Science.gov

Sample records for deception

  1. Mathematical analysis of deception.

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Deanna Tamae Koike; Durgin, Nancy Ann

    2003-10-01

    This report describes the results of a three year research project about the use of deception in information protection. The work involved a collaboration between Sandia employees and students in the Center for Cyber Defenders (CCD) and at the University of California at Davis. This report includes a review of the history of deception, a discussion of some cognitive issues, an overview of previous work in deception, the results of experiments on the effects of deception on an attacker, and a mathematical model of error types associated with deception in computer systems.

  2. Deception and self-deception in health care.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Jan M A; Timmins, Fiona

    2016-07-01

    Deception is part of the natural repertoire of adaptive behaviours in many organisms. In humans we see it in all domains of human activity including health care. Within health care, deception can be a matter of concern, but it is also used to protect patients, for instance against overwhelming and negative diagnostics. This paper demonstrates that deception and self-deception are closely interlinked and that self-deception facilitates deception. Furthermore, self-deception tends to be used to reduce the discomfort we feel when we are dishonest (cognitive dissonance). The paper includes references to core psychological mechanisms and ethical aspects. PMID:27245269

  3. Defining Acts of Journalistic Deception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Deni; Culver, Charles M.

    To determine when, if ever, deceptive acts can be morally justified in investigative reporting, it is important to distinguish a deceptive act that is morally justified from an act that is not deceptive in the first place. This paper seeks to provide an account of what counts as deception and identify the kinds of journalistic practice that are…

  4. Psychopathy and deception detection.

    PubMed

    Martin, Krystle; Leach, Amy-May

    2013-05-01

    Researchers have found that most people have difficulty detecting deception; however, certain individuals are able to consistently detect deception above the level of chance. This study examined whether psychopathic traits are related to deception detection. Undergraduate participants (n = 117) indicated whether individuals in video clips were lying or telling the truth and completed a measure of psychopathy. Overall, participants' performance was significantly greater than chance. Scores on the psychopathy measure were unrelated to participants' performance and their confidence on the lie detection task. Possible explanations for the findings are briefly discussed. PMID:24343941

  5. Medicine, lies and deceptions

    PubMed Central

    Benn, P.

    2001-01-01

    This article offers a qualified defence of the view that there is a moral difference between telling lies to one's patients, and deceiving them without lying. However, I take issue with certain arguments offered by Jennifer Jackson in support of the same conclusion. In particular, I challenge her claim that to deny that there is such a moral difference makes sense only within a utilitarian framework, and I cast doubt on the aptness of some of her examples of non-lying deception. But I argue that lies have a greater tendency to damage trust than does non-lying deception, and suggest that since many doctors do believe there is a moral boundary between the two types of deception, encouraging them to violate that boundary may have adverse general effects on their moral sensibilities. Key Words: Lies • non-lying deception • concealment PMID:11314158

  6. Proton NMR Spectra: Deceptively Simple and Deceptively Complex Examples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurst, J. E.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes relatively simple nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments that demonstrate unexpected results of the deceptively simple and deceptively complex types. Background information, experimental procedures, and typical results obtained are included. (JN)

  7. Accuracy of deception judgments.

    PubMed

    Bond, Charles F; DePaulo, Bella M

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the accuracy of deception judgments, synthesizing research results from 206 documents and 24,483 judges. In relevant studies, people attempt to discriminate lies from truths in real time with no special aids or training. In these circumstances, people achieve an average of 54% correct lie-truth judgments, correctly classifying 47% of lies as deceptive and 61% of truths as nondeceptive. Relative to cross-judge differences in accuracy, mean lie-truth discrimination abilities are nontrivial, with a mean accuracy d of roughly .40. This produces an effect that is at roughly the 60th percentile in size, relative to others that have been meta-analyzed by social psychologists. Alternative indexes of lie-truth discrimination accuracy correlate highly with percentage correct, and rates of lie detection vary little from study to study. Our meta-analyses reveal that people are more accurate in judging audible than visible lies, that people appear deceptive when motivated to be believed, and that individuals regard their interaction partners as honest. We propose that people judge others' deceptions more harshly than their own and that this double standard in evaluating deceit can explain much of the accumulated literature. PMID:16859438

  8. Deceptive Advertising: Unprotected and Unknown.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducoffe, Robert Hal

    The Supreme Court tentatively extended First Amendment protection to commercial speech, but left the issue of defining and regulating deceptive advertising to the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), which has employed tools such as the cease-and-desist order, affirmative disclosure, and corrective advertising. The FTC Act did not define deception, but…

  9. Patient Deception: Nursing Students' Beliefs and Attitudes.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Drew A

    2015-01-01

    This study examined nursing students' beliefs about indicators of deception and their attitudes toward patient deception. Fifty-eight participants from various nursing programs at a southwestern university completed a Detection of Deception Questionnaire and Attitudes Toward Patient Deception Scale. Findings indicated that nursing students have a number of inaccurate beliefs about deception and possess a number of negative attitudes toward patients who lie. Implications for nursing education are discussed. PMID:25783815

  10. Information asymmetry and deception

    PubMed Central

    Clots-Figueras, Irma; Hernán-González, Roberto; Kujal, Praveen

    2015-01-01

    Situations such as an entrepreneur overstating a project's value, or a superior choosing to under or overstate the gains from a project to a subordinate are common and may result in acts of deception. In this paper we modify the standard investment game in the economics literature to study the nature of deception. In this game a trustor (investor) can send a given amount of money to a trustee (or investee). The amount received is multiplied by a certain amount, k, and the investee then decides on how to divide the total amount received. In our modified game the information on the multiplier, k, is known only to the investee and she can send a non-binding message to the investor regarding its value. We find that 66% of the investees send false messages with both under and over, statement being observed. Investors are naive and almost half of them believe the message received. We find greater lying when the distribution of the multiplier is unknown by the investors than when they know the distribution. Further, messages make beliefs about the multiplier more pessimistic when the investors know the distribution of the multiplier, while the opposite is true when they do not know the distribution. PMID:26257615

  11. Information asymmetry and deception.

    PubMed

    Clots-Figueras, Irma; Hernán-González, Roberto; Kujal, Praveen

    2015-01-01

    Situations such as an entrepreneur overstating a project's value, or a superior choosing to under or overstate the gains from a project to a subordinate are common and may result in acts of deception. In this paper we modify the standard investment game in the economics literature to study the nature of deception. In this game a trustor (investor) can send a given amount of money to a trustee (or investee). The amount received is multiplied by a certain amount, k, and the investee then decides on how to divide the total amount received. In our modified game the information on the multiplier, k, is known only to the investee and she can send a non-binding message to the investor regarding its value. We find that 66% of the investees send false messages with both under and over, statement being observed. Investors are naive and almost half of them believe the message received. We find greater lying when the distribution of the multiplier is unknown by the investors than when they know the distribution. Further, messages make beliefs about the multiplier more pessimistic when the investors know the distribution of the multiplier, while the opposite is true when they do not know the distribution. PMID:26257615

  12. 16 CFR 20.1 - Deception generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., 16 CFR 260.7(e). (c) It is unfair or deceptive to place any means or instrumentality in the hands of..., RECONDITIONED AND OTHER USED AUTOMOBILE PARTS INDUSTRY § 20.1 Deception generally. (a) It is unfair or...

  13. 16 CFR 20.1 - Deception generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., 16 CFR 260.7(e). (c) It is unfair or deceptive to place any means or instrumentality in the hands of..., RECONDITIONED AND OTHER USED AUTOMOBILE PARTS INDUSTRY § 20.1 Deception generally. (a) It is unfair or...

  14. 16 CFR 20.1 - Deception generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., 16 CFR 260.7(e). (c) It is unfair or deceptive to place any means or instrumentality in the hands of..., RECONDITIONED AND OTHER USED AUTOMOBILE PARTS INDUSTRY § 20.1 Deception generally. (a) It is unfair or...

  15. 16 CFR 20.1 - Deception generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., 16 CFR 260.7(e). (c) It is unfair or deceptive to place any means or instrumentality in the hands of..., RECONDITIONED AND OTHER USED AUTOMOBILE PARTS INDUSTRY § 20.1 Deception generally. (a) It is unfair or...

  16. 16 CFR 20.1 - Deception generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., 16 CFR 260.7(e). (c) It is unfair or deceptive to place any means or instrumentality in the hands of..., RECONDITIONED AND OTHER USED AUTOMOBILE PARTS INDUSTRY § 20.1 Deception generally. (a) It is unfair or...

  17. Testing simple deceptive honeypot tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahyaoui, Aymen; Rowe, Neil C.

    2015-05-01

    Deception can be a useful defensive technique against cyber-attacks; it has the advantage of unexpectedness to attackers and offers a variety of tactics. Honeypots are a good tool for deception. They act as decoy computers to confuse attackers and exhaust their time and resources. This work tested the effectiveness of two free honeypot tools in real networks by varying their location and virtualization, and the effects of adding more deception to them. We tested a Web honeypot tool, Glastopf and an SSH honeypot tool Kippo. We deployed the Web honeypot in both a residential network and our organization's network and as both real and virtual machines; the organization honeypot attracted more attackers starting in the third week. Results also showed that the virtual honeypots received attacks from more unique IP addresses. They also showed that adding deception to the Web honeypot, in the form of additional linked Web pages and interactive features, generated more interest by attackers. For the purpose of comparison, we used examined log files of a legitimate Web-site www.cmand.org. The traffic distributions for the Web honeypot and the legitimate Web site showed similarities (with much malicious traffic from Brazil), but the SSH honeypot was different (with much malicious traffic from China). Contrary to previous experiments where traffic to static honeypots decreased quickly, our honeypots received increasing traffic over a period of three months. It appears that both honeypot tools are useful for providing intelligence about cyber-attack methods, and that additional deception is helpful.

  18. Deception of children in research.

    PubMed

    Spriggs, Merle; Gillam, Lynn

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this article is to draw attention to an under-recognised but ethically important phenomenon involving the deception of children in research. The type of deception we are referring to is not planned deception that is part of the research design. Instead it is deception that occurs in individual cases where parents ask researchers not to reveal something about the research to their child. Our focus is children who do not have ultimate decisional authority--children around the ages of 7-14 years old who may have the cognitive capacity to understand but not to consent for themselves; children whose agreement is required but not sufficient to authorise research. We provide three illustrative scenarios for analysis. Then, we identify circumstances in which non-disclosure might be justified and set out reasons why providing information to non-competent children is ethically required. On this basis, we argue that non-planned deception requested by parents is very unlikely to be ethically acceptable. Finally, we recommend that guidelines should (a) require researchers to consider what to do if parents do not want to disclose information to a child and (b) clarify that the most ethical response is to simply not include that child in the research. PMID:24307618

  19. 16 CFR 23.1 - Deception (general).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deception (general). 23.1 Section 23.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.1 Deception (general). It is unfair or deceptive...

  20. 16 CFR 23.1 - Deception (general).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deception (general). 23.1 Section 23.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.1 Deception (general). It is unfair or deceptive...

  1. 16 CFR 23.1 - Deception (general).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deception (general). 23.1 Section 23.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.1 Deception (general). It is unfair or deceptive...

  2. 16 CFR 23.1 - Deception (general).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deception (general). 23.1 Section 23.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.1 Deception (general). It is unfair or deceptive...

  3. 16 CFR 23.1 - Deception (general).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deception (general). 23.1 Section 23.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.1 Deception (general). It is unfair or deceptive...

  4. 16 CFR 24.1 - Deception (general).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deception (general). 24.1 Section 24.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR SELECT LEATHER AND IMITATION LEATHER PRODUCTS § 24.1 Deception (general). It is unfair or deceptive to misrepresent,...

  5. 16 CFR 24.1 - Deception (general).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deception (general). 24.1 Section 24.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR SELECT LEATHER AND IMITATION LEATHER PRODUCTS § 24.1 Deception (general). It is unfair or deceptive to misrepresent,...

  6. 16 CFR 24.1 - Deception (general).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deception (general). 24.1 Section 24.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR SELECT LEATHER AND IMITATION LEATHER PRODUCTS § 24.1 Deception (general). It is unfair or deceptive to misrepresent,...

  7. 16 CFR 24.1 - Deception (general).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deception (general). 24.1 Section 24.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR SELECT LEATHER AND IMITATION LEATHER PRODUCTS § 24.1 Deception (general). It is unfair or deceptive to misrepresent,...

  8. 16 CFR 24.1 - Deception (general).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deception (general). 24.1 Section 24.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR SELECT LEATHER AND IMITATION LEATHER PRODUCTS § 24.1 Deception (general). It is unfair or deceptive to misrepresent,...

  9. Attributions of Deception in Dating Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benz, Joseph J.; Anderson, Mary K.; Miller, Richard L.

    2005-01-01

    Mate selection criteria for humans, and the concept of deception as a mating strategy, have both been demonstrated by past research. This study provides evidence that men and women believe that the mate selection criteria used by one sex corresponds to the deceptive tactics used by the opposite sex. A survey of the deceptive techniques used by men…

  10. Deceptive Business Practices: State Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

    Although much has been done at the federal level to control deceptive advertising practices, many states have no criminal laws designed to regulate advertising, and several states recently repealed such laws. This paper examines states' efforts to balance the advertiser's freedom of speech with the consumer's need for information about products by…

  11. Deceptive Business Practices: Federal Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

    Federal regulations to prevent deceptive advertising seek to balance the advertiser's freedom of speech with protection of the consumer. This paper discusses what the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has done to regulate advertising and evaluates the adequacy of its controls. The commission uses cease-and-desist orders, affirmative disclosure,…

  12. Placebo and Deception: A Commentary

    PubMed Central

    Barnhill, Anne; Miller, Franklin G.

    2015-01-01

    In a recent article in this Journal, Shlomo Cohen and Haim Shapiro (2013) introduce the concept of “comparable placebo treatments” (CPTs)—placebo treatments with biological effects similar to the drugs they replace—and argue that doctors are not being deceptive when they prescribe or administer CPTs without revealing that they are placebos. We critique two of Cohen and Shapiro’s primary arguments. First, Cohen and Shapiro argue that offering undisclosed placebos is not lying to the patient, but rather is making a self-fulfilling prophecy—telling a “lie” that, ideally, will become true. We argue that offering undisclosed placebos is not a “lie” but is a straightforward case of deceptively misleading the patient. Second, Cohen and Shapiro argue that offering undisclosed CPTs is not equivocation. We argue that it typically is equivocation or deception of another sort. If justifiable, undisclosed placebo use will have to be justified as a practice that is deceptive in most instances. PMID:25503605

  13. Toward detecting deception in intelligent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Eugene, Jr.; Johnson, Gregory, Jr.

    2004-08-01

    Contemporary decision makers often must choose a course of action using knowledge from several sources. Knowledge may be provided from many diverse sources including electronic sources such as knowledge-based diagnostic or decision support systems or through data mining techniques. As the decision maker becomes more dependent on these electronic information sources, detecting deceptive information from these sources becomes vital to making a correct, or at least more informed, decision. This applies to unintentional disinformation as well as intentional misinformation. Our ongoing research focuses on employing models of deception and deception detection from the fields of psychology and cognitive science to these systems as well as implementing deception detection algorithms for probabilistic intelligent systems. The deception detection algorithms are used to detect, classify and correct attempts at deception. Algorithms for detecting unexpected information rely upon a prediction algorithm from the collaborative filtering domain to predict agent responses in a multi-agent system.

  14. Global Collembola on Deception Island.

    PubMed

    Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites. PMID:23438196

  15. Motivated Self-Deception in Child Molesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Robert C.; Schneider, Sandra L.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces the concept of motivated self-deception as a way to explain how cognitive distortions develop in the thinking of child molesters. Several different everyday heuristics and patterns of self-deception are described, with examples of how the resulting biased information is activated and progressively organized by molesters. Provides a…

  16. fNIRS-based online deception decoding.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-Su; Hong, Keum-Shik; Ge, Shuzhi Sam

    2012-04-01

    Deception involves complex neural processes in the brain. Different techniques have been used to study and understand brain mechanisms during deception. Moreover, efforts have been made to develop schemes that can detect and differentiate deception and truth-telling. In this paper, a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-based online brain deception decoding framework is developed. Deploying dual-wavelength fNIRS, we interrogate 16 locations in the forehead when eight able-bodied adults perform deception and truth-telling scenarios separately. By combining preprocessed oxy-hemoglobin and deoxy-hemoglobin signals, we develop subject-specific classifiers using the support vector machine. Deception and truth-telling states are classified correctly in seven out of eight subjects. A control experiment is also conducted to verify the deception-related hemodynamic response. The average classification accuracy is over 83.44% from these seven subjects. The obtained result suggests that the applicability of fNIRS as a brain imaging technique for online deception detection is very promising. PMID:22337819

  17. Debriefing and accountability in deceptive research.

    PubMed

    Miller, Franklin G; Gluck, John P; Wendler, David

    2008-09-01

    Debriefing is a standard ethical requirement for human research involving the use of deception. Little systematic attention, however, has been devoted to explaining the ethical significance of debriefing and the specific ethical functions that it serves. In this article, we develop an account of debriefing as a tool of moral accountability for the prima facie wrong of deception. Specifically, we contend that debriefing should include a responsibility to promote transparency by explaining the deception and its rationale, to provide an apology to subjects for infringing the principle of respect for persons, and to offer subjects an opportunity to withdraw their data. We also present recommendations concerning the discussion of deception in scientific articles reporting the results of research using deception. PMID:18935922

  18. Deception discovery and employment with linguistic geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stilman, Boris; Yakhnis, Vladimir; Curry, Pat; Umanskiy, Oleg

    2005-05-01

    No battle plan survives first contact with the enemy - this is a famous adage attributed to a great many military thinkers from Belisarius to Clausewitz, but which is essentially timeless. Indeed, while the Blue side is trying to anticipate and predict the enemy action, this enemy is actively trying to do the same with respect to Blue while simultaneously trying to deny Blue sufficient information on which to predict Red's actions. It becomes even worse when the Red side is actively engaged in deceptive behavior leading to ambushes and other deceptive schemes causing losses to the Blue side. Linguistic Geometry (LG), a new game-theoretical approach, permits uncovering enemy deceptive schemes via indicators and probes. We will describe the theory behind the LG approach to deception and discuss a specific example of discerning enemy deception via LG algorithms.

  19. Orchid pollination by sexual deception: pollinator perspectives.

    PubMed

    Gaskett, A C

    2011-02-01

    The extraordinary taxonomic and morphological diversity of orchids is accompanied by a remarkable range of pollinators and pollination systems. Sexually deceptive orchids are adapted to attract specific male insects that are fooled into attempting to mate with orchid flowers and inadvertently acting as pollinators. This review summarises current knowledge, explores new hypotheses in the literature, and introduces some new approaches to understanding sexual deception from the perspective of the duped pollinator. Four main topics are addressed: (1) global patterns in sexual deception, (2) pollinator identities, mating systems and behaviours, (3) pollinator perception of orchid deceptive signals, and (4) the evolutionary implications of pollinator responses to orchid deception, including potential costs imposed on pollinators by orchids. A global list of known and putative sexually deceptive orchids and their pollinators is provided and methods for incorporating pollinator perspectives into sexual deception research are provided and reviewed. At present, almost all known sexually deceptive orchid taxa are from Australia or Europe. A few sexually deceptive species and genera are reported for New Zealand and South Africa. In Central and Southern America, Asia, and the Pacific many more species are likely to be identified in the future. Despite the great diversity of sexually deceptive orchid genera in Australia, pollination rates reported in the literature are similar between Australian and European species. The typical pollinator of a sexually deceptive orchid is a male insect of a species that is polygynous, monandrous, haplodiploid, and solitary rather than social. Insect behaviours involved in the pollination of sexually deceptive orchids include pre-copulatory gripping of flowers, brief entrapment, mating, and very rarely, ejaculation. Pollinator behaviour varies within and among pollinator species. Deception involving orchid mimicry of insect scent signals is

  20. [fMRI study of deliberate deception].

    PubMed

    Kireev, M V; Korotkov, A D; Medvedev, C V

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to study the deliberate deception. Event related functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) imaging technique was used to assess the changes in functional brain activity by virtue of recording blood oxygen level dependant signal (BOLD-signal). 12 right-handed healthy volunteers aged 19-44 participated in the study. BOLD images were acquired in three different experimental trials. There were deliberate deception, manipulative honest and control truthful trials (catch trials). The main finding of the present study is that the deliberate deception and manipulative honest actions in comparison with instructed truthful responding was characterized by BOLD signal increase within the anterior cingulated cortex (ACC), frontal and parietal areas as well. Comparison of present fMRI data with results demonstrated in our previous research implemented with event related potentials technique points to the involvement of the brain mechanism of error detection to brain processing of deliberate deception. PMID:22567835

  1. Making Activity Recognition Robust against Deceptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Saeb, Sohrab; Körding, Konrad; Mohr, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare services increasingly use the activity recognition technology to track the daily activities of individuals. In some cases, this is used to provide incentives. For example, some health insurance companies offer discount to customers who are physically active, based on the data collected from their activity tracking devices. Therefore, there is an increasing motivation for individuals to cheat, by making activity trackers detect activities that increase their benefits rather than the ones they actually do. In this study, we used a novel method to make activity recognition robust against deceptive behavior. We asked 14 subjects to attempt to trick our smartphone-based activity classifier by making it detect an activity other than the one they actually performed, for example by shaking the phone while seated to make the classifier detect walking. If they succeeded, we used their motion data to retrain the classifier, and asked them to try to trick it again. The experiment ended when subjects could no longer cheat. We found that some subjects were not able to trick the classifier at all, while others required five rounds of retraining. While classifiers trained on normal activity data predicted true activity with ~38% accuracy, training on the data gathered during the deceptive behavior increased their accuracy to ~84%. We conclude that learning the deceptive behavior of one individual helps to detect the deceptive behavior of others. Thus, we can make current activity recognition robust to deception by including deceptive activity data from a few individuals. PMID:26659118

  2. Making Activity Recognition Robust against Deceptive Behavior.

    PubMed

    Saeb, Sohrab; Körding, Konrad; Mohr, David C

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare services increasingly use the activity recognition technology to track the daily activities of individuals. In some cases, this is used to provide incentives. For example, some health insurance companies offer discount to customers who are physically active, based on the data collected from their activity tracking devices. Therefore, there is an increasing motivation for individuals to cheat, by making activity trackers detect activities that increase their benefits rather than the ones they actually do. In this study, we used a novel method to make activity recognition robust against deceptive behavior. We asked 14 subjects to attempt to trick our smartphone-based activity classifier by making it detect an activity other than the one they actually performed, for example by shaking the phone while seated to make the classifier detect walking. If they succeeded, we used their motion data to retrain the classifier, and asked them to try to trick it again. The experiment ended when subjects could no longer cheat. We found that some subjects were not able to trick the classifier at all, while others required five rounds of retraining. While classifiers trained on normal activity data predicted true activity with ~38% accuracy, training on the data gathered during the deceptive behavior increased their accuracy to ~84%. We conclude that learning the deceptive behavior of one individual helps to detect the deceptive behavior of others. Thus, we can make current activity recognition robust to deception by including deceptive activity data from a few individuals. PMID:26659118

  3. Anatomy of deception: a behavioral contingency analysis.

    PubMed

    Mechner, Francis

    2010-05-01

    Deception, a basic and pervasive biological phenomenon, takes many forms, variously referred to as mimicry, trickery, seduction, pretense, feigning, masquerading, impersonation, distraction, or false promises, and these share certain common distinguishing behavioral elements that permit them to be classified into categories. A symbolic language for the codification and analysis of behavioral contingencies shows that all instances of deception are based on a misperception, misprediction, non-perception, or non-prediction by the deceived party, and can be further categorized based on features of the contingencies that define them. Instances of particular interest are those in which a deceiving party predicts (and in that sense "intends") the deception. In those instances, the effect of the deception is usually to the deceiving party's benefit and to the deceived party's detriment. In economics, finance, business, military operations, public affairs, education, and everyday social interaction, deception takes numerous forms. Special forms, usually involving obfuscation, concealment, counterfeiting, and misrepresentation, occur in certain prevalent types of property transfer, including securitization, the creation of derivatives, and various types of Ponzi schemes. Such property transfers tend to be driven by opportunities for deception. They all involve blurring and clouding of the contingencies that defined the transferred properties, thus permitting their obfuscation. PMID:20152890

  4. Deception awareness improves P300-based deception detection in concealed information tests.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, J Peter; Hu, Xiaoqing; Pederson, Kristine

    2012-10-01

    We asked if increased awareness of deception enhanced P300-based detection of concealed information with two groups: 1) Control subjects saw a randomized series of either rare probes (subject home towns), frequent irrelevants (other towns), and rare targets, which are irrelevant stimuli but requiring Button 1 responses. Probes and non-target irrelevants required Button 2 responses. Controls were told to be sure they performed target/non-target discrimination correctly, and were so reminded throughout the run. 2) Deception subjects received an identical stimulus series and response instructions, but were also alerted about their deception (pressing a non-recognition button to probes) before and throughout the run. The deception group had significantly greater differences between probe and irrelevant P300s than controls, as well as significantly greater individual detections (10/10) than did controls (5/10), suggesting that the deception awareness manipulation enhances test sensitivity. PMID:22750420

  5. Detecting deceptive behaviour after the fact.

    PubMed

    von Hippel, William; Baker, Ernest; Wilson, Robbie; Brin, Loic; Page, Lionel

    2016-06-01

    This study examined whether people can detect deception after the fact if they initially accept someone's behaviour at face value but then learn that they have been duped. Fifty-four groups composed of four to six mutual friends engaged in a group discussion with a financial incentive for arriving at a correct decision. One member of each group was secretly assigned to sabotage the decision. Although none of the participants noticed the deception when it was committed, they showed substantial accuracy in identifying the saboteur once they were told that a deception had occurred. Nevertheless, interrogation did not increase the accuracy of their detection of deception. Participants showed a significant positive relationship between confidence and accuracy. Finally, participants also showed better-than-chance accuracy in their judgments of who believed them during the interrogation and who did not. These results suggest that the detection of deception might often be accomplished using information gained after the fact to reinterpret behaviours that were not initially suspected. PMID:26390987

  6. Deceive It or Not: Deception in Interpersonal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Sheryl L.

    To obtain a comprehensive understanding of the nature of deception and how it functions in interpersonal relationships, this paper explores deception as a valid and essential part of human interaction processes. The paper includes an in-depth review of social science literature on deception, specifically, R. E. Turner, C. Edgley, and G. Olmstead's…

  7. Deception used for Cyber Defense of Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne F. Boyer; Miles A. McQueen

    2009-05-01

    Control system cyber security defense mechanisms may employ deception to make it more difficult for attackers to plan and execute successful attacks. These deceptive defense mechanisms are organized and initially explored according to a specific deception taxonomy and the seven abstract dimensions of security previously proposed as a framework for the cyber security of control systems.

  8. Deception in Advertising: A Receiver Oriented Approach to Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David M.

    The purpose of this paper is to examine deception in advertising from a behavioral perspective, and to attempt to formulate a definition that can guide both research and governmental regulation. Whether or not an advertisement is said to be "deceptive" depends on the definition of deception being used. The position advocated here is that the focus…

  9. 16 CFR 254.7 - Deceptive sales practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deceptive sales practices. 254.7 Section 254.7 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.7 Deceptive sales practices. (a) It is deceptive for...

  10. 16 CFR 254.7 - Deceptive sales practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deceptive sales practices. 254.7 Section 254.7 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.7 Deceptive sales practices. (a) It is deceptive for...

  11. 16 CFR 254.7 - Deceptive sales practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deceptive sales practices. 254.7 Section 254.7 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.7 Deceptive sales practices. (a) It is deceptive for...

  12. 16 CFR 254.7 - Deceptive sales practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deceptive sales practices. 254.7 Section 254.7 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.7 Deceptive sales practices. (a) It is deceptive for...

  13. 16 CFR 254.7 - Deceptive sales practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deceptive sales practices. 254.7 Section 254.7 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.7 Deceptive sales practices. (a) It is deceptive for...

  14. Reading a Tale of Deception, Learning a Theory of Mind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratner, Nancy K.; Olver, Rose R.

    1998-01-01

    Explored the role of folktales of deception in developing 3- and 4-year-olds' theory of mind. Found that the story's deceptions elicit discussions that change over successive readings as the child shows increasing comprehension of the deceptions and decreasing need of parental support. Parent's and child's gender influenced frequency and…

  15. A Probability Model of Accuracy in Deception Detection Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hee Sun; Levine, Timothy R.

    2001-01-01

    Extends the recent work on the veracity effect in deception detection. Explains the probabilistic nature of a receiver's accuracy in detecting deception and analyzes a receiver's detection of deception in terms of set theory and conditional probability. Finds that accuracy is shown to be a function of the relevant conditional probability and the…

  16. 16 CFR 24.2 - Deception as to composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deception as to composition. 24.2 Section 24... LEATHER AND IMITATION LEATHER PRODUCTS § 24.2 Deception as to composition. It is unfair or deceptive to... three parts are defined as follows: (1) The upper is the outer face of the structural element which...

  17. 16 CFR 24.2 - Deception as to composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deception as to composition. 24.2 Section 24... LEATHER AND IMITATION LEATHER PRODUCTS § 24.2 Deception as to composition. It is unfair or deceptive to... three parts are defined as follows: (1) The upper is the outer face of the structural element which...

  18. 16 CFR 24.2 - Deception as to composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deception as to composition. 24.2 Section 24... LEATHER AND IMITATION LEATHER PRODUCTS § 24.2 Deception as to composition. It is unfair or deceptive to... three parts are defined as follows: (1) The upper is the outer face of the structural element which...

  19. 16 CFR 24.2 - Deception as to composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deception as to composition. 24.2 Section 24... LEATHER AND IMITATION LEATHER PRODUCTS § 24.2 Deception as to composition. It is unfair or deceptive to... three parts are defined as follows: (1) The upper is the outer face of the structural element which...

  20. 16 CFR 24.2 - Deception as to composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deception as to composition. 24.2 Section 24... LEATHER AND IMITATION LEATHER PRODUCTS § 24.2 Deception as to composition. It is unfair or deceptive to... three parts are defined as follows: (1) The upper is the outer face of the structural element which...

  1. Counterfactual Consent and the Use of Deception in Research.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Alan T

    2015-09-01

    The use of deception for the purposes of research is a widespread practice within many areas of study. If we want to avoid either absolute acceptance or absolute rejection of this practice then we require some method of distinguishing between those uses of deception which are morally acceptable and those which are not. In this article I discuss the concept of counterfactual consent, and propose a related distinction between counterfactual-defeating deception and counterfactual-compatible deception. The aim is to show that this proposed distinction will be useful in furthering the debate regarding the use of deception for the purposes of research. PMID:25425459

  2. Good Liars Are Neither 'Dark' Nor Self-Deceptive.

    PubMed

    Wright, Gordon R T; Berry, Christopher J; Catmur, Caroline; Bird, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Deception is a central component of the personality 'Dark Triad' (Machiavellianism, Psychopathy and Narcissism). However, whether individuals exhibiting high scores on Dark Triad measures have a heightened deceptive ability has received little experimental attention. The present study tested whether the ability to lie effectively, and to detect lies told by others, was related to Dark Triad, Lie Acceptability, or Self-Deceptive measures of personality using an interactive group-based deception task. At a group level, lie detection accuracy was correlated with the ability to deceive others-replicating previous work. No evidence was found to suggest that Dark Triad traits confer any advantage either to deceive others, or to detect deception in others. Participants who considered lying to be more acceptable were more skilled at lying, while self-deceptive individuals were generally less credible and less confident when lying. Results are interpreted within a framework in which repeated practice results in enhanced deceptive ability. PMID:26083765

  3. Online Deception Detection Using BDI Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritts, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    This research has two facets within separate research areas. The research area of Belief, Desire and Intention (BDI) agent capability development was extended. Deception detection research has been advanced with the development of automation using BDI agents. BDI agents performed tasks automatically and autonomously. This study used these…

  4. Exploring the movement dynamics of deception

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Nicholas D.; Dale, Rick; Kello, Christopher T.; Street, Chris N. H.; Richardson, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    Both the science and the everyday practice of detecting a lie rest on the same assumption: hidden cognitive states that the liar would like to remain hidden nevertheless influence observable behavior. This assumption has good evidence. The insights of professional interrogators, anecdotal evidence, and body language textbooks have all built up a sizeable catalog of non-verbal cues that have been claimed to distinguish deceptive and truthful behavior. Typically, these cues are discrete, individual behaviors—a hand touching a mouth, the rise of a brow—that distinguish lies from truths solely in terms of their frequency or duration. Research to date has failed to establish any of these non-verbal cues as a reliable marker of deception. Here we argue that perhaps this is because simple tallies of behavior can miss out on the rich but subtle organization of behavior as it unfolds over time. Research in cognitive science from a dynamical systems perspective has shown that behavior is structured across multiple timescales, with more or less regularity and structure. Using tools that are sensitive to these dynamics, we analyzed body motion data from an experiment that put participants in a realistic situation of choosing, or not, to lie to an experimenter. Our analyses indicate that when being deceptive, continuous fluctuations of movement in the upper face, and somewhat in the arms, are characterized by dynamical properties of less stability, but greater complexity. For the upper face, these distinctions are present despite no apparent differences in the overall amount of movement between deception and truth. We suggest that these unique dynamical signatures of motion are indicative of both the cognitive demands inherent to deception and the need to respond adaptively in a social context. PMID:23543852

  5. Hazard of deceptive advertising of athletic footwear.

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, S; Waked, E

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Athletic footwear are associated with frequent injury that are thought to result from repetitive impact. No scientific data suggest they protect well. Expensive athletic shoes are deceptively advertised to safeguard well through "cushioning impact", yet account for 123% greater injury frequency than the cheapest ones. This study tested the hypothesis that deceptive advertising creates a false sense of security with users of expensive athletic shoes, inducing attenuation of impact moderating behaviour, increased impact, and injury. METHODS: Fifteen young healthy male volunteers confronted four surfaces: a bare force moment platform, and three with this platform covered by identical shoe sole material made to appear different and advertised divergently. Advertising messages suggested superior impact absorption and protection (deceptive message), poor impact absorption and high injury risk (warning message), and unknown impact absorption and safety (neutral message). Ground reaction forces were recorded for 10 barefoot footfalls, according to a protocol requiring stepping forward from perch to a surface 4.5 cm below. RESULTS: Impact varied as a function of advertising message (p < 0.001). Deceptive message equalled neutral message in eliciting higher impact than the warning message and the bare platform. Differences grew with repetitions (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These data provide a plausible mechanism explaining higher injury frequency in users of expensive athletic shoes. This is the first report to suggest: (1) deceptive advertising of protective devices may represent a public health hazard and may have to be eliminated presumably through regulation; (2) a tendency in humans to be less cautious when using new devices of unknown benefit because of overly positive attitudes associated with new technology and novel devices. PMID:9429006

  6. Electrodermal differentiation of deception: the effect of choice versus no choice of deceptive items.

    PubMed

    Furedy, J J; Gigliotti, F; Ben-Shakhar, G

    1994-10-01

    In the differentiation-of-deception paradigm (DDP), the experimental and control conditions, respectively, consist of questions answered deceptively (D) and honestly (H). Previous DDP studies with the electrodermal SCR as the dependent variable have yielded the basic increase in responding to D relative to H questions (D > H), and have indicated that this effect is probably not due to cognitive factors such as differential retrieval difficulty, and is also relatively unaffected by motivational factors. To test the notion that the D > H effect does not represent genuine deception because of the elimination of the element of choice in the DDP, the present study varied, between two groups of 16 subjects, the degree to which subjects could choose which questions they would answer deceptively. If choice were necessary, or even important, for the differentiation-of-deception phenomenon, the D > H effect should have been greater in the free-choice condition, but the (nonsignificant) trend was in a direction opposite to this prediction. Another orthogonally-varied, between-subject manipulation, was the relative frequency of D and H items. The basic electrodermal D > H phenomenon, including the curious lack of response habituation during the session, has now been duplicated over a variety of conditions, but the mechanisms underlying the phenomenon are far from being well understood. PMID:7876035

  7. Appearing truthful generalizes across different deception situations.

    PubMed

    Frank, Mark G; Ekman, Paul

    2004-03-01

    The authors investigated whether the ability to appear truthful is specific to deception situations. Male participants were interrogated after they took part in 2 high-stake deception situations, one involving a mock crime and another involving a false opinion. The videotaped interrogations from each situation were shown to independent groups of undergraduate observers. The proportion of observers who judged each participant as truthful in one situation correlated highly with the proportion of observers who judged the same participant as truthful in the other situation. This was not correlated with physiognomy judgments. Follow-up studies revealed that although the participants showed consistency in their facial, body, and paralinguistic behaviors across situations, observers' judgments seemed to be driven only by the consistency of the dynamic facial behaviors. These results are discussed in terms of the evolutionary importance of the face in communication. PMID:15008651

  8. Detecting deception via eyeblink frequency modulation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of using eyeblink frequency modulation to detect deception about a third party, 32 participants were sent on a mission to deliver a package to an interviewer. 17 of the participants lied to the interviewer about the details of their mock mission and 15 responded truthfully. During the interview, eyeblink frequency data were collected via electromyography and recorded video. Liars displayed eyeblink frequency suppression while lying, while truth tellers exhibited an increase in eyeblink frequency during the mission relevant questioning period. The compensatory flurry of eyeblinks following deception observed in previous studies was absent in the present study. A discriminant function using eyeblink suppression to predict lying correctly classified 81.3% of cases, with a sensitivity of 88.2% and a specificity of 73.3%. This technique, yielding a reasonable sensitivity, shows promise for future testing as, unlike polygraph, it is compatible with distance technology. PMID:24688844

  9. Can Ordinary People Detect Deception After All?

    PubMed

    Ten Brinke, Leanne; Vohs, Kathleen D; Carney, Dana R

    2016-08-01

    The tipping point framework of lie detection posits that people can, and do, accurately detect deception. This framework pinpoints three circumstances that aid accuracy: (i) using methods of measurement that circumvent controlled, conscious cognition; (ii) when individual differences or situational factors portend potent risks to lie detection failure, such as in high-stakes or threatening settings; and (iii) when factors diminish concern over the relationship or reputation costs of asserting that someone has lied. We thus depict a psychological system that registers lie detection consistently in nonconscious reactions (e.g., brain based, bodily, indirect social evaluations) and that allows information into consciousness to inform overt assessments of lies when the costs of failing to detect deception exceed those of signaling distrust. PMID:27353575

  10. Detecting deception via eyeblink frequency modulation.

    PubMed

    Perelman, Brandon S

    2014-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of using eyeblink frequency modulation to detect deception about a third party, 32 participants were sent on a mission to deliver a package to an interviewer. 17 of the participants lied to the interviewer about the details of their mock mission and 15 responded truthfully. During the interview, eyeblink frequency data were collected via electromyography and recorded video. Liars displayed eyeblink frequency suppression while lying, while truth tellers exhibited an increase in eyeblink frequency during the mission relevant questioning period. The compensatory flurry of eyeblinks following deception observed in previous studies was absent in the present study. A discriminant function using eyeblink suppression to predict lying correctly classified 81.3% of cases, with a sensitivity of 88.2% and a specificity of 73.3%. This technique, yielding a reasonable sensitivity, shows promise for future testing as, unlike polygraph, it is compatible with distance technology. PMID:24688844

  11. A cognitive neurobiological account of deception: evidence from functional neuroimaging.

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Sean A; Hunter, Mike D; Farrow, Tom F D; Green, Russell D; Leung, David H; Hughes, Catherine J; Ganesan, Venkatasubramanian

    2004-01-01

    An organism may use misinformation, knowingly (through deception) or unknowingly (as in the case of camouflage), to gain advantage in a competitive environment. From an evolutionary perspective, greater tactical deception occurs among primates closer to humans, with larger neocortices. In humans, the onset of deceptive behaviours in childhood exhibits a developmental trajectory, which may be regarded as 'normal' in the majority and deficient among a minority with certain neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. autism). In the human adult, deception and lying exhibit features consistent with their use of 'higher' or 'executive' brain systems. Accurate detection of deception in humans may be of particular importance in forensic practice, while an understanding of its cognitive neurobiology may have implications for models of 'theory of mind' and social cognition, and societal notions of responsibility, guilt and mitigation. In recent years, functional neuroimaging techniques (especially functional magnetic resonance imaging) have been used to study deception. Though few in number, and using very different experimental protocols, studies published in the peer-reviewed literature exhibit certain consistencies. Attempted deception is associated with activation of executive brain regions (particularly prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices), while truthful responding has not been shown to be associated with any areas of increased activation (relative to deception). Hence, truthful responding may comprise a relative 'baseline' in human cognition and communication. The subject who lies may necessarily engage 'higher' brain centres, consistent with a purpose or intention (to deceive). While the principle of executive control during deception remains plausible, its precise anatomy awaits elucidation. PMID:15590616

  12. Replication of Functional MRI Detection of Deception

    PubMed Central

    Kozel, F. Andrew; Laken, Steven J.; Johnson, Kevin A.; Boren, Bryant; Mapes, Kimberly S.; Morgan, Paul S.; George, Mark S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Several studies support the use of fMRI for detecting deception. There have been, however, no reported replications on different scanners or at different locations. In a previous study, deception was accurately detected in at least 90% of the participants in two independent cohorts. This study attempted to replicate those findings using a different scanner and location. Methods Healthy participants 18–50 years of age were recruited from the local community. After providing written informed consent, participants were screened to ensure that they were healthy, not taking any medications, and safe to have an MRI. For the testing paradigm, subjects chose one of two objects (ring or watch) to “steal” and placed it in their locker. Participants were then scanned while being visually presented with a series of questions. Functional MRI analysis was performed in the same manner as described in Kozel et al. 2005. A Chi-Squared test was used to test for a significant difference between the results in the previous study and in this replication study. Results Thirty subjects (20 women, mean age 29.0±6.5 years) were scanned with one subject being noncompliant with the protocol. Twenty-five of twenty-nine (86%) participants were correctly identified when being deceptive. There was no statistical difference between the accuracy rate obtained in this study (25/29) versus the previous study (28/31) (Chi-Squared, χ2=0.246, p=0.6197). Conclusions Our methodology for detecting deception was successfully replicated at a different site suggesting that this methodology is robust and independent of both scanner and location. PMID:19844599

  13. Neocortex size predicts deception rate in primates.

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Richard W.; Corp, Nadia

    2004-01-01

    Human brain organization is built upon a more ancient adaptation, the large brain of simian primates: on average, monkeys and apes have brains twice as large as expected for mammals of their size, principally as a result of neocortical enlargement. Testing the adaptive benefit of this evolutionary specialization depends on finding an association between brain size and function in primates. However, most cognitive capacities have been assessed in only a restricted range of species under laboratory conditions. Deception of conspecifics in social circumstances is an exception, because a corpus of field data is available that encompasses all major lines of the primate radiation. We show that the use of deception within the primates is well predicted by the neocortical volume, when observer effort is controlled for; by contrast, neither the size of the rest of the brain nor the group size exert significant effects. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that neocortical expansion has been driven by social challenges among the primates. Complex social manipulations such as deception are thought to be based upon rapid learning and extensive social knowledge; thus, learning in social contexts may be constrained by neocortical size. PMID:15306289

  14. Federal Law on Consumer Deception: An Agency by Agency Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweibel, George J.

    A comprehensive analysis of statutes and regulations on consumer deception administered by thirty government agencies is provided in this report. Each agency's chapter includes a brief description of the agency, and a detailed listing of all deceptive trade practices prohibited by that agency's enabling legislation, regulations, or other sources…

  15. Sensation-seeking, Internet dependency, and online interpersonal deception.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hung-Yi

    2008-04-01

    This study aimed to elaborate the relationships between sensation-seeking, Internet dependency, and online interpersonal deception. Of the 707 individuals recruited to this study, 675 successfully completed the survey. The results showed high sensation-seekers and high Internet dependents were more likely to engage in online interpersonal deception than were their counterparts. PMID:18422419

  16. 16 CFR 18.2 - Deception through use of names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deception through use of names. 18.2 Section... NURSERY INDUSTRY § 18.2 Deception through use of names. (a) In the sale, offering for sale, or... use a name for such product that misrepresents directly or by implication to purchasers or...

  17. 16 CFR 18.2 - Deception through use of names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deception through use of names. 18.2 Section... NURSERY INDUSTRY § 18.2 Deception through use of names. (a) In the sale, offering for sale, or... use a name for such product that misrepresents directly or by implication to purchasers or...

  18. 16 CFR 301.49 - Deception in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deception in general. 301.49 Section 301.49 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.49 Deception in general. No furs nor fur products shall be labeled, invoiced,...

  19. 16 CFR 301.49 - Deception in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deception in general. 301.49 Section 301.49 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.49 Deception in general. No furs nor...

  20. 16 CFR 301.49 - Deception in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deception in general. 301.49 Section 301.49 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.49 Deception in general. No furs nor...

  1. 16 CFR 301.49 - Deception in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deception in general. 301.49 Section 301.49 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.49 Deception in general. No furs nor...

  2. 16 CFR 301.49 - Deception in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deception in general. 301.49 Section 301.49 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.49 Deception in general. No furs nor fur products shall be labeled, invoiced,...

  3. 48 CFR 2103.570 - Misleading, Deceptive, or Unfair Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Misleading, Deceptive, or Unfair Advertising. 2103.570 Section 2103.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL..., Deceptive, or Unfair Advertising. (a) OPM, or the Contractor with the approval of OPM, makes available...

  4. 14 CFR 399.81 - Unrealistic or deceptive scheduling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Part 234 of Department regulations (14 CFR Part 234). (2) For the purposes of this section, a... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unrealistic or deceptive scheduling. 399.81... Unrealistic or deceptive scheduling. (a) It is the policy of the Board to consider unrealistic scheduling...

  5. 16 CFR 1500.122 - Deceptive use of disclaimers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deceptive use of disclaimers. 1500.122 Section 1500.122 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES AND ARTICLES; ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS § 1500.122 Deceptive use of disclaimers. A...

  6. 16 CFR 254.2 - Deceptive trade or business names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.2 Deceptive trade or business names. (a) It is... school. (c) If an industry member conducts its instruction by correspondence, or other form of distance education, it is deceptive to fail to clearly and conspicuously disclose that fact in all...

  7. 16 CFR 254.2 - Deceptive trade or business names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.2 Deceptive trade or business names. (a) It is... school. (c) If an industry member conducts its instruction by correspondence, or other form of distance education, it is deceptive to fail to clearly and conspicuously disclose that fact in all...

  8. 16 CFR 254.2 - Deceptive trade or business names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.2 Deceptive trade or business names. (a) It is... school. (c) If an industry member conducts its instruction by correspondence, or other form of distance education, it is deceptive to fail to clearly and conspicuously disclose that fact in all...

  9. 16 CFR 254.2 - Deceptive trade or business names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.2 Deceptive trade or business names. (a) It is... school. (c) If an industry member conducts its instruction by correspondence, or other form of distance education, it is deceptive to fail to clearly and conspicuously disclose that fact in all...

  10. Deceptive Intentions: Can Cues to Deception Be Measured before a Lie Is Even Stated?

    PubMed Central

    Ströfer, Sabine; Noordzij, Matthijs L.; Ufkes, Elze G.; Giebels, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Can deceitful intentions be discriminated from truthful ones? Previous work consistently demonstrated that deceiving others is accompanied by nervousness/stress and cognitive load. Both are related to increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. We hypothesized that SNS activity already rises during intentions to lie and, consequently, cues to deception can be detected before stating an actual lie. In two experiments, controlling for prospective memory, we monitored SNS activity during lying, truth telling, and truth telling with the aim of lying at a later instance. Electrodermal activity (EDA) was used as an indicator of SNS. EDA was highest during lying, and compared to the truth condition, EDA was also raised during the intention to deceive. Moreover, the switch from truth telling toward lying in the intention condition evoked higher EDA than switching toward non-deception related tasks in the lie or truth condition. These results provide first empirical evidence that increased SNS activity related to deception can be monitored before a lie is stated. This implies that cues to deception are already present during the mere intention to lie. PMID:26018573

  11. Sexual deception as a social-exchange process: development of a behavior-based sexual deception scale.

    PubMed

    Marelich, William D; Lundquist, Jessica; Painter, Kimberly; Mechanic, Mindy B

    2008-01-01

    The use of deception in association with sexual encounters may take many forms, ranging from outright lies to more subtle, evasive manipulations. To address such deceptions, a behavior-based sexual deception scale was developed utilizing social exchange theory. Participants were 267 individuals associated with two large universities who were surveyed regarding different aspects of their sexual deceptive behaviors. In addition, items addressing sexually related behaviors and attitudes were assessed for validation purposes. Principal components analysis identified three components of sexual deception, labeled Blatant Lying, Self-Serving, and Avoiding Confrontation. Confirmatory factor analysis verified the resulting structure, and promising validity was noted. In general, those using any of these deceptions reported more sexual partners and one-night stands. Those telling blatant lies to have sex were more likely to report greater needs for sex, while those using self-serving lies or having sex to avoid confrontation experienced greater worry about partner loss. Men were more likely to use blatant lies to have sex, while women were more likely to have sex to avoid confrontation. Results support sexual deception as an exchange process, with sex for pleasure and positive relationship outcomes acting as rewards, and unwanted sex and deception consequences as costs. Implications for health interventions and primary prevention applications are discussed. PMID:18321028

  12. Effects of deception in social networks

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez, Gerardo; Govezensky, Tzipe; Dunbar, Robin; Kaski, Kimmo; Barrio, Rafael A.

