Science.gov

Sample records for declarative language bias

  1. Biased to Learn Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebastian-Galles, Nuria

    2007-01-01

    Some recent publications that explore the foundations of early language development are reviewed in this article. The review adopts the pivotal idea that infants' advancements are helped by the existence of different types of biases. The infant's discovery of the phonological properties of the language of the environment, as well as their learning…

  2. 37 CFR 1.69 - Foreign language oaths and declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Foreign language oaths and... Declaration § 1.69 Foreign language oaths and declarations. (a) Whenever an individual making an oath or declaration cannot understand English, the oath or declaration must be in a language that such individual...

  3. 37 CFR 1.69 - Foreign language oaths and declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foreign language oaths and... Declaration § 1.69 Foreign language oaths and declarations. (a) Whenever an individual making an oath or declaration cannot understand English, the oath or declaration must be in a language that such individual...

  4. 37 CFR 1.69 - Foreign language oaths and declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign language oaths and... Declaration § 1.69 Foreign language oaths and declarations. (a) Whenever an individual making an oath or declaration cannot understand English, the oath or declaration must be in a language that such individual...

  5. 37 CFR 1.69 - Foreign language oaths and declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... declaration cannot understand English, the oath or declaration must be in a language that such individual can... declaration relates. (b) Unless the text of any oath or declaration in a language other than English is in a... accompanied by an English translation together with a statement that the translation is accurate, except...

  6. Declarative language design for interactive visualization.

    PubMed

    Heer, Jeffrey; Bostock, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the design of declarative, domain-specific languages for constructing interactive visualizations. By separating specification from execution, declarative languages can simplify development, enable unobtrusive optimization, and support retargeting across platforms. We describe the design of the Protovis specification language and its implementation within an object-oriented, statically-typed programming language (Java). We demonstrate how to support rich visualizations without requiring a toolkit-specific data model and extend Protovis to enable declarative specification of animated transitions. To support cross-platform deployment, we introduce rendering and event-handling infrastructures decoupled from the runtime platform, letting designers retarget visualization specifications (e.g., from desktop to mobile phone) with reduced effort. We also explore optimizations such as runtime compilation of visualization specifications, parallelized execution, and hardware-accelerated rendering. We present benchmark studies measuring the performance gains provided by these optimizations and compare performance to existing Java-based visualization tools, demonstrating scalability improvements exceeding an order of magnitude. PMID:20975153

  7. A neurocognitive perspective on language: the declarative/procedural model.

    PubMed

    Ullman, M T

    2001-10-01

    What are the psychological, computational and neural underpinnings of language? Are these neurocognitive correlates dedicated to language? Do different parts of language depend on distinct neurocognitive systems? Here I address these and other issues that are crucial for our understanding of two fundamental language capacities: the memorization of words in the mental lexicon, and the rule-governed combination of words by the mental grammar. According to the declarative/procedural model, the mental lexicon depends on declarative memory and is rooted in the temporal lobe, whereas the mental grammar involves procedural memory and is rooted in the frontal cortex and basal ganglia. I argue that the declarative/procedural model provides a new framework for the study of lexicon and grammar. PMID:11584309

  8. Gender Bias in Lebanese Language Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mougharbel, Ghada M.; Bahous, Rima

    2010-01-01

    Gender bias, though often implicit and unnoticed, exists in many forms and in different situations. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether gender bias exists in Lebanese language classrooms. Semi-structured interviews, questionnaires, and nonparticipant observational techniques were used for data collection. Results reveal…

  9. CAROL: toward a declarative video data retrieval language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qing; Yang, Yanhua; Chung, Wai-kit

    1998-08-01

    In a video database, large amount of information involving video, audio, and/or images needs to be stored and managed. Therefore, there is an important need for novel techniques and systems which can provide an efficient retrieval facility of the voluminous data stored in the video database. While `content-based' retrieval provides a direct and an intuitive approach for video data access, it is inadequate from efficient video data management viewpoint. This is because many (semantic) features of video data can not be extracted out from the video itself automatically; moreover, video objects may share annotations or descriptions. Consequently, it is necessary and cost- effective to complement content-based retrieval with high level (declarative) query-based retrieval in the video database system. In this paper, we describe a high level query language called CAROL (for Cluster And ROle Language), which is being developed on top of a versatile object database system. Supported by the underlying object model extended with clusters and roles, CAROL offers a number of interesting features which are seldomly available from another single query language, including top-down search in a context-dependent manner, bottom-up and/or horizontal search in a context-independent manner, besides traditional search supported by conventional object-oriented database systems. This language constitutes an important component of an on-going project aiming at developing a declarative video data retrieval system at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University.

  10. Human language reveals a universal positivity bias

    PubMed Central

    Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Clark, Eric M.; Desu, Suma; Frank, Morgan R.; Reagan, Andrew J.; Williams, Jake Ryland; Mitchell, Lewis; Harris, Kameron Decker; Kloumann, Isabel M.; Bagrow, James P.; Megerdoomian, Karine; McMahon, Matthew T.; Tivnan, Brian F.; Danforth, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Using human evaluation of 100,000 words spread across 24 corpora in 10 languages diverse in origin and culture, we present evidence of a deep imprint of human sociality in language, observing that (i) the words of natural human language possess a universal positivity bias, (ii) the estimated emotional content of words is consistent between languages under translation, and (iii) this positivity bias is strongly independent of frequency of word use. Alongside these general regularities, we describe interlanguage variations in the emotional spectrum of languages that allow us to rank corpora. We also show how our word evaluations can be used to construct physical-like instruments for both real-time and offline measurement of the emotional content of large-scale texts. PMID:25675475

  11. Human language reveals a universal positivity bias.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Clark, Eric M; Desu, Suma; Frank, Morgan R; Reagan, Andrew J; Williams, Jake Ryland; Mitchell, Lewis; Harris, Kameron Decker; Kloumann, Isabel M; Bagrow, James P; Megerdoomian, Karine; McMahon, Matthew T; Tivnan, Brian F; Danforth, Christopher M

    2015-02-24

    Using human evaluation of 100,000 words spread across 24 corpora in 10 languages diverse in origin and culture, we present evidence of a deep imprint of human sociality in language, observing that (i) the words of natural human language possess a universal positivity bias, (ii) the estimated emotional content of words is consistent between languages under translation, and (iii) this positivity bias is strongly independent of frequency of word use. Alongside these general regularities, we describe interlanguage variations in the emotional spectrum of languages that allow us to rank corpora. We also show how our word evaluations can be used to construct physical-like instruments for both real-time and offline measurement of the emotional content of large-scale texts. PMID:25675475

  12. Contributions of Memory Circuits to Language: The Declarative/Procedural Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Michael T.

    2004-01-01

    The structure of the brain and the nature of evolution suggest that, despite its uniqueness, language likely depends on brain systems that also subserve other functions. The declarative/procedural (DP) model claims that the mental lexicon of memorized word-specific knowledge depends on the largely temporal-lobe substrates of declarative memory,…

  13. Declarative and Procedural Memory in Danish Speaking Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Bleses, Dorthe

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that the language problems in specific language impairment (SLI) arise from basal ganglia abnormalities that lead to impairments with procedural and working memory but not declarative memory. In SLI, this profile of memory functioning has been hypothesized to underlie grammatical impairment but leave lexical knowledge…

  14. 37 CFR 1.69 - Foreign language oaths and declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accompanied by an English translation together with a statement that the translation is accurate, except that in the case of an oath or declaration filed under § 1.63, the translation may be filed in the Office no later than two months from the date applicant is notified to file the translation. (35 U.S.C....

  15. Learning bias, cultural evolution of language, and the biological evolution of the language faculty.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kenny

    2011-04-01

    The biases of individual language learners act to determine the learnability and cultural stability of languages: learners come to the language learning task with biases which make certain linguistic systems easier to acquire than others. These biases are repeatedly applied during the process of language transmission, and consequently should effect the types of languages we see in human populations. Understanding the cultural evolutionary consequences of particular learning biases is therefore central to understanding the link between language learning in individuals and language universals, common structural properties shared by all the world’s languages. This paper reviews a range of models and experimental studies which show that weak biases in individual learners can have strong effects on the structure of socially learned systems such as language, suggesting that strong universal tendencies in language structure do not require us to postulate strong underlying biases or constraints on language learning. Furthermore, understanding the relationship between learner biases and language design has implications for theories of the evolution of those learning biases: models of gene-culture coevolution suggest that, in situations where a cultural dynamic mediates between properties of individual learners and properties of language in this way, biological evolution is unlikely to lead to the emergence of strong constraints on learning. PMID:21615289

  16. Verbal declarative memory impairments in specific language impairment are related to working memory deficits

    PubMed Central

    Lum, Jarrad A.G.; Ullman, Michael T.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2015-01-01

    This study examined verbal declarative memory functioning in SLI and its relationship to working memory. Encoding, recall, and recognition of verbal information was examined in children with SLI who had below average working memory (SLILow WM), children with SLI who had average working memory (SLIAvg. WM) and, a group of non-language impaired children with average working memory (TDAvg. WM). The SLILow WM group was significantly worse than both the SLIAvg. WM and TDAvg. WM groups at encoding verbal information and at retrieving verbal information following a delay. In contrast, the SLIAvg. WM group showed no verbal declarative memory deficits. The study demonstrates that verbal declarative memory deficits in SLI only occur when verbal working memory is impaired. Thus SLI declarative memory is largely intact and deficits are likely to be related to working memory impairments. PMID:25660053

  17. Preference for Language in Early Infancy: The Human Language Bias Is Not Speech Specific

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krentz, Ursula C.; Corina, David P.

    2008-01-01

    Fundamental to infants' acquisition of their native language is an inherent interest in the language spoken around them over non-linguistic environmental sounds. The following studies explored whether the bias for linguistic signals in hearing infants is specific to speech, or reflects a general bias for all human language, spoken and signed.…

  18. Declarative and Procedural Memory as Individual Differences in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan-Short, Kara; Faretta-Stutenberg, Mandy; Brill-Schuetz, Katherine A.; Carpenter, Helen; Wong, Patrick C. M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how individual differences in cognitive abilities account for variance in the attainment level of adult second language (L2) syntactic development. Participants completed assessments of declarative and procedural learning abilities. They subsequently learned an artificial L2 under implicit training conditions and received…

  19. Procedural and Declarative Memory in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Gelgic, Celin; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2010-01-01

    Background: Much evidence has accumulated to indicate memory deficits in children with specific language impairment. However, most research has focused on working memory impairments in these children. Less is known about the functioning of other memory systems in this population. Aims: This study examined procedural and declarative memory in young…

  20. Harmonic biases in child learners: In support of language universals

    PubMed Central

    Culbertson, Jennifer; Newport, Elissa L.

