005. A Chi-Squared test was used to test for a significant difference between the results in the previous study and in this replication study. Results Thirty subjects (20 women, mean age 29.0±6.5 years) were scanned with one subject being noncompliant with the protocol. Twenty-five of twenty-nine (86%) participants were correctly identified when being deceptive. There was no statistical difference between the accuracy rate obtained in this study (25/29) versus the previous study (28/31) (Chi-Squared, χ2=0.246, p=0.6197). Conclusions Our methodology for detecting deception was successfully replicated at a different site suggesting that this methodology is robust and independent of both scanner and location. PMID:19844599

  13. Neocortex size predicts deception rate in primates.

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Richard W.; Corp, Nadia

    2004-01-01

    Human brain organization is built upon a more ancient adaptation, the large brain of simian primates: on average, monkeys and apes have brains twice as large as expected for mammals of their size, principally as a result of neocortical enlargement. Testing the adaptive benefit of this evolutionary specialization depends on finding an association between brain size and function in primates. However, most cognitive capacities have been assessed in only a restricted range of species under laboratory conditions. Deception of conspecifics in social circumstances is an exception, because a corpus of field data is available that encompasses all major lines of the primate radiation. We show that the use of deception within the primates is well predicted by the neocortical volume, when observer effort is controlled for; by contrast, neither the size of the rest of the brain nor the group size exert significant effects. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that neocortical expansion has been driven by social challenges among the primates. Complex social manipulations such as deception are thought to be based upon rapid learning and extensive social knowledge; thus, learning in social contexts may be constrained by neocortical size. PMID:15306289

  14. Sensation-seeking, Internet dependency, and online interpersonal deception.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hung-Yi

    2008-04-01

    This study aimed to elaborate the relationships between sensation-seeking, Internet dependency, and online interpersonal deception. Of the 707 individuals recruited to this study, 675 successfully completed the survey. The results showed high sensation-seekers and high Internet dependents were more likely to engage in online interpersonal deception than were their counterparts. PMID:18422419

  15. 16 CFR 18.2 - Deception through use of names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deception through use of names. 18.2 Section... NURSERY INDUSTRY § 18.2 Deception through use of names. (a) In the sale, offering for sale, or... use a name for such product that misrepresents directly or by implication to purchasers or...

  16. 16 CFR 18.2 - Deception through use of names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deception through use of names. 18.2 Section... NURSERY INDUSTRY § 18.2 Deception through use of names. (a) In the sale, offering for sale, or... use a name for such product that misrepresents directly or by implication to purchasers or...

  17. 16 CFR 301.49 - Deception in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deception in general. 301.49 Section 301.49 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.49 Deception in general. No furs nor fur products shall be labeled, invoiced,...

  18. 16 CFR 301.49 - Deception in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deception in general. 301.49 Section 301.49 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.49 Deception in general. No furs nor...

  19. 16 CFR 301.49 - Deception in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deception in general. 301.49 Section 301.49 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.49 Deception in general. No furs nor...

  20. 16 CFR 301.49 - Deception in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deception in general. 301.49 Section 301.49 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.49 Deception in general. No furs nor...

  1. 16 CFR 301.49 - Deception in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deception in general. 301.49 Section 301.49 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.49 Deception in general. No furs nor fur products shall be labeled, invoiced,...

  2. 48 CFR 2103.570 - Misleading, Deceptive, or Unfair Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Misleading, Deceptive, or Unfair Advertising. 2103.570 Section 2103.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL..., Deceptive, or Unfair Advertising. (a) OPM, or the Contractor with the approval of OPM, makes available...

  3. 14 CFR 399.81 - Unrealistic or deceptive scheduling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Part 234 of Department regulations (14 CFR Part 234). (2) For the purposes of this section, a... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unrealistic or deceptive scheduling. 399.81... Unrealistic or deceptive scheduling. (a) It is the policy of the Board to consider unrealistic scheduling...

  4. 16 CFR 1500.122 - Deceptive use of disclaimers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deceptive use of disclaimers. 1500.122 Section 1500.122 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES AND ARTICLES; ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS § 1500.122 Deceptive use of disclaimers. A...

  5. Federal Law on Consumer Deception: An Agency by Agency Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweibel, George J.

    A comprehensive analysis of statutes and regulations on consumer deception administered by thirty government agencies is provided in this report. Each agency's chapter includes a brief description of the agency, and a detailed listing of all deceptive trade practices prohibited by that agency's enabling legislation, regulations, or other sources…

  6. 16 CFR 254.2 - Deceptive trade or business names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.2 Deceptive trade or business names. (a) It is... school. (c) If an industry member conducts its instruction by correspondence, or other form of distance education, it is deceptive to fail to clearly and conspicuously disclose that fact in all...

  7. 16 CFR 254.2 - Deceptive trade or business names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.2 Deceptive trade or business names. (a) It is... school. (c) If an industry member conducts its instruction by correspondence, or other form of distance education, it is deceptive to fail to clearly and conspicuously disclose that fact in all...

  8. 16 CFR 254.2 - Deceptive trade or business names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.2 Deceptive trade or business names. (a) It is... school. (c) If an industry member conducts its instruction by correspondence, or other form of distance education, it is deceptive to fail to clearly and conspicuously disclose that fact in all...

  9. 16 CFR 254.2 - Deceptive trade or business names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.2 Deceptive trade or business names. (a) It is... school. (c) If an industry member conducts its instruction by correspondence, or other form of distance education, it is deceptive to fail to clearly and conspicuously disclose that fact in all...

  10. Deceptive Intentions: Can Cues to Deception Be Measured before a Lie Is Even Stated?

    PubMed Central

    Ströfer, Sabine; Noordzij, Matthijs L.; Ufkes, Elze G.; Giebels, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Can deceitful intentions be discriminated from truthful ones? Previous work consistently demonstrated that deceiving others is accompanied by nervousness/stress and cognitive load. Both are related to increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. We hypothesized that SNS activity already rises during intentions to lie and, consequently, cues to deception can be detected before stating an actual lie. In two experiments, controlling for prospective memory, we monitored SNS activity during lying, truth telling, and truth telling with the aim of lying at a later instance. Electrodermal activity (EDA) was used as an indicator of SNS. EDA was highest during lying, and compared to the truth condition, EDA was also raised during the intention to deceive. Moreover, the switch from truth telling toward lying in the intention condition evoked higher EDA than switching toward non-deception related tasks in the lie or truth condition. These results provide first empirical evidence that increased SNS activity related to deception can be monitored before a lie is stated. This implies that cues to deception are already present during the mere intention to lie. PMID:26018573

  11. Sexual deception as a social-exchange process: development of a behavior-based sexual deception scale.

    PubMed

    Marelich, William D; Lundquist, Jessica; Painter, Kimberly; Mechanic, Mindy B

    2008-01-01

    The use of deception in association with sexual encounters may take many forms, ranging from outright lies to more subtle, evasive manipulations. To address such deceptions, a behavior-based sexual deception scale was developed utilizing social exchange theory. Participants were 267 individuals associated with two large universities who were surveyed regarding different aspects of their sexual deceptive behaviors. In addition, items addressing sexually related behaviors and attitudes were assessed for validation purposes. Principal components analysis identified three components of sexual deception, labeled Blatant Lying, Self-Serving, and Avoiding Confrontation. Confirmatory factor analysis verified the resulting structure, and promising validity was noted. In general, those using any of these deceptions reported more sexual partners and one-night stands. Those telling blatant lies to have sex were more likely to report greater needs for sex, while those using self-serving lies or having sex to avoid confrontation experienced greater worry about partner loss. Men were more likely to use blatant lies to have sex, while women were more likely to have sex to avoid confrontation. Results support sexual deception as an exchange process, with sex for pleasure and positive relationship outcomes acting as rewards, and unwanted sex and deception consequences as costs. Implications for health interventions and primary prevention applications are discussed. PMID:18321028

  12. Effects of deception in social networks

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez, Gerardo; Govezensky, Tzipe; Dunbar, Robin; Kaski, Kimmo; Barrio, Rafael A.

    2014-01-01

    Honesty plays a crucial role in any situation where organisms exchange information or resources. Dishonesty can thus be expected to have damaging effects on social coherence if agents cannot trust the information or goods they receive. However, a distinction is often drawn between prosocial lies (‘white’ lies) and antisocial lying (i.e. deception for personal gain), with the former being considered much less destructive than the latter. We use an agent-based model to show that antisocial lying causes social networks to become increasingly fragmented. Antisocial dishonesty thus places strong constraints on the size and cohesion of social communities, providing a major hurdle that organisms have to overcome (e.g. by evolving counter-deception strategies) in order to evolve large, socially cohesive communities. In contrast, white lies can prove to be beneficial in smoothing the flow of interactions and facilitating a larger, more integrated network. Our results demonstrate that these group-level effects can arise as emergent properties of interactions at the dyadic level. The balance between prosocial and antisocial lies may set constraints on the structure of social networks, and hence the shape of society as a whole. PMID:25056625

  13. Magically deceptive biological motion—the French Drop Sleight

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Flip; Natter, Michael B.; Egan, Eric J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Intentional deception, as is common in the performance of magic tricks, can provide valuable insight into the mechanisms of perception and action. Much of the recent investigations into this form of deception revolve around the attention of the observer. Here, we present experiments designed to investigate the contributions of the performer to the act of deception. An experienced magician and a naïve novice performed a classic sleight known as the French Drop. Video recordings of the performance were used to measure the quality of the deception—e.g., if a non-magician observer could discriminate instances where the sleight was performed (a deceptive performance) from those where it was not (a veridical performace). During the performance we recorded the trajectory of the hands and measured muscle activity via EMG to help understand the biomechanical mechanisms of this deception. We show that expertise plays a major role in the quality of the deception and that there are significant variations in the motion and muscular behaviors between successful and unsuccessful performances. Smooth, minimal movements with an exaggerated faux-transfer of muscular tension were characteristic of better deception. This finding is consistent with anecdotal reports and the magic performance literature. PMID:25914654

  14. The slow decay and quick revival of self-deception

    PubMed Central

    Chance, Zoë; Gino, Francesca; Norton, Michael I.; Ariely, Dan

    2015-01-01

    People demonstrate an impressive ability to self-deceive, distorting misbehavior to reflect positively on themselves—for example, by cheating on a test and believing that their inflated performance reflects their true ability. But what happens to self-deception when self-deceivers must face reality, such as when taking another test on which they cannot cheat? We find that self-deception diminishes over time only when self-deceivers are repeatedly confronted with evidence of their true ability (Study 1); this learning, however, fails to make them less susceptible to future self-deception (Study 2). PMID:26347666

  15. Linguistic correlates of self in deceptive oral autobiographical narratives.

    PubMed

    Bedwell, J S; Gallagher, S; Whitten, S N; Fiore, S M

    2011-09-01

    The current study collected orally-delivered autobiographical narratives from a sample of 44 undergraduate students. Participants were asked to produce both deceptive and non-deceptive versions of their narrative to two specific autobiographical question prompts while standing in front of a video camera. Narratives were then analyzed with Coh-Metrix software on 33 indices of linguistic cohesion. Following a Bonferroni correction for the large number of linguistic variables (p<.002), results indicated that the deceptive narratives contained more explicit action verbs, less linguistic complexity, and less referential coherence (sentences being cohesive with each other). The results support a theory that, in deceptive narratives, there is greater narrative distance between the self that narrates and the self that is narrated about. This suggests that narrative selves are constituted not as autonomous selves, but are subject to processes (e.g., psychological, linguistic, social) that are likely operating on a subconscious level. PMID:21030273

  16. 16 CFR 254.2 - Deceptive trade or business names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.2 Deceptive trade or business names. (a) It is... Education, or of any State, or civil service commission; or (2) It is an employment agency or an...

  17. Pollinator deception in the orchid mantis.

    PubMed

    O'Hanlon, James C; Holwell, Gregory I; Herberstein, Marie E

    2014-01-01

    Mimicry has evolved in contexts such as camouflage, predator deterrence, luring of prey, and pollinator attraction. Mimicry of flowers has until now been demonstrated only in angiosperms, yet it has been hypothesized that the Malaysian orchid mantis Hymenopus coronatus mimics a flower to attract pollinators as prey. Despite the popularity of this charismatic insect, this long-discussed hypothesis has never been experimentally investigated. We found that, as predicted for mimicry, the color of H. coronatus is indistinguishable from the color of sympatric flowers for hymenopteran pollinators. Field experiments show that isolated mantises attract wild pollinators at a rate even higher than flowers and capture these pollinators as prey items. After more than a century of conjecture, we provide the first experimental evidence of pollinator deception in the orchid mantis and the first description of a unique predatory strategy that has not been documented in any other animal species. PMID:24334741

  18. Colour mimicry and sexual deception by Tongue orchids ( Cryptostylis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaskett, A. C.; Herberstein, M. E.

    2010-01-01

    Typically, floral colour attracts pollinators by advertising rewards such as nectar, but how does colour function when pollinators are deceived, unrewarded, and may even suffer fitness costs? Sexually deceptive orchids are pollinated only by male insects fooled into mating with orchid flowers and inadvertently transferring orchid pollinia. Over long distances, sexually deceptive orchids lure pollinators with counterfeit insect sex pheromones, but close-range deception with colour mimicry is a tantalising possibility. Here, for the first time, we analyse the colours of four sexually deceptive Cryptostylis orchid species and the female wasp they mimic ( Lissopimpla excelsa, Ichneumonidae), from the perspective of the orchids’ single, shared pollinator, male Lissopimpla excelsa. Despite appearing different to humans, the colours of the orchids and female wasps were effectively identical when mapped into a hymenopteran hexagonal colour space. The orchids and wasps reflected predominantly red-orange wavelengths, but UV was also reflected by raised bumps on two orchid species and by female wasp wings. The orchids’ bright yellow pollinia contrasted significantly with their overall red colour. Orchid deception may therefore involve accurate and species-specific mimicry of wavelengths reflected by female wasps, and potentially, exploitation of insects’ innate attraction to UV and yellow wavelengths. In general, mimicry may be facilitated by exploiting visual vulnerabilities and evolve more readily at the peripheries of sensory perception. Many sexually deceptive orchids are predominantly red, green or white: colours that are all potentially difficult for hymenoptera to detect or distinguish from the background.

  19. Colour mimicry and sexual deception by Tongue orchids (Cryptostylis).

    PubMed

    Gaskett, A C; Herberstein, M E

    2010-01-01

    Typically, floral colour attracts pollinators by advertising rewards such as nectar, but how does colour function when pollinators are deceived, unrewarded, and may even suffer fitness costs? Sexually deceptive orchids are pollinated only by male insects fooled into mating with orchid flowers and inadvertently transferring orchid pollinia. Over long distances, sexually deceptive orchids lure pollinators with counterfeit insect sex pheromones, but close-range deception with colour mimicry is a tantalising possibility. Here, for the first time, we analyse the colours of four sexually deceptive Cryptostylis orchid species and the female wasp they mimic (Lissopimpla excelsa, Ichneumonidae), from the perspective of the orchids' single, shared pollinator, male Lissopimpla excelsa. Despite appearing different to humans, the colours of the orchids and female wasps were effectively identical when mapped into a hymenopteran hexagonal colour space. The orchids and wasps reflected predominantly red-orange wavelengths, but UV was also reflected by raised bumps on two orchid species and by female wasp wings. The orchids' bright yellow pollinia contrasted significantly with their overall red colour. Orchid deception may therefore involve accurate and species-specific mimicry of wavelengths reflected by female wasps, and potentially, exploitation of insects' innate attraction to UV and yellow wavelengths. In general, mimicry may be facilitated by exploiting visual vulnerabilities and evolve more readily at the peripheries of sensory perception. Many sexually deceptive orchids are predominantly red, green or white: colours that are all potentially difficult for hymenoptera to detect or distinguish from the background. PMID:19798479

  20. Neural correlates of self-deception and impression-management.

    PubMed

    Farrow, Tom F D; Burgess, Jenny; Wilkinson, Iain D; Hunter, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Self-deception and impression-management comprise two types of deceptive, but generally socially acceptable behaviours, which are common in everyday life as well as being present in a number of psychiatric disorders. We sought to establish and dissociate the 'normal' brain substrates of self-deception and impression-management. Twenty healthy participants underwent fMRI scanning at 3T whilst completing the 'Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding' test under two conditions: 'fake good', giving the most desirable impression possible and 'fake bad' giving an undesirable impression. Impression-management scores were more malleable to manipulation via 'faking' than self-deception scores. Response times to self-deception questions and 'fake bad' instructions were significantly longer than to impression-management questions and 'fake good' instructions respectively. Self-deception and impression-management manipulation and 'faking bad' were associated with activation of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC). Impression-management manipulation was additionally associated with activation of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left posterior middle temporal gyrus. 'Faking bad' was additionally associated with activation of right vlPFC, left temporo-parietal junction and right cerebellum. There were no supra-threshold activations associated with 'faking good'. Our neuroimaging data suggest that manipulating self-deception and impression-management and more specifically 'faking bad' engages a common network comprising mPFC and left vlPFC. Shorter response times and lack of dissociable neural activations suggests that 'faking good', particularly when it comes to impression-management, may be our most practiced 'default' mode. PMID:25527112

  1. Double-blind versus deceptive administration of a placebo.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, I; Weixel, L J

    1988-04-01

    Subjects were given varying doses of a placebo, consisting of decaffeinated coffee, with double-blind or deceptive instructions. Deceptive administration simulated clinical situations in that subjects were led to believe that they were receiving an active drug. In contrast, subjects in double-blind conditions were aware that they might receive a placebo. Double-blind and deceptive administration of the placebo produced different, and in some instances, opposite effects on pulse rate, systolic blood pressure, and subjective mood. Deceptive administration produced an increase in pulse rate, whereas double-blind administration did not. A theoretically predicted curvilinear effect on systolic blood pressure, alertness, tension, and certainty of having consumed caffeine was confirmed with deceptive administration, but not with double-blind administration. Double-blind administration produced curves in the opposite direction on each of these variables. The effects of the placebo on motor performance varied as a function of subject's beliefs about the effects of caffeine. These data challenge the validity of double-blind experimental designs and suggest that this common method of drug assessment may lead to spurious conclusions. PMID:3365327

  2. Detection of deception in structured interviews using sensors and algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, Meredith G.; Clarke, Alissa C.; Martin, Jennifer Z.; Beauregard, Jason R.; Webb, Andrea K.; Hensley, Asher A.; Keshava, Nirmal Q.; Martin, Daniel J.