    2014-01-01

    Honesty plays a crucial role in any situation where organisms exchange information or resources. Dishonesty can thus be expected to have damaging effects on social coherence if agents cannot trust the information or goods they receive. However, a distinction is often drawn between prosocial lies (‘white’ lies) and antisocial lying (i.e. deception for personal gain), with the former being considered much less destructive than the latter. We use an agent-based model to show that antisocial lying causes social networks to become increasingly fragmented. Antisocial dishonesty thus places strong constraints on the size and cohesion of social communities, providing a major hurdle that organisms have to overcome (e.g. by evolving counter-deception strategies) in order to evolve large, socially cohesive communities. In contrast, white lies can prove to be beneficial in smoothing the flow of interactions and facilitating a larger, more integrated network. Our results demonstrate that these group-level effects can arise as emergent properties of interactions at the dyadic level. The balance between prosocial and antisocial lies may set constraints on the structure of social networks, and hence the shape of society as a whole. PMID:25056625

  13. Magically deceptive biological motion—the French Drop Sleight

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Flip; Natter, Michael B.; Egan, Eric J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Intentional deception, as is common in the performance of magic tricks, can provide valuable insight into the mechanisms of perception and action. Much of the recent investigations into this form of deception revolve around the attention of the observer. Here, we present experiments designed to investigate the contributions of the performer to the act of deception. An experienced magician and a naïve novice performed a classic sleight known as the French Drop. Video recordings of the performance were used to measure the quality of the deception—e.g., if a non-magician observer could discriminate instances where the sleight was performed (a deceptive performance) from those where it was not (a veridical performace). During the performance we recorded the trajectory of the hands and measured muscle activity via EMG to help understand the biomechanical mechanisms of this deception. We show that expertise plays a major role in the quality of the deception and that there are significant variations in the motion and muscular behaviors between successful and unsuccessful performances. Smooth, minimal movements with an exaggerated faux-transfer of muscular tension were characteristic of better deception. This finding is consistent with anecdotal reports and the magic performance literature. PMID:25914654

  14. The slow decay and quick revival of self-deception

    PubMed Central

    Chance, Zoë; Gino, Francesca; Norton, Michael I.; Ariely, Dan

    2015-01-01

    People demonstrate an impressive ability to self-deceive, distorting misbehavior to reflect positively on themselves—for example, by cheating on a test and believing that their inflated performance reflects their true ability. But what happens to self-deception when self-deceivers must face reality, such as when taking another test on which they cannot cheat? We find that self-deception diminishes over time only when self-deceivers are repeatedly confronted with evidence of their true ability (Study 1); this learning, however, fails to make them less susceptible to future self-deception (Study 2). PMID:26347666

  15. Linguistic correlates of self in deceptive oral autobiographical narratives.

    PubMed

    Bedwell, J S; Gallagher, S; Whitten, S N; Fiore, S M

    2011-09-01

    The current study collected orally-delivered autobiographical narratives from a sample of 44 undergraduate students. Participants were asked to produce both deceptive and non-deceptive versions of their narrative to two specific autobiographical question prompts while standing in front of a video camera. Narratives were then analyzed with Coh-Metrix software on 33 indices of linguistic cohesion. Following a Bonferroni correction for the large number of linguistic variables (p<.002), results indicated that the deceptive narratives contained more explicit action verbs, less linguistic complexity, and less referential coherence (sentences being cohesive with each other). The results support a theory that, in deceptive narratives, there is greater narrative distance between the self that narrates and the self that is narrated about. This suggests that narrative selves are constituted not as autonomous selves, but are subject to processes (e.g., psychological, linguistic, social) that are likely operating on a subconscious level. PMID:21030273

  16. 16 CFR 254.2 - Deceptive trade or business names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.2 Deceptive trade or business names. (a) It is... Education, or of any State, or civil service commission; or (2) It is an employment agency or an...

  17. Pollinator deception in the orchid mantis.

    PubMed

    O'Hanlon, James C; Holwell, Gregory I; Herberstein, Marie E

    2014-01-01

    Mimicry has evolved in contexts such as camouflage, predator deterrence, luring of prey, and pollinator attraction. Mimicry of flowers has until now been demonstrated only in angiosperms, yet it has been hypothesized that the Malaysian orchid mantis Hymenopus coronatus mimics a flower to attract pollinators as prey. Despite the popularity of this charismatic insect, this long-discussed hypothesis has never been experimentally investigated. We found that, as predicted for mimicry, the color of H. coronatus is indistinguishable from the color of sympatric flowers for hymenopteran pollinators. Field experiments show that isolated mantises attract wild pollinators at a rate even higher than flowers and capture these pollinators as prey items. After more than a century of conjecture, we provide the first experimental evidence of pollinator deception in the orchid mantis and the first description of a unique predatory strategy that has not been documented in any other animal species. PMID:24334741

  18. Colour mimicry and sexual deception by Tongue orchids ( Cryptostylis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaskett, A. C.; Herberstein, M. E.

    2010-01-01

    Typically, floral colour attracts pollinators by advertising rewards such as nectar, but how does colour function when pollinators are deceived, unrewarded, and may even suffer fitness costs? Sexually deceptive orchids are pollinated only by male insects fooled into mating with orchid flowers and inadvertently transferring orchid pollinia. Over long distances, sexually deceptive orchids lure pollinators with counterfeit insect sex pheromones, but close-range deception with colour mimicry is a tantalising possibility. Here, for the first time, we analyse the colours of four sexually deceptive Cryptostylis orchid species and the female wasp they mimic ( Lissopimpla excelsa, Ichneumonidae), from the perspective of the orchids’ single, shared pollinator, male Lissopimpla excelsa. Despite appearing different to humans, the colours of the orchids and female wasps were effectively identical when mapped into a hymenopteran hexagonal colour space. The orchids and wasps reflected predominantly red-orange wavelengths, but UV was also reflected by raised bumps on two orchid species and by female wasp wings. The orchids’ bright yellow pollinia contrasted significantly with their overall red colour. Orchid deception may therefore involve accurate and species-specific mimicry of wavelengths reflected by female wasps, and potentially, exploitation of insects’ innate attraction to UV and yellow wavelengths. In general, mimicry may be facilitated by exploiting visual vulnerabilities and evolve more readily at the peripheries of sensory perception. Many sexually deceptive orchids are predominantly red, green or white: colours that are all potentially difficult for hymenoptera to detect or distinguish from the background.

  19. Colour mimicry and sexual deception by Tongue orchids (Cryptostylis).

    PubMed

    Gaskett, A C; Herberstein, M E

    2010-01-01

    Typically, floral colour attracts pollinators by advertising rewards such as nectar, but how does colour function when pollinators are deceived, unrewarded, and may even suffer fitness costs? Sexually deceptive orchids are pollinated only by male insects fooled into mating with orchid flowers and inadvertently transferring orchid pollinia. Over long distances, sexually deceptive orchids lure pollinators with counterfeit insect sex pheromones, but close-range deception with colour mimicry is a tantalising possibility. Here, for the first time, we analyse the colours of four sexually deceptive Cryptostylis orchid species and the female wasp they mimic (Lissopimpla excelsa, Ichneumonidae), from the perspective of the orchids' single, shared pollinator, male Lissopimpla excelsa. Despite appearing different to humans, the colours of the orchids and female wasps were effectively identical when mapped into a hymenopteran hexagonal colour space. The orchids and wasps reflected predominantly red-orange wavelengths, but UV was also reflected by raised bumps on two orchid species and by female wasp wings. The orchids' bright yellow pollinia contrasted significantly with their overall red colour. Orchid deception may therefore involve accurate and species-specific mimicry of wavelengths reflected by female wasps, and potentially, exploitation of insects' innate attraction to UV and yellow wavelengths. In general, mimicry may be facilitated by exploiting visual vulnerabilities and evolve more readily at the peripheries of sensory perception. Many sexually deceptive orchids are predominantly red, green or white: colours that are all potentially difficult for hymenoptera to detect or distinguish from the background. PMID:19798479

  20. Neural correlates of self-deception and impression-management.

    PubMed

    Farrow, Tom F D; Burgess, Jenny; Wilkinson, Iain D; Hunter, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Self-deception and impression-management comprise two types of deceptive, but generally socially acceptable behaviours, which are common in everyday life as well as being present in a number of psychiatric disorders. We sought to establish and dissociate the 'normal' brain substrates of self-deception and impression-management. Twenty healthy participants underwent fMRI scanning at 3T whilst completing the 'Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding' test under two conditions: 'fake good', giving the most desirable impression possible and 'fake bad' giving an undesirable impression. Impression-management scores were more malleable to manipulation via 'faking' than self-deception scores. Response times to self-deception questions and 'fake bad' instructions were significantly longer than to impression-management questions and 'fake good' instructions respectively. Self-deception and impression-management manipulation and 'faking bad' were associated with activation of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC). Impression-management manipulation was additionally associated with activation of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left posterior middle temporal gyrus. 'Faking bad' was additionally associated with activation of right vlPFC, left temporo-parietal junction and right cerebellum. There were no supra-threshold activations associated with 'faking good'. Our neuroimaging data suggest that manipulating self-deception and impression-management and more specifically 'faking bad' engages a common network comprising mPFC and left vlPFC. Shorter response times and lack of dissociable neural activations suggests that 'faking good', particularly when it comes to impression-management, may be our most practiced 'default' mode. PMID:25527112

  1. Neural Correlates of True Memory, False Memory, and Deception

    PubMed Central

    Okuda, Jiro; Suzuki, Maki; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Tetsuya; Mori, Etsuro; Tsukada, Minoru; Fujii, Toshikatsu

    2008-01-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine whether neural activity can differentiate between true memory, false memory, and deception. Subjects heard a series of semantically related words and were later asked to make a recognition judgment of old words, semantically related nonstudied words (lures for false recognition), and unrelated new words. They were also asked to make a deceptive response to half of the old and unrelated new words. There were 3 main findings. First, consistent with the notion that executive function supports deception, 2 types of deception (pretending to know and pretending not to know) recruited prefrontal activity. Second, consistent with the sensory reactivation hypothesis, the difference between true recognition and false recognition was found in the left temporoparietal regions probably engaged in the encoding of auditorily presented words. Third, the left prefrontal cortex was activated during pretending to know relative to correct rejection and false recognition, whereas the right anterior hippocampus was activated during false recognition relative to correct rejection and pretending to know. These findings indicate that fMRI can detect the difference in brain activity between deception and false memory despite the fact that subjects respond with “I know” to novel events in both processes. PMID:18372290

  2. Separating deceptive and orienting components in a Concealed Information Test.

    PubMed

    Ambach, Wolfgang; Stark, Rudolf; Peper, Martin; Vaitl, Dieter

    2008-11-01

    The Concealed Information Test (CIT) requires the examinee to deceptively deny recognition of known stimuli and to truthfully deny recognition of unknown stimuli. Because deception and orienting are typically coupled, it is unclear how exactly these sub-processes affect the physiological responses measured in the CIT. The present study aimed at separating the effects of deception from those of orienting. In a mock-crime study, using a modified CIT, thirty-six of seventy-two subjects answered truthfully ('truth group'), whereas the other thirty-six concealed their knowledge ('lie group'). Answering was delayed for 4 s after item presentation. Electrodermal activity (EDA), respiration (RLL), and phasic heart rate (HR) were recorded. A decomposition of EDA responses revealed two response components; the response in the first interval was expected to indicate orienting, stimulus evaluation, and answer preparation, whereas the response in the second interval was assumed to reflect answer-related processes. Inconclusively, both EDA components differentiated between 'probe' and 'irrelevant' items in both groups. Phasic HR and RLL differed between item classes only in the 'lie' group, thus reflecting answer-related processes, possibly deception, rather than merely orienting responses. The findings further support the notion that psychophysiological measures elicited by a modified CIT may reflect different mental processes involved in orienting and deception. PMID:18674573

  3. Double-blind versus deceptive administration of a placebo.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, I; Weixel, L J

    1988-04-01

    Subjects were given varying doses of a placebo, consisting of decaffeinated coffee, with double-blind or deceptive instructions. Deceptive administration simulated clinical situations in that subjects were led to believe that they were receiving an active drug. In contrast, subjects in double-blind conditions were aware that they might receive a placebo. Double-blind and deceptive administration of the placebo produced different, and in some instances, opposite effects on pulse rate, systolic blood pressure, and subjective mood. Deceptive administration produced an increase in pulse rate, whereas double-blind administration did not. A theoretically predicted curvilinear effect on systolic blood pressure, alertness, tension, and certainty of having consumed caffeine was confirmed with deceptive administration, but not with double-blind administration. Double-blind administration produced curves in the opposite direction on each of these variables. The effects of the placebo on motor performance varied as a function of subject's beliefs about the effects of caffeine. These data challenge the validity of double-blind experimental designs and suggest that this common method of drug assessment may lead to spurious conclusions. PMID:3365327

  4. Detection of deception in structured interviews using sensors and algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, Meredith G.; Clarke, Alissa C.; Martin, Jennifer Z.; Beauregard, Jason R.; Webb, Andrea K.; Hensley, Asher A.; Keshava, Nirmal Q.; Martin, Daniel J.

    2010-04-01

    Draper Laboratory and MRAC have recently completed a comprehensive study to quantitatively evaluate deception detection performance under different interviewing styles. The interviews were performed while multiple physiological waveforms were collected from participants to determine how well automated algorithms can detect deception based upon changes in physiology. We report the results of a multi-factorial experiment with 77 human participants who were deceptive on specific topics during interviews conducted with one of two styles: a forcing style which relies on more coercive or confrontational techniques, or a fostering approach, which relies on open-ended interviewing and elements of a cognitive interview. The interviews were performed in a state-of-the-art facility where multiple sensors simultaneously collect synchronized physiological measurements, including electrodermal response, relative blood pressure, respiration, pupil diameter, and ECG. Features extracted from these waveforms during honest and deceptive intervals were then submitted to a hypothesis test to evaluate their statistical significance. A univariate statistical detection algorithm then assessed the ability to detect deception for different interview configurations. Our paper will explain the protocol and experimental design for this study. Our results will be in terms of statistical significances, effect sizes, and ROC curves and will identify how promising features performed in different interview scenarios.

  5. Executive Function and Temperamental Fear Concurrently Predict Deception in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babkirk, Sarah; Saunders, Lauren V.; Solomon, Beylul; Kessel, Ellen M.; Crossman, Angela; Gokhan, Nurper; Dennis, Tracy A.

    2015-01-01

    The decision to intentionally withhold truthful information, or deception, is a key component of moral development and may be a precursor to more serious anti-social tendencies. Two factors, executive function (EF) and temperamental fear are each thought to influence childhood deception. Few studies, however, have explored deception in relation to…

  6. "Do You Hear What I Hear?": Deception Detection by the Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlman, James M.; Koper, Randall J.

    This study compared deception detection accuracy and confidence levels for 72 blind and 71 sighted participants with only audible cues available. Participants from a community blind center and a small western university judged stimulus tapes, which consisted of deceptive and truthful audio messages. Deceptive messages were induced by implicating…

  7. 16 CFR 254.6 - Deceptive use of diplomas, degrees, or certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deceptive use of diplomas, degrees, or... GUIDES FOR PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.6 Deceptive use of diplomas, degrees, or certificates. (a) It is deceptive for an industry member to issue a degree, diploma,...

  8. 9 CFR 354.46 - Misrepresentation; deceptive or fraudulent acts or practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misrepresentation; deceptive or... PRODUCTS THEREOF Violations § 354.46 Misrepresentation; deceptive or fraudulent acts or practices. Any willful misrepresentation or any deceptive or fraudulent act or practice made or committed by any...

  9. 48 CFR 1652.203-70 - Misleading, deceptive, or unfair advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Misleading, deceptive, or... CLAUSES Texts of FEHBP Clauses 1652.203-70 Misleading, deceptive, or unfair advertising. As prescribed in 1603.7003, the following clause shall be inserted in all FEHBP contracts: Misleading, Deceptive,...

  10. 7 CFR 56.69 - Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act or practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act or practice. 56.69 Section 56.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act or practice. Any willful misrepresentation or any deceptive...

  11. 14 CFR 399.80 - Unfair and deceptive practices of ticket agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unfair and deceptive practices of ticket....80 Unfair and deceptive practices of ticket agents. It is the policy of the Board to regard any of the following enumerated practices (among others) by a ticket agent as an unfair or deceptive...

  12. 16 CFR 424.1 - Unfair or deceptive acts or practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unfair or deceptive acts or practices. 424.1... ADVERTISING AND MARKETING PRACTICES § 424.1 Unfair or deceptive acts or practices. In connection with the sale..., 15 U.S.C. 44, it is an unfair or deceptive act or practice in violation of section 5(a)(1) of...

  13. 48 CFR 2152.203-70 - Misleading, deceptive, or unfair advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Misleading, deceptive, or..., deceptive, or unfair advertising. As prescribed in 2103.571, insert the following clause: Misleading, Deceptive, or Unfair Advertising (OCT 2005) The Contractor agrees that any advertising material...

  14. 7 CFR 70.41 - Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act or practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act or... Products and Rabbit Products Denial of Service § 70.41 Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act or practice. Any willful misrepresentation or any deceptive or fraudulent act or practice found to be made...

  15. A replication study of the neural correlates of deception.

    PubMed

    Kozel, Frank Andrew; Padgett, Tamara M; George, Mark S

    2004-08-01

    The authors attempted to replicate prior group brain correlates of deception and improve on the consistency of individual results. Healthy, right-handed adults were instructed to tell the truth or to lie while being imaged in a 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. Blood oxygen level-dependent functional MRI significance maps were generated for subjects giving a deceptive answer minus a truthful answer (lie minus true) and the reverse (true minus lie). The lie minus true group analysis (n = 10) revealed significant activation in 5 regions, consistent with a previous study (right orbitofrontal, inferior frontal, middle frontal cortex, cingulate gyrus, and left middle frontal), with no significant activation for true minus lie. Individual results of the lie minus true condition were variable. Results show that functional MRI is a reasonable tool with which to study deception. PMID:15301611

  16. Deception in advertising and marketing: ethical applications in rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Banja, J D

    1994-09-01

    A much discussed issue in contemporary discussions of health care reform is the considerable competition that is anticipated to occur among providers. An inevitable aspect of this competition will be the ways health care services are presented in the marketplace through advertising and other forms of promotional literature. Considerable concern has already emerged among certain rehabilitation professionals, however, that advertising and marketing practices in rehabilitation must cohere with ethical standards. This article will discuss certain aspects of those standards, particularly as they have evolved from the Federal Trade Commission's definition of and rulings on deceptive practices in advertising. Salient aspects of the Commission's 1983 definition of deception will be related to rehabilitation by way of examining instances of rehabilitation advertising and marketing that might satisfy the Commission's definition of deception. The article will conclude with certain recommendations, principally drawn from various Federal Trade Commission rulings, that might be useful to individuals or corporate entities who advertise or market rehabilitation services. PMID:8085923

  17. Deceptive body movements reverse spatial cueing in soccer.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michael J; Jackson, Robin C

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the experiments was to analyse the spatial cueing effects of the movements of soccer players executing normal and deceptive (step-over) turns with the ball. Stimuli comprised normal resolution or point-light video clips of soccer players dribbling a football towards the observer then turning right or left with the ball. Clips were curtailed before or on the turn (-160, -80, 0 or +80 ms) to examine the time course of direction prediction and spatial cueing effects. Participants were divided into higher-skilled (HS) and lower-skilled (LS) groups according to soccer experience. In experiment 1, accuracy on full video clips was higher than on point-light but results followed the same overall pattern. Both HS and LS groups correctly identified direction on normal moves at all occlusion levels. For deceptive moves, LS participants were significantly worse than chance and HS participants were somewhat more accurate but nevertheless substantially impaired. In experiment 2, point-light clips were used to cue a lateral target. HS and LS groups showed faster reaction times to targets that were congruent with the direction of normal turns, and to targets incongruent with the direction of deceptive turns. The reversed cueing by deceptive moves coincided with earlier kinematic events than cueing by normal moves. It is concluded that the body kinematics of soccer players generate spatial cueing effects when viewed from an opponent's perspective. This could create a reaction time advantage when anticipating the direction of a normal move. A deceptive move is designed to turn this cueing advantage into a disadvantage. Acting on the basis of advance information, the presence of deceptive moves primes responses in the wrong direction, which may be only partly mitigated by delaying a response until veridical cues emerge. PMID:25100444

  18. Deceptive Body Movements Reverse Spatial Cueing in Soccer

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Michael J.; Jackson, Robin C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the experiments was to analyse the spatial cueing effects of the movements of soccer players executing normal and deceptive (step-over) turns with the ball. Stimuli comprised normal resolution or point-light video clips of soccer players dribbling a football towards the observer then turning right or left with the ball. Clips were curtailed before or on the turn (−160, −80, 0 or +80 ms) to examine the time course of direction prediction and spatial cueing effects. Participants were divided into higher-skilled (HS) and lower-skilled (LS) groups according to soccer experience. In experiment 1, accuracy on full video clips was higher than on point-light but results followed the same overall pattern. Both HS and LS groups correctly identified direction on normal moves at all occlusion levels. For deceptive moves, LS participants were significantly worse than chance and HS participants were somewhat more accurate but nevertheless substantially impaired. In experiment 2, point-light clips were used to cue a lateral target. HS and LS groups showed faster reaction times to targets that were congruent with the direction of normal turns, and to targets incongruent with the direction of deceptive turns. The reversed cueing by deceptive moves coincided with earlier kinematic events than cueing by normal moves. It is concluded that the body kinematics of soccer players generate spatial cueing effects when viewed from an opponent's perspective. This could create a reaction time advantage when anticipating the direction of a normal move. A deceptive move is designed to turn this cueing advantage into a disadvantage. Acting on the basis of advance information, the presence of deceptive moves primes responses in the wrong direction, which may be only partly mitigated by delaying a response until veridical cues emerge. PMID:25100444

  19. Good Liars Are Neither ‘Dark’ Nor Self-Deceptive

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Gordon R. T.; Berry, Christopher J.; Catmur, Caroline; Bird, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Deception is a central component of the personality 'Dark Triad' (Machiavellianism, Psychopathy and Narcissism). However, whether individuals exhibiting high scores on Dark Triad measures have a heightened deceptive ability has received little experimental attention. The present study tested whether the ability to lie effectively, and to detect lies told by others, was related to Dark Triad, Lie Acceptability, or Self-Deceptive measures of personality using an interactive group-based deception task. At a group level, lie detection accuracy was correlated with the ability to deceive others—replicating previous work. No evidence was found to suggest that Dark Triad traits confer any advantage either to deceive others, or to detect deception in others. Participants who considered lying to be more acceptable were more skilled at lying, while self-deceptive individuals were generally less credible and less confident when lying. Results are interpreted within a framework in which repeated practice results in enhanced deceptive ability. PMID:26083765

  20. On the success of a swindle: pollination by deception in orchids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiestl, Florian P.

    2005-06-01

    A standing enigma in pollination ecology is the evolution of pollinator attraction without offering reward in about one third of all orchid species. Here I review concepts of pollination by deception, and in particular recent findings in the pollination syndromes of food deception and sexual deception in orchids. Deceptive orchids mimic floral signals of rewarding plants (food deception) or mating signals of receptive females (sexual deception) to attract pollen vectors. In some food deceptive orchids, similarities in the spectral reflectance visible to the pollinator in a model plant and its mimic, and increased reproductive success of the mimic in the presence of the model have been demonstrated. Other species do not mimic specific model plants but attract pollinators with general attractive floral signals. In sexually deceptive orchids, floral odor is the key trait for pollinator attraction, and behaviorally active compounds in the orchids are identical to the sex pheromone of the pollinator species. Deceptive orchids often show high variability in floral signals, which may be maintained by negative frequency-dependent selection, since pollinators can learn and subsequently avoid common deceptive morphs more quickly than rare ones. The evolution of obligate deception in orchids seems paradoxical in the light of the typically lower fruit set than in rewarding species. Pollination by deception, however, can reduce self-pollination and encourage pollen flow over longer distances, thus promoting outbreeding. Although some food deceptive orchids are isolated through postzygotic reproductive barriers, sexually deceptive orchids lack post-mating barriers and species isolation is achieved via specific pollinator attraction. Recent population genetic and phylogenetic investigations suggest gene-flow within subgeneric clades, but pollinator-mediated selection may maintain species-specific floral traits.

  1. Detecting Deception within Small Groups: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Vernham, Zarah; Granhag, Pär-Anders; Mac Giolla, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Investigators often have multiple suspects to interview in order to determine whether they are guilty or innocent of a crime. Nevertheless, co-offending has been significantly neglected within the deception detection literature. The current review is the first of its kind to discuss co-offending and the importance of examining the detection of deception within groups. Groups of suspects can be interviewed separately (individual interviewing) or simultaneously (collective interviewing) and these differing interviewing styles are assessed throughout the review. The review emphasizes the differences between lone individuals and groups. It focuses on the theoretical implications of group deceit and the reasons why groups need to be understood in terms of investigative interviewing and deception detection if all types of crime-related incidents are to be recognized and dealt with appropriately. Group strategies, consistency within- and between-statements, joint memory, and group dynamics are referred to throughout the review and the importance of developing interview protocols specifically for groups is discussed. The review concludes by identifying the gaps in the literature and suggesting ideas for future research, highlighting that more research is required if we are to obtain a true understanding of the deception occurring within groups and how best to detect it. PMID:27445957

  2. 16 CFR 310.3 - Deceptive telemarketing acts or practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... 1601 et seq., and Regulation Z, 12 CFR part 226. 662 Electronic Fund Transfer Act, 15 U.S.C. 1693 et... CONGRESS TELEMARKETING SALES RULE 16 CFR PART 310 § 310.3 Deceptive telemarketing acts or practices. (a...., and Regulation Z, 12 CFR 226, compliance with the disclosure requirements under the Truth in...

  3. 16 CFR 310.3 - Deceptive telemarketing acts or practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... seq., and Regulation Z, 12 CFR part 226. 662 Electronic Fund Transfer Act, 15 U.S.C. 1693 et seq., and... CONGRESS TELEMARKETING SALES RULE 16 CFR PART 310 § 310.3 Deceptive telemarketing acts or practices. (a... credit products subject to the Truth in Lending Act, 15 U.S.C. 1601 et seq., and Regulation Z, 12 CFR...

  4. Cognitive Biases and Nonverbal Cue Availability in Detecting Deception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgoon, Judee K.; Blair, J. Pete; Strom, Renee E.

    2008-01-01

    In potentially deceptive situations, people rely on mental shortcuts to help process information. These heuristic judgments are often biased and result in inaccurate assessments of sender veracity. Four such biases--truth bias, visual bias, demeanor bias, and expectancy violation bias--were examined in a judgment experiment that varied nonverbal…

  5. The production and detection of deception in an interactive game.

    PubMed

    Sip, Kamila E; Lynge, Morten; Wallentin, Mikkel; McGregor, William B; Frith, Christopher D; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2010-10-01

    This experiment tests how people produce and detect deception while playing a computerized version of the dice game, Meyer. Deception is an integral part of this game, and the participants played it as in real life, without constraints on whether or when to attempt to deceive their opponent, and whether or when to accuse them of deception. We stress that deception is a complex act that cannot be exclusively associated with telling a falsehood, and that it is facilitated by hierarchical decision-making and risk evaluation. In comparison with a non-competitive control condition, both claiming truthfully and claiming falsely were associated with activity in fronto-polar cortex (BA10). However, relative to true claims, false claims were associated with greater activity in the premotor and parietal cortices. We speculate that the activity in BA10 is associated with the development of high-level executive strategies involved in both types of claim, while the premotor and parietal activity is associated with the need to select which particular claim to make. PMID:20727906

  6. The neural basis of deception in strategic interactions.

    PubMed

    Volz, Kirsten G; Vogeley, Kai; Tittgemeyer, Marc; von Cramon, D Yves; Sutter, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Communication based on informational asymmetries abounds in politics, business, and almost any other form of social interaction. Informational asymmetries may create incentives for the better-informed party to exploit her advantage by misrepresenting information. Using a game-theoretic setting, we investigate the neural basis of deception in human interaction. Unlike in most previous fMRI research on deception, the participants decide themselves whether to lie or not. We find activation within the right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ), the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the (pre)cuneus (CUN), and the anterior frontal gyrus (aFG) when contrasting lying with truth telling. Notably, our design also allows for an investigation of the neural foundations of sophisticated deception through telling the truth-when the sender does not expect the receiver to believe her (true) message. Sophisticated deception triggers activation within the same network as plain lies, i.e., we find activity within the rTPJ, the CUN, and aFG. We take this result to show that brain activation can reveal the sender's veridical intention to deceive others, irrespective of whether in fact the sender utters the factual truth or not. PMID:25729358

  7. An Examination of Behavioral Responses to Stereotypical Deceptive Displays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddleston, Bill M.

    A study investigated whether receivers who detect senders behaving deceitfully will automatically become more resistent to the message being presented. By developing predictions derived from the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM), the study hypothesized that only noninvolved receivers would respond negatively to deceptive nonverbal cues in a…

  8. Detecting deception in facial expressions of pain: accuracy and training.

    PubMed

    Hill, Marilyn L; Craig, Kenneth D

    2004-01-01

    Clinicians tend to assign greater weight to nonverbal expression than to patient self-report when judging the location and severity of pain. However, patients can be successful at dissimulating facial expressions of pain, as posed expressions resemble genuine expressions in the frequency and intensity of pain-related facial actions. The present research examined individual differences in the ability to discriminate genuine and deceptive facial pain displays and whether different models of training in cues to deception would improve detection skills. Judges (60 male, 60 female) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups: 1) control; 2) corrective feedback; 3) deception training; and 4) deception training plus feedback. Judges were shown 4 videotaped facial expressions for each chronic pain patient: neutral expressions, genuine pain instigated by physiotherapy range of motion assessment, masked pain, and faked pain. For each condition, the participants rated pain intensity and unpleasantness, decided which category each of the 4 video clips represented, and described cues they used to arrive at decisions. There were significant individual differences in accuracy, with females more accurate than males, but accuracy was unrelated to past pain experience, empathy, or the number or type of facial cues used. Immediate corrective feedback led to significant improvements in participants' detection accuracy, whereas there was no support for the use of an information-based training program. PMID:15502685

  9. Teaching Students about Classic Findings on the Detection of Deception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Kathryn A.

    2003-01-01

    I describe a classroom exercise that demonstrates people's inability to detect deception better than chance. In the exercise, students worked in pairs and took turns asking each other a series of questions. Students lied to their partners some of the time, and they in turn attempted to determine when their partners lied to them. Students also…

  10. Types of deception revealed by individual differences in cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Charity J; LeSage, Julia B; Kosslyn, Stephen M

    2009-01-01

    The two studies reported in this article are an extension of the neuroimaging study by Ganis et al. (2003), which provided evidence that different types of lies arise from different cognitive processes. We examined the initial response times (IRTs) to questions answered both deceptively and truthfully. We considered four types of deceptive responses: a coherent set of rehearsed, memorized lies about a life experience; a coherent set of lies spontaneously created about a life experience; a set of isolated lies involving self-knowledge; and a set of isolated lies involving knowledge of another person. We assessed the difference between truthful and deceptive IRTs. Scores from cognitive tasks included in the MiniCog Rapid Assessment Battery (MRAB) were significant predictors of IRT differences. Each type of lie was predicted by a distinct set of MRAB scores. These results provide further evidence that deception is a multifaceted process and that different kinds of lies arise from the operation of different cognitive processes. PMID:18654937

  11. The neural basis of deception in strategic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Volz, Kirsten G.; Vogeley, Kai; Tittgemeyer, Marc; von Cramon, D. Yves; Sutter, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Communication based on informational asymmetries abounds in politics, business, and almost any other form of social interaction. Informational asymmetries may create incentives for the better-informed party to exploit her advantage by misrepresenting information. Using a game-theoretic setting, we investigate the neural basis of deception in human interaction. Unlike in most previous fMRI research on deception, the participants decide themselves whether to lie or not. We find activation within the right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ), the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the (pre)cuneus (CUN), and the anterior frontal gyrus (aFG) when contrasting lying with truth telling. Notably, our design also allows for an investigation of the neural foundations of sophisticated deception through telling the truth—when the sender does not expect the receiver to believe her (true) message. Sophisticated deception triggers activation within the same network as plain lies, i.e., we find activity within the rTPJ, the CUN, and aFG. We take this result to show that brain activation can reveal the sender's veridical intention to deceive others, irrespective of whether in fact the sender utters the factual truth or not. PMID:25729358

  12. The Case of Pinocchio: Teachers' Ability to Detect Deception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhard, Marc-Andre; Dickhauser, Oliver; Marksteiner, Tamara; Sporer, Siegfried L.

    2011-01-01

    In a study with 365 teacher students, 447 teacher trainees, and 123 teachers, the ability to detect students' deception was tested. Participants judged the credibility of videotaped students who were accused of academic dishonesty (having cheated in a test). Half of these messages were actually true (students had not cheated on the test) and half…

  13. Lyin’ Eyes: Ocular-motor Measures of Reading Reveal Deception

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Anne E.; Hacker, Douglas J.; Webb, Andrea K.; Osher, Dahvyn; Kristjansson, Sean; Woltz, Dan J.; Kircher, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to evaluate an alternative to current methods for detecting deception in security screening contexts. We evaluated a new cognitive-based test of deception that measured participants’ ocular-motor responses (pupil responses and reading behaviors) while they read and responded to statements on a computerized questionnaire. In Experiment 1, participants from a university community were randomly assigned to either a “guilty” group that committed one of two mock crimes or an “innocent” group that only learned about the crime. Participants then reported for testing, where they completed the computer-administered questionnaire that addressed their possible involvement in the crimes. Experiment 2 also manipulated participants’ incentive to pass the test and difficulty of statements on the test. In both experiments, guilty participants had increased pupil responses to statements answered deceptively; however, they spent less time fixating on, reading, and re-reading those statements than statements answered truthfully. These ocular-motor measures were optimally weighted in a discrimination function that correctly classified 85% of participants as either guilty or innocent. Findings from Experiment 2 indicated that group discrimination was improved with greater incentives to pass the test and the use of statements with simple syntax. The present findings suggest that two cognitive processes are involved in deception -- vigilance and strategy -- and that these processes are reflected in different ocular-motor measures. The ocular-motor test reported here represents a new approach to detecting deception that may fill an important need in security screening contexts. PMID:22545928

  14. Predicting the lateral direction of deceptive and non-deceptive penalty kicks in football from the kinematics of the kicker.

    PubMed

    Lopes, José E; Jacobs, David M; Travieso, David; Araújo, Duarte

    2014-08-01

    This study addresses the utility of the kinematics of penalty takers for goalkeepers in association football. Twelve professional and semi-professional players shot to one side of the goal with (deceptive condition) or without (non-deceptive condition) simulating a shot to the opposite side. The body kinematics of the penalty takers were registered with motion-capture apparatus. Correlation and regression techniques were used to determine the relation between the shot direction and aspects of the penalty taker's kinematics at different moments. Several kinematic variables were strongly correlated with shot direction, especially those related to the lower part of the body. Some of these variables, including the angle of the non-kicking foot, acquired high correlations at time intervals that are useful to goalkeepers. Compound variables, here defined as linear combinations of variables, were found to be more useful than locally defined variables. Whereas some kinematic variables showed substantial differences in their relation to ball direction depending on deception, other kinematic variables were less affected by deception. Results are interpreted with the hypothesis of non-substitutability of genuine action. The study can also be interpreted as extending the correlation and regression methodology, often used to analyze variables defined at single moments, to the analysis of variables in a time continuous fashion. PMID:24846289

  15. Physiological and psychological effects of deception on pacing strategy and performance: a review.

    PubMed

    Jones, Hollie S; Williams, Emily L; Bridge, Craig A; Marchant, Dave; Midgley, Adrian W; Micklewright, Dominic; Mc Naughton, Lars R

    2013-12-01

    The aim of an optimal pacing strategy during exercise is to enhance performance whilst ensuring physiological limits are not surpassed, which has been shown to result in a metabolic reserve at the end of the exercise. There has been debate surrounding the theoretical models that have been proposed to explain how pace is regulated, with more recent research investigating a central control of exercise regulation. Deception has recently emerged as a common, practical approach to manipulate key variables during exercise. There are a number of ways in which deception interventions have been designed, each intending to gain particular insights into pacing behaviour and performance. Deception methodologies can be conceptualised according to a number of dimensions such as deception timing (prior to or during exercise), presentation frequency (blind, discontinuous or continuous) and type of deception (performance, biofeedback or environmental feedback). However, research evidence on the effects of deception has been perplexing and the use of complex designs and varied methodologies makes it difficult to draw any definitive conclusions about how pacing strategy and performance are affected by deception. This review examines existing research in the area of deception and pacing strategies, and provides a critical appraisal of the different methodological approaches used to date. It is hoped that this analysis will inform the direction and methodology of future investigations in this area by addressing the mechanisms through which deception impacts upon performance and by elucidating the potential application of deception techniques in training and competitive settings. PMID:24002790

  16. 21 CFR 71.22 - Deception as a basis for refusing to issue regulations; deceptive use of a color additive for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... regulations; deceptive use of a color additive for which a regulation has issued. 71.22 Section 71.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVE...; deceptive use of a color additive for which a regulation has issued. The Commissioner shall refuse to...

  17. 21 CFR 71.22 - Deception as a basis for refusing to issue regulations; deceptive use of a color additive for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... regulations; deceptive use of a color additive for which a regulation has issued. 71.22 Section 71.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVE...; deceptive use of a color additive for which a regulation has issued. The Commissioner shall refuse to...

  18. Attempting to hide our real thoughts: electrophysiological evidence from truthful and deceptive responses during evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dong, Guangheng; Wu, Haiyan

    2010-07-19

    This study seeks to investigate neural activity during a deceptive evaluation process. Attractive and unattractive facial photos were presented to participants who were then asked to evaluate and respond to these photos according to different cues (truthfulness or deceptiveness). Behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) activities were recorded while participants offered their truthful or deceptive responses based on their evaluations. Consistent with previous results on the old/new paradigm, deceptive responses required greater cognitive endeavor, as indicated by a larger later positive component (LPC). Meanwhile, deceptive responses on attractive items were more easily offered than deceptive replies on unattractive items, as indicated by smaller LPCs. Truthfulness towards attractive items was more easily conveyed than truthfulness towards unattractive items, as indicated by the smaller contingent negative variation (CNV). The potential reasons for these results are discussed. PMID:20470861

  19. Executive Function and Temperamental Fear Concurrently Predict Deception in School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Babkirk, Sarah; Saunders, Lauren V.; Solomon, Beylul; Kessel, Ellen M.; Crossman, Angela; Gokhan, Nurper; Dennis, Tracy A.

    2015-01-01

    The decision to intentionally withhold truthful information, or deception, is a key component of moral development and may be a precursor to more serious anti-social tendencies. Two factors, executive function and temperamental fear are each thought to influence childhood deception. Few studies, however, have explored deception in relation to both of these factors simultaneously. This was the goal of the present study. Executive function, as measured by a working memory task, and temperamental fear, as measured via maternal report were assessed in relation to observed deceptive behavior among 6 – 9-year-old children (N = 43). Results showed that children displaying high working memory capacity and high temperamental fear were more likely to exhibit deceptive behavior. Implications for predictors of childhood deception and applications for moral education are discussed. PMID:26880858

  20. Use of Deception to Improve Client Honeypot Detection of Drive-by-Download Attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Popovsky, Barbara; Narvaez Suarez, Julia F.; Seifert, Christian; Frincke, Deborah A.; O'Neil, Lori R.; Aval, Chiraag U.

    2009-07-24

    This paper presents the application of deception theory to improve the success of client honeypots at detecting malicious web page attacks from infected servers programmed by online criminals to launch drive-by-download attacks. The design of honeypots faces three main challenges: deception, how to design honeypots that seem real systems; counter-deception, techniques used to identify honeypots and hence defeating their deceiving nature; and counter counter-deception, how to design honeypots that deceive attackers. The authors propose the application of a deception model known as the deception planning loop to identify the current status on honeypot research, development and deployment. The analysis leads to a proposal to formulate a landscape of the honeypot research and planning of steps ahead.

  1. Robot Lies in Health Care: When Is Deception Morally Permissible?

    PubMed

    Matthias, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    Autonomous robots are increasingly interacting with users who have limited knowledge of robotics and are likely to have an erroneous mental model of the robot's workings, capabilities, and internal structure. The robot's real capabilities may diverge from this mental model to the extent that one might accuse the robot's manufacturer of deceiving the user, especially in cases where the user naturally tends to ascribe exaggerated capabilities to the machine (e.g. conversational systems in elder-care contexts, or toy robots in child care). This poses the question, whether misleading or even actively deceiving the user of an autonomous artifact about the capabilities of the machine is morally bad and why. By analyzing trust, autonomy, and the erosion of trust in communicative acts as consequences of deceptive robot behavior, we formulate four criteria that must be fulfilled in order for robot deception to be morally permissible, and in some cases even morally indicated. PMID:26144538

  2. Pollination by sexual deception-it takes chemistry to work.

    PubMed

    Bohman, Björn; Flematti, Gavin R; Barrow, Russell A; Pichersky, Eran; Peakall, Rod

    2016-08-01

    Semiochemicals are of paramount importance in sexually deceptive plants. These plants sexually lure specific male insects as pollinators by chemical and physical mimicry of the female of the pollinator. The strategy has evolved repeatedly in orchids, with a wide diversity of insect groups exploited. Chemical communication systems confirmed by field bioassays include: alkenes and alkanes in bee pollinated Ophrys species, keto-acid and hydroxy-acids in scoliid wasp pollinated O. speculum, and cyclohexanediones and pyrazines in thynnine wasp pollinated Chiloglottis and Drakaea orchids, respectively. In Ophrys, stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (SAD) enzymes have been confirmed to control species level variation in alkene double bond position. The production of cyclohexanediones in Chiloglottis unexpectedly depends on UVB light, a phenomenon unknown for other plant specialised metabolites. Potential biosynthetic pathways for other systems are explored, and alternative approaches to further accelerate chemical discovery in sexually deceptive plants are proposed. PMID:27368084

  3. The effect of jamming/deception on decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felkey, M. A.; Monk, D. L.; Stec, L. J.

    1984-10-01

    The present experiment examined the capability of developing a simulation methodology for assessing the effects of Command, Control, and Communications CounterMeasures (C3CM) on a human operator. Primarily, the effects on human information jamming and deception were applied against a key decision maker in a simulated, air defense, C3 system were assessed. The man-in-the-loop simulation provides real human operator data and a methodology to assess human operator performance. The subjects' performance exhibited trends from which certain strategies were assessed. Results indicated that operator uncertainty and loss of confidence in ambiguous situations did not exist. Specifically, the subjects relied on the most timely information channel. Performance was worse when that channel was jammed. Also, the condition that degraded performance the most was when the most timely channel was jammed and the most precise channel contained deceptive information.

  4. A game theoretic investigation of deception in network security

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Thomas E.; Grosu, Daniel

    2010-12-03

    We perform a game theoretic investigation of the effects of deception on the interactions between an attacker and a defender of a computer network. The defender can employ camouflage by either disguising a normal system as a honeypot or by disguising a honeypot as a normal system. We model the interactions between defender and attacker using a signaling game, a non-cooperative two player dynamic game of incomplete information. For this model, we determine which strategies admit perfect Bayesian equilibria. These equilibria are refined Nash equilibria in which neither the defender nor the attacker will unilaterally choose to deviate from their strategies. Finally, we discuss the benefits of employing deceptive equilibrium strategies in the defense of a computer network.

  5. A pilot study of functional magnetic resonance imaging brain correlates of deception in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Kozel, F Andrew; Revell, Letty J; Lorberbaum, Jeffrey P; Shastri, Ananda; Elhai, Jon D; Horner, Michael David; Smith, Adam; Nahas, Ziad; Bohning, Daryl E; George, Mark S

    2004-01-01

    We hypothesized that specific brain regions would activate during deception, and these areas would correlate with changes in electrodermal activity (EDA). Eight men were asked to find money hidden under various objects. While functional MRI images were acquired and EDA was recorded, the subjects gave both truthful and deceptive answers regarding the money's location. The group analysis revealed significant activation during deception in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFCx) and anterior cingulate (AC), but individual results were not consistent. Individually and as a group, EDA correlated with blood flow changes in the OFCx and AC. Specific brain regions were activated during deception, but the present technique lacks good predictive power for individuals. PMID:15377736

  6. Advances in automated deception detection in text-based computer-mediated communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adkins, Mark; Twitchell, Douglas P.; Burgoon, Judee K.; Nunamaker, Jay F., Jr.

    2004-08-01

    The Internet has provided criminals, terrorists, spies, and other threats to national security a means of communication. At the same time it also provides for the possibility of detecting and tracking their deceptive communication. Recent advances in natural language processing, machine learning and deception research have created an environment where automated and semi-automated deception detection of text-based computer-mediated communication (CMC, e.g. email, chat, instant messaging) is a reachable goal. This paper reviews two methods for discriminating between deceptive and non-deceptive messages in CMC. First, Document Feature Mining uses document features or cues in CMC messages combined with machine learning techniques to classify messages according to their deceptive potential. The method, which is most useful in asynchronous applications, also allows for the visualization of potential deception cues in CMC messages. Second, Speech Act Profiling, a method for quantifying and visualizing synchronous CMC, has shown promise in aiding deception detection. The methods may be combined and are intended to be a part of a suite of tools for automating deception detection.

  7. Nursing practice: compassionate deception and the Good Samaritan.

    PubMed

    Tuckett, A

    1999-09-01

    This article reviews the literature on deception to illuminate the phenomenon as a background for an appraisal within nursing. It then describes nursing as a practice of caring. The character of the Good Samaritan is recommended as indicative of the virtue of compassion that ought to underpin caring in nursing practice. Finally, the article concludes that a caring nurse, responding virtuously, acts by being compassionate, for a time recognizing the prima facie nature of the rules or principles of truth telling. PMID:10696185

  8. Deception studies manipulating centrally acting performance modifiers: a review.

    PubMed

    Williams, Emily L; Jones, Hollie S; Sparks, Sandy; Marchant, David C; Micklewright, Dominic; McNaughton, Lars R

    2014-07-01

    Athletes anticipatorily set and continuously adjust pacing strategies before and during events to produce optimal performance. Self-regulation ensures maximal effort is exerted in correspondence with the end point of exercise, while preventing physiological changes that are detrimental and disruptive to homeostatic control. The integration of feedforward and feedback information, together with the proposed brain's performance modifiers is said to be fundamental to this anticipatory and continuous regulation of exercise. The manipulation of central, regulatory internal and external stimuli has been a key focus within deception research, attempting to influence the self-regulation of exercise and induce improvements in performance. Methods of manipulating performance modifiers such as unknown task end point, deceived duration or intensity feedback, self-belief, or previous experience create a challenge within research, as although they contextualize theoretical propositions, there are few ecological and practical approaches which integrate theory with practice. In addition, the different methods and measures demonstrated in manipulation studies have produced inconsistent results. This review examines and critically evaluates the current methods of how specific centrally controlled performance modifiers have been manipulated, within previous deception studies. From the 31 studies reviewed, 10 reported positive effects on performance, encouraging future investigations to explore the mechanisms responsible for influencing pacing and consequently how deceptive approaches can further facilitate performance. The review acts to discuss the use of expectation manipulation not only to examine which methods of deception are successful in facilitating performance but also to understand further the key components used in the regulation of exercise and performance. PMID:24300123

  9. Neural correlates of forgiveness for moral transgressions involving deception.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Akiko; Abe, Nobuhito; Ueno, Aya; Shigemune, Yayoi; Mori, Etsuro; Tashiro, Manabu; Fujii, Toshikatsu

    2010-05-21

    We used positron emission tomography (PET) to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the willingness to forgive another person's moral transgression involving deception. During scanning, 12 subjects were asked to judge the forgivability of a perpetrator's moral transgression. These transgressions were described by four kinds of scenarios composed of a combination of two factors: the attitude of the perpetrator (dishonest or honest) and the severity of the moral transgression (serious or minor). Behavioral data showed that both the perpetrator's dishonesty and the seriousness of the scenario decreased the subjects' willingness to forgive the moral transgression. Neuroimaging data revealed that, relative to honest responses, a perpetrator's dishonest responses were associated with right ventromedial prefrontal activity, which possibly reflects the subjects' identification of the perpetrator's deception. The opposite comparison did not show significant activation. Moreover, a comparison of serious scenarios with minor scenarios did not reveal significant activation. Instead, minor scenarios, relative to serious scenarios, evoked activity in the right middle frontal gyrus and the right caudate nucleus, possibly reflecting increased demand on frontal control system function. Further analysis revealed that the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex showed a significant interaction between the two factors, indicating that this region functions as a mediator of the two factors, modulating judgments regarding the forgivability of moral transgressions. Taken together, these findings suggest that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex plays a key role in the forgiveness of moral transgressions involving deception. PMID:20307505

  10. Explicit Instructions Increase Cognitive Costs of Deception in Predictable Social Context

    PubMed Central

    Falkiewicz, Marcel; Sarzyńska, Justyna; Babula, Justyna; Szatkowska, Iwona; Grabowska, Anna; Nęcka, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Convincing participants to deceive remains one of the biggest and most important challenges of laboratory-based deception research. The simplest and most prevalent method involves explicitly instructing participants to lie or tell the truth before presenting each task item. The usual finding of such experiments is increased cognitive load associated with deceptive responses, explained by necessity to inhibit default and automatic honest responses. However, explicit instructions are usually coupled with the absence of social context in the experimental task. Context plays a key role in social cognition by activating prior knowledge, which facilitates behaviors consistent with the latter. We hypothesized that in the presence of social context, both honest and deceptive responses can be produced on the basis of prior knowledge, without reliance on truth and without additional cognitive load during deceptive responses. In order to test the hypothesis, we have developed Speed-Dating Task (SDT), which is based on a real-life social event. In SDT, participants respond both honestly and deceptively to questions in order to appear similar to each of the dates. The dates are predictable and represent well-known categories (i.e., atheist or conservative). In one condition participants rely on explicit instructions preceding each question (external cue). In the second condition no explicit instructions are present, so the participants need to adapt based on prior knowledge about the category the dates belong to (internal cue). With internal cues, reaction times (RTs) are similar for both honest and deceptive responses. However, in the presence of external cues (EC), RTs are longer for deceptive than honest responses, suggesting that deceptive responses are associated with increased cognitive load. Compared to internal cues, deception costs were higher when EC were present. However, the effect was limited to the first part of the experiment, only partially confirming our

  11. Detection of deception based on fMRI activation patterns underlying the production of a deceptive response and receiving feedback about the success of the deception after a mock murder crime

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Qian; Vanman, Eric J.; Wei, Dongtao; Yang, Wenjing; Jia, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The ability of a deceiver to track a victim’s ongoing judgments about the truthfulness of the deceit can be critical for successful deception. However, no study has yet investigated the neural circuits underlying receiving a judgment about one’s lie. To explore this issue, we used a modified Guilty Knowledge Test in a mock murder situation to simultaneously record the neural responses involved in producing deception and later when judgments of that deception were made. Producing deception recruited the bilateral inferior parietal lobules (IPLs), right ventral lateral prefrontal (VLPF) areas and right striatum, among which the activation of the right VLPF contributed mostly to diagnosing the identities of the participants, correctly diagnosing 81.25% of ‘murderers’ and 81.25% of ‘innocents’. Moreover, the participant’s response when their deception was successful uniquely recruited the right middle frontal gyrus, bilateral IPLs, bilateral orbitofrontal cortices, bilateral middle temporal gyrus and left cerebellum, among which the right IPL contributed mostly to diagnosing participants’ identities, correctly diagnosing 93.75% of murderers and 87.5% of innocents. This study shows that neural activity associated with being a successful liar (or not) is a feasible indicator for detecting lies and may be more valid than neural activity associated with producing deception. PMID:23946002

  12. Detection of deception based on fMRI activation patterns underlying the production of a deceptive response and receiving feedback about the success of the deception after a mock murder crime.