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental question for cognitive science concerns the ways in which languages are shaped by the biases of language learners. Recent research using laboratory language learning paradigms, primarily with adults, has shown that structures or rules that are common in the languages of the world are learned or processed more easily than patterns that are rare or unattested. Here we target child learners, investigating a set of biases for word order learning in the noun phrase studied by Culbertson, Smolensky & Legendre (2012) in college-age adults. We provide the first evidence that child learners exhibit a preference for typologically common harmonic word order patterns—those which preserve the order of the head with respect to its complements—validating the psychological reality of a principle formalized in many different linguistic theories. We also discuss important differences between child and adult learners in terms of both the strength and content of the biases at play during language learning. In particular, the bias favoring harmonic patterns is markedly stronger in children than adults, and children (unlike adults) acquire adjective ordering more readily than numeral ordering. The results point to the importance of investigating learning biases across development in order to understand how these biases may shape the history and structure of natural languages. PMID:25800352

  1. The three official language versions of the Declaration of Helsinki: what's lost in translation?

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Robert V; van Ginneken, Nadja H; Pettigrew, Luisa M; Davies, Alan; Boyd, Kenneth M; Webb, David J

    2007-01-01

    Background The Declaration of Helsinki, the World Medical Association's (WMA's) statement of ethical guidelines regarding medical research, is published in the three official languages of the WMA: English, French and Spanish. Methods A detailed comparison of the three official language versions was carried out to determine ways in which they differed and ways in which the wording of the three versions might illuminate the interpretation of the document. Results There were many minor linguistic differences between the three versions. However, in paragraphs 1, 6, 29, 30 and in the note of clarification to paragraph 29, there were differences that could be considered potentially significant in their ethical relevance. Interpretation Given the global status of the Declaration of Helsinki and the fact that it is translated from its official versions into many other languages for application to the ethical conduct of research, the differences identified are of concern. It would be best if such differences could be eliminated but, at the very least, a commentary to explain any differences that are unavoidable on the basis of language or culture should accompany the Declaration of Helsinki. This evidence further strengthens the case for international surveillance of medical research ethics as has been proposed by the WMA. PMID:17761826

  2. Contributions of memory circuits to language: the declarative/procedural model.

    PubMed

    Ullman, Michael T

    2004-01-01

    The structure of the brain and the nature of evolution suggest that, despite its uniqueness, language likely depends on brain systems that also subserve other functions. The declarative/procedural (DP) model claims that the mental lexicon of memorized word-specific knowledge depends on the largely temporal-lobe substrates of declarative memory, which underlies the storage and use of knowledge of facts and events. The mental grammar, which subserves the rule-governed combination of lexical items into complex representations, depends on a distinct neural system. This system, which is composed of a network of specific frontal, basal-ganglia, parietal and cerebellar structures, underlies procedural memory, which supports the learning and execution of motor and cognitive skills, especially those involving sequences. The functions of the two brain systems, together with their anatomical, physiological and biochemical substrates, lead to specific claims and predictions regarding their roles in language. These predictions are compared with those of other neurocognitive models of language. Empirical evidence is presented from neuroimaging studies of normal language processing, and from developmental and adult-onset disorders. It is argued that this evidence supports the DP model. It is additionally proposed that "language" disorders, such as specific language impairment and non-fluent and fluent aphasia, may be profitably viewed as impairments primarily affecting one or the other brain system. Overall, the data suggest a new neurocognitive framework for the study of lexicon and grammar. PMID:15037131

  3. Declarative Programming with Temporal Constraints, in the Language CG.

    PubMed

    Negreanu, Lorina

    2015-01-01

    Specifying and interpreting temporal constraints are key elements of knowledge representation and reasoning, with applications in temporal databases, agent programming, and ambient intelligence. We present and formally characterize the language CG, which tackles this issue. In CG, users are able to develop time-dependent programs, in a flexible and straightforward manner. Such programs can, in turn, be coupled with evolving environments, thus empowering users to control the environment's evolution. CG relies on a structure for storing temporal information, together with a dedicated query mechanism. Hence, we explore the computational complexity of our query satisfaction problem. We discuss previous implementation attempts of CG and introduce a novel prototype which relies on logic programming. Finally, we address the issue of consistency and correctness of CG program execution, using the Event-B modeling approach. PMID:25893212

  4. Declarative Programming with Temporal Constraints, in the Language CG

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Specifying and interpreting temporal constraints are key elements of knowledge representation and reasoning, with applications in temporal databases, agent programming, and ambient intelligence. We present and formally characterize the language CG, which tackles this issue. In CG, users are able to develop time-dependent programs, in a flexible and straightforward manner. Such programs can, in turn, be coupled with evolving environments, thus empowering users to control the environment's evolution. CG relies on a structure for storing temporal information, together with a dedicated query mechanism. Hence, we explore the computational complexity of our query satisfaction problem. We discuss previous implementation attempts of CG and introduce a novel prototype which relies on logic programming. Finally, we address the issue of consistency and correctness of CG program execution, using the Event-B modeling approach. PMID:25893212

  5. The Layer-Oriented Approach to Declarative Languages for Biological Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Raikov, Ivan; De Schutter, Erik

    2012-01-01

    We present a new approach to modeling languages for computational biology, which we call the layer-oriented approach. The approach stems from the observation that many diverse biological phenomena are described using a small set of mathematical formalisms (e.g. differential equations), while at the same time different domains and subdomains of computational biology require that models are structured according to the accepted terminology and classification of that domain. Our approach uses distinct semantic layers to represent the domain-specific biological concepts and the underlying mathematical formalisms. Additional functionality can be transparently added to the language by adding more layers. This approach is specifically concerned with declarative languages, and throughout the paper we note some of the limitations inherent to declarative approaches. The layer-oriented approach is a way to specify explicitly how high-level biological modeling concepts are mapped to a computational representation, while abstracting away details of particular programming languages and simulation environments. To illustrate this process, we define an example language for describing models of ionic currents, and use a general mathematical notation for semantic transformations to show how to generate model simulation code for various simulation environments. We use the example language to describe a Purkinje neuron model and demonstrate how the layer-oriented approach can be used for solving several practical issues of computational neuroscience model development. We discuss the advantages and limitations of the approach in comparison with other modeling language efforts in the domain of computational biology and outline some principles for extensible, flexible modeling language design. We conclude by describing in detail the semantic transformations defined for our language. PMID:22615554

  6. A fundamental residue pitch perception bias for tone language speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitti, Elizabeth

    A complex tone composed of only higher-order harmonics typically elicits a pitch percept equivalent to the tone's missing fundamental frequency (f0). When judging the direction of residue pitch change between two such tones, however, listeners may have completely opposite perceptual experiences depending on whether they are biased to perceive changes based on the overall spectrum or the missing f0 (harmonic spacing). Individual differences in residue pitch change judgments are reliable and have been associated with musical experience and functional neuroanatomy. Tone languages put greater pitch processing demands on their speakers than non-tone languages, and we investigated whether these lifelong differences in linguistic pitch processing affect listeners' bias for residue pitch. We asked native tone language speakers and native English speakers to perform a pitch judgment task for two tones with missing fundamental frequencies. Given tone pairs with ambiguous pitch changes, listeners were asked to judge the direction of pitch change, where the direction of their response indicated whether they attended to the overall spectrum (exhibiting a spectral bias) or the missing f0 (exhibiting a fundamental bias). We found that tone language speakers are significantly more likely to perceive pitch changes based on the missing f0 than English speakers. These results suggest that tone-language speakers' privileged experience with linguistic pitch fundamentally tunes their basic auditory processing.

  7. The relation between receptive grammar and procedural, declarative, and working memory in specific language impairment

    PubMed Central

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Ullman, Michael T.; Lum, Jarrad A. G.

    2015-01-01

    What memory systems underlie grammar in children, and do these differ between typically developing (TD) children and children with specific language impairment (SLI)? Whilst there is substantial evidence linking certain memory deficits to the language problems in children with SLI, few studies have investigated multiple memory systems simultaneously, examining not only possible memory deficits but also memory abilities that may play a compensatory role. This study examined the extent to which procedural, declarative, and working memory abilities predict receptive grammar in 45 primary school aged children with SLI (30 males, 15 females) and 46 TD children (30 males, 16 females), both on average 9;10 years of age. Regression analyses probed measures of all three memory systems simultaneously as potential predictors of receptive grammar. The model was significant, explaining 51.6% of the variance. There was a significant main effect of learning in procedural memory and a significant group × procedural learning interaction. Further investigation of the interaction revealed that procedural learning predicted grammar in TD but not in children with SLI. Indeed, procedural learning was the only predictor of grammar in TD. In contrast, only learning in declarative memory significantly predicted grammar in SLI. Thus, different memory systems are associated with receptive grammar abilities in children with SLI and their TD peers. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate a significant group by memory system interaction in predicting grammar in children with SLI and their TD peers. In line with Ullman’s Declarative/Procedural model of language and procedural deficit hypothesis of SLI, variability in understanding sentences of varying grammatical complexity appears to be associated with variability in procedural memory abilities in TD children, but with declarative memory, as an apparent compensatory mechanism, in children with SLI. PMID:26284013

  8. Language-Specific Noun Bias: Evidence from Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xuan, Lei; Dollaghan, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Most evidence concerning cross-linguistic variation in noun bias, the preponderance of nouns in early expressive lexicons (Gentner, 1982), has come from comparisons of monolingual children acquiring different languages. Such designs are susceptible to a number of potential confounders, including group differences in developmental level and…

  9. Gender-Biased Language in Learning Disability Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Teresa; Safran, Stephen P.

    1994-01-01

    Exploration of gender-biased language in two editions of learning disabilities textbooks found that the male author's work exhibited a 7:1 ratio of masculine to feminine pronouns, whereas the female author's text showed no significant differences in use of gender-specific pronouns. The male author had increased use of gender-neutral pronouns…

  10. Inferring Identity From Language: Linguistic Intergroup Bias Informs Social Categorization.

    PubMed

    Porter, Shanette C; Rheinschmidt-Same, Michelle; Richeson, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    The present research examined whether a communicator's verbal, implicit message regarding a target is used as a cue for inferring that communicator's social identity. Previous research has found linguistic intergroup bias (LIB) in individuals' speech: They use abstract language to describe in-group targets' desirable behaviors and concrete language to describe their undesirable behaviors (favorable LIB), but use concrete language for out-group targets' desirable behaviors and abstract language for their undesirable behaviors (unfavorable LIB). Consequently, one can infer the type of language a communicator is likely to use to describe in-group and out-group targets. We hypothesized and found evidence for the reverse inference. Across four studies, individuals inferred a communicator's social identity on the basis of the communicator's use of an LIB. Specifically, participants more strongly believed that a communicator and target shared a social identity when the communicator used the favorable, rather than the unfavorable, LIB in describing that target. PMID:26637358

  11. Using Functional Languages and Declarative Programming to analyze ROOT data: LINQtoROOT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, Gordon

    2015-05-01

    Modern high energy physics analysis is complex. It typically requires multiple passes over different datasets, and is often held together with a series of scripts and programs. For example, one has to first reweight the jet energy spectrum in Monte Carlo to match data before plots of any other jet related variable can be made. This requires a pass over the Monte Carlo and the Data to derive the reweighting, and then another pass over the Monte Carlo to plot the variables the analyser is really interested in. With most modern ROOT based tools this requires separate analysis loops for each pass, and script files to glue to the results of the two analysis loops together. A framework has been developed that uses the functional and declarative features of the C# language and its Language Integrated Query (LINQ) extensions to declare the analysis. The framework uses language tools to convert the analysis into C++ and runs ROOT or PROOF as a backend to get the results. This gives the analyser the full power of an object-oriented programming language to put together the analysis and at the same time the speed of C++ for the analysis loop. The tool allows one to incorporate C++ algorithms written for ROOT by others. A by-product of the design is the ability to cache results between runs, dramatically reducing the cost of adding one-more-plot and also to keep a complete record associated with each plot for data preservation reasons. The code is mature enough to have been used in ATLAS analyses. The package is open source and available on the open source site CodePlex.

  12. When Biased Language Use Is Associated with Bullying and Dominance Behavior: The Moderating Effect of Prejudice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poteat, V. Paul; DiGiovanni, Craig D.