    2010-04-01

    Draper Laboratory and MRAC have recently completed a comprehensive study to quantitatively evaluate deception detection performance under different interviewing styles. The interviews were performed while multiple physiological waveforms were collected from participants to determine how well automated algorithms can detect deception based upon changes in physiology. We report the results of a multi-factorial experiment with 77 human participants who were deceptive on specific topics during interviews conducted with one of two styles: a forcing style which relies on more coercive or confrontational techniques, or a fostering approach, which relies on open-ended interviewing and elements of a cognitive interview. The interviews were performed in a state-of-the-art facility where multiple sensors simultaneously collect synchronized physiological measurements, including electrodermal response, relative blood pressure, respiration, pupil diameter, and ECG. Features extracted from these waveforms during honest and deceptive intervals were then submitted to a hypothesis test to evaluate their statistical significance. A univariate statistical detection algorithm then assessed the ability to detect deception for different interview configurations. Our paper will explain the protocol and experimental design for this study. Our results will be in terms of statistical significances, effect sizes, and ROC curves and will identify how promising features performed in different interview scenarios.

  3. Neural Correlates of True Memory, False Memory, and Deception

    PubMed Central

    Okuda, Jiro; Suzuki, Maki; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Tetsuya; Mori, Etsuro; Tsukada, Minoru; Fujii, Toshikatsu

    2008-01-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine whether neural activity can differentiate between true memory, false memory, and deception. Subjects heard a series of semantically related words and were later asked to make a recognition judgment of old words, semantically related nonstudied words (lures for false recognition), and unrelated new words. They were also asked to make a deceptive response to half of the old and unrelated new words. There were 3 main findings. First, consistent with the notion that executive function supports deception, 2 types of deception (pretending to know and pretending not to know) recruited prefrontal activity. Second, consistent with the sensory reactivation hypothesis, the difference between true recognition and false recognition was found in the left temporoparietal regions probably engaged in the encoding of auditorily presented words. Third, the left prefrontal cortex was activated during pretending to know relative to correct rejection and false recognition, whereas the right anterior hippocampus was activated during false recognition relative to correct rejection and pretending to know. These findings indicate that fMRI can detect the difference in brain activity between deception and false memory despite the fact that subjects respond with “I know” to novel events in both processes. PMID:18372290

  4. Separating deceptive and orienting components in a Concealed Information Test.

    PubMed

    Ambach, Wolfgang; Stark, Rudolf; Peper, Martin; Vaitl, Dieter

    2008-11-01

    The Concealed Information Test (CIT) requires the examinee to deceptively deny recognition of known stimuli and to truthfully deny recognition of unknown stimuli. Because deception and orienting are typically coupled, it is unclear how exactly these sub-processes affect the physiological responses measured in the CIT. The present study aimed at separating the effects of deception from those of orienting. In a mock-crime study, using a modified CIT, thirty-six of seventy-two subjects answered truthfully ('truth group'), whereas the other thirty-six concealed their knowledge ('lie group'). Answering was delayed for 4 s after item presentation. Electrodermal activity (EDA), respiration (RLL), and phasic heart rate (HR) were recorded. A decomposition of EDA responses revealed two response components; the response in the first interval was expected to indicate orienting, stimulus evaluation, and answer preparation, whereas the response in the second interval was assumed to reflect answer-related processes. Inconclusively, both EDA components differentiated between 'probe' and 'irrelevant' items in both groups. Phasic HR and RLL differed between item classes only in the 'lie' group, thus reflecting answer-related processes, possibly deception, rather than merely orienting responses. The findings further support the notion that psychophysiological measures elicited by a modified CIT may reflect different mental processes involved in orienting and deception. PMID:18674573

  5. 16 CFR 254.6 - Deceptive use of diplomas, degrees, or certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deceptive use of diplomas, degrees, or... GUIDES FOR PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.6 Deceptive use of diplomas, degrees, or certificates. (a) It is deceptive for an industry member to issue a degree, diploma,...

  6. 9 CFR 354.46 - Misrepresentation; deceptive or fraudulent acts or practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misrepresentation; deceptive or... PRODUCTS THEREOF Violations § 354.46 Misrepresentation; deceptive or fraudulent acts or practices. Any willful misrepresentation or any deceptive or fraudulent act or practice made or committed by any...

  7. 48 CFR 1652.203-70 - Misleading, deceptive, or unfair advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Misleading, deceptive, or... CLAUSES Texts of FEHBP Clauses 1652.203-70 Misleading, deceptive, or unfair advertising. As prescribed in 1603.7003, the following clause shall be inserted in all FEHBP contracts: Misleading, Deceptive,...

  8. 7 CFR 56.69 - Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act or practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act or practice. 56.69 Section 56.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act or practice. Any willful misrepresentation or any deceptive...

  9. 14 CFR 399.80 - Unfair and deceptive practices of ticket agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unfair and deceptive practices of ticket....80 Unfair and deceptive practices of ticket agents. It is the policy of the Board to regard any of the following enumerated practices (among others) by a ticket agent as an unfair or deceptive...

  10. 16 CFR 424.1 - Unfair or deceptive acts or practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unfair or deceptive acts or practices. 424.1... ADVERTISING AND MARKETING PRACTICES § 424.1 Unfair or deceptive acts or practices. In connection with the sale..., 15 U.S.C. 44, it is an unfair or deceptive act or practice in violation of section 5(a)(1) of...

  11. 48 CFR 2152.203-70 - Misleading, deceptive, or unfair advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Misleading, deceptive, or..., deceptive, or unfair advertising. As prescribed in 2103.571, insert the following clause: Misleading, Deceptive, or Unfair Advertising (OCT 2005) The Contractor agrees that any advertising material...

  12. 7 CFR 70.41 - Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act or practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act or... Products and Rabbit Products Denial of Service § 70.41 Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act or practice. Any willful misrepresentation or any deceptive or fraudulent act or practice found to be made...

  13. Executive Function and Temperamental Fear Concurrently Predict Deception in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babkirk, Sarah; Saunders, Lauren V.; Solomon, Beylul; Kessel, Ellen M.; Crossman, Angela; Gokhan, Nurper; Dennis, Tracy A.

    2015-01-01

    The decision to intentionally withhold truthful information, or deception, is a key component of moral development and may be a precursor to more serious anti-social tendencies. Two factors, executive function (EF) and temperamental fear are each thought to influence childhood deception. Few studies, however, have explored deception in relation to…

  14. "Do You Hear What I Hear?": Deception Detection by the Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlman, James M.; Koper, Randall J.

    This study compared deception detection accuracy and confidence levels for 72 blind and 71 sighted participants with only audible cues available. Participants from a community blind center and a small western university judged stimulus tapes, which consisted of deceptive and truthful audio messages. Deceptive messages were induced by implicating…

  15. A replication study of the neural correlates of deception.

    PubMed

    Kozel, Frank Andrew; Padgett, Tamara M; George, Mark S

    2004-08-01

    The authors attempted to replicate prior group brain correlates of deception and improve on the consistency of individual results. Healthy, right-handed adults were instructed to tell the truth or to lie while being imaged in a 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. Blood oxygen level-dependent functional MRI significance maps were generated for subjects giving a deceptive answer minus a truthful answer (lie minus true) and the reverse (true minus lie). The lie minus true group analysis (n = 10) revealed significant activation in 5 regions, consistent with a previous study (right orbitofrontal, inferior frontal, middle frontal cortex, cingulate gyrus, and left middle frontal), with no significant activation for true minus lie. Individual results of the lie minus true condition were variable. Results show that functional MRI is a reasonable tool with which to study deception. PMID:15301611

  16. Deception in advertising and marketing: ethical applications in rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Banja, J D

    1994-09-01

    A much discussed issue in contemporary discussions of health care reform is the considerable competition that is anticipated to occur among providers. An inevitable aspect of this competition will be the ways health care services are presented in the marketplace through advertising and other forms of promotional literature. Considerable concern has already emerged among certain rehabilitation professionals, however, that advertising and marketing practices in rehabilitation must cohere with ethical standards. This article will discuss certain aspects of those standards, particularly as they have evolved from the Federal Trade Commission's definition of and rulings on deceptive practices in advertising. Salient aspects of the Commission's 1983 definition of deception will be related to rehabilitation by way of examining instances of rehabilitation advertising and marketing that might satisfy the Commission's definition of deception. The article will conclude with certain recommendations, principally drawn from various Federal Trade Commission rulings, that might be useful to individuals or corporate entities who advertise or market rehabilitation services. PMID:8085923

  17. Deceptive Body Movements Reverse Spatial Cueing in Soccer

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Michael J.; Jackson, Robin C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the experiments was to analyse the spatial cueing effects of the movements of soccer players executing normal and deceptive (step-over) turns with the ball. Stimuli comprised normal resolution or point-light video clips of soccer players dribbling a football towards the observer then turning right or left with the ball. Clips were curtailed before or on the turn (−160, −80, 0 or +80 ms) to examine the time course of direction prediction and spatial cueing effects. Participants were divided into higher-skilled (HS) and lower-skilled (LS) groups according to soccer experience. In experiment 1, accuracy on full video clips was higher than on point-light but results followed the same overall pattern. Both HS and LS groups correctly identified direction on normal moves at all occlusion levels. For deceptive moves, LS participants were significantly worse than chance and HS participants were somewhat more accurate but nevertheless substantially impaired. In experiment 2, point-light clips were used to cue a lateral target. HS and LS groups showed faster reaction times to targets that were congruent with the direction of normal turns, and to targets incongruent with the direction of deceptive turns. The reversed cueing by deceptive moves coincided with earlier kinematic events than cueing by normal moves. It is concluded that the body kinematics of soccer players generate spatial cueing effects when viewed from an opponent's perspective. This could create a reaction time advantage when anticipating the direction of a normal move. A deceptive move is designed to turn this cueing advantage into a disadvantage. Acting on the basis of advance information, the presence of deceptive moves primes responses in the wrong direction, which may be only partly mitigated by delaying a response until veridical cues emerge. PMID:25100444

  18. Deceptive body movements reverse spatial cueing in soccer.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michael J; Jackson, Robin C

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the experiments was to analyse the spatial cueing effects of the movements of soccer players executing normal and deceptive (step-over) turns with the ball. Stimuli comprised normal resolution or point-light video clips of soccer players dribbling a football towards the observer then turning right or left with the ball. Clips were curtailed before or on the turn (-160, -80, 0 or +80 ms) to examine the time course of direction prediction and spatial cueing effects. Participants were divided into higher-skilled (HS) and lower-skilled (LS) groups according to soccer experience. In experiment 1, accuracy on full video clips was higher than on point-light but results followed the same overall pattern. Both HS and LS groups correctly identified direction on normal moves at all occlusion levels. For deceptive moves, LS participants were significantly worse than chance and HS participants were somewhat more accurate but nevertheless substantially impaired. In experiment 2, point-light clips were used to cue a lateral target. HS and LS groups showed faster reaction times to targets that were congruent with the direction of normal turns, and to targets incongruent with the direction of deceptive turns. The reversed cueing by deceptive moves coincided with earlier kinematic events than cueing by normal moves. It is concluded that the body kinematics of soccer players generate spatial cueing effects when viewed from an opponent's perspective. This could create a reaction time advantage when anticipating the direction of a normal move. A deceptive move is designed to turn this cueing advantage into a disadvantage. Acting on the basis of advance information, the presence of deceptive moves primes responses in the wrong direction, which may be only partly mitigated by delaying a response until veridical cues emerge. PMID:25100444

  19. Good Liars Are Neither ‘Dark’ Nor Self-Deceptive

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Gordon R. T.; Berry, Christopher J.; Catmur, Caroline; Bird, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Deception is a central component of the personality 'Dark Triad' (Machiavellianism, Psychopathy and Narcissism). However, whether individuals exhibiting high scores on Dark Triad measures have a heightened deceptive ability has received little experimental attention. The present study tested whether the ability to lie effectively, and to detect lies told by others, was related to Dark Triad, Lie Acceptability, or Self-Deceptive measures of personality using an interactive group-based deception task. At a group level, lie detection accuracy was correlated with the ability to deceive others—replicating previous work. No evidence was found to suggest that Dark Triad traits confer any advantage either to deceive others, or to detect deception in others. Participants who considered lying to be more acceptable were more skilled at lying, while self-deceptive individuals were generally less credible and less confident when lying. Results are interpreted within a framework in which repeated practice results in enhanced deceptive ability. PMID:26083765

  20. On the success of a swindle: pollination by deception in orchids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiestl, Florian P.

    2005-06-01

    A standing enigma in pollination ecology is the evolution of pollinator attraction without offering reward in about one third of all orchid species. Here I review concepts of pollination by deception, and in particular recent findings in the pollination syndromes of food deception and sexual deception in orchids. Deceptive orchids mimic floral signals of rewarding plants (food deception) or mating signals of receptive females (sexual deception) to attract pollen vectors. In some food deceptive orchids, similarities in the spectral reflectance visible to the pollinator in a model plant and its mimic, and increased reproductive success of the mimic in the presence of the model have been demonstrated. Other species do not mimic specific model plants but attract pollinators with general attractive floral signals. In sexually deceptive orchids, floral odor is the key trait for pollinator attraction, and behaviorally active compounds in the orchids are identical to the sex pheromone of the pollinator species. Deceptive orchids often show high variability in floral signals, which may be maintained by negative frequency-dependent selection, since pollinators can learn and subsequently avoid common deceptive morphs more quickly than rare ones. The evolution of obligate deception in orchids seems paradoxical in the light of the typically lower fruit set than in rewarding species. Pollination by deception, however, can reduce self-pollination and encourage pollen flow over longer distances, thus promoting outbreeding. Although some food deceptive orchids are isolated through postzygotic reproductive barriers, sexually deceptive orchids lack post-mating barriers and species isolation is achieved via specific pollinator attraction. Recent population genetic and phylogenetic investigations suggest gene-flow within subgeneric clades, but pollinator-mediated selection may maintain species-specific floral traits.

  1. Teaching Students about Classic Findings on the Detection of Deception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Kathryn A.

    2003-01-01

    I describe a classroom exercise that demonstrates people's inability to detect deception better than chance. In the exercise, students worked in pairs and took turns asking each other a series of questions. Students lied to their partners some of the time, and they in turn attempted to determine when their partners lied to them. Students also…

  2. The production and detection of deception in an interactive game.

    PubMed

    Sip, Kamila E; Lynge, Morten; Wallentin, Mikkel; McGregor, William B; Frith, Christopher D; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2010-10-01

    This experiment tests how people produce and detect deception while playing a computerized version of the dice game, Meyer. Deception is an integral part of this game, and the participants played it as in real life, without constraints on whether or when to attempt to deceive their opponent, and whether or when to accuse them of deception. We stress that deception is a complex act that cannot be exclusively associated with telling a falsehood, and that it is facilitated by hierarchical decision-making and risk evaluation. In comparison with a non-competitive control condition, both claiming truthfully and claiming falsely were associated with activity in fronto-polar cortex (BA10). However, relative to true claims, false claims were associated with greater activity in the premotor and parietal cortices. We speculate that the activity in BA10 is associated with the development of high-level executive strategies involved in both types of claim, while the premotor and parietal activity is associated with the need to select which particular claim to make. PMID:20727906

  3. The neural basis of deception in strategic interactions.

    PubMed

    Volz, Kirsten G; Vogeley, Kai; Tittgemeyer, Marc; von Cramon, D Yves; Sutter, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Communication based on informational asymmetries abounds in politics, business, and almost any other form of social interaction. Informational asymmetries may create incentives for the better-informed party to exploit her advantage by misrepresenting information. Using a game-theoretic setting, we investigate the neural basis of deception in human interaction. Unlike in most previous fMRI research on deception, the participants decide themselves whether to lie or not. We find activation within the right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ), the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the (pre)cuneus (CUN), and the anterior frontal gyrus (aFG) when contrasting lying with truth telling. Notably, our design also allows for an investigation of the neural foundations of sophisticated deception through telling the truth-when the sender does not expect the receiver to believe her (true) message. Sophisticated deception triggers activation within the same network as plain lies, i.e., we find activity within the rTPJ, the CUN, and aFG. We take this result to show that brain activation can reveal the sender's veridical intention to deceive others, irrespective of whether in fact the sender utters the factual truth or not. PMID:25729358

  4. An Examination of Behavioral Responses to Stereotypical Deceptive Displays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddleston, Bill M.