    PubMed

    Cui, Qian; Vanman, Eric J; Wei, Dongtao; Yang, Wenjing; Jia, Lei; Zhang, Qinglin

    2014-10-01

    The ability of a deceiver to track a victim's ongoing judgments about the truthfulness of the deceit can be critical for successful deception. However, no study has yet investigated the neural circuits underlying receiving a judgment about one's lie. To explore this issue, we used a modified Guilty Knowledge Test in a mock murder situation to simultaneously record the neural responses involved in producing deception and later when judgments of that deception were made. Producing deception recruited the bilateral inferior parietal lobules (IPLs), right ventral lateral prefrontal (VLPF) areas and right striatum, among which the activation of the right VLPF contributed mostly to diagnosing the identities of the participants, correctly diagnosing 81.25% of 'murderers' and 81.25% of 'innocents'. Moreover, the participant's response when their deception was successful uniquely recruited the right middle frontal gyrus, bilateral IPLs, bilateral orbitofrontal cortices, bilateral middle temporal gyrus and left cerebellum, among which the right IPL contributed mostly to diagnosing participants' identities, correctly diagnosing 93.75% of murderers and 87.5% of innocents. This study shows that neural activity associated with being a successful liar (or not) is a feasible indicator for detecting lies and may be more valid than neural activity associated with producing deception. PMID:23946002

  13. How Tactile and Function Information Affect Young Children's Ability to Understand the Nature of Food-Appearing, Deceptive Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Christina Miles

    2008-01-01

    Preschool children's (N = 64) ability to use tactile information and function cues on less-realistic and more-realistic food-appearing, deceptive objects was examined before and after training on the function of deceptive objects. They also responded to appearance and reality questions about deceptive objects. Half of the children (F-S:…

  14. "What She Doesn't Know Won't Hurt Her": Gender Effects on Patterns of Interpersonal Deception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justice, Paula Lippard

    A study was conducted to determine if (1) significant gender differences exist in prevalence of deception, motivation for deception, and recipients of deception; and (2) whether such differences support traditional gender role perceptions and expectations. Seventy-four subjects, 50 female and 24 male undergraduate students, recorded all instances…

  15. Neural correlates of deception in social contexts in normally developing children.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Susumu; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Thyreau, Benjamin; Tanaka, Mari; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-01-01

    Deception is related to the ability to inhibit prepotent responses and to engage in mental tasks such as anticipating responses and inferring what another person knows, especially in social contexts. However, the neural correlates of deception processing, which requires mentalizing, remain unclear. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the neural correlates of deception, including mentalization, in social contexts in normally developing children. Healthy right-handed children (aged 8-9 years) were scanned while performing interactive games involving deception. The games varied along two dimensions: the type of reply (deception and truth) and the type of context (social and less social). Participants were instructed to deceive a witch and to tell the truth to a girl. Under the social-context conditions, participants were asked to consider what they inferred about protagonists' preferences from their facial expressions when responding to questions. Under the less-social-context conditions, participants did not need to consider others' preferences. We found a significantly greater response in the right precuneus under the social-context than under less-social-context conditions. Additionally, we found marginally greater activation in the right inferior parietal lobule (IPL) under the deception than under the truth condition. These results suggest that deception in a social context requires not only inhibition of prepotent responses but also engagement in mentalizing processes. This study provides the first evidence of the neural correlates of the mentalizing processes involved in deception in normally developing children. PMID:23730281

  16. Use of "um" in the Deceptive Speech of a Convicted Murderer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villar, Gina; Arciuli, Joanne; Mallard, David

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a link between language behaviors and deception; however, questions remain about the role of specific linguistic cues, especially in real-life high-stakes lies. This study investigated use of the so-called filler, "um," in externally verifiable truthful versus deceptive speech of a convicted murderer. The data…

  17. Self-deception as self-signalling: a model and experimental evidence

    PubMed Central

    Mijović-Prelec, Danica; Prelec, Draz̆en

    2010-01-01

    Self-deception has long been the subject of speculation and controversy in psychology, evolutionary biology and philosophy. According to an influential ‘deflationary’ view, the concept is an over-interpretation of what is in reality an instance of motivationally biased judgement. The opposite view takes the interpersonal deception analogy seriously, and holds that some part of the self actively manipulates information so as to mislead the other part. Building on an earlier self-signalling model of Bodner and Prelec, we present a game-theoretic model of self-deception. We propose that two distinct mechanisms collaborate to produce overt expressions of belief: a mechanism responsible for action selection (including verbal statements) and an interpretive mechanism that draws inferences from actions and generates emotional responses consistent with the inferences. The model distinguishes between two modes of self-deception, depending on whether the self-deceived individual regards his own statements as fully credible. The paper concludes with a new experimental study showing that self-deceptive judgements can be reliably and repeatedly elicited with financial incentives in a categorization task, and that the degree of self-deception varies with incentives. The study also finds evidence of the two forms of self-deception. The psychological benefits of self-deception, as measured by confidence, peak at moderate levels. PMID:20026461

  18. Effects of Deception on Children's Understanding of Second-Order False Belief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    This research examined two questions: effects of deception on children's understanding of second-order false belief, and possible effects of number of siblings on second-order performance. Kindergarten children responded to 3 second-order problems that varied in the presence and the nature of deception. Performance was better on the problems…

  19. Method and Apparatus Providing Deception and/or Altered Operation in an Information System Operating System

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Fred; Rogers, Deanna T.; Neagoe, Vicentiu

    2008-10-14

    A method and/or system and/or apparatus providing deception and/or execution alteration in an information system. In specific embodiments, deceptions and/or protections are provided by intercepting and/or modifying operation of one or more system calls of an operating system.

  20. Evidence for the Pinocchio Effect: Linguistic Differences between Lies, Deception by Omissions, and Truths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Swol, Lyn M.; Braun, Michael T.; Malhotra, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    The study used Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count and Coh-Metrix software to examine linguistic differences with deception in an ultimatum game. In the game, the Allocator was given an amount of money to divide with the Receiver. The Receiver did not know the precise amount the Allocator had to divide, and the Allocator could use deception.…

  1. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy to investigate hemodynamic responses to deception in the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Tian, Fenghua; Sharma, Vikrant; Kozel, F Andrew; Liu, Hanli

    2009-12-15

    Deception involves complex neural processes and correlates in the brain. Functional brain imaging techniques have been used to study and understand brain mechanisms during deception. In this study, we utilized functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to investigate hemodynamic responses to deception in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) at the individual level. The protocol involved a mock theft scenario that was previously used in a functional MRI (fMRI) study of detecting deception. Subjects (N=11) were instructed to steal a ring or a watch and then conceal the item that they stole. Participants then responded to visually presented questions regarding which item they took. While the subjects were answering the questions, their PFC activity was measured using fNIRS. The brain activity associated with deceptive responses demonstrated significant changes in hemoglobin concentrations with respect to the baseline, while the response of truth telling was not statistically different from baseline. The regions of greater activation induced by deception identified by fNIRS were approximately consistent with those reported by the previous fMRI study using a similar protocol. This study demonstrates that fNIRS is a promising new technique to understand hemodynamic and neural correlates of deception and thus to detect deception with the added advantages of being compact, technically easier to implement, and inexpensive compared to functional MRI. PMID:19782657

  2. 47 CFR 11.45 - Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions. 11.45 Section 11.45 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Organization § 11.45 Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions. No person...

  3. Confidence and Accuracy in the Recall of Deceptive and Nondeceptive Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, W.F.; Sampaio, C.; Barlow, M.R.

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to study the metamemory theory of confidence for the domain of sentence recall. Experiment 1 used nondeceptive sentences and deceptive synonym substitution sentences. Experiment 2 used nondeceptive sentences and deceptive schema inference sentences. In both experiments there was a strong positive relationship…

  4. Is It Worth Lying For? Physiological and Emotional Implications of Recalling Deceptive Affection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, Sean M.; Booth-Butterfield, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    This investigation explored the risks of affectionate expressions in romantic relationships by examining the physiological and emotional implications of recalled expressed deceptive affectionate messages to romantic partners. Ninety-nine participants were assigned to one of three conditions: deceptive affection, honest affection, or plans with a…

  5. 16 CFR 301.42 - Deception as to nature of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deception as to nature of business. 301.42 Section 301.42 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.42 Deception as to nature of business. When necessary to avoid...

  6. 16 CFR 301.42 - Deception as to nature of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deception as to nature of business. 301.42 Section 301.42 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.42 Deception as to nature of business. When necessary to avoid...

  7. 16 CFR 301.42 - Deception as to nature of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 301.42 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.42 Deception as to nature of business. When necessary to avoid deception, the name of any person other than the manufacturer of the...

  8. 16 CFR 301.42 - Deception as to nature of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 301.42 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.42 Deception as to nature of business. When necessary to avoid deception, the name of any person other than the manufacturer of the...

  9. 16 CFR 301.42 - Deception as to nature of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 301.42 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.42 Deception as to nature of business. When necessary to avoid deception, the name of any person other than the manufacturer of the...

  10. 47 CFR 11.45 - Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions. 11.45 Section 11.45 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Organization § 11.45 Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions. No person...

  11. 47 CFR 11.45 - Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions. 11.45 Section 11.45 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Organization § 11.45 Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions. No person...

  12. 47 CFR 11.45 - Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions. 11.45 Section 11.45 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Organization § 11.45 Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions. No person...

  13. 47 CFR 11.45 - Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions. 11.45 Section 11.45 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Organization § 11.45 Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions. No person...

  14. Effects of Information Processing Objectives on Judgments of Deception following Perjury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deTurck, Mark A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines mock jurors processing testimony under impression-set and memory-set conditions to determine under which condition they rate a witness to be more deceptive. Finds that under impression-set objectives subjects formed stronger judgments of the witness's deceptiveness, while the pattern was reversed under memory-set conditions. (MS)

  15. 16 CFR 18.8 - Deception as to origin or source of industry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... an unfair or deceptive act or practice to sell, offer for sale, or advertise an industry product by...,” “California Privet,” “Japanese Barberry,” etc.). (b) It is also an unfair or deceptive act or practice to advertise, sell, or offer for sale an industry product of foreign origin without adequate and...

  16. 12 CFR 227.14 - Unfair or deceptive practices involving cosigners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Unfair or deceptive practices involving cosigners. 227.14 Section 227.14 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES (REGULATION AA) Credit Practices Rule § 227.14 Unfair or...

  17. 12 CFR 1022.138 - Prevention of deceptive marketing of free credit reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prevention of deceptive marketing of free... § 1022.138 Prevention of deceptive marketing of free credit reports. (a) For purposes of this section: (1....gov/learnmore shall be an operational hyperlink, underlined, and in a color that is a high degree...

  18. 12 CFR 1022.138 - Prevention of deceptive marketing of free credit reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Prevention of deceptive marketing of free... § 1022.138 Prevention of deceptive marketing of free credit reports. (a) For purposes of this section: (1....gov/learnmore shall be an operational hyperlink, underlined, and in a color that is a high degree...

  19. 12 CFR 1022.138 - Prevention of deceptive marketing of free credit reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Prevention of deceptive marketing of free... § 1022.138 Prevention of deceptive marketing of free credit reports. (a) For purposes of this section: (1....gov/learnmore shall be an operational hyperlink, underlined, and in a color that is a high degree...

  20. 16 CFR 610.4 - Prevention of deceptive marketing of free credit reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prevention of deceptive marketing of free... REPORTING ACT FREE ANNUAL FILE DISCLOSURES § 610.4 Prevention of deceptive marketing of free credit reports....GOV shall be an operational hyperlink to (www.ftc.gov/freereports), underlined, and in a color that...

  1. The Generalization of a Conditioned Response to Deception across the Public/Private Barrier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomash, J. J.; Reed, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Previous attempts at lie detection, such as the polygraph, have relied on physiological arousal to identify deception--but these responses have not proven to be as reliable as is necessary for widespread use. Conditioning procedures have been shown to increase the discriminative physiological arousal exhibited during deception, but have targeted…

  2. 16 CFR 423.5 - Unfair or deceptive acts or practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TEXTILE WEARING APPAREL AND CERTAIN PIECE GOODS AS AMENDED § 423.5 Unfair or deceptive acts or practices. (a) Textile wearing apparel and certain piece goods. In connection with the sale, in or affecting commerce, of textile wearing apparel and certain piece goods, it is an unfair or deceptive act or...

  3. Teaching Children with Autism to Detect and Respond to Deceptive Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranick, Jennifer; Persicke, Angela; Tarbox, Jonathan; Kornack, Jake A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that children with autism often have deficits in deception, both in the ability to lie to others and in the ability to detect when they are being lied to. Additionally, children with autism are frequently the victims of bullying and difficulty with understanding deception likely makes the population more vulnerable to…

  4. A Truth that's Told with Bad Intent: An ERP Study of Deception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrion, Ricardo E.; Keenan, Julian P.; Sebanz, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    Human social cognition critically relies on the ability to deceive others. However, the cognitive and neural underpinnings of deception are still poorly understood. Why does lying place increased demands on cognitive control? The present study investigated whether cognitive control processes during deception are recruited due to the need to…

  5. Strong, but Wrong: Lay People's and Police Officers' Beliefs about Verbal and Nonverbal Cues to Deception.

    PubMed

    Bogaard, Glynis; Meijer, Ewout H; Vrij, Aldert; Merckelbach, Harald

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the beliefs of students and police officers about cues to deception. A total of 95 police officers and 104 undergraduate students filled out a questionnaire addressing beliefs about cues to deception. Twenty-eight verbal cues were included in the questionnaire, all extracted from verbal credibility assessment tools (i.e., CBCA, RM, and SCAN). We investigated to what extent beliefs about nonverbal and verbal cues of deception differed between lay people (students) and police officers, and whether these beliefs were in agreement with objective cues known from research. Both students and police officers believed the usual stereotypical, but non-diagnostic (nonverbal) cues such as gaze aversion and increased movement to be indicative of deception. Yet, participants were less inclined to overestimate the relationship between verbal cues and deception and their beliefs fitted better with what we know from research. The implications of these findings for practice are discussed. PMID:27258014

  6. Efficacy of forensic statement analysis in distinguishing truthful from deceptive eyewitness accounts of highly stressful events.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Charles A; Colwell, Kevin; Hazlett, Gary A

    2011-09-01

    Laboratory-based detecting deception research suggests that truthful statements differ from those of deceptive statements. This nonlaboratory study tested whether forensic statement analysis (FSA) methods would distinguish genuine from false eyewitness accounts about exposure to a highly stressful event. A total of 35 military participants were assigned to truthful or deceptive eyewitness conditions. Genuine eyewitness reported truthfully about exposure to interrogation stress. Deceptive eyewitnesses studied transcripts of genuine eyewitnesses for 24 h and falsely claimed they had been interrogated. Cognitive Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and assessed by FSA raters blind to the status of participants. Genuine accounts contained more unique words, external and contextual referents, and a greater total word count than did deceptive statements. The type-token ratio was lower in genuine statements. The classification accuracy using FSA techniques was 82%. FSA methods may be effective in real-world circumstances and have relevance to professionals in law enforcement, security, and criminal justice. PMID:21854383

  7. THREAT ANTICIPATION AND DECEPTIVE REASONING USING BAYESIAN BELIEF NETWORKS

    SciTech Connect

    Allgood, Glenn O; Olama, Mohammed M; Lake, Joe E

    2009-01-01

    Recent events highlight the need for tools to anticipate threats posed by terrorists. Assessing these threats requires combining information from disparate data sources such as analytic models, simulations, historical data, sensor networks, and user judgments. These disparate data can be combined in a coherent, analytically defensible, and understandable manner using a Bayesian belief network (BBN). In this paper, we develop a BBN threat anticipatory model based on a deceptive reasoning algorithm using a network engineering process that treats the probability distributions of the BBN nodes within the broader context of the system development process.

  8. Law & psychiatry: deception, coercion, and the limits of interrogation.

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2009-04-01

    This column discusses the recent case of U.S. v. Boskic to highlight issues related to voluntariness--in particular, the voluntariness of a confession. At a meeting with U.S. government agents, Boskic, a Croat from Bosnia living in the United States, confessed to involvement in the 1995 Srebrenica massacre. The agents had deceived him about the meeting's purpose and did not disclose that they had a warrant for his arrest. The courts were asked to decide whether the confession was involuntary, and thus not admissible as evidence, on the basis of whether the deception was coercive. PMID:19339313

  9. Seismic monitoring at Deception Island volcano (Antarctica): Recent advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, E.; Almendros, J.; Martín, R.; Cortés, G.; Alguacil, G.; Moreno, J.; Martín, B.; Martos, A.; Serrano, I.; Stich, D.; Ibáñez, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    Deception Island (South Shetland Island, Antarctica) is an active volcano with recent eruptions (e.g. 1967, 1969 and 1970). It is also among the Antarctic sites most visited by tourists. Besides, there are currently two scientific bases operating during the austral summers, usually from late November to early March. For these reasons it is necessary to deploy a volcano monitoring system as complete as possible, designed specifically to endure the extreme conditions of the volcanic environment and the Antarctic climate. The Instituto Andaluz de Geofísica of University of Granada, Spain (IAG-UGR) performs seismic monitoring on Deception Island since 1994 during austral summer surveys. The seismicity basically includes volcano-tectonic earthquakes, long-period events and volcanic tremor, among other signals. The level of seismicity is moderate, except for a seismo-volcanic crisis in 1999. The seismic monitoring system has evolved during these years, following the trends of the technological developments and software improvements. Recent advances have been mainly focused on: (1) the improvement of the seismic network introducing broadband stations and 24-bit data acquisition systems; (2) the development of a short-period seismic array, with a 12-channel, 24-bit data acquisition system; (3) the implementation of wireless data transmission from the network stations and also from the seismic array to a recording center, allowing for real-time monitoring; (4) the efficiency of the power supply systems and the monitoring of the battery levels and power consumption; (5) the optimization of data analysis procedures, including database management, automated event recognition tools for the identification and classification of seismo-volcanic signals, and apparent slowness vector estimates using seismic array data; (6) the deployment of permanent seismic stations and the transmission of data during the winter using a satellite connection. A single permanent station is operating

  10. Multifrequency OFDM SAR in Presence of Deception Jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuerger, Jonathan; Garmatyuk, Dmitriy

    2010-12-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is considered in this paper from the perspective of usage in imaging radar scenarios with deception jamming. OFDM radar signals are inherently multifrequency waveforms, composed of a number of subbands which are orthogonal to each other. While being employed extensively in communications, OFDM has not found comparatively wide use in radar, and, particularly, in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) applications. In this paper, we aim to show the advantages of OFDM-coded radar signals with random subband composition when used in deception jamming scenarios. Two approaches to create a radar signal by the jammer are considered: instantaneous frequency (IF) estimator and digital-RF-memory- (DRFM-) based reproducer. In both cases, the jammer aims to create a copy of a valid target image via resending the radar signal at prescribed time intervals. Jammer signals are derived and used in SAR simulations with three types of signal models: OFDM, linear frequency modulated (LFM), and frequency-hopped (FH). Presented results include simulated peak side lobe (PSL) and peak cross-correlation values for random OFDM signals, as well as simulated SAR imagery with IF and DRFM jammers'-induced false targets.

  11. Registered report: measuring unconscious deception detection by skin temperature

    PubMed Central

    van ’ t Veer, Anna E.; Stel, Mariëlle; van Beest, Ilja; Gallucci, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Findings from the deception detection literature suggest that although people are not skilled in consciously detecting a liar, they may intuit that something about the person telling a lie is off. In the current proposal, we argue that observing a liar influences the observer’s physiology even though the observer may not be consciously aware of being lied to (i.e., the observers’ direct deception judgment does not accurately differentiate between liars and truth-tellers). To test this hypothesis, participants’ finger temperature will be measured while they watch videos of persons who are either honest or dishonest about their identity. We hypothesize that skin temperature will be lower when observing a liar than when observing a truth-teller. Additionally, we test whether perceiving a liar influences finger skin temperature differently when an individual is, or is not, alerted to the possibility of deceit. We do this by varying participants’ awareness of the fact that they might be lied to. Next to measuring physiological responses to liars and truth-tellers, self-reported direct and indirect veracity judgments (i.e., trustworthiness and liking) of the target persons will be assessed. We hypothesize that indirect veracity judgments will better distinguish between liars and truth-tellers than direct veracity judgments. PMID:24904461

  12. Registered report: measuring unconscious deception detection by skin temperature.

    PubMed

    van ' T Veer, Anna E; Stel, Mariëlle; van Beest, Ilja; Gallucci, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Findings from the deception detection literature suggest that although people are not skilled in consciously detecting a liar, they may intuit that something about the person telling a lie is off. In the current proposal, we argue that observing a liar influences the observer's physiology even though the observer may not be consciously aware of being lied to (i.e., the observers' direct deception judgment does not accurately differentiate between liars and truth-tellers). To test this hypothesis, participants' finger temperature will be measured while they watch videos of persons who are either honest or dishonest about their identity. We hypothesize that skin temperature will be lower when observing a liar than when observing a truth-teller. Additionally, we test whether perceiving a liar influences finger skin temperature differently when an individual is, or is not, alerted to the possibility of deceit. We do this by varying participants' awareness of the fact that they might be lied to. Next to measuring physiological responses to liars and truth-tellers, self-reported direct and indirect veracity judgments (i.e., trustworthiness and liking) of the target persons will be assessed. We hypothesize that indirect veracity judgments will better distinguish between liars and truth-tellers than direct veracity judgments. PMID:24904461

  13. Self-Deception in Terminal Patients: Belief System at Stake

    PubMed Central

    Echarte, Luis E.; Bernacer, Javier; Larrivee, Denis; Oron, J. V.; Grijalba-Uche, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    A substantial minority of patients with terminal illness hold unrealistically hopeful beliefs about the severity of their disease or the nature of its treatment, considering therapy as curative rather than palliative. We propose that this attitude may be understood as self-deception, following the current psychological theories about this topic. In this article we suggest that the reason these patients deceive themselves is to preserve their belief systems. According to some philosophical accounts, the human belief system (HBS) is constituted as a web with a few stable central nodes – deep-seated beliefs – intimately related with the self. We hypothesize that the mind may possess defensive mechanisms, mostly non-conscious, that reject certain sensory inputs (e.g., a fatal diagnosis) that may undermine deep-seated beliefs. This interpretation is in line with the theory of cognitive dissonance. Following this reasoning, we also propose that HBS-related self-deception would entail a lower cognitive load than that associated with confronting the truth: whereas the latter would engage a myriad of high cognitive functions to re-configure crucial aspects of the self, including the setting of plans, goals, or even a behavioral output, the former would be mostly non-conscious. Overall, we believe that our research supports the hypothesis that in cases of terminal illness, (self-)deceiving requires less effort than accepting the truth. PMID:26903921

  14. True lies: self-stabilization without self-deception.

    PubMed

    Greve, Werner; Wentura, Dirk

    2010-09-01

    Self-deception entails apparent conceptual paradoxes and poses the dilemma between two competing needs: the need for stability of the self-concept, on the one hand, and the need to accept reality, on the other. It is argued, first, that conceptual difficulties can be avoided by distinguishing two levels of explanation. Whereas, in a personal language, "the person" deceives him- or her-self, a cognitive ("subpersonal") approach explains this self-deception by reference to the interplay of cognitive processes of which the person is not aware. Second, the tension between stability and adjustment of the self can be resolved by self-immunization, which maintains the stability of central self-conceptions by adjusting peripheral aspects and their diagnostic value for the central concepts. Processes of self-immunization were investigated in a series of studies operating on both levels of explanation. Implications for psychological explanations of personal phenomena such as self-images and self-insight are discussed. PMID:20646937

  15. Self-Deception in Terminal Patients: Belief System at Stake.

    PubMed

    Echarte, Luis E; Bernacer, Javier; Larrivee, Denis; Oron, J V; Grijalba-Uche, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    A substantial minority of patients with terminal illness hold unrealistically hopeful beliefs about the severity of their disease or the nature of its treatment, considering therapy as curative rather than palliative. We propose that this attitude may be understood as self-deception, following the current psychological theories about this topic. In this article we suggest that the reason these patients deceive themselves is to preserve their belief systems. According to some philosophical accounts, the human belief system (HBS) is constituted as a web with a few stable central nodes - deep-seated beliefs - intimately related with the self. We hypothesize that the mind may possess defensive mechanisms, mostly non-conscious, that reject certain sensory inputs (e.g., a fatal diagnosis) that may undermine deep-seated beliefs. This interpretation is in line with the theory of cognitive dissonance. Following this reasoning, we also propose that HBS-related self-deception would entail a lower cognitive load than that associated with confronting the truth: whereas the latter would engage a myriad of high cognitive functions to re-configure crucial aspects of the self, including the setting of plans, goals, or even a behavioral output, the former would be mostly non-conscious. Overall, we believe that our research supports the hypothesis that in cases of terminal illness, (self-)deceiving requires less effort than accepting the truth. PMID:26903921

  16. When Pinocchio's nose does not grow: belief regarding lie-detectability modulates production of deception

    PubMed Central

    Sip, Kamila E.; Carmel, David; Marchant, Jennifer L.; Li, Jian; Petrovic, Predrag; Roepstorff, Andreas; McGregor, William B.; Frith, Christopher D.

    2013-01-01

    Does the brain activity underlying the production of deception differ depending on whether or not one believes their deception can be detected? To address this question, we had participants commit a mock theft in a laboratory setting, and then interrogated them while they underwent functional MRI (fMRI) scanning. Crucially, during some parts of the interrogation participants believed a lie-detector was activated, whereas in other parts they were told it was switched-off. We were thus able to examine the neural activity associated with the contrast between producing true vs. false claims, as well as the independent contrast between believing that deception could and could not be detected. We found increased activation in the right amygdala and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), as well as the left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), during the production of false (compared to true) claims. Importantly, there was a significant interaction between the effects of deception and belief in the left temporal pole and right hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus, where activity increased during the production of deception when participants believed their false claims could be detected, but not when they believed the lie-detector was switched-off. As these regions are associated with binding socially complex perceptual input and memory retrieval, we conclude that producing deceptive behavior in a context in which one believes this deception can be detected is associated with a cognitively taxing effort to reconcile contradictions between one's actions and recollections. PMID:23382715

  17. Self-deception as affective coping. An empirical perspective on philosophical issues.

    PubMed

    Lauria, Federico; Preissmann, Delphine; Clément, Fabrice

    2016-04-01

    In the philosophical literature, self-deception is mainly approached through the analysis of paradoxes. Yet, it is agreed that self-deception is motivated by protection from distress. In this paper, we argue, with the help of findings from cognitive neuroscience and psychology, that self-deception is a type of affective coping. First, we criticize the main solutions to the paradoxes of self-deception. We then present a new approach to self-deception. Self-deception, we argue, involves three appraisals of the distressing evidence: (a) appraisal of the strength of evidence as uncertain, (b) low coping potential and (c) negative anticipation along the lines of Damasio's somatic marker hypothesis. At the same time, desire impacts the treatment of flattering evidence via dopamine. Our main proposal is that self-deception involves emotional mechanisms provoking a preference for immediate reward despite possible long-term negative repercussions. In the last part, we use this emotional model to revisit the philosophical paradoxes. PMID:26919475

  18. Subjective cues to deception/honesty in a high stakes situation: an exploratory approach.

    PubMed

    Wright Whelan, Clea; Wagstaff, Graham F; Wheatcroft, Jacqueline M

    2015-01-01

    The low ecological validity of much of the research on deception detection is a limitation recognized by researchers in the field. Consequently, the present studies investigated subjective cues to deception using the real life, high stakes situation of people making public appeals for help with missing or murdered relatives. It was expected that cues related to affect would be particularly salient in this context. Study 1 was a qualitative investigation identifying cues to deception reportedly used by people accurate at detecting deception. Studies 2 and 3 were then empirical investigations that mainly employed the cues reported in Study 1. A number of subjective cues were found to discriminate between honest and deceptive appeals, including some previously unidentified cues, and cues likely to be context-specific. Most could be categorized under the themes of authenticity of emotion, and negative and positive affective reactions to the appealer. It is concluded that some cues to deception may emerge only in real life, high stakes situations; however, it is argued that some of these may be influenced by observers' perceptions of the characteristics of offenders, rather than acts of deception per se. PMID:25975577

  19. Brain activity during simulated deception: an event-related functional magnetic resonance study.

    PubMed

    Langleben, D D; Schroeder, L; Maldjian, J A; Gur, R C; McDonald, S; Ragland, J D; O'Brien, C P; Childress, A R

    2002-03-01

    TheGuilty Knowledge Test (GKT) has been used extensively to model deception. An association between the brain evoked response potentials and lying on the GKT suggests that deception may be associated with changes in other measures of brain activity such as regional blood flow that could be anatomically localized with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Blood oxygenation level-dependent fMRI contrasts between deceptive and truthful responses were measured with a 4 Tesla scanner in 18 participants performing the GKT and analyzed using statistical parametric mapping. Increased activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the superior frontal gyrus (SFG), and the left premotor, motor, and anterior parietal cortex was specifically associated with deceptive responses. The results indicate that: (a) cognitive differences between deception and truth have neural correlates detectable by fMRI, (b) inhibition of the truthful response may be a basic component of intentional deception, and (c) ACC and SFG are components of the basic neural circuitry for deception. PMID:11848716

  20. The contribution of self-deceptive enhancement to display rules in the United States and Japan

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Joanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Socially desirable responding was tested as a mediator of American and Japanese college student differences in display rules. Americans endorsed the expression of anger, contempt, disgust, fear, happiness, and surprise more than the Japanese. Americans also exhibited more self-deceptive enhancement than the Japanese, and self-deceptive enhancement partially mediated country differences on the endorsement of anger, disgust, happiness, and surprise, but not contempt and fear. These findings highlight the role of self-deceptive enhancement in contributing to expressive display rules and support the point of view that socially desirable responding is a reflection of one’s personality and culture rather than a statistical nuisance. PMID:25400501

  1. 7 CFR 70.41 - Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act or practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit Products Denial of Service § 70.41 Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act...

  2. 7 CFR 70.41 - Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act or practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit Products Denial of Service § 70.41 Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act...

  3. 7 CFR 70.41 - Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act or practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit Products Denial of Service § 70.41 Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act...

  4. 7 CFR 70.41 - Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act or practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit Products Denial of Service § 70.41 Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act...

  5. Effects of deceptive packaging and product involvement on purchase intention: an elaboration likelihood model perspective.

    PubMed

    Lammers, H B

    2000-04-01

    From an Elaboration Likelihood Model perspective, it was hypothesized that postexposure awareness of deceptive packaging claims would have a greater negative effect on scores for purchase intention by consumers lowly involved rather than highly involved with a product (n = 40). Undergraduates who were classified as either highly or lowly (ns = 20 and 20) involved with M&Ms examined either a deceptive or non-deceptive package design for M&Ms candy and were subsequently informed of the deception employed in the packaging before finally rating their intention to purchase. As anticipated, highly deceived subjects who were low in involvement rated intention to purchase lower than their highly involved peers. Overall, the results attest to the robustness of the model and suggest that the model has implications beyond advertising effects and into packaging effects. PMID:10840911

  6. 16 CFR 254.6 - Deceptive use of diplomas, degrees, or certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... (c) It is deceptive for an Industry Member to offer or confer a high school diploma unless the... secondary school, and unless the student is informed, by a clear and conspicuous disclosure in writing...

  7. 16 CFR 254.6 - Deceptive use of diplomas, degrees, or certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... GUIDES FOR PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.6 Deceptive use of diplomas, degrees... control the recognition that will be accorded the diploma by institutions of higher education,...

  8. 16 CFR 254.6 - Deceptive use of diplomas, degrees, or certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... GUIDES FOR PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.6 Deceptive use of diplomas, degrees... control the recognition that will be accorded the diploma by institutions of higher education,...

  9. 16 CFR 254.6 - Deceptive use of diplomas, degrees, or certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... GUIDES FOR PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.6 Deceptive use of diplomas, degrees... control the recognition that will be accorded the diploma by institutions of higher education,...

  10. Behavioral cues to deception vs. topic incriminating potential in criminal confessions.

    PubMed

    Davis, Martha; Markus, Keith A; Walters, Stan B; Vorus, Neal; Connors, Brenda

    2005-12-01

    Coding statements of criminal suspects facilitated tests of four hypotheses about differences between behavioral cues to deception and the incriminating potential (IP) of the topic. Information from criminal investigations corroborated the veracity of 337 brief utterances from 28 videotaped confessions. A four-point rating of topic IP measured the degree of potential threat per utterance. Cues discriminating true vs. false comprised word/phrase repeats, speech disfluency spikes, nonverbal overdone, and protracted headshaking. Non-lexical sounds discriminated true vs. false in the reverse direction. Cues that distinguished IP only comprised speech speed, gesticulation amount, nonverbal animation level, soft weak vocal and "I (or we) just" qualifier. Adding "I don't know" to an answer discriminated both IP and true vs. false. The results supported hypothesis about differentiating deception cues from incriminating potential cues in high-stakes interviews, and suggested that extensive research on distinctions between stress-related cues and cues to deception would improve deception detection. PMID:16382356

  11. Are computers effective lie detectors? A meta-analysis of linguistic cues to deception.

    PubMed

    Hauch, Valerie; Blandón-Gitlin, Iris; Masip, Jaume; Sporer, Siegfried L

    2015-11-01

    This meta-analysis investigates linguistic cues to deception and whether these cues can be detected with computer programs. We integrated operational definitions for 79 cues from 44 studies where software had been used to identify linguistic deception cues. These cues were allocated to six research questions. As expected, the meta-analyses demonstrated that, relative to truth-tellers, liars experienced greater cognitive load, expressed more negative emotions, distanced themselves more from events, expressed fewer sensory-perceptual words, and referred less often to cognitive processes. However, liars were not more uncertain than truth-tellers. These effects were moderated by event type, involvement, emotional valence, intensity of interaction, motivation, and other moderators. Although the overall effect size was small, theory-driven predictions for certain cues received support. These findings not only further our knowledge about the usefulness of linguistic cues to detect deception with computers in applied settings but also elucidate the relationship between language and deception. PMID:25387767

  12. Drug promotion tactics-yet another pharma deception?

    PubMed

    Tagore, A

    2014-06-01

    There is no doubting that in recent times, the pharmaceutical industry has been met with growing scepticism and outright mistrust from many quarters. This is primarily in relation to the controversy surrounding many drug companies' decision to withhold negative clinical trial data from public scrutiny. The practice of non-disclosure relating to such negative findings leads to erroneously exaggerated claims of efficacy or minimised reports of harm in relation to a drug. In the UK, the All Trials Initiative is spearheading the lobbying of government, regulators and research bodies to impose mandatory disclosure of all clinical trial data. But what if these initiatives actually succeeded in achieving their goals? Would this really signify an absolute victory over the pharmaceutical industry's use of deceptive tactics to mislead doctors and patients alike? Or do they have other ways and means of manipulation? PMID:24837088

  13. Effect of biofeedback on the detection of deception.

    PubMed

    Timm, H W

    1987-05-01

    This study examined the effect of audio electrodermal biofeedback training on the detection of deception. The subjects consisted of 68 volunteers enrolled in selected undergraduate college courses. Each subject was required to commit a mock murder, after which a polygraph examiner administered a series of five consecutive "lie detector" tests to ascertain the facts involved in his/her murder. Before testing, subjects were randomly assigned to either a biofeedback condition or to a control group. The detection efficiency associated with the subject's respiration responses was significantly enhanced by simultaneous auditory biofeedback given during the polygraph testing; however, the feedback's effect upon the detection rates associated with the electrodermal measures that it was reflecting was neither statistically significant nor in the same direction. The results support the premise that audio biofeedback might be useful in enhancing respiration's detection efficiency during polygraph testing. PMID:3598524

  14. Strategic {open_quote}deception{close_quote} initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, J.

    1993-11-01

    Veteran observers of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) were only mildly surprised by reports in late August by Tim Weiner in The New York Times and R. Jeffrey Smith in The Washington Post that the Homing Overlay Experiment (HOE) tests of 10 years ago involved deception. According to the reports, the fourth and final test, conducted June 10, 1984, and said at the time by officials to be a major success, has been rigged in several ways in a systematic program designed to fool the Kremlin. The news reports charge that it fooled Congress as well. The Pentagon claimed that the test was the world`s first successful direct-impact intercept of a mock Soviet reentry vehicle (RV).

  15. Sex differences in beliefs about cues to deception.

    PubMed

    Sato, Taku; Nihei, Yoshiaki

    2009-06-01

    Sex differences in beliefs among Japanese students about cues to deception were explored. 171 participants (91 women, 80 men) read a scenario in which a protagonist caused a fatal traffic accident and told a lie to avoid responsibility. Then participants rated how the protagonist's behaviors would change when lying. Women participants believed significantly more than men that a liar shows body cues (e.g., body touching, biting lips) associated with anxiety, and that a liar has unsuccessful impression management (e.g., fewer smiles, fewer facial expressions). Furthermore, the women's scores also indicated that a liar would increase the amount of information (e.g., longer response length, gestures) and show more nonfluent speech (e.g., speech disturbances, inconsistency of speech contents). PMID:19708402

  16. New sophistry: self-deception in the nursing academy.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Bernard M

    2016-07-01

    In this essay, I advance an argument against the expansion and acceptance of postmodern metaphysical antirealist ideologies in the development of nursing theory in North America. I suggest mystical theoretical explanations of care, the rejection of empirical epistemology, and a return to divinity in nursing represent an intellectual dead end, as these ideas do little to help resolve real-world health issues and also negate the need for the academic discrimination of bad ideas. I examine some of the philosophical foundations of nursing theory and deconstruct some of the more preternatural theories that have become established as the dominant conventional wisdom in the academy. It is argued that this can be characterized as a form of self-deception, and overall has had a negative impact on advancement of the nursing profession and public health care. Reasons behind the widespread acceptance of these irrational theoretical stances in nursing and the ongoing support for mystical therapeutic interventions are explored. PMID:27203787

  17. Cognitive-load approaches to detect deception: searching for cognitive mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Blandón-Gitlin, Iris; Fenn, Elise; Masip, Jaume; Yoo, Aspen H.

    2015-01-01

    A current focus in deception research is on developing cognitive-load approaches (CLAs) to detect deception. The aim is to improve lie detection with evidence-based and ecologically valid procedures. Although these approaches show great potential, research on cognitive processes or mechanisms explaining how they operate is lacking. Potential mechanisms underlying the most popular techniques advocated for field application are highlighted. Cognitive scientists are encouraged to conduct basic research that qualifies the ‘cognitive’ in these new approaches. PMID:25168448

  18. A functional MRI study of deception among offenders with antisocial personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Jiang, W; Liu, H; Liao, J; Ma, X; Rong, P; Tang, Y; Wang, W

    2013-08-01

    Deceit is a core feature of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), and the study of deception in ASPD has important implications for identifying the underlying mechanism of ASPD. A great deal of functional neuroimaging literature has described the neural correlates of deception in healthy volunteers, but there have been few imaging studies examining people with ASPD. The neural correlates of lie-telling in ASPD, and which specific brain activities are related to the capacity to lie, are unclear. In this study, 32 offenders who satisfied the Personality Diagnostic Questionaire-4 and PDI-IV (Personality Disorder Interview) criteria for ASPD were divided into three groups based on their capacity for deception, which was evaluated based on the deceitfulness criterion of the PDI-IV ASPD. All offenders underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while responding to questions in a truthful, inverse, or deceitful manner. We primarily created contrasts in the brain activities between truth-telling and lie-telling, and then computed the Pearson's correlation coefficients between activities contrasts of individual, i.e. BOLD (blood-oxygen-level-dependent) strength during deception minus that during truth-telling, and the capacity for deception. Our results indicated that the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex extending to the middle frontal gyrus, the left inferior parietal lobule, and the bilateral anterior cingulate gyrus/medial superior frontal gyrus were associated with deception among people with ASPD. As the capacity for deception increased, the contrasted brain activities of the above regions decreased. This study found that truthful and untruthful communications of ASPD subjects can be differentiated in terms of brain BOLD activities, and more importantly, this study is the first to use fMRI to discover that BOLD activities during deception are correlated with the capacity to lie. The latter finding might challenge the diagnostic accuracy of lie

  19. Cognitive-load approaches to detect deception: searching for cognitive mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Blandón-Gitlin, Iris; Fenn, Elise; Masip, Jaume; Yoo, Aspen H

    2014-09-01

    A current focus in deception research is on developing cognitive-load approaches (CLAs) to detect deception. The aim is to improve lie detection with evidence-based and ecologically valid procedures. Although these approaches show great potential, research on cognitive processes or mechanisms explaining how they operate is lacking. Potential mechanisms underlying the most popular techniques advocated for field application are highlighted. Cognitive scientists are encouraged to conduct basic research that qualifies the 'cognitive' in these new approaches. PMID:25168448

  20. Temporal view of the costs and benefits of self-deception

    PubMed Central

    Chance, Zoë; Norton, Michael I.; Gino, Francesca; Ariely, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have documented many cases in which individuals rationalize their regrettable actions. Four experiments examine situations in which people go beyond merely explaining away their misconduct to actively deceiving themselves. We find that those who exploit opportunities to cheat on tests are likely to engage in self-deception, inferring that their elevated performance is a sign of intelligence. This short-term psychological benefit of self-deception, however, can come with longer-term costs: when predicting future performance, participants expect to perform equally well—a lack of awareness that persists even when these inflated expectations prove costly. We show that although people expect to cheat, they do not foresee self-deception, and that factors that reinforce the benefits of cheating enhance self-deception. More broadly, the findings of these experiments offer evidence that debates about the relative costs and benefits of self-deception are informed by adopting a temporal view that assesses the cumulative impact of self-deception over time. PMID:21383150

  1. Differentiation of truthful and deceptive criminal suspects in Behavior Analysis Interviews.

    PubMed

    Horvath, F; Jayne, B; Buckley, J

    1994-05-01

    The Behavior Analysis Interview (BAI) is a commonly used procedure designed to assist investigators in distinguishing between suspects who are concealing their involvement in a criminal event (deceptive) from those who are not (truthful). During a BAI a protocol of questions is asked and suspects' verbal responses and accompanying nonverbal behaviors and attitudinal characteristics are assessed. Based on this assessment the likelihood of involvement in the criminal event is determined. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness with which trained evaluators were able to distinguish between truthful and deceptive suspects undergoing BAIs. Sixty videotaped interviews, 30 of truthful and 30 of deceptive suspects, were observed by four evaluators, each of whom independently scored suspect's behaviors and attitudes and judged the suspect's truthfulness. The results showed that, excluding inconclusive decisions, evaluators' average accuracy on truthful suspects was 91% and on deceptive suspects, 80%. Suspects' status did not affect confidence of evaluators' decisions but confidence was greater when correct as opposed to incorrect calls were made. Deceptive suspects manifested "theoretically" predicted behaviors and attitudes of "deceptiveness" to a significantly greater degree than did truthful suspects. The BAI appears to be useful for investigative purposes in order to differentiate between suspects who are concealing involvement in a criminal offense from those who are not. PMID:8006624

  2. The motor cost of telling lies: electrocortical signatures and personality foundations of spontaneous deception.

    PubMed

    Panasiti, Maria Serena; Pavone, Enea F; Mancini, Alessandra; Merla, Arcangelo; Grisoni, Luigi; Aglioti, Salvatore M

    2014-01-01

    Although universal, lying is generally considered immoral behavior. Most neuroscience studies on lying sanction or instruct deceptive behaviors and thus might fail to acknowledge the significance of lie-related moral conflicts. By combining electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings with a novel paradigm in which participants decided freely whether to deceive another person, we have generated indices of the cognitive (reaction times and stimulus-locked event-related components) and moral (readiness potential and its correlations with deception-related personality traits) cost of spontaneous deception. Our data fail to support the consensus that deception is cognitively more demanding than truth telling, suggesting that spontaneous deception, as opposed to lying out of requirement, might not mandate additional cognitive workload. Interestingly, lying was associated with decreased motor readiness, an event-related potential (ERP) component that is linked to motor preparation of self-determined actions and modulated when we face moral dilemmas. Notably, this reduction was less extensive in manipulative participants and greater in those who cared highly about their impression management. Our study expands on previous findings on deception by associating a cortical marker of reduced preparation to act with individual differences in moral cognition. PMID:24979665

  3. An examination of motor and perceptual contributions to the recognition of deception from others' actions.

    PubMed

    Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen; van der Kamp, John; van Kesteren, Joep

    2010-02-01

    Most empirical studies thus far have confounded motor and perceptual experience when examining their contributions to the recognition of deceptive and non-deceptive intentions from another person's movements. In the present study, we manipulated viewing perspective as an additional demarcation to examine the involvement of motor and perceptual experience in detecting deceptive intentions. Expert handball players (N=26), expert handball goalkeepers (N=19), and a group of novices (N=20) were required to indicate whether a penalty-taker produced a true or a fake shot. The clips were shown from a front view (i.e., a goalkeeper's customary viewing perspective) and a (more neutral) side view, and ended one frame before the ball would be released from the hand. Results indicated that expert players and goalkeepers outperformed novices in detecting deceptive intentions, but there were no differences between field players and goalkeepers. Recognition of deceptive actions was more accurate from the goalkeeper's front view than from the side view. We conclude that neither the degree of motor experience nor the degree of perceptual experience can, in themselves, account for explaining successful recognition of deceptive actions. PMID:19892422

  4. Federal Trade Commission's authority to regulate marketing to children: deceptive vs. unfair rulemaking.

    PubMed

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2011-01-01

    Food and beverage marketing directed at children is of increasing concern to the public health and legal communities. The new administration at the Federal Trade Commission and abundant science on the topic make it a particularly opportune time for the government to reconsider regulating marketing directed at youth. This Article analyzes the Commission's authority to regulate food and beverage marketing directed at children under its jurisdiction over unfair and deceptive acts and practices to determine which avenue is most viable. The author finds that the Federal Trade Commission has the authority to regulate deceptive marketing practices directed at vulnerable populations. Although the Commission can issue individual orders, its remedial power to initiate rules would better address the pervasiveness of modern marketing practices. The Commission does not currently have the power to regulate unfair marketing to children; however, even if Congress reinstated this authority, the Commission's authority over deceptive marketing may be preferable to regulate these practices. Deceptive communications are not protected by the First Amendment and the deceptive standard matches the science associated with marketing to children. The Federal Trade Commission has the authority to initiate rulemaking in the realm of food and beverage marketing to children as deceptive communications in interstate commerce, in violation of the Federal Trade Commission Act. However, to effectuate this process, Congress would need to grant the Commission the authority to do so under the Administrative Procedures Act. PMID:22145524

  5. Efficacy of combining interview techniques in detecting deception related to bio-threat issues.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Charles A; Rabinowitz, Yaron; Leidy, Robert; Coric, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to assess the detecting deception efficacy of three well-validated "detecting deception" methods - i.e., forced choice testing (FCT), modified cognitive interviewing (MCI) and autobiographical implicit association testing (aIAT) - when applied to the issue of bio-threat. The detecting deception accuracies of FCT and MCI were 81% and 75%, respectively. Although the aIAT mean response times in block 5 differed significantly between deceptive and truthful persons, the classification accuracy was low. FCT alone reduced the group of 64 persons to 11 and detected 50% of the liars; the false positive rate was 9%. MCI alone reduced the group of 64 to 24 and detected 92% of the liars; the false positive rate was 54%. When FCT was paired with MCI, 75% of liars were detected and the false positive rate was 13%. Forced choice testing and MCI show promise as methods for detecting deception related to bio-threat under low-base-rate conditions. These methods took little time, enhanced the odds of detecting deceptive individuals and exhibited high positive likelihood ratios, suggesting that they have merit as screening tools. The aIAT required more time and was less accurate but may still serve as a useful screening tool. PMID:24549687

  6. Deception detection with behavioral, autonomic, and neural measures: Conceptual and methodological considerations that warrant modesty.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Ewout H; Verschuere, Bruno; Gamer, Matthias; Merckelbach, Harald; Ben-Shakhar, Gershon

    2016-05-01

    The detection of deception has attracted increased attention among psychological researchers, legal scholars, and ethicists during the last decade. Much of this has been driven by the possibility of using neuroimaging techniques for lie detection. Yet, neuroimaging studies addressing deception detection are clouded by lack of conceptual clarity and a host of methodological problems that are not unique to neuroimaging. We review the various research paradigms and the dependent measures that have been adopted to study deception and its detection. In doing so, we differentiate between basic research designed to shed light on the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying deceptive behavior and applied research aimed at detecting lies. We also stress the distinction between paradigms attempting to detect deception directly and those attempting to establish involvement by detecting crime-related knowledge, and discuss the methodological difficulties and threats to validity associated with each paradigm. Our conclusion is that the main challenge of future research is to find paradigms that can isolate cognitive factors associated with deception, rather than the discovery of a unique (brain) correlate of lying. We argue that the Comparison Question Test currently applied in many countries has weak scientific validity, which cannot be remedied by using neuroimaging measures. Other paradigms are promising, but the absence of data from ecologically valid studies poses a challenge for legal admissibility of their outcomes. PMID:26787599

  7. Neural correlates of spontaneous deception: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)study.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiao Pan; Gao, Xiaoqing; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang

    2013-03-01

    Deception is commonly seen in everyday social interactions. However, most of the knowledge about the underlying neural mechanism of deception comes from studies where participants were instructed when and how to lie. To study spontaneous deception, we designed a guessing game modeled after Greene and Paxton (2009) "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(30), 12506-12511", in which lying is the only way to achieve the performance level needed to end the game. We recorded neural responses during the game using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). We found that when compared to truth-telling, spontaneous deception, like instructed deception, engenders greater involvement of such prefrontal regions as the left superior frontal gyrus. We also found that the correct-truth trials produced greater neural activities in the left middle frontal gyrus and right superior frontal gyrus than the incorrect-truth trials, suggesting the involvement of the reward system. Furthermore, the present study confirmed the feasibility of using NIRS to study spontaneous deception. PMID:23340482

  8. An Anticipatory and Deceptive AI Utilizing Bayesian Belief Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, Joe E; Allgood, Glenn O; Olama, Mohammed M; Saffold, JAy