    2010-01-01

    Biased language related to sexual orientation is used frequently among students and is related to prominent social concerns such as bullying. Prejudice toward gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender individuals also has been examined among adolescents, but separately from these behaviors. This study tested whether biased language use was…

  13. When biased language use is associated with bullying and dominance behavior: the moderating effect of prejudice.

    PubMed

    Poteat, V Paul; Digiovanni, Craig D

    2010-10-01

    Biased language related to sexual orientation is used frequently among students and is related to prominent social concerns such as bullying. Prejudice toward gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender individuals also has been examined among adolescents, but separately from these behaviors. This study tested whether biased language use was associated with bullying and dominance irrespective of sexual prejudice or if sexual prejudice moderated these associations among 290 high school students (50% female; 56% White). Sexual prejudice was associated with biased language use among boys only. Biased language was associated with bullying regardless of levels of sexual prejudice for boys. However, this association was dependent on sexual prejudice for girls. For dominance behavior, its association with biased language was moderated by sexual prejudice for boys, but not girls. However, girls' engagement in all behaviors was significantly less than boys. These results indicate nuanced ways in which multiple factors contribute to the use of sexual orientation biased language. Also, they underscore the need to address biased language and prejudice as part of anti-bullying programs. PMID:20582564

  14. Bias in Computer Languages Comparisons: A FORTRAN Phobic Cabal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krus, David J.; Lu, Mei-Yan

    1987-01-01

    The viability of the FORTRAN computer language and its relationship to other languages (such as PASCAL) were discussed. A library of C language and assembly language FORTRAN-callable subroutines, developed for the use of behavioral science researchers, was introduced. (Author/GDC)

  15. The Amount of Language Exposure Determines Nonlinguistic Tone Grouping Biases in Infants from a Bilingual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Monika; Lallier, Marie; Carreiras, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Duration-based auditory grouping preferences are presumably shaped by language experience in adults and infants, unlike intensity-based grouping that is governed by a universal bias of a loud-soft preference. It has been proposed that duration-based rhythmic grouping preferences develop as a function of native language phrasal prosody.…

  16. Sensitivity to verb bias in American sign language-English bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Anible, Benjamin; Twitchell, Paul; Waters, Gabriel S; Dussias, Paola E; Piñar, Pilar; Morford, Jill P

    2015-07-01

    Native speakers of English are sensitive to the likelihood that a verb will appear in a specific subcategorization frame, known as verb bias. Readers rely on verb bias to help them resolve temporary ambiguity in sentence comprehension. We investigate whether deaf sign-print bilinguals who have acquired English syntactic knowledge primarily through print exposure show sensitivity to English verb biases in both production and comprehension. We first elicited sentence continuations for 100 English verbs as an offline production measure of sensitivity to verb bias. We then collected eye movement records to examine whether deaf bilinguals' online parsing decisions are influenced by English verb bias. The results indicate that exposure to a second language primarily via print is sufficient to influence use of implicit frequency-based characteristics of a language in production and also to inform parsing decisions in comprehension for some, but not all, verbs. PMID:25833965

  17. Syntactic Islands and Learning Biases: Combining Experimental Syntax and Computational Modeling to Investigate the Language Acquisition Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl, Lisa; Sprouse, Jon

    2013-01-01

    The induction problems facing language learners have played a central role in debates about the types of learning biases that exist in the human brain. Many linguists have argued that some of the learning biases necessary to solve these language induction problems must be both innate and language-specific (i.e., the Universal Grammar (UG)…

  18. Micro Declared Language Policy or Not?: Language-Policy-Like Statements in the Rules of Procedure of the Rwandan Parliament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafaranga, Joseph; Niyomugabo, Cyprien; Uwizeyimana, Valentin

    2013-01-01

    An invitation to integrate macro and micro level analyses has been extended to researchers as this integration is felt to be the way forward for language policy research (Ricento, Ideology, politics and language policies: Focus on english, John Benjamins, Amsterdam, 2000). In turn, the notion of 'micro' in language policy has been…

  19. Long-Term Memory: A Review and Meta-Analysis of Studies of Declarative and Procedural Memory in Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2013-01-01

    This review examined the status of long-term memory systems in specific language impairment (SLI)--declarative memory and aspects of procedural memory in particular. Studies included in the review were identified following a systematic search of the literature and findings combined using meta-analysis. This review showed that individuals with SLI…

  20. Teacher Skill Guide for Combatting Sexism. Module 2: Sex Bias in Language and Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvihill, Allie Mooney; And Others

    The objectives of this workshop module are to increase teachers' awareness of the sex role stereotyping that exists in language and instructional materials and to provide instructors with strategies for increasing student awareness of sex bias and for countering the effects of stereotyping in their classroom materials. Workshop handouts for use in…

  1. Using Achievement Tests to Measure Language Assimilation and Language Bias among the Children of Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akresh, Richard; Akresh, Ilana Redstone

    2011-01-01

    We measure the extent of language assimilation among children of Hispanic immigrants. Our identification strategy exploits test language randomization (English or Spanish) of Woodcock Johnson achievement tests in the New Immigrant Survey and lets us attribute test score differences solely to test language. Students scoring poorly may be tracked…

  2. Simplicity and Specificity in Language: Domain-General Biases Have Domain-Specific Effects.

    PubMed

    Culbertson, Jennifer; Kirby, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which the linguistic system-its architecture, the representations it operates on, the constraints it is subject to-is specific to language has broad implications for cognitive science and its relation to evolutionary biology. Importantly, a given property of the linguistic system can be "specific" to the domain of language in several ways. For example, if the property evolved by natural selection under the pressure of the linguistic function it serves then the property is domain-specific in the sense that its design is tailored for language. Equally though, if that property evolved to serve a different function or if that property is domain-general, it may nevertheless interact with the linguistic system in a way that is unique. This gives a second sense in which a property can be thought of as specific to language. An evolutionary approach to the language faculty might at first blush appear to favor domain-specificity in the first sense, with individual properties of the language faculty being specifically linguistic adaptations. However, we argue that interactions between learning, culture, and biological evolution mean any domain-specific adaptations that evolve will take the form of weak biases rather than hard constraints. Turning to the latter sense of domain-specificity, we highlight a very general bias, simplicity, which operates widely in cognition and yet interacts with linguistic representations in domain-specific ways. PMID:26793132

  3. Simplicity and Specificity in Language: Domain-General Biases Have Domain-Specific Effects

    PubMed Central

    Culbertson, Jennifer; Kirby, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which the linguistic system—its architecture, the representations it operates on, the constraints it is subject to—is specific to language has broad implications for cognitive science and its relation to evolutionary biology. Importantly, a given property of the linguistic system can be “specific” to the domain of language in several ways. For example, if the property evolved by natural selection under the pressure of the linguistic function it serves then the property is domain-specific in the sense that its design is tailored for language. Equally though, if that property evolved to serve a different function or if that property is domain-general, it may nevertheless interact with the linguistic system in a way that is unique. This gives a second sense in which a property can be thought of as specific to language. An evolutionary approach to the language faculty might at first blush appear to favor domain-specificity in the first sense, with individual properties of the language faculty being specifically linguistic adaptations. However, we argue that interactions between learning, culture, and biological evolution mean any domain-specific adaptations that evolve will take the form of weak biases rather than hard constraints. Turning to the latter sense of domain-specificity, we highlight a very general bias, simplicity, which operates widely in cognition and yet interacts with linguistic representations in domain-specific ways. PMID:26793132

  4. Functional test generation for digital circuits described with a declarative language: LUSTRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almahrous, Mazen

    1990-08-01

    A functional approach to the test generation problem starting from a high level description is proposed. The circuit tested is modeled, using the LUSTRE high level data flow description language. The different LUSTRE primitives are translated to a SATAN format graph in order to evaluate the testability of the circuit and to generate test sequences. Another method of testing the complex circuits comprising an operative part and a control part is defined. It consists of checking experiments for the control part observed through the operative part. It was applied to the automata generated from a LUSTRE description of the circuit.

  5. Event representations constrain the structure of language: Sign language as a window into universally accessible linguistic biases.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Brent; Geraci, Carlo; Chemla, Emmanuel; Schlenker, Philippe; Kelepir, Meltem; Pfau, Roland

    2015-05-12

    According to a theoretical tradition dating back to Aristotle, verbs can be classified into two broad categories. Telic verbs (e.g., "decide," "sell," "die") encode a logical endpoint, whereas atelic verbs (e.g., "think," "negotiate," "run") do not, and the denoted event could therefore logically continue indefinitely. Here we show that sign languages encode telicity in a seemingly universal way and moreover that even nonsigners lacking any prior experience with sign language understand these encodings. In experiments 1-5, nonsigning English speakers accurately distinguished between telic (e.g., "decide") and atelic (e.g., "think") signs from (the historically unrelated) Italian Sign Language, Sign Language of the Netherlands, and Turkish Sign Language. These results were not due to participants' inferring that the sign merely imitated the action in question. In experiment 6, we used pseudosigns to show that the presence of a salient visual boundary at the end of a gesture was sufficient to elicit telic interpretations, whereas repeated movement without salient boundaries elicited atelic interpretations. Experiments 7-10 confirmed that these visual cues were used by all of the sign languages studied here. Together, these results suggest that signers and nonsigners share universally accessible notions of telicity as well as universally accessible "mapping biases" between telicity and visual form. PMID:25918419

  6. Genes: Interactions with Language on Three Levels—Inter-Individual Variation, Historical Correlations and Genetic Biasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dediu, Dan

    The complex inter-relationships between genetics and linguistics encompass all four scales highlighted by the contributions to this book and, together with cultural transmission, the genetics of language holds the promise to offer a unitary understanding of this fascinating phenomenon. There are inter-individual differences in genetic makeup which contribute to the obvious fact that we are not identical in the way we understand and use language and, by studying them, we will be able to both better treat and enhance ourselves. There are correlations between the genetic configuration of human groups and their languages, reflecting the historical processes shaping them, and there also seem to exist genes which can influence some characteristics of language, biasing it towards or against certain states by altering the way language is transmitted across generations. Besides the joys of pure knowledge, the understanding of these three aspects of genetics relevant to language will potentially trigger advances in medicine, linguistics, psychology or the understanding of our own past and, last but not least, a profound change in the way we regard one of the emblems of being human: our capacity for language.

  7. Reading direction causes spatial biases in mental model construction in language understanding

    PubMed Central

    Román, Antonio; Flumini, Andrea; Lizano, Pilar; Escobar, Marysol; Santiago, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Correlational evidence suggests that the experience of reading and writing in a certain direction is able to induce spatial biases at both low-level perceptuo-motor skills and high-level conceptual representations. However, in order to support a causal relationship, experimental evidence is required. In this study, we asked whether the direction of the script is a sufficiente cause of spatial biases in the mental models that understanders build when listening to language. In order to establish causality, we manipulated the experience of reading a script with different directionalities. Spanish monolinguals read either normal (left-to-right), mirror reversed (right-to-left), rotated downward (up-down), or rotated upward (down-up) texts, and then drew the contents of auditory descriptions such as “the square is between the cross and the triangle”. The directionality of the drawings showed that a brief reading experience is enough to cause congruent and very specific spatial biases in mental model construction. However, there were also clear limits to this flexibility: there was a strong overall preference to arrange the models along the horizontal dimension. Spatial preferences when building mental models from language are the results of both short-term and long-term biases. PMID:26667996

  8. Individual Differences in the Shape Bias in Preschool Children with Specific Language Impairment and Typical Language Development: Theoretical and Clinical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collisson, Beverly Anne; Grela, Bernard; Spaulding, Tammie; Rueckl, Jay G.; Magnuson, James S.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether preschool children with specific language impairment (SLI) exhibit the shape bias in word learning: the bias to generalize based on shape rather than size, color, or texture in an object naming context ("This is a wek; find another wek") but not in a non-naming similarity classification context ("See this?…

  9. A Neural Dissociation within Language: Evidence that the Mental Dictionary Is Part of Declarative Memory, and that Grammatical Rules Are Processed by the Procedural System.