    A study investigated whether receivers who detect senders behaving deceitfully will automatically become more resistent to the message being presented. By developing predictions derived from the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM), the study hypothesized that only noninvolved receivers would respond negatively to deceptive nonverbal cues in a…

  5. Detecting Deception within Small Groups: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Vernham, Zarah; Granhag, Pär-Anders; Mac Giolla, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Investigators often have multiple suspects to interview in order to determine whether they are guilty or innocent of a crime. Nevertheless, co-offending has been significantly neglected within the deception detection literature. The current review is the first of its kind to discuss co-offending and the importance of examining the detection of deception within groups. Groups of suspects can be interviewed separately (individual interviewing) or simultaneously (collective interviewing) and these differing interviewing styles are assessed throughout the review. The review emphasizes the differences between lone individuals and groups. It focuses on the theoretical implications of group deceit and the reasons why groups need to be understood in terms of investigative interviewing and deception detection if all types of crime-related incidents are to be recognized and dealt with appropriately. Group strategies, consistency within- and between-statements, joint memory, and group dynamics are referred to throughout the review and the importance of developing interview protocols specifically for groups is discussed. The review concludes by identifying the gaps in the literature and suggesting ideas for future research, highlighting that more research is required if we are to obtain a true understanding of the deception occurring within groups and how best to detect it. PMID:27445957

  6. 16 CFR 310.3 - Deceptive telemarketing acts or practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... 1601 et seq., and Regulation Z, 12 CFR part 226. 662 Electronic Fund Transfer Act, 15 U.S.C. 1693 et... CONGRESS TELEMARKETING SALES RULE 16 CFR PART 310 § 310.3 Deceptive telemarketing acts or practices. (a...., and Regulation Z, 12 CFR 226, compliance with the disclosure requirements under the Truth in...

  7. 16 CFR 310.3 - Deceptive telemarketing acts or practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... seq., and Regulation Z, 12 CFR part 226. 662 Electronic Fund Transfer Act, 15 U.S.C. 1693 et seq., and... CONGRESS TELEMARKETING SALES RULE 16 CFR PART 310 § 310.3 Deceptive telemarketing acts or practices. (a... credit products subject to the Truth in Lending Act, 15 U.S.C. 1601 et seq., and Regulation Z, 12 CFR...

  8. Cognitive Biases and Nonverbal Cue Availability in Detecting Deception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgoon, Judee K.; Blair, J. Pete; Strom, Renee E.

    2008-01-01

    In potentially deceptive situations, people rely on mental shortcuts to help process information. These heuristic judgments are often biased and result in inaccurate assessments of sender veracity. Four such biases--truth bias, visual bias, demeanor bias, and expectancy violation bias--were examined in a judgment experiment that varied nonverbal…

  9. Types of deception revealed by individual differences in cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Charity J; LeSage, Julia B; Kosslyn, Stephen M

    2009-01-01

    The two studies reported in this article are an extension of the neuroimaging study by Ganis et al. (2003), which provided evidence that different types of lies arise from different cognitive processes. We examined the initial response times (IRTs) to questions answered both deceptively and truthfully. We considered four types of deceptive responses: a coherent set of rehearsed, memorized lies about a life experience; a coherent set of lies spontaneously created about a life experience; a set of isolated lies involving self-knowledge; and a set of isolated lies involving knowledge of another person. We assessed the difference between truthful and deceptive IRTs. Scores from cognitive tasks included in the MiniCog Rapid Assessment Battery (MRAB) were significant predictors of IRT differences. Each type of lie was predicted by a distinct set of MRAB scores. These results provide further evidence that deception is a multifaceted process and that different kinds of lies arise from the operation of different cognitive processes. PMID:18654937

  10. The neural basis of deception in strategic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Volz, Kirsten G.; Vogeley, Kai; Tittgemeyer, Marc; von Cramon, D. Yves; Sutter, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Communication based on informational asymmetries abounds in politics, business, and almost any other form of social interaction. Informational asymmetries may create incentives for the better-informed party to exploit her advantage by misrepresenting information. Using a game-theoretic setting, we investigate the neural basis of deception in human interaction. Unlike in most previous fMRI research on deception, the participants decide themselves whether to lie or not. We find activation within the right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ), the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the (pre)cuneus (CUN), and the anterior frontal gyrus (aFG) when contrasting lying with truth telling. Notably, our design also allows for an investigation of the neural foundations of sophisticated deception through telling the truth—when the sender does not expect the receiver to believe her (true) message. Sophisticated deception triggers activation within the same network as plain lies, i.e., we find activity within the rTPJ, the CUN, and aFG. We take this result to show that brain activation can reveal the sender's veridical intention to deceive others, irrespective of whether in fact the sender utters the factual truth or not. PMID:25729358

  11. The Case of Pinocchio: Teachers' Ability to Detect Deception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhard, Marc-Andre; Dickhauser, Oliver; Marksteiner, Tamara; Sporer, Siegfried L.

    2011-01-01

    In a study with 365 teacher students, 447 teacher trainees, and 123 teachers, the ability to detect students' deception was tested. Participants judged the credibility of videotaped students who were accused of academic dishonesty (having cheated in a test). Half of these messages were actually true (students had not cheated on the test) and half…

  12. Detecting deception in facial expressions of pain: accuracy and training.

    PubMed

    Hill, Marilyn L; Craig, Kenneth D

    2004-01-01

    Clinicians tend to assign greater weight to nonverbal expression than to patient self-report when judging the location and severity of pain. However, patients can be successful at dissimulating facial expressions of pain, as posed expressions resemble genuine expressions in the frequency and intensity of pain-related facial actions. The present research examined individual differences in the ability to discriminate genuine and deceptive facial pain displays and whether different models of training in cues to deception would improve detection skills. Judges (60 male, 60 female) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups: 1) control; 2) corrective feedback; 3) deception training; and 4) deception training plus feedback. Judges were shown 4 videotaped facial expressions for each chronic pain patient: neutral expressions, genuine pain instigated by physiotherapy range of motion assessment, masked pain, and faked pain. For each condition, the participants rated pain intensity and unpleasantness, decided which category each of the 4 video clips represented, and described cues they used to arrive at decisions. There were significant individual differences in accuracy, with females more accurate than males, but accuracy was unrelated to past pain experience, empathy, or the number or type of facial cues used. Immediate corrective feedback led to significant improvements in participants' detection accuracy, whereas there was no support for the use of an information-based training program. PMID:15502685

  13. Lyin’ Eyes: Ocular-motor Measures of Reading Reveal Deception

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Anne E.; Hacker, Douglas J.; Webb, Andrea K.; Osher, Dahvyn; Kristjansson, Sean; Woltz, Dan J.; Kircher, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to evaluate an alternative to current methods for detecting deception in security screening contexts. We evaluated a new cognitive-based test of deception that measured participants’ ocular-motor responses (pupil responses and reading behaviors) while they read and responded to statements on a computerized questionnaire. In Experiment 1, participants from a university community were randomly assigned to either a “guilty” group that committed one of two mock crimes or an “innocent” group that only learned about the crime. Participants then reported for testing, where they completed the computer-administered questionnaire that addressed their possible involvement in the crimes. Experiment 2 also manipulated participants’ incentive to pass the test and difficulty of statements on the test. In both experiments, guilty participants had increased pupil responses to statements answered deceptively; however, they spent less time fixating on, reading, and re-reading those statements than statements answered truthfully. These ocular-motor measures were optimally weighted in a discrimination function that correctly classified 85% of participants as either guilty or innocent. Findings from Experiment 2 indicated that group discrimination was improved with greater incentives to pass the test and the use of statements with simple syntax. The present findings suggest that two cognitive processes are involved in deception -- vigilance and strategy -- and that these processes are reflected in different ocular-motor measures. The ocular-motor test reported here represents a new approach to detecting deception that may fill an important need in security screening contexts. PMID:22545928

  14. Predicting the lateral direction of deceptive and non-deceptive penalty kicks in football from the kinematics of the kicker.

    PubMed

    Lopes, José E; Jacobs, David M; Travieso, David; Araújo, Duarte

    2014-08-01

    This study addresses the utility of the kinematics of penalty takers for goalkeepers in association football. Twelve professional and semi-professional players shot to one side of the goal with (deceptive condition) or without (non-deceptive condition) simulating a shot to the opposite side. The body kinematics of the penalty takers were registered with motion-capture apparatus. Correlation and regression techniques were used to determine the relation between the shot direction and aspects of the penalty taker's kinematics at different moments. Several kinematic variables were strongly correlated with shot direction, especially those related to the lower part of the body. Some of these variables, including the angle of the non-kicking foot, acquired high correlations at time intervals that are useful to goalkeepers. Compound variables, here defined as linear combinations of variables, were found to be more useful than locally defined variables. Whereas some kinematic variables showed substantial differences in their relation to ball direction depending on deception, other kinematic variables were less affected by deception. Results are interpreted with the hypothesis of non-substitutability of genuine action. The study can also be interpreted as extending the correlation and regression methodology, often used to analyze variables defined at single moments, to the analysis of variables in a time continuous fashion. PMID:24846289

  15. Physiological and psychological effects of deception on pacing strategy and performance: a review.

    PubMed

    Jones, Hollie S; Williams, Emily L; Bridge, Craig A; Marchant, Dave; Midgley, Adrian W; Micklewright, Dominic; Mc Naughton, Lars R

    2013-12-01

    The aim of an optimal pacing strategy during exercise is to enhance performance whilst ensuring physiological limits are not surpassed, which has been shown to result in a metabolic reserve at the end of the exercise. There has been debate surrounding the theoretical models that have been proposed to explain how pace is regulated, with more recent research investigating a central control of exercise regulation. Deception has recently emerged as a common, practical approach to manipulate key variables during exercise. There are a number of ways in which deception interventions have been designed, each intending to gain particular insights into pacing behaviour and performance. Deception methodologies can be conceptualised according to a number of dimensions such as deception timing (prior to or during exercise), presentation frequency (blind, discontinuous or continuous) and type of deception (performance, biofeedback or environmental feedback). However, research evidence on the effects of deception has been perplexing and the use of complex designs and varied methodologies makes it difficult to draw any definitive conclusions about how pacing strategy and performance are affected by deception. This review examines existing research in the area of deception and pacing strategies, and provides a critical appraisal of the different methodological approaches used to date. It is hoped that this analysis will inform the direction and methodology of future investigations in this area by addressing the mechanisms through which deception impacts upon performance and by elucidating the potential application of deception techniques in training and competitive settings. PMID:24002790

  16. 21 CFR 71.22 - Deception as a basis for refusing to issue regulations; deceptive use of a color additive for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... regulations; deceptive use of a color additive for which a regulation has issued. 71.22 Section 71.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVE...; deceptive use of a color additive for which a regulation has issued. The Commissioner shall refuse to...

  17. 21 CFR 71.22 - Deception as a basis for refusing to issue regulations; deceptive use of a color additive for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... regulations; deceptive use of a color additive for which a regulation has issued. 71.22 Section 71.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVE...; deceptive use of a color additive for which a regulation has issued. The Commissioner shall refuse to...

  18. Attempting to hide our real thoughts: electrophysiological evidence from truthful and deceptive responses during evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dong, Guangheng; Wu, Haiyan

    2010-07-19

    This study seeks to investigate neural activity during a deceptive evaluation process. Attractive and unattractive facial photos were presented to participants who were then asked to evaluate and respond to these photos according to different cues (truthfulness or deceptiveness). Behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) activities were recorded while participants offered their truthful or deceptive responses based on their evaluations. Consistent with previous results on the old/new paradigm, deceptive responses required greater cognitive endeavor, as indicated by a larger later positive component (LPC). Meanwhile, deceptive responses on attractive items were more easily offered than deceptive replies on unattractive items, as indicated by smaller LPCs. Truthfulness towards attractive items was more easily conveyed than truthfulness towards unattractive items, as indicated by the smaller contingent negative variation (CNV). The potential reasons for these results are discussed. PMID:20470861

  19. Executive Function and Temperamental Fear Concurrently Predict Deception in School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Babkirk, Sarah; Saunders, Lauren V.; Solomon, Beylul; Kessel, Ellen M.; Crossman, Angela; Gokhan, Nurper; Dennis, Tracy A.

    2015-01-01

    The decision to intentionally withhold truthful information, or deception, is a key component of moral development and may be a precursor to more serious anti-social tendencies. Two factors, executive function and temperamental fear are each thought to influence childhood deception. Few studies, however, have explored deception in relation to both of these factors simultaneously. This was the goal of the present study. Executive function, as measured by a working memory task, and temperamental fear, as measured via maternal report were assessed in relation to observed deceptive behavior among 6 – 9-year-old children (N = 43). Results showed that children displaying high working memory capacity and high temperamental fear were more likely to exhibit deceptive behavior. Implications for predictors of childhood deception and applications for moral education are discussed. PMID:26880858

  20. Use of Deception to Improve Client Honeypot Detection of Drive-by-Download Attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Popovsky, Barbara; Narvaez Suarez, Julia F.; Seifert, Christian; Frincke, Deborah A.; O'Neil, Lori R.; Aval, Chiraag U.

    2009-07-24

    This paper presents the application of deception theory to improve the success of client honeypots at detecting malicious web page attacks from infected servers programmed by online criminals to launch drive-by-download attacks. The design of honeypots faces three main challenges: deception, how to design honeypots that seem real systems; counter-deception, techniques used to identify honeypots and hence defeating their deceiving nature; and counter counter-deception, how to design honeypots that deceive attackers. The authors propose the application of a deception model known as the deception planning loop to identify the current status on honeypot research, development and deployment. The analysis leads to a proposal to formulate a landscape of the honeypot research and planning of steps ahead.

  1. Robot Lies in Health Care: When Is Deception Morally Permissible?

    PubMed

    Matthias, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    Autonomous robots are increasingly interacting with users who have limited knowledge of robotics and are likely to have an erroneous mental model of the robot's workings, capabilities, and internal structure. The robot's real capabilities may diverge from this mental model to the extent that one might accuse the robot's manufacturer of deceiving the user, especially in cases where the user naturally tends to ascribe exaggerated capabilities to the machine (e.g. conversational systems in elder-care contexts, or toy robots in child care). This poses the question, whether misleading or even actively deceiving the user of an autonomous artifact about the capabilities of the machine is morally bad and why. By analyzing trust, autonomy, and the erosion of trust in communicative acts as consequences of deceptive robot behavior, we formulate four criteria that must be fulfilled in order for robot deception to be morally permissible, and in some cases even morally indicated. PMID:26144538

  2. A game theoretic investigation of deception in network security

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Thomas E.; Grosu, Daniel

    2010-12-03

    We perform a game theoretic investigation of the effects of deception on the interactions between an attacker and a defender of a computer network. The defender can employ camouflage by either disguising a normal system as a honeypot or by disguising a honeypot as a normal system. We model the interactions between defender and attacker using a signaling game, a non-cooperative two player dynamic game of incomplete information. For this model, we determine which strategies admit perfect Bayesian equilibria. These equilibria are refined Nash equilibria in which neither the defender nor the attacker will unilaterally choose to deviate from their strategies. Finally, we discuss the benefits of employing deceptive equilibrium strategies in the defense of a computer network.

  3. The effect of jamming/deception on decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felkey, M. A.; Monk, D. L.; Stec, L. J.

    1984-10-01

    The present experiment examined the capability of developing a simulation methodology for assessing the effects of Command, Control, and Communications CounterMeasures (C3CM) on a human operator. Primarily, the effects on human information jamming and deception were applied against a key decision maker in a simulated, air defense, C3 system were assessed. The man-in-the-loop simulation provides real human operator data and a methodology to assess human operator performance. The subjects' performance exhibited trends from which certain strategies were assessed. Results indicated that operator uncertainty and loss of confidence in ambiguous situations did not exist. Specifically, the subjects relied on the most timely information channel. Performance was worse when that channel was jammed. Also, the condition that degraded performance the most was when the most timely channel was jammed and the most precise channel contained deceptive information.