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. military defines antiterrorism as the defensive posture taken against terrorist threats. Antiterrorism includes fostering awareness of potential threats, deterring aggressors, developing security measures, planning for future events, interdicting an event in progress, and ultimately mitigating and managing the consequences of an event. Recent events highlight the need for efficient tools for training our military and homeland security officers for anticipating threats posed by terrorists. These tools need to be easy enough so that they are readily usable without substantial training, but still maintain the complexity to allow for a level of deceptive reasoning on the part of the opponent. To meet this need, we propose to integrate a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) model for threat anticipation and deceptive reasoning into training simulation environments currently utilized by several organizations within the Department of Defense (DoD). BBNs have the ability to deal with various types of uncertainties; such as identities, capabilities, target attractiveness, and the combinations of the previous. They also allow for disparate types of data to be fused in a coherent, analytically defensible, and understandable manner. A BBN has been developed by ORNL uses a network engineering process that treats the probability distributions of each node with in the broader context of the system development effort as a whole, and not in isolation. The network will be integrated into the Research Network Inc,(RNI) developed Game Distributed Interactive Simulation (GDIS) as a smart artificial intelligence module. GDIS is utilized by several DoD and civilian organizations as a distributed training tool for a multiplicity of reasons. It has garnered several awards for its realism, ease of use, and popularity. One area that it still has room to excel in, as most video training tools do, is in the area of artificial intelligence of opponent combatants. It is believed that by

  9. Dissociative identity disorder: adaptive deception of self and others.

    PubMed

    Beahrs, J O

    1994-01-01

    Dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality) is increasingly diagnosed, often follows childhood trauma, and is characterized by rigidification of phenomena that resemble hypnosis. To interpret dissociated aspects of selfhood as autonomous entities is a useful heuristic; but when taken too literally, it leads to three kinds of anomaly: (1) legal: dissociators remain culpable for misdeeds carried out beyond apparent awareness or control; (2) clinical: legitimization sometimes leads not to relief, but to escalating cycles of regressive dependency; and (3) scientific: the form of dissociated entities varies with how they are defined, in ways that are intrinsically motivated and clinically manipulable. These anomalies yield to an evolutionary perspective that views dissociative identity disorder as an evolved strategy of adaptive deception of self and others; e.g., a beaten subordinate avoids further retribution by "pleading illness." Such a deceit best avoids detection when fully experienced; through its intensity and persistence, it becomes real at a new level. One's basic competencies remain intact, however, and are the source of the anomalies described. They can be clinically accessed and empowered, providing the key to therapeutic change when dissociative processes are problematic. Overall, despite clear impairment in subjective awareness and volition, dissociative-disordered individuals are best held fully accountable for the consequences of their actions. PMID:7949411

  10. Deception and Manipulation: The Arms of Leishmania, a Successful Parasite

    PubMed Central

    Cecílio, Pedro; Pérez-Cabezas, Begoña; Santarém, Nuno; Maciel, Joana; Rodrigues, Vasco; Cordeiro da Silva, Anabela

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania spp. are intracellular parasitic protozoa responsible for a group of neglected tropical diseases, endemic in 98 countries around the world, called leishmaniasis. These parasites have a complex digenetic life cycle requiring a susceptible vertebrate host and a permissive insect vector, which allow their transmission. The clinical manifestations associated with leishmaniasis depend on complex interactions between the parasite and the host immune system. Consequently, leishmaniasis can be manifested as a self-healing cutaneous affliction or a visceral pathology, being the last one fatal in 85–90% of untreated cases. As a result of a long host–parasite co-evolutionary process, Leishmania spp. developed different immunomodulatory strategies that are essential for the establishment of infection. Only through deception and manipulation of the immune system, Leishmania spp. can complete its life cycle and survive. The understanding of the mechanisms associated with immune evasion and disease progression is essential for the development of novel therapies and vaccine approaches. Here, we revise how the parasite manipulates cell death and immune responses to survive and thrive in the shadow of the immune system. PMID:25368612

  11. Automatic decoding of facial movements reveals deceptive pain expressions

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Littlewort, Gwen C.; Frank, Mark G.; Lee, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Summary In highly social species such as humans, faces have evolved to convey rich information for social interaction, including expressions of emotions and pain [1–3]. Two motor pathways control facial movement [4–7]. A subcortical extrapyramidal motor system drives spontaneous facial expressions of felt emotions. A cortical pyramidal motor system controls voluntary facial expressions. The pyramidal system enables humans to simulate facial expressions of emotions not actually experienced. Their simulation is so successful that they can deceive most observers [8–11]. Machine vision may, however, be able to distinguish deceptive from genuine facial signals by identifying the subtle differences between pyramidally and extrapyramidally driven movements. Here we show that human observers could not discriminate real from faked expressions of pain better than chance, and after training, improved accuracy to a modest 55%. However a computer vision system that automatically measures facial movements and performs pattern recognition on those movements attained 85% accuracy. The machine system’s superiority is attributable to its ability to differentiate the dynamics of genuine from faked expressions. Thus by revealing the dynamics of facial action through machine vision systems, our approach has the potential to elucidate behavioral fingerprints of neural control systems involved in emotional signaling. PMID:24656830

  12. Pollinator Behaviour on a Food-Deceptive Orchid Calypso bulbosa and Coflowering Species

    PubMed Central

    Tuomi, Juha; Lämsä, Juho; Wannas, Lauri; Abeli, Thomas; Jäkäläniemi, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Food deception as a pollination strategy has inspired many studies over the last few decades. Pollinator deception has evolved in many orchids possibly to enhance outcrossing. Food-deceptive orchids usually have low pollinator visitation rates as compared to rewarding species. They may benefit in visitations from the presence (magnet-species hypothesis) or, alternatively, absence of coflowering rewarding species (competition hypothesis). We present data on pollinator visitations on a deceptive, terrestrial orchid Calypso bulbosa, a species with a single flower per plant and whose flowering period partly overlaps with rewarding, early flowering willows (Salix sp.) and later-flowering bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus). When surveying inactive bumblebee queens on willows in cool weather, about 7% of them carried Calypso pollinia. Most common bumblebee species appeared to visit and thus pollinate Calypso. Bumblebees typically visited one to three Calypso flowers before flying away, providing some support for the outcrossing hypothesis. We conclude that, regarding the pollinations strategy, both magnet-species and competition hypotheses have a role in the pollination of Calypso, but on different spatial scales. On a large scale rewarding species are important for attracting pollinators to a given region, but on a small scale absence of competition ensures sufficient pollination rate for the deceptive orchid. PMID:25861675

  13. Subliminal Salience Search Illustrated: EEG Identity and Deception Detection on the Fringe of Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Howard; Filetti, Marco; Janssen, Dirk; Su, Li; Alsufyani, Abdulmajeed; Wyble, Brad

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel deception detection system based on Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP). One motivation for the new method is to present stimuli on the fringe of awareness, such that it is more difficult for deceivers to confound the deception test using countermeasures. The proposed system is able to detect identity deception (by using the first names of participants) with a 100% hit rate (at an alpha level of 0.05). To achieve this, we extended the classic Event-Related Potential (ERP) techniques (such as peak-to-peak) by applying Randomisation, a form of Monte Carlo resampling, which we used to detect deception at an individual level. In order to make the deployment of the system simple and rapid, we utilised data from three electrodes only: Fz, Cz and Pz. We then combined data from the three electrodes using Fisher's method so that each participant was assigned a single p-value, which represents the combined probability that a specific participant was being deceptive. We also present subliminal salience search as a general method to determine what participants find salient by detecting breakthrough into conscious awareness using EEG. PMID:23372697

  14. Research on the laser angle deception jamming technology of laser countermeasure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shi-wei; Chen, Wen-jian; Gao, Wei; Duan, Yuan-yuan

    2015-10-01

    In recent years , laser guided weapons behave very well at destroying the military goals in the local wars, the single-shot probability, effective range and hitting precision getting better. And the semi-active laser guided weapons are the most widely used laser guided weapons. In order to improve the viability and protect important military goals, it's necessary to study the technology to against the semi-active guided weapons. This paper studies the working principle, the advantages and disadvantages of the semi-active guided weapons at first, and analyze the possibility of laser angle deception jamming system working. Then it analyzes the working principle and process of laser angle deception jamming technology. Finally it designs a half-real simulation system of laser angle deception jamming, which consists of semi-active laser guided weapons simulation system and laser angle deception jamming system. The simulation system demonstrates the working process of the laser angle deception jamming system. This paper provides fundamental base for the research on the countermeasure technology of semi-active laser guided weapons.

  15. Deception Dissociates from False Belief Reasoning in Deaf Children: Implications for the Implicit versus Explicit Theory of Mind Distinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Villiers, Peter A.; de Villiers, Jill G.

    2012-01-01

    Deception is a controversial aspect of theory of mind, and researchers disagree about whether it entails an understanding of the false beliefs of one's opponent. The present study asks whether children with delayed language and delayed explicit false belief reasoning can succeed on explicit deception tasks. Participants were 45 orally taught deaf…

  16. Fledgling Theories of Mind: Deception as a Marker of Three-Year-Olds' Understanding of False Belief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hala, Suzanne; And Others

    1991-01-01

    To determine whether children younger than four have an authentic theory of mind, studies relying on deceptive hiding measures for indexing false belief were carried out. Children accurately anticipated the impact of deceptive strategies on the behavior and belief of opponents and used information management to help and hinder others' efforts. (BC)

  17. The volumetric flux through Deception Pass, Washington and its effects on the circulation in the Whidbey Basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinze, K. R.

    2002-05-01

    The volumetric flux through Deception Pass, Washington will be determined by using tidal height differences between Bowman and Cornet Bays, which are located on the seaward and landward sides of Deception Pass respectively in Deception Pass State Park. Hydrolab sensors for measuring temperature, salinity and fluid depth will be attached to public boat docks in each of these bays. The numerical Puget Sound Regional Synthesis Model, PRISM, will be run with and without the flux through Deception Pass and compared to determine theoretically whether or not the flow through Deception Pass plays a significant role in the circulation of the Whidbey Basin, which could affect the circulation in the northern part of the Main Basin known as the Triple Junction. This could influence water movement near the new sewer outfall that King County is proposing to build in that area.

  18. Strong, but Wrong: Lay People’s and Police Officers’ Beliefs about Verbal and Nonverbal Cues to Deception

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the beliefs of students and police officers about cues to deception. A total of 95 police officers and 104 undergraduate students filled out a questionnaire addressing beliefs about cues to deception. Twenty-eight verbal cues were included in the questionnaire, all extracted from verbal credibility assessment tools (i.e., CBCA, RM, and SCAN). We investigated to what extent beliefs about nonverbal and verbal cues of deception differed between lay people (students) and police officers, and whether these beliefs were in agreement with objective cues known from research. Both students and police officers believed the usual stereotypical, but non-diagnostic (nonverbal) cues such as gaze aversion and increased movement to be indicative of deception. Yet, participants were less inclined to overestimate the relationship between verbal cues and deception and their beliefs fitted better with what we know from research. The implications of these findings for practice are discussed. PMID:27258014

  19. Temporal trends and bioavailability assessment of heavy metals in the sediments of Deception Bay, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Brady, James P; Ayoko, Godwin A; Martens, Wayde N; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2014-12-15

    Thirteen sites in Deception Bay, Queensland, Australia were sampled three times over a period of 7 months and assessed for contamination by a range of heavy metals, primarily As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Hg. Fraction analysis, enrichment factors and Principal Components Analysis-Absolute Principal Component Scores (PCA-APCS) analysis were conducted in order to identify the potential bioavailability of these elements of concern and their sources. Hg and Te were identified as the elements of highest enrichment in Deception Bay while marine sediments, shipping and antifouling agents were identified as the sources of the Weak Acid Extractable Metals (WE-M), with antifouling agents showing long residence time for mercury contamination. This has significant implications for the future of monitoring and regulation of heavy metal contamination within Deception Bay. PMID:25440195

  20. Vulnerability of older adults to deception in prison and nonprison contexts.

    PubMed

    Bond, Gary D; Thompson, Laura A; Malloy, Daniel M

    2005-03-01

    Media reports frequently depict older adults as victims of deception. The public perceives these stories as particularly salient because older adults are seen as fragile victims taken advantage of because of trusting behaviors. This developmental investigation of deception detection examines older and younger adults interacting in 2 contexts, prison and the "free world," to discover whether older adults are vulnerable to deception. Younger prisoners were found to be lie biased. Older adults were better able to discriminate lies than younger adults, and this effect was localized primarily to older female adults. Findings indicate that discriminability strongly increases from younger to older age for women, whereas men do not show an improvement, as age increases, in making decisions about statement veracity. PMID:15769214

  1. Understanding of literal truth, ironic criticism, and deceptive praise following childhood head injury.

    PubMed

    Dennis, M; Purvis, K; Barnes, M A; Wilkinson, M; Winner, E

    2001-07-01

    Children with closed head injury (CHI) have semantic-pragmatic language problems that include difficulty in understanding and producing both literal and nonliteral statements. For example, they are relatively insensitive to some of the social messages in nonstandard communication as well as to words that code distinctions among mental states. This suggests that they may have difficulty with comprehension tasks involving first- and second-order intentionality, such as those involved in understanding irony and deception. We studied how 6- to 15-year-old children, typically developing or with CHI, interpret scenarios involving literal truth, ironic criticism, and deceptive praise. Children with severe CHI had overall poorer mastery of the task. Even mild CHI impaired the ability to understand the intentionality underlying deceptive praise. CHI, especially biologically significant CHI, appears to place children at risk for failure to understand language as externalized thought. PMID:11412012

  2. Can simultaneously acquired electrodermal activity improve accuracy of fMRI detection of deception?

    PubMed

    Kozel, F Andrew; Johnson, Kevin A; Laken, Steven J; Grenesko, Emily L; Smith, Joshua A; Walker, John; George, Mark S

    2009-01-01

    Observation of changes in autonomic arousal was one of the first methodologies used to detect deception. Electrodermal activity (EDA) is a peripheral measure of autonomic arousal and one of the primary channels used in polygraph exams. In an attempt to develop a more central measure to identify lies, the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to detect deception is being investigated. We wondered if adding EDA to our fMRI analysis would improve our diagnostic ability. For our approach, however, adding EDA did not improve the accuracy in a laboratory-based deception task. In testing for brain regions that replicated as correlates of EDA, we did find significant associations in right orbitofrontal and bilateral anterior cingulate regions. Further work is required to test whether EDA improves accuracy in other testing formats or with higher levels of jeopardy. PMID:18633826

  3. When deception becomes easy: the effects of task switching and goal neglect on the truth proportion effect.

    PubMed

    Van Bockstaele, Bram; Wilhelm, Christine; Meijer, Ewout; Debey, Evelyne; Verschuere, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Lying is typically more cognitively demanding than truth telling. Yet, recent cognitive models of lying propose that lying can be just as easy as truth telling, depending on contextual factors. In line with this idea, research has shown that the cognitive cost of deception decreases when people frequently respond deceptively, while it increases when people rarely respond deceptively (i.e., the truth proportion effect). In the present study, we investigated two possible underlying mechanisms of the truth proportion effect. In Experiment 1 (N = 121), we controlled for the impact of switch costs by keeping the number of switches between deceptive and truthful responses constant. We found that people who often responded deceptively made fewer errors when responding deceptively than people who only occasionally responded deceptively, replicating the truth proportion effect. Thus, while the truth proportion effect in earlier studies may be partially driven by the cost of switching between truthful and deceptive responses, we still found evidence for the truth proportion effect while controlling for switch costs. In Experiment 2 (N = 68), we assessed whether the truth proportion effect is influenced by goal neglect. According to this view, the truth proportion effect should be reduced if participants are cued to maintain the task goals, while it should be larger when participants are allowed to neglect the task goals. In line with this hypothesis, we found a smaller truth proportion effect when participants were cued with the task goals compared to when they were not cued. This study shows that the truth proportion effect is influenced by goal neglect, implying that frequent deceptive responding strengthens the goal of responding deceptively. Our findings imply that the accuracy of lie detection tests could be increased by using a majority of truth-items (i.e., induce the truth proportion effect), and that the truth proportion effect should be maximized by (1) increasing

  4. When deception becomes easy: the effects of task switching and goal neglect on the truth proportion effect

    PubMed Central

    Van Bockstaele, Bram; Wilhelm, Christine; Meijer, Ewout; Debey, Evelyne; Verschuere, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Lying is typically more cognitively demanding than truth telling. Yet, recent cognitive models of lying propose that lying can be just as easy as truth telling, depending on contextual factors. In line with this idea, research has shown that the cognitive cost of deception decreases when people frequently respond deceptively, while it increases when people rarely respond deceptively (i.e., the truth proportion effect). In the present study, we investigated two possible underlying mechanisms of the truth proportion effect. In Experiment 1 (N = 121), we controlled for the impact of switch costs by keeping the number of switches between deceptive and truthful responses constant. We found that people who often responded deceptively made fewer errors when responding deceptively than people who only occasionally responded deceptively, replicating the truth proportion effect. Thus, while the truth proportion effect in earlier studies may be partially driven by the cost of switching between truthful and deceptive responses, we still found evidence for the truth proportion effect while controlling for switch costs. In Experiment 2 (N = 68), we assessed whether the truth proportion effect is influenced by goal neglect. According to this view, the truth proportion effect should be reduced if participants are cued to maintain the task goals, while it should be larger when participants are allowed to neglect the task goals. In line with this hypothesis, we found a smaller truth proportion effect when participants were cued with the task goals compared to when they were not cued. This study shows that the truth proportion effect is influenced by goal neglect, implying that frequent deceptive responding strengthens the goal of responding deceptively. Our findings imply that the accuracy of lie detection tests could be increased by using a majority of truth-items (i.e., induce the truth proportion effect), and that the truth proportion effect should be maximized by (1) increasing

  5. An Electroencephalography Network and Connectivity Analysis for Deception in Instructed Lying Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Ng, Wu Chun; Ng, Khoon Siong; Yu, Ke; Wu, Tiecheng; Li, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Deception is an impactful social event that has been the focus of an abundance of researches over recent decades. In this paper, an electroencephalography (EEG) study is presented regarding the cognitive processes of an instructed liar/truth-teller during the time window of stimulus (question) delivery period (SDP) prior to their deceptive/truthful responses towards questions related to authentic (WE: with prior experience) and fictional experience (NE: no prior experience). To investigate deception in non-experienced events, the subjects were given stimuli in a mock interview scenario that induced them to fabricate lies. To analyze the data, frequency domain network and connectivity analysis was performed in the source space in order to provide a more systematic level understanding of deception during SDP. This study reveals several groups of neuronal generators underlying both the instructed lying (IL) and the instructed truth-telling (IT) conditions for both tasks during the SDP. Despite the similarities existed in these group components, significant differences were found in the intra- and inter-group connectivity between the IL and IT conditions in either task. Additionally, the response time was found to be positively correlated with the clustering coefficient of the inferior frontal gyrus (44R) in the WE-IL condition and positively correlated with the clustering coefficient of the precuneus (7L) and the angular gyrus (39R) in the WE-IT condition. However, the response time was found to be marginally negatively correlated with the clustering coefficient of the secondary auditory cortex (42L) in the NE-IL condition and negatively correlated with the clustering coefficient of the somatosensory association cortex (5L, R) in the NE-IT condition. Therefore, these results provide complementary and intuitive evidence for the differences between the IL and IT conditions in SDP for two types of deception tasks, thus elucidating the electrophysiological mechanisms

  6. Extended Research on Detection of Deception Using Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2006-06-01

    A system that captures and analyzes volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from skin surfaces may offer a viable alternative method to the polygraph instrument currently in use for detecting deception in U.S. government settings. Like the involuntary autonomic central nervous system response data gathered during polygraph testing, VOC emissions from the skin may provide data that can be used to detect stress caused by deception. Detecting VOCs, then, may present a noninvasive, non-intrusive method for observing, recording, and quantifying evidence of stress or emotional change.

  7. Lay attitudes toward deception in medicine: Theoretical considerations and empirical evidence

    PubMed Central

    Pugh, Jonathan; Kahane, Guy; Maslen, Hannah; Savulescu, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: There is a lack of empirical data on lay attitudes toward different sorts of deception in medicine. However, lay attitudes toward deception should be taken into account when we consider whether deception is ever permissible in a medical context. The objective of this study was to examine lay attitudes of U.S. citizens toward different sorts of deception across different medical contexts. Methods: A one-time online survey was administered to U.S. users of the Amazon “Mechanical Turk” website. Participants were asked to answer questions regarding a series of vignettes depicting different sorts of deception in medical care, as well as a question regarding their general attitudes toward truth-telling. Results: Of the 200 respondents, the majority found the use of placebos in different contexts to be acceptable following partial disclosure but found it to be unacceptable if it involved outright lying. Also, 55.5% of respondents supported the use of sham surgery in clinical research, although 55% claimed that it would be unacceptable to deceive patients in this research, even if this would improve the quality of the data from the study. Respondents supported fully informing patients about distressing medical information in different contexts, especially when the patient is suffering from a chronic condition. In addition, 42.5% of respondents believed that it is worse to deceive someone by providing the person with false information than it is to do so by giving the person true information that is likely to lead them to form a false belief, without telling them other important information that shows it to be false. However, 41.5% believed that the two methods of deception were morally equivalent. Conclusions: Respondents believed that some forms of deception were acceptable in some circumstances. While the majority of our respondents opposed outright lying in medical contexts, they were prepared to support partial disclosure and the use of

  8. How Do Incentives Lead to Deception in Advisor–Client Interactions? Explicit and Implicit Strategies of Self-Interested Deception

    PubMed Central

    Mackinger, Barbara; Jonas, Eva

    2012-01-01

    When confronted with important questions we like to rely on the advice of experts. However, uncertainty can occur regarding advisors’ motivation to pursue self-interest and deceive the client. This can especially occur when the advisor has the possibility to receive an incentive by recommending a certain alternative. We investigated how the possibility to pursue self-interest led to explicit strategic behavior (bias in recommendation and transfer of information) and to implicit strategic behavior (bias in information processing: evaluation and memory). In Study 1 explicit strategic behavior could be identified: self-interested advisors recommended more often the self-serving alternative and transferred more self-interested biased information to their client compared to the advisor without specific interest. Also deception through implicit strategic behavior was identified: self-interested advisors biased the evaluation of information less in favor of the client compared to the control group. Self-interested advisors also remembered conflicting information regarding their self-interest worse compared to advisors without self-interest. In Study 2 beside self-interest we assessed accountability which interacted with self-interest and increased the bias: when accountability was high advisor’s self-interest led to higher explicit strategic behavior (less transfer of conflicting information), and to higher implicit strategic behavior (devaluated and remembered less conflicting information). Both studies identified implicit strategic behavior as mediator which can explain the relation between self-interest and explicit strategic behavior. Results of both studies suggest that self-interested advisors use explicit and implicit strategic behavior to receive an incentive. Thus, advisors do not only consciously inform their clients “self-interested,” but they are influenced unconsciously by biased information processing – a tendency which even increased with high

  9. When Worldviews Collide: What Linguistic Style Matching and Distal Language Reveal about Deception in Political Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booker, Lucille M.

    2012-01-01

    Political discourse is an observable, measurable, and testable manifestation of political worldviews. However, when worldviews collide, notions of truth and of lies are put to the test. The challenge for researchers is how to establish confidence in their analysis. Despite the growing interest in deception research from a diversity of fields and…

  10. 5 CFR 890.1020 - Determining length of debarment based on false, wrongful, or deceptive claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining length of debarment based on false, wrongful, or deceptive claims. 890.1020 Section 890.1020 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Administrative Sanctions...

  11. Fork-tailed drongos use deceptive mimicked alarm calls to steal food

    PubMed Central

    Flower, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of vocal mimicry in animals, few functions for this behaviour have been shown. I propose a novel hypothesis that false mimicked alarm calls could be used deceptively to scare other species and steal their food. Studies have previously suggested that animals use their own species-specific alarm calls to steal food. However none have shown conclusively that these false alarms are deceptive, or that mimicked alarm calls are used in this manner. Here, I show that wild fork-tailed drongos (Dicrurus adsimilis) make both drongo-specific and mimicked false alarm calls when watching target species handling food, in response to which targets flee to cover abandoning their food. The drongo-specific and mimicked calls made in false alarms were structurally indistinguishable from calls made during true alarms at predators by drongos and other species. Furthermore, I demonstrate by playback experiments that two of these species, meerkats (Suricata suricatta) and pied babblers (Turdoides bicolor), are deceived by both drongo-specific and mimicked false alarm calls. These results provide the first conclusive evidence that false alarm calls are deceptive and demonstrate a novel function for vocal mimicry. This work also provides valuable insight into the benefits of deploying variable mimetic signals in deceptive communication. PMID:21047861

  12. 16 CFR 20.2 - Deception as to identity of rebuilder, remanufacturer, reconditioner or reliner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deception as to identity of rebuilder, remanufacturer, reconditioner or reliner. 20.2 Section 20.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE REBUILT, RECONDITIONED AND OTHER USED AUTOMOBILE...

  13. 16 CFR 20.2 - Deception as to identity of rebuilder, remanufacturer, reconditioner or reliner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deception as to identity of rebuilder, remanufacturer, reconditioner or reliner. 20.2 Section 20.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE REBUILT, RECONDITIONED AND OTHER USED AUTOMOBILE...

  14. 16 CFR 20.2 - Deception as to identity of rebuilder, remanufacturer, reconditioner or reliner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deception as to identity of rebuilder, remanufacturer, reconditioner or reliner. 20.2 Section 20.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE REBUILT, RECONDITIONED AND OTHER USED AUTOMOBILE...

  15. 16 CFR 20.2 - Deception as to identity of rebuilder, remanufacturer, reconditioner or reliner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deception as to identity of rebuilder, remanufacturer, reconditioner or reliner. 20.2 Section 20.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE REBUILT, RECONDITIONED AND OTHER USED AUTOMOBILE...

  16. 16 CFR 20.2 - Deception as to identity of rebuilder, remanufacturer, reconditioner or reliner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deception as to identity of rebuilder, remanufacturer, reconditioner or reliner. 20.2 Section 20.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE REBUILT, RECONDITIONED AND OTHER USED AUTOMOBILE...

  17. Bad drives psychological reactions, but good propels behavior: responses to honesty and deception.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cynthia S; Galinsky, Adam D; Murnighan, J Keith

    2009-05-01

    Research across disciplines suggests that bad is stronger than good and that individuals punish deception more than they reward honesty. However, methodological issues in previous research limit the latter conclusion. Three experiments resolved these issues and consistently found the opposite pattern: Individuals rewarded honesty more frequently and intensely than they punished deception. Experiment 2 extended these counterintuitive findings by revealing a divergence between evaluation and behavior: Evaluative reactions to deception were stronger than those to honesty, but behavioral intentions in response to honesty were stronger than those in response to deception. In addition, individuals wanted to avoid deceivers more than they wanted to approach honest actors. Experiment 3 found that punishment, but not reward, frequencies were sensitive to costs. Moderated-mediation tests revealed the role of different psychological mechanisms: Negative affect drove punishments, whereas perceived trustworthiness drove rewards. Overall, bad appears to be stronger than good in influencing psychological reactions, but good seems to be stronger than bad in influencing behavior. PMID:19476593

  18. A Curriculum Structured Design for Educating Adults in Detecting Deception and Eliciting Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, Barry L.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation describes the overall effectiveness of deception detection training and identifies conditions that may enhance training effectiveness through understanding how adults learn and utilizing scenario-based training. The analysis was based on a total of 1,788 evaluation data sheets (archival records). The major aim of the research is…

  19. Multivariate Approaches for Exploring the Evaluation of Deception in Television Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Permut, Steven Eli

    The objective of this study was to explore the semantic structure used by subjects in assessing (evaluating) a series of eight television commercials previously (but unofficially) rated for deceptiveness by FTC attorneys. Five local respondent groups were used: 158 undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory advertising course, 175…

  20. 16 CFR 424.1 - Unfair or deceptive acts or practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Unfair or deceptive acts or practices. 424.1 Section 424.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES RETAIL FOOD STORE... of offering for sale by retail food stores of food, grocery products or other merchandise...

  1. Is interactional dissynchrony a clue to deception? Insights from automated analysis of nonverbal visual cues.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiang; Zhang, Shaoting; Yan, Zhennan; Yang, Fei; Huang, Junzhou; Dunbar, Norah E; Jensen, Matthew L; Burgoon, Judee K; Metaxas, Dimitris N

    2015-03-01

    Detecting deception in interpersonal dialog is challenging since deceivers take advantage of the give-and-take of interaction to adapt to any sign of skepticism in an interlocutor's verbal and nonverbal feedback. Human detection accuracy is poor, often with no better than chance performance. In this investigation, we consider whether automated methods can produce better results and if emphasizing the possible disruption in interactional synchrony can signal whether an interactant is truthful or deceptive. We propose a data-driven and unobtrusive framework using visual cues that consists of face tracking, head movement detection, facial expression recognition, and interactional synchrony estimation. Analysis were conducted on 242 video samples from an experiment in which deceivers and truth-tellers interacted with professional interviewers either face-to-face or through computer mediation. Results revealed that the framework is able to automatically track head movements and expressions of both interlocutors to extract normalized meaningful synchrony features and to learn classification models for deception recognition. Further experiments show that these features reliably capture interactional synchrony and efficiently discriminate deception from truth. PMID:24988600

  2. Sender Demeanor: Individual Differences in Sender Believability Have a Powerful Impact on Deception Detection Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Timothy R.; Serota, Kim B.; Shulman, Hillary; Clare, David D.; Park, Hee Sun; Shaw, Allison S.; Shim, Jae Chul; Lee, Jung Hyon

    2011-01-01

    Sender demeanor is an individual difference in the believability of message senders that is conceptually independent of actual honesty. Recent research suggests that sender demeanor may be the most influential source of variation in deception detection judgments. Sender demeanor was varied in five experiments (N = 30, 113, 182, 30, and 35) to…

  3. Executive Control within Strategic Deception: A Window on Early Cognitive Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hala, Suzanne; Russell, James

    2001-01-01

    Three studies examined how reducing the executive function demands of a measure of strategic deception, the windows task, would affect 3-year-olds' performance. Findings demonstrated that providing an artificial response medium, even in the presence of an opponent, and having children play in partnership enabled them to adopt a successful…

  4. 75 FR 37435 - Fact Finding Investigation No. 27; Potentially Unlawful, Unfair or Deceptive Ocean Transportation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... Fact Finding Investigation No. 27; Potentially Unlawful, Unfair or Deceptive Ocean Transportation... will use the information obtained in this investigation and recommendations of the Fact-Finding Officer... property in the oceanborne foreign commerce of the United States, in order to gather facts and establish...

  5. Cry me a river: identifying the behavioral consequences of extremely high-stakes interpersonal deception.

    PubMed

    Ten Brinke, Leanne; Porter, Stephen

    2012-12-01

    Deception evolved as a fundamental aspect of human social interaction. Numerous studies have examined behavioral cues to deception, but most have involved inconsequential lies and unmotivated liars in a laboratory context. We conducted the most comprehensive study to date of the behavioral consequences of extremely high-stakes, real-life deception--relative to comparable real-life sincere displays--via 3 communication channels: speech, body language, and emotional facial expressions. Televised footage of a large international sample of individuals (N = 78) emotionally pleading to the public for the return of a missing relative was meticulously coded frame-by-frame (30 frames/s for a total of 74,731 frames). About half of the pleaders eventually were convicted of killing the missing person on the basis of overwhelming evidence. Failed attempts to simulate sadness and leakage of happiness revealed deceptive pleaders' covert emotions. Liars used fewer words but more tentative words than truth-tellers, likely relating to increased cognitive load and psychological distancing. Further, each of these cues explained unique variance in predicting pleader sincerity. PMID:23205594

  6. 12 CFR 227.14 - Unfair or deceptive practices involving cosigners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... cosigners. 227.14 Section 227.14 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES (REGULATION AA) Credit... to guarantee this debt. Think carefully before you do. If the borrower doesn't pay the debt, you...

  7. 12 CFR 227.14 - Unfair or deceptive practices involving cosigners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... cosigners. 227.14 Section 227.14 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES (REGULATION AA) Credit Practices Rule... to guarantee this debt. Think carefully before you do. If the borrower doesn't pay the debt, you...

  8. 12 CFR 227.14 - Unfair or deceptive practices involving cosigners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... cosigners. 227.14 Section 227.14 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES (REGULATION AA) Credit Practices Rule... to guarantee this debt. Think carefully before you do. If the borrower doesn't pay the debt, you...

  9. 12 CFR 227.14 - Unfair or deceptive practices involving cosigners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... cosigners. 227.14 Section 227.14 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES (REGULATION AA) Credit Practices Rule... to guarantee this debt. Think carefully before you do. If the borrower doesn't pay the debt, you...

  10. Deception Undermines the Stability of Cooperation in Games of Indirect Reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Számadó, Szabolcs; Szalai, Ferenc; Scheuring, István

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity is often claimed as one of the key mechanisms of human cooperation. It works only if there is a reputational score keeping and each individual can inform with high probability which other individuals were good or bad in the previous round. Gossip is often proposed as a mechanism that can maintain such coherence of reputations in the face of errors of transmission. Random errors, however, are not the only source of uncertainty in such situations. The possibility of deceptive communication, where the signallers aim to misinform the receiver cannot be excluded. While there is plenty of evidence for deceptive communication in humans the possibility of deception is not yet incorporated into models of indirect reciprocity. Here we show that when deceptive strategies are allowed in the population it will cause the collapse of the coherence of reputations and thus in turn it results the collapse of cooperation. This collapse is independent of the norms and the cost and benefit values. It is due to the fact that there is no selection for honest communication in the framework of indirect reciprocity. It follows that indirect reciprocity can be only proposed plausibly as a mechanism of human cooperation if additional mechanisms are specified in the model that maintains honesty. PMID:26824895

  11. Detection of deception using fMRI: better than chance, but well below perfection.

    PubMed

    Monteleone, George T; Phan, K Luan; Nusbaum, Howard C; Fitzgerald, Daniel; Irick, John-Stockton; Fienberg, Stephen E; Cacioppo, John T

    2009-01-01

    Functional brain imaging has been considered a new and better technique for the detection of deception. The reasoning is that there is a neural locus or circuit for lying that is sensitive, specific, generalizable across individuals and measurement contexts, and robust to countermeasures. To determine the extent to which the group results predicted lying at the level of the individual, we reanalyzed data on 14 participants from a study that had previously identified regions involved in lying (thus satisfying the criterion for sensitivity). We assessed the efficacy of functionally determined brain regions based on the lie-truth contrast for N-1 participants to detect deception in the Nth individual. Results showed that no region could be used to correctly detect deception across all individuals. The best results were obtained for medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), correctly identifying 71% of participants as lying with no false alarms. Lowering the threshold for a response increased hits and false alarms. The results suggest that although brain imaging is a more direct index of cognition than the traditional polygraph, it is subject to many of the same caveats and thus neuroimaging does not appear to reveal processes that are necessarily unique to deception. PMID:18633832

  12. On Lying and Being Lied to: A Linguistic Analysis of Deception in Computer-Mediated Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Jeffrey T.; Curry, Lauren E.; Goorha, Saurabh; Woodworth, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated changes in both the liar's and the conversational partner's linguistic style across truthful and deceptive dyadic communication in a synchronous text-based setting. An analysis of 242 transcripts revealed that liars produced more words, more sense-based words (e.g., seeing, touching), and used fewer self-oriented but more…

  13. Fork-tailed drongos use deceptive mimicked alarm calls to steal food.

    PubMed

    Flower, Tom

    2011-05-22

    Despite the prevalence of vocal mimicry in animals, few functions for this behaviour have been shown. I propose a novel hypothesis that false mimicked alarm calls could be used deceptively to scare other species and steal their food. Studies have previously suggested that animals use their own species-specific alarm calls to steal food. However none have shown conclusively that these false alarms are deceptive, or that mimicked alarm calls are used in this manner. Here, I show that wild fork-tailed drongos (Dicrurus adsimilis) make both drongo-specific and mimicked false alarm calls when watching target species handling food, in response to which targets flee to cover abandoning their food. The drongo-specific and mimicked calls made in false alarms were structurally indistinguishable from calls made during true alarms at predators by drongos and other species. Furthermore, I demonstrate by playback experiments that two of these species, meerkats (Suricata suricatta) and pied babblers (Turdoides bicolor), are deceived by both drongo-specific and mimicked false alarm calls. These results provide the first conclusive evidence that false alarm calls are deceptive and demonstrate a novel function for vocal mimicry. This work also provides valuable insight into the benefits of deploying variable mimetic signals in deceptive communication. PMID:21047861

  14. Children's Knowledge of Deceptive Gaze Cues and Its Relation to Their Actual Lying Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Anjanie; Lee, Kang

    2009-01-01

    Eye gaze plays a pivotal role during communication. When interacting deceptively, it is commonly believed that the deceiver will break eye contact and look downward. We examined whether children's gaze behavior when lying is consistent with this belief. In our study, 7- to 15-year-olds and adults answered questions truthfully ("Truth" questions)…

  15. Deception Undermines the Stability of Cooperation in Games of Indirect Reciprocity

    PubMed Central

    Számadó, Szabolcs; Szalai, Ferenc; Scheuring, István

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity is often claimed as one of the key mechanisms of human cooperation. It works only if there is a reputational score keeping and each individual can inform with high probability which other individuals were good or bad in the previous round. Gossip is often proposed as a mechanism that can maintain such coherence of reputations in the face of errors of transmission. Random errors, however, are not the only source of uncertainty in such situations. The possibility of deceptive communication, where the signallers aim to misinform the receiver cannot be excluded. While there is plenty of evidence for deceptive communication in humans the possibility of deception is not yet incorporated into models of indirect reciprocity. Here we show that when deceptive strategies are allowed in the population it will cause the collapse of the coherence of reputations and thus in turn it results the collapse of cooperation. This collapse is independent of the norms and the cost and benefit values. It is due to the fact that there is no selection for honest communication in the framework of indirect reciprocity. It follows that indirect reciprocity can be only proposed plausibly as a mechanism of human cooperation if additional mechanisms are specified in the model that maintains honesty. PMID:26824895

  16. Development of Tactical Deception from 4 to 8 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rachelle M.; LaFreniere, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    One hundred eighteen children, divided into three age groups (4-, 6-, and 8-year-olds) participated in a competitive game designed to explore advances in children's deceptive abilities. Success in the game required children to inhibit useful information or provide misinformation in their communication with an adult opponent. Age trends were…

  17. The use of deception in public health behavioral intervention trials: a case study of three online alcohol trials.

    PubMed

    McCambridge, Jim; Kypri, Kypros; Bendtsen, Preben; Porter, John

    2013-01-01

    Some public health behavioral intervention research studies involve deception. A methodological imperative to minimize bias can be in conflict with the ethical principle of informed consent. As a case study, we examine the specific forms of deception used in three online randomized controlled trials evaluating brief alcohol interventions. We elaborate our own decision making about the use of deception in these trials, and present our ongoing findings and uncertainties. We discuss the value of the approach of pragmatism for examining these kinds of ethical issues that can arise in research on public health interventions. PMID:24161181

  18. The Use of Deception in Public Health Behavioral Intervention Trials: A Case Study of Three Online Alcohol Trials

    PubMed Central

    McCambridge, Jim; Kypri, Kypros; Bendtsen, Preben; Porter, John

    2013-01-01

    Some public health behavioral intervention research studies involve deception. A methodological imperative to minimize bias can be in conflict with the ethical principle of informed consent. As a case study, we examine the specific forms of deception used in three online randomized controlled trials evaluating brief alcohol interventions. We elaborate our own decision making about the use of deception in these trials, and present our ongoing findings and uncertainties. We discuss the value of the approach of pragmatism for examining these kinds of ethical issues that can arise in research on public health interventions. PMID:24161181

  19. Emotional Intelligence and Mismatching Expressive and Verbal Messages: A Contribution to Detection of Deception

    PubMed Central

    Wojciechowski, Jerzy; Stolarski, Maciej; Matthews, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Processing facial emotion, especially mismatches between facial and verbal messages, is believed to be important in the detection of deception. For example, emotional leakage may accompany lying. Individuals with superior emotion perception abilities may then be more adept in detecting deception by identifying mismatch between facial and verbal messages. Two personal factors that may predict such abilities are female gender and high emotional intelligence (EI). However, evidence on the role of gender and EI in detection of deception is mixed. A key issue is that the facial processing skills required to detect deception may not be the same as those required to identify facial emotion. To test this possibility, we developed a novel facial processing task, the FDT (Face Decoding Test) that requires detection of inconsistencies between facial and verbal cues to emotion. We hypothesized that gender and ability EI would be related to performance when cues were inconsistent. We also hypothesized that gender effects would be mediated by EI, because women tend to score as more emotionally intelligent on ability tests. Data were collected from 210 participants. Analyses of the FDT suggested that EI was correlated with superior face decoding in all conditions. We also confirmed the expected gender difference, the superiority of high EI individuals, and the mediation hypothesis. Also, EI was more strongly associated with facial decoding performance in women than in men, implying there may be gender differences in strategies for processing affective cues. It is concluded that integration of emotional and cognitive cues may be a core attribute of EI that contributes to the detection of deception. PMID:24658500

  20. Mapping the small-world properties of brain networks in deception with functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiang; Lin, Xiaohong; Fu, Genyu; Sai, Liyang; Chen, Huafu; Yang, Jianbo; Wang, Mingwen; Liu, Qi; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Junran; Yuan, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Deception is not a rare occurrence among human behaviors; however, the present brain mapping techniques are insufficient to reveal the neural mechanism of deception under spontaneous or controlled conditions. Interestingly, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has emerged as a highly promising neuroimaging technique that enables continuous and noninvasive monitoring of changes in blood oxygenation and blood volume in the human brain. In this study, fNIRS was used in combination with complex network theory to extract the attribute features of the functional brain networks underling deception in subjects exhibiting spontaneous or controlled behaviors. Our findings revealed that the small-world networks of the subjects engaged in spontaneous behaviors exhibited greater clustering coefficients, shorter average path lengths, greater average node degrees, and stronger randomness compared with those of subjects engaged in control behaviors. Consequently, we suggest that small-world network topology is capable of distinguishing well between spontaneous and controlled deceptions. PMID:27126145

  1. Mapping the small-world properties of brain networks in deception with functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiang; Lin, Xiaohong; Fu, Genyu; Sai, Liyang; Chen, Huafu; Yang, Jianbo; Wang, Mingwen; Liu, Qi; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Junran; Yuan, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Deception is not a rare occurrence among human behaviors; however, the present brain mapping techniques are insufficient to reveal the neural mechanism of deception under spontaneous or controlled conditions. Interestingly, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has emerged as a highly promising neuroimaging technique that enables continuous and noninvasive monitoring of changes in blood oxygenation and blood volume in the human brain. In this study, fNIRS was used in combination with complex network theory to extract the attribute features of the functional brain networks underling deception in subjects exhibiting spontaneous or controlled behaviors. Our findings revealed that the small-world networks of the subjects engaged in spontaneous behaviors exhibited greater clustering coefficients, shorter average path lengths, greater average node degrees, and stronger randomness compared with those of subjects engaged in control behaviors. Consequently, we suggest that small-world network topology is capable of distinguishing well between spontaneous and controlled deceptions. PMID:27126145

  2. Effects of placebos without deception compared with no treatment: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Petkovic, Grace; Charlesworth, James E G; Kelley, John; Miller, Franklin; Roberts, Nia; Howick, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Placebos have long provided a robust control for evaluating active pharmacological preparations, but frequently demonstrate a variable therapeutic effect when delivered in double-blinded placebo-controlled trials. Delivery of placebos as treatment alone has been considered unethical, as it has been thought that deception is essential for their effect. However, recent evidence suggests that clinical benefit can be derived from placebos delivered without deception (unblinded/open-label) manner. Here, we present a protocol for the first systematic review and meta-analysis of studies of the effects of non-deceptive placebos compared with no treatment. Methods and analysis This protocol will compare the effect of placebos delivered non-deceptively to no treatment. It will also assess the methods of delivery used for non-deceptive placebos. Studies will be sought through relevant database searches and will include those within disease settings and those among healthy controls. To be included, trials must include both non-deceptive (open-label) placebo and no treatment groups. All data extraction and analysis will be conducted by two independent reviewers. The analysis will evaluate any differences in outcome measures between the non-deceptive placebo and no treatment groups. Outcome measures will be the clinically-relevant outcomes detailed in the primary papers. The delivery methods, such as verbal instructions, which may provide positive expectations and outcomes, of non-deceptive placebos will also be assessed. Each study will be comprehensively assessed for bias. Subgroup analyses will identify any discrepancies among heterogeneous data. Ethics and dissemination This review does not require ethical approval. The completed review will be widely disseminated by publication and social media where appropriate. This protocol has been registered on PROSPERO (2015:CRD42015023347). PMID:26610763

  3. Possible role of an error detection mechanism in brain processing of deception: PET-fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Kireev, Maxim; Korotkov, Alexander; Medvedeva, Natalia; Medvedev, Svyatoslav

    2013-12-01

    To investigate brain maintenance of deliberate deception the positron emission tomography and the event related functional MRI studies were performed. We used an experimental paradigm that presupposed free choices between equally beneficial deceptive or honest actions. Experimental task simulated the "Cheat" card game which aims to defeat an opponent by sequential deceptive and honest claims. Results of both the PET and the fMRI studies revealed that execution of both deliberately deceptive and honest claims is associated with fronto-parietal brain network comprised of inferior and middle frontal gyri, precentral gyrus (BA 6), caudate nucleus, and inferior parietal lobule. Direct comparison between those claims, balanced in terms of decision making and action outcome (gain and losses), revealed activation of areas specifically associated with deception execution: precentral gyrus (BA 6), caudate nuclei, thalamus and inferior parietal lobule (BA 39/40). The obtained experimental data were discussed in relation to a possible role of an error detection system in processing deliberate deception. PMID:24100194

  4. STOPPING DECEPTIVE HEALTH CLAIMS: THE NEED FOR A PRIVATE RIGHT OF ACTION UNDER FEDERAL LAW.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Diane; Schwartz, Jack

    2016-01-01

    This Article offers a thorough analysis of an important public health issue, namely how to confront the growing problem of deceptive claims regarding foods and dietary supplements, including increasingly prevalent but unverifiable claims. The authors call for the creation of a limited private right of action under the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Act for deceptive health-related claims for these products. The proposal responds to the growing market for these products and the inadequacy of current laws and enforcement actions to prevent such claims. In crafting the limited private right of action, the authors attempt to enhance consumer protection without undermining federal agency primacy in enforcement. The Article ends with an appendix setting forth proposed language for a statutory amendment to the FTC Act incorporating the authors' proposal. PMID:27263263

  5. The fundamental attribution error in detecting deception: the boy-who-cried-wolf effect.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Maureen

    2003-10-01

    Most people are unable to detect accurately when others are lying. Many explanations for this inability have been suggested but the cognitive heuristics involved in lie detection have received little attention. The present study offers evidence from two experiments, based on two different groups of observers, judging two different kinds of lies, presented in two different testing situations, that the fundamental attribution error significantly undermines the ability to detect honesty and deception accurately. Trait judgments of trustworthiness were highly correlated with state judgments of truthfulness, leading, as predicted, to positive correlations with honest detection accuracy and negative correlations with deception detection accuracy. More accurate lie detectors were significantly more likely than less accurate lie detectors to separate state and trait judgments of honesty. The effect of other biases, such as the halo effect and the truthfulness bias, also are examined. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:15189591

  6. Bodyguard of lies: the vicissitudes of deception among mad men and women.

    PubMed

    Prince, Robert

    2011-12-01

    The television series Mad Men is critically acclaimed despite grievous flaws as a drama. Its immense popularity is important psychological data and needs to be explored from the vantage of the dynamics of deception, including motivation, appeal and consequences for relationships and the self. The show's creator is inspired by John Cheever, the depth of whose complex characterizations is contrasted to the lures of the show. The parallel between the manipulations of authenticity inherent in advertising, the relationships between those who are involved in it and the relationship the show establishes with its audience is studied through two contiguous brief scenes that portray multiple reverberating deceits. These characters in these scenes are understood as creating both longing and disappointment at multiple levels. The psychic costs for both the deceivers, those deceived, as well as witnesses to the deception are fundamental. PMID:22143508

  7. Effects of impression management and self-deception on the predictive validity of personality constructs.

    PubMed

    Barrick, M R; Mount, M K

    1996-06-01

    This study tests whether 2 types of response distortion (self-deception and impression management) affect the predictive validity of 2 of the "Big 5" personality dimensions, conscientiousness and emotional stability, in 2 applicant samples of long-haul semitruck drivers (n = 147 and n = 139). As hypothesized, conscientiousness (p = -.26 and -.26) and emotional stability (p = -.23 and -.21) were valid predictors of voluntary turnover in the 2 samples. Also as hypothesized, conscientiousness was a valid predictor of supervisory ratings of performance (p = .41 and .39) in the 2 samples. Although not hypothesized, emotional stability was also significantly related to supervisor ratings of performance (p = .23 and .27). Results from structural equations modeling indicated that applicants did distort their scores on both personality dimensions and the distortion occurred both through self-deception and impression management; however, neither type of distortion attenuated the predictive validities of either personality construct. PMID:8690688

  8. Waving the Red Flag: FTC Regulation of Deceptive Weight-Loss Advertising 1951-2009.

    PubMed

    Lellis, Julie C

    2016-01-01

    This article documents the historical role of the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) in regulating deceptive weight-loss advertising, which the commission began to prioritize in the 1990s after a dramatic rise in complaints. It also includes the results of a content analysis of more than 150 FTC complaints filed between 1951 and 2009, which were used to analyze trends in advertising content, liability for deceptive practices, and outcomes. Regulatory efforts may not have curbed the use of bogus weight-loss claims, which have only increased over time. The FTC has made attempts to apply broad liability, but advertisers and corporate leaders continue to be named most frequently over other respondents, including advertising agencies, media outlets, and product endorsers. Although the number of complaints that result in financial penalties is increasing, the FTC lacks systematic and specific policies to adequately deter advertisers and address what continues to be a growing problem. PMID:26075539

  9. Looking for truth and finding lies: the prospects for a nascent neuroimaging of deception.

    PubMed

    Spence, Sean A; Kaylor-Hughes, Catherine J

    2008-01-01

    Lying is ubiquitous and has acquired many names. In 'natural experiments', both pathological lying and truthfulness implicate prefrontal cortices. Recently, the advent of functional neuroimaging has allowed investigators to study deception in the non-pathological state. Prefrontal cortices are again implicated, although the regions identified vary across experiments. Forensic application of such technology (to the detection of deceit) requires the solution of tractable technical problems. Whether we 'should' detect deception remains an ethical problem: one for societies to resolve. However, such a procedure would only appear to be ethical when subjects volunteer to participate, as might occur during the investigation of alleged miscarriages of justice. We demonstrate how this might be approached. PMID:18569733

  10. Recursive state estimation for discrete time-varying stochastic nonlinear systems with randomly occurring deception attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Derui; Shen, Yuxuan; Song, Yan; Wang, Yongxiong

    2016-07-01

    This paper is concerned with the state estimation problem for a class of discrete time-varying stochastic nonlinear systems with randomly occurring deception attacks. The stochastic nonlinearity described by statistical means which covers several classes of well-studied nonlinearities as special cases is taken into discussion. The randomly occurring deception attacks are modelled by a set of random variables obeying Bernoulli distributions with given probabilities. The purpose of the addressed state estimation problem is to design an estimator with hope to minimize the upper bound for estimation error covariance at each sampling instant. Such an upper bound is minimized by properly designing the estimator gain. The proposed estimation scheme in the form of two Riccati-like difference equations is of a recursive form. Finally, a simulation example is exploited to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  11. Considering the case for an antidepressant drug trial involving temporary deception: a qualitative enquiry of potential participants

    PubMed Central

    Dowrick, Christopher F; Hughes, John G; Hiscock, Julia J; Wigglesworth, Mark; Walley, Thomas J

    2007-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews of randomised placebo controlled trials of antidepressant medication show small and decreasing differences between pharmacological and placebo arms. In part this finding may relate to methodological problems with conventional trial designs, including their assumption of additivity between drug and placebo trial arms. Balanced placebo designs, which include elements of deception, may address the additivity question, but pose substantial ethical and pragmatic problems. This study aimed to ascertain views of potential study participants of the ethics and pragmatics of various balanced placebo designs, in order to inform the design of future antidepressant drug trials. Methods A qualitative approach was employed to explore the perspectives of general practitioners, psychiatrists, and patients with experience of depression. The doctors were chosen via purposive sampling, while patients were recruited through participating general practitioners. Three focus groups and 12 in-depth interviews were conducted. A vignette-based topic guide invited views on three deceptive strategies: post hoc, authorised and minimised deception. The focus groups and interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were analysed thematically using Framework. Results Deception in non-research situations was typically perceived as acceptable within specific parameters. All participants could see the potential utility of introducing deception into trial designs, however views on the acceptability of deception within antidepressant drug trials varied substantially. Authorized deception was the most commonly accepted strategy, though some thought this would reduce the effectiveness of the design because participants would correctly guess the deceptive element. The major issues that affected views about the acceptability of deception studies were the welfare and capacity of patients, practicalities of trial design, and the question of trust. Conclusion There

  12. The application of fractional Mel cepstral coefficient in deceptive speech detection

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Heming; Zhou, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The inconvenience operation of EEG P300 or functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) will be overcome, when the deceptive information can be effectively detected from speech signal analysis. In this paper, the fractional Mel cepstral coefficient (FrCC) is proposed as the speech character for deception detection. The different fractional order can reveal various personalities of the speakers. The linear discriminant analysis (LDA) model (which has the ability of global optimal vector mapping) is introduced, and the performance of FrCC and MFCC in deceptive detection is compared when all the data are mapped to low dimensional. Then, the hidden Markov model (HMM) is introduced as a long-term signal analysis tool. Twenty-five male and 25 female participants are involved in the experiment. The results show that the clustering effect of optimal fractional order FrCC is better than that of MFCC. The average accuracy for male and female speaker is 59.9% and 56.2%, respectively, by using the FrCC under the LDA model. When MFCC is used, the accuracy is reduced by 3.2% and 5.9%, respectively, for male and female. The accuracy can be increased to 71.0% and 70.2% for male and female speakers when HMM is used. Moreover, some individual accuracy is increased over 20%, or even more than 85%, when FrCC is introduced. The results show that the deceptive information is indeed hidden in the speech signals. Therefore, speech-based psychophysiology calculating may be a valuable research field. PMID:26312185

  13. A sacred command of reason? Deceit, deception, and dishonesty in nurse education.

    PubMed

    Rolfe, Gary

    2016-07-01

    Kant (Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals. Hackett, Indianapolis, 1797) described honesty as 'a sacred command of reason' which should be obeyed at all times and at any cost. This study inquires into the practice of dishonesty, deception, and deceit by universities in the UK in the pursuit of quality indicators such as league table positions, Research Excellence Framework (REF) scores, and student satisfaction survey results. Deception occurs when the metrics which inform these tables and surveys are manipulated to suggest an improvement in quality when, in fact, the raised scores are merely the result of clever strategic planning. Deceit occurs when these manipulated scores are deliberately and knowingly presented as real improvements in research and educational quality. It might be argued that, within the context of the artificial ivory tower world of academe, this is a game played by almost every academic in every higher education institution with no real losers and little wider consequence. However, this study suggests that some of the strategies employed by institutions to improve their scores without directly addressing the issue of quality can, in certain practice-based disciplines such as nursing, result in dire consequences for practitioners and service users. It concludes with a number of suggestions taken from personal experience to resolve the tension between the contractual demands placed on nurse academics by their employers and the moral and practical obligations of their professional body, most notably the use of subversion. The conclusion, contra Kant, is that the most effective strategy against dishonesty and deception is often more dishonesty and deception. PMID:27222358

  14. Functional MRI detection of deception after committing a mock sabotage crime.

    PubMed

    Kozel, F Andrew; Johnson, Kevin A; Grenesko, Emily L; Laken, Steven J; Kose, Samet; Lu, Xinghua; Pollina, Dean; Ryan, Andrew; George, Mark S

    2009-01-01

    Using Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) to detect deception is feasible in simple laboratory paradigms. A mock sabotage scenario was used to test whether this technology would also be effective in a scenario closer to a real-world situation. Healthy, nonmedicated adults were recruited from the community, screened, and randomized to either a Mock-crime group or a No-crime group. The Mock-crime group damaged and stole compact discs (CDs), which contained incriminating video footage, while the No-crime group did not perform a task. The Mock-crime group also picked up an envelope from a researcher, while the No-crime group did not perform this task. Both groups were instructed to report that they picked up an envelope, but did not sabotage any video evidence. Participants later went to the imaging center and were scanned while being asked questions regarding the mock crime. Participants also performed a simple laboratory based fMRI deception testing (Ring-Watch testing). The Ring-Watch testing consisted of "stealing" either a watch or a ring. The participants were instructed to report that they stole neither object. We correctly identified deception during the Ring-Watch testing in 25 of 36 participants (Validated Group). In this Validated Group for whom a determination was made, computer-based scoring correctly identified nine of nine Mock-crime participants (100% sensitivity) and five of 15 No-crime participants (33% specificity). BOLD fMRI presently can be used to detect deception concerning past events with high sensitivity, but low specificity. PMID:19067772

  15. The Moral, Epistemic, and Mindreading Components of Children's Vigilance towards Deception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascaro, Olivier; Sperber, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Vigilance towards deception is investigated in 3- to-5-year-old children: (i) In Study 1, children as young as 3 years of age prefer the testimony of a benevolent rather than of a malevolent communicator. (ii) In Study 2, only at the age of four do children show understanding of the falsity of a lie uttered by a communicator described as a liar.…

  16. Good science, deceptive science, and fraud, plus a brief discussion of peer review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Marjorie

    2011-03-01

    What makes scientific publication different from other types of publication? Traditionally, it was that scientists published not only their conclusions, but also their data (which enabled others wanting to re-evaluate the data to do so). Publishing their data helped keep scientists honest. In the mid-20th century the policies of scientific journals changed, partly because very large data sets were being evaluated via computer. Many (but not all) scientific journals paid homage to scientific tradition by establishing archives for data serving as the basis for published scientific papers, while only a description of the study and the conclusions were published in the peer-reviewed scientific journals. This set the stage for scientific deception and scientific fraud, which became widespread in certain fields of study during the latter part of the 20th century. Indeed, some organizations were established that appeared to be legitimate scientific societies, but in fact existed for the purpose of promoting the incorrect evaluation of scientific data and publishing deceptive studies masquerading as sound scientific studies. The field of medicine has also become more science than art, with its current emphasis on ``evidence-based medicine.'' The different types of scientific deceit/fraud are identified, and a lifetime of experience with the correction of scientific error, plus encounters with scientific deception and scientific fraud, is summarized.