    PubMed

    Ullman, M T; Corkin, S; Coppola, M; Hickok, G; Growdon, J H; Koroshetz, W J; Pinker, S

    1997-03-01

    Language comprises a lexicon for storing words and a grammar for generating rule-governed forms. Evidence is presented that the lexicon is part of a temporal-parietalhnedial-temporal "declarative memory" system and that granlmatical rules are processed by a frontamasal-ganglia "procedural" system. Patients produced past tenses of regular and novel verbs (looked and plagged), which require an -ed-suffixation rule, and irregular verbs (dug), which are retrieved from memory. Word-finding difficulties in posterior aphasia, and the general declarative memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease, led to more errors with irregular than regular and novel verbs. Grammatical difficulties in anterior aphasia, and the general impairment of procedures in Parkinson's disease, led to the opposite pattern. In contrast to the Parkinson's patients, who showed sup pressed motor activity and rule use, Huntington's disease patients showed excess motor activity and rule use, underscoring a role for the basal ganglia in grammatical processing. PMID:23962016

  10. Cross-linguistic gestures reflect typological universals: a subject-initial, verb-final bias in speakers of diverse languages.

    PubMed

    Futrell, Richard; Hickey, Tina; Lee, Aldrin; Lim, Eunice; Luchkina, Elena; Gibson, Edward

    2015-03-01

    In communicating events by gesture, participants create codes that recapitulate the patterns of word order in the world's vocal languages (Gibson et al., 2013; Goldin-Meadow, So, Ozyurek, & Mylander, 2008; Hall, Mayberry, & Ferreria, 2013; Hall, Ferreira, & Mayberry, 2014; Langus & Nespor, 2010; and others). Participants most often convey simple transitive events using gestures in the order Subject-Object-Verb (SOV), the most common word order in human languages. When there is a possibility of confusion between subject and object, participants use the order Subject-Verb-Object (SVO). This overall pattern has been explained by positing an underlying cognitive preference for subject-initial, verb-final orders, with the verb-medial order SVO order emerging to facilitate robust communication in a noisy channel (Gibson et al., 2013). However, whether the subject-initial and verb-final biases are innate or the result of languages that the participants already know has been unclear, because participants in previous studies all spoke either SVO or SOV languages, which could induce a subject-initial, verb-late bias. Furthermore, the exact manner in which known languages influence gestural orders has been unclear. In this paper we demonstrate that there is a subject-initial and verb-final gesturing bias cross-linguistically by comparing gestures of speakers of SVO languages English and Russian to those of speakers of VSO languages Irish and Tagalog. The findings show that subject-initial and verb-final order emerges even in speakers of verb-initial languages, and that interference from these languages takes the form of occasionally gesturing in VSO order, without an additional bias toward other orders. The results provides further support for the idea that improvised gesture is a window into the pressures shaping language formation, independently of the languages that participants already know. PMID:25498747

  11. The Interlanguage Speech Intelligibility Benefit as Bias Toward Native-Language Phonology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongyan; van Heuven, Vincent J

    2015-12-01

    Two hypotheses have been advanced in the recent literature with respect to the so-called Interlanguage Speech Intelligibility Benefit (ISIB): a nonnative speaker will be better understood by a another nonnative listener than a native speaker of the target language will be (a) only when the nonnatives share the same native language (matched interlanguage) or (b) even when the nonnatives have different mother tongues (non-matched interlanguage). Based on a survey of published experimental materials, the present article will demonstrate that both the restricted (a) and the generalized (b) hypotheses are false when the ISIB effect is evaluated in terms of absolute intelligibility scores. We will then propose a simple way to compute a relative measure for the ISIB (R-ISIB), which we claim is a more insightful way of evaluating the interlanguage benefit, and test the hypotheses in relative (R-ISIB) terms on the same literature data. We then find that our R-ISIB measure only supports the more restricted hypothesis (a) while rejecting the more general hypothesis (b). This finding shows that the native language shared by the interactants biases the listener toward interpreting sounds in terms of the phonology of the shared mother tongue. PMID:27551352

  12. The Interlanguage Speech Intelligibility Benefit as Bias Toward Native-Language Phonology

    PubMed Central

    van Heuven, Vincent J.

    2015-01-01

    Two hypotheses have been advanced in the recent literature with respect to the so-called Interlanguage Speech Intelligibility Benefit (ISIB): a nonnative speaker will be better understood by a another nonnative listener than a native speaker of the target language will be (a) only when the nonnatives share the same native language (matched interlanguage) or (b) even when the nonnatives have different mother tongues (non-matched interlanguage). Based on a survey of published experimental materials, the present article will demonstrate that both the restricted (a) and the generalized (b) hypotheses are false when the ISIB effect is evaluated in terms of absolute intelligibility scores. We will then propose a simple way to compute a relative measure for the ISIB (R-ISIB), which we claim is a more insightful way of evaluating the interlanguage benefit, and test the hypotheses in relative (R-ISIB) terms on the same literature data. We then find that our R-ISIB measure only supports the more restricted hypothesis (a) while rejecting the more general hypothesis (b). This finding shows that the native language shared by the interactants biases the listener toward interpreting sounds in terms of the phonology of the shared mother tongue. PMID:27551352

  13. Individual Biases, Cultural Evolution, and the Statistical Nature of Language Universals: The Case of Colour Naming Systems

    PubMed Central

    Baronchelli, Andrea; Loreto, Vittorio; Puglisi, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Language universals have long been attributed to an innate Universal Grammar. An alternative explanation states that linguistic universals emerged independently in every language in response to shared cognitive or perceptual biases. A computational model has recently shown how this could be the case, focusing on the paradigmatic example of the universal properties of colour naming patterns, and producing results in quantitative agreement with the experimental data. Here we investigate the role of an individual perceptual bias in the framework of the model. We study how, and to what extent, the structure of the bias influences the corresponding linguistic universal patterns. We show that the cultural history of a group of speakers introduces population-specific constraints that act against the pressure for uniformity arising from the individual bias, and we clarify the interplay between these two forces. PMID:26018391

  14. Biased semantics for right and left in 50 Indo-European and non-Indo-European languages.

    PubMed

    Schiefenhövel, Wulf

    2013-06-01

    The negative bias accompanying the terms left and left-handers has long interested researchers. This paper examines a large number of languages of Indo-European and non-Indo-European origin for such biasing. One surprising outcome is that, within the Indo-European language family, the terms for right and left do not go back to one set of antonyms but have their etymological roots in a number of different core semantic concepts. As in the non-Indo-European languages, right is almost always thought of positively, whereas left is negatively connotated. This is interpreted as the outcome of a universal human evaluation process, partly based on the principle of embodiment. The terms for right never have, in any of the examined languages, a negative bias; the words for left, usually never positively biased, were turned into euphemisms in three language groups (Scandinavian, Greek, and Avestan). On one interpretation, this seems to be an act of historical political correctness, corroborating the negative attitude cultures have for left-handers, very likely an outcome of discrimination of minorities. PMID:23742684

  15. Individual differences in the shape bias in preschool children with specific language impairment and typical language development: theoretical and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Collisson, Beverly Anne; Grela, Bernard; Spaulding, Tammie; Rueckl, Jay G; Magnuson, James S

    2015-05-01

    We investigated whether preschool children with specific language impairment (SLI) exhibit the shape bias in word learning: the bias to generalize based on shape rather than size, color, or texture in an object naming context ('This is a wek; find another wek') but not in a non-naming similarity classification context ('See this? Which one goes with this one?'). Fifty-four preschool children (16 with SLI, 16 children with typical language [TL] in an equated control group, and 22 additional children with TL included in individual differences analyses but not group comparisons) completed a battery of linguistic and cognitive assessments and two experiments. In Experiment 1, children made generalization choices in object naming and similarity classification contexts on separate days, from options similar to a target object in shape, color, or texture. On average, TL children exhibited the shape bias in an object naming context, but children with SLI did not. In Experiment 2, we tested whether the failure to exhibit the shape bias might be linked to ability to detect systematicities in the visual domain. Experiment 2 supported this hypothesis, in that children with SLI failed to learn simple paired visual associations that were readily learned by children with TL. Analyses of individual differences in the two studies revealed that visual paired-associate learning predicted degree of shape bias in children with SLI and TL better than any other measure of nonverbal intelligence or standard assessments of language ability. We discuss theoretical and clinical implications. PMID:25164789

  16. Declarative memory.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Wim J; Blokland, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    Declarative Memory consists of memory for events (episodic memory) and facts (semantic memory). Methods to test declarative memory are key in investigating effects of potential cognition-enhancing substances--medicinal drugs or nutrients. A number of cognitive performance tests assessing declarative episodic memory tapping verbal learning, logical memory, pattern recognition memory, and paired associates learning are described. These tests have been used as outcome variables in 34 studies in humans that have been described in the literature in the past 10 years. Also, the use of episodic tests in animal research is discussed also in relation to the drug effects in these tasks. The results show that nutritional supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids has been investigated most abundantly and, in a number of cases, but not all, show indications of positive effects on declarative memory, more so in elderly than in young subjects. Studies investigating effects of registered anti-Alzheimer drugs, cholinesterase inhibitors in mild cognitive impairment, show positive and negative effects on declarative memory. Studies mainly carried out in healthy volunteers investigating the effects of acute dopamine stimulation indicate enhanced memory consolidation as manifested specifically by better delayed recall, especially at time points long after learning and more so when drug is administered after learning and if word lists are longer. The animal studies reveal a different picture with respect to the effects of different drugs on memory performance. This suggests that at least for episodic memory tasks, the translational value is rather poor. For the human studies, detailed parameters of the compositions of word lists for declarative memory tests are discussed and it is concluded that tailored adaptations of tests to fit the hypothesis under study, rather than "off-the-shelf" use of existing tests, are recommended. PMID:25977084

  17. Understanding Whole Language as Philosophy and Methodology: A Case of Reductive Bias?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, William T.

    Whole Language has become a visible and strong movement in language instruction. Yet there is still considerable disagreement as to what Whole Language entails and there are different degrees of knowledge held by various self-professed Whole Language teachers. Some are at a beginning stage of knowledge regarding Whole Language as philosophy and…

  18. The dark side of gendered language: The masculine-generic form as a cause for self-report bias.

    PubMed

    Vainapel, Sigal; Shamir, Opher Y; Tenenbaum, Yulie; Gilam, Gadi

    2015-12-01

    Language reflects sociocultural structures, such as gender, and affects individuals' perceptions and cognitions. In gendered languages, male-inflected parts of speech are generally used for both sexes (i.e., masculine generics), thus proliferating stereotypes, inequality, and misattributions. We hypothesized that masculine-generic inflection in a questionnaire would bias women's reports compared with a gender-neutral inflection (e.g., "he or she"). We tested our prediction using an academic motivation questionnaire. We found that women reported lower task value and intrinsic goal orientation in the masculine-generic form compared with the gender-neutral form, and lower self-efficacy than men in the masculine-generic form. These findings suggest that questionnaires and surveys written in gendered languages or translated into them may contain construct-irrelevant variance that may undermine the validity of their scores' interpretations, thus risking the possibility of false conclusions. PMID:25984637

  19. 19 CFR 10.804 - Declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... English language. (d) Applicability of declaration. The declaration may be applicable to: (1) A single...-mail address (if any) of the responsible official or authorized agent of the importer signing the... document consists of ___ pages, including all attachments.” (b) Responsible official or agent....

  20. 19 CFR 10.804 - Declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... English language. (d) Applicability of declaration. The declaration may be applicable to: (1) A single...-mail address (if any) of the responsible official or authorized agent of the importer signing the... document consists of ___ pages, including all attachments.” (b) Responsible official or agent....

  1. 19 CFR 10.864 - Declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... English language. (d) Applicability of declaration. The declaration may be applicable to: (1) A single...-mail address (if any) of the responsible official or authorized agent of the importer signing the... document consists of ___ pages, including all attachments.” (b) Responsible official or agent....