  4. Pollination by sexual deception-it takes chemistry to work.

    PubMed

    Bohman, Björn; Flematti, Gavin R; Barrow, Russell A; Pichersky, Eran; Peakall, Rod

    2016-08-01

    Semiochemicals are of paramount importance in sexually deceptive plants. These plants sexually lure specific male insects as pollinators by chemical and physical mimicry of the female of the pollinator. The strategy has evolved repeatedly in orchids, with a wide diversity of insect groups exploited. Chemical communication systems confirmed by field bioassays include: alkenes and alkanes in bee pollinated Ophrys species, keto-acid and hydroxy-acids in scoliid wasp pollinated O. speculum, and cyclohexanediones and pyrazines in thynnine wasp pollinated Chiloglottis and Drakaea orchids, respectively. In Ophrys, stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (SAD) enzymes have been confirmed to control species level variation in alkene double bond position. The production of cyclohexanediones in Chiloglottis unexpectedly depends on UVB light, a phenomenon unknown for other plant specialised metabolites. Potential biosynthetic pathways for other systems are explored, and alternative approaches to further accelerate chemical discovery in sexually deceptive plants are proposed. PMID:27368084

  5. A pilot study of functional magnetic resonance imaging brain correlates of deception in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Kozel, F Andrew; Revell, Letty J; Lorberbaum, Jeffrey P; Shastri, Ananda; Elhai, Jon D; Horner, Michael David; Smith, Adam; Nahas, Ziad; Bohning, Daryl E; George, Mark S

    2004-01-01

    We hypothesized that specific brain regions would activate during deception, and these areas would correlate with changes in electrodermal activity (EDA). Eight men were asked to find money hidden under various objects. While functional MRI images were acquired and EDA was recorded, the subjects gave both truthful and deceptive answers regarding the money's location. The group analysis revealed significant activation during deception in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFCx) and anterior cingulate (AC), but individual results were not consistent. Individually and as a group, EDA correlated with blood flow changes in the OFCx and AC. Specific brain regions were activated during deception, but the present technique lacks good predictive power for individuals. PMID:15377736

  6. Advances in automated deception detection in text-based computer-mediated communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adkins, Mark; Twitchell, Douglas P.; Burgoon, Judee K.; Nunamaker, Jay F., Jr.

    2004-08-01

    The Internet has provided criminals, terrorists, spies, and other threats to national security a means of communication. At the same time it also provides for the possibility of detecting and tracking their deceptive communication. Recent advances in natural language processing, machine learning and deception research have created an environment where automated and semi-automated deception detection of text-based computer-mediated communication (CMC, e.g. email, chat, instant messaging) is a reachable goal. This paper reviews two methods for discriminating between deceptive and non-deceptive messages in CMC. First, Document Feature Mining uses document features or cues in CMC messages combined with machine learning techniques to classify messages according to their deceptive potential. The method, which is most useful in asynchronous applications, also allows for the visualization of potential deception cues in CMC messages. Second, Speech Act Profiling, a method for quantifying and visualizing synchronous CMC, has shown promise in aiding deception detection. The methods may be combined and are intended to be a part of a suite of tools for automating deception detection.

  7. Deception studies manipulating centrally acting performance modifiers: a review.

    PubMed

    Williams, Emily L; Jones, Hollie S; Sparks, Sandy; Marchant, David C; Micklewright, Dominic; McNaughton, Lars R

    2014-07-01

    Athletes anticipatorily set and continuously adjust pacing strategies before and during events to produce optimal performance. Self-regulation ensures maximal effort is exerted in correspondence with the end point of exercise, while preventing physiological changes that are detrimental and disruptive to homeostatic control. The integration of feedforward and feedback information, together with the proposed brain's performance modifiers is said to be fundamental to this anticipatory and continuous regulation of exercise. The manipulation of central, regulatory internal and external stimuli has been a key focus within deception research, attempting to influence the self-regulation of exercise and induce improvements in performance. Methods of manipulating performance modifiers such as unknown task end point, deceived duration or intensity feedback, self-belief, or previous experience create a challenge within research, as although they contextualize theoretical propositions, there are few ecological and practical approaches which integrate theory with practice. In addition, the different methods and measures demonstrated in manipulation studies have produced inconsistent results. This review examines and critically evaluates the current methods of how specific centrally controlled performance modifiers have been manipulated, within previous deception studies. From the 31 studies reviewed, 10 reported positive effects on performance, encouraging future investigations to explore the mechanisms responsible for influencing pacing and consequently how deceptive approaches can further facilitate performance. The review acts to discuss the use of expectation manipulation not only to examine which methods of deception are successful in facilitating performance but also to understand further the key components used in the regulation of exercise and performance. PMID:24300123

  8. Nursing practice: compassionate deception and the Good Samaritan.

    PubMed

    Tuckett, A

    1999-09-01

    This article reviews the literature on deception to illuminate the phenomenon as a background for an appraisal within nursing. It then describes nursing as a practice of caring. The character of the Good Samaritan is recommended as indicative of the virtue of compassion that ought to underpin caring in nursing practice. Finally, the article concludes that a caring nurse, responding virtuously, acts by being compassionate, for a time recognizing the prima facie nature of the rules or principles of truth telling. PMID:10696185

  9. Neural correlates of forgiveness for moral transgressions involving deception.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Akiko; Abe, Nobuhito; Ueno, Aya; Shigemune, Yayoi; Mori, Etsuro; Tashiro, Manabu; Fujii, Toshikatsu

    2010-05-21

    We used positron emission tomography (PET) to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the willingness to forgive another person's moral transgression involving deception. During scanning, 12 subjects were asked to judge the forgivability of a perpetrator's moral transgression. These transgressions were described by four kinds of scenarios composed of a combination of two factors: the attitude of the perpetrator (dishonest or honest) and the severity of the moral transgression (serious or minor). Behavioral data showed that both the perpetrator's dishonesty and the seriousness of the scenario decreased the subjects' willingness to forgive the moral transgression. Neuroimaging data revealed that, relative to honest responses, a perpetrator's dishonest responses were associated with right ventromedial prefrontal activity, which possibly reflects the subjects' identification of the perpetrator's deception. The opposite comparison did not show significant activation. Moreover, a comparison of serious scenarios with minor scenarios did not reveal significant activation. Instead, minor scenarios, relative to serious scenarios, evoked activity in the right middle frontal gyrus and the right caudate nucleus, possibly reflecting increased demand on frontal control system function. Further analysis revealed that the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex showed a significant interaction between the two factors, indicating that this region functions as a mediator of the two factors, modulating judgments regarding the forgivability of moral transgressions. Taken together, these findings suggest that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex plays a key role in the forgiveness of moral transgressions involving deception. PMID:20307505

  10. Explicit Instructions Increase Cognitive Costs of Deception in Predictable Social Context

    PubMed Central

    Falkiewicz, Marcel; Sarzyńska, Justyna; Babula, Justyna; Szatkowska, Iwona; Grabowska, Anna; Nęcka, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Convincing participants to deceive remains one of the biggest and most important challenges of laboratory-based deception research. The simplest and most prevalent method involves explicitly instructing participants to lie or tell the truth before presenting each task item. The usual finding of such experiments is increased cognitive load associated with deceptive responses, explained by necessity to inhibit default and automatic honest responses. However, explicit instructions are usually coupled with the absence of social context in the experimental task. Context plays a key role in social cognition by activating prior knowledge, which facilitates behaviors consistent with the latter. We hypothesized that in the presence of social context, both honest and deceptive responses can be produced on the basis of prior knowledge, without reliance on truth and without additional cognitive load during deceptive responses. In order to test the hypothesis, we have developed Speed-Dating Task (SDT), which is based on a real-life social event. In SDT, participants respond both honestly and deceptively to questions in order to appear similar to each of the dates. The dates are predictable and represent well-known categories (i.e., atheist or conservative). In one condition participants rely on explicit instructions preceding each question (external cue). In the second condition no explicit instructions are present, so the participants need to adapt based on prior knowledge about the category the dates belong to (internal cue). With internal cues, reaction times (RTs) are similar for both honest and deceptive responses. However, in the presence of external cues (EC), RTs are longer for deceptive than honest responses, suggesting that deceptive responses are associated with increased cognitive load. Compared to internal cues, deception costs were higher when EC were present. However, the effect was limited to the first part of the experiment, only partially confirming our

  11. Detection of deception based on fMRI activation patterns underlying the production of a deceptive response and receiving feedback about the success of the deception after a mock murder crime

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Qian; Vanman, Eric J.; Wei, Dongtao; Yang, Wenjing; Jia, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The ability of a deceiver to track a victim’s ongoing judgments about the truthfulness of the deceit can be critical for successful deception. However, no study has yet investigated the neural circuits underlying receiving a judgment about one’s lie. To explore this issue, we used a modified Guilty Knowledge Test in a mock murder situation to simultaneously record the neural responses involved in producing deception and later when judgments of that deception were made. Producing deception recruited the bilateral inferior parietal lobules (IPLs), right ventral lateral prefrontal (VLPF) areas and right striatum, among which the activation of the right VLPF contributed mostly to diagnosing the identities of the participants, correctly diagnosing 81.25% of ‘murderers’ and 81.25% of ‘innocents’. Moreover, the participant’s response when their deception was successful uniquely recruited the right middle frontal gyrus, bilateral IPLs, bilateral orbitofrontal cortices, bilateral middle temporal gyrus and left cerebellum, among which the right IPL contributed mostly to diagnosing participants’ identities, correctly diagnosing 93.75% of murderers and 87.5% of innocents. This study shows that neural activity associated with being a successful liar (or not) is a feasible indicator for detecting lies and may be more valid than neural activity associated with producing deception. PMID:23946002

  12. Detection of deception based on fMRI activation patterns underlying the production of a deceptive response and receiving feedback about the success of the deception after a mock murder crime.

    PubMed

    Cui, Qian; Vanman, Eric J; Wei, Dongtao; Yang, Wenjing; Jia, Lei; Zhang, Qinglin

    2014-10-01

    The ability of a deceiver to track a victim's ongoing judgments about the truthfulness of the deceit can be critical for successful deception. However, no study has yet investigated the neural circuits underlying receiving a judgment about one's lie. To explore this issue, we used a modified Guilty Knowledge Test in a mock murder situation to simultaneously record the neural responses involved in producing deception and later when judgments of that deception were made. Producing deception recruited the bilateral inferior parietal lobules (IPLs), right ventral lateral prefrontal (VLPF) areas and right striatum, among which the activation of the right VLPF contributed mostly to diagnosing the identities of the participants, correctly diagnosing 81.25% of 'murderers' and 81.25% of 'innocents'. Moreover, the participant's response when their deception was successful uniquely recruited the right middle frontal gyrus, bilateral IPLs, bilateral orbitofrontal cortices, bilateral middle temporal gyrus and left cerebellum, among which the right IPL contributed mostly to diagnosing participants' identities, correctly diagnosing 93.75% of murderers and 87.5% of innocents. This study shows that neural activity associated with being a successful liar (or not) is a feasible indicator for detecting lies and may be more valid than neural activity associated with producing deception. PMID:23946002

  13. How Tactile and Function Information Affect Young Children's Ability to Understand the Nature of Food-Appearing, Deceptive Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Christina Miles

    2008-01-01

    Preschool children's (N = 64) ability to use tactile information and function cues on less-realistic and more-realistic food-appearing, deceptive objects was examined before and after training on the function of deceptive objects. They also responded to appearance and reality questions about deceptive objects. Half of the children (F-S:…

  14. "What She Doesn't Know Won't Hurt Her": Gender Effects on Patterns of Interpersonal Deception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justice, Paula Lippard

    A study was conducted to determine if (1) significant gender differences exist in prevalence of deception, motivation for deception, and recipients of deception; and (2) whether such differences support traditional gender role perceptions and expectations. Seventy-four subjects, 50 female and 24 male undergraduate students, recorded all instances…

  15. The Generalization of a Conditioned Response to Deception across the Public/Private Barrier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomash, J. J.; Reed, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Previous attempts at lie detection, such as the polygraph, have relied on physiological arousal to identify deception--but these responses have not proven to be as reliable as is necessary for widespread use. Conditioning procedures have been shown to increase the discriminative physiological arousal exhibited during deception, but have targeted…

  16. Evidence for the Pinocchio Effect: Linguistic Differences between Lies, Deception by Omissions, and Truths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Swol, Lyn M.; Braun, Michael T.; Malhotra, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    The study used Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count and Coh-Metrix software to examine linguistic differences with deception in an ultimatum game. In the game, the Allocator was given an amount of money to divide with the Receiver. The Receiver did not know the precise amount the Allocator had to divide, and the Allocator could use deception.…

  17. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy to investigate hemodynamic responses to deception in the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Tian, Fenghua; Sharma, Vikrant; Kozel, F Andrew; Liu, Hanli

    2009-12-15

    Deception involves complex neural processes and correlates in the brain. Functional brain imaging techniques have been used to study and understand brain mechanisms during deception. In this study, we utilized functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to investigate hemodynamic responses to deception in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) at the individual level. The protocol involved a mock theft scenario that was previously used in a functional MRI (fMRI) study of detecting deception. Subjects (N=11) were instructed to steal a ring or a watch and then conceal the item that they stole. Participants then responded to visually presented questions regarding which item they took. While the subjects were answering the questions, their PFC activity was measured using fNIRS. The brain activity associated with deceptive responses demonstrated significant changes in hemoglobin concentrations with respect to the baseline, while the response of truth telling was not statistically different from baseline. The regions of greater activation induced by deception identified by fNIRS were approximately consistent with those reported by the previous fMRI study using a similar protocol. This study demonstrates that fNIRS is a promising new technique to understand hemodynamic and neural correlates of deception and thus to detect deception with the added advantages of being compact, technically easier to implement, and inexpensive compared to functional MRI. PMID:19782657

  18. 47 CFR 11.45 - Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions. 11.45 Section 11.45 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Organization § 11.45 Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions. No person...

  19. Confidence and Accuracy in the Recall of Deceptive and Nondeceptive Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, W.F.; Sampaio, C.; Barlow, M.R.

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to study the metamemory theory of confidence for the domain of sentence recall. Experiment 1 used nondeceptive sentences and deceptive synonym substitution sentences. Experiment 2 used nondeceptive sentences and deceptive schema inference sentences. In both experiments there was a strong positive relationship…

  20. Is It Worth Lying For? Physiological and Emotional Implications of Recalling Deceptive Affection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, Sean M.; Booth-Butterfield, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    This investigation explored the risks of affectionate expressions in romantic relationships by examining the physiological and emotional implications of recalled expressed deceptive affectionate messages to romantic partners. Ninety-nine participants were assigned to one of three conditions: deceptive affection, honest affection, or plans with a…

  1. 16 CFR 301.42 - Deception as to nature of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deception as to nature of business. 301.42 Section 301.42 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.42 Deception as to nature of business. When necessary to avoid...

  2. 16 CFR 301.42 - Deception as to nature of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deception as to nature of business. 301.42 Section 301.42 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.42 Deception as to nature of business. When necessary to avoid...

  3. 16 CFR 301.42 - Deception as to nature of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 301.42 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.42 Deception as to nature of business. When necessary to avoid deception, the name of any person other than the manufacturer of the...

  4. 16 CFR 301.42 - Deception as to nature of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 301.42 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.42 Deception as to nature of business. When necessary to avoid deception, the name of any person other than the manufacturer of the...

  5. 16 CFR 301.42 - Deception as to nature of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 301.42 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.42 Deception as to nature of business. When necessary to avoid deception, the name of any person other than the manufacturer of the...

  6. 47 CFR 11.45 - Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions. 11.45 Section 11.45 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Organization § 11.45 Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions. No person...

  7. 47 CFR 11.45 - Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions. 11.45 Section 11.45 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Organization § 11.45 Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions. No person...

  8. 47 CFR 11.45 - Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions. 11.45 Section 11.45 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Organization § 11.45 Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions. No person...

  9. 47 CFR 11.45 - Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions. 11.45 Section 11.45 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Organization § 11.45 Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions. No person...

  10. Effects of Information Processing Objectives on Judgments of Deception following Perjury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deTurck, Mark A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines mock jurors processing testimony under impression-set and memory-set conditions to determine under which condition they rate a witness to be more deceptive. Finds that under impression-set objectives subjects formed stronger judgments of the witness's deceptiveness, while the pattern was reversed under memory-set conditions. (MS)

  11. 16 CFR 18.8 - Deception as to origin or source of industry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... an unfair or deceptive act or practice to sell, offer for sale, or advertise an industry product by...,” “California Privet,” “Japanese Barberry,” etc.). (b) It is also an unfair or deceptive act or practice to advertise, sell, or offer for sale an industry product of foreign origin without adequate and...