  17. Floral trait variation and integration as a function of sexual deception in Gorteria diffusa

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Allan G.; Brockington, Samuel F.; de Jager, Marinus L.; Mellers, Gregory; Walker, Rachel H.; Glover, Beverley J.

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic integration, the coordinated covariance of suites of morphological traits, is critical for proper functioning of organisms. Angiosperm flowers are complex structures comprising suites of traits that function together to achieve effective pollen transfer. Floral integration could reflect shared genetic and developmental control of these traits, or could arise through pollinator-imposed stabilizing correlational selection on traits. We sought to expose mechanisms underlying floral trait integration in the sexually deceptive daisy, Gorteria diffusa, by testing the hypothesis that stabilizing selection imposed by male pollinators on floral traits involved in mimicry has resulted in tighter integration. To do this, we quantified patterns of floral trait variance and covariance in morphologically divergent G. diffusa floral forms representing a continuum in the levels of sexual deception. We show that integration of traits functioning in visual attraction of male pollinators increases with pollinator deception, and is stronger than integration of non-mimicry trait modules. Consistent patterns of within-population trait variance and covariance across floral forms suggest that integration has not been built by stabilizing correlational selection on genetically independent traits. Instead pollinator specialization has selected for tightened integration within modules of linked traits. Despite potentially strong constraint on morphological evolution imposed by developmental genetic linkages between traits, we demonstrate substantial divergence in traits across G. diffusa floral forms and show that divergence has often occurred without altering within-population patterns of trait correlations. PMID:25002705

  18. Floral trait variation and integration as a function of sexual deception in Gorteria diffusa.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Allan G; Brockington, Samuel F; de Jager, Marinus L; Mellers, Gregory; Walker, Rachel H; Glover, Beverley J

    2014-08-19

    Phenotypic integration, the coordinated covariance of suites of morphological traits, is critical for proper functioning of organisms. Angiosperm flowers are complex structures comprising suites of traits that function together to achieve effective pollen transfer. Floral integration could reflect shared genetic and developmental control of these traits, or could arise through pollinator-imposed stabilizing correlational selection on traits. We sought to expose mechanisms underlying floral trait integration in the sexually deceptive daisy, Gorteria diffusa, by testing the hypothesis that stabilizing selection imposed by male pollinators on floral traits involved in mimicry has resulted in tighter integration. To do this, we quantified patterns of floral trait variance and covariance in morphologically divergent G. diffusa floral forms representing a continuum in the levels of sexual deception. We show that integration of traits functioning in visual attraction of male pollinators increases with pollinator deception, and is stronger than integration of non-mimicry trait modules. Consistent patterns of within-population trait variance and covariance across floral forms suggest that integration has not been built by stabilizing correlational selection on genetically independent traits. Instead pollinator specialization has selected for tightened integration within modules of linked traits. Despite potentially strong constraint on morphological evolution imposed by developmental genetic linkages between traits, we demonstrate substantial divergence in traits across G. diffusa floral forms and show that divergence has often occurred without altering within-population patterns of trait correlations. PMID:25002705

  19. Crying wolf to a predator: deceptive vocal mimicry by a bird protecting young

    PubMed Central

    Igic, Branislav; McLachlan, Jessica; Lehtinen, Inkeri; Magrath, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Animals often mimic dangerous or toxic species to deter predators; however, mimicry of such species may not always be possible and mimicry of benign species seems unlikely to confer anti-predator benefits. We reveal a system in which a bird mimics the alarm calls of harmless species to fool a predator 40 times its size and protect its offspring against attack. Our experiments revealed that brown thornbills (Acanthiza pusilla) mimic a chorus of other species' aerial alarm calls, a cue of an Accipiter hawk in flight, when predators attack their nest. The absence of any flying predators in this context implies that these alarms convey deceptive information about the type of danger present. Experiments on the primary nest predators of thornbills, pied currawongs (Strepera graculina), revealed that the predators treat these alarms as if they themselves are threatened by flying hawks, either by scanning the sky for danger or fleeing, confirming a deceptive function. In turn, these distractions delay attack and provide thornbill nestlings with an opportunity to escape. This sophisticated defence strategy exploits the complex web of interactions among multiple species across several trophic levels, and in particular exploits a predator's ability to eavesdrop on and respond appropriately to heterospecific alarm calls. Our findings demonstrate that prey can fool predators by deceptively mimicking alarm calls of harmless species, suggesting that defensive mimicry could be more widespread because of indirect effects on predators within a web of eavesdropping. PMID:26041353

  20. Crying wolf to a predator: deceptive vocal mimicry by a bird protecting young.

    PubMed

    Igic, Branislav; McLachlan, Jessica; Lehtinen, Inkeri; Magrath, Robert D

    2015-06-22

    Animals often mimic dangerous or toxic species to deter predators; however, mimicry of such species may not always be possible and mimicry of benign species seems unlikely to confer anti-predator benefits. We reveal a system in which a bird mimics the alarm calls of harmless species to fool a predator 40 times its size and protect its offspring against attack. Our experiments revealed that brown thornbills (Acanthiza pusilla) mimic a chorus of other species' aerial alarm calls, a cue of an Accipiter hawk in flight, when predators attack their nest. The absence of any flying predators in this context implies that these alarms convey deceptive information about the type of danger present. Experiments on the primary nest predators of thornbills, pied currawongs (Strepera graculina), revealed that the predators treat these alarms as if they themselves are threatened by flying hawks, either by scanning the sky for danger or fleeing, confirming a deceptive function. In turn, these distractions delay attack and provide thornbill nestlings with an opportunity to escape. This sophisticated defence strategy exploits the complex web of interactions among multiple species across several trophic levels, and in particular exploits a predator's ability to eavesdrop on and respond appropriately to heterospecific alarm calls. Our findings demonstrate that prey can fool predators by deceptively mimicking alarm calls of harmless species, suggesting that defensive mimicry could be more widespread because of indirect effects on predators within a web of eavesdropping. PMID:26041353

  1. Monitoring the evolution of Deception Island volcano from magnetic anomaly data (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalán, Manuel; Martos, Yasmina M.; Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús; Funaki, Minoru

    2014-12-01

    Deception Island is a young and active volcano located in the south-western part of Bransfield back-arc basin. During the last twenty years the Royal Observatory of the Spanish Navy has carried out geophysical surveys in the area. In addition, an unmanned aerial vehicle flight was conducted in 2011 at 800 m height on the northern half of Deception Island. Analysing and comparing magnetic grids obtained in different periods and tie point readings allow us to detect temporal changes and isolate signals of volcanic origin. Magnetic survey cruises performed in Deception Island's inner bay (1988, 1999 and 2008), and the study of its outer area's magnetic anomaly changes, point to a period of high variations concentrated between December 1989 and December 1999 that may be related to the two main recent periods of seismic activity (1992 and January 1999). From December 1999 to December 2008, there were no significant changes in seismic activity; nevertheless, our data show some magnetic alterations, which might signal the slow progress of a volcanic environment towards equilibrium. Interpreting these magnetic changes called for the construction of several forward models. Additionally, we put forth this kind of study as a suitable, economical and easy method for monitoring an active volcanic system whenever it is possible to measure the magnetic field with accurate positioning, and if the external field components are removed correctly.

  2. Proximate Factors Underpinning Receiver Responses to Deceptive False Alarm Calls in Wild Tufted Capuchin Monkeys: Is It Counterdeception?

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Brandon C; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that tufted capuchin monkeys use terrestrial predator alarm calls in a functionally deceptive manner to distract conspecifics when feeding on contestable resources, although the success of this tactic is limited because listeners frequently ignore these calls when given in such situations. While this decreased response rate is suggestive of a counterstrategy to deception by receivers, the proximate factors underpinning the behavior are unclear. The current study aims to test if the decreased response rate to alarm calls in competitive contexts is better explained by the perception of subtle acoustic differences between predator-elicited and deceptive false alarms, or by receivers varying their responses based on the context in which the signal is received. This was tested by first examining the acoustic structure of predator-elicited and deceptive false alarms for any potentially perceptible acoustic differences, and second by comparing the responses of capuchins to playbacks of each of predator-elicited and false alarms, played back in noncompetitive contexts. The results indicate that deceptive false alarms and predator-elicited alarms show, at best, minimal acoustic differences based on the structural features measured. Likewise, playbacks of deceptive false alarms elicited antipredator reactions at the same rate as did predator-elicited alarms, although there was a nonsignificant tendency for false alarms to be more likely to elicit escape reactions. The lack of robust acoustic differences together with the high response rate to false alarms in noncompetitive contexts suggests that the context in which the signal is received best explains receiver responses. It remains unclear, however, if listeners ascribe different meanings to the calls based on context, or if they generally ignore all signals in competitive contexts. Whether or not the decreased response rate of receivers directly stems from the deceptive use of the calls

  3. Measuring Social Desirability amongst Men with Intellectual Disabilities: The Psychometric Properties of the Self- and Other-Deception Questionnaire-Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langdon, Peter E.; Clare, Isabel C. H.; Murphy, Glynis H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Social desirability has been construed as either inaccurately attributing positive characteristics to oneself (self-deception), or inaccurately denying that one possesses undesirable characteristics to others (other-deception or impression management). These conceptualisations of social desirability have not been considered in relation…

  4. Testing the Effects of Nonverbal Behavior Training on Accuracy in Deception Detection with the Inclusion of a Bogus Training Control Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Timothy; Feeley, Thomas Hugh; Mccornack, Steven; Hughes, Mikayla; Harms, Chad

    2005-01-01

    Previous deception detection training studies have compared people receiving training in nonverbal behaviors associated with deception to control groups receiving no training and found that people who are trained are slightly to moderately more accurate than people who have not been trained. Recent research on the relationships between source…

  5. Facial markings in the social cuckoo wasp Polistes sulcifer: No support for the visual deception and the assessment hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Cini, Alessandro; Ortolani, Irene; Zechini, Luigi; Cervo, Rita

    2015-02-01

    Insect social parasites have to conquer a host colony by overcoming its defensive barriers. In addition to increased fighting abilities, many social parasites evolved sophisticated sensory deception mechanisms to elude host colonies defenses by exploiting host communication channels. Recently, it has been shown that the conspicuous facial markings of a paper wasp social parasite, Polistes sulcifer, decrease the aggressiveness of host foundresses. Two main hypotheses stand as explanations of this phenomenon: visual sensory deception (i.e. the black patterning reduces host aggression by exploiting the host visual communication system) and visual quality assessment (i.e. facial markings reduce aggressiveness as they signal the increased fighting ability of parasites). Through behavioral assays and morphological measurements we tested three predictions resulting from these hypotheses and found no support either for the visual sensory deception or for the quality assessment to explain the reduction in host aggressiveness towards the parasite. Our results suggest that other discrimination processes may explain the observed phenomenon. PMID:25447514

  6. Brain regions concerned with the identification of deceptive soccer moves by higher-skilled and lower-skilled players

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Michael J.; Bishop, Daniel T.; Jackson, Robin C.; Abernethy, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Expert soccer players are able to utilize their opponents' early body kinematics to predict the direction in which the opponent will move. We have previously demonstrated enhanced fMRI activation in experts in the motor components of an action observation network (AON) during sports anticipation tasks. Soccer players often need to prevent opponents from successfully predicting their line of attack, and consequently may try to deceive them; for example, by performing a step-over. We examined how AON activations and expertise effects are modified by the presence of deception. Three groups of participants; higher-skilled males, lower-skilled males, and lower-skilled females, viewed video clips in point-light format, from a defender's perspective, of a player approaching and turning with the ball. The observer's task in the scanner was to determine whether the move was normal or deceptive (involving a step-over), while whole-brain functional images were acquired. In a second counterbalanced block with identical stimuli the task was to predict the direction of the ball. Activations of AON for identification of deception overlapped with activations from the direction identification task. Higher-skilled players showed significantly greater activation than lower-skilled players in a subset of AON areas; and lower-skilled males in turn showed greater activation than lower-skilled females, but females showed more activation in visual cortex. Activation was greater for deception identification than for direction identification in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, anterior insula, cingulate gyrus, and premotor cortex. Conversely, greater activation for direction than deception identification was found in anterior cingulate cortex and caudate nucleus. Results are consistent with the view that explicit identification of deceptive moves entails cognitive effort and also activates limbic structures associated with social cognition and affective responses. PMID

  7. Living my narrative: storying dishonesty and deception in mental health nursing.

    PubMed

    Grant, Alec J

    2016-07-01

    This article proceeds from MacIntyre's moral philosophical perspective of individual human lives constituting unified narratives, in the context of co-evolving framing and guiding master narratives. This perspective accords specific episodes in people's lives the status of significant component parts of their developing, storied and enacted individual histories. From this philosophical base, autoethnographic principles will be employed in providing accounts from my own professional life narrative strand as a mental health nurse educator that speak to the issue of institutionalized dishonesty and deception in mental health nursing education and practice. On the basis of my pre-existing experience of publishing in nursing journals and scholarly identity, my argument will proceed from contesting the idea of an imagined stable foundational professional ethos underpinning mental health nursing practice, against which to judge professional dishonesty and deception. Using illustrative, relatively recent short stories, drawn from my lived-experience base as a mental health nurse educator, I will argue throughout at implicit and explicit levels that dishonesty and deception are always an inevitable part of the lives of mental health nurses and their educators. This is because of a constant gap between the nursing rhetoric and ideology that both groups espouse and how they actually behave on a day-to-day, mundane level, in and out of work and classroom practice. This gap shows up the public front of what mental health nursing is supposed to be about as dishonest and deceitful window dressing. I will assert that the many first-person, lived-experience accounts in mental health nursing teaching and publication are important educational resources in reducing this gap at professional practice, academic, and informal levels. Such storied accounts may also be useful in moving nurses and their educators towards more morally and ethically sensitive and reflexively attuned positions

  8. Detecting Deception in Movement: The Case of the Side-Step in Rugby

    PubMed Central

    Brault, Sébastien; Bideau, Benoit; Kulpa, Richard; Craig, Cathy M.

    2012-01-01

    Although coordinated patterns of body movement can be used to communicate action intention, they can also be used to deceive. Often known as deceptive movements, these unpredictable patterns of body movement can give a competitive advantage to an attacker when trying to outwit a defender. In this particular study, we immersed novice and expert rugby players in an interactive virtual rugby environment to understand how the dynamics of deceptive body movement influence a defending player’s decisions about how and when to act. When asked to judge final running direction, expert players who were found to tune into prospective tau-based information specified in the dynamics of ‘honest’ movement signals (Centre of Mass), performed significantly better than novices who tuned into the dynamics of ‘deceptive’ movement signals (upper trunk yaw and out-foot placement) (p<.001). These findings were further corroborated in a second experiment where players were able to move as if to intercept or ‘tackle’ the virtual attacker. An analysis of action responses showed that experts waited significantly longer before initiating movement (p<.001). By waiting longer and picking up more information that would inform about future running direction these experts made significantly fewer errors (p<.05). In this paper we not only present a mathematical model that describes how deception in body-based movement is detected, but we also show how perceptual expertise is manifested in action expertise. We conclude that being able to tune into the ‘honest’ information specifying true running action intention gives a strong competitive advantage. PMID:22701569

  9. When is Deceptive Message Production More Effortful than Truth-Telling? A Baker's Dozen of Moderators.

    PubMed

    Burgoon, Judee K

    2015-01-01

    Deception is thought to be more effortful than telling the truth. Empirical evidence from many quarters supports this general proposition. However, there are many factors that qualify and even reverse this pattern. Guided by a communication perspective, I present a baker's dozen of moderators that may alter the degree of cognitive difficulty associated with producing deceptive messages. Among sender-related factors are memory processes, motivation, incentives, and consequences. Lying increases activation of a network of brain regions related to executive memory, suppression of unwanted behaviors, and task switching that is not observed with truth-telling. High motivation coupled with strong incentives or the risk of adverse consequences also prompts more cognitive exertion-for truth-tellers and deceivers alike-to appear credible, with associated effects on performance and message production effort, depending on the magnitude of effort, communicator skill, and experience. Factors related to message and communication context include discourse genre, type of prevarication, expected response length, communication medium, preparation, and recency of target event/issue. These factors can attenuate the degree of cognitive taxation on senders so that truth-telling and deceiving are similarly effortful. Factors related to the interpersonal relationship among interlocutors include whether sender and receiver are cooperative or adversarial and how well-acquainted they are with one another. A final consideration is whether the unit of analysis is the utterance, turn at talk, episode, entire interaction, or series of interactions. Taking these factors into account should produce a more nuanced answer to the question of when deception is more difficult than truth-telling. PMID:26733932

  10. Crustal structure of Deception Island volcano from P wave seismic tomography: Tectonic and volcanic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandomeneghi, Daria; Barclay, Andrew; Almendros, Javier; IbañEz Godoy, Jesús M.; Wilcock, William S. D.; Ben-Zvi, Tami

    2009-06-01

    Deception Island (62°59'S, 60°41'W) is an active volcano located in the Bransfield Strait between the Antarctic Peninsula and the South Shetland Islands. The island is composed of rocks that date from <0.75 Ma to historical eruptions (1842, 1967, 1969, and 1970), and nowadays most of its activity is represented by vigorous hydrothermal circulation, slight resurgence of the inner bay floor, and intense seismicity, with frequent volcano-tectonic and long-period events. In January 2005 an extensive seismic survey took place in and around the island to collect high-quality data for a high-resolution P wave velocity tomography study. A total of 95 land and 14 ocean bottom seismometers were deployed, and more than 6600 air gun shots were fired. As a result of this experiment, more than 70,000 travel time data were used to obtain the velocity model, which resolves strong P wave velocity contrasts down to 5 km depth. The joint interpretation of the Vp distribution together with the results of geological, geochemical, and other geophysical (magnetic and gravimetric) measurements allows us to map and interpret several volcanic features of the island and surroundings. The most striking feature is the low P wave velocity beneath the caldera floor which represents the seismic image of an extensive region of magma beneath a sediment-filled basin. Another low-velocity zone to the east of Deception Island corresponds to seafloor sedimentary deposits, while high velocities to the northwest are interpreted as the crystalline basement of the South Shetland Islands platform. In general, in the tomographic image we observe NE-SW and NW-SE distributions of velocity contrasts that are compatible with the regional tectonic directions and suggest that the volcanic evolution of Deception Island is strongly conditioned by the Bransfield Basin geodynamics.

  11. Sexual deception in a cannibalistic mating system? Testing the Femme Fatale hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Animal communication theory holds that in order to be evolutionarily stable, signals must be honest on average, but significant dishonesty (i.e. deception) by a subset of the population may also evolve. A typical praying mantid mating system involves active mate searching by males, which is guided by airborne sex pheromones in most species for which mate-searching cues have been studied. The Femme Fatale hypothesis suggests that female mantids may be selected to exploit conspecific males as prey if they benefit nutritionally from cannibalism. Such a benefit exists in the false garden mantid Pseudomantis albofimbriata—females use the resources gained from male consumption to significantly increase their body condition and reproductive output. This study aimed to examine the potential for chemical deception among the subset of females most likely to benefit from cannibalism (poorly fed females). Females were placed into one of four feeding treatments (‘Very Poor’, ‘Poor’, ‘Medium’ and ‘Good’), and males were given the opportunity to choose between visually obscured females in each of the treatments. Female body condition and fecundity varied linearly with food quantity; however, female attractiveness did not. That is, Very Poor females attracted significantly more males than any of the other female treatments, even though these females were in significantly poorer condition, less fecund (in this study) and more likely to cannibalise (in a previous study). In addition, there was a positive correlation between fecundity and attractiveness if Very Poor females were removed from the analysis, suggesting an inherently honest signalling system with a subset of dishonest individuals. This is the first empirical study to provide evidence of sexual deception via chemical cues, and the first to provide support for the Femme Fatale hypothesis. PMID:25520352

  12. Sexual deception in a cannibalistic mating system? Testing the Femme Fatale hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Barry, Katherine L

    2015-02-01

    Animal communication theory holds that in order to be evolutionarily stable, signals must be honest on average, but significant dishonesty (i.e. deception) by a subset of the population may also evolve. A typical praying mantid mating system involves active mate searching by males, which is guided by airborne sex pheromones in most species for which mate-searching cues have been studied. The Femme Fatale hypothesis suggests that female mantids may be selected to exploit conspecific males as prey if they benefit nutritionally from cannibalism. Such a benefit exists in the false garden mantid Pseudomantis albofimbriata-females use the resources gained from male consumption to significantly increase their body condition and reproductive output. This study aimed to examine the potential for chemical deception among the subset of females most likely to benefit from cannibalism (poorly fed females). Females were placed into one of four feeding treatments ('Very Poor', 'Poor', 'Medium' and 'Good'), and males were given the opportunity to choose between visually obscured females in each of the treatments. Female body condition and fecundity varied linearly with food quantity; however, female attractiveness did not. That is, Very Poor females attracted significantly more males than any of the other female treatments, even though these females were in significantly poorer condition, less fecund (in this study) and more likely to cannibalise (in a previous study). In addition, there was a positive correlation between fecundity and attractiveness if Very Poor females were removed from the analysis, suggesting an inherently honest signalling system with a subset of dishonest individuals. This is the first empirical study to provide evidence of sexual deception via chemical cues, and the first to provide support for the Femme Fatale hypothesis. PMID:25520352

  13. An object cue is more effective than a word in ERP-based detection of deception.

    PubMed

    Cutmore, Tim R H; Djakovic, Tatjana; Kebbell, Mark R; Shum, David H K

    2009-03-01

    Recent studies of deception have used a form of the guilty knowledge test along with the oddball P300 event-related potential (ERP) to uncover hidden memories. These studies typically have used words as the cuing stimuli. In the present study, a mock crime was enacted by participants to prime their episodic memory and different memory cue types (Words, Pictures of Objects and Faces) were created to investigate their relative efficacy in identifying guilt. A peak-to peak (p-p) P300 response was computed for rare known non-guilty item (target), rare guilty knowledge item (probe) and frequently presented unknown items (irrelevant). Difference in this P300 measure between the probe and irrelevant was the key dependent variable. Object cues were found to be the most effective, particularly at the parietal site. A bootstrap procedure commonly used to detect deception in individual participants by comparing their probe and irrelevant P300 p-p showed the object cues to provide the best discrimination. Furthermore, using all three of the cue types together provided high detection accuracy (94%). These results confirm prior findings on the utility of ERPs for detecting deception. More importantly, they provide support for the hypothesis that direct cueing with a picture of the crime object may be more effective than using a word (consistent with the picture superiority effect reported in the literature). Finally, a face cue (e.g., crime victim) may also provide a useful probe for detection of guilty knowledge but this stimulus form needs to be chosen with due caution. PMID:18789361

  14. Input reconstruction for networked control systems subject to deception attacks and data losses on control signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, J. Y.; Chabir, K.; Sauter, D.

    2016-03-01

    State estimation of stochastic discrete-time linear systems subject to unknown inputs or constant biases has been widely studied but no work has been dedicated to the case where a disturbance switches between unknown input and constant bias. We show that such disturbance can affect a networked control system subject to deception attacks and data losses on the control signals transmitted by the controller to the plant. This paper proposes to estimate the switching disturbance from an augmented state version of the intermittent unknown input Kalman filter recently developed by the authors. Sufficient stochastic stability conditions are established when the arrival binary sequence of data losses follows a Bernoulli random process.

  15. Deception and Cognitive Load: Expanding Our Horizon with a Working Memory Model.

    PubMed

    Sporer, Siegfried L

    2016-01-01

    Recently, studies on deception and its detection have increased dramatically. Many of these studies rely on the "cognitive load approach" as the sole explanatory principle to understand deception. These studies have been exclusively on lies about negative actions (usually lies of suspects of [mock] crimes). Instead, we need to re-focus more generally on the cognitive processes involved in generating both lies and truths, not just on manipulations of cognitive load. Using Baddeley's (2000, 2007, 2012) working memory model, which integrates verbal and visual processes in working memory with retrieval from long-term memory and control of action, not only verbal content cues but also nonverbal, paraverbal, and linguistic cues can be investigated within a single framework. The proposed model considers long-term semantic, episodic and autobiographical memory and their connections with working memory and action. It also incorporates ironic processes of mental control (Wegner, 1994, 2009), the role of scripts and schemata and retrieval cues and retrieval processes. Specific predictions of the model are outlined and support from selective studies is presented. The model is applicable to different types of reports, particularly about lies and truths about complex events, and to different modes of production (oral, hand-written, typed). Predictions regarding several moderator variables and methods to investigate them are proposed. PMID:27092090

  16. Development and validation of the belief in Female Sexual Deceptiveness scale.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Darrin L; Cervantes, Emanuel; Espinosa, Joanna C

    2015-03-01

    This article describes the development of a scale measuring the extent of men's belief in female sexual deceptiveness. This belief has been postulated as a component of hostile masculinity and a precursor to more serious sexual-assault-facilitating cognitions, though it has not yet been studied empirically. From a final pool of 22 items, the 14-item Belief in Female Sexual Deceptiveness (BFSD) scale was constructed. Data were collected via online survey from 131 predominantly Hispanic college males; scale items were selected by exploratory factor analysis. Three moderately strongly correlated factors emerged, though they overlapped strongly and are currently considered only for future study. An 8-item short form of the BFSD scale (the BFSD-S) was created, as well. The full BFSD scale showed strong internal consistency and significant correlations with gender role attitudes, unequal/coercive relationship attitudes, history of misperceiving women's platonic interest as sexual, history of sexual frustration in relationships, adult attachment, belief in immanent justice, attitudes toward intimate partner violence, and rape myth acceptance. Patterns of divergent correlations with other measures also supported the scale's validity. The BFSD-S performed nearly identically to the BFSD. Limitations, future directions, and implications are discussed. PMID:24920000

  17. Deception and Cognitive Load: Expanding Our Horizon with a Working Memory Model

    PubMed Central

    Sporer, Siegfried L.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, studies on deception and its detection have increased dramatically. Many of these studies rely on the “cognitive load approach” as the sole explanatory principle to understand deception. These studies have been exclusively on lies about negative actions (usually lies of suspects of [mock] crimes). Instead, we need to re-focus more generally on the cognitive processes involved in generating both lies and truths, not just on manipulations of cognitive load. Using Baddeley’s (2000, 2007, 2012) working memory model, which integrates verbal and visual processes in working memory with retrieval from long-term memory and control of action, not only verbal content cues but also nonverbal, paraverbal, and linguistic cues can be investigated within a single framework. The proposed model considers long-term semantic, episodic and autobiographical memory and their connections with working memory and action. It also incorporates ironic processes of mental control (Wegner, 1994, 2009), the role of scripts and schemata and retrieval cues and retrieval processes. Specific predictions of the model are outlined and support from selective studies is presented. The model is applicable to different types of reports, particularly about lies and truths about complex events, and to different modes of production (oral, hand-written, typed). Predictions regarding several moderator variables and methods to investigate them are proposed. PMID:27092090

  18. When Interference Helps: Increasing Executive Load to Facilitate Deception Detection in the Concealed Information Test

    PubMed Central

    Visu-Petra, George; Varga, Mihai; Miclea, Mircea; Visu-Petra, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The possibility to enhance the detection efficiency of the Concealed Information Test (CIT) by increasing executive load was investigated, using an interference design. After learning and executing a mock crime scenario, subjects underwent three deception detection tests: an RT-based CIT, an RT-based CIT plus a concurrent memory task (CITMem), and an RT-based CIT plus a concurrent set-shifting task (CITShift). The concealed information effect, consisting in increased RT and lower response accuracy for probe items compared to irrelevant items, was evidenced across all three conditions. The group analyses indicated a larger difference between RTs to probe and irrelevant items in the dual-task conditions, but this difference was not translated in a significantly increased detection efficiency at an individual level. Signal detection parameters based on the comparison with a simulated innocent group showed accurate discrimination for all conditions. Overall response accuracy on the CITMem was highest and the difference between response accuracy to probes and irrelevants was smallest in this condition. Accuracy on the concurrent tasks (Mem and Shift) was high, and responses on these tasks were significantly influenced by CIT stimulus type (probes vs. irrelevants). The findings are interpreted in relation to the cognitive load/dual-task interference literature, generating important insights for research on the involvement of executive functions in deceptive behavior. PMID:23543918

  19. Floral visual signal increases reproductive success in a sexually deceptive orchid

    PubMed Central

    Streinzer, Martin; Paulus, Hannes F.; Spaethe, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Sexually deceptive orchids mimic signals emitted by female insects in order to attract mate-searching males. Specific attraction of the targeted pollinator is achieved by sex pheromone mimicry, which constitutes the major attraction channel. In close vicinity of the flower, visual signals may enhance attraction, as was shown recently in the sexually deceptive orchid Ophrys heldreichii. Here, we conducted an in situ manipulation experiment in two populations of O. heldreichii on Crete to investigate whether the presence/absence of the conspicuous pink perianth affects reproductive success in two natural orchid populations. We estimated reproductive success of three treatment groups (with intact, removed and artificial perianth) throughout the flowering period as pollinaria removal (male reproductive success) and massulae deposition (female reproductive success). Reproductive success was significantly increased by the presence of a strong visual signal—the conspicuous perianth—in one study population, however, not in the second, most likely due to the low pollinator abundance in the latter population. This study provides further evidence that the coloured perianth in O. heldreichii is adaptive and thus adds to the olfactory signal to maximise pollinator attraction and reproductive success. PMID:23750181

  20. Deceptive vibratory communication: pupae of a beetle exploit the freeze response of larvae to protect themselves

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Wataru; Ishikawa, Yukio; Takanashi, Takuma

    2012-01-01

    It is argued that animal signals may have evolved so as to manipulate the response of receivers in a way that increases the fitness of the signallers. In deceptive communication, receivers incur costs by responding to false signals. Recently, we reported that pupae of the soil-inhabiting Japanese rhinoceros beetle Trypoxylus dichotoma produce vibratory signals to deter burrowing larvae, thereby protecting themselves. In the present study, monitoring of vibrations associated with larval movement revealed that T. dichotoma larvae remained motionless for ca 10 min when pupal vibratory signals were played back transiently (freeze response). Furthermore, pupal signals of T. dichotoma elicited a freeze response in three other scarabaeid species, whose pupae do not produce vibratory signals. This indicates that the freeze response to certain types of vibration evolved before the divergence of these species and has been evolutionarily conserved, presumably because of the fitness advantage in avoiding predators. Pupae of T. dichotoma have probably exploited pre-existing anti-predator responses of conspecific larvae to protect themselves by emitting deceptive vibratory signals. PMID:22675138

  1. Internal and External Validity of Scores on the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding and the Paulhus Deception Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanyon, Richard I.; Carle, Adam C.

    2007-01-01

    The internal and external validity of scores on the two-scale Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) and its recent revision, the Paulhus Deception Scales (PDS), developed to measure two facets of social desirability, were studied with three groups of forensic clients and two groups of college undergraduates (total N = 519). The two…

  2. Mobile “doctors” and their medical diagnosis in rural Southern Nigeria. Truth or deception? A public health case report

    PubMed Central

    Umeh, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Onyi, Stella Chioma; Ahaneku, Hycienth Peterson

    2014-01-01

    Mobile “doctors” are traditional herbal medical practitioners who move from one rural community in Nigeria to another diagnosing disease using a digital thermometer and stethoscope before selling their herbal drugs to the patients. Are their diagnosis correct or just a deception? This reports looks at three cases of mobile doctors ‘ diagnosis of patients in rural southern Nigeria. PMID:25374647

  3. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to detect the prefrontal cortical responses to deception under different motivations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fang; Zhu, Huilin; Gao, Qianqian; Xu, Guixiong; Li, Xinge; Hu, Ziqiang; He, Sailing

    2015-01-01

    In this study, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was adopted to investigate the prefrontal cortical responses to deception under different motivations. By using a feigned memory impairment paradigm, 19 healthy adults were asked to deceive under the two different motivations: to obtain rewards and to avoid punishments. Results indicated that when deceiving for obtaining rewards, there was greater neural activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) than the control condition. When deceiving for avoiding punishments, there was greater activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) than the control condition. In addition, deceiving for avoiding punishments led to greater neural activation in the left MFG than when deceiving for obtaining rewards. Furthermore, the results showed a moderate hit rate in detecting deception under either motivation. These results demonstrated that deception with different motivations led to distinct responses in the prefrontal cortex. fNIRS could provide a useful technique for the detection of deception with strategy of feigning memory impairment under different motivations. PMID:26417519

  4. Evidence for enhanced bioavailability of trace elements in the marine ecosystem of Deception Island, a volcano in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Deheyn, Dimitri D; Gendreau, Philippe; Baldwin, Roberta J; Latz, Michael I

    2005-07-01

    This study assessed whether trace elements present at Deception Island, an active submarine volcano in the Antarctic Peninsula, show enhanced biological availability to the local marine community. Using a weak acid extraction method to dissolve organic material and leach associated but not constitutive trace elements of sediments, fifteen elements were measured from seafloor sediment, seawater particulates, and tissues of benthic (bivalves, brittlestars, sea urchins) and pelagic (demersal and pelagic fishes, krill) organisms collected in the flooded caldera. The highest element concentrations were associated with seafloor sediment, the lowest with seawater particulates and organism tissues. In the case of Ag and Se, concentrations were highest in organism tissue, indicating contamination through the food chain and biomagnification of those elements. The elements Al, Fe, Mn, Sr, Ti, and to a lesser extent Zn, were the most concentrated of the trace elements for all sample types. This indicates that the whole ecosystem of Deception Island is contaminated with trace elements from local geothermal activity, which is also reflected in the pattern of element contamination in organisms. Accordingly, element concentrations were higher in organisms collected at Deception Island compared to those from the neighboring non-active volcanic King George Island, suggesting that volcanic activity enhances bioavailability of trace elements to marine organisms. Trace element concentrations were highest in digestive tissue of organisms, suggesting that elements at Deception Island are incorporated into the marine food web mainly through a dietary route. PMID:15649525

  5. 16 CFR 301.43 - Use of deceptive trade or corporate names, trademarks or graphic representations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of deceptive trade or corporate names, trademarks or graphic representations prohibited. 301.43 Section 301.43 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.43 Use...

  6. 16 CFR 301.43 - Use of deceptive trade or corporate names, trademarks or graphic representations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... prohibited. No person shall use in labeling, invoicing or advertising any fur or fur product a trade name... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of deceptive trade or corporate names, trademarks or graphic representations prohibited. 301.43 Section 301.43 Commercial Practices FEDERAL...

  7. 16 CFR 301.43 - Use of deceptive trade or corporate names, trademarks or graphic representations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of deceptive trade or corporate names, trademarks or graphic representations prohibited. 301.43 Section 301.43 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.43 Use...

  8. 16 CFR 301.43 - Use of deceptive trade or corporate names, trademarks or graphic representations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... prohibited. No person shall use in labeling, invoicing or advertising any fur or fur product a trade name... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of deceptive trade or corporate names, trademarks or graphic representations prohibited. 301.43 Section 301.43 Commercial Practices FEDERAL...

  9. 16 CFR 301.43 - Use of deceptive trade or corporate names, trademarks or graphic representations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... prohibited. No person shall use in labeling, invoicing or advertising any fur or fur product a trade name... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of deceptive trade or corporate names, trademarks or graphic representations prohibited. 301.43 Section 301.43 Commercial Practices FEDERAL...

  10. The accuracy of auditors' and layered voice Analysis (LVA) operators' judgments of truth and deception during police questioning.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Frank; McCloughan, Jamie; Weatherman, Dan; Slowik, Stanley

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if auditors could identify truthful and deceptive persons in a sample (n = 74) of audio recordings used to assess the effectiveness of layered voice analysis (LVA). The LVA employs an automated algorithm to detect deception, but it was not effective here. There were 31 truthful and 43 deceptive persons in the sample and two LVA operators averaged 48% correct decisions on truth-tellers and 25% on deceivers. Subsequent to the LVA analysis the recordings were audited by three interviewers, each independently rendering a decision of truthful or deceptive and indicating their confidence. Auditors' judgments averaged 68% correct decisions on truth-tellers and 71% on deceivers. Auditors' detection rates, generally, exceeded chance and there was significantly (p < 0.05) greater confidence on correct than incorrect judgments of deceivers but not on truth-tellers. These results suggest that the success reported for LVA analysis may be due to operator's judgment. PMID:23406506

  11. 14 CFR 399.83 - Unfair or deceptive practice of air carrier, foreign air carrier, or ticket agent in orally...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Unfair or deceptive practice of air carrier, foreign air carrier, or ticket agent in orally confirming to prospective passenger reserved space on... orally confirming to prospective passenger reserved space on scheduled flights. It is the policy of...

  12. Self-Deception in the Classroom: Educational Manifestations of Sartre's Concept of Bad Faith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blenkinsop, Sean; Waddington, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This article explores an important section of Jean-Paul Sartre's famous early work, "Being and Nothingness." In that section Sartre proposes that part of the human condition is to actively engage in a particular kind of self-deception he calls bad faith. Bad faith is recognized by the obvious inconsistency between the purported…

  13. Discovery of pyrazines as pollinator sex pheromones and orchid semiochemicals: implications for the evolution of sexual deception.

    PubMed

    Bohman, Björn; Phillips, Ryan D; Menz, Myles H M; Berntsson, Ben W; Flematti, Gavin R; Barrow, Russell A; Dixon, Kingsley W; Peakall, Rod

    2014-08-01

    Sexually deceptive orchids employ floral volatiles to sexually lure their specific pollinators. How and why this pollination system has evolved independently on multiple continents remains unknown, although preadaptation is considered to have been important. Understanding the chemistry of sexual deception is a crucial first step towards solving this mystery. The combination of gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), GC-MS, synthesis and field bioassays allowed us to identify the volatiles involved in the interaction between the orchid Drakaea glyptodon and its sexually attracted male thynnine wasp pollinator, Zaspilothynnus trilobatus. Three alkylpyrazines and one novel hydroxymethyl pyrazine were identified as the sex pheromone of Z. trilobatus and are also used by D. glyptodon for pollinator attraction. Given that our findings revealed a new chemical system for plants, we surveyed widely across representative orchid taxa for the presence of these compounds. With one exception, our chemical survey failed to detect pyrazines in related genera. Collectively, no evidence for preadaptation was found. The chemistry of sexual deception is more diverse than previously known. Our results suggest that evolutionary novelty may have played a key role in the evolution of sexual deception and highlight the value of investigating unusual pollination systems for advancing our understanding of the role of chemistry in evolution. PMID:24697806

  14. A System of Deception and Fraud Detection Using Reliable Linguistic Cues Including Hedging, Disfluencies, and Repeated Phrases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humpherys, Sean LaMarc

    2010-01-01

    Given the increasing problem of fraud, crime, and national security threats, assessing credibility is a recurring research topic in Information Systems and in other disciplines. Decision support systems can help. But the success of the system depends on reliable cues that can distinguish deceptive/truthful behavior and on a proven classification…

  15. Effects of Computer-Based Instruction on Student Learning of Psychophysiological Detection of Deception Test Question Formulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janniro, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a study conducted by the Department of Defense Polygraph Institute for their forensic science curriculum that investigated the effects of computer-based instruction on student learning of psychophysiological detection of deception test question formulation. Treatment of the experimental and control group is explained and posttest scores…

  16. "Um, I Can Tell You're Lying": Linguistic Markers of Deception versus Truth-Telling in Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arciuli, Joanne; Mallard, David; Villar, Gina

    2010-01-01

    Lying is a deliberate attempt to transmit messages that mislead others. Analysis of language behaviors holds great promise as an objective method of detecting deception. The current study reports on the frequency of use and acoustic nature of "um" and "like" during laboratory-elicited lying versus truth-telling. Results obtained using a…

  17. A Two-State Analysis of ERP Activity Measures and fMRI Activations Relevant to the Detection of Deception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillaci, Michael; Vendemia, Jennifer; Green, Eric; Buzan, Robert; Meek, Scott; Phillips, Michelle

    2007-03-01

    A novel analysis approach for high-density event related scalp potential data (ERP) gathered druing various scenarios is presented. We construct energy-density functional clusters using the empirical voltage and power values and extract extrema of these cognitive activity mesaures to assess the temporal dynamics in areas of physiological significance for the detection of deception. These studies indicate that for questions relating to autobiographical knowledge neocortical interaction times are greater for deceptive responses. This finding is reproduced when workload requirements are increased and suggests that a ``neocortical circuit'' involving activity in short-term memory, visual processing, and executive control regions of the cortex is present. Individual and group analyses are given and continuing experiments involving questions where misinformation is used illustrate that early, up-front control may also be present during deceptive repsonses. A comparison of dipole source models with fMRI data collected in our lab confirms that BOLD activation in the ROIs is consistent with our model of deception.

  18. Inaccurate Color Discrimination by Pollinators Promotes Evolution of Discrete Color Polymorphism in Food-Deceptive Flowers.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Kotaro; Takimoto, Gaku

    2016-02-01

    Many plant species employing a food-deceptive pollination strategy show discrete or continuous floral polymorphism within their populations. Previous studies have suggested that negative frequency-dependent selection (NFDS) caused by the learning behavior of pollinators was responsible for the maintenance of floral polymorphism. However, NFDS alone does not explain why and when discrete or continuous polymorphism evolves. In this study, we use an evolutionary simulation model to propose that inaccurate discrimination of flower colors by pollinators results in evolution of discrete flower color polymorphism. Simulations showed that associative learning based on inaccurate discrimination in pollinators caused disruptive selection of flower colors. The degree of inaccuracy determined the number of discrete flower colors that evolved. Our results suggest that animal behavior based on inaccurate discrimination may be a general cause of disruptive selection that promotes discrete trait polymorphism. PMID:26807747

  19. PA014-- Deception and Doubt --Strategies for Undermining and Supporting Global Climate Science--PA014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, C.

    2012-12-01

    DECEPTION AND DOUBT--STRATEGIES FOR UNDERMINING AND SUPPORTING GLOBAL CLIMATE SCIENCE--PA014 The fundamental strategy for undermining confidence in the now substantial scientific consensus about global warming is to sow doubt about the degree of consensus. Rather than mount an obvious anti-science stance, commercial interests seek to champion science, arguing for better science, more complete and definitive science. This strategy has a sixty-year history, beginning with the tobacco industry in the 1950s and proceeding through the chemical, energy, paint, and other industries. Thousands of faculty members have quietly sold themselves as public spokespersons or confidential consultants to industry in the service of this strategy. A multipart program--involving educating people about this history and exposing faculty collaboration--may help free climate science from those who aim to distort its conclusions.