  2. 19 CFR 10.804 - Declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... English language. (d) Applicability of declaration. The declaration may be applicable to: (1) A single...-mail address (if any) of the responsible official or authorized agent of the importer signing the... document consists of ___ pages, including all attachments.” (b) Responsible official or agent....

  3. 19 CFR 10.864 - Declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... English language. (d) Applicability of declaration. The declaration may be applicable to: (1) A single...-mail address (if any) of the responsible official or authorized agent of the importer signing the... document consists of ___ pages, including all attachments.” (b) Responsible official or agent....

  4. 19 CFR 10.864 - Declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... English language. (d) Applicability of declaration. The declaration may be applicable to: (1) A single...-mail address (if any) of the responsible official or authorized agent of the importer signing the... document consists of ___ pages, including all attachments.” (b) Responsible official or agent....

  5. Sensitivity to Verb Bias in American Sign Language-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anible, Benjamin; Twitchell, Paul; Waters, Gabriel S.; Dussias, Paola E.; Piñar, Pilar; Morford, Jill P.

    2015-01-01

    Native speakers of English are sensitive to the likelihood that a verb will appear in a specific subcategorization frame, known as "verb bias." Readers rely on verb bias to help them resolve temporary ambiguity in sentence comprehension. We investigate whether deaf sign-print bilinguals who have acquired English syntactic knowledge…

  6. Event representations constrain the structure of language: Sign language as a window into universally accessible linguistic biases

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, Brent; Geraci, Carlo; Chemla, Emmanuel; Schlenker, Philippe; Kelepir, Meltem; Pfau, Roland

    2015-01-01

    According to a theoretical tradition dating back to Aristotle, verbs can be classified into two broad categories. Telic verbs (e.g., “decide,” “sell,” “die”) encode a logical endpoint, whereas atelic verbs (e.g., “think,” “negotiate,” “run”) do not, and the denoted event could therefore logically continue indefinitely. Here we show that sign languages encode telicity in a seemingly universal way and moreover that even nonsigners lacking any prior experience with sign language understand these encodings. In experiments 1–5, nonsigning English speakers accurately distinguished between telic (e.g., “decide”) and atelic (e.g., “think”) signs from (the historically unrelated) Italian Sign Language, Sign Language of the Netherlands, and Turkish Sign Language. These results were not due to participants' inferring that the sign merely imitated the action in question. In experiment 6, we used pseudosigns to show that the presence of a salient visual boundary at the end of a gesture was sufficient to elicit telic interpretations, whereas repeated movement without salient boundaries elicited atelic interpretations. Experiments 7–10 confirmed that these visual cues were used by all of the sign languages studied here. Together, these results suggest that signers and nonsigners share universally accessible notions of telicity as well as universally accessible “mapping biases” between telicity and visual form. PMID:25918419

  7. Declarative Visualization Queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro da Silva, P.; Del Rio, N.; Leptoukh, G. G.

    2011-12-01

    In an ideal interaction with machines, scientists may prefer to write declarative queries saying "what" they want from a machine than to write code stating "how" the machine is going to address the user request. For example, in relational database, users have long relied on specifying queries using Structured Query Language (SQL), a declarative language to request data results from a database management system. In the context of visualizations, we see that users are still writing code based on complex visualization toolkit APIs. With the goal of improving the scientists' experience of using visualization technology, we have applied this query-answering pattern to a visualization setting, where scientists specify what visualizations they want generated using a declarative SQL-like notation. A knowledge enhanced management system ingests the query and knows the following: (1) know how to translate the query into visualization pipelines; and (2) how to execute the visualization pipelines to generate the requested visualization. We define visualization queries as declarative requests for visualizations specified in an SQL like language. Visualization queries specify what category of visualization to generate (e.g., volumes, contours, surfaces) as well as associated display attributes (e.g., color and opacity), without any regards for implementation, thus allowing scientists to remain partially unaware of a wide range of visualization toolkit (e.g., Generic Mapping Tools and Visualization Toolkit) specific implementation details. Implementation details are only a concern for our knowledge-based visualization management system, which uses both the information specified in the query and knowledge about visualization toolkit functions to construct visualization pipelines. Knowledge about the use of visualization toolkits includes what data formats the toolkit operates on, what formats they output, and what views they can generate. Visualization knowledge, which is not

  8. Response bias reveals enhanced attention to inferior visual field in signers of American Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Dye, Matthew W G; Seymour, Jenessa L; Hauser, Peter C

    2016-04-01

    Deafness results in cross-modal plasticity, whereby visual functions are altered as a consequence of a lack of hearing. Here, we present a reanalysis of data originally reported by Dye et al. (PLoS One 4(5):e5640, 2009) with the aim of testing additional hypotheses concerning the spatial redistribution of visual attention due to deafness and the use of a visuogestural language (American Sign Language). By looking at the spatial distribution of errors made by deaf and hearing participants performing a visuospatial selective attention task, we sought to determine whether there was evidence for (1) a shift in the hemispheric lateralization of visual selective function as a result of deafness, and (2) a shift toward attending to the inferior visual field in users of a signed language. While no evidence was found for or against a shift in lateralization of visual selective attention as a result of deafness, a shift in the allocation of attention from the superior toward the inferior visual field was inferred in native signers of American Sign Language, possibly reflecting an adaptation to the perceptual demands imposed by a visuogestural language. PMID:26708522

  9. The Intention-to-CAUSE Bias: Evidence from Children's Causal Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muentener, Paul; Lakusta, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The current study explored causal language in 3.5- to 4-year-old children by manipulating the type of agent (human acting intentionally or unintentionally, or inanimate object) and the type of effect (motion or state change) in causal events. Experiment 1 found that the type of agent, but not the type of effect, influenced children's production of…

  10. Biasing for the Best in Language Testing and Learning: An Interview with Merrill Swain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Janna

    2004-01-01

    In response to the American Association of Applied Linguistics' presentation of the Distinguished Scholarship and Service Award for extraordinary contributions to the fields of language learning, teaching, and testing in May 2004, Merrill Swain described her own work as "moving in cycles of research, theory and practice." These "spirals" ("cycles…

  11. Sex-Biased Sound Symbolism in English-Language First Names

    PubMed Central

    Pitcher, Benjamin J.; Mesoudi, Alex; McElligott, Alan G.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual selection has resulted in sex-based size dimorphism in many mammals, including humans. In Western societies, average to taller stature men and comparatively shorter, slimmer women have higher reproductive success and are typically considered more attractive. This size dimorphism also extends to vocalisations in many species, again including humans, with larger individuals exhibiting lower formant frequencies than smaller individuals. Further, across many languages there are associations between phonemes and the expression of size (e.g. large /a, o/, small /i, e/), consistent with the frequency-size relationship in vocalisations. We suggest that naming preferences are a product of this frequency-size relationship, driving male names to sound larger and female names smaller, through sound symbolism. In a 10-year dataset of the most popular British, Australian and American names we show that male names are significantly more likely to contain larger sounding phonemes (e.g. “Thomas”), while female names are significantly more likely to contain smaller phonemes (e.g. “Emily”). The desire of parents to have comparatively larger, more masculine sons, and smaller, more feminine daughters, and the increased social success that accompanies more sex-stereotyped names, is likely to be driving English-language first names to exploit sound symbolism of size in line with sexual body size dimorphism. PMID:23755148

  12. General three-state model with biased population replacement: Analytical solution and application to language dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colaiori, Francesca; Castellano, Claudio; Cuskley, Christine F.; Loreto, Vittorio; Pugliese, Martina; Tria, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Empirical evidence shows that the rate of irregular usage of English verbs exhibits discontinuity as a function of their frequency: the most frequent verbs tend to be totally irregular. We aim to qualitatively understand the origin of this feature by studying simple agent-based models of language dynamics, where each agent adopts an inflectional state for a verb and may change it upon interaction with other agents. At the same time, agents are replaced at some rate by new agents adopting the regular form. In models with only two inflectional states (regular and irregular), we observe that either all verbs regularize irrespective of their frequency, or a continuous transition occurs between a low-frequency state, where the lemma becomes fully regular, and a high-frequency one, where both forms coexist. Introducing a third (mixed) state, wherein agents may use either form, we find that a third, qualitatively different behavior may emerge, namely, a discontinuous transition in frequency. We introduce and solve analytically a very general class of three-state models that allows us to fully understand these behaviors in a unified framework. Realistic sets of interaction rules, including the well-known naming game (NG) model, result in a discontinuous transition, in agreement with recent empirical findings. We also point out that the distinction between speaker and hearer in the interaction has no effect on the collective behavior. The results for the general three-state model, although discussed in terms of language dynamics, are widely applicable.

  13. Snapshots of Children's Changing Biases during Language Development: Differential Weighting of Perceptual and Linguistic Factors Predicts Noun Age of Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Christopher H.; Chrysikou, Evangelia G.; Reilly, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Word learning is a lifelong activity constrained by cognitive biases that people possess at particular points in development. Age of acquisition (AoA) is a psycholinguistic variable that may prove useful toward gauging the relative weighting of different phonological, semantic, and morphological factors at different phases of language acquisition…

  14. Rethinking the Talloires Declaration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlong, William

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to critique constructively and complement the Talloires Declaration with a focus on social and cultural elements that shape action. These elements are important to achieving the needed response to the environmental issues that the Talloires Declaration highlights. While the Talloires Declaration has been…

  15. Teaching Them to Curse: A Study of Certain Types of Inherent Racial Bias in Language Pedagogy and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purnell, Rosentene B.

    1982-01-01

    Many negative assumptions about Blacks are reflected in current language and the language in literary works, dictionaries, the media, textbooks, and tests. Teachers must try to eliminate racist language and behavior by discouraging the use of negative language and by helping students to appreciate language flexibility and cultural diversity.…

  16. Saul: Towards Declarative Learning Based Programming

    PubMed Central

    Kordjamshidi, Parisa; Roth, Dan; Wu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    We present Saul, a new probabilistic programming language designed to address some of the shortcomings of programming languages that aim at advancing and simplifying the development of AI systems. Such languages need to interact with messy, naturally occurring data, to allow a programmer to specify what needs to be done at an appropriate level of abstraction rather than at the data level, to be developed on a solid theory that supports moving to and reasoning at this level of abstraction and, finally, to support flexible integration of these learning and inference models within an application program. Saul is an object-functional programming language written in Scala that facilitates these by (1) allowing a programmer to learn, name and manipulate named abstractions over relational data; (2) supporting seamless incorporation of trainable (probabilistic or discriminative) components into the program, and (3) providing a level of inference over trainable models to support composition and make decisions that respect domain and application constraints. Saul is developed over a declaratively defined relational data model, can use piecewise learned factor graphs with declaratively specified learning and inference objectives, and it supports inference over probabilistic models augmented with declarative knowledge-based constraints. We describe the key constructs of Saul and exemplify its use in developing applications that require relational feature engineering and structured output prediction. PMID:26635465

  17. [Language gene].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiroshi

    2006-11-01

    The human capacity for acquiring speech and language must derive, at least in part, from the genome. Recent advance in the field of molecular genetics finally discovered 'Language Gene'. Disruption of FOXP2 gene, the firstly identified 'language gene' causes severe speech and language disorder. To elucidate the anatomical basis of language processing in the brain, we examined the expression pattern of FOXP2/Foxp2 genes in the monkey and rat brains through development. We found the preferential expression of FOXP2/Foxp2 in the striosomal compartment of the developing striatum. Thus, we suggest the striatum, particularly striosomal system may participate in neural information processing for language and speech. Our suggestion is consistent with the declarative/ procedural model of language proposed by Ullman (1997, 2001), which the procedural memory-dependent mental grammar is rooted in the basal ganglia and the frontal cortex, and the declarative memory-dependent mental lexicon is rooted in the temporal lobe. PMID:17432197

  18. Teaching Them to Curse: A Study of Certain Types of Inherent Racial Bias in Language Pedagogy and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purnell, Rosentene B.