  12. Neural correlates of deception in social contexts in normally developing children.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Susumu; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Thyreau, Benjamin; Tanaka, Mari; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-01-01

    Deception is related to the ability to inhibit prepotent responses and to engage in mental tasks such as anticipating responses and inferring what another person knows, especially in social contexts. However, the neural correlates of deception processing, which requires mentalizing, remain unclear. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the neural correlates of deception, including mentalization, in social contexts in normally developing children. Healthy right-handed children (aged 8-9 years) were scanned while performing interactive games involving deception. The games varied along two dimensions: the type of reply (deception and truth) and the type of context (social and less social). Participants were instructed to deceive a witch and to tell the truth to a girl. Under the social-context conditions, participants were asked to consider what they inferred about protagonists' preferences from their facial expressions when responding to questions. Under the less-social-context conditions, participants did not need to consider others' preferences. We found a significantly greater response in the right precuneus under the social-context than under less-social-context conditions. Additionally, we found marginally greater activation in the right inferior parietal lobule (IPL) under the deception than under the truth condition. These results suggest that deception in a social context requires not only inhibition of prepotent responses but also engagement in mentalizing processes. This study provides the first evidence of the neural correlates of the mentalizing processes involved in deception in normally developing children. PMID:23730281

  13. Use of "um" in the Deceptive Speech of a Convicted Murderer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villar, Gina; Arciuli, Joanne; Mallard, David

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a link between language behaviors and deception; however, questions remain about the role of specific linguistic cues, especially in real-life high-stakes lies. This study investigated use of the so-called filler, "um," in externally verifiable truthful versus deceptive speech of a convicted murderer. The data…

  14. Self-deception as self-signalling: a model and experimental evidence

    PubMed Central

    Mijović-Prelec, Danica; Prelec, Draz̆en

    2010-01-01

    Self-deception has long been the subject of speculation and controversy in psychology, evolutionary biology and philosophy. According to an influential ‘deflationary’ view, the concept is an over-interpretation of what is in reality an instance of motivationally biased judgement. The opposite view takes the interpersonal deception analogy seriously, and holds that some part of the self actively manipulates information so as to mislead the other part. Building on an earlier self-signalling model of Bodner and Prelec, we present a game-theoretic model of self-deception. We propose that two distinct mechanisms collaborate to produce overt expressions of belief: a mechanism responsible for action selection (including verbal statements) and an interpretive mechanism that draws inferences from actions and generates emotional responses consistent with the inferences. The model distinguishes between two modes of self-deception, depending on whether the self-deceived individual regards his own statements as fully credible. The paper concludes with a new experimental study showing that self-deceptive judgements can be reliably and repeatedly elicited with financial incentives in a categorization task, and that the degree of self-deception varies with incentives. The study also finds evidence of the two forms of self-deception. The psychological benefits of self-deception, as measured by confidence, peak at moderate levels. PMID:20026461

  15. Effects of Deception on Children's Understanding of Second-Order False Belief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    This research examined two questions: effects of deception on children's understanding of second-order false belief, and possible effects of number of siblings on second-order performance. Kindergarten children responded to 3 second-order problems that varied in the presence and the nature of deception. Performance was better on the problems…

  16. Method and Apparatus Providing Deception and/or Altered Operation in an Information System Operating System

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Fred; Rogers, Deanna T.; Neagoe, Vicentiu

    2008-10-14

    A method and/or system and/or apparatus providing deception and/or execution alteration in an information system. In specific embodiments, deceptions and/or protections are provided by intercepting and/or modifying operation of one or more system calls of an operating system.

  17. 16 CFR 423.5 - Unfair or deceptive acts or practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TEXTILE WEARING APPAREL AND CERTAIN PIECE GOODS AS AMENDED § 423.5 Unfair or deceptive acts or practices. (a) Textile wearing apparel and certain piece goods. In connection with the sale, in or affecting commerce, of textile wearing apparel and certain piece goods, it is an unfair or deceptive act or...

  18. 12 CFR 1022.138 - Prevention of deceptive marketing of free credit reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prevention of deceptive marketing of free... § 1022.138 Prevention of deceptive marketing of free credit reports. (a) For purposes of this section: (1....gov/learnmore shall be an operational hyperlink, underlined, and in a color that is a high degree...

  19. 12 CFR 1022.138 - Prevention of deceptive marketing of free credit reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Prevention of deceptive marketing of free... § 1022.138 Prevention of deceptive marketing of free credit reports. (a) For purposes of this section: (1....gov/learnmore shall be an operational hyperlink, underlined, and in a color that is a high degree...

  20. 12 CFR 1022.138 - Prevention of deceptive marketing of free credit reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Prevention of deceptive marketing of free... § 1022.138 Prevention of deceptive marketing of free credit reports. (a) For purposes of this section: (1....gov/learnmore shall be an operational hyperlink, underlined, and in a color that is a high degree...

  1. 16 CFR 610.4 - Prevention of deceptive marketing of free credit reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prevention of deceptive marketing of free... REPORTING ACT FREE ANNUAL FILE DISCLOSURES § 610.4 Prevention of deceptive marketing of free credit reports....GOV shall be an operational hyperlink to (www.ftc.gov/freereports), underlined, and in a color that...

  2. Teaching Children with Autism to Detect and Respond to Deceptive Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranick, Jennifer; Persicke, Angela; Tarbox, Jonathan; Kornack, Jake A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that children with autism often have deficits in deception, both in the ability to lie to others and in the ability to detect when they are being lied to. Additionally, children with autism are frequently the victims of bullying and difficulty with understanding deception likely makes the population more vulnerable to…

  3. A Truth that's Told with Bad Intent: An ERP Study of Deception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrion, Ricardo E.; Keenan, Julian P.; Sebanz, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    Human social cognition critically relies on the ability to deceive others. However, the cognitive and neural underpinnings of deception are still poorly understood. Why does lying place increased demands on cognitive control? The present study investigated whether cognitive control processes during deception are recruited due to the need to…

  4. 12 CFR 227.14 - Unfair or deceptive practices involving cosigners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Unfair or deceptive practices involving cosigners. 227.14 Section 227.14 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES (REGULATION AA) Credit Practices Rule § 227.14 Unfair or...

  5. Strong, but Wrong: Lay People's and Police Officers' Beliefs about Verbal and Nonverbal Cues to Deception.

    PubMed

    Bogaard, Glynis; Meijer, Ewout H; Vrij, Aldert; Merckelbach, Harald

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the beliefs of students and police officers about cues to deception. A total of 95 police officers and 104 undergraduate students filled out a questionnaire addressing beliefs about cues to deception. Twenty-eight verbal cues were included in the questionnaire, all extracted from verbal credibility assessment tools (i.e., CBCA, RM, and SCAN). We investigated to what extent beliefs about nonverbal and verbal cues of deception differed between lay people (students) and police officers, and whether these beliefs were in agreement with objective cues known from research. Both students and police officers believed the usual stereotypical, but non-diagnostic (nonverbal) cues such as gaze aversion and increased movement to be indicative of deception. Yet, participants were less inclined to overestimate the relationship between verbal cues and deception and their beliefs fitted better with what we know from research. The implications of these findings for practice are discussed. PMID:27258014

  6. Efficacy of forensic statement analysis in distinguishing truthful from deceptive eyewitness accounts of highly stressful events.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Charles A; Colwell, Kevin; Hazlett, Gary A

    2011-09-01

    Laboratory-based detecting deception research suggests that truthful statements differ from those of deceptive statements. This nonlaboratory study tested whether forensic statement analysis (FSA) methods would distinguish genuine from false eyewitness accounts about exposure to a highly stressful event. A total of 35 military participants were assigned to truthful or deceptive eyewitness conditions. Genuine eyewitness reported truthfully about exposure to interrogation stress. Deceptive eyewitnesses studied transcripts of genuine eyewitnesses for 24 h and falsely claimed they had been interrogated. Cognitive Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and assessed by FSA raters blind to the status of participants. Genuine accounts contained more unique words, external and contextual referents, and a greater total word count than did deceptive statements. The type-token ratio was lower in genuine statements. The classification accuracy using FSA techniques was 82%. FSA methods may be effective in real-world circumstances and have relevance to professionals in law enforcement, security, and criminal justice. PMID:21854383

  7. THREAT ANTICIPATION AND DECEPTIVE REASONING USING BAYESIAN BELIEF NETWORKS

    SciTech Connect

    Allgood, Glenn O; Olama, Mohammed M; Lake, Joe E

    2009-01-01

    Recent events highlight the need for tools to anticipate threats posed by terrorists. Assessing these threats requires combining information from disparate data sources such as analytic models, simulations, historical data, sensor networks, and user judgments. These disparate data can be combined in a coherent, analytically defensible, and understandable manner using a Bayesian belief network (BBN). In this paper, we develop a BBN threat anticipatory model based on a deceptive reasoning algorithm using a network engineering process that treats the probability distributions of the BBN nodes within the broader context of the system development process.

  8. Law & psychiatry: deception, coercion, and the limits of interrogation.

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2009-04-01

    This column discusses the recent case of U.S. v. Boskic to highlight issues related to voluntariness--in particular, the voluntariness of a confession. At a meeting with U.S. government agents, Boskic, a Croat from Bosnia living in the United States, confessed to involvement in the 1995 Srebrenica massacre. The agents had deceived him about the meeting's purpose and did not disclose that they had a warrant for his arrest. The courts were asked to decide whether the confession was involuntary, and thus not admissible as evidence, on the basis of whether the deception was coercive. PMID:19339313

  9. Seismic monitoring at Deception Island volcano (Antarctica): Recent advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, E.; Almendros, J.; Martín, R.; Cortés, G.; Alguacil, G.; Moreno, J.; Martín, B.; Martos, A.; Serrano, I.; Stich, D.; Ibáñez, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    Deception Island (South Shetland Island, Antarctica) is an active volcano with recent eruptions (e.g. 1967, 1969 and 1970). It is also among the Antarctic sites most visited by tourists. Besides, there are currently two scientific bases operating during the austral summers, usually from late November to early March. For these reasons it is necessary to deploy a volcano monitoring system as complete as possible, designed specifically to endure the extreme conditions of the volcanic environment and the Antarctic climate. The Instituto Andaluz de Geofísica of University of Granada, Spain (IAG-UGR) performs seismic monitoring on Deception Island since 1994 during austral summer surveys. The seismicity basically includes volcano-tectonic earthquakes, long-period events and volcanic tremor, among other signals. The level of seismicity is moderate, except for a seismo-volcanic crisis in 1999. The seismic monitoring system has evolved during these years, following the trends of the technological developments and software improvements. Recent advances have been mainly focused on: (1) the improvement of the seismic network introducing broadband stations and 24-bit data acquisition systems; (2) the development of a short-period seismic array, with a 12-channel, 24-bit data acquisition system; (3) the implementation of wireless data transmission from the network stations and also from the seismic array to a recording center, allowing for real-time monitoring; (4) the efficiency of the power supply systems and the monitoring of the battery levels and power consumption; (5) the optimization of data analysis procedures, including database management, automated event recognition tools for the identification and classification of seismo-volcanic signals, and apparent slowness vector estimates using seismic array data; (6) the deployment of permanent seismic stations and the transmission of data during the winter using a satellite connection. A single permanent station is operating

  10. Registered report: measuring unconscious deception detection by skin temperature.

    PubMed

    van ' T Veer, Anna E; Stel, Mariëlle; van Beest, Ilja; Gallucci, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Findings from the deception detection literature suggest that although people are not skilled in consciously detecting a liar, they may intuit that something about the person telling a lie is off. In the current proposal, we argue that observing a liar influences the observer's physiology even though the observer may not be consciously aware of being lied to (i.e., the observers' direct deception judgment does not accurately differentiate between liars and truth-tellers). To test this hypothesis, participants' finger temperature will be measured while they watch videos of persons who are either honest or dishonest about their identity. We hypothesize that skin temperature will be lower when observing a liar than when observing a truth-teller. Additionally, we test whether perceiving a liar influences finger skin temperature differently when an individual is, or is not, alerted to the possibility of deceit. We do this by varying participants' awareness of the fact that they might be lied to. Next to measuring physiological responses to liars and truth-tellers, self-reported direct and indirect veracity judgments (i.e., trustworthiness and liking) of the target persons will be assessed. We hypothesize that indirect veracity judgments will better distinguish between liars and truth-tellers than direct veracity judgments. PMID:24904461

  11. Self-Deception in Terminal Patients: Belief System at Stake

    PubMed Central

    Echarte, Luis E.; Bernacer, Javier; Larrivee, Denis; Oron, J. V.; Grijalba-Uche, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    A substantial minority of patients with terminal illness hold unrealistically hopeful beliefs about the severity of their disease or the nature of its treatment, considering therapy as curative rather than palliative. We propose that this attitude may be understood as self-deception, following the current psychological theories about this topic. In this article we suggest that the reason these patients deceive themselves is to preserve their belief systems. According to some philosophical accounts, the human belief system (HBS) is constituted as a web with a few stable central nodes – deep-seated beliefs – intimately related with the self. We hypothesize that the mind may possess defensive mechanisms, mostly non-conscious, that reject certain sensory inputs (e.g., a fatal diagnosis) that may undermine deep-seated beliefs. This interpretation is in line with the theory of cognitive dissonance. Following this reasoning, we also propose that HBS-related self-deception would entail a lower cognitive load than that associated with confronting the truth: whereas the latter would engage a myriad of high cognitive functions to re-configure crucial aspects of the self, including the setting of plans, goals, or even a behavioral output, the former would be mostly non-conscious. Overall, we believe that our research supports the hypothesis that in cases of terminal illness, (self-)deceiving requires less effort than accepting the truth. PMID:26903921

  12. Multifrequency OFDM SAR in Presence of Deception Jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuerger, Jonathan; Garmatyuk, Dmitriy

    2010-12-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is considered in this paper from the perspective of usage in imaging radar scenarios with deception jamming. OFDM radar signals are inherently multifrequency waveforms, composed of a number of subbands which are orthogonal to each other. While being employed extensively in communications, OFDM has not found comparatively wide use in radar, and, particularly, in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) applications. In this paper, we aim to show the advantages of OFDM-coded radar signals with random subband composition when used in deception jamming scenarios. Two approaches to create a radar signal by the jammer are considered: instantaneous frequency (IF) estimator and digital-RF-memory- (DRFM-) based reproducer. In both cases, the jammer aims to create a copy of a valid target image via resending the radar signal at prescribed time intervals. Jammer signals are derived and used in SAR simulations with three types of signal models: OFDM, linear frequency modulated (LFM), and frequency-hopped (FH). Presented results include simulated peak side lobe (PSL) and peak cross-correlation values for random OFDM signals, as well as simulated SAR imagery with IF and DRFM jammers'-induced false targets.

  13. True lies: self-stabilization without self-deception.

    PubMed

    Greve, Werner; Wentura, Dirk

    2010-09-01

    Self-deception entails apparent conceptual paradoxes and poses the dilemma between two competing needs: the need for stability of the self-concept, on the one hand, and the need to accept reality, on the other. It is argued, first, that conceptual difficulties can be avoided by distinguishing two levels of explanation. Whereas, in a personal language, "the person" deceives him- or her-self, a cognitive ("subpersonal") approach explains this self-deception by reference to the interplay of cognitive processes of which the person is not aware. Second, the tension between stability and adjustment of the self can be resolved by self-immunization, which maintains the stability of central self-conceptions by adjusting peripheral aspects and their diagnostic value for the central concepts. Processes of self-immunization were investigated in a series of studies operating on both levels of explanation. Implications for psychological explanations of personal phenomena such as self-images and self-insight are discussed. PMID:20646937

  14. Registered report: measuring unconscious deception detection by skin temperature

    PubMed Central

    van ’ t Veer, Anna E.; Stel, Mariëlle; van Beest, Ilja; Gallucci, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Findings from the deception detection literature suggest that although people are not skilled in consciously detecting a liar, they may intuit that something about the person telling a lie is off. In the current proposal, we argue that observing a liar influences the observer’s physiology even though the observer may not be consciously aware of being lied to (i.e., the observers’ direct deception judgment does not accurately differentiate between liars and truth-tellers). To test this hypothesis, participants’ finger temperature will be measured while they watch videos of persons who are either honest or dishonest about their identity. We hypothesize that skin temperature will be lower when observing a liar than when observing a truth-teller. Additionally, we test whether perceiving a liar influences finger skin temperature differently when an individual is, or is not, alerted to the possibility of deceit. We do this by varying participants’ awareness of the fact that they might be lied to. Next to measuring physiological responses to liars and truth-tellers, self-reported direct and indirect veracity judgments (i.e., trustworthiness and liking) of the target persons will be assessed. We hypothesize that indirect veracity judgments will better distinguish between liars and truth-tellers than direct veracity judgments. PMID:24904461

  15. Self-Deception in Terminal Patients: Belief System at Stake.

    PubMed

    Echarte, Luis E; Bernacer, Javier; Larrivee, Denis; Oron, J V; Grijalba-Uche, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    A substantial minority of patients with terminal illness hold unrealistically hopeful beliefs about the severity of their disease or the nature of its treatment, considering therapy as curative rather than palliative. We propose that this attitude may be understood as self-deception, following the current psychological theories about this topic. In this article we suggest that the reason these patients deceive themselves is to preserve their belief systems. According to some philosophical accounts, the human belief system (HBS) is constituted as a web with a few stable central nodes - deep-seated beliefs - intimately related with the self. We hypothesize that the mind may possess defensive mechanisms, mostly non-conscious, that reject certain sensory inputs (e.g., a fatal diagnosis) that may undermine deep-seated beliefs. This interpretation is in line with the theory of cognitive dissonance. Following this reasoning, we also propose that HBS-related self-deception would entail a lower cognitive load than that associated with confronting the truth: whereas the latter would engage a myriad of high cognitive functions to re-configure crucial aspects of the self, including the setting of plans, goals, or even a behavioral output, the former would be mostly non-conscious. Overall, we believe that our research supports the hypothesis that in cases of terminal illness, (self-)deceiving requires less effort than accepting the truth. PMID:26903921