  20. The art of antibacterial warfare: Deception through interference with quorum sensing-mediated communication.

    PubMed

    Rampioni, Giordano; Leoni, Livia; Williams, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Almost a century on from the discovery of penicillin, the war against bacterial infection still rages compounded by the emergence of strains resistant to virtually every clinically approved antibiotic and the dearth of new antibacterial agents entering the clinic. Consequently there is renewed interest in drugs which attenuate virulence rather than bacterial growth. Since the metaphors of warfare are often used to describe the battle between pathogen and host, we will describe in such a context, the molecular communication (quorum sensing) mechanisms used by bacteria to co-ordinate virulence at the population level. Recent progress in exploiting this information through the design of anti-virulence deception strategies that disrupt quorum sensing through signal molecule inactivation, inhibition of signal molecule biosynthesis or the blockade of signal transduction and their advantages and disadvantages are considered. PMID:24823895

  1. Catching a Deceiver in the Act: Processes Underlying Deception in an Interactive Interview Setting.

    PubMed

    Ströfer, Sabine; Ufkes, Elze G; Noordzij, Matthijs L; Giebels, Ellen

    2016-09-01

    Lying is known to evoke stress and cognitive load. Both form cues to deception and lead to an increase in sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. But in reality, deceivers stick to the truth most the time and only lie occasionally. The present study therefore examined in an interactive suspect interview setting, whether deceivers still have clearly diverging cognitive and emotional processes from truth tellers when only having the intention to lie incidentally. We found that deceivers who lied constantly diverge from truth tellers in SNS activity, self-reported cognitive load and stress. Across all interviews, SNS activity correlated stronger with self-reports of cognitive load than stress, which supports the cognitive load approach. Furthermore, deceivers who told the truth and lied on only one crucial question, particularly diverged in self-reported stress from truth-tellers. In terms of SNS activity and self-reported cognitive load, no differences were found. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:27193132

  2. Children's use of gaze and limb movement cues to infer deception.

    PubMed

    Rotenberg, Ken J; Sullivan, Carey

    2003-06-01

    A sample of 96 children from kindergarten, 2nd, 4th, and 6th grades judged the truthfulness of peers who varied in gaze and limb movement while providing verbal communications. Results indicated that children attributed greater lying to the peers who displayed indirect rather than direct gaze and active rather than nonactive limb movement. The use of these cues was more evident in 4th- and 6th-grade children than it was in kindergarten and 2nd-grade children. Pilot studies indicated that adults and children as young as 5-6 years of age associated indirect gaze and active limb movement with anxiety. The findings are discussed with respect to children's theory of mind, concepts of lying, understanding of display rules, and learning of physiological cues associated with deception. PMID:12856814

  3. A Longitudinal Study of the Development of Emotional Deception Detection Within New Same-Sex Friendships.

    PubMed

    Morris, Wendy L; Sternglanz, R Weylin; Ansfield, Matthew E; Anderson, D Eric; Snyder, Jillian L H; DePaulo, Bella M

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies show that close friends improve at lie detection over time. However, is this improvement due to an increase in the ability to decode the feelings of close friends or a change in how close friends communicate their true and deceptive emotions? In a study of 45 pairs of friends, one friend from each pair (the "sender") was videotaped showing truthful and faked affect in response to pleasant and unpleasant movie clips. The other friend from each pair (the "judge") guessed the true emotions of both the friend and a stranger 1 month and 6 months into the friendship. Judges were better at guessing the true emotions of friends than strangers, and this advantage in judging friends increased among close friends over time. Surprisingly, improvement over time was due mostly to a change in the sender's communication, rather than an increase in judges' ability to decode their friends' feelings. PMID:26646431

  4. Liar, liar, working memory on fire: Investigating the role of working memory in childhood verbal deception.

    PubMed

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; McCallum, Fiona; Alloway, Ross G; Hoicka, Elena

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of working memory in verbal deception in children. We presented 6- and 7-year-olds with a temptation resistance paradigm; they played a trivia game and were then given an opportunity to peek at the final answers on the back of a card. Measures of both verbal and visuospatial working memory were included. The good liars performed better on the verbal working memory test in both processing and recall compared with the bad liars. However, there was no difference in visuospatial working scores between good liars and bad liars. This pattern suggests that verbal working memory plays a role in processing and manipulating the multiple pieces of information involved in lie-telling. PMID:25913892

  5. Deceptive chemical signals induced by a plant virus attract insect vectors to inferior hosts

    PubMed Central

    Mauck, Kerry E.; De Moraes, Consuelo M.; Mescher, Mark C.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that vector-borne pathogens can alter the phenotypes of their hosts and vectors in ways that influence the frequency and nature of interactions between them, with significant implications for the transmission and spread of disease. For insect-borne pathogens, host odors are particularly likely targets for manipulation, because both plant- and animal-feeding insects use volatile compounds derived from their hosts as key foraging cues. Here, we document the effects of a widespread plant pathogen, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), on the quality and attractiveness of one of its host plants (Cucurbita pepo cv. Dixie) for two aphid vectors, Myzus persicae and Aphis gossypii. Our results indicate that CMV greatly reduces host-plant quality—aphids performed poorly on infected plants and rapidly emigrated from them—but increases the attractiveness of infected plants to aphids by inducing elevated emissions of a plant volatile blend otherwise similar to that emitted by healthy plants. Thus, CMV appears to attract vectors deceptively to infected plants from which they then disperse rapidly, a pattern highly conducive to the nonpersistent transmission mechanism employed by CMV and very different from the pattern previously reported for persistently transmitted viruses that require sustained aphid feeding for transmission. In addition to providing a documented example of a pathogen inducing a deceptive signal of host-plant quality to vectors, our results suggest that the transmission mechanism is a major factor shaping pathogen-induced changes in host-plant phenotypes. Furthermore, our findings yield a general hypothesis that, when vector-borne plant or animal pathogens reduce host quality for vectors, pathogen-induced changes in host phenotypes that enhance vector attraction frequently will involve the exaggeration of existing host-location cues. PMID:20133719

  6. Spatial distribution of intrinsic and scattering seismic attenuation in active volcanic islands - II: Deception Island images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudencio, Janire; Ibáñez, Jesús M.; García-Yeguas, Araceli; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Posadas, Antonio M.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we present regional maps of the inverse intrinsic quality factor (Qi-1), the inverse scattering quality factor (Qs-1) and total inverse quality factor (Qt-1) for the volcanic environment of Deception Island (Antarctica). Our attenuation study is based on diffusion approximation, which permits us to obtain the attenuation coefficients for every single couple source-receiver separately. The data set used in this research is derived from an active seismic experiment using more than 5200 offshore shots (air guns) recorded at 32 onshore seismic stations and four ocean bottom seismometers. To arrive at a regional distribution of these values, we used a new mapping technique based on a Gaussian space probability function. This approach led us to create `2-D probabilistic maps' of values of intrinsic and scattering seismic attenuation. The 2-D tomographic images confirm the existence of a high attenuation body below an inner bay of Deception Island. This structure, previously observed in 2-D and 3-D velocity tomography of the region, is associated with a massive magma reservoir. Magnetotelluric studies reach a similar interpretation of this strong anomaly. Additionally, we observed areas with lower attenuation effects that bear correlation with consolidated structures described in other studies and associated with the crystalline basement of the area. Our calculations of the transport mean-free path and absorption length for intrinsic attenuation gave respective values of ≈ 950 m and 5 km, which are lower than the values obtained in tectonic regions or volcanic areas such as Tenerife Island. However, as observed in other volcanic regions, our results indicate that scattering effects dominate strongly over the intrinsic attenuation.

  7. Permafrost and active layer monitoring in the maritime Antarctic: Preliminary results from CALM sites on Livingston and Deception Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramos, M.; Vieira, G.; Blanco, J.J.; Hauck, C.; Hidalgo, M.A.; Tome, D.; Nevers, M.; Trindade, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes results obtained from scientific work and experiments performed on Livingston and Deception Islands. Located in the South Shetland Archipelago, these islands have been some of the most sensitive regions over the last 50 years with respect to climate change with a Mean Annual Air Temperature (MAAT) close to -2 ºC. Three Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) sites were installed to record the thermal regime and the behaviour of the active layer in different places with similar climate, but with different soil composition, porosity, and water content. The study’s ultimate aim is to document the influence of climate change on permafrost degradation. Preliminary results, obtained in 2006, on maximum active-layer thickness (around 40 cm in the CALM of Deception Island), active layer temperature evolution, snow thickness, and air temperatures permit early characterization of energy exchange mechanisms between the ground and the atmosphere in the CALM-S sites.

  8. Caught in the act: pollination of sexually deceptive trap-flowers by fungus gnats in Pterostylis (Orchidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Ryan D.; Scaccabarozzi, Daniela; Retter, Bryony A.; Hayes, Christine; Brown, Graham R.; Dixon, Kingsley W.; Peakall, Rod

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Pterostylis is an Australasian terrestrial orchid genus of more than 400 species, most of which use a motile, touch-sensitive labellum to trap dipteran pollinators. Despite studies dating back to 1872, the mechanism of pollinator attraction has remained elusive. This study tested whether the fungus gnat-pollinated Pterostylis sanguinea secures pollination by sexual deception. Methods The literature was used to establish criteria for confirming sexual deception as a pollination strategy. Observations and video recordings allowed quantification of each step of the pollination process. Each floral visitor was sexed and DNA barcoding was used to evaluate the degree of pollinator specificity. Following observations that attraction to the flowers is by chemical cues, experimental dissection of flowers was used to determine the source of the sexual attractant and the effect of labellum orientation on sexual attraction. Fruit set was quantified for 19 populations to test for a relationship with plant density and population size. Key Results A single species of male gnat (Mycetophilidae) visited and pollinated the rewardless flowers. The gnats often showed probing copulatory behaviour on the labellum, leading to its triggering and the temporary entrapment of the gnat in the flower. Pollen deposition and removal occurred as the gnat escaped from the flower via the reproductive structures. The labellum was the sole source of the chemical attractant. Gnats always alighted on the labellum facing upwards, but when it was rotated 180 ° they attempted copulation less frequently. Pollination rate showed no relationship with orchid population size or plant density. Conclusions This study confirms for the first time that highly specific pollination by fungus gnats is achieved by sexual deception in Pterostylis. It is predicted that sexual deception will be widespread in the genus, although the diversity of floral forms suggests that other mechanisms may also

  9. The roles of deception, intention to deceive, and motivation to avoid detection in the psychophysiological detection of guilty knowledge.

    PubMed

    Furedy, J J; Ben-Shakhar, G

    1991-03-01

    The present study focused on electrodermal differentiation between relevant and neutral items in the Guilty Knowledge paradigm. Three factors were varied in a between-subjects design. The role of deception was examined by varying the type of verbal answer to the questions ("yes," "no," and remaining silent). The intention to deceive factor was examined by contrasting subjects told to delay their answer ("yes" or "no") with those told to produce their answer immediately. Finally, motivation to avoid detection was manipulated by having half the subjects monetarily rewarded for an important (ego relevant) detection task (high motivation), whereas the remaining subjects were neither rewarded nor told that the task was important. The results indicated that a deceptive answer ("no") to the relevant question was associated with an increased differential skin conductance responsivity, but better than chance detection rates were obtained with truthful ("yes") and silent conditions. Equal and significant detection rates were observed when the responses were computed immediately following question presentation, whether the subjects had answered immediately or had delayed their answers. In contrast, differential electrodermal responsivity to the delayed answers was markedly attenuated. The motivation factor had no main or interactive effects on differential responsivity. The present results, together with those obtained in previous studies, suggest that whereas deception is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for psychophysiological detection, it may facilitate detection. Possible mechanisms through which such a facilitation could occur were considered. PMID:1946882

  10. Pollination system and the effect of inflorescence size on fruit set in the deceptive orchid Cephalanthera falcata.

    PubMed

    Suetsugu, Kenji; Naito, Risa S; Fukushima, Shigeki; Kawakita, Atsushi; Kato, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    Larger inflorescences in reward-producing plants can benefit plants by increasing both pollinator attraction and the duration of visits by individual pollinators. However, ultimately, inflorescence size is determined by the balance between the benefits of large inflorescences and the increased cost of geitonogamy. At present, little is known about the relationship between inflorescence size and fecundity in deceptive plants. Given that pollinators are likely to leave inflorescences lacking rewards quickly, it seems unlikely that longer pollinator visits and the risk of geitonogamy would be strong selective pressures in these species, which indicates that pollinator attraction might be the most important factor influencing their inflorescence size. Here we examined the pollination ecology of the deceptive orchid Cephalanthera falcata in order to clarify the effects of inflorescence size on the fruit set of this non-rewarding species. Field observations of the floral visitors showed that C. falcata is pollinated by the andrenid bee Andrena aburana, whilst pollination experiments demonstrated that this orchid species is neither autogamous nor apogamous, but is strongly pollinator dependent. Three consecutive years of field observations revealed that fruit set was positively correlated with the number of flowers per inflorescence. These results provide strong evidence that the nectarless orchid C. falcata benefits from producing larger inflorescences that attract a greater number of innate pollinators. Large inflorescences may have a greater positive effect on fruit set in deceptive plants because a growing number of studies suggest that fruit set in reward-producing plants is usually unaffected by display size. PMID:25801274

  11. Guidance to detect deception with the Aberdeen Report Judgment Scales: are verbal content cues useful to detect false accusations?

    PubMed

    Sporer, Siegfried L; Masip, Jaume; Cramer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In 2 studies we evaluated the efficiency of training raters with a short version of the Aberdeen Report Judgment Scales (ARJS-STV-S) in assessing the truthfulness of transcribed accounts. Participants told both truthful and deceptive accounts of either illegal or immoral actions. In the truthful accounts, the participants described their own misdeeds honestly (true confessions). In the deceptive accounts, the participants also described their own misdeeds but attributed them to someone else (false accusations). In Study 1, guided (n = 32) and unguided (n = 32) raters evaluated 64 transcribed accounts (16 per rater). Only a few ARJS-STV-S criteria differed significantly between false and true accounts. In Study 2 (N = 29), guided raters evaluated the same transcripts using only the most promising criteria of Study 1. Judgments in Study 2 were less biased (in terms of signal detection theory), and the classification of deceptive accounts was significantly better compared with a no-guidance control group and the guided group of Study 1. A Brunswikian lens model analysis showed that with the smaller set of cues there is a better correspondence between the ecological validities and the subjective utilities, which may explain the higher accuracy rates. When the criteria have little or no diagnostic value, or when true and false stories are very similar, providing raters with a larger set of truth criteria does not increase accuracy but instead may bias raters toward making truth judgments. Practical implications for content-based training programs are outlined. PMID:24720096

  12. On co-design of filter and fault estimator against randomly occurring nonlinearities and randomly occurring deception attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jun; Liu, Steven; Ji, Donghai; Li, Shanqiang

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the co-design problem of filter and fault estimator is studied for a class of time-varying non-linear stochastic systems subject to randomly occurring nonlinearities and randomly occurring deception attacks. Two mutually independent random variables obeying the Bernoulli distribution are employed to characterize the phenomena of the randomly occurring nonlinearities and randomly occurring deception attacks, respectively. By using the augmentation approach, the co-design problem of the robust filter and fault estimator is converted into the recursive filter design problem. A new compensation scheme is proposed such that, for both randomly occurring nonlinearities and randomly occurring deception attacks, an upper bound of the filtering error covariance is obtained and such an upper bound is minimized by properly designing the filter gain at each sampling instant. Moreover, the explicit form of the filter gain is given based on the solution to two Riccati-like difference equations. It is shown that the proposed co-design algorithm is of a recursive form that is suitable for online computation. Finally, a simulation example is given to illustrate the usefulness of the developed filtering approach.

  13. Interannual active layer thermal and dynamics evolution at the crater Lake CALM site, Deception Island (Antarctica).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Miguel; Vieira, Gonzalo; Ángel De Pablo, Miguel; Molina, Antonio; Abramov, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    Deception Island, is an active strato-volcano on South Shetland Archipelago of Antarctica (62° 55' 0″ S, 60° 37' 0″ W), is a cold region with harsh remote and hostile environmental conditions. The permafrost and active layer existence, and the cold climate conditions together with volcanic material with height water content inside made this region of the Earth a perfect site to study the active layer and permafrost evolution involved in the Circumpolar Active Layer South (CALM-S) program. The active layer is measured in late January or firs february (during the end of the thaw period) at the "Crater Lake" CALM site (62°58'06.7''; 60°40'44.8'') on Deception Island, Antarctica, at the period 2006 to 2014 we obtained a mean annual value of 29,7±2 cm. In this paper, we describe the spatial active layer thickness distribution and report the reduction on the mean thickness between February 2006 and 2014. Below the active layer, permafrost could be also reported (with a mean thickness of 4.5± 0.5 m.) based on the temperature data acquired by sensors installed at different depth inside the soil; three different shallow boreholes was drilled (1.0 m., 1.6 m., 4.5 m. in depth) and we have been registered its temperature gradient at the 2010 to 2013 period. Here we use all those data 1) to describe the thermal behavior of the permafrost at the CALM site, and 2) to describe its evolution (aggradation/degradation) along fourteen years of continuous measurements. We develop this study, to known the thermal behavior of the permafrost and the active layer related with the air/soil interaction being one of the most important factors the snow layer that was measured by the installation of termo-snowmeters with the complement of an automatic digital camera during the 2008 to 2014 period. On the other hand, the pyroclastics soil materials has a very high values of water content then the latent heat in the freezing/thawing process controls the active layer evolution and the

  14. It pays to cheat: tactical deception in a cephalopod social signalling system

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Culum; Garwood, Martin P.; Williamson, Jane E.

    2012-01-01

    Signals in intraspecific communication should be inherently honest; otherwise the system is prone to collapse. Theory predicts, however, that honest signalling systems are susceptible to invasion by cheats, the extent of which is largely mediated by fear of reprisal. Cuttlefish facultatively change their shape and colour, an ability that evolved to avoid predators and capture prey. Here, we show that this ability is tactically employed by male mourning cuttlefish (Sepia plangon) to mislead conspecifics during courtship in a specific social context amenable to cheating 39 per cent of the time, while it was never employed in other social contexts. Males deceive rival males by displaying male courtship patterns to receptive females on one side of the body, and simultaneously displaying female patterns to a single rival male on the other, thus preventing the rival from disrupting courtship. The use of tactical deception in such a complex communication network indicates that sociality has played a key role in the cognitive evolution of cephalopods. PMID:22764112

  15. Strong pollinator-mediated selection for increased flower brightness and contrast in a deceptive orchid.

    PubMed

    Sletvold, Nina; Trunschke, Judith; Smit, Mart; Verbeek, Jeffrey; Ågren, Jon

    2016-03-01

    Contrasting flower color patterns that putatively attract or direct pollinators toward a reward are common among angiosperms. In the deceptive orchid Anacamptis morio, the lower petal, which makes up most of the floral display, has a light central patch with dark markings. Within populations, there is pronounced variation in petal brightness, patch size, amount of dark markings, and contrast between patch and petal margin. We tested whether pollinators mediate selection on these color traits and on morphology (plant height, number of flowers, corolla size, spur length), and whether selection is consistent with facilitated or negative frequency-dependent pollination. Pollinators mediated strong selection for increased petal brightness (Δβpoll = 0.42) and contrast (Δβpoll = 0.51). Pollinators also tended to mediate stabilizing selection on brightness (Δγpoll = -0.27, n.s.) favoring the most common phenotype in the population. Selection for reduced petal brightness among hand-pollinated plants indicated a fitness cost associated with brightness. The results demonstrate that flower color traits influence pollination success and seed production in A. morio, indicating that they affect attractiveness to pollinators, efficiency of pollen transfer, or both. The documented selection is consistent with facilitated pollination and selection for color convergence toward cooccurring rewarding species. PMID:26878831

  16. Double Deception: Ant-Mimicking Spiders Elude Both Visually- and Chemically-Oriented Predators

    PubMed Central

    Uma, Divya; Durkee, Caitlin; Herzner, Gudrun; Weiss, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Biological mimicry is often multimodal, in that a mimic reinforces its resemblance to another organism via different kinds of signals that can be perceived by a specific target audience. In this paper we describe a novel scenario, in which a mimic deceives at least two distinct audiences, each of which relies primarily on a different sensory modality for decision-making. We have previously shown that Peckhamia picata, a myrmecomorphic spider that morphologically and behaviorally resembles the ant Camponotus nearcticus, experiences reduced predation by visually-oriented jumping spiders. Here we report that Peckhamia also faces reduced aggression from spider-hunting sphecid wasps as well as from its model ant, both of which use chemical cues to identify prey. We also report that Peckhamia does not chemically resemble its model ants, and that its total cuticular hydrocarbons are significantly lower than those of the ants and non-mimic spiders. Although further studies are needed to clarify the basis of Peckhamia's chemically-mediated protection, to our knowledge, such ‘double deception,’ in which a single organism sends misleading visual cues to one set of predators while chemically misleading another set, has not been reported; however, it is likely to be common among what have until now been considered purely visual mimics. PMID:24236152

  17. From little white lies to filthy liars: the evolution of honesty and deception in young children.

    PubMed

    Talwar, Victoria; Crossman, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Though it is frequently condemned, lie-telling is a common and frequent activity in interpersonal interactions, with apparent social risks and benefits. The current review examines the development of deception among children. It is argued that early lying is normative, reflecting children's emerging cognitive and social development. Children lie to preserve self-interests as well as for the benefit of others. With age, children learn about the social norms that promote honesty while encouraging occasional prosocial lie-telling. Yet, lying can become a problem behavior with frequent or inappropriate use over time. Chronic lie-telling of any sort risks social consequences, such as the loss of credibility and damage to relationships. By middle childhood, chronic reliance on lying may be related to poor development of conscience, weak self-regulatory control, and antisocial behavior, and it could be indicative of maladjustment and put the individual in conflict with the environment. The goal of the current chapter is to capture the complexity of lying and build a preliminary understanding of how children's social experiences with their environments, their own dispositions, and their developing cognitive maturity interact, over time, to predict their lying behavior and, for some, their chronic and problem lying. Implications for fostering honesty in young children are discussed. PMID:21887961

  18. Friendship after a friends with benefits relationship: deception, psychological functioning, and social connectedness.

    PubMed

    Owen, Jesse; Fincham, Frank D; Manthos, Megan

    2013-11-01

    Friends with benefits (FWB) relationships are formed by an integration of friendship and sexual intimacy, typically without the explicit commitments characteristic of an exclusive romantic relationship. The majority of these relationships do not transition into committed romantic relationships, raising questions about what happens to the relationship after the FWB ends. In a sample of 119 men and 189 women university students, with a median age of 19 years and the majority identified as Caucasian (63.6 %), we assessed relationship adjustment, feelings of deception, perception of the FWB relationship and friendship, social connectedness, psychological distress, and loneliness. Results demonstrated that the majority of FWB relationships continued as friendships after the sexual intimacy ceased and that about 50 % of the participants reported feeling as close or closer to their FWB partner. Those who did not remain friends were more likely to report that their FWB relationship was more sex- than friendship-based; they also reported higher levels of feeling deceived by their FWB partner and higher levels of loneliness and psychological distress, but lower levels of mutual social connectedness. Higher levels of feeling deceived were related to feeling less close to the post-FWB friend; also, more sex-based FWB relationships were likely to result in post-FWB friendships that were either more or less close (as opposed to unchanged). FWB relationships, especially those that include more attention to friendship based intimacy, do not appear to negatively impact the quality of the friendship after the "with benefits" ends. PMID:23979784

  19. Caregiver accuracy in detecting deception in facial expressions of pain in children.

    PubMed

    Boerner, Katelynn E; Chambers, Christine T; Craig, Kenneth D; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca R; Parker, Jennifer A

    2013-04-01

    Facial expressions provide a primary source of inference about a child's pain. Although facial expressions typically appear spontaneous, children have some capacity to fake or suppress displays of pain, thereby potentially misleading caregiver judgments. The present study was designed to compare accuracy of different groups of caregivers in detecting deception in children's facial expressions of pain when voluntarily controlled. Caregivers (15 pediatricians, 15 pediatric nurses, and 15 parents) viewed 48 video clips of children, 12 in each of 4 conditions (genuine pain, faked pain, suppressed pain, neutral baseline), and judged which condition was apparent to them. A 3 (group: pediatrician vs pediatric nurse vs parent)×4 (condition: genuine vs faked vs suppressed vs neutral) mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) of judgment accuracies revealed a significant main effect of group, with nurses demonstrating higher overall accuracy scores than parents, and pediatricians not differing from either group. As well, all caregivers, regardless of group, demonstrated the lowest accuracy when viewing the genuine condition, relative to the faked and suppressed conditions, with accuracy for the neutral condition not differing significantly from the other conditions. Overall, caregivers were more successful at identifying faked and suppressed than genuine expressions of pain in children, and pediatric nurses fared better overall in judgment accuracy than parents. PMID:23375511

  20. The danger in deception: oedipal betrayal and the assault on truth.

    PubMed

    Elise, Dianne

    2012-08-01

    Certain potential precursors to heterosexual women's experience of partner infidelity are explored as these dynamics unfold within the oedipal crisis-the "betrayal" by the oedipal objects. As each child moves into the oedipal phase, he or she comes to recognize not only desire for the mother, but the mother's desire for the father. A doubling of this experience of "deception," encountered first in relation to the mother, and then repeated with the father, may be especially pronounced for a girl, as she is likely to inhabit more fully her bisexual potential in negotiating the expected shift of object choice from mother to father. "Deceived" by her primary maternal oedipal object, a girl sets forth toward her paternal oedipal object with "fidelity" already an issue, and with faith in her mind's ability to determine reality already shaken. Undermined trust in self and other is the context in which she begins the oedipal relation to her heterosexual object. This path is quite distinct from that traveled by the heterosexual boy. Clinical material illustrates the assault on one's mind, on one's confidence to determine what is true, that is a central aspect of both oedipal and adult betrayal. PMID:22649115

  1. Impression management ("lie") scales are associated with interpersonally oriented self-control, not other-deception.

    PubMed

    Uziel, Liad

    2014-06-01

    This article explores the status of impression management (IM) scales ("lie scales," notably, BIDR-IM) as measures of response bias, offers theory-driven substantive meaning to them, and compares them with self-deception enhancement (SDE). Study 1 (N = 99) compared self-descriptions of actual self and ideal self given in a non-anonymous setting. High similarity indicates self-enhancement. Study 2 (70 dyads) analyzed self-other agreement about IM and SDE. Agreement indicates substantive basis to the scales' scores. Study 3 (N = 182) explored the centrality of self-control in the self-perception of individuals varying in IM and SDE. Study 4 (95 dyads) corroborated self-reports about self-control using informants' reports. In Study 1, IM was associated with relative humility, whereas SDE was associated with self-enhancement. In Study 2, strong self-other agreement was found only for IM, indicating that high IM (but not SDE) is grounded in real-life behavior. In Study 3, self-control was central in the self-perception of high IM and high SDE individuals. In Study 4, strong relations with self-control were corroborated by informants only for IM. IM scales measure substantive content associated with self-control aimed at social adaptation, whereas the SDE scale depicts individuals with a grandiose self-perception, who fail to impress knowledgeable others. PMID:23750550

  2. Distribution and abundance of marine bird and pinniped populations within Port Foster, Deception Island, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, Katrina A.; Ruhl, Henry A.; Wilson, Robert C.

    2003-06-01

    Seabirds and pinnipeds were surveyed during four cruises from March 1999 to November 2000 at Port Foster, Deception Island, Antarctica. Abundances and distributions of three species of pinnipeds, Arctocephalus gazella (Antarctic fur seals), Leptonychotes weddelli (Weddell seals), and Lobodon carcinophagus (crabeater seals), and 11 species of marine birds were documented within Port Foster. A. gazella was the dominant pinniped within Port Foster; its abundance has increased since the 1986/87 austral summer season. A. gazella were concentrated at the entrance to Port Foster. More pinnipeds were observed during the austral summer than during the spring. The most dominant seabird, Pygoscelis antarctica (chinstrap penguin), was concentrated along the rocky cliffs behind the beaches where A. gazella hauled out. Larus dominicanus (kelp gull) and Daption capense (cape petrel) were the most dominant flying seabirds. All other seabird species were more widely distributed around Port Foster than P. antarctica. There was no clear trend in abundances of seabirds over the study period. It is possible that the protected area of Port Foster provides refuge for vagrants of colonies along the outer periphery of the island and as a stopover point for migrating species.

  3. Adult Smokers' Responses to “Corrective Statements” Regarding Tobacco Industry Deception

    PubMed Central

    Kollath-Cattano, Christy L.; Abad-Vivero, Erika N.; Thrasher, James F.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; O'Connor, Richard J.; Krugman, Dean M.; Berg, Carla J.; Hardin, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Background To inform consumers, U.S. Federal Courts have ordered the tobacco industry to disseminate “corrective statements” (CSs) about their deception regarding five topics: smoker health effects, nonsmoker health effects, cigarette addictiveness, design of cigarettes to increase addiction, and relative safety of light cigarettes. Purpose To determine how smokers from diverse backgrounds respond to the final, court-mandated wording of these CSs. Methods Data were analyzed from an online consumer panel of 1,404 adult smokers who evaluated one of five CS topics (n=280–281) by reporting novelty, relevance, anger at the industry, and motivation to quit because of the CS. Logistic and linear regression models assessed main and interactive effects of race/ethnicity, gender, education, and CS topic on these responses. Data were collected in January 2013 and analyzed in March 2013. Results Thirty percent to 54% of participants reported that each CS provided novel information, and novelty was associated with greater relevance, anger at the industry, and motivation to quit because of the message. African Americans and Latinos were more likely than non-Hispanic whites to report that CSs were novel, and they had stronger responses to CSs across all indicators. Compared to men, women reported that CSs were more relevant and motivated them to quit. Conclusions This study suggests that smokers would value and respond to CSs, particularly smokers from groups that suffer from tobacco–related health disparities. PMID:24746372

  4. The evolutionary biology of self-deception, laughter, dreaming and depression: some clues from anosognosia.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, V S

    1996-11-01

    Patients with right hemisphere strokes sometimes vehemently deny their paralysis. I describe three new experiments that were designed to determine the extent and depth of this denial. Curiously, when asked to perform an action with their paralyzed arm, they often employ a whole arsenal of grossly exaggerated 'Freudian defense mechanisms' to account for their failure (e.g. 'I have arthritis' or 'I don't feel like moving it right now'). To explain this, I propose that, in normal individuals, the left hemisphere ordinarily deals with small, local 'anomalies' or discrepancies by trying to impose consistency in order to preserve the status quo. But when the anomaly exceeds threshold, a 'devil's advocate' in the right hemisphere intervenes and generates a paradigm shift, i.e. it results in the construction of a new model using the same data. A failure of this process in right hemisphere stroke would partially explain anosognosia. Also, our model provides a new theory for the evolutionary origin of self-deception that is different from one proposed by Trivers. And, finally, I use anosognosia as a launching-off point to speculate on a number of other aspects of human nature such as Freudian defense mechanisms, laughter, dreams and the mnemonic functions of the hippocampus. PMID:8951799

  5. Neuroscience, neuropolitics and neuroethics: the complex case of crime, deception and FMRI.

    PubMed

    Henry, Stuart; Plemmons, Dena

    2012-09-01

    Scientific developments take place in a socio-political context but scientists often ignore the ways their innovations will be both interpreted by the media and used by policy makers. In the rush to neuroscientific discovery important questions are overlooked, such as the ways: (1) the brain, environment and behavior are related; (2) biological changes are mediated by social organization; (3) institutional bias in the application of technical procedures ignores race, class and gender dimensions of society; (4) knowledge is used to the advantage of the powerful; and (5) its applications may reinforce existing structures of power that pose ethical questions about distributive justice. The case of crime, deception and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) shows the complexity, and the political and ethical challenges that confront those who seek to use neuroscience to explain the etiology of crime, and who base policy on its findings. An ethically grounded neuroscience needs to take account of existing structures of power and difference, and to develop a public neuropolitical consciousness that ensures that those subject to risk by the application of science and technology are participants in the decision-making processes involving the implementation of policies that affect them. PMID:23054671

  6. IESID: Automatic system for monitoring ground deformation on the Deception Island volcano (Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peci, Luis Miguel; Berrocoso, Manuel; Páez, Raúl; Fernández-Ros, Alberto; de Gil, Amós

    2012-11-01

    When establishing the relative distance between two GNSS-GPS stations with sub-centimeter accuracy, it is necessary to have auxiliary data, some of which can only be collected some time after the moment of measurement. However, for monitoring highly-active geodynamic areas, such as volcanoes and landslides, data precision is not as essential as rapid availability, processing of data in real-time, and fast interpretation of the results. This paper describes the development of an integrated automatic system for monitoring volcanic deformation in quasi real-time, applied to the Deception volcano (Antarctica). This experimental system integrates two independent modules that enable researchers to monitor and control the status of the GNSS-GPS stations, and to determine a surface deformation parameter. It comprises three permanent stations, one of which serves as the reference for assessing the relative distance in relation to the other two. The availability of GNSS-GPS data in quasi real-time is achieved by means of a WiFi infrastructure and automated data processing. This system provides, in quasi real-time, a time series of varying distances that tells us the extent to which any ground deformation is taking place.

  7. A reverse order interview does not aid deception detection regarding intentions

    PubMed Central

    Fenn, Elise; McGuire, Mollie; Langben, Sara; Blandón-Gitlin, Iris

    2015-01-01

    Promising recent research suggests that more cognitively demanding interviews improve deception detection accuracy. Would these cognitively demanding techniques work in the same way when discriminating between true and false future intentions? In Experiment 1 participants planned to complete a task, but instead were intercepted and interviewed about their intentions. Participants lied or told the truth, and were subjected to high (reverse order) or low (sequential order) cognitive load interviews. Third-party observers watched these interviews and indicated whether they thought the person was lying or telling the truth. Subjecting participants to a reverse compared to sequential interview increased the misidentification rate and the appearance of cognitive load in truth tellers. People lying about false intentions were not better identified. In Experiment 2, a second set of third-party observers rated behavioral cues. Consistent with Experiment 1, truth tellers, but not liars, exhibited more behaviors associated with lying and fewer behaviors associated with truth telling in the reverse than sequential interview. Together these results suggest that certain cognitively demanding interviews may be less useful when interviewing to detect false intentions. Explaining a true intention while under higher cognitive demand places truth tellers at risk of being misclassified. There may be such a thing as too much cognitive load induced by certain techniques PMID:26379610

  8. Deceptive jamming for countering UWB-SAR based on Doppler frequency phase template of false target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaodong; Tang, Bin

    2016-04-01

    A false target deceptive jamming method for countering ultra-wideband synthetic aperture radar (UWB-SAR) is proposed in this paper, which is based on dechirp processing to intercepted UWB-SAR signal and inverse dechirp to jamming signal. The jammer quadrature down-converts and dechirps the intercepted UWB-SAR signal using a linear frequency modulation (LFM) signal oscillator, which could reduce the bandwidth and sample rate of analog-to-digital converter. Then, the jammer utilises the azimuth direction Doppler frequency phase between the false target and the jammer, and backward reflection coefficient template to modulate the phase of the intercepted UWB-SAR signal, and then delayed the modulated phase and also modulated the range direction Doppler frequency phase to the that. Finally, the jammer uses LFM signal oscillator to up-convert the narrowband jamming signal in order to recover the bandwidth of the signal. Parameter errors analysis and simulation results have shown that the detected parameters and motion characteristic errors reduce the resolution and offset the expected position of the false target, but it still could obtain an expected false target image. Theoretical analysis and simulation results indicated that the jamming signal proposed in this paper could produce a false target in the UWB-SAR image, which provide a feasible method for countering UWB-SAR in real time.

  9. On visibility: AIDS, deception by patients, and the responsibility of the doctor.

    PubMed Central

    Dunbar, S; Rehm, S

    1992-01-01

    Contrary to the usual discussion of lying or deceiving in medical ethics literature where the lying or deceiving is done by the doctor or surgeon, this paper deals with lying or deceiving on the part of the patient. Three cases involving HIV-infected male homosexual or bisexual persons are presented. In each case the patient deceives or wants the doctor to deceive a third party on his behalf. Are such deceptions or lies expressions of compassion? Are they in the patient's best interests? Do they compromise the doctor's integrity? It is submitted that societal attitudes towards male homosexual acts were internalised by the men described in these cases. Thus, a dichotomy was created between the private life and the public image. Fear of condemnation by the doctor or others restricted communication towards the goal of the maintenance of the patient's health. The lack of trust which inhibits truth-telling results in mutual and progressive isolation and impedes the provision of optimal care. PMID:1460645

  10. Towards an Extended Evolutionary Game Theory with Survival Analysis and Agreement Algorithms for Modeling Uncertainty, Vulnerability, and Deception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhanshan (Sam)

    Competition, cooperation and communication are the three fundamental relationships upon which natural selection acts in the evolution of life. Evolutionary game theory (EGT) is a 'marriage' between game theory and Darwin's evolution theory; it gains additional modeling power and flexibility by adopting population dynamics theory. In EGT, natural selection acts as optimization agents and produces inherent strategies, which eliminates some essential assumptions in traditional game theory such as rationality and allows more realistic modeling of many problems. Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) and Sir Philip Sidney (SPS) games are two well-known examples of EGT, which are formulated to study cooperation and communication, respectively. Despite its huge success, EGT exposes a certain degree of weakness in dealing with time-, space- and covariate-dependent (i.e., dynamic) uncertainty, vulnerability and deception. In this paper, I propose to extend EGT in two ways to overcome the weakness. First, I introduce survival analysis modeling to describe the lifetime or fitness of game players. This extension allows more flexible and powerful modeling of the dynamic uncertainty and vulnerability (collectively equivalent to the dynamic frailty in survival analysis). Secondly, I introduce agreement algorithms, which can be the Agreement algorithms in distributed computing (e.g., Byzantine Generals Problem [6][8], Dynamic Hybrid Fault Models [12]) or any algorithms that set and enforce the rules for players to determine their consensus. The second extension is particularly useful for modeling dynamic deception (e.g., asymmetric faults in fault tolerance and deception in animal communication). From a computational perspective, the extended evolutionary game theory (EEGT) modeling, when implemented in simulation, is equivalent to an optimization methodology that is similar to evolutionary computing approaches such as Genetic algorithms with dynamic populations [15][17].

  11. When is Deceptive Message Production More Effortful than Truth-Telling? A Baker’s Dozen of Moderators

    PubMed Central

    Burgoon, Judee K.

    2015-01-01

    Deception is thought to be more effortful than telling the truth. Empirical evidence from many quarters supports this general proposition. However, there are many factors that qualify and even reverse this pattern. Guided by a communication perspective, I present a baker’s dozen of moderators that may alter the degree of cognitive difficulty associated with producing deceptive messages. Among sender-related factors are memory processes, motivation, incentives, and consequences. Lying increases activation of a network of brain regions related to executive memory, suppression of unwanted behaviors, and task switching that is not observed with truth-telling. High motivation coupled with strong incentives or the risk of adverse consequences also prompts more cognitive exertion–for truth-tellers and deceivers alike–to appear credible, with associated effects on performance and message production effort, depending on the magnitude of effort, communicator skill, and experience. Factors related to message and communication context include discourse genre, type of prevarication, expected response length, communication medium, preparation, and recency of target event/issue. These factors can attenuate the degree of cognitive taxation on senders so that truth-telling and deceiving are similarly effortful. Factors related to the interpersonal relationship among interlocutors include whether sender and receiver are cooperative or adversarial and how well-acquainted they are with one another. A final consideration is whether the unit of analysis is the utterance, turn at talk, episode, entire interaction, or series of interactions. Taking these factors into account should produce a more nuanced answer to the question of when deception is more difficult than truth-telling. PMID:26733932

  12. Seismic monitoring at Deception Island volcano (Antarctica): the 2010-2011 survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, R.; Carmona, E.; Almendros, J.; Serrano, I.; Villaseñor, A.; Galeano, J.

    2012-04-01

    As an example of the recent advances introduced in seismic monitoring of Deception Island volcano (Antarctica) during recent years, we describe the instrumental network deployed during the 2010-2011 survey by the Instituto Andaluz de Geofísica of University of Granada, Spain (IAG-UGR). The period of operation extended from December 19, 2010 to March 5, 2011. We deployed a wireless seismic network composed by four three-component seismic stations. These stations are based on 24-bit SL04 SARA dataloggers sampling at 100 sps. They use a PC with embedded linux and SEISLOG data acquisition software. We use two types of three-component seismometers: short-period Mark L4C with natural frequency of 1 Hz and medium-period Lennartz3D/5s with natural frequency of 0.2 Hz. The network was designed for an optimum spatial coverage of the northern half of Deception, where a magma chamber has been reported. Station locations include the vicinity of the Spanish base "Gabriel de Castilla" (GdC), Obsidianas Beach, a zone near the craters from the 1970 eruptions, and the Chilean Shelter located south of Pendulum Cove. Continuous data from the local seismic network are received in real-time in the base by wifi transmission. We used Ubiquiti Networks Nanostation2 antennas with 2.4 GHz, dual-polarity, 10 dBi gain, and 54 Mbps transmission rate. They have shown a great robustness and speed for real-time applications. To prioritize data acquisition when the battery level is low, we have designed a circuit that allows independent power management for the seismic station and wireless transmission system. The reception antenna located at GdC is connected to a computer running SEISCOMP. This software supports several transmission protocols and manages the visualization and recording of seismic data, including the generation of summary plots to show the seismic activity. These twelve data channels are stored in miniseed format and displayed in real time, which allows for a rapid evaluation of

  13. Deception island, Antarctica: a terrestrial analogue for the study and understanding of the martian permafrost and subsurface glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez de Pablo, M. A.; Ramos, M.; Vieira, G.; Gilichinsky, D.; Gómez, F.; Molina, A.; Segovia, R.

    2009-04-01

    The existence of permafrost on Mars was widely studied since Viking era and its presence is fundamental in the understanding of the water-cycle, the geological history of Mars, and the evolution of the martian hydrosphere. Viking, MOC, THEMIS, HRSC and HiRISE images allowed increase our knowledge about the role of ice on the martian landscapes. Polygonal terrains, glacial-like features, "basketball terrain" or pingos are some of the landforms that reveal the existence of frozen ice near the surface and in the ground forming the martian permafrost on present, recent or ancient times. The field observations and analyses done by Phoenix mission seem to confirm the existence of the martian permafrost hypothesized by the analyses of the images acquired by the previous missions to Mars. Moreover, the recent interpretations of the (RADAR) sensor on board of MRO mission also revealed that the surface of Mars seems to cover an important volume of ice forming glaciers covered by different materials. Here we propose the study of the glaciers and permafrost of Deception Island (Antarctica) such as a terrestrial analogue of the glaciers and permafrost of Mars. This active volcanic island is an exceptional site to study the permafrost since the climatic conditions maintain the surface covered by the ice and snow during the main part of the year. This characteristic allows the existence of an important permafrost layer also during the summer, and permanent glaciers in the higher part of the island. In addition, Deception Island is an active volcano. Some of the glaciers are covered by the ash and tephra what made difficult to distinguish between the covered glacier and the permafrost. The eruptive volcanic materials could have similar characteristics than some martian regolith by lithology, granulometry and texture. In this way, the study of the permafrost and glaciers in Deception Island could help to understand the martian permafrost and glaciers at present. On the other hand

  14. Floral odour chemistry defines species boundaries and underpins strong reproductive isolation in sexually deceptive orchids

    PubMed Central

    Peakall, Rod; Whitehead, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims The events leading to speciation are best investigated in systems where speciation is ongoing or incomplete, such as incipient species. By examining reproductive barriers among incipient sister taxa and their congeners we can gain valuable insights into the relative timing and importance of the various barriers involved in the speciation process. The aim of this study was to identify the reproductive barriers among sexually deceptive orchid taxa in the genus Chiloglottis. Methods The study targeted four closely related taxa with varying degrees of geographic overlap. Chemical, morphological and genetic evidence was combined to explore the basis of reproductive isolation. Of primary interest was the degree of genetic differentiation among taxa at both nuclear and chloroplast DNA markers. To objectively test whether or not species boundaries are defined by the chemistry that controls pollinator specificity, genetic analysis was restricted to samples of known odour chemistry. Key Results Floral odour chemical analysis was performed for 600+ flowers. The three sympatric taxa were defined by their specific chiloglottones, the semiochemicals responsible for pollinator attraction, and were found to be fully cross-compatible. Multivariate morphometric analysis could not reliably distinguish among the four taxa. Although varying from very low to moderate, significant levels of genetic differentiation were detected among all pairwise combinations of taxa at both nuclear and chloroplast loci. However, the levels of genetic differentiation were lower than expected for mature species. Critically, a lack of chloroplast DNA haplotype sharing among the morphologically indistinguishable and most closely related taxon pair confirmed that chemistry alone can define taxon boundaries. Conclusions The results confirmed that pollinator isolation, mediated by specific pollinator attraction, underpins strong reproductive isolation in these taxa. A combination of large

  15. Effects of pollination limitation and seed predation on female reproductive success of a deceptive orchid.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Ryan P; Arnold, Paige M; Michaels, Helen J

    2014-01-01

    For many species of conservation significance, multiple factors limit reproduction. This research examines the contributions of plant height, number of flowers, number of stems, pollen limitation and seed predation to female reproductive success in the deceit-pollinated orchid, Cypripedium candidum. The deceptive pollination strategy employed by many orchids often results in high levels of pollen limitation. While increased floral display size may attract pollinators, C. candidum's multiple, synchronously flowering stems could promote selfing and also increase attack by weevil seed predators. To understand the joint impacts of mutualists and antagonists, we examined pollen limitation, seed predation and the effects of pollen source over two flowering seasons (2009 and 2011) in Ohio. In 2009, 36 pairs of plants size-matched by flower number, receiving either supplemental hand or open pollination, were scored for fruit maturation, mass of seeds and seed predation. Pollen supplementation increased proportion of flowers maturing into fruit, with 87 % fruit set when hand pollinated compared with 46 % for naturally pollinated flowers. Inflorescence height had a strong effect, as taller inflorescences had higher initial fruit set, while shorter stems had higher predation. Seed predation was seen in 73 % of all fruits. A parallel 2011 experiment that included a self-pollination treatment and excluded seed predators found initial and final fruit set were higher in the self and outcross pollination treatments than in the open-pollinated treatment. However, seed mass was higher in both open pollinated and outcross pollination treatments compared with hand self-pollinated. We found greater female reproductive success for taller flowering stems that simultaneously benefited from increased pollination and reduced seed predation. These studies suggest that this species is under strong reinforcing selection to increase allocation to flowering stem height. Our results may help

  16. Effects of pollination limitation and seed predation on female reproductive success of a deceptive orchid

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Ryan P.; Arnold, Paige M.; Michaels, Helen J.

    2014-01-01

    For many species of conservation significance, multiple factors limit reproduction. This research examines the contributions of plant height, number of flowers, number of stems, pollen limitation and seed predation to female reproductive success in the deceit-pollinated orchid, Cypripedium candidum. The deceptive pollination strategy employed by many orchids often results in high levels of pollen limitation. While increased floral display size may attract pollinators, C. candidum's multiple, synchronously flowering stems could promote selfing and also increase attack by weevil seed predators. To understand the joint impacts of mutualists and antagonists, we examined pollen limitation, seed predation and the effects of pollen source over two flowering seasons (2009 and 2011) in Ohio. In 2009, 36 pairs of plants size-matched by flower number, receiving either supplemental hand or open pollination, were scored for fruit maturation, mass of seeds and seed predation. Pollen supplementation increased proportion of flowers maturing into fruit, with 87 % fruit set when hand pollinated compared with 46 % for naturally pollinated flowers. Inflorescence height had a strong effect, as taller inflorescences had higher initial fruit set, while shorter stems had higher predation. Seed predation was seen in 73 % of all fruits. A parallel 2011 experiment that included a self-pollination treatment and excluded seed predators found initial and final fruit set were higher in the self and outcross pollination treatments than in the open-pollinated treatment. However, seed mass was higher in both open pollinated and outcross pollination treatments compared with hand self-pollinated. We found greater female reproductive success for taller flowering stems that simultaneously benefited from increased pollination and reduced seed predation. These studies suggest that this species is under strong reinforcing selection to increase allocation to flowering stem height. Our results may help

  17. Placebo use in pain management: the role of medical context, treatment efficacy, and deception in determining placebo acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Kisaalita, Nkaku; Staud, Roland; Hurley, Robert; Robinson, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Placebo effects can act as powerful pain relievers. While the ethics of therapeutic placebo use is highly controversial, recent evidence suggests that medical providers frequently utilize placebo treatments, and patients may be open to these interventions under certain contexts. This investigation used a patient-centered approach to answer essential questions about placebo treatment acceptability. People with chronic musculoskeletal pain completed a placebo survey where they: 1) rated their knowledge of placebo and its efficacy for alleviating pain; 2) evaluated the acceptability of a placebo analgesic interventions across several unique medical contexts; and 3) responded to six different patient-physician treatment scenarios to assess the role of deception and placebo effectiveness on mood and provider trust. Results showed that participants had limited knowledge of placebo and it’s efficacy for alleviating pain. Placebo acceptability was highly dependent on the context of the intervention, as placebo treatments were considered acceptable when used as complementary/adjunct treatments and when no other established treatments were available. Also, an analgesic placebo response mitigated the negative consequences of deception by improving provider trust and decreasing negative mood. These findings suggest that patients may be rather pragmatic in their appraisals of placebo treatment acceptability and may consider a variety of treatments/contexts as permissible for managing their pain. This is the first study of its kind to quantify perceptions of placebo analgesia knowledge and efficacy among individuals with chronic pain, and to assess the role of different medical contexts in treatment acceptability. PMID:25267208

  18. Effect of nectar supplementation on male and female components of pollination success in the deceptive orchid Dactylorhiza sambucina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jersáková, Jana; Johnson, Steven D.; Kindlmann, Pavel; Pupin, Anne-Charlotte

    2008-05-01

    Many orchids lack floral nectar rewards and therefore rely on deception to attract pollinators. To determine the effect that a mutation for nectar production would have on overall pollination success of the deceptive orchid Dactylorhiza sambucina, we recorded pollen deposition and removal in flowers of plants that had either been supplemented with an artificial nectar solution or left unmanipulated as controls. Nectar supplementation resulted in significant increases in the proportion of flowers pollinated, regardless of morph colour and the density of plants supplemented in the population. However, nectar supplementation had a significant positive effect on pollinaria removal only for the yellow morph in one experiment in which a low proportion of plants were supplemented. Thus a mutation for nectar production would have a positive effect on overall pollination success in D. sambucina, particularly the female component. The observed patterns are discussed in relation to other factors, such as cross-pollination and the reallocation of nectar resources for other plant functions, which are traditionally considered to shape the rewardless strategies of orchids.

  19. Manipulating item proportion and deception reveals crucial dissociation between behavioral, autonomic, and neural indices of concealed information.