    Racist language is more pervasive than sexist language. Not only are there obvious racial slurs, but also most English black and black-oriented words have negative meanings. One study found over 134 synonyms for whiteness, 44 of which were favorable, and only 10 had any semblance of negative connotations. In the same study, 120 synonyms for…

  19. A Bayesian Model of Biases in Artificial Language Learning: The Case of a Word-Order Universal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Jennifer; Smolensky, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we develop a hierarchical Bayesian model of learning in a general type of artificial language-learning experiment in which learners are exposed to a mixture of grammars representing the variation present in real learners' input, particularly at times of language change. The modeling goal is to formalize and quantify hypothesized…

  20. Transfer of Declarative Knowledge in Complex Information-Processing Domains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Leon; Anderson, John

    1996-01-01

    Two experiments tested the hypothesis that subjects introduced to a first programming language develop a representation of basic programming concepts that help them integrate new declarative knowledge from a second programming language. The effect on reading was greater for pages that were conceptually close across texts and for subjects who had…

  1. Declarative camera control for automatic cinematography

    SciTech Connect

    Christianson, D.B.; Anderson, S.E.; Li-wei He

    1996-12-31

    Animations generated by interactive 3D computer graphics applications are typically portrayed either from a particular character`s point of view or from a small set of strategically-placed viewpoints. By ignoring camera placement, such applications fail to realize important storytelling capabilities that have been explored by cinematographers for many years. In this paper, we describe several of the principles of cinematography and show how they can be formalized into a declarative language, called the Declarative Camera Control Language (DCCL). We describe the application of DCCL within the context of a simple interactive video game and argue that DCCL represents cinematic knowledge at the same level of abstraction as expert directors by encoding 16 idioms from a film textbook. These idioms produce compelling animations, as demonstrated on the accompanying videotape.

  2. UNESCO's Mass Media Declaration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Communication, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Presents the text of the declaration of fundamental principles concerning the contribution of the mass media to strengthening peace and international understanding, promoting human rights, and countering racialism, apartheid and incitement to war. Adopted by the UNESCO General Conference in November 1978. (JMF)

  3. Erasure declaring Viterbi decoders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollara, F.

    1987-01-01

    Several methods for realizing erasure declaring Viterbi decoders for the (7,1/2) NASA code are discussed. Only bit oriented algorithms are considered. When such decoders are used in a concatenated system with a (255,223) Reed-Solomon decoder, improvements on the probability of word error of at most 0.1 dB were obtained.

  4. Darwin and the Declaration.

    PubMed

    Seagrave, S Adam

    2011-01-01

    Does the prima facie contradiction between the Declaration of Independence's description of the separate and unique "creation" of human beings and Darwin's evolutionary account indicate a broader contradiction between theories of human rights and Darwinian evolution? While similar troubling questions have been raised and answered in the affirmative since Darwin's time, this article renews, updates and significantly fortifies such answers with original arguments. If a "distilled" formulation of the Declaration's central claims, shorn of complicating entanglements with both theology and comprehensive philosophical doctrines, may still be in contradiction with Darwinian evolutionary theory, this should be cause for substantial concern on the part of all normative political theorists, from Straussians to Rawlsians. Despite the notable recent efforts of a few political theorists, evolutionary ethicists and sociobiologists to establish the compatibility of Darwinian evolutionary theory with moral norms such as the idea of natural or human rights, I argue that significant obstacles remain. PMID:22204676

  5. The Clause-Initial Position in L2 German Declaratives: Transfer of Information Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohnacker, Ute; Rosen, Christina

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the information structure of verb-second (V2) declaratives in Swedish, German, and nonnative German. Even though almost any type of element can occur in the so-called prefield, the clause-initial preverbal position of V2 declaratives, we have found language-specific patterns in native-speaker corpora: The frequencies of…

  6. XML3D and Xflow: combining declarative 3D for the Web with generic data flows.

    PubMed

    Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing. PMID:24808080

  7. Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadlin, Barry; Nemanich, Donald

    1974-01-01

    An article and a bibliography constitute this issue of the "Illinois English Bulletin." In "Keep the Natives from Getting Restless," Barry Gadlin examines native language learning by children from infancy through high school and discusses the theories of several authors concerning the teaching of the native language. The "Bibliography of…

  8. On the Termination Problem for Declarative XML Message Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litak, Tadeusz; Helmer, Sven

    We define a formal syntax and semantics for the Rule Definition Language (RDL) of DemaqLite, which is a fragment of the declarative XML message processing system Demaq. Based on this definition, we prove that the termination problem for any practically useful sublanguage of DemaqLiteRDL is undecidable, as any such language can emulate a Single Register Machine—a Turing-complete model of computation proposed by Shepherdson and Sturgis.

  9. 19 CFR 148.14 - Family declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Family declarations. 148.14 Section 148.14 Customs... (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Declarations § 148.14 Family declarations. A family group... declare orally articles acquired abroad for the personal or household use of any member of the family...

  10. 19 CFR 148.14 - Family declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Family declarations. 148.14 Section 148.14 Customs... (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Declarations § 148.14 Family declarations. A family group... declare orally articles acquired abroad for the personal or household use of any member of the family...

  11. 19 CFR 148.14 - Family declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Family declarations. 148.14 Section 148.14 Customs... (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Declarations § 148.14 Family declarations. A family group... declare orally articles acquired abroad for the personal or household use of any member of the family...

  12. 19 CFR 148.14 - Family declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Family declarations. 148.14 Section 148.14 Customs... (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Declarations § 148.14 Family declarations. A family group... declare orally articles acquired abroad for the personal or household use of any member of the family...

  13. 19 CFR 148.14 - Family declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Family declarations. 148.14 Section 148.14 Customs... (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Declarations § 148.14 Family declarations. A family group... declare orally articles acquired abroad for the personal or household use of any member of the family...

  14. 19 CFR 148.13 - Written declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Written declarations. 148.13 Section 148.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Declarations § 148.13 Written declarations. (a) When required. Unless an oral declaration...

  15. 19 CFR 148.13 - Written declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Written declarations. 148.13 Section 148.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Declarations § 148.13 Written declarations. (a) When required. Unless an oral declaration...

  16. 19 CFR 148.13 - Written declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Written declarations. 148.13 Section 148.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Declarations § 148.13 Written declarations. (a) When required. Unless an oral declaration...

  17. 48 CFR 218.203 - Incidents of national significance, emergency declaration, or major disaster declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... disasters or national or civil emergencies. See 232.7002(a)(4). ... significance, emergency declaration, or major disaster declaration. 218.203 Section 218.203 Federal Acquisition... significance, emergency declaration, or major disaster declaration. (1) Establishing or maintaining...

  18. Language Bias and Self-Rated Health Status among the Latino Population: Evidence of the Influence of Translation in a Wording Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Gabriel R.; Vargas, Edward D.

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of research seeks to understand how language bias in survey research impacts our abilities to make generalizations in the study of racial and ethnic disparities. This research uses a wording experiment to assess self-rated health among a representative study of the Latino population (n=1,200). Our analysis shows that by manipulating only the translation of the category fair health into Spanish we are able to directly test the hypothesis that the translation of fair to regular in Spanish suppresses Latino self-rated health. We find convincing evidence through the use of logistic and multinomial logistic regressions that respondents provided with the term regular report poorer health when compared to those who were given the alternative translation of mas o menos. We also find that this translation effect is driven solely by a movement of respondents to choose fair rather than good health, which can in fact explain lower than expected health status rates in studies looking to explore differences between Latinos and non-Latinos. This research informs the study of racial and ethnic disparities, providing a detailed explanation for mixed findings in the Latino health disparities literature. PMID:26439110

  19. A compensatory role for declarative memory in neurodevelopmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Ullman, Michael T; Pullman, Mariel Y

    2015-04-01

    Most research on neurodevelopmental disorders has focused on their abnormalities. However, what remains intact may also be important. Increasing evidence suggests that declarative memory, a critical learning and memory system in the brain, remains largely functional in a number of neurodevelopmental disorders. Because declarative memory remains functional in these disorders, and because it can learn and retain numerous types of information, functions, and tasks, this system should be able to play compensatory roles for multiple types of impairments across the disorders. Here, we examine this hypothesis for specific language impairment, dyslexia, autism spectrum disorder, Tourette syndrome, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. We lay out specific predictions for the hypothesis and review existing behavioral, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging evidence. Overall, the evidence suggests that declarative memory indeed plays compensatory roles for a range of impairments across all five disorders. Finally, we discuss diagnostic, therapeutic and other implications. PMID:25597655

  20. A compensatory role for declarative memory in neurodevelopmental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ullman, Michael T.; Pullman, Mariel Y.

    2015-01-01

    Most research on neurodevelopmental disorders has focused on their abnormalities. However, what remains intact may also be important. Increasing evidence suggests that declarative memory, a critical learning and memory system in the brain, remains largely functional in a number of neurodevelopmental disorders. Because declarative memory remains functional, and because this system can learn and retain numerous types of information, functions, and tasks, it should be able to play compensatory roles for multiple types of impairments across the disorders. Here, we examine this hypothesis for specific language impairment, dyslexia, autism spectrum disorder, Tourette syndrome, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. We lay out specific predictions for the hypothesis and review existing behavioral, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging evidence. Overall, the evidence suggests that declarative memory indeed plays compensatory roles for a range of impairments across all five disorders. Finally, we discuss diagnostic, therapeutic and other implications. PMID:25597655

  1. Brain death declaration

    PubMed Central

    Wahlster, Sarah; Wijdicks, Eelco F.M.; Patel, Pratik V.; Greer, David M.; Hemphill, J. Claude; Carone, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the practices and perceptions of brain death determination worldwide and analyze the extent and nature of variations among countries. Methods: An electronic survey was distributed globally to physicians with expertise in neurocritical care, neurology, or related disciplines who would encounter patients at risk of brain death. Results: Most countries (n = 91, response rate 76%) reported a legal provision (n = 63, 70%) and an institutional protocol (n = 70, 77%) for brain death. Institutional protocols were less common in lower-income countries (2/9 of low [22%], 9/18 lower-middle [50%], 22/26 upper-middle [85%], and 37/38 high-income countries [97%], p < 0.001). Countries with an organized transplant network were more likely to have a brain death provision compared with countries without one (53/64 [83%] vs 6/25 [24%], p < 0.001). Among institutions with a formalized brain death protocol, marked variability occurred in requisite examination findings (n = 37, 53% of respondents deviated from the American Academy of Neurology criteria), apnea testing, necessity and type of ancillary testing (most commonly required test: EEG [n = 37, 53%]), time to declaration, number and qualifications of physicians present, and criteria in children (distinct pediatric criteria: n = 38, 56%). Conclusions: Substantial differences in perceptions and practices of brain death exist worldwide. The identification of discrepancies, improvement of gaps in medical education, and formalization of protocols in lower-income countries provide first pragmatic steps to reconciling these variations. Whether a harmonized, uniform standard for brain death worldwide can be achieved remains questionable. PMID:25854866

  2. Cultural Bias in Testing ESL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargill-Power, C.

    Although cultural content is unavoidable as a backdrop for good language testing, cultural bias in testing English as a second language presents many dangers. A picture cue calling for a correct grammatical response may evoke an incorrect answer if the pictorial content is culturally coded. The cultural background behind a test must be accurately…

  3. Intergroup bias.

    PubMed

    Hewstone, Miles; Rubin, Mark; Willis, Hazel

    2002-01-01

    This chapter reviews the extensive literature on bias in favor of in-groups at the expense of out-groups. We focus on five issues and identify areas for future research: (a) measurement and conceptual issues (especially in-group favoritism vs. out-group derogation, and explicit vs. implicit measures of bias); (b) modern theories of bias highlighting motivational explanations (social identity, optimal distinctiveness, uncertainty reduction, social dominance, terror management); (c) key moderators of bias, especially those that exacerbate bias (identification, group size, status and power, threat, positive-negative asymmetry, personality and individual differences); (d) reduction of bias (individual vs. intergroup approaches, especially models of social categorization); and (e) the link between intergroup bias and more corrosive forms of social hostility. PMID:11752497

  4. 77 FR 48775 - Changes To Implement the Inventor's Oath or Declaration Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... provisions of section 4 of the AIA and to remove the ``without any deceptive intention'' language due to the... Implement the Inventor's Oath or Declaration Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act, 77 FR 982... Inventor's Oath or Declaration Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act, 77 FR at 983. The...