  16. Self-deception as affective coping. An empirical perspective on philosophical issues.

    PubMed

    Lauria, Federico; Preissmann, Delphine; Clément, Fabrice

    2016-04-01

    In the philosophical literature, self-deception is mainly approached through the analysis of paradoxes. Yet, it is agreed that self-deception is motivated by protection from distress. In this paper, we argue, with the help of findings from cognitive neuroscience and psychology, that self-deception is a type of affective coping. First, we criticize the main solutions to the paradoxes of self-deception. We then present a new approach to self-deception. Self-deception, we argue, involves three appraisals of the distressing evidence: (a) appraisal of the strength of evidence as uncertain, (b) low coping potential and (c) negative anticipation along the lines of Damasio's somatic marker hypothesis. At the same time, desire impacts the treatment of flattering evidence via dopamine. Our main proposal is that self-deception involves emotional mechanisms provoking a preference for immediate reward despite possible long-term negative repercussions. In the last part, we use this emotional model to revisit the philosophical paradoxes. PMID:26919475

  17. Subjective cues to deception/honesty in a high stakes situation: an exploratory approach.

    PubMed

    Wright Whelan, Clea; Wagstaff, Graham F; Wheatcroft, Jacqueline M

    2015-01-01

    The low ecological validity of much of the research on deception detection is a limitation recognized by researchers in the field. Consequently, the present studies investigated subjective cues to deception using the real life, high stakes situation of people making public appeals for help with missing or murdered relatives. It was expected that cues related to affect would be particularly salient in this context. Study 1 was a qualitative investigation identifying cues to deception reportedly used by people accurate at detecting deception. Studies 2 and 3 were then empirical investigations that mainly employed the cues reported in Study 1. A number of subjective cues were found to discriminate between honest and deceptive appeals, including some previously unidentified cues, and cues likely to be context-specific. Most could be categorized under the themes of authenticity of emotion, and negative and positive affective reactions to the appealer. It is concluded that some cues to deception may emerge only in real life, high stakes situations; however, it is argued that some of these may be influenced by observers' perceptions of the characteristics of offenders, rather than acts of deception per se. PMID:25975577

  18. When Pinocchio's nose does not grow: belief regarding lie-detectability modulates production of deception

    PubMed Central

    Sip, Kamila E.; Carmel, David; Marchant, Jennifer L.; Li, Jian; Petrovic, Predrag; Roepstorff, Andreas; McGregor, William B.; Frith, Christopher D.

    2013-01-01

    Does the brain activity underlying the production of deception differ depending on whether or not one believes their deception can be detected? To address this question, we had participants commit a mock theft in a laboratory setting, and then interrogated them while they underwent functional MRI (fMRI) scanning. Crucially, during some parts of the interrogation participants believed a lie-detector was activated, whereas in other parts they were told it was switched-off. We were thus able to examine the neural activity associated with the contrast between producing true vs. false claims, as well as the independent contrast between believing that deception could and could not be detected. We found increased activation in the right amygdala and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), as well as the left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), during the production of false (compared to true) claims. Importantly, there was a significant interaction between the effects of deception and belief in the left temporal pole and right hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus, where activity increased during the production of deception when participants believed their false claims could be detected, but not when they believed the lie-detector was switched-off. As these regions are associated with binding socially complex perceptual input and memory retrieval, we conclude that producing deceptive behavior in a context in which one believes this deception can be detected is associated with a cognitively taxing effort to reconcile contradictions between one's actions and recollections. PMID:23382715

  19. Brain activity during simulated deception: an event-related functional magnetic resonance study.

    PubMed

    Langleben, D D; Schroeder, L; Maldjian, J A; Gur, R C; McDonald, S; Ragland, J D; O'Brien, C P; Childress, A R

    2002-03-01

    TheGuilty Knowledge Test (GKT) has been used extensively to model deception. An association between the brain evoked response potentials and lying on the GKT suggests that deception may be associated with changes in other measures of brain activity such as regional blood flow that could be anatomically localized with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Blood oxygenation level-dependent fMRI contrasts between deceptive and truthful responses were measured with a 4 Tesla scanner in 18 participants performing the GKT and analyzed using statistical parametric mapping. Increased activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the superior frontal gyrus (SFG), and the left premotor, motor, and anterior parietal cortex was specifically associated with deceptive responses. The results indicate that: (a) cognitive differences between deception and truth have neural correlates detectable by fMRI, (b) inhibition of the truthful response may be a basic component of intentional deception, and (c) ACC and SFG are components of the basic neural circuitry for deception. PMID:11848716

  20. The contribution of self-deceptive enhancement to display rules in the United States and Japan

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Joanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Socially desirable responding was tested as a mediator of American and Japanese college student differences in display rules. Americans endorsed the expression of anger, contempt, disgust, fear, happiness, and surprise more than the Japanese. Americans also exhibited more self-deceptive enhancement than the Japanese, and self-deceptive enhancement partially mediated country differences on the endorsement of anger, disgust, happiness, and surprise, but not contempt and fear. These findings highlight the role of self-deceptive enhancement in contributing to expressive display rules and support the point of view that socially desirable responding is a reflection of one’s personality and culture rather than a statistical nuisance. PMID:25400501

  1. Are computers effective lie detectors? A meta-analysis of linguistic cues to deception.

    PubMed

    Hauch, Valerie; Blandón-Gitlin, Iris; Masip, Jaume; Sporer, Siegfried L

    2015-11-01

    This meta-analysis investigates linguistic cues to deception and whether these cues can be detected with computer programs. We integrated operational definitions for 79 cues from 44 studies where software had been used to identify linguistic deception cues. These cues were allocated to six research questions. As expected, the meta-analyses demonstrated that, relative to truth-tellers, liars experienced greater cognitive load, expressed more negative emotions, distanced themselves more from events, expressed fewer sensory-perceptual words, and referred less often to cognitive processes. However, liars were not more uncertain than truth-tellers. These effects were moderated by event type, involvement, emotional valence, intensity of interaction, motivation, and other moderators. Although the overall effect size was small, theory-driven predictions for certain cues received support. These findings not only further our knowledge about the usefulness of linguistic cues to detect deception with computers in applied settings but also elucidate the relationship between language and deception. PMID:25387767

  2. Effects of deceptive packaging and product involvement on purchase intention: an elaboration likelihood model perspective.

    PubMed

    Lammers, H B

    2000-04-01

    From an Elaboration Likelihood Model perspective, it was hypothesized that postexposure awareness of deceptive packaging claims would have a greater negative effect on scores for purchase intention by consumers lowly involved rather than highly involved with a product (n = 40). Undergraduates who were classified as either highly or lowly (ns = 20 and 20) involved with M&Ms examined either a deceptive or non-deceptive package design for M&Ms candy and were subsequently informed of the deception employed in the packaging before finally rating their intention to purchase. As anticipated, highly deceived subjects who were low in involvement rated intention to purchase lower than their highly involved peers. Overall, the results attest to the robustness of the model and suggest that the model has implications beyond advertising effects and into packaging effects. PMID:10840911

  3. 7 CFR 70.41 - Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act or practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit Products Denial of Service § 70.41 Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act...

  4. 7 CFR 70.41 - Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act or practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit Products Denial of Service § 70.41 Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act...

  5. 7 CFR 70.41 - Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act or practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit Products Denial of Service § 70.41 Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act...

  6. 7 CFR 70.41 - Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act or practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit Products Denial of Service § 70.41 Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act...

  7. 16 CFR 254.6 - Deceptive use of diplomas, degrees, or certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... GUIDES FOR PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.6 Deceptive use of diplomas, degrees... control the recognition that will be accorded the diploma by institutions of higher education,...

  8. 16 CFR 254.6 - Deceptive use of diplomas, degrees, or certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... GUIDES FOR PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.6 Deceptive use of diplomas, degrees... control the recognition that will be accorded the diploma by institutions of higher education,...

  9. 16 CFR 254.6 - Deceptive use of diplomas, degrees, or certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... GUIDES FOR PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.6 Deceptive use of diplomas, degrees... control the recognition that will be accorded the diploma by institutions of higher education,...

  10. Behavioral cues to deception vs. topic incriminating potential in criminal confessions.

    PubMed

    Davis, Martha; Markus, Keith A; Walters, Stan B; Vorus, Neal; Connors, Brenda

    2005-12-01

    Coding statements of criminal suspects facilitated tests of four hypotheses about differences between behavioral cues to deception and the incriminating potential (IP) of the topic. Information from criminal investigations corroborated the veracity of 337 brief utterances from 28 videotaped confessions. A four-point rating of topic IP measured the degree of potential threat per utterance. Cues discriminating true vs. false comprised word/phrase repeats, speech disfluency spikes, nonverbal overdone, and protracted headshaking. Non-lexical sounds discriminated true vs. false in the reverse direction. Cues that distinguished IP only comprised speech speed, gesticulation amount, nonverbal animation level, soft weak vocal and "I (or we) just" qualifier. Adding "I don't know" to an answer discriminated both IP and true vs. false. The results supported hypothesis about differentiating deception cues from incriminating potential cues in high-stakes interviews, and suggested that extensive research on distinctions between stress-related cues and cues to deception would improve deception detection. PMID:16382356

  11. 16 CFR 254.6 - Deceptive use of diplomas, degrees, or certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... (c) It is deceptive for an Industry Member to offer or confer a high school diploma unless the... secondary school, and unless the student is informed, by a clear and conspicuous disclosure in writing...

  12. Drug promotion tactics-yet another pharma deception?

    PubMed

    Tagore, A

    2014-06-01

    There is no doubting that in recent times, the pharmaceutical industry has been met with growing scepticism and outright mistrust from many quarters. This is primarily in relation to the controversy surrounding many drug companies' decision to withhold negative clinical trial data from public scrutiny. The practice of non-disclosure relating to such negative findings leads to erroneously exaggerated claims of efficacy or minimised reports of harm in relation to a drug. In the UK, the All Trials Initiative is spearheading the lobbying of government, regulators and research bodies to impose mandatory disclosure of all clinical trial data. But what if these initiatives actually succeeded in achieving their goals? Would this really signify an absolute victory over the pharmaceutical industry's use of deceptive tactics to mislead doctors and patients alike? Or do they have other ways and means of manipulation? PMID:24837088

  13. New sophistry: self-deception in the nursing academy.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Bernard M

    2016-07-01

    In this essay, I advance an argument against the expansion and acceptance of postmodern metaphysical antirealist ideologies in the development of nursing theory in North America. I suggest mystical theoretical explanations of care, the rejection of empirical epistemology, and a return to divinity in nursing represent an intellectual dead end, as these ideas do little to help resolve real-world health issues and also negate the need for the academic discrimination of bad ideas. I examine some of the philosophical foundations of nursing theory and deconstruct some of the more preternatural theories that have become established as the dominant conventional wisdom in the academy. It is argued that this can be characterized as a form of self-deception, and overall has had a negative impact on advancement of the nursing profession and public health care. Reasons behind the widespread acceptance of these irrational theoretical stances in nursing and the ongoing support for mystical therapeutic interventions are explored. PMID:27203787

  14. Strategic {open_quote}deception{close_quote} initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, J.

    1993-11-01

    Veteran observers of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) were only mildly surprised by reports in late August by Tim Weiner in The New York Times and R. Jeffrey Smith in The Washington Post that the Homing Overlay Experiment (HOE) tests of 10 years ago involved deception. According to the reports, the fourth and final test, conducted June 10, 1984, and said at the time by officials to be a major success, has been rigged in several ways in a systematic program designed to fool the Kremlin. The news reports charge that it fooled Congress as well. The Pentagon claimed that the test was the world`s first successful direct-impact intercept of a mock Soviet reentry vehicle (RV).

  15. Sex differences in beliefs about cues to deception.

    PubMed

    Sato, Taku; Nihei, Yoshiaki

    2009-06-01

    Sex differences in beliefs among Japanese students about cues to deception were explored. 171 participants (91 women, 80 men) read a scenario in which a protagonist caused a fatal traffic accident and told a lie to avoid responsibility. Then participants rated how the protagonist's behaviors would change when lying. Women participants believed significantly more than men that a liar shows body cues (e.g., body touching, biting lips) associated with anxiety, and that a liar has unsuccessful impression management (e.g., fewer smiles, fewer facial expressions). Furthermore, the women's scores also indicated that a liar would increase the amount of information (e.g., longer response length, gestures) and show more nonfluent speech (e.g., speech disturbances, inconsistency of speech contents). PMID:19708402

  16. Effect of biofeedback on the detection of deception.

    PubMed

    Timm, H W

    1987-05-01

    This study examined the effect of audio electrodermal biofeedback training on the detection of deception. The subjects consisted of 68 volunteers enrolled in selected undergraduate college courses. Each subject was required to commit a mock murder, after which a polygraph examiner administered a series of five consecutive "lie detector" tests to ascertain the facts involved in his/her murder. Before testing, subjects were randomly assigned to either a biofeedback condition or to a control group. The detection efficiency associated with the subject's respiration responses was significantly enhanced by simultaneous auditory biofeedback given during the polygraph testing; however, the feedback's effect upon the detection rates associated with the electrodermal measures that it was reflecting was neither statistically significant nor in the same direction. The results support the premise that audio biofeedback might be useful in enhancing respiration's detection efficiency during polygraph testing. PMID:3598524

  17. Cognitive-load approaches to detect deception: searching for cognitive mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Blandón-Gitlin, Iris; Fenn, Elise; Masip, Jaume; Yoo, Aspen H

    2014-09-01

    A current focus in deception research is on developing cognitive-load approaches (CLAs) to detect deception. The aim is to improve lie detection with evidence-based and ecologically valid procedures. Although these approaches show great potential, research on cognitive processes or mechanisms explaining how they operate is lacking. Potential mechanisms underlying the most popular techniques advocated for field application are highlighted. Cognitive scientists are encouraged to conduct basic research that qualifies the 'cognitive' in these new approaches. PMID:25168448

  18. Cognitive-load approaches to detect deception: searching for cognitive mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Blandón-Gitlin, Iris; Fenn, Elise; Masip, Jaume; Yoo, Aspen H.

    2015-01-01

    A current focus in deception research is on developing cognitive-load approaches (CLAs) to detect deception. The aim is to improve lie detection with evidence-based and ecologically valid procedures. Although these approaches show great potential, research on cognitive processes or mechanisms explaining how they operate is lacking. Potential mechanisms underlying the most popular techniques advocated for field application are highlighted. Cognitive scientists are encouraged to conduct basic research that qualifies the ‘cognitive’ in these new approaches. PMID:25168448

  19. A functional MRI study of deception among offenders with antisocial personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Jiang, W; Liu, H; Liao, J; Ma, X; Rong, P; Tang, Y; Wang, W

    2013-08-01

    Deceit is a core feature of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), and the study of deception in ASPD has important implications for identifying the underlying mechanism of ASPD. A great deal of functional neuroimaging literature has described the neural correlates of deception in healthy volunteers, but there have been few imaging studies examining people with ASPD. The neural correlates of lie-telling in ASPD, and which specific brain activities are related to the capacity to lie, are unclear. In this study, 32 offenders who satisfied the Personality Diagnostic Questionaire-4 and PDI-IV (Personality Disorder Interview) criteria for ASPD were divided into three groups based on their capacity for deception, which was evaluated based on the deceitfulness criterion of the PDI-IV ASPD. All offenders underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while responding to questions in a truthful, inverse, or deceitful manner. We primarily created contrasts in the brain activities between truth-telling and lie-telling, and then computed the Pearson's correlation coefficients between activities contrasts of individual, i.e. BOLD (blood-oxygen-level-dependent) strength during deception minus that during truth-telling, and the capacity for deception. Our results indicated that the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex extending to the middle frontal gyrus, the left inferior parietal lobule, and the bilateral anterior cingulate gyrus/medial superior frontal gyrus were associated with deception among people with ASPD. As the capacity for deception increased, the contrasted brain activities of the above regions decreased. This study found that truthful and untruthful communications of ASPD subjects can be differentiated in terms of brain BOLD activities, and more importantly, this study is the first to use fMRI to discover that BOLD activities during deception are correlated with the capacity to lie. The latter finding might challenge the diagnostic accuracy of lie

  20. Efficacy of combining interview techniques in detecting deception related to bio-threat issues.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Charles A; Rabinowitz, Yaron; Leidy, Robert; Coric, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to assess the detecting deception efficacy of three well-validated "detecting deception" methods - i.e., forced choice testing (FCT), modified cognitive interviewing (MCI) and autobiographical implicit association testing (aIAT) - when applied to the issue of bio-threat. The detecting deception accuracies of FCT and MCI were 81% and 75%, respectively. Although the aIAT mean response times in block 5 differed significantly between deceptive and truthful persons, the classification accuracy was low. FCT alone reduced the group of 64 persons to 11 and detected 50% of the liars; the false positive rate was 9%. MCI alone reduced the group of 64 to 24 and detected 92% of the liars; the false positive rate was 54%. When FCT was paired with MCI, 75% of liars were detected and the false positive rate was 13%. Forced choice testing and MCI show promise as methods for detecting deception related to bio-threat under low-base-rate conditions. These methods took little time, enhanced the odds of detecting deceptive individuals and exhibited high positive likelihood ratios, suggesting that they have merit as screening tools. The aIAT required more time and was less accurate but may still serve as a useful screening tool. PMID:24549687