    PubMed

    Suchotzki, Kristina; Verschuere, Bruno; Peth, Judith; Crombez, Geert; Gamer, Matthias

    2015-02-01

    Developed as an alternative to traditional deception detection methods, the concealed information test (CIT) assesses recognition of critical (e.g., crime-relevant) "probes." Most often, recognition has been measured as enhanced skin conductance responses (SCRs) to probes compared to irrelevant foils (CIT effect). More recently, also differentially enlarged reaction times (RTs) and increased neural activity in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, the right middle frontal gyrus, and the right temporo-parietal junction have been observed. The aims of the current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study were to (1) investigate the boundary conditions of the CIT effects in all three measures and thereby (2) gain more insight into the relative contribution of two mechanisms underlying enhanced responding to concealed information (i.e., orienting versus response inhibition). Therefore, we manipulated the proportion of probe versus irrelevant items, and whether suspects were instructed to actively deny recognition of probe knowledge (i.e., deceive) during the test. Results revealed that whereas overt deception was not necessary for the SCR CIT effect, it was crucial for the RT and the fMRI-based CIT effects. The proportion manipulation enhanced the CIT effect in all three measures. The results indicate that different mental processes might underlie the response pattern in the CIT. While skin conductance responding to concealed information may best be explained by orienting theory, it seems that response inhibition drives RT and blood oxygen level dependent responding to concealed information. PMID:25277495

  20. Microbial populations description in Deception Island (Antarctica): exploring the surface and the permafrost using an antibody microrray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, Y.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Gómez, M. J.; Moreno-Paz, M.; García-Villadangos, M.; Rodríguez-Manfredi, J. A.; Cruz-Gil, P.; Sánchez-Román, M.; Rivas, L. A.; Parro, V.

    2012-09-01

    We performed assays with a Life Detector Chip (so called LDChip300) to study on site the microbial diversity on the surface and the permafrost from a Deception Island borehole. LDChip300 contains more than 300 antibodies developed against bacterial and archaeal strains, crude extracts from environmental samples, proteins, peptides and other biological polymers [1,2,3]. Superficial and core permafrost samples were analyzed by sandwich microarray immunoassays (SMI) with LDChip300 by using a cocktail of 300 different fluorescent antibodies. Pyroclasts and rocks from the surface and the top layer of the permafrost showed positive antigen-antibody reactions against Alpha-, Delta- and Gamma-proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, archaeal species and proteins and peptides involved in nitrogen fixation and methanogenic processes, iron homeostasis and ABC transporters. Immunoarray results were validated on site with an oligonucleotide microarray for prokaryotic diversity and then in the laboratory through 16S and 23S rRNA gene sequence analysis, aerobic viable counts and microscopy studies. Those results revealed Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and phototrophs as dominant groups in the top active layer of the Deception Island permafrost [4].

  1. Positive Response Distortion by Police Officer Applicants: Association of Paulhus Deception Scales with MMPI-2 and Inwald Personality Inventory Validity Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detrick, Paul; Chibnall, John T.

    2008-01-01

    Interpretation of positive response distortion (socially desirable responding) in employment evaluations is an important validity issue. This study of police officer applicants examined the construct validity of the Paulhus Deception Scales (PDS)--Moralistic Bias (MB; exaggerated adjustment/agreeableness) and Egoistic Bias (EB; exaggerated…

  2. When Appearances Are not Deceptive: A Comparative History of School Uniforms in Argentina and the United States (Nineteenth--Twentieth Centuries)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dussel, Ines

    2005-01-01

    Appearances are deceptive, the saying goes. However, we devote much time to the presentation of ourselves, and ties and necklaces can take up more energy than other "substantial" matters. This article analyzes the history of the presentation of selves in schools through the study of school uniforms. It will be claimed that modernity configured a…

  3. The Iraq War, "Sound Science," and "Evidence-Based" Educational Reform: How the Bush Administration Uses Deception, Manipulation, and Subterfuge to Advance Its Chosen Ideology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Stephen P.; Smyth, John; Diehl, Julie

    2008-01-01

    In this article we describe how the Bush administration has used deceptive techniques and subterfuge to force its ideology upon the American people. We provide examples of similar techniques used to manipulate public opinion and national policy in three broad areas: national defense, science, and education. Our example from national defense…

  4. Investigating the Relation between Moral Self-Enhancement and Self-Deception: A Cross-Cultural Study of U.S. and Chinese College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Testing an evolutionary framework, this study examined moral self-enhancement in relation to self-deception and self-construal in a cross-cultural context. The participants included 127 U.S. and 107 Chinese college students. The results demonstrated that moral self-enhancement is not a characteristic unique to individualistic ideology but rather a…

  5. Tool use in wild orang-utans modifies sound production: A functionally deceptive innovation?

    PubMed

    Hardus, Madeleine E; Lameira, Adriano R; Van Schaik, Carel P; Wich, Serge A

    2009-10-22

    Culture has long been assumed to be uniquely human but recent studies, in particular on great apes, have suggested that cultures also occur in non-human primates. The most apparent cultural behaviours in great apes involve tools in the subsistence context where they are clearly functional to obtain valued food. On the other hand, tool-use to modify acoustic communication has been reported only once and its function has not been investigated. Thus, the question whether this is an adaptive behaviour remains open, even though evidence indicates that it is socially transmitted (i.e. cultural). Here we report on wild orang-utans using tools to modulate the maximum frequency of one of their sounds, the kiss squeak, emitted in distress. In this variant, orang-utans strip leaves off a twig and hold them to their mouth while producing a kiss squeak. Using leaves as a tool lowers the frequency of the call compared to a kiss squeak without leaves or with only a hand to the mouth. If the lowering of the maximum frequency functions in orang-utans as it does in other animals, two predictions follow: (i) kiss squeak frequency is related to body size and (ii) the use of leaves will occur in situations of most acute danger. Supporting these predictions, kiss squeaks without tools decreased with body size and kiss squeaks with leaves were only emitted by highly distressed individuals. Moreover, we found indications that the calls were under volitional control. This finding is significant for at least two reasons. First, although few animal species are known to deceptively lower the maximum frequency of their calls to exaggerate their perceived size to the listener (e.g. vocal tract elongation in male deer) it has never been reported that animals may use tools to achieve this, or that they are primates. Second, it shows that the orang-utan culture extends into the communicative domain, thus challenging the traditional assumption that primate calling behaviour is overall purely

  6. Suppressing the truth as a mechanism of deception: Delta plots reveal the role of response inhibition in lying.

    PubMed

    Debey, Evelyne; Ridderinkhof, Richard K; De Houwer, Jan; De Schryver, Maarten; Verschuere, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    Lying takes more time than telling the truth. Because lying involves withholding the truth, this "lie effect" has been related to response inhibition. We investigated the response inhibition hypothesis of lying using the delta-plot method: A leveling-off of the standard increase of the lie effect with slower reaction times would be indicative of successful response inhibition. Participants performed a reaction-time task that required them to alternate between lying and truth telling in response to autobiographical questions. In two experiments, we found that the delta plot of the lie effect leveled off with longer response latencies, but only in a group of participants who had better inhibitory skills as indexed by relatively small lie effects. This finding supports the role of response inhibition in lying. We elaborate on repercussions for cognitive models of deception and the data analysis of reaction-time based lie tests. PMID:26397036

  7. Application of a New Polarimetric Filter to RADARSAT-2 Data of Deception Island (antarctic Peninsula Region) for Surface Cover Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillaso, S.; Schmid, T.; Lopez-Martinez, J.; D'Hondt, O.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we describe a new approach to analyse and quantify land surface covers on Deception Island, a volcanic island located in the Northern Antarctic Peninsula region by means of fully polarimetric RADARSAT-2 (C-Band) SAR image. Data have been filtered by a new polarimetric speckle filter (PolSAR-BLF) that is based on the bilateral filter. This filter is locally adapted to the spatial structure of the image by relying on pixel similarities in both the spatial and the radiometric domains. Thereafter different polarimetric features have been extracted and selected before being geocoded. These polarimetric parameters serve as a basis for a supervised classification using the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. Finally, a map of landform is generated based on the result of the SVM results.

  8. Effect of deception and expected exercise duration on psychological and physiological variables during treadmill running and cycling.

    PubMed

    Eston, Roger; Stansfield, Ralph; Westoby, Paul; Parfitt, Gaynor

    2012-04-01

    Effects of deception and expected duration on the rating of perceived exertion (RPE), affect, and heart rate (HR) were examined during treadmill (n=12) and cycling (n=8) exercise. Participants completed three conditions: (1) 20 MIN-exercise for 20 min, stop after 20 min; (2) 10 MIN-exercise for 10 min, in 10th min be told to exercise for 10 min more; and (3) UNKNOWN-no information about duration. Intensities were set at 70% and 65% of peak oxygen uptake for treadmill and cycling, respectively. RPE increased (treadmill) and affect decreased (treadmill and cycling) in the absence of changes in HR and oxygen uptake in the 10 MIN conditions. These changes suggest a disruption to a feed-forward/feedback system. The lower HR in the UNKNOWN conditions suggests a subconscious attempt to conserve energy when the duration of the exercise task is unknown. PMID:22220852

  9. Limitations to the detection of deception: true and false recollections are poorly distinguished using an event-related potential procedure.

    PubMed

    Allen, John J B; Mertens, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    The utility of using indices of neural function to identify deception relies on finding highly reliable and valid approaches that adequately identify the guilty and exonerate the innocent. A class of approaches, based on the guilty knowledge technique (GKT), assume that guilty individuals will recognize specific crime-relevant details, whereas innocent individuals will not. Memory distortions, however, may limit the accuracy of such procedures. To investigate these limits, two studies were conducted to examine whether brain electrical activity could differentiate true from false recollections elicited by the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. The design of each study maximized the opportunity of finding electrocortical differences between true and false recognition. Each study found very high rates of false recognition, with little evidence that brain electrical activity could differentiate true from false memories. Results suggested that under certain conditions both true and false recollections can produce a pattern of brain activity indicative of recognition. PMID:18633842

  10. "To Bluff like a Man or Fold like a Girl?" - Gender Biased Deceptive Behavior in Online Poker.

    PubMed

    Palomäki, Jussi; Yan, Jeff; Modic, David; Laakasuo, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology suggests that men are more likely than women to deceive to bolster their status and influence. Also gender perception influences deceptive behavior, which is linked to pervasive gender stereotypes: women are typically viewed as weaker and more gullible than men. We assessed bluffing in an online experiment (N = 502), where participants made decisions to bluff or not in simulated poker tasks against opponents represented by avatars. Participants bluffed on average 6% more frequently at poker tables with female-only avatars than at tables with male-only or gender mixed avatars-a highly significant effect in games involving repeated decisions. Nonetheless, participants did not believe the avatar genders affected their decisions. Males bluffed 13% more frequently than females. Unlike most economic games employed exclusively in research contexts, online poker is played for money by tens of millions of people worldwide. Thus, gender effects in bluffing have significant monetary consequences for poker players. PMID:27383472

  11. "To Bluff like a Man or Fold like a Girl?" – Gender Biased Deceptive Behavior in Online Poker

    PubMed Central

    Palomäki, Jussi; Yan, Jeff; Modic, David; Laakasuo, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology suggests that men are more likely than women to deceive to bolster their status and influence. Also gender perception influences deceptive behavior, which is linked to pervasive gender stereotypes: women are typically viewed as weaker and more gullible than men. We assessed bluffing in an online experiment (N = 502), where participants made decisions to bluff or not in simulated poker tasks against opponents represented by avatars. Participants bluffed on average 6% more frequently at poker tables with female-only avatars than at tables with male-only or gender mixed avatars—a highly significant effect in games involving repeated decisions. Nonetheless, participants did not believe the avatar genders affected their decisions. Males bluffed 13% more frequently than females. Unlike most economic games employed exclusively in research contexts, online poker is played for money by tens of millions of people worldwide. Thus, gender effects in bluffing have significant monetary consequences for poker players. PMID:27383472

  12. Floral colour signal increases short-range detectability of a sexually deceptive orchid to its bee pollinator.

    PubMed

    Streinzer, Martin; Paulus, Hannes F; Spaethe, Johannes

    2009-05-01

    Orchids of the genus Ophrys are pollinated by males of solitary bees and wasps through sexual deception. The flowers mimic the behaviourally active compounds of the sex pheromone of receptive females and thus attract males that seek to copulate. Odour is the main attractant while visual stimuli have been assumed so far to play only a minor role. In contrast to most species of the genus, Heldreich's orchid Ophrys heldreichii, which is pollinated by males of the long-horned bee Tetralonia berlandi, possesses a bright pink perianth that appears conspicuous to a human observer. We investigated the role of this floral colour signal in pollinator attraction. We filmed approach flights of male bees to flowers in which we removed the original perianth and in which we substituted the perianth with an artificial one of a particular selected colour. At distances >30 cm, male search time correlated only with wind speed but not with the spectral parameters of the perianth, i.e. chromatic and green receptor-specific contrast. By contrast, in the close range (<30 cm), where the perianth subtends a visual angle of at least 5 deg. to the bee's eye, search time decreased with increasing green receptor contrast between perianth and background; however, no correlation with chromatic contrast or wind speed was found. Our results indicate that pollinators are first attracted by olfactory signals from a distance. Once in the vicinity of the flower where spatial vision of the males is sufficient, they are guided exclusively by vision. However, it can be expected that possession of a ;non-private' colour signal would increase the risk of pollen loss in sexually deceptive orchids by accidentally attracting non-specific flower visitors. We therefore discuss the occurrence of colour signals in the genus Ophrys in respect to the species-specific visual system of the pollinators. PMID:19376957

  13. Integrated studies of the recent evolution of Deception Island in the geodynamic setting of the Bransfield Basin opening (Antarctica): GEOMAGDEC Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maestro, Adolfo; Gil-Imaz, Andrés.; Gil-Peña, Inmaculada; Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús; Rey, Jorge; Soto, Ruth; López-Martínez, Jerónimo; Llave, Estefanía.; Bohoyo, Fernando; Rull, Fernando; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Galán, Luis; Casas, David; Lunar, Rosario; Ercilla, Gemma; Somoza, Luis

    2010-05-01

    Deception Island shows the most recent active volcanism, evidence of several eruptions since the late 18th century, and well-known eruptions in 1967, 1969, and 1970 at the western end of the volcanic ridge of the Bransfield Trough, between the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula. The recent tectonic activity of the Bransfield Trough is not well defined, and it presents a controversial origin. It is currently explained by two different models: (1) Opening of the basin may be related to passive subduction of the former Phoenix Plate and subsequent rollback of the South Shetland Trench; or (2) an oblique extension along the Antarctic Peninsula continental margin generated by the sinistral movement between the Antarctic and Scotia plates. This extension develops the Bransfield Trough and spread away the South Shetland tectonic block. The GEOMAGDEC project involves a multidisciplinary and integrated research of the Deception Island based on geophysical and geological methods. The purpose of this project, funded by the Spanish research agency, is the understanding of the main processes that govern the evolution of the Deception Island into the development of Bransfield Basin during recent times. Main aims are: (1) Study of the anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility of volcanic deposits of emerged area of Deception Island to determine the relationship between magmatism (intrusive and extrusive) with the recent tectonic activity. This task allows the reconstruction of igneous flow directions of the different volcanic units established in the island, dikes emplacement modelling in active tectonic regime, and the integration of the results obtained in a kinematic and dynamic emplacement model of the different volcanic units of the Deception Island into recent geodynamic setting of Bransfield Basin opening. (2) Lito- and crono-stratigraphy analysis of the quaternary sedimentary units that filled Port Foster (inner bay of Deception Island) on the basis of the

  14. Active tectonics on Deception Island (West-Antarctica): A new approach by using the fractal anisotropy of lineaments, fault slip measurements and the caldera collapse shape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pérez-López, R.; Giner-Robles, J.L.; Martínez-Díaz, J.J.; Rodríguez-Pascua, M.A.; Bejar, M.; Paredes, C.; González-Casado, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The tectonic field on Deception Island (South Shetlands, West Antarctica) is determined from structural and fractal analyses. Three different analyses are applied to the study of the strain and stress fields in the area: (1) field measurements of faults (strain analysis), (2) fractal geometry of the spatial distribution of lineaments and (3) the caldera shape (stress analyses). In this work, the identified strain field is extensional with the maximum horizontal shortening trending NE-SW and NW-SE. The fractal technique applied to the spatial distribution of lineaments indicates a stress field with SHMAX oriented NE-SW. The elliptical caldera of Deception Island, determined from field mapping, satellite imagery, vents and fissure eruptions, has an elongate shape and a stress field with SHMAX trending NE-SW.

  15. A direct assessment of realized seed and pollen flow within and between two isolated populations of the food-deceptive orchid Orchis mascula.

    PubMed

    Helsen, K; Meekers, T; Vranckx, G; Roldán-Ruiz, I; Vandepitte, K; Honnay, O

    2016-01-01

    Gene flow can counteract the loss of genetic diversity caused by genetic drift in small populations. For this reason, clearly understanding gene flow patterns is of the highest importance across fragmented landscapes. However, gene flow patterns are not only dependent upon the degree of spatial isolation of fragmented populations, but are also dependent upon the life-history traits of the species. Indeed, habitat fragmentation effects appear especially unpredictable for food-deceptive orchid species, because of their highly specialised seed and pollen dispersal mechanisms. In this study we used amplified fragment length polymorphism markers and subsequent parentage and spatial autocorrelation analysis to quantify the extent and the patterns of realized gene flow within and between two adjacent fragmented populations of the food-deceptive Orchis mascula. We observed considerable gene flow between both populations, occurring mainly through pollen dispersal. Seed dispersal, on the other hand, was mainly limited to the first few meters from the mother plant in both populations, although at least one among-population seed dispersal event was observed. This, in turn, resulted in a significant spatial genetic structure for both populations. Although genetic diversity was high in both populations and mainly outcrossing occurred, reproductive output was strongly skewed toward a limited number of successful adult plants. These observed patterns are likely due to the different pollinator behaviour associated with food-deceptive plants. We conclude that these populations can be considered viable under their current fragmented state. PMID:25941020

  16. Functional Significance of Labellum Pattern Variation in a Sexually Deceptive Orchid (Ophrys heldreichii): Evidence of Individual Signature Learning Effects

    PubMed Central

    Stejskal, Kerstin; Streinzer, Martin; Dyer, Adrian; Paulus, Hannes F.; Spaethe, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Mimicking female insects to attract male pollinators is an important strategy in sexually deceptive orchids of the genus Ophrys, and some species possess flowers with conspicuous labellum patterns. The function of the variation of the patterns remains unresolved, with suggestions that these enhance pollinator communication. We investigated the possible function of the labellum pattern in Ophrys heldreichii, an orchid species in which the conspicuous and complex labellum pattern contrasts with a dark background. The orchid is pollinated exclusively by males of the solitary bee, Eucera berlandi. Comparisons of labellum patterns revealed that patterns within inflorescences are more similar than those of other conspecific plants. Field observations showed that the males approach at a great speed and directly land on flowers, but after an unsuccessful copulation attempt, bees hover close and visually scan the labellum pattern for up to a minute. Learning experiments conducted with honeybees as an accessible model of bee vision demonstrated that labellum patterns of different plants can be reliably learnt; in contrast, patterns of flowers from the same inflorescence could not be discriminated. These results support the hypothesis that variable labellum patterns in O. heldreichii are involved in flower-pollinator communication which would likely help these plants to avoid geitonogamy. PMID:26571020

  17. Embedded ARM system for volcano monitoring in remote areas: application to the active volcano on Deception Island (Antarctica).

    PubMed

    Peci, Luis Miguel; Berrocoso, Manuel; Fernández-Ros, Alberto; García, Alicia; Marrero, José Manuel; Ortiz, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a multi-parameter system for monitoring volcanic activity. The system permits the remote access and the connection of several modules in a network. An embedded ARM™ processor has been used, allowing a great flexibility in hardware configuration. The use of a complete Linux solution (Debian™) as Operating System permits a quick, easy application development to control sensors and communications. This provides all the capabilities required and great stability with relatively low energy consumption. The cost of the components and applications development is low since they are widely used in different fields. Sensors and commercial modules have been combined with other self-developed modules. The Modular Volcano Monitoring System (MVMS) described has been deployed on the active Deception Island (Antarctica) volcano, within the Spanish Antarctic Program, and has proved successful for monitoring the volcano, with proven reliability and efficient operation under extreme conditions. In another context, i.e., the recent volcanic activity on El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) in 2011, this technology has been used for the seismic equipment and GPS systems deployed, thus showing its efficiency in the monitoring of a volcanic crisis. PMID:24451461

  18. Spatial and temporal variation in the abundance, distribution and population structure of epibenthic megafauna in Port Foster, Deception Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranmer, T. L.; Ruhl, H. A.; Baldwin, R. J.; Kaufmann, R. S.

    2003-06-01

    Abundance and spatial distribution of epibenthic megafauna were examined at Port Foster, Deception Island, five times between March 1999 and November 2000. Camera sled surveys and bottom trawls were used to identify and collect specimens, and camera sled photographs also were used to determine abundances and spatial distributions for each species. The ophiuroid Ophionotus victoriae, the regular echinoid Sterechinus neumayeri, and one or more species of Porifera were the most abundant taxa during this sampling period. Abundances of O. victoriae varied throughout the annual cycle, peaking in June 2000, and were correlated positively with sedimentation rates. In contrast, abundances of S. neumayeri were consistent throughout the sampling period, except for a peak in June 2000, during austral winter. Peak abundances for both species coincided with a large number of small individuals, indicating apparent recruitment events for O. victoriae and S. neumayeri during this time period. Poriferans, as a group, had statistically similar abundances during each sampling period. Low-abundance species tended to be aggregated on both small and large spatial scales, their distributions probably influenced by reproductive method, gregarious settlement, and food availability. The spatial distribution of S. neumayeri in June 2000 and O. victoriae was random across multiple spatial scales, perhaps in response to food availability and broad environmental tolerances, respectively.

  19. A functional analysis of deception detection of a mock crime using infrared thermal imaging and the Concealed Information Test

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kevin K.; Suk, Hye Won; Hwang, Heungsun; Lee, Jang-Han

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to utilize thermal imaging and the Concealed Information Test to detect deception in participants who committed a mock crime. A functional analysis using a functional ANOVA and a functional discriminant analysis was conducted to decrease the variation in the physiological data collected through the thermal imaging camera. Participants chose between a non-crime mission (Innocent Condition: IC), or a mock crime (Guilty Condition: GC) of stealing a wallet in a computer lab. Temperature in the periorbital region of the face was measured while questioning participants regarding mock crime details. Results revealed that the GC showed significantly higher temperatures when responding to crime relevant items compared to irrelevant items, while the IC did not. The functional ANOVA supported the initial results that facial temperatures of the GC elevated when responding to crime relevant items, demonstrating an interaction between group (guilty/innocent) and relevance (relevant/irrelevant). The functional discriminant analysis revealed that answering crime relevant items can be used to discriminate guilty from innocent participants. These results suggest that measuring facial temperatures in the periorbital region while conducting the Concealed Information Test is able to differentiate the GC from the IC. PMID:23470924

  20. Host Deception: Predaceous Fungus, Esteya vermicola, Entices Pine Wood Nematode by Mimicking the Scent of Pine Tree for Nutrient

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Feng; Ye, Jianling; Wang, Huaguang; Zhang, Aijun; Zhao, Boguang

    2013-01-01

    Background A nematophagous fungus, Esteya vermicola, is recorded as the first endoparasitic fungus of pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, in last century. E. vermicola exhibited high infectivity toward PWN in the laboratory conditions and conidia spraying of this fungus on Japanese red pine, Pinus densiflora, seedlings in the field protected the pine trees from pine wilt disease to some extent, indicating that it is a potential bio-control agent against PWN. Previous research had demonstrated that the living fungal mycelia of E. vermicola continuously produced certain volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which were responsible for the PWN attraction. However, identity of these VOCs remains unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we report the identification of α-pinene, β-pinene, and camphor produced by living mycelia of E. vermicola, the same volatile compounds emitted from PWN host pine tree, as the major VOCs for PWN attraction using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, we also confirmed the host deception behavior of E. vermicola to PWN by using synthetic VOCs in a straightforward laboratory bioassay. Conclusions/Significance This research result has demonstrated that the endoparasitic nematophagous fungus, E. vermicola, mimics the scent of PWN host pine tree to entice PWN for the nutrient. The identification of the attractive VOCs emitted from the fungus E. vermicola is of significance in better understanding parasitic mechanism of the fungus and the co-evolution in the two organisms and will aid management of the pine wilt disease. PMID:23990972

  1. Embedded ARM System for Volcano Monitoring in Remote Areas: Application to the Active Volcano on Deception Island (Antarctica)

    PubMed Central

    Peci, Luis Miguel; Berrocoso, Manuel; Fernández-Ros, Alberto; García, Alicia; Marrero, José Manuel; Ortiz, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a multi-parameter system for monitoring volcanic activity. The system permits the remote access and the connection of several modules in a network. An embedded ARM™™ processor has been used, allowing a great flexibility in hardware configuration. The use of a complete Linux solution (Debian™) as Operating System permits a quick, easy application development to control sensors and communications. This provides all the capabilities required and great stability with relatively low energy consumption. The cost of the components and applications development is low since they are widely used in different fields. Sensors and commercial modules have been combined with other self-developed modules. The Modular Volcano Monitoring System (MVMS) described has been deployed on the active Deception Island (Antarctica) volcano, within the Spanish Antarctic Program, and has proved successful for monitoring the volcano, with proven reliability and efficient operation under extreme conditions. In another context, i.e., the recent volcanic activity on El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) in 2011, this technology has been used for the seismic equipment and GPS systems deployed, thus showing its efficiency in the monitoring of a volcanic crisis. PMID:24451461

  2. Seasonal variation in biochemical indicators of physiological status in Euphausia superba from Port Foster, Deception Island, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, M.; Kaufmann, R. S.; Lowery, M. S.

    2003-06-01

    Seasonal changes in biochemical indicators of physiological status were analyzed in abdominal muscle of the Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, collected from Port Foster, Deception Island, an active volcano located in the Shetland Island chain west of the Antarctic Peninsula. Krill were collected with a 10 m 2 MOCNESS trawl during four cruises (November 1999, February, May, November 2000). RNA:DNA mirrored the chlorophyll a concentration, with the highest values found during seasons of abundant phytoplankton. Activities of the glycolytic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the mitochondrial enzyme citrate synthase (CS) were significantly higher in male krill when compared to females of similar size, indicating that their burst and aerobic swimming performance may be higher than females throughout the year. RNA:DNA ratio and enzyme activities were highly elevated in summer as compared to the earliest spring sampling period. Krill showed significant seasonal changes in LDH activity, with lowest values in spring and highest values in summer (females) or autumn (males). Krill showed significant seasonal changes in CS activity with highest values in summer. Protein and % water varied significantly among seasons for both males and females. Lower CS activity and RNA:DNA ratio suggest krill exhibit reduced metabolism during the winter when phytoplankton production is reduced, perhaps enhancing survival. Lower enzyme activities in female krill in early spring suggest they may achieve greater metabolic suppression during overwintering.

  3. A two-state quantum level and power analysis of event-related scalp potential data relevant to the detection of deception and to the discrimination of correlates of high-order cognitive functioning.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillaci, Michael

    2006-11-01

    We propose a novel analysis approach for scalp potential data within a Quantum Mechanical formalism for voltage measures obtained during truthful and deceptive responses to questions regarding autobiographical information; our results not only provide independent verification for recent studies showing that surface skin temperature may improve the accuracy of traditional polygraph, but also provides an argument for the appropriateness and efficacy of the quantum-level analysis offered. Regional attenuation and cognitive activity levels for areas of neurophysiological significance are assessed and show that deceptive response-states emit between 8% and 10% less power. A time course analysis of the cognitive activity over posterior and anterior regions of the brain supports this finding suggesting that neocortical interactions reflecting differing workload demands during executive and semantic processes take longer for the case of deception.

  4. Anaplasma phagocytophilum: deceptively simple or simply deceptive?

    PubMed Central

    Severo, Maiara S; Stephens, Kimberly D; Kotsyfakis, Michail; Pedra, Joao HF

    2012-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular rickettsial pathogen transmitted by ixodid ticks. This bacterium colonizes myeloid and nonmyeloid cells and causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis – an important immunopathological vector-borne disease in the USA, Europe and Asia. Recent studies uncovered novel insights into the mechanisms of A. phagocytophilum pathogenesis and immunity. Here, we provide an overview of the underlying events by which the immune system responds to A. phagocytophilum infection, how this pathogen counteracts host immunity and the contribution of the tick vector for microbial transmission. We also discuss current scientific gaps in the knowledge of A. phagocytophilum biology for the purpose of exchanging research perspectives. PMID:22702526

  5. Thirty-site P300 scalp distribution, amplitude variance across sites, and amplitude in detection of deceptive concealment of multiple guilty items.

    PubMed

    Lui, Ming Ann; Rosenfeld, J Peter; Ryan, Andrew H

    2009-01-01

    Previous tests of P300 in deception detection have focused mainly on amplitude analysis. Since countermeasures for such tests have been reported, we looked here at other possible variables as deception indices: P300 scalp distribution and amplitude variance, both across 30 sites. We were also concerned, for the first time, in testing for recognition of more than one guilty item in a mock crime scenario. There were three groups: (1) two-probe group, two of six items were guilty knowledge (GK) items; (2) three-probe group, three of six items were GK items; (3) control group, zero of six items were GK items. In group analyses, in the two-probe group, P300s for lies were significantly greater than P300s for truthful responses. There were significant interactions of condition (Lie vs Truth) by site, suggesting different scalp profiles for deceptive versus truthful responding. Amplitude variance across sites was also greater in Lie than in Truth blocks. These results did not obtain in the three-probe and control groups. In terms of amplitude variances in probe conditions across groups, two-probe group was larger than three-probe and control groups. Regarding individual diagnostics, the variance method yielded a greater-than-chance detection rate of 71% versus 28% false positives. Regarding amplitude at multiple nonfrontal sites, 71% of guilty subjects were detected versus 14% false positives. Grier's (1971) A' indices of various test discrimination efficiencies varied from .76 to .87. Results of the present study suggested further investigation of the variance method as a diagnostic tool for lie detection. PMID:18633836

  6. Assigned versus random, countermeasure-like responses in the p300 based complex trial protocol for detection of deception: task demand effects.

    PubMed

    Meixner, John B; Haynes, Alexander; Winograd, Michael R; Brown, Jordan; Peter Rosenfeld, J

    2009-09-01

    We recently introduced an accurate and countermeasure resistant P300-based deception detection test called the complex trial protocol (Rosenfeld et al. in Psychophysiology 45(6):906-919, 2008). When subjects use countermeasures to all irrelevant items in the test, the probe P300 is increased rather than reduced (as it was in previous P300-based deception protocols), allowing detection of countermeasure users. The current experiment examines the role of task demand on the complex trial protocol by forcing the subject to make countermeasure-like response to stimuli. Subjects made either a simple random button response to both probe and irrelevant stimuli (experiment 1) or a more complex, assigned, button response to probe and irrelevant stimuli (experiment 2). We found that an increase in task demand reduced the effectiveness of the test. Using random responses we found a simple guilty hit rate of 11/12 with no false positives, but only a 4/11 hit rate for countermeasure-users. Using assigned responses we found a simple guilty hit rate of 8/15 with no false positives, and a 7/16 hit rate for countermeasure-users. We herein suggest that the high level of task demand associated with these countermeasure-like responses causes reduced hit rates. PMID:19543970

  7. CAMEO-SIM: a physics-based broadband scene simulation tool for assessment of camouflage, concealment, and deception methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorhead, Ian R.; Gilmore, Marilyn A.; Houlbrook, Alexander W.; Oxford, David E.; Filbee, David R.; Stroud, Colin A.; Hutchings, G.; Kirk, Albert

    2001-09-01

    Assessment of camouflage, concealment, and deception (CCD) methodologies is not a trivial problem; conventionally the only method has been to carry out field trials, which are both expensive and subject to the vagaries of the weather. In recent years computing power has increased, such that there are now many research programs using synthetic environments for CCD assessments. Such an approach is attractive; the user has complete control over the environmental parameters and many more scenarios can be investigated. The UK Ministry of Defence is currently developing a synthetic scene generation tool for assessing the effectiveness of air vehicle camouflage schemes. The software is sufficiently flexible to allow it to be used in a broader range of applications, including full CCD assessment. The synthetic scene simulation system (CAMEO- SIM) has been developed, as an extensible system, to provide imagery within the 0.4 to 14 micrometers spectral band with as high a physical fidelity as possible. it consists of a scene design tool, an image generator, that incorporates both radiosity and ray-tracing process, and an experimental trials tool. The scene design tool allows the user to develop a 3D representation of the scenario of interest from a fixed viewpoint. Target(s) of interest can be placed anywhere within this 3D representation and may be either static or moving. Different illumination conditions and effects of the atmosphere can be modeled together with directional reflectance effects. The user has complete control over the level of fidelity of the final image. The output from the rendering tool is a sequence of radiance maps, which may be used by sensor models or for experimental trials in which observers carry out target acquisition tasks. The software also maintains an audit trail of all data selected to generate a particular image, both in terms of material properties used and the rendering options chosen. A range of verification tests has shown that the

  8. The politics and strategy of industry self-regulation: the pharmaceutical industry's principles for ethical direct-to-consumer advertising as a deceptive blocking strategy.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Denis G; Oakley, James L

    2013-06-01

    As the pharmaceutical industry lobbies European regulators to permit direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs in the European Union, we found that five leading companies violated industry-developed and -promulgated standards for ethical advertising in the United States. Utilizing multiple data sources and methods, we demonstrate a consistent failure by companies that market erectile dysfunction drugs to comply with the industry's guiding principles for ethical DTCA over a four-year period despite pledges of compliance by company leaders. Noncompliance resulted in children being exposed to sexually themed promotional messages more than 100 billion times. We argue that the guidelines are a coordinated effort by the industry to prevent unwanted federal regulation, and we introduce the concept of a blocking strategy to explain company behavior and to advance theoretical understanding of firms' public affairs strategies. We recommend policy responses to prevent deceptive practices, protect children from adult content, and promote genuine health care education. PMID:23418365

  9. [Cairo: a double deception].

    PubMed

    Vallin, J

    1994-01-01

    The 3rd International Conference on Population and Development, held in Cairo in September 1994, was attended by 180 delegations of UN members and 15,000 participants in both the official conference and a vast forum of nongovernmental organizations. The nearly universal national representation, despite absence of Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and some other Islamic countries, was a great achievement for the conference organizers and the host country. Each delegation expressed its views in an official declaration to the plenary session, while representatives to the main committee debated the program of action drafted in a long series of meetings in preparation for the conference. None of the preparations or addresses to the conference were able to prevent an unrewarding seven-day debate in the main committee over abortion. More disappointing was the failure to engage in a deep debate over development issues. A number of recommendations touched on education, health, and improving the status of women, but only as factors in fertility decline. The issue of development should have been discussed as it relates to the satisfaction of the needs of the five billion living inhabitants of the planet and the ten billion projected for the next century. The second great disappointment of the conference was that some of the progressive contents of the preliminary document submitted to the conference were greatly watered down. The preliminary document offered real progress in achieving a more lucid and ideology-free approach to questions that have long remained taboo because they touch on the freedoms of men and women in their most profoundly intimate aspects. The text clarified aspects of the rights of individuals in relation to social institutions: the right to health and education in sexuality and reproduction, recognition of the existence of different types of unions and families, and the right to family regrouping. Most of the innovative articles provoked controversy in the preparatory meetings. During the conference, the articles dealing especially with abortion, personal autonomy, and family regrouping were amended and changed to such a degree that they often lost their original meaning. PMID:12178207

  10. Detecting Deception in 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lykken, David T.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews in contemporary detail, but without reference to Orwell's book "1984," a problem that plagued the Inner Party and its Thought Police: "how to discover, against his will, what another human being is thinking." Polygraph tests and lie detectors are discussed. (RM)

  11. The state of permafrost surrounding "Gabriel de Castilla" Spanish Antarctic Station (Deception Island, Antarctica): Studying the possible degradation due to the infrastructures heating effect.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recio, Cayetana; Ángel de Pablo, MIguel; Ramos, MIguel; Molina, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Permafrost degradation is one of the effects of the global warming. Many studies reveal the increase of active layer and reduction on permafrost table thickness, also in Antarctica. However, these trends on permafrost can be accelerated by the human activities, as the heating produced by the Antarctic stations infrastructures when they are not properly isolated from the ground. In Deception island, South Shetland Archipelago, we started 3 years ago a monitoring program at the 26 years old "Gabriel de Castilla" Spanish Antarctic Station (SAS), It is focused on charactering the state of permafrost, since in the coastal scarps at tens of meters from the station an increase on erosion had been detected. Although the main cause of the erosion of this coastal volcanoclastic materials is the 2 meters thick icefield which forms during the winter in the inner sea of this volcanic island, we want to detect any possible contribution to the coastal erosion caused by the permafrost degradation related to the SAS presence. We present our preliminary analysis based on three years of continuous ground temperature data, monitored at a shallow borehole (70 cm deep) in the SAS edge, together with the active layer thickness measured around the station and their vicinities in two thawing seasons. We complete this study with the analysis of the continuous temperature data taken inside the SAS and the air and ground temperatures below the station, acquired during the last Antarctic Campaign (December 2014-February 2015). These preliminary results are fundamental 1) to discard any contribution from the SAS presence, and to help to improve its thermal isolation, 2) to help improve our knowledge about the thermal state of permafrost in the area, and 3) to help to understand the causes of the coastal erosion in the volcanic Deception Island.

  12. Paleomagnetism from Deception Island (South Shetlands archipelago, Antarctica), new insights into the interpretation of the volcanic evolution using a geomagnetic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva-Urcia, B.; Gil-Peña, I.; Maestro, A.; López-Martínez, J.; Galindo-Zaldívar, J.; Soto, R.; Gil-Imaz, A.; Rey, J.; Pueyo, O.

    2016-07-01

    Deception Island shows the most recent exposed active volcanism in the northern boundary of the Bransfield Trough. The succession of the volcanic sequence in the island is broadly divided into pre- and post-caldera collapse units although a well-constrained chronological identification of the well-defined successive volcanic episodes is still needed. A new paleomagnetic investigation was carried out on 157 samples grouped in 20 sites from the volcanic deposits of Deception Island (South Shetlands archipelago, Antarctic Peninsula region) distributed in: (1) volcanic breccia (3 sites) and lavas (2 sites) prior to the caldera collapse; (2) lavas emplaced after the caldera collapse (10 sites); and (3) dikes cutting pre- and the lowermost post-caldera collapse units (5 sites). The information revealed by paleomagnetism provides new data about the evolution of the multi-episodic volcanic edifice of this Quaternary volcano, suggesting that the present-day position of the volcanic materials is close to their original emplacement position. The new data have been combined with previous paleomagnetic results in order to tentatively propose an age when comparing the paleomagnetic data with a global geomagnetic model. Despite the uncertainties in the use of averaged paleomagnetic data per volcanic units, the new data in combination with tephra occurrences noted elsewhere in the region suggest that the pre-caldera units (F1 and F2) erupted before 12,000 year BC, the caldera collapse took place at about 8300 year BC, and post-caldera units S1 and S2 are younger than 2000 year BC.

  13. Paleomagnetism from Deception Island (South Shetlands archipelago, Antarctica), new insights into the interpretation of the volcanic evolution using a geomagnetic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva-Urcia, B.; Gil-Peña, I.; Maestro, A.; López-Martínez, J.; Galindo-Zaldívar, J.; Soto, R.; Gil-Imaz, A.; Rey, J.; Pueyo, O.

    2015-10-01

    Deception Island shows the most recent exposed active volcanism in the northern boundary of the Bransfield Trough. The succession of the volcanic sequence in the island is broadly divided into pre- and post-caldera collapse units although a well-constrained chronological identification of the well-defined successive volcanic episodes is still needed. A new paleomagnetic investigation was carried out on 157 samples grouped in 20 sites from the volcanic deposits of Deception Island (South Shetlands archipelago, Antarctic Peninsula region) distributed in: (1) volcanic breccia (3 sites) and lavas (2 sites) prior to the caldera collapse; (2) lavas emplaced after the caldera collapse (10 sites); and (3) dikes cutting pre- and the lowermost post-caldera collapse units (5 sites). The information revealed by paleomagnetism provides new data about the evolution of the multi-episodic volcanic edifice of this Quaternary volcano, suggesting that the present-day position of the volcanic materials is close to their original emplacement position. The new data have been combined with previous paleomagnetic results in order to tentatively propose an age when comparing the paleomagnetic data with a global geomagnetic model. Despite the uncertainties in the use of averaged paleomagnetic data per volcanic units, the new data in combination with tephra occurrences noted elsewhere in the region suggest that the pre-caldera units (F1 and F2) erupted before 12,000 year BC, the caldera collapse took place at about 8300 year BC, and post-caldera units S1 and S2 are younger than 2000 year BC.

  14. Deception rate in a "lying game": different effects of excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of right and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex not found with inhibitory stimulation.

    PubMed

    Karton, Inga; Palu, Annegrete; Jõks, Kerli; Bachmann, Talis

    2014-11-01

    Knowing the brain processes involved in lying is the key point in today's deception detection studies. We have previously found that stimulating the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) affects the rate of spontaneous lying in simple behavioural tasks. The main idea of this study was to examine the role of rTMS applied to the DLPFC in the behavioural conditions where subjects were better motivated to lie compared to our earlier studies and where all possible conditions (inhibition of left and right DLPFC with 1-Hz and sham; excitation of left and right DLPFC with 10-Hz and sham) were administered to the same subjects. It was expected that excitation of the left DLPFC with rTMS decreases and excitation of the right DLPFC increases the rate of lying and that inhibitory stimulation reverses the effects. As was expected, excitation of the left DLPFC decreased lying compared to excitation of the right DLPFC, but contrary to the expectation, inhibition had no different effects. These findings suggest that propensity to lie can be manipulated by non-invasive excitatory brain stimulation by TMS targeted at DLPFC and the direction of the effect depends on the cortical target locus. PMID:25233864

  15. The Self- and Other-Deception Questionnaires-Intellectual Disabilities (SDQ-ID and ODQ-ID): component analysis and reliability.

    PubMed

    Jobson, Laura; Stanbury, Alexandra; Langdon, Peter E

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this research were to: (1) investigate the component structure and psychometric properties of the Self- and Other-Deception Questionnaires-Intellectual Disabilities (SDQ-ID and ODQ-ID), (2) examine the relationship between social desirability and IQ, and (3) compare social desirability scores of those with intellectual disabilities (IDs) and a history of criminal offending to the social desirability scores of participants with IDs and those without IDs and no such history, controlling for general intellectual functioning. Men with mild to borderline IDs detained within medium secure inpatient forensic mental health services (N=40) completed the SDQ-ID and ODQ-ID at Time 1 and then two-weeks later at Time 2. Data for the men with and without IDs and no known criminal offending history were taken from a previous study (N=60). Following exploratory Principal Components Analysis, the number of questionnaire items were reduced, and a two-factor structure was found for the SDQ-ID which was labelled: (1) Positive Self Representation and (2) Denial of Intrusive Thoughts. A two-factor structure was also found for the ODQ-ID and these two factors were labelled: (1) Denial of Negative Social Interaction and (2) Untrustworthiness. Both the SDQ-ID and ODQ-ID had acceptable internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Fifteen percent of the variance in SDQ-ID scores was explained by Full Scale IQ, while 21% of the variance in ODQ-ID scores was explained by Full Scale IQ. Between group comparisons controlling for intelligence did not yield any significant differences. The shortened SDQ-ID and ODQ-ID have promising psychometric properties, and their component structures appear robust. Differences between men with and without IDs on these two measures of social desirability can be accounted for by differences in general intellectual functioning. PMID:23962604

  16. Science & the Senses: Perceptions & Deceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, William D.

    2012-01-01

    Science requires the acquisition and analysis of empirical (sense-derived) data. Given the same physical objects or phenomena, the sense organs of all people do not respond equally to these stimuli, nor do their minds interpret sensory signals identically. Therefore, teachers should develop lectures on human sensory systems that include some…

  17. Counselor Accountability: Deception in Educational Jargon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliste, Edward R.

    1978-01-01

    After reviewing the role of the school counselor, methods of evaluation, and criteria for measurment of effectiveness, this article provides recommendations for improving the counselor's productivity. (DS)

  18. 16 CFR 18.1 - Deception (general).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... fact. (4) That an industry product is a new variety, when in fact it is a standard variety to which the industry member has given a new name. (5) That an industry product cannot be purchased through usual retail..., or distribute industry products by any method or under any circumstance or condition...

  19. Why Television Advertising Is Deceptive and Unfair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsen, Rose K.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses many topics, including proposals to limit television advertisers' access to children; the dependence of television commercials on involuntary, mnemonic learning; the way television commercials' bypassing of rationality is aided by cognitive processing of music, rhythms, and familiar sensory events; and ideas for correcting the damage…

  20. Cooperation and deception: from evolution to mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Brosnan, Sarah F; Bshary, Redouan

    2010-09-12

    Nature is full of struggle, as predicted by the theory of evolution through natural selection, yet there are also paramount examples where individuals help each other. These instances of helping have been difficult to reconcile with Darwin's theory because it is not always obvious how individuals are working for their own direct benefit. Consequently, initial publications that offered solutions to subsets of the observed cases of helping, such as kin selection or reciprocity, are among the most influential and most cited papers in evolution/behavioural ecology. During the last few years, a wave of new studies and concepts has considerably advanced our understanding of the conditions under which individuals are selected to help others. On the empirical side, advances are due to stronger incorporation of the natural history of each study species and an emphasis on proximate questions regarding decision-making processes. In parallel, theorists have provided more realistic models together with an increased exploration of the importance of life history and ecology in understanding cooperation. The ideas presented by the authors of this volume represent, in many ways, the revolutionary new approach to studying behaviour which is currently underway. PMID:20679104

  1. 16 CFR 18.1 - Deception (general).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... transplanted, growth ability, growth characteristics, rate of growth or time required before flowering or... system of any plant is larger in depth or diameter than that which actually exists, whether...

  2. 16 CFR 18.1 - Deception (general).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... transplanted, growth ability, growth characteristics, rate of growth or time required before flowering or... system of any plant is larger in depth or diameter than that which actually exists, whether...

  3. Pheochromocytoma and pregnancy: a deceptive connection.

    PubMed

    Lenders, Jacques W M

    2012-02-01

    A pheochromocytoma in a pregnant patient is one of the most threatening medical conditions for mother, fetus, and physician. Although extraordinarily rare with a frequency of 0.002% of all pregnancies, this tumor is notorious for its devastating consequences. As in non-pregnant patients, the signs and symptoms are quite variable but not specific, with hypertension being one of the most prominent signs. Confusion with the much more prevalent forms of pregnancy-related hypertension is the main cause of overlooking the diagnosis. If undiagnosed, maternal and fetal mortality is around 50%. Conversely, early detection and proper treatment during pregnancy decrease the maternal and fetal mortality to <5 and 15% respectively. For the biochemical diagnosis, plasma or urinary metanephrines are the tests of first choice since they have a nearly maximal negative predictive value. For reliable localization, only magnetic resonance imaging is suitable, with a sensitivity of more than 90%. When the tumor is diagnosed in the first 24 weeks of gestation, it should be removed by laparoscopic adrenalectomy after 10-14 days of medical preparation with the same drugs as in non-pregnant patients. If the tumor is diagnosed in the third trimester, the patient should be managed until the fetus is viable using the same drug regimen as for regular surgical preparation. Cesarean section with tumor removal in the same session or at a later stage is then preferred since vaginal delivery is possibly associated with higher mortality. Despite all technical diagnostic and therapeutic progress over the last decades, the key factor for further reduction of maternal and fetal mortality is early awareness and recognition of the potential presence of a pheochromocytoma in a pregnant patient with hypertension. PMID:21890650

  4. [Economisation of research -- or: what price deception?].

    PubMed

    Fischer, K

    2005-06-01

    According to the accepted credo of German science policy the organization of research has to be reshaped to fit the needs of the national economy better than it did so in the past. This is seen as a conditio sine qua non to help German corporations to prevail in the global competition as well as to protect national welfare. The author argues that reorganizing research on a strictly mission-oriented line under economic imperatives will partly suspend the code of science in favor of the code of economy. The focal aim of science, which is to reach at the most reliable information in a methodical and impartial way, will be partly replaced by the aim to reach at the best sellable information in any way which is cheap and profitable. The probability that any information which might endanger the market performance of a product is clandestinely kept under cover by the selling corporation will be greatly enlarged. Expert knowledge necessary to uncover the truth will be mainly interest bound and no longer be freely available. Knowledge perceived to be irrelevant for economy, although possibly being of great intrinsic interest, and even knowledge which might become an essential part of a culture's identity, will be lost on its search for an investor. The great danger is that this applies also to important parts of basic science potentially providing the foundations for future technologies. Externalities such as these could be called the costs of economization, or: the costs of untruth. PMID:15915386

  5. Paternalism and factitious disorder: medical treatment in illness deception.

    PubMed

    Fry, Anthony; Gergel, Tania L

    2016-08-01

    The primary aims are to consider whether a range of paternalistic medical interventions can be justified in the treatment of factitious disorder (FD) and to show that the particularities of FD and its management make it an ideal phenomenon to highlight the difficulties of balancing respect for self-determination, responsibility and duty of care in psychiatry. FD is usually classified as a mental disorder involving deliberate and hidden feigning or inducement of illness, in order to achieve patient status. Both the nature of the disorder and the approach to treatment are controversial and under-researched. It is argued that FD should be classified as a mental disorder; may well expose the patient to extreme risk; can warrant paternalistic interventions, in order to fulfil duty of care. Moreover, treatment of FD is inherently paternalistic and therefore raises interesting questions about justifications and type of paternalistic interventions in psychiatry both for FD and in general. A brief account of key questions concerning psychiatry and paternalism is followed by some case histories of FD, the clinical dilemmas posed and the question of how this disorder might warrant paternalistic interventions. In order to answer this question, two things are considered: the legitimacy and character of FD as a mental disorder; possible frameworks for and types of paternalistic interventions. To conclude, it is argued that there are no compelling reasons for rejecting the use of paternalistic interventions for FD, but that further investigation of FD and type and frameworks for psychiatric paternalism, in relation to FD and other mental disorders, are urgently needed. PMID:26063587

  6. The Tangled Web: Delinquency, Deception, and Parental Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warr, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Delinquent youth display weaker attachment to their parents than do other youth, but the reasons for this remain unclear. One explanation is that delinquent youth poison their relations with parents by lying to them about their friends, behavior, whereabouts, and more. Analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health…

  7. Conjuring Deceptions: Fooling the Eye or Fooling the Mind?

    PubMed

    Ekroll, Vebjørn; Wagemans, Johan

    2016-07-01

    Currently, we see the contours of a new research program emerging, where cognitive scientists study what magicians do and why it works. This research program may aid us in formulating interesting questions about central aspects of human experience and in gaining new perspectives on the relation between perception and cognition. PMID:27212588

  8. Genetic Essentialism: On the Deceptive Determinism of DNA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dar-Nimrod, Ilan; Heine, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces the notion of genetic essentialist biases: cognitive biases associated with essentialist thinking that are elicited when people encounter arguments that genes are relevant for a behavior, condition, or social group. Learning about genetic attributions for various human conditions leads to a particular set of thoughts…

  9. Appearance can be deceptive: Dentigerous cyst crossing the midline.

    PubMed

    Paul, Rahul; Paul, Geeta; Prasad, Ruchika K; Singh, Shilpa; Agarwal, Nitin; Sinha, Abhishek

    2013-01-01

    Dentigerous cyst is a developmental odontogenic cyst, which develops by accumulation of fluid between reduced enamel epithelium and the tooth crown of an unerupted tooth. Dentigerous cysts are usually solitary, slow growing, asymptomatic lesions that are incidentally found during routine radiographs They most frequently involve the mandibular third molar followed in order of frequency by the maxillary canine, mandibular second pre-molar and maxillary third molar. Occasionally, these cysts become painful when infected causing swelling and erythema. The cyst is usually small, however, when large, results in the expansion and thinning of the cortex leading to pathological fracture. Radiographic features are specific to the lesion characterized by a well-defined radiolucency circumscribed by a sclerotic border, associated with the crown of an impacted or unerupted tooth. Dentigerous cysts are treated most commonly by enucleation, Marsupialization and decompression of cyst by fenestration. The criteria for selecting the treatment modality is based on the age, size, location, stage of root development, position of the involved tooth and relation of the lesion to the adjacent tooth and vital structure. The prognosis is an excellent when the cyst is enucleated and recurrence is rare. In this article, we present a case of a Dentigerous cyst in an 80-year-old man in the anterior aspect of the mandible enveloping an impacted canine and crossing the midline but with no clinical expansion or discomfort. PMID:24163563

  10. Chemotaxonomy of Black Raspberry: deception in the marketplace?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation will focus on the phytochemical portion of our research into breeding commercial black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.; blackcap) cultivars with better fruit quality. Over the last eight years, we have analyzed the fruit from over 1,000 black raspberry genotypes, and found the ant...