  5. Sympathetic bias.

    PubMed

    Levy, David M; Peart, Sandra J

    2008-06-01

    We wish to deal with investigator bias in a statistical context. We sketch how a textbook solution to the problem of "outliers" which avoids one sort of investigator bias, creates the temptation for another sort. We write down a model of the approbation seeking statistician who is tempted by sympathy for client to violate the disciplinary standards. We give a simple account of one context in which we might expect investigator bias to flourish. Finally, we offer tentative suggestions to deal with the problem of investigator bias which follow from our account. As we have given a very sparse and stylized account of investigator bias, we ask what might be done to overcome this limitation. PMID:17925315

  6. Academic Bias in Language Testing: A Construct Validity Critique of the IPT I Oral Grades K-6 Spanish Second Edition (IPT Spanish)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacSwan, Jeff; Mahoney, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Construct validity concerns for the IPT I Oral Grades K-6 Spanish Second Edition (IPT-S) as a measure of native oral language proficiency are examined. The examination included describing a subset of items that contributes most to overall score and native-language proficiency designation. Correlations between this subset of items and the overall…

  7. 48 CFR 218.203 - Incidents of national significance, emergency declaration, or major disaster declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... significance, emergency declaration, or major disaster declaration. 218.203 Section 218.203 Federal Acquisition... significance, emergency declaration, or major disaster declaration. (1) Establishing or maintaining alternative... awarded by contracting officers in the conduct of emergency operations, such as responses to...

  8. 40 CFR 62.06 - Negative declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Negative declarations. 62.06 Section 62....06 Negative declarations. A State may submit to the Administrator a letter certifying that no designated facilities exist in the State if such is the case. The negative declaration will be in lieu of...

  9. Hindsight Bias.

    PubMed

    Roese, Neal J; Vohs, Kathleen D

    2012-09-01

    Hindsight bias occurs when people feel that they "knew it all along," that is, when they believe that an event is more predictable after it becomes known than it was before it became known. Hindsight bias embodies any combination of three aspects: memory distortion, beliefs about events' objective likelihoods, or subjective beliefs about one's own prediction abilities. Hindsight bias stems from (a) cognitive inputs (people selectively recall information consistent with what they now know to be true and engage in sensemaking to impose meaning on their own knowledge), (b) metacognitive inputs (the ease with which a past outcome is understood may be misattributed to its assumed prior likelihood), and (c) motivational inputs (people have a need to see the world as orderly and predictable and to avoid being blamed for problems). Consequences of hindsight bias include myopic attention to a single causal understanding of the past (to the neglect of other reasonable explanations) as well as general overconfidence in the certainty of one's judgments. New technologies for visualizing and understanding data sets may have the unintended consequence of heightening hindsight bias, but an intervention that encourages people to consider alternative causal explanations for a given outcome can reduce hindsight bias. PMID:26168501

  10. The International Lunar Decade Declaration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beldavs, V.; Foing, B.; Bland, D.; Crisafulli, J.

    2015-10-01

    The International Lunar Decade Declaration was discussed at the conference held November 9-13, 2014 in Hawaii "The Next Giant Leap: Leveraging Lunar Assets for Sustainable Pathways to Space" - http://2014giantleap.aerospacehawaii.info/ and accepted by a core group that forms the International Lunar Decade Working Group (ILDWG) that is seeking to make the proposed global event and decade long process a reality. The Declaration will be updated from time to time by members of the ILDWreflecting new knowledge and fresh perspectives that bear on building a global consortium with a mission to progress from lunar exploration to the transformation of the Moon into a wealth gene rating platform for the expansion of humankind into the solar system. When key organizations have endorsed the idea and joined the effort the text of the Declaration will be considered final. An earlier International Lunar Decade proposal was issued at the 8th ICEUM Conference in 2006 in Beijing together with 13 specific initiatives for lunar exploration[1,2,3]. These initiatives have been largely implemented with coordination among the different space agencies involved provided by the International Lunar Exploration Working Group[2,3]. The Second International Lunar Decade from 2015 reflects current trends towards increasing involvement of commercial firms in space, particularly seeking opportunities beyond low Earth orbit. The central vision of the International Lunar Decade is to build the foundations for a sustainable space economy through international collaboration concurrently addressing Lunar exploration and building a shared knowledge base;Policy development that enables collabo rative research and development leading to lunar mining and industrial and commercial development;Infrastructure on the Moon and in cislunar space (communications, transport, energy systems, way-stations, other) that reduces costs, lowers risks and speeds up the time to profitable operations;Enabling technologies

  11. The Language Situation in Timor-Leste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Leech, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    Timor-Leste celebrated its formal political independence on 20th May 2002. The National Constitution of the new nation declared the endogenous lingua franca (Tetum) and the former colonial language (Portuguese) to be co-official. The remaining local languages were given the status of national languages. Indonesian and English were designated as…

  12. 19 CFR 4.63 - Outward cargo declaration; shippers' export declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of the section in the Census Regulations (see 15 CFR 30.39, 30.50 through 30.57) where the particular... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Outward cargo declaration; shippers' export... Outward cargo declaration; shippers' export declarations. (a) No vessel shall be cleared directly for...

  13. 15 CFR 715.2 - Amended declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES... submitted to BIS. You must submit an amended declaration to BIS within 15 days of any change in the... PSF chemical; and (5) Production range of each plant at the declared plant site that...

  14. 15 CFR 715.2 - Amended declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES... submitted to BIS. You must submit an amended declaration to BIS within 15 days of any change in the... PSF chemical; and (5) Production range of each plant at the declared plant site that...

  15. 15 CFR 715.2 - Amended declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES... submitted to BIS. You must submit an amended declaration to BIS within 15 days of any change in the... PSF chemical; and (5) Production range of each plant at the declared plant site that...

  16. 33 CFR 401.74 - Transit declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transit declaration. 401.74 Section 401.74 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Toll Assessment and Payment § 401.74 Transit declaration. (a) Seaway Transit...

  17. 40 CFR 52.122 - Negative declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Negative declarations. 52.122 Section 52.122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.122 Negative declarations. (a) The following air pollution control districts...

  18. 19 CFR 10.704 - Declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Declaration. 10.704 Section 10.704 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Jordan Free Trade Agreement Import Requirements § 10.704 Declaration....

  19. 19 CFR 10.764 - Declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Declaration. 10.764 Section 10.764 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement Import Requirements § 10.764 Declaration....

  20. 19 CFR 10.804 - Declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Declaration. 10.804 Section 10.804 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement Import Requirements § 10.804 Declaration....

  1. Didactic Images and the Declaration of Independence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tigner, Steven S.

    1993-01-01

    Analyzes John Trumbull's documentary painting, "The Declaration of Independence," for its didactic importance. The painting actually represents the moment in which the declaration is presented to the Second Continental Congress, rather than the signing of the document. The historic and visual importance of the work for educators is explored. (SLD)

  2. Teaching the Declaration of Independence. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John J.

    The Declaration of Independence is the founding document of the United States. It is part of the social studies core curriculum in U.S. schools. By the time they graduate from high school, students are expected to know the main ideas in the Declaration of Independence and their significance. This digest discusses: (1) the origins of the…

  3. 40 CFR 52.2900 - Negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Negative declaration. 52.2900 Section... § 52.2900 Negative declaration. (a) Air Pollution Implementation Plan for the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. (1) Letter of December 15, 1982, from the Governor to EPA, which is a...

  4. Declarative ad-hoc sensor networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffin, Daniel A.; Van Hook, Daniel J.; McGarry, Stephen M.; Kolek, Stephen R.

    2000-11-01

    Networking protocols for distributed collaborative ad-hoc wireless sensing are constrained by requirements such as energy efficiency, scalability, and support for greater variations in topology than traditional fully wired or last- hop wireless (remote to base station) networks. In such a highly constrained and dynamic environment, conventional networking approaches are generally not adequate. A declarative approach to network configuration and organization appears to offer significant benefits. Declarative networking exploits application-supplied data descriptions to control network routing and resource allocation in such a way as to enhance energy efficiency and scalability. An implementation of this approach, called the Declarative Routing Protocol (DRP) has been developed as part of DARPA's Sensor Information Technology program. This paper introduces the concept of declarative networking and what distinguishes it from more conventional networking approaches, describes the Declarative Routing Protocol, and presents performance results from initial experiments.

  5. Translation between representation languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanbaalen, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    A capability for translating between representation languages is critical for effective knowledge base reuse. A translation technology for knowledge representation languages based on the use of an interlingua for communicating knowledge is described. The interlingua-based translation process consists of three major steps: translation from the source language into a subset of the interlingua, translation between subsets of the interlingua, and translation from a subset of the interlingua into the target language. The first translation step into the interlingua can typically be specified in the form of a grammar that describes how each top-level form in the source language translates into the interlingua. In cases where the source language does not have a declarative semantics, such a grammar is also a specification of a declarative semantics for the language. A methodology for building translators that is currently under development is described. A 'translator shell' based on this methodology is also under development. The shell has been used to build translators for multiple representation languages and those translators have successfully translated nontrivial knowledge bases.

  6. Sex Bias in Educational Aptitude and Achievement Tests: What Do We Know? Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockheed, Marlaine E.