  1. Deception detection with behavioral, autonomic, and neural measures: Conceptual and methodological considerations that warrant modesty.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Ewout H; Verschuere, Bruno; Gamer, Matthias; Merckelbach, Harald; Ben-Shakhar, Gershon

    2016-05-01

    The detection of deception has attracted increased attention among psychological researchers, legal scholars, and ethicists during the last decade. Much of this has been driven by the possibility of using neuroimaging techniques for lie detection. Yet, neuroimaging studies addressing deception detection are clouded by lack of conceptual clarity and a host of methodological problems that are not unique to neuroimaging. We review the various research paradigms and the dependent measures that have been adopted to study deception and its detection. In doing so, we differentiate between basic research designed to shed light on the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying deceptive behavior and applied research aimed at detecting lies. We also stress the distinction between paradigms attempting to detect deception directly and those attempting to establish involvement by detecting crime-related knowledge, and discuss the methodological difficulties and threats to validity associated with each paradigm. Our conclusion is that the main challenge of future research is to find paradigms that can isolate cognitive factors associated with deception, rather than the discovery of a unique (brain) correlate of lying. We argue that the Comparison Question Test currently applied in many countries has weak scientific validity, which cannot be remedied by using neuroimaging measures. Other paradigms are promising, but the absence of data from ecologically valid studies poses a challenge for legal admissibility of their outcomes. PMID:26787599

  2. Differentiation of truthful and deceptive criminal suspects in Behavior Analysis Interviews.

    PubMed

    Horvath, F; Jayne, B; Buckley, J

    1994-05-01

    The Behavior Analysis Interview (BAI) is a commonly used procedure designed to assist investigators in distinguishing between suspects who are concealing their involvement in a criminal event (deceptive) from those who are not (truthful). During a BAI a protocol of questions is asked and suspects' verbal responses and accompanying nonverbal behaviors and attitudinal characteristics are assessed. Based on this assessment the likelihood of involvement in the criminal event is determined. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness with which trained evaluators were able to distinguish between truthful and deceptive suspects undergoing BAIs. Sixty videotaped interviews, 30 of truthful and 30 of deceptive suspects, were observed by four evaluators, each of whom independently scored suspect's behaviors and attitudes and judged the suspect's truthfulness. The results showed that, excluding inconclusive decisions, evaluators' average accuracy on truthful suspects was 91% and on deceptive suspects, 80%. Suspects' status did not affect confidence of evaluators' decisions but confidence was greater when correct as opposed to incorrect calls were made. Deceptive suspects manifested "theoretically" predicted behaviors and attitudes of "deceptiveness" to a significantly greater degree than did truthful suspects. The BAI appears to be useful for investigative purposes in order to differentiate between suspects who are concealing involvement in a criminal offense from those who are not. PMID:8006624

  3. The motor cost of telling lies: electrocortical signatures and personality foundations of spontaneous deception.

    PubMed

    Panasiti, Maria Serena; Pavone, Enea F; Mancini, Alessandra; Merla, Arcangelo; Grisoni, Luigi; Aglioti, Salvatore M

    2014-01-01

    Although universal, lying is generally considered immoral behavior. Most neuroscience studies on lying sanction or instruct deceptive behaviors and thus might fail to acknowledge the significance of lie-related moral conflicts. By combining electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings with a novel paradigm in which participants decided freely whether to deceive another person, we have generated indices of the cognitive (reaction times and stimulus-locked event-related components) and moral (readiness potential and its correlations with deception-related personality traits) cost of spontaneous deception. Our data fail to support the consensus that deception is cognitively more demanding than truth telling, suggesting that spontaneous deception, as opposed to lying out of requirement, might not mandate additional cognitive workload. Interestingly, lying was associated with decreased motor readiness, an event-related potential (ERP) component that is linked to motor preparation of self-determined actions and modulated when we face moral dilemmas. Notably, this reduction was less extensive in manipulative participants and greater in those who cared highly about their impression management. Our study expands on previous findings on deception by associating a cortical marker of reduced preparation to act with individual differences in moral cognition. PMID:24979665

  4. An examination of motor and perceptual contributions to the recognition of deception from others' actions.

    PubMed

    Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen; van der Kamp, John; van Kesteren, Joep

    2010-02-01

    Most empirical studies thus far have confounded motor and perceptual experience when examining their contributions to the recognition of deceptive and non-deceptive intentions from another person's movements. In the present study, we manipulated viewing perspective as an additional demarcation to examine the involvement of motor and perceptual experience in detecting deceptive intentions. Expert handball players (N=26), expert handball goalkeepers (N=19), and a group of novices (N=20) were required to indicate whether a penalty-taker produced a true or a fake shot. The clips were shown from a front view (i.e., a goalkeeper's customary viewing perspective) and a (more neutral) side view, and ended one frame before the ball would be released from the hand. Results indicated that expert players and goalkeepers outperformed novices in detecting deceptive intentions, but there were no differences between field players and goalkeepers. Recognition of deceptive actions was more accurate from the goalkeeper's front view than from the side view. We conclude that neither the degree of motor experience nor the degree of perceptual experience can, in themselves, account for explaining successful recognition of deceptive actions. PMID:19892422

  5. Temporal view of the costs and benefits of self-deception

    PubMed Central

    Chance, Zoë; Norton, Michael I.; Gino, Francesca; Ariely, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have documented many cases in which individuals rationalize their regrettable actions. Four experiments examine situations in which people go beyond merely explaining away their misconduct to actively deceiving themselves. We find that those who exploit opportunities to cheat on tests are likely to engage in self-deception, inferring that their elevated performance is a sign of intelligence. This short-term psychological benefit of self-deception, however, can come with longer-term costs: when predicting future performance, participants expect to perform equally well—a lack of awareness that persists even when these inflated expectations prove costly. We show that although people expect to cheat, they do not foresee self-deception, and that factors that reinforce the benefits of cheating enhance self-deception. More broadly, the findings of these experiments offer evidence that debates about the relative costs and benefits of self-deception are informed by adopting a temporal view that assesses the cumulative impact of self-deception over time. PMID:21383150

  6. Neural correlates of spontaneous deception: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)study.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiao Pan; Gao, Xiaoqing; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang

    2013-03-01

    Deception is commonly seen in everyday social interactions. However, most of the knowledge about the underlying neural mechanism of deception comes from studies where participants were instructed when and how to lie. To study spontaneous deception, we designed a guessing game modeled after Greene and Paxton (2009) "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(30), 12506-12511", in which lying is the only way to achieve the performance level needed to end the game. We recorded neural responses during the game using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). We found that when compared to truth-telling, spontaneous deception, like instructed deception, engenders greater involvement of such prefrontal regions as the left superior frontal gyrus. We also found that the correct-truth trials produced greater neural activities in the left middle frontal gyrus and right superior frontal gyrus than the incorrect-truth trials, suggesting the involvement of the reward system. Furthermore, the present study confirmed the feasibility of using NIRS to study spontaneous deception. PMID:23340482

  7. Federal Trade Commission's authority to regulate marketing to children: deceptive vs. unfair rulemaking.

    PubMed

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2011-01-01

    Food and beverage marketing directed at children is of increasing concern to the public health and legal communities. The new administration at the Federal Trade Commission and abundant science on the topic make it a particularly opportune time for the government to reconsider regulating marketing directed at youth. This Article analyzes the Commission's authority to regulate food and beverage marketing directed at children under its jurisdiction over unfair and deceptive acts and practices to determine which avenue is most viable. The author finds that the Federal Trade Commission has the authority to regulate deceptive marketing practices directed at vulnerable populations. Although the Commission can issue individual orders, its remedial power to initiate rules would better address the pervasiveness of modern marketing practices. The Commission does not currently have the power to regulate unfair marketing to children; however, even if Congress reinstated this authority, the Commission's authority over deceptive marketing may be preferable to regulate these practices. Deceptive communications are not protected by the First Amendment and the deceptive standard matches the science associated with marketing to children. The Federal Trade Commission has the authority to initiate rulemaking in the realm of food and beverage marketing to children as deceptive communications in interstate commerce, in violation of the Federal Trade Commission Act. However, to effectuate this process, Congress would need to grant the Commission the authority to do so under the Administrative Procedures Act. PMID:22145524

  8. An Anticipatory and Deceptive AI Utilizing Bayesian Belief Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, Joe E; Allgood, Glenn O; Olama, Mohammed M; Saffold, JAy

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. military defines antiterrorism as the defensive posture taken against terrorist threats. Antiterrorism includes fostering awareness of potential threats, deterring aggressors, developing security measures, planning for future events, interdicting an event in progress, and ultimately mitigating and managing the consequences of an event. Recent events highlight the need for efficient tools for training our military and homeland security officers for anticipating threats posed by terrorists. These tools need to be easy enough so that they are readily usable without substantial training, but still maintain the complexity to allow for a level of deceptive reasoning on the part of the opponent. To meet this need, we propose to integrate a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) model for threat anticipation and deceptive reasoning into training simulation environments currently utilized by several organizations within the Department of Defense (DoD). BBNs have the ability to deal with various types of uncertainties; such as identities, capabilities, target attractiveness, and the combinations of the previous. They also allow for disparate types of data to be fused in a coherent, analytically defensible, and understandable manner. A BBN has been developed by ORNL uses a network engineering process that treats the probability distributions of each node with in the broader context of the system development effort as a whole, and not in isolation. The network will be integrated into the Research Network Inc,(RNI) developed Game Distributed Interactive Simulation (GDIS) as a smart artificial intelligence module. GDIS is utilized by several DoD and civilian organizations as a distributed training tool for a multiplicity of reasons. It has garnered several awards for its realism, ease of use, and popularity. One area that it still has room to excel in, as most video training tools do, is in the area of artificial intelligence of opponent combatants. It is believed that by

  9. Deception and Manipulation: The Arms of Leishmania, a Successful Parasite

    PubMed Central

    Cecílio, Pedro; Pérez-Cabezas, Begoña; Santarém, Nuno; Maciel, Joana; Rodrigues, Vasco; Cordeiro da Silva, Anabela

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania spp. are intracellular parasitic protozoa responsible for a group of neglected tropical diseases, endemic in 98 countries around the world, called leishmaniasis. These parasites have a complex digenetic life cycle requiring a susceptible vertebrate host and a permissive insect vector, which allow their transmission. The clinical manifestations associated with leishmaniasis depend on complex interactions between the parasite and the host immune system. Consequently, leishmaniasis can be manifested as a self-healing cutaneous affliction or a visceral pathology, being the last one fatal in 85–90% of untreated cases. As a result of a long host–parasite co-evolutionary process, Leishmania spp. developed different immunomodulatory strategies that are essential for the establishment of infection. Only through deception and manipulation of the immune system, Leishmania spp. can complete its life cycle and survive. The understanding of the mechanisms associated with immune evasion and disease progression is essential for the development of novel therapies and vaccine approaches. Here, we revise how the parasite manipulates cell death and immune responses to survive and thrive in the shadow of the immune system. PMID:25368612

  10. Automatic decoding of facial movements reveals deceptive pain expressions

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Littlewort, Gwen C.; Frank, Mark G.; Lee, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Summary In highly social species such as humans, faces have evolved to convey rich information for social interaction, including expressions of emotions and pain [1–3]. Two motor pathways control facial movement [4–7]. A subcortical extrapyramidal motor system drives spontaneous facial expressions of felt emotions. A cortical pyramidal motor system controls voluntary facial expressions. The pyramidal system enables humans to simulate facial expressions of emotions not actually experienced. Their simulation is so successful that they can deceive most observers [8–11]. Machine vision may, however, be able to distinguish deceptive from genuine facial signals by identifying the subtle differences between pyramidally and extrapyramidally driven movements. Here we show that human observers could not discriminate real from faked expressions of pain better than chance, and after training, improved accuracy to a modest 55%. However a computer vision system that automatically measures facial movements and performs pattern recognition on those movements attained 85% accuracy. The machine system’s superiority is attributable to its ability to differentiate the dynamics of genuine from faked expressions. Thus by revealing the dynamics of facial action through machine vision systems, our approach has the potential to elucidate behavioral fingerprints of neural control systems involved in emotional signaling. PMID:24656830

  11. Dissociative identity disorder: adaptive deception of self and others.

    PubMed

    Beahrs, J O

    1994-01-01

    Dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality) is increasingly diagnosed, often follows childhood trauma, and is characterized by rigidification of phenomena that resemble hypnosis. To interpret dissociated aspects of selfhood as autonomous entities is a useful heuristic; but when taken too literally, it leads to three kinds of anomaly: (1) legal: dissociators remain culpable for misdeeds carried out beyond apparent awareness or control; (2) clinical: legitimization sometimes leads not to relief, but to escalating cycles of regressive dependency; and (3) scientific: the form of dissociated entities varies with how they are defined, in ways that are intrinsically motivated and clinically manipulable. These anomalies yield to an evolutionary perspective that views dissociative identity disorder as an evolved strategy of adaptive deception of self and others; e.g., a beaten subordinate avoids further retribution by "pleading illness." Such a deceit best avoids detection when fully experienced; through its intensity and persistence, it becomes real at a new level. One's basic competencies remain intact, however, and are the source of the anomalies described. They can be clinically accessed and empowered, providing the key to therapeutic change when dissociative processes are problematic. Overall, despite clear impairment in subjective awareness and volition, dissociative-disordered individuals are best held fully accountable for the consequences of their actions. PMID:7949411

  12. Pollinator Behaviour on a Food-Deceptive Orchid Calypso bulbosa and Coflowering Species

    PubMed Central

    Tuomi, Juha; Lämsä, Juho; Wannas, Lauri; Abeli, Thomas; Jäkäläniemi, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Food deception as a pollination strategy has inspired many studies over the last few decades. Pollinator deception has evolved in many orchids possibly to enhance outcrossing. Food-deceptive orchids usually have low pollinator visitation rates as compared to rewarding species. They may benefit in visitations from the presence (magnet-species hypothesis) or, alternatively, absence of coflowering rewarding species (competition hypothesis). We present data on pollinator visitations on a deceptive, terrestrial orchid Calypso bulbosa, a species with a single flower per plant and whose flowering period partly overlaps with rewarding, early flowering willows (Salix sp.) and later-flowering bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus). When surveying inactive bumblebee queens on willows in cool weather, about 7% of them carried Calypso pollinia. Most common bumblebee species appeared to visit and thus pollinate Calypso. Bumblebees typically visited one to three Calypso flowers before flying away, providing some support for the outcrossing hypothesis. We conclude that, regarding the pollinations strategy, both magnet-species and competition hypotheses have a role in the pollination of Calypso, but on different spatial scales. On a large scale rewarding species are important for attracting pollinators to a given region, but on a small scale absence of competition ensures sufficient pollination rate for the deceptive orchid. PMID:25861675

  13. Subliminal Salience Search Illustrated: EEG Identity and Deception Detection on the Fringe of Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Howard; Filetti, Marco; Janssen, Dirk; Su, Li; Alsufyani, Abdulmajeed; Wyble, Brad

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel deception detection system based on Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP). One motivation for the new method is to present stimuli on the fringe of awareness, such that it is more difficult for deceivers to confound the deception test using countermeasures. The proposed system is able to detect identity deception (by using the first names of participants) with a 100% hit rate (at an alpha level of 0.05). To achieve this, we extended the classic Event-Related Potential (ERP) techniques (such as peak-to-peak) by applying Randomisation, a form of Monte Carlo resampling, which we used to detect deception at an individual level. In order to make the deployment of the system simple and rapid, we utilised data from three electrodes only: Fz, Cz and Pz. We then combined data from the three electrodes using Fisher's method so that each participant was assigned a single p-value, which represents the combined probability that a specific participant was being deceptive. We also present subliminal salience search as a general method to determine what participants find salient by detecting breakthrough into conscious awareness using EEG. PMID:23372697

  14. Research on the laser angle deception jamming technology of laser countermeasure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shi-wei; Chen, Wen-jian; Gao, Wei; Duan, Yuan-yuan

    2015-10-01

    In recent years , laser guided weapons behave very well at destroying the military goals in the local wars, the single-shot probability, effective range and hitting precision getting better. And the semi-active laser guided weapons are the most widely used laser guided weapons. In order to improve the viability and protect important military goals, it's necessary to study the technology to against the semi-active guided weapons. This paper studies the working principle, the advantages and disadvantages of the semi-active guided weapons at first, and analyze the possibility of laser angle deception jamming system working. Then it analyzes the working principle and process of laser angle deception jamming technology. Finally it designs a half-real simulation system of laser angle deception jamming, which consists of semi-active laser guided weapons simulation system and laser angle deception jamming system. The simulation system demonstrates the working process of the laser angle deception jamming system. This paper provides fundamental base for the research on the countermeasure technology of semi-active laser guided weapons.