  11. 12 CFR 535.13 - Unfair or deceptive cosigner practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... cosigned (e.g., a loan identification number); (iii) The date (of the transaction); and (iv) The statement... a spouse or other person whose signature is required on a credit obligation to perfect a...

  12. 12 CFR 535.13 - Unfair or deceptive cosigner practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... cosigned (e.g., a loan identification number); (iii) The date (of the transaction); and (iv) The statement... a spouse or other person whose signature is required on a credit obligation to perfect a...

  13. 12 CFR 535.13 - Unfair or deceptive cosigner practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... cosigned (e.g., a loan identification number); (iii) The date (of the transaction); and (iv) The statement... a spouse or other person whose signature is required on a credit obligation to perfect a...

  14. 12 CFR 535.13 - Unfair or deceptive cosigner practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... cosigned (e.g., a loan identification number); (iii) The date (of the transaction); and (iv) The statement... a spouse or other person whose signature is required on a credit obligation to perfect a...

  15. 16 CFR 310.3 - Deceptive telemarketing acts or practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... subject of a sales offer; (iii) Any material aspect of the performance, efficacy, nature, or central...., and Regulation Z, 12 CFR 226, compliance with the disclosure requirements under the Truth in Lending....S.C. 1601 '>et seq., and Regulation Z, 12 CFR part 226. 4 Electronic Fund Transfer Act, 15...

  16. Pretence and Deception: One Cognitive Watershed or Two?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peskin, Joan

    A total of 48 Canadian, middle-class 3-year-olds participated in a study of their abilities to predict the actions of a story character with a false belief and a story character engaged in pretence. In the experimental situation, a red puppet with pen-markers for legs left an "inky trail" to the location of a hidden treasure in one of three cups…

  17. That Deceptive Line: Plato, Linear Perspective, Visual Perception, and Tragedy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killian, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    In "The Renaissance Rediscovery of Linear Perspective," one of Samuel Edgerton's claims is that Filippo Brunelleschi and his contemporaries did not develop a three-dimensional style of representing the world in painting as much as they reappropriated a way to depict the natural world in painting that most mirrored the human perception of it.…

  18. Chemotaxonomy of Black Raspberry: deception in the marketplace?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation will focus on the phytochemical portion of our research into breeding commercial black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.; blackcap) cultivars with better fruit quality. A North American native, it was traditionally used as a food and a natural colorant, but renewed US consumer inter...

  19. Deception Detection: An Educator's Guide to the Art of Insight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrank, Jeffrey

    This book argues that developing insight into the ordinary is a major part of education. Each of the five chapters contains ideas and activities designed to help students and teachers sharpen their perception of their day-to-day physical and social environment. "Survival Skills in a Consumer Society" examines the way people are persuaded to…

  20. Genetic Essentialism: On the Deceptive Determinism of DNA

    PubMed Central

    Dar-Nimrod, Ilan; Heine, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of genetic essentialist biases: cognitive biases associated with essentialist thinking that are elicited when people encounter arguments that genes are relevant for a behavior, condition, or social group. Learning about genetic attributions for various human conditions leads to a particular set of thoughts regarding those conditions: they are more likely to be perceived as a) immutable and determined, b) having a specific etiology, c) homogeneous and discrete, and, d) natural, which can lead to the naturalistic fallacy. There are rare cases of “strong genetic explanation” when such responses to genetic attributions may be appropriate, however people tend to over-weigh genetic attributions compared with competing attributions even in cases of “weak genetic explanation,” which are far more common. Research on people’s understanding of race, gender, sexual orientation, criminality, mental illness and obesity is reviewed through a genetic essentialism lens, highlighting attitudinal, cognitive and behavioral changes that stem from consideration of genetic attributions as bases of these categories. Scientists and media portrayals of genetic discoveries are discussed with respect to genetic essentialism, as is the role that genetic essentialism has played (and continues to play) in various public policies, legislation, scientific endeavors, and ideological movements in recent history. Last, moderating factors and interventions to reduce the magnitude of genetic essentialism are discussed that identify promising directions to explore in order to reduce these biases. PMID:21142350

  1. Spectral Deception: Understanding Misleading Spectral Features Using Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummels, Cameron B.; Silvia, Devin W.; Smith, Britton

    2016-01-01

    Quasar absorption line studies are our primary source of information for revealing the state of the intergalactic and circumgalacic media (IGM and CGM). Using quasars as bright background sources, tenuous intervening gas clouds imprint absorption features in the resulting spectra providing clues to the clouds' density, temperature, metallicity, and ionization state. Correctly interpreting these spectra is crucial to understanding the distribution of baryons in the universe.Using the Trident code to generate synthetic spectra from high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, we examine how spectral noise, instrument smoothing, and certain configurations of gas can mask the true nature of gas absorbers. We demonstrate how cold gas filaments can create broad spectral features mimicking hot absorbers, and chimneys of hot gas viewed side-on appear as narrow, cold absorbers. Understanding how commonly these conditions occur is critical for correctly characterizing the physical conditions in the media galactic.

  2. Deception in simplicity: hereditary phospholamban mutations in dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Young, Howard S; Ceholski, Delaine K; Trieber, Catharine A

    2015-02-01

    The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium pump (SERCA) and its regulator phospholamban are required for cardiovascular function. Phospholamban alters the apparent calcium affinity of SERCA in a process that is modulated by phosphorylation via the β-adrenergic pathway. This regulatory axis allows for the dynamic control of SR calcium stores and cardiac contractility. Herein we focus on hereditary mutants of phospholamban that are associated with heart failure, such as Arg(9)-Cys, Arg(9)-Leu, Arg(9)-His, and Arg(14)-deletion. Each mutant has a distinct effect on PLN function and SR calcium homeostasis. Arg(9)-Cys and Arg(9)-Leu do not inhibit SERCA, Arg(14)-deletion is a partial inhibitor, and Arg(9)-His is comparable to wild-type. While the mutants have distinct functional effects on SERCA, they have in common that they cannot be phosphorylated by protein kinase A (PKA). Arg(9) and Arg(14) are required for PKA recognition and phosphorylation of PLN. Thus, mutations at these positions eliminate β-adrenergic control and dynamic cardiac contractility. Hydrophobic mutations of Arg(9) cause more complex changes in function, including loss of PLN function and dominant negative interaction with SERCA in heterozygous individuals. In addition, aberrant interaction with PKA may prevent phosphorylation of wild-type PLN and sequester PKA from other local subcellular targets. Herein we consider what is known about each mutant and how the synergistic changes in SR calcium homeostasis lead to impaired cardiac contractility and dilated cardiomyopathy. PMID:25563649

  3. Deceptive Imprinting and Immune Refocusing in Vaccine Design

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A large number of the world’s most widespread and problematic pathogens evade host immune responses by inducing strain specific immunity to immunodominant epitopes with high mutation rates capable of altering antigenic profiles. The immune system appears to be decoyed into reacting to these immunod...

  4. Deceptively Simple: Writing's Answer to the Mobius Strip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraver, Jeraldine R.

    2011-01-01

    Integrating writing instruction into the content-area classroom poses a variety of challenges for instructors at all levels. Beyond the need to embrace a new skill set involving writing instruction, there is the resistance of students (and faculty) who find a disconnection between content-area and literacy learning. Developing a method for…

  5. Vocal cues to deception: a comparative channel approach.

    PubMed

    Scherer, K R; Feldstein, S; Bond, R N; Rosenthal, R

    1985-07-01

    The study investigated the leakage potential of different voice and speech cues using a cue isolation and masking design. Speech samples taken from an earlier experiment were used in which 15 female students of nursing dissimulated negative affect produced by an unpleasant movie or told the truth about positive affect following a pleasant movie. Several groups of judges rated these speech samples in five conditions: (1) forward or clear, (2) electronic filtering, (3) random splicing, (4) backwards, (5) pitch inversion, (6) tone-silence sequences. The results show that vocal cues do indeed carry leakage information and that, as reflected in the differences among the conditions masking different types of cues respectively, voice quality cues may be centrally implicated. In addition, gender differences in decoding ability are discussed. PMID:4032322

  6. 7 CFR 800.60 - Deceptive actions and practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS Grain Handling... official personnel, any action or practice, including the loading, weighing, handling, or sampling of...

  7. 7 CFR 800.60 - Deceptive actions and practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS Grain Handling... official personnel, any action or practice, including the loading, weighing, handling, or sampling of...

  8. 75 FR 7925 - Unfair or Deceptive Acts or Practices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... rule was published in the Federal Register on January 29, 2009 (See 74 FR 5498 (January 2009 Regulation... Register on May 5, 2009. See 74 FR 20804. This final rule applies only to the Board's Regulation AA and... Regulation AA Rule, which were scheduled to go into effect on July 1, 2010, have been superseded...

  9. Deceptively Simple Harmonic Motion: A Mass on a Spiral Spring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, F. Alan

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the oscillatory motion of a mass on a spiral (nonhelical) spring, and calculates the lowest eigenfrequency and the associated effective spring mass for a range of values of the attached mass. Analytic and numerical comparisons are made to the helical spring problem. (HM)

  10. 16 CFR 18.2 - Deception through use of names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., 1976, L. H. Bailey Hortorium; Naming and Registering New Cultivars, 1974, American Association of... organizations selected as international and national cultivar registration authorities as enumerated in Appendix of Naming and Registering New Cultivars....

  11. Pseudopollen in Dendrobium unicum Seidenf. (Orchidaceae): Reward or Deception?

    PubMed Central

    DAVIES, K. L.; TURNER, M. P.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims In 1987, Kjellsson and Rasmussen described the labellar trichomes of Dendrobium unicum Seidenf. and proposed that these hairs function as pseudopollen. Pseudopollen is a mealy material that superficially resembles pollen, is usually laden with food substances and is formed when labellar hairs either fragment into individual cells or become detached from the labellum. However, the trichomes of D. unicum are very different from pseudopollen‐forming hairs found in other orchid genera such as Maxillaria and Polystachya. Moreover, Kjellsson and Rasmussen were unable to demonstrate the presence of food substances within these trichomes and argued that even in the absence of food substances, the hairs, in that they superficially resemble pollen, can still attract insects by deceit. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether the labellar trichomes of D. unicum contain food reserves and thus reward potential pollinators or whether they are devoid of foods and attract insects solely by mimicry. • Methods Light microscopy, histochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. • Key Results Dendrobium unicum produces pseudopollen. Pseudopollen here, however, differs from that previously described for other orchid genera in that the pseudopollen‐forming trichomes consist of a stalk cell and a ‘head’ of component cells that separate at maturity, in contrast to Maxillaria and some Polystachya spp. where pseudopollen is formed by the fragmentation of moniliform hairs. Moreover, the pseudopollen of Maxillaria and Polystachya largely contains protein, whereas in D. unicum the main food substance is starch. • Conclusions Flowers of D. unicum, rather than attracting insects solely by deceit may also reward potential pollinators. PMID:15159216

  12. Irony, Deception, and Subjective Truth: Principles for Existential Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saeverot, Herner

    2013-01-01

    This paper takes the position that the aim of existential teaching, i.e., teaching where existential questions are addressed, consists in educating the students in light of subjective truth, where the students are "educated" to exist on their own, i.e., independent of the teacher. The question is whether it is possible to educate in…

  13. 16 CFR 310.3 - Deceptive telemarketing acts or practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... credit products subject to the Truth in Lending Act, 15 U.S.C. 1601 et seq., and Regulation Z, 12 CFR 226... limit a customer's liability in the event of unauthorized use of the customer's credit card, the limits on a cardholder's liability for unauthorized use of a credit card pursuant to 15 U.S.C. 1643;...

  14. Truth, Evasion, and Deception: A Study of Communicative Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kardes, Frank; And Others

    Based on research which suggests that individuals transmit good news more than bad news and that people are motivated to project a positive image of themselves, 48 college students participated in a study to test the hypothesis that individuals would be more conscientious in giving information when future social interaction was anticipated.…

  15. 75 FR 6558 - Unfair or Deceptive Acts or Practices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ..., and the effective date for the amendments was July 1, 2010. 74 FR 5498 (January 29, 2009) (UDAP Rule... amendments to the UDAP Rule. 74 FR 20804 (May 5, 2009). List of Subjects in 12 CFR Part 706 Credit, Credit..., appliances, one radio and one television, linens, china, crockery, kitchenware, and personal...

  16. 75 FR 23565 - Unfair or Deceptive Acts or Practices; Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... rule). 74 FR 5498. OTS issued its rule jointly with rules issued by the Board of Governors of the... amendments). See 74 FR 20804. On May 22, 2009, the President signed into law the Credit Card Accountability... those provisions of the Credit CARD Act that became effective on August 20, 2009. See 74 FR 36077....

  17. 76 FR 49797 - Notice of Permit Modification Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ..., ASPA 140-Parts of Deception Island, ASPA 145- Port Foster, Deception Island, APA 150-Ardley Island, and... 140-Parts of Deception Island, ASPA 145-Port Foster, Deception Island, APA 150-Ardley Island, and...

  18. Cyber-Physical System Security With Deceptive Virtual Hosts for Industrial Control Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Vollmer, Todd; Manic, Milos

    2014-05-01

    A challenge facing industrial control network administrators is protecting the typically large number of connected assets for which they are responsible. These cyber devices may be tightly coupled with the physical processes they control and human induced failures risk dire real-world consequences. Dynamic virtual honeypots are effective tools for observing and attracting network intruder activity. This paper presents a design and implementation for self-configuring honeypots that passively examine control system network traffic and actively adapt to the observed environment. In contrast to prior work in the field, six tools were analyzed for suitability of network entity information gathering. Ettercap, an established network security tool not commonly used in this capacity, outperformed the other tools and was chosen for implementation. Utilizing Ettercap XML output, a novel four-step algorithm was developed for autonomous creation and update of a Honeyd configuration. This algorithm was tested on an existing small campus grid and sensor network by execution of a collaborative usage scenario. Automatically created virtual hosts were deployed in concert with an anomaly behavior (AB) system in an attack scenario. Virtual hosts were automatically configured with unique emulated network stack behaviors for 92% of the targeted devices. The AB system alerted on 100% of the monitored emulated devices.

  19. Use of false ID cards and other deceptive methods to purchase alcoholic beverages during high school.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, R H; Farrow, J A; Banks, B; Giesel, A E

    1998-01-01

    Altered motor vehicle drivers's licenses or other falsified or counterfeit photo identification cards are widely and illegally used by teenagers to obtain beer and other alcohol beverages. We obtained information on the methods currently used by teenagers to purchase beer and wine by asking nine hundred teenagers, between 16-19 years old to complete a brief, confidential questionnaire. High school students most often obtained alcoholic beverages by requesting someone of legal age to purchase it for them. College students used borrowed, altered, or counterfeit identification (ID) more often than high school students. Photo IDs purchased through mail order from a magazine advertisement were used infrequently and when use was attempted, they were sometimes (25%) unsuccessful. Fifteen percent of high school students, 14% of college freshmen, and 24% of teenage drug abusers were able to purchase beer by the case with borrowed, altered, or fake ID. Suggestions to reduce sales of alcohol-containing beverages to minors include universal "carding" of prospective purchasers, use of two view or hologram photos on a drivers' license, requiring three different ID cards at the point of purchase, and penalties to stores that fail to make a good effort to identify underage customers. PMID:9789157

  20. Phoretic nest parasites use sexual deception to obtain transport to their host's nest.

    PubMed

    Saul-Gershenz, Leslie S; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2006-09-19

    Cooperative behaviors are common among social insects such as bees, wasps, ants, and termites, but they have not been reported from insect species that use aggressive mimicry to manipulate and exploit prey or hosts. Here we show that larval aggregations of the blister beetle Meloe franciscanus, which parasitize nests of the solitary bee Habropoda pallida, cooperate to exploit the sexual communication system of their hosts by producing a chemical cue that mimics the sex pheromone of the female bee. Male bees are lured to larval aggregations, and upon contact (pseudocopulation) the beetle larvae attach to the male bees. The larvae transfer to female bees during mating and subsequently are transported to the nests of their hosts. To mimic the chemical and visual signals of female bees effectively, the parasite larvae must cooperate, emphasizing the adaptive value of cooperation between larvae. The aggressive chemical mimicry by the beetle larvae and their subsequent transport to their hosts' nests by the hosts themselves provide an efficient solution to the problem of locating a critical but scarce resource in a harsh environment. PMID:16966608

  1. Are Errors Differentiable from Deceptive Responses when Feigning Memory Impairment? An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tatia M. C.; Au, Ricky K. C.; Liu, Ho-Ling; Ting, K. H.; Huang, Chih-Mao; Chan, Chetwyn C. H.

    2009-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have suggested that the neural activity associated with truthful recall, with false memory, and with feigned memory impairment are different from one another. Here, we report a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study that addressed an important but yet unanswered question: Is the neural activity associated…

  2. What's Natural about Nature? Deceptive Concepts in Socio-Scientific Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindahl, Mats Gunnar; Linder, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    The conflicts between nature and nurture are brought to the fore and challenges socio-scientific decision-making in science education. The multitude of meanings of these concepts and their roles in societal discourses can impede students' development of understanding for different perspectives, e.g. on gene technology. This study problematizes…

  3. A re-analysis of Price's "Islam and human rights: a case of deceptive first appearances".

    PubMed

    Schumm, Walter R

    2003-12-01

    Daniel Price in his analysis of Islamic Political Culture and Human Rights concluded that "... government rooted in Islam does not facilitate the abuse of human rights." A re-analysis of his data for 23 Islamic governments demonstrates otherwise. There is a significant trend (p<.03), despite the low statistical power available in only 23 cases, for an inverted quadratic relationship between Islamic Political Culture and Human Rights. Among the nations scoring low on Islamic Political Culture, the correlation between the two variables is -.01 (ns); among those scoring high on Islamic Political Culture, the correlation shifts to -.78 (p<.02). At lower scores for Islamic Political Culture, there may indeed be little relationship between Political Culture and Human Rights; however, at higher scores there appears to be a significant relationship between increasing Islamic Political Culture and a decline in Human Rights. The data suggest that extreme applications of Sharia law (if not any secular or religious legal system) may have serious implications for human rights--or at least, Western Euro-American conceptualizations of human rights. At the same time, support for human rights may increase as Islamic governments shift from mostly secular to moderate applications of Islamic law. PMID:14765607

  4. Diagnostic, Explanatory, and Detection Models of Munchausen by Proxy: Extrapolations from Malingering and Deception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The overriding objective is a critical examination of Munchausen syndrome by proxy (MSBP) and its closely-related alternative, factitious disorder by proxy (FDBP). Beyond issues of diagnostic validity, assessment methods and potential detection strategies are explored. Methods: A painstaking analysis was conducted of the MSBP and FDBP…

  5. Lead poisoning and the deceptive recovery of the critically endangered California condor.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Myra E; Doak, Daniel F; George, Daniel; Burnett, Joe; Brandt, Joseph; Church, Molly; Grantham, Jesse; Smith, Donald R

    2012-07-10

    Endangered species recovery programs seek to restore populations to self-sustaining levels. Nonetheless, many recovering species require continuing management to compensate for persistent threats in their environment. Judging true recovery in the face of this management is often difficult, impeding thorough analysis of the success of conservation programs. We illustrate these challenges with a multidisciplinary study of one of the world's rarest birds-the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus). California condors were brought to the brink of extinction, in part, because of lead poisoning, and lead poisoning remains a significant threat today. We evaluated individual lead-related health effects, the efficacy of current efforts to prevent lead-caused deaths, and the consequences of any reduction in currently intensive management actions. Our results show that condors in California remain chronically exposed to harmful levels of lead; 30% of the annual blood samples collected from condors indicate lead exposure (blood lead ≥ 200 ng/mL) that causes significant subclinical health effects, measured as >60% inhibition of the heme biosynthetic enzyme δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase. Furthermore, each year, ∼20% of free-flying birds have blood lead levels (≥450 ng/mL) that indicate the need for clinical intervention to avert morbidity and mortality. Lead isotopic analysis shows that lead-based ammunition is the principle source of lead poisoning in condors. Finally, population models based on condor demographic data show that the condor's apparent recovery is solely because of intensive ongoing management, with the only hope of achieving true recovery dependent on the elimination or substantial reduction of lead poisoning rates. PMID:22733770

  6. Ceruloplasmin (ferroxidase) oxidizes hydroxylamine probes: deceptive implications for free radical detection

    PubMed Central

    Ganini, Douglas; Canistro, Donatella; Jang, JinJie; Stadler, Krisztian; Mason, Ronald P.; Kadiiska, Maria B.

    2012-01-01

    Ceruloplasmin (ferroxidase) is a copper-binding protein known to promote Fe2+ oxidation in plasma of mammals. Besides its classical ferroxidase activity, ceruloplasmin is known to catalyze the oxidation of various substrates, such as amines and catechols. Assays based on cyclic hydroxylamine oxidation are used to quantify and detect free radicals in biological samples ex vivo and in vitro. We show here that human ceruloplasmin promotes the oxidation of the cyclic hydroxylamine 1-hydroxy-3-carboxy-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine hydrochloride (CPH) and related probes in Chelex-treated phosphate buffer and rat serum. The reaction is suppressed by the metal chelators DTPA, EDTA and Desferal, while heparin and bathocuproine have no effect. Catalase or SOD additions do not interfere with the CPH-oxidation yield, demonstrating that free radicals are not involved in the CPH oxidation mediated by ceruloplasmin. Plasma samples immunodepleted of ceruloplasmin have lower levels of CPH oxidation, which confirms the role of ceruloplasmin (ferroxidase) as a biological oxidizing agent of cyclic hydroxylamines. In conclusion, we show that the ferroxidase activity of ceruloplasmin is a possible biological source of artifacts in the cyclic hydroxylamine-oxidation assay used for ROS detection and quantification. PMID:22824865

  7. Predict or classify: The deceptive role of time-locking in brain signal classification

    PubMed Central

    Rusconi, Marco; Valleriani, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Several experimental studies claim to be able to predict the outcome of simple decisions from brain signals measured before subjects are aware of their decision. Often, these studies use multivariate pattern recognition methods with the underlying assumption that the ability to classify the brain signal is equivalent to predict the decision itself. Here we show instead that it is possible to correctly classify a signal even if it does not contain any predictive information about the decision. We first define a simple stochastic model that mimics the random decision process between two equivalent alternatives, and generate a large number of independent trials that contain no choice-predictive information. The trials are first time-locked to the time point of the final event and then classified using standard machine-learning techniques. The resulting classification accuracy is above chance level long before the time point of time-locking. We then analyze the same trials using information theory. We demonstrate that the high classification accuracy is a consequence of time-locking and that its time behavior is simply related to the large relaxation time of the process. We conclude that when time-locking is a crucial step in the analysis of neural activity patterns, both the emergence and the timing of the classification accuracy are affected by structural properties of the network that generates the signal. PMID:27320688

  8. Assessing coral health and resilience in a warming ocean: why looks can be deceptive.

    PubMed

    Wooldridge, Scott A

    2014-11-01

    In this paper I challenge the notion that a healthy and resilient coral is (in all cases) a fast-growing coral, and by inference, that a reef characterised by a fast trajectory toward high coral cover is necessarily a healthy and resilient reef. Instead, I explain how emerging evidence links fast skeletal extension rates with elevated coral-algae (symbiotic) respiration rates, most-often mediated by nutrient-enlarged symbiont populations and/or rising sea temperatures. Elevated respiration rates can act to reduce the autotrophic capacity (photosynthesis:respiration ratio) of the symbiosis. This restricts the capacity of the coral host to build and maintain sufficient energy reserves (e.g. lipids) needed to sustain essential homeostatic functions, including sexual reproduction and biophysical stress resistance. Moreover, it explains the somewhat paradoxical scenario, whereby at the ecological instant before the reef-building capacity of the symbiosis is lost, a reef can look visually at its best and be accreting CaCO(3) at its maximum. PMID:25303686

  9. Pollinator specificity drives strong prepollination reproductive isolation in sympatric sexually deceptive orchids.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Michael R; Peakall, Rod

    2014-06-01

    Few studies have quantified the full range of pre- and postzygotic barriers that limit introgression between closely related plant species. Here, we assess the strength of four isolating mechanisms operating between two morphologically similar and very closely related sympatric orchid taxa, Chiloglottis valida and C. aff. jeanesii. Each taxon sexually attracts its specific wasp pollinator via distinct floral volatile chemistry. Behavioral experiments with flowers and synthetic versions of their floral volatiles confirmed that very strong pollinator isolation is mediated by floral odor chemistry. However, artificially placing flowers of the two taxa in contact proximity revealed the potential for rare interspecific pollination. Although we found hybrid vigor in F1 hybrids produced by hand-crossing, genetic analysis at both nuclear and chloroplast loci showed significant and moderate-to-strong genetic differentiation between taxa. A Bayesian clustering method for the detection of introgression at nuclear loci failed to find any evidence for hybridization across 571 unique genotypes at one site of sympatry. Rather than inhibiting gene flow, postpollination barriers surveyed here show no contribution to overall reproductive isolation. This demonstrates the primacy of pollinators in maintaining species boundaries in these orchids, which display one of the strongest known examples of prepollination floral isolation. PMID:24527666

  10. Verbal Deception from Late Childhood to Middle Adolescence and Its Relation to Executive Functioning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Angela D.; Lee, Kang

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation examined 8- to 16-year-olds' tendency to lie, the sophistication of their lies, and related cognitive factors. Participants were left alone and asked not to look at the answers to a test, but the majority peeked. The researcher then asked a series of questions to examine whether the participants would lie about their…

  11. Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturases are associated with floral isolation in sexually deceptive orchids

    SciTech Connect

    Schluter, P.M.; Shanklin, J.; Xu, S.; Gagliardini, V.; Whittle, E.; Grossniklaus, U.; Schiestl, F. P.

    2011-04-05

    The orchids Ophrys sphegodes and O. exaltata are reproductively isolated from each other by the attraction of two different, highly specific pollinator species. For pollinator attraction, flowers chemically mimic the pollinators sex pheromones, the key components of which are alkenes with different double-bond positions. This study identifies genes likely involved in alkene biosynthesis, encoding stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (SAD) homologs. The expression of two isoforms, SAD1 and SAD2, is flower-specific and broadly parallels alkene production during flower development. SAD2 shows a significant association with alkene production, and in vitro assays show that O. sphegodes SAD2 has activity both as an 18:0-ACP {Delta}{sup 9} and a 16:0-ACP {Delta}{sup 4} desaturase. Downstream metabolism of the SAD2 reaction products would give rise to alkenes with double-bonds at position 9 or position 12, matching double-bond positions observed in alkenes in the odor bouquet of O. sphegodes. SAD1 and SAD2 show evidence of purifying selection before, and positive or relaxed purifying selection after gene duplication. By contributing to the production of species-specific alkene bouquets, SAD2 is suggested to contribute to differential pollinator attraction and reproductive isolation among these species. Taken together, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that SAD2 is a florally expressed barrier gene of large phenotypic effect and, possibly, a genic target of pollinator-mediated selection.

  12. A deceptive case of gunshot entry wounds -- beware of frangible bullets.

    PubMed

    Martrille, Laurent; Artuso, Alain; Cattaneo, Cristina; Baccino, Eric

    2007-04-01

    In December 2003, two young men decided to go shooting in the countryside near Montpellier, France. One accidentally shot the other. Upon crime scene examination and autopsy of the victim experts observed, at the right thorax, two round wounds, distanced 5mm from each other, presenting typical characteristics of entry wounds of bullets shot from a distance. Because of the presence of two clear cut round wounds, the Procurator suspected voluntary homicide. However, thanks to the balistics expertise, the authors concluded that all fragments belonged to a unique projectile, 22 Short caliber (Remington cartouche) of the frangible type. The barrel of the rifle infact presented an imperfection where the screw was fixed on the frontsite. The screw had obviously been changed, and the new screw was longer and therefore extended into the barrel, causing a small obstacle to the bullet when exiting the barrel. Shooting tests were performed, allowing the authors to conclude that a single bullet had fragmented before entering the body into two fragments. This lead the Procurator to consider the lesions consistent with an accident. PMID:17079183

  13. The charisma and deception of reparative therapies: when medical science beds religion.

    PubMed

    Grace, André P

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I examine the history and resurgence of interest in sexual reorientation or reparative therapies. I begin with a critique of the contemporary "ex-gay" movement, interrogating Exodus as the prototype of a politico-religious transformational ministry that works to "cure" homosexuals, and examine how Exodus utilizes ex-gay testimony to deceive harried homosexuals looking for escape from the effects of internalized and cultural homophobia. Next, I investigate how reparative therapies function as orthodox treatments that charismatically meld conservative religious perspectives with medical science to produce a pseudoscience promising to treat homosexuality effectively. In this regard, I assess the ongoing debate regarding gay-affirming versus reparative therapies by first looking at the history of medicalizing homosexuality and then surveying the debate spurred by Robert L. Spitzer's research. I conclude with a consideration of research needed to measure whether efficacious change in sexual orientation is possible. PMID:19064479

  14. Courtship role reversal and deceptive signals in the long-tailed dance fly, Rhamphomyia longicauda.

    PubMed

    Funk; Tallamy

    2000-02-01

    We examined the function of secondary sexual characters in the role-reversed, lekking behaviour of female long-tailed dance flies, Rhamphomyia longicauda Loew (Empididae), to test the hypothesis that the degree of abdominal distention is an honest female signal about the state of egg development. Female Rhamphomyia cannot hunt for prey and they receive all of their protein from males by exchanging copulations for nuptial prey gifts. Females compete for male gifts within leks that are organized for a brief period each evening before dark. Before hovering within leks, females swallow air, inflating expandable pouches on the pleural margins of the abdomen. The result is a large saucer-like abdomen which is further exaggerated by wrapping scaled pro-, meso- and metathoracic legs along its pleural margins. Male preference for an enlarged abdomen was confirmed by suspending plastic models of varying size from monofilament lines and recording which models attracted the most males. There was a positive relationship between egg development and abdominal distention in a related species, R. sociabilis (Williston), which lacks inflatable abdominal pouches. Multiple regression showed that in R. longicauda, abdominal inflation completely masks the state of egg development. We conclude that female R. longicauda deceive mate-seeking males with the unreliable message that eggs are nearing maturation in order to obtain a protein meal in exchange for copulation. Males that fail to identify a female bearing mature eggs risk near-certain cuckoldry and an increased probability that the female will die before oviposition. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10675264

  15. Lead poisoning and the deceptive recovery of the critically endangered California condor

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Myra E.; Doak, Daniel F.; George, Daniel; Burnett, Joe; Brandt, Joseph; Church, Molly; Grantham, Jesse; Smith, Donald R.

    2012-01-01

    Endangered species recovery programs seek to restore populations to self-sustaining levels. Nonetheless, many recovering species require continuing management to compensate for persistent threats in their environment. Judging true recovery in the face of this management is often difficult, impeding thorough analysis of the success of conservation programs. We illustrate these challenges with a multidisciplinary study of one of the world’s rarest birds—the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus). California condors were brought to the brink of extinction, in part, because of lead poisoning, and lead poisoning remains a significant threat today. We evaluated individual lead-related health effects, the efficacy of current efforts to prevent lead-caused deaths, and the consequences of any reduction in currently intensive management actions. Our results show that condors in California remain chronically exposed to harmful levels of lead; 30% of the annual blood samples collected from condors indicate lead exposure (blood lead ≥ 200 ng/mL) that causes significant subclinical health effects, measured as >60% inhibition of the heme biosynthetic enzyme δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase. Furthermore, each year, ∼20% of free-flying birds have blood lead levels (≥450 ng/mL) that indicate the need for clinical intervention to avert morbidity and mortality. Lead isotopic analysis shows that lead-based ammunition is the principle source of lead poisoning in condors. Finally, population models based on condor demographic data show that the condor’s apparent recovery is solely because of intensive ongoing management, with the only hope of achieving true recovery dependent on the elimination or substantial reduction of lead poisoning rates. PMID:22733770

  16. 14 CFR 399.80 - Unfair and deceptive practices of ticket agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... paragraph (s) by a ticket agent that sells air transportation online and is not considered a small business under the Small Business Administration's size standards set forth in 13 CFR 121.201: (a... depriving persons of the immediate use of the money to arrange other transportation, or forcing them...

  17. Predict or classify: The deceptive role of time-locking in brain signal classification.

    PubMed

    Rusconi, Marco; Valleriani, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Several experimental studies claim to be able to predict the outcome of simple decisions from brain signals measured before subjects are aware of their decision. Often, these studies use multivariate pattern recognition methods with the underlying assumption that the ability to classify the brain signal is equivalent to predict the decision itself. Here we show instead that it is possible to correctly classify a signal even if it does not contain any predictive information about the decision. We first define a simple stochastic model that mimics the random decision process between two equivalent alternatives, and generate a large number of independent trials that contain no choice-predictive information. The trials are first time-locked to the time point of the final event and then classified using standard machine-learning techniques. The resulting classification accuracy is above chance level long before the time point of time-locking. We then analyze the same trials using information theory. We demonstrate that the high classification accuracy is a consequence of time-locking and that its time behavior is simply related to the large relaxation time of the process. We conclude that when time-locking is a crucial step in the analysis of neural activity patterns, both the emergence and the timing of the classification accuracy are affected by structural properties of the network that generates the signal. PMID:27320688

  18. The Myth That Schools Shortchange Girls: Social Science in the Service of Deception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinfeld, Judith

    This paper examines the charges made in the highly publicized report, "How Schools Shortchange Girls," published by the American Association of University Women (1992). The paper shows how the findings in this report are based on a selective review of the research and how findings contrary to the report's message were suppressed. The paper reviews…

  19. 16 CFR 610.4 - Prevention of deceptive marketing of free credit reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... easily readable; in a high degree of contrast from the immediate background on which it appears; in a... a high degree of contrast from the color of the other disclosure text and background color of the... the text required by paragraphs 610.4(b)(4)(i) and (ii) shall be in a high degree of contrast with...

  20. The Uses of Deception: Epistemological and Axiological Measurement in Aristotle and Ancient Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwill, Janet M.

    1993-01-01

    Explores four hypotheses: (1) the certain versus the probable is only one distinction among many; (2) many descriptions of epistemological and axiological measurement do not depend on their approximation to an ideal; (3) different types of boundaries (social and political) are at work in the determination of certain knowledge; and (4) "apate"…

  1. Deception: Stimulating an Interest for the Classics through Young Adult Novels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Gerald

    1984-01-01

    Describes a method for sparking interest in classic literature by having students develop a table of comparison of the major similarities in plot, character, theme, and structure for a young adult novel and a classic work. Illustrates with a comparison of "The Catcher in the Rye" and "The Stranger." (HTH)

  2. Predict or classify: The deceptive role of time-locking in brain signal classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusconi, Marco; Valleriani, Angelo

    2016-06-01

    Several experimental studies claim to be able to predict the outcome of simple decisions from brain signals measured before subjects are aware of their decision. Often, these studies use multivariate pattern recognition methods with the underlying assumption that the ability to classify the brain signal is equivalent to predict the decision itself. Here we show instead that it is possible to correctly classify a signal even if it does not contain any predictive information about the decision. We first define a simple stochastic model that mimics the random decision process between two equivalent alternatives, and generate a large number of independent trials that contain no choice-predictive information. The trials are first time-locked to the time point of the final event and then classified using standard machine-learning techniques. The resulting classification accuracy is above chance level long before the time point of time-locking. We then analyze the same trials using information theory. We demonstrate that the high classification accuracy is a consequence of time-locking and that its time behavior is simply related to the large relaxation time of the process. We conclude that when time-locking is a crucial step in the analysis of neural activity patterns, both the emergence and the timing of the classification accuracy are affected by structural properties of the network that generates the signal.

  3. Telling ingratiating lies: effects of target sex and target attractiveness on verbal and nonverbal deceptive success.

    PubMed

    DePaulo, B M; Stone, J I; Lassiter, G D

    1985-05-01

    Male and female "senders" described their opinions on four controversial issues to target persons. Each sender expressed sincere agreement with the target on one of the issues and sincere disagreement on another (truthful messages), and also pretended to agree with the partner on one of the issues (an ingratiating lie) and pretended to disagree on another (a noningratiating lie). Groups of judges then rated the sincerity of each message on the basis of information available from one of four different channels: verbal (words only, in transcript form), audio (audiotape only), visual (videotape with no sound), and audiovisual (videotape with sound). Results showed that (a) lies told by women were more readily detected than lies told by men, (b) lies told to opposite-sex targets were more easily detected than lies to same-sex targets, and (c) ingratiating lies were more successfully detected than were noningratiating lies, particularly when told to attractive targets. Furthermore, when senders talked to opposite-sex (relative to same-sex) targets, their lies were most easily detected from the three channels that included nonverbal cues. For ingratiating (relative to noningratiating) lies, detectability was greatest for the channels that included visual nonverbal cues. Senders addressing attractive targets were perceived as less sincere than senders addressing unattractive targets, both when lying and when telling the truth, and this difference in the degree of sincerity conveyed was especially pronounced in the channels that included nonverbal cues. Results are discussed in terms of the effects of motivation on verbal and nonverbal communicative success. PMID:3998987

  4. 76 FR 41398 - Prohibition on the Employment, or Attempted Employment, of Manipulative and Deceptive Devices and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ...The Commodity Futures Trading Commission (``CFTC'' or ``Commission'') is adopting final rules pursuant to section 753 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (``Dodd-Frank Act''), to implement amended subsections (c)(1) and (c)(3) of section 6 of the Commodity Exchange Act (``CEA''). These rules broadly prohibit fraud and manipulation in connection with any swap, or......

  5. Pornography and Deceptive Advertising: What Is the Role of Government in a Free Society?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinson, David L.

    2005-01-01

    One of the most perplexing realities concerning the attitudes of American citizens toward the proper or desired role of government in society has been an almost schizophrenic mindset for demanding less government, at least in the abstract, while at the same time asking more of that same government in the particular. If, for example, one asks the…

  6. Potentially Deceptive Health Nutrition-Related Advertising Claims: The Role of Inoculation in Conferring Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Alicia M.; Miller, Claude H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to examine the efficacy of inoculation message treatments to facilitate resistance to health nutrition-related (HNR) commercial food advertising claims. Design: Data were collected across three phases extending across a 5-week period conducted over two semesters at a Midwest US university. A 2 × 3 between-subjects…

  7. Brand-Name Schools: The Deceptive Lure of Corporate-School Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lickteig, Melissa K.

    2003-01-01

    Addresses the growing trend of schools and districts accepting corporate money and the dangers of corporate partnerships. Stresses the need for critical dialogue and analysis of the implications of such partnerships. (Contains 22 references.) (SK)

  8. Simulated thought insertion: Influencing the sense of agency using deception and magic.

    PubMed

    Olson, Jay A; Landry, Mathieu; Appourchaux, Krystèle; Raz, Amir

    2016-07-01

    In order to study the feeling of control over decisions, we told 60 participants that a neuroimaging machine could read and influence their thoughts. While inside a mock brain scanner, participants chose arbitrary numbers in two similar tasks. In the Mind-Reading Task, the scanner appeared to guess the participants' numbers; in the Mind-Influencing Task, it appeared to influence their choice of numbers. We predicted that participants would feel less voluntary control over their decisions when they believed that the scanner was influencing their choices. As predicted, participants felt less control and made slower decisions in the Mind-Influencing Task compared to the Mind-Reading Task. A second study replicated these findings. Participants' experience of the ostensible influence varied, with some reporting an unknown source directing them towards specific numbers. This simulated thought insertion paradigm can therefore influence feelings of voluntary control and may help model symptoms of mental disorders. PMID:27208648

  9. Three Dimensional Illustrating--Three-Dimensional Vision and Deception of Sensibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szállassy, Noémi; Gánóczy, Anita; Kriska, György

    2009-01-01

    The wide-spread digital photography and computer use gave the opportunity for everyone to make three-dimensional pictures and to make them public. The new opportunities with three-dimensional techniques give chance for the birth of new artistic photographs. We present in detail the biological roots of three-dimensional visualization, the phenomena…

  10. Appearances are Deceptive - Passing a Nasogastric Tube does Not Always Rule Out Oesophageal Atresia.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manish; Thomas, Niranjan

    2016-04-01

    Oesophageal atresia/trachea-Oesophageal fistula is commonly diagnosed in the newborn period by inability to pass a nasogastric tube (NGT). We present the instance of a newborn baby where the diagnosis of oesophageal atresia was delayed because of an apparent successful passage of nasogastric tube to the stomach. Failure to reinsert the NGT raised the suspicion of oesophageal atresia which was confirmed by contrast study showing blind upper oesophageal pouch. PMID:27190912

  11. Disease, disorder, or deception? Latah as habit in a Malay extended family.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, R E

    1994-06-01

    Thirty-seven cases of latah are examined within the author's Malay extended family (N = 115). Based on ethnographic data collected and a literature review, cases are readily divisible into two broad categories: habitual (N = 33) and performance (N = 4). The first form represents an infrequent, culturally conditioned habit that is occasionally used as a learned coping strategy in the form of a cathartic stress response to sudden startle with limited secondary benefits (i.e., exhibiting brief verbal obscenity with impunity). In this sense, it is identical to Western swearing. Performers are engaged in conscious, ritualized social gain through the purported exploitation of a neurophysiological potential. The latter process is essentially irrelevant, akin to sneezing or yawning. It is concluded that latah is a social construction of Western-trained universalist scientists. The concept of malingering and fraud in anthropology is critically discussed. PMID:8201305

  12. Grynfeltt Hernia: A Deceptive Lumbar Mass with a Lipoma-Like Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Zadeh, Jonathan R.; Buicko, Jessica L.; Patel, Chetan; Kozol, Robert; Lopez-Viego, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    The Grynfeltt-Lesshaft hernia is a rare posterior abdominal wall defect that allows for the herniation of retro- and intraperitoneal structures through the upper lumbar triangle. While this hernia may initially present as a small asymptomatic bulge, the defect typically enlarges over time and can become symptomatic with potentially serious complications. In order to avoid that outcome, it is advisable to electively repair Grynfeltt hernias in patients without significant contraindications to surgery. Due to the limited number of lumbar hernioplasties performed, there has not been a large study that definitively identifies the best repair technique. It is generally accepted that abdominal hernias such as these should be repaired by tension-free methods. Both laparoscopic and open techniques are described in modern literature with unique advantages and complications for each. We present the case of an unexpected Grynfeltt hernia diagnosed following an attempted lipoma resection. We chose to perform an open repair involving a combination of fascial approximation and dual-layer polypropylene mesh placement. The patient's recovery was uneventful and there has been no evidence of recurrence at over six months. Our goal herein is to increase awareness of upper lumbar hernias and to discuss approaches to their surgical management. PMID:26697256

  13. Grynfeltt Hernia: A Deceptive Lumbar Mass with a Lipoma-Like Presentation.

    PubMed

    Zadeh, Jonathan R; Buicko, Jessica L; Patel, Chetan; Kozol, Robert; Lopez-Viego, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    The Grynfeltt-Lesshaft hernia is a rare posterior abdominal wall defect that allows for the herniation of retro- and intraperitoneal structures through the upper lumbar triangle. While this hernia may initially present as a small asymptomatic bulge, the defect typically enlarges over time and can become symptomatic with potentially serious complications. In order to avoid that outcome, it is advisable to electively repair Grynfeltt hernias in patients without significant contraindications to surgery. Due to the limited number of lumbar hernioplasties performed, there has not been a large study that definitively identifies the best repair technique. It is generally accepted that abdominal hernias such as these should be repaired by tension-free methods. Both laparoscopic and open techniques are described in modern literature with unique advantages and complications for each. We present the case of an unexpected Grynfeltt hernia diagnosed following an attempted lipoma resection. We chose to perform an open repair involving a combination of fascial approximation and dual-layer polypropylene mesh placement. The patient's recovery was uneventful and there has been no evidence of recurrence at over six months. Our goal herein is to increase awareness of upper lumbar hernias and to discuss approaches to their surgical management. PMID:26697256

  14. 75 FR 68560 - Prohibition Against Fraud, Manipulation, and Deception in Connection With Security-Based Swaps

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... or sale of a security-based swap, the exercise of any right or performance of any obligation under a..., purchase or sale of any security-based swap, the exercise of any right or performance of any obligation... right or performance of any obligation under a security-based swap, or the avoidance of such exercise...

  15. Detection of conscious deception using the Child Abuse Potential Inventory lie scale.

    PubMed

    Robertson, W K; Milner, J S

    1985-10-01

    Two studies were conducted to provide data on the construct validity of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory lie scale. In Study One, 187 male and female undergraduate students were administered either the Child Abuse Potential Inventory, the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, or the Unlikely Virtues Scale. Three instructional sets were provided: respond honestly, distort responses in a positive manner, and distort responses in a negative manner. Each scale successfully discriminated between subjects in the honest and faking good conditions. Only the Marlowe-Crowne scale discriminated subjects in the faking bad condition through their low scores. No gender differences were observed as a function of instructional set or test employed. In Study Two, 31 male and female parents were given the CAP-Inventory under the same instructional sets provided in Study One. The findings for the parent group, the population the CAP-Inventory was designed to be employed with, replicated the results found in Study One. PMID:4067804

  16. Deception in Brand Names: Do Print Ads Clarify the Nutrition Claims?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reece, Bonnie B.; Rifon, Nora J.

    To learn whether the problem of misunderstanding in brand names might be caused by the content of advertisements or whether it stemmed from a failure in the exposure-processing chain with respect to the effect of the ads on consumers, a study investigated the extent to which marketers provide information in their advertising that clarifies the…

  17. Appearances are Deceptive – Passing a Nasogastric Tube does Not Always Rule Out Oesophageal Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Oesophageal atresia/trachea-Oesophageal fistula is commonly diagnosed in the newborn period by inability to pass a nasogastric tube (NGT). We present the instance of a newborn baby where the diagnosis of oesophageal atresia was delayed because of an apparent successful passage of nasogastric tube to the stomach. Failure to reinsert the NGT raised the suspicion of oesophageal atresia which was confirmed by contrast study showing blind upper oesophageal pouch. PMID:27190912

  18. Cognitive costs of encoding novel natural activities: Can "learning by doing" be distracting and deceptive?

    PubMed

    von Stülpnagel, Rul; Schult, Janette C; Richter, Claudia; Steffens, Melanie C

    2016-08-01

    Findings from action memory research suggest that the enactment of simple actions and naturalistic activities results in similar memory performance to that from their observation. However, little is known about potential differences between the conditions during the encoding of the to-be-studied actions and activities. We analysed the cognitive costs of encoding two novel naturalistic activities studied via enactment or via observation in four experiments. In addition to memory performance, we measured objective cognitive costs with a secondary task and subjective cognitive costs with repeated ratings of mental effort and estimates of general activity difficulty. Memory performance was comparable across study conditions throughout all experiments. The enactment of activities repeatedly resulted in slower reaction times in the secondary task than did observation, suggesting higher objective costs. In contrast, subjective costs were rated lower after enactment than after observation. Findings from a pantomimic enactment condition suggested that the low ratings of subjective costs after enactment represent a misinterpretation of task demands. Our findings imply that the widespread belief about "learning by doing" as an easy way of learning does not stem from an actual advantage in memory performance, but rather from continuous feedback about one's performance resulting from enactment. PMID:26325343

  19. "Deceptive" Cultural Practices that Sabotage HIV/AIDS Education in Tanzania and Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oluga, Mary; Kiragu, Susan; Mohamed, Mussa K.; Walli, Shelina

    2010-01-01

    In spite of numerous HIV/AIDS-prevention education efforts, the HIV infection rates in sub-Saharan Africa remain high. Exploring and understanding the reasons behind these infection rates is imperative in a bid to offer life skills and moral education that address the root causes of the pandemic. In a recent study concerning effective…

  20. Flat lizard female mimics use sexual deception in visual but not chemical signals.

    PubMed

    Whiting, Martin J; Webb, Jonathan K; Keogh, J Scott

    2009-05-01

    Understanding what constrains signalling and maintains signal honesty is a central theme in animal communication. Clear cases of dishonest signalling, and the conditions under which they are used, represent an important avenue for improved understanding of animal communication systems. Female mimicry, when certain males take on the appearance of females, is most commonly a male alternative reproductive tactic that is condition-dependent. A number of adaptive explanations for female mimicry have been proposed including avoiding the costs of aggression, gaining an advantage in combat, sneaking copulations with females on the territories of other males, gaining physiological benefits and minimizing the risk of predation. Previous studies of female mimicry have focused on a single mode of communication, although most animals communicate using multiple signals. Male Augrabies flat lizards adopt alternative reproductive tactics in which some males (she-males) mimic the visual appearance of females. We experimentally tested in a wild population whether she-males are able to mimic females using both visual and chemical signals. We tested chemical recognition in the field by removing scent and relabelling females and she-males with either male or female scent. At a distance, typical males (he-males) could not distinguish she-males from females using visual signals, but during close encounters, he-males correctly determined the gender of she-males using chemical signals. She-males are therefore able to deceive he-males using visual but not chemical signals. To effectively deceive he-males, she-males avoid close contact with he-males during which chemical cues would reveal their deceit. This strategy is probably adaptive, because he-males are aggressive and territorial; by mimicking females, she-males are able to move about freely and gain access to females on the territories of resident males. PMID:19324828