  15. Fledgling Theories of Mind: Deception as a Marker of Three-Year-Olds' Understanding of False Belief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hala, Suzanne; And Others

    1991-01-01

    To determine whether children younger than four have an authentic theory of mind, studies relying on deceptive hiding measures for indexing false belief were carried out. Children accurately anticipated the impact of deceptive strategies on the behavior and belief of opponents and used information management to help and hinder others' efforts. (BC)

  16. Deception Dissociates from False Belief Reasoning in Deaf Children: Implications for the Implicit versus Explicit Theory of Mind Distinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Villiers, Peter A.; de Villiers, Jill G.

    2012-01-01

    Deception is a controversial aspect of theory of mind, and researchers disagree about whether it entails an understanding of the false beliefs of one's opponent. The present study asks whether children with delayed language and delayed explicit false belief reasoning can succeed on explicit deception tasks. Participants were 45 orally taught deaf…

  17. The volumetric flux through Deception Pass, Washington and its effects on the circulation in the Whidbey Basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinze, K. R.

    2002-05-01

    The volumetric flux through Deception Pass, Washington will be determined by using tidal height differences between Bowman and Cornet Bays, which are located on the seaward and landward sides of Deception Pass respectively in Deception Pass State Park. Hydrolab sensors for measuring temperature, salinity and fluid depth will be attached to public boat docks in each of these bays. The numerical Puget Sound Regional Synthesis Model, PRISM, will be run with and without the flux through Deception Pass and compared to determine theoretically whether or not the flow through Deception Pass plays a significant role in the circulation of the Whidbey Basin, which could affect the circulation in the northern part of the Main Basin known as the Triple Junction. This could influence water movement near the new sewer outfall that King County is proposing to build in that area.

  18. Strong, but Wrong: Lay People’s and Police Officers’ Beliefs about Verbal and Nonverbal Cues to Deception

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the beliefs of students and police officers about cues to deception. A total of 95 police officers and 104 undergraduate students filled out a questionnaire addressing beliefs about cues to deception. Twenty-eight verbal cues were included in the questionnaire, all extracted from verbal credibility assessment tools (i.e., CBCA, RM, and SCAN). We investigated to what extent beliefs about nonverbal and verbal cues of deception differed between lay people (students) and police officers, and whether these beliefs were in agreement with objective cues known from research. Both students and police officers believed the usual stereotypical, but non-diagnostic (nonverbal) cues such as gaze aversion and increased movement to be indicative of deception. Yet, participants were less inclined to overestimate the relationship between verbal cues and deception and their beliefs fitted better with what we know from research. The implications of these findings for practice are discussed. PMID:27258014

  19. Temporal trends and bioavailability assessment of heavy metals in the sediments of Deception Bay, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Brady, James P; Ayoko, Godwin A; Martens, Wayde N; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2014-12-15

    Thirteen sites in Deception Bay, Queensland, Australia were sampled three times over a period of 7 months and assessed for contamination by a range of heavy metals, primarily As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Hg. Fraction analysis, enrichment factors and Principal Components Analysis-Absolute Principal Component Scores (PCA-APCS) analysis were conducted in order to identify the potential bioavailability of these elements of concern and their sources. Hg and Te were identified as the elements of highest enrichment in Deception Bay while marine sediments, shipping and antifouling agents were identified as the sources of the Weak Acid Extractable Metals (WE-M), with antifouling agents showing long residence time for mercury contamination. This has significant implications for the future of monitoring and regulation of heavy metal contamination within Deception Bay. PMID:25440195

  20. Vulnerability of older adults to deception in prison and nonprison contexts.

    PubMed

    Bond, Gary D; Thompson, Laura A; Malloy, Daniel M

    2005-03-01

    Media reports frequently depict older adults as victims of deception. The public perceives these stories as particularly salient because older adults are seen as fragile victims taken advantage of because of trusting behaviors. This developmental investigation of deception detection examines older and younger adults interacting in 2 contexts, prison and the "free world," to discover whether older adults are vulnerable to deception. Younger prisoners were found to be lie biased. Older adults were better able to discriminate lies than younger adults, and this effect was localized primarily to older female adults. Findings indicate that discriminability strongly increases from younger to older age for women, whereas men do not show an improvement, as age increases, in making decisions about statement veracity. PMID:15769214

  1. Can simultaneously acquired electrodermal activity improve accuracy of fMRI detection of deception?

    PubMed

    Kozel, F Andrew; Johnson, Kevin A; Laken, Steven J; Grenesko, Emily L; Smith, Joshua A; Walker, John; George, Mark S

    2009-01-01

    Observation of changes in autonomic arousal was one of the first methodologies used to detect deception. Electrodermal activity (EDA) is a peripheral measure of autonomic arousal and one of the primary channels used in polygraph exams. In an attempt to develop a more central measure to identify lies, the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to detect deception is being investigated. We wondered if adding EDA to our fMRI analysis would improve our diagnostic ability. For our approach, however, adding EDA did not improve the accuracy in a laboratory-based deception task. In testing for brain regions that replicated as correlates of EDA, we did find significant associations in right orbitofrontal and bilateral anterior cingulate regions. Further work is required to test whether EDA improves accuracy in other testing formats or with higher levels of jeopardy. PMID:18633826

  2. Understanding of literal truth, ironic criticism, and deceptive praise following childhood head injury.

    PubMed

    Dennis, M; Purvis, K; Barnes, M A; Wilkinson, M; Winner, E

    2001-07-01

    Children with closed head injury (CHI) have semantic-pragmatic language problems that include difficulty in understanding and producing both literal and nonliteral statements. For example, they are relatively insensitive to some of the social messages in nonstandard communication as well as to words that code distinctions among mental states. This suggests that they may have difficulty with comprehension tasks involving first- and second-order intentionality, such as those involved in understanding irony and deception. We studied how 6- to 15-year-old children, typically developing or with CHI, interpret scenarios involving literal truth, ironic criticism, and deceptive praise. Children with severe CHI had overall poorer mastery of the task. Even mild CHI impaired the ability to understand the intentionality underlying deceptive praise. CHI, especially biologically significant CHI, appears to place children at risk for failure to understand language as externalized thought. PMID:11412012

  3. When deception becomes easy: the effects of task switching and goal neglect on the truth proportion effect.

    PubMed

    Van Bockstaele, Bram; Wilhelm, Christine; Meijer, Ewout; Debey, Evelyne; Verschuere, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Lying is typically more cognitively demanding than truth telling. Yet, recent cognitive models of lying propose that lying can be just as easy as truth telling, depending on contextual factors. In line with this idea, research has shown that the cognitive cost of deception decreases when people frequently respond deceptively, while it increases when people rarely respond deceptively (i.e., the truth proportion effect). In the present study, we investigated two possible underlying mechanisms of the truth proportion effect. In Experiment 1 (N = 121), we controlled for the impact of switch costs by keeping the number of switches between deceptive and truthful responses constant. We found that people who often responded deceptively made fewer errors when responding deceptively than people who only occasionally responded deceptively, replicating the truth proportion effect. Thus, while the truth proportion effect in earlier studies may be partially driven by the cost of switching between truthful and deceptive responses, we still found evidence for the truth proportion effect while controlling for switch costs. In Experiment 2 (N = 68), we assessed whether the truth proportion effect is influenced by goal neglect. According to this view, the truth proportion effect should be reduced if participants are cued to maintain the task goals, while it should be larger when participants are allowed to neglect the task goals. In line with this hypothesis, we found a smaller truth proportion effect when participants were cued with the task goals compared to when they were not cued. This study shows that the truth proportion effect is influenced by goal neglect, implying that frequent deceptive responding strengthens the goal of responding deceptively. Our findings imply that the accuracy of lie detection tests could be increased by using a majority of truth-items (i.e., induce the truth proportion effect), and that the truth proportion effect should be maximized by (1) increasing

  4. When deception becomes easy: the effects of task switching and goal neglect on the truth proportion effect

    PubMed Central

    Van Bockstaele, Bram; Wilhelm, Christine; Meijer, Ewout; Debey, Evelyne; Verschuere, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Lying is typically more cognitively demanding than truth telling. Yet, recent cognitive models of lying propose that lying can be just as easy as truth telling, depending on contextual factors. In line with this idea, research has shown that the cognitive cost of deception decreases when people frequently respond deceptively, while it increases when people rarely respond deceptively (i.e., the truth proportion effect). In the present study, we investigated two possible underlying mechanisms of the truth proportion effect. In Experiment 1 (N = 121), we controlled for the impact of switch costs by keeping the number of switches between deceptive and truthful responses constant. We found that people who often responded deceptively made fewer errors when responding deceptively than people who only occasionally responded deceptively, replicating the truth proportion effect. Thus, while the truth proportion effect in earlier studies may be partially driven by the cost of switching between truthful and deceptive responses, we still found evidence for the truth proportion effect while controlling for switch costs. In Experiment 2 (N = 68), we assessed whether the truth proportion effect is influenced by goal neglect. According to this view, the truth proportion effect should be reduced if participants are cued to maintain the task goals, while it should be larger when participants are allowed to neglect the task goals. In line with this hypothesis, we found a smaller truth proportion effect when participants were cued with the task goals compared to when they were not cued. This study shows that the truth proportion effect is influenced by goal neglect, implying that frequent deceptive responding strengthens the goal of responding deceptively. Our findings imply that the accuracy of lie detection tests could be increased by using a majority of truth-items (i.e., induce the truth proportion effect), and that the truth proportion effect should be maximized by (1) increasing

  5. An Electroencephalography Network and Connectivity Analysis for Deception in Instructed Lying Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Ng, Wu Chun; Ng, Khoon Siong; Yu, Ke; Wu, Tiecheng; Li, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Deception is an impactful social event that has been the focus of an abundance of researches over recent decades. In this paper, an electroencephalography (EEG) study is presented regarding the cognitive processes of an instructed liar/truth-teller during the time window of stimulus (question) delivery period (SDP) prior to their deceptive/truthful responses towards questions related to authentic (WE: with prior experience) and fictional experience (NE: no prior experience). To investigate deception in non-experienced events, the subjects were given stimuli in a mock interview scenario that induced them to fabricate lies. To analyze the data, frequency domain network and connectivity analysis was performed in the source space in order to provide a more systematic level understanding of deception during SDP. This study reveals several groups of neuronal generators underlying both the instructed lying (IL) and the instructed truth-telling (IT) conditions for both tasks during the SDP. Despite the similarities existed in these group components, significant differences were found in the intra- and inter-group connectivity between the IL and IT conditions in either task. Additionally, the response time was found to be positively correlated with the clustering coefficient of the inferior frontal gyrus (44R) in the WE-IL condition and positively correlated with the clustering coefficient of the precuneus (7L) and the angular gyrus (39R) in the WE-IT condition. However, the response time was found to be marginally negatively correlated with the clustering coefficient of the secondary auditory cortex (42L) in the NE-IL condition and negatively correlated with the clustering coefficient of the somatosensory association cortex (5L, R) in the NE-IT condition. Therefore, these results provide complementary and intuitive evidence for the differences between the IL and IT conditions in SDP for two types of deception tasks, thus elucidating the electrophysiological mechanisms

  6. Extended Research on Detection of Deception Using Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2006-06-01

    A system that captures and analyzes volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from skin surfaces may offer a viable alternative method to the polygraph instrument currently in use for detecting deception in U.S. government settings. Like the involuntary autonomic central nervous system response data gathered during polygraph testing, VOC emissions from the skin may provide data that can be used to detect stress caused by deception. Detecting VOCs, then, may present a noninvasive, non-intrusive method for observing, recording, and quantifying evidence of stress or emotional change.

  7. Lay attitudes toward deception in medicine: Theoretical considerations and empirical evidence

    PubMed Central

    Pugh, Jonathan; Kahane, Guy; Maslen, Hannah; Savulescu, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: There is a lack of empirical data on lay attitudes toward different sorts of deception in medicine. However, lay attitudes toward deception should be taken into account when we consider whether deception is ever permissible in a medical context. The objective of this study was to examine lay attitudes of U.S. citizens toward different sorts of deception across different medical contexts. Methods: A one-time online survey was administered to U.S. users of the Amazon “Mechanical Turk” website. Participants were asked to answer questions regarding a series of vignettes depicting different sorts of deception in medical care, as well as a question regarding their general attitudes toward truth-telling. Results: Of the 200 respondents, the majority found the use of placebos in different contexts to be acceptable following partial disclosure but found it to be unacceptable if it involved outright lying. Also, 55.5% of respondents supported the use of sham surgery in clinical research, although 55% claimed that it would be unacceptable to deceive patients in this research, even if this would improve the quality of the data from the study. Respondents supported fully informing patients about distressing medical information in different contexts, especially when the patient is suffering from a chronic condition. In addition, 42.5% of respondents believed that it is worse to deceive someone by providing the person with false information than it is to do so by giving the person true information that is likely to lead them to form a false belief, without telling them other important information that shows it to be false. However, 41.5% believed that the two methods of deception were morally equivalent. Conclusions: Respondents believed that some forms of deception were acceptable in some circumstances. While the majority of our respondents opposed outright lying in medical contexts, they were prepared to support partial disclosure and the use of

  8. How Do Incentives Lead to Deception in Advisor–Client Interactions? Explicit and Implicit Strategies of Self-Interested Deception

    PubMed Central

    Mackinger, Barbara; Jonas, Eva

    2012-01-01

    When confronted with important questions we like to rely on the advice of experts. However, uncertainty can occur regarding advisors’ motivation to pursue self-interest and deceive the client. This can especially occur when the advisor has the possibility to receive an incentive by recommending a certain alternative. We investigated how the possibility to pursue self-interest led to explicit strategic behavior (bias in recommendation and transfer of information) and to implicit strategic behavior (bias in information processing: evaluation and memory). In Study 1 explicit strategic behavior could be identified: self-interested advisors recommended more often the self-serving alternative and transferred more self-interested biased information to their client compared to the advisor without specific interest. Also deception through implicit strategic behavior was identified: self-interested advisors biased the evaluation of information less in favor of the client compared to the control group. Self-interested advisors also remembered conflicting information regarding their self-interest worse compared to advisors without self-interest. In Study 2 beside self-interest we assessed accountability which interacted with self-interest and increased the bias: when accountability was high advisor’s self-interest led to higher explicit strategic behavior (less transfer of conflicting information), and to higher implicit strategic behavior (devaluated and remembered less conflicting information). Both studies identified implicit strategic behavior as mediator which can explain the relation between self-interest and explicit strategic behavior. Results of both studies suggest that self-interested advisors use explicit and implicit strategic behavior to receive an incentive. Thus, advisors do not only consciously inform their clients “self-interested,” but they are influenced unconsciously by biased information processing – a tendency which even increased with high

  9. Fork-tailed drongos use deceptive mimicked alarm calls to steal food.

    PubMed

    Flower, Tom

    2011-05-22

    Despite the prevalence of vocal mimicry in animals, few functions for this behaviour have been shown. I propose a novel hypothesis that false mimicked alarm calls could be used deceptively to scare other species and steal their food. Studies have previously suggested that animals use their own species-specific alarm calls to steal food. However none have shown conclusively that these false alarms are deceptive, or that mimicked alarm calls are used in this manner. Here, I show that wild fork-tailed drongos (Dicrurus adsimilis) make both drongo-specific and mimicked false alarm calls when watching target species handling food, in response to which targets flee to cover abandoning their food. The drongo-specific and mimicked calls made in false alarms were structurally indistinguishable from calls made during true alarms at predators by drongos and other species. Furthermore, I demonstrate by playback experiments that two of these species, meerkats (Suricata suricatta) and pied babblers (Turdoides bicolor), are deceived by both drongo-specific and mimicked false alarm calls. These results provide the first conclusive evidence that false alarm calls are deceptive and demonstrate a novel function for vocal mimicry. This work also provides valuable insight into the benefits of deploying variable mimetic signals in deceptive communication. PMID:21047861

  10. Bad drives psychological reactions, but good propels behavior: responses to honesty and deception.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cynthia S; Galinsky, Adam D; Murnighan, J Keith

    2009-05-01

    Research across disciplines suggests that bad is stronger than good and that individuals punish deception more than they reward honesty. However, methodological issues in previous research limit the latter conclusion. Three experiments resolved these issues and consistently found the opposite pattern: Individuals rewarded honesty more frequently and intensely than they punished deception. Experiment 2 extended these counterintuitive findings by revealing a divergence between evaluation and behavior: Evaluative reactions to deception were stronger than those to honesty, but behavioral intentions in response to honesty were stronger than those in response to deception. In addition, individuals wanted to avoid deceivers more than they wanted to approach honest actors. Experiment 3 found that punishment, but not reward, frequencies were sensitive to costs. Moderated-mediation tests revealed the role of different psychological mechanisms: Negative affect drove punishments, whereas perceived trustworthiness drove rewards. Overall, bad appears to be stronger than good in influencing psychological reactions, but good seems to be stronger than bad in influencing behavior. PMID:19476593