    Empirical studies are reviewed of sex bias and psychometric bias in aptitude and achievement tests. It is concluded that: (1) of four studies of sex bias, all found that the language used in the tests favored males, but, at the elementary-secondary level, sex bias has been decreasing; (2) of 15 analyses of psychometric bias, all found an…

  7. Exploring Noun Bias in Filipino-English Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Rochelle Irene G.; Bernardo, Allan B. I.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that there is a noun bias in children's early vocabularies brought about by features of adults' child-directed utterances, which may vary across languages (E. V. Bates et al., 1994; D. Gentner, 1982). In the present study, the authors explored noun bias in 60 Filipino-English bilingual children whose 2 languages differed…

  8. Biased Allostery.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Stuart J; Changeux, Jean-Pierre

    2016-09-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a large group of integral membrane proteins that transduce extracellular signals from a wide range of agonists into targeted intracellular responses. Although the responses can vary depending on the category of G-proteins activated by a particular receptor, responses were also found to be triggered by interactions of the receptor with β-arrestins. It was subsequently discovered that for the same receptor molecule (e.g., the β-adrenergic receptor), some agonists have a propensity to specifically favor responses by G-proteins, others by β-arrestins, as has now been extensively studied. This feature of the GPCR system is known as biased agonism and is subject to various interpretations, including agonist-induced conformational change versus selective stabilization of preexisting active conformations. Here, we explore a complete allosteric framework for biased agonism based on alternative preexisting conformations that bind more strongly, but nonexclusively, either G-proteins or β-arrestins. The framework incorporates reciprocal effects among all interacting molecules. As a result, G-proteins and β-arrestins are in steric competition for binding to the cytoplasmic surface of either the G-protein-favoring or β-arrestin-favoring GPCR conformation. Moreover, through linkage relations, the strength of the interactions of G-proteins or β-arrestins with the corresponding active conformation potentiates the apparent affinity for the agonist, effectively equating these two proteins to allosteric modulators. The balance between response alternatives can also be influenced by the physiological concentrations of either G-proteins or β-arrestins, as well as by phosphorylation or interactions with positive or negative allosteric modulators. The nature of the interactions in the simulations presented suggests novel experimental tests to distinguish more fully among alternative mechanisms. PMID:27602718

  9. The declarative/procedural model of lexicon and grammar.

    PubMed

    Ullman, M T

    2001-01-01

    Our use of language depends upon two capacities: a mental lexicon of memorized words and a mental grammar of rules that underlie the sequential and hierarchical composition of lexical forms into predictably structured larger words, phrases, and sentences. The declarative/procedural model posits that the lexicon/grammar distinction in language is tied to the distinction between two well-studied brain memory systems. On this view, the memorization and use of at least simple words (those with noncompositional, that is, arbitrary form-meaning pairings) depends upon an associative memory of distributed representations that is subserved by temporal-lobe circuits previously implicated in the learning and use of fact and event knowledge. This "declarative memory" system appears to be specialized for learning arbitrarily related information (i.e., for associative binding). In contrast, the acquisition and use of grammatical rules that underlie symbol manipulation is subserved by frontal/basal-ganglia circuits previously implicated in the implicit (nonconscious) learning and expression of motor and cognitive "skills" and "habits" (e.g., from simple motor acts to skilled game playing). This "procedural" system may be specialized for computing sequences. This novel view of lexicon and grammar offers an alternative to the two main competing theoretical frameworks. It shares the perspective of traditional dual-mechanism theories in positing that the mental lexicon and a symbol-manipulating mental grammar are subserved by distinct computational components that may be linked to distinct brain structures. However, it diverges from these theories where they assume components dedicated to each of the two language capacities (that is, domain-specific) and in their common assumption that lexical memory is a rote list of items. Conversely, while it shares with single-mechanism theories the perspective that the two capacities are subserved by domain-independent computational mechanisms

  10. Declarative Strategies Persist Under Increased Cognitive Load

    PubMed Central

    Crossley, Matthew J.; Paul, Erick J.; Roeder, Jessica L.; Ashby, F. Gregory

    2015-01-01

    When humans simultaneously execute multiple tasks, performance on individual tasks suffers. Complementing existing theories, this article poses a novel question to investigate interactions between memory systems supporting multi-tasking performance: When a primary and dual task both recruit declarative learning and memory systems, does simultaneous performance of both tasks impair primary-task performance because learning in the declarative system is reduced, or because control of the primary task is passed to slower procedural systems? To address this question, participants were trained on either a perceptual categorization task believed to rely on procedural learning or one of three different categorization tasks believed to rely on declarative learning. Task performance was examined with and without a simultaneous dual task thought to recruit working memory and executive attention. To test whether the categories were learned procedurally or declaratively, the response keys were switched after a learning criterion had been reached. Large impairments in performance after switching the response keys are taken to indicate procedural learning, and small impairments are taken to indicate declarative learning. Our results suggest that the declarative memory categorization tasks (regardless of task difficulty) were learned by declarative systems, regardless of whether they were learned under dual-task conditions. PMID:26160426

  11. Declarative strategies persist under increased cognitive load.

    PubMed

    Crossley, Matthew J; Paul, Erick J; Roeder, Jessica L; Ashby, F Gregory

    2016-02-01

    When humans simultaneously execute multiple tasks, performance on individual tasks suffers. Complementing existing theories, this article poses a novel question to investigate interactions between memory systems supporting multi-tasking performance: When a primary and dual task both recruit declarative learning and memory systems, does simultaneous performance of both tasks impair primary task performance because learning in the declarative system is reduced, or because control of the primary task is passed to slower procedural systems? To address this question, participants were trained on either a perceptual categorization task believed to rely on procedural learning or one of three different categorization tasks believed to rely on declarative learning. Task performance was examined with and without a simultaneous dual task thought to recruit working memory and executive attention. To test whether the categories were learned procedurally or declaratively, the response keys were switched after a learning criterion had been reached. Large impairments in performance after switching the response keys are taken to indicate procedural learning, and small impairments are taken to indicate declarative learning. Our results suggest that the declarative memory categorization tasks (regardless of task difficulty) were learned by declarative systems, regardless of whether they were learned under dual-task conditions. PMID:26160426

  12. Language matters: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Leap, William L; Provencher, Denis M

    2011-01-01

    That language and sexuality are closely connected is one of the enduring themes in human sexuality research. The articles in this special issue of the Journal of Homosexuality explore some of these language-centered insights as they apply to same-sex related desires, identities, and practices and to other dimensions of non-normative sexual experiences. The articles address language use over a range of geographic and social locations. The linguistic practices discussed are diverse, including the language associated with Santería, comments viewers make about gay pornography, homophobic discourse, coming out stories, stories where declarations of sexual identity are tacitly withheld, sexual messages in Black hip hop culture, assessments of urban AIDS ministries, and policies that limit transgender subjects' access to urban space. Taken together, these articles demonstrate that language matters in the everyday experience of sexual sameness and they model some of the approaches that are now being explored in language and sexuality studies. PMID:21740206

  13. Multiple Levels of Cultural Bias in TESOL Course Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, John Eric

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the biased treatment of non-native characters in model dialogues in current Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) course books. Although a plethora of studies have been conducted on gender bias in course books, speaker bias, or labelled "nativism" here, has been largely ignored. This research addresses…

  14. A Comparison of Declarative and Hybrid Declarative-Procedural Models for Rover Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Russell; Rabideau, Gregg; Lenda, Matthew; Maldague, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The MAPGEN [2] (Mixed-initiative Activity Plan GENerator) planning system is a great example of a hybrid procedural/declarative system where the advantages of each are leveraged to produce an effective planner/scheduler for Mars Exploration Rover tactical planning. We explore the adaptation of the same domain to an entirely declarative planning system (ASPEN [4] Activity Scheduling and Planning ENvironment), and demonstrate that, with some translation, much of the procedural knowledge encoding is amenable to a declarative knowledge encoding.

  15. 49 CFR 395.13 - Drivers declared out of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drivers declared out of service. 395.13 Section... SERVICE OF DRIVERS § 395.13 Drivers declared out of service. (a) Authority to declare drivers out of... to this subchapter) is authorized to declare a driver out of service and to notify the motor...

  16. 49 CFR 395.13 - Drivers declared out of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drivers declared out of service. 395.13 Section... SERVICE OF DRIVERS § 395.13 Drivers declared out of service. (a) Authority to declare drivers out of... to this subchapter) is authorized to declare a driver out of service and to notify the motor...

  17. 49 CFR 395.13 - Drivers declared out of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drivers declared out of service. 395.13 Section... SERVICE OF DRIVERS § 395.13 Drivers declared out of service. (a) Authority to declare drivers out of... to this subchapter) is authorized to declare a driver out of service and to notify the motor...

  18. 49 CFR 395.13 - Drivers declared out of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drivers declared out of service. 395.13 Section... SERVICE OF DRIVERS § 395.13 Drivers declared out of service. (a) Authority to declare drivers out of... to this subchapter) is authorized to declare a driver out of service and to notify the motor...

  19. 49 CFR 395.13 - Drivers declared out of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drivers declared out of service. 395.13 Section... SERVICE OF DRIVERS § 395.13 Drivers declared out of service. (a) Authority to declare drivers out of... to this subchapter) is authorized to declare a driver out of service and to notify the motor...

  20. 19 CFR 148.18 - Failure to declare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Failure to declare. 148.18 Section 148.18 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Declarations § 148.18 Failure to declare. (a)...

  1. 19 CFR 148.18 - Failure to declare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Failure to declare. 148.18 Section 148.18 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Declarations § 148.18 Failure to declare. (a)...

  2. 19 CFR 148.18 - Failure to declare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Failure to declare. 148.18 Section 148.18 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Declarations § 148.18 Failure to declare. (a)...

  3. 37 CFR 1.67 - Supplemental oath or declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Declaration § 1.67 Supplemental oath or declaration. (a) The applicant may submit an inventor's oath or... present in an earlier-filed inventor's oath or declaration. Deficiencies or inaccuracies due to the... to § 1.48. (b) A supplemental inventor's oath or declaration under this section must be executed...

  4. 19 CFR 148.18 - Failure to declare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Failure to declare. 148.18 Section 148.18 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Declarations § 148.18 Failure to declare. (a)...

  5. 19 CFR 10.806 - Declaration not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... in paragraph (b) of this section, an importer will not be required to submit a declaration under § 10... for that importation the importer must submit to CBP a declaration. The importer must submit such a declaration within 30 days from the date of the notice. Failure to timely submit the declaration will...

  6. 26 CFR 301.6316-6 - Declarations of estimated tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Declarations of estimated tax. 301.6316-6... Declarations of estimated tax. (a) Filing of declaration. A declaration of estimated tax in respect of amounts... declarations of estimated tax, see sections 6073 and 6081 and §§ 1.6073-1 to 1.6073-4, inclusive, and §§...

  7. Teaching in Linguistically Diverse Classrooms: Difficulties in the Implementation of the Language-in-Education Policy in Multilingual Kenyan Primary School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyaga, Susan; Anthonissen, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Kenya's language-in-education policy supports mother-tongue education as the ideal approach to developing language and literacy skills of young learners. The policy has been informed by findings of various past national education commissions as well as international declarations such as the UNESCO declaration on the use of Vernacular Languages in…

  8. Developing biases

    PubMed Central

    van de Vijver, Ruben; Baer-Henney, Dinah

    2014-01-01

    German nouns may alternate from singular to plural in two different ways. Some singular forms that end in a voiceless obstruent have a plural in which this obstruent is voiced. Another alternation concerns the vowel. Some singular forms with a back vowel have a plural form in which this back vowel is front. For each noun it has to be established individually whether it alternates or not. The voicing alternation is phonetically grounded, but the vowel alternation is not. Knowledge about such alternations involves two things. First, it involves knowledge of which words alternate and which words do not and second, it involves the ability to extend the alternations to novel words. We studied the knowledge of which words alternate and the proportion to which they alternate in two corpus studies. We studied the knowledge of speakers concerning which words alternate and what generalizations can be based upon these words by means of a production study. The production study involved words and nonces. We asked twenty 5 year-olds, twenty 7 year-olds, and ten adults to produce the plural for a given singular word and a plural for a given singular nonce. In the corpus study we found that both alternations occur with the same frequency. In the production of alternations in words we found that participants in all age groups make few mistakes. With respect to the production of alternations in nonce words, we found that the proportion of voicing alternations decreases with age, while the proportion of vowel alternations increases. We explain this change in the ability to generalize the alternations to nonces on the basis of the confidence speakers can have in a generalization. Young children have a small lexicon and they can form relatively unreliable generalizations on lexical distributions. They are, however, proficient users of language and have great phonetic experience. They can more confidently form generalizations on the basis of this experience. Adults have a large lexicon

  9. 76 FR 75893 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of Owner and Declaration of Consignee When...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of Owner and Declaration of Consignee When Entry Is Made by an Agent AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... February 3, 2012, to be assured of consideration. ADDRESSES: Direct all written comments to U.S....

  10. Event-Related Potential Correlates of Declarative and Non-Declarative Sequence Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferdinand, Nicola K.; Runger, Dennis; Frensch, Peter A.; Mecklinger, Axel

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to demonstrate that declarative and non-declarative knowledge acquired in an incidental sequence learning task contributes differentially to memory retrieval and leads to dissociable ERP signatures in a recognition memory task. For this purpose, participants performed a sequence learning task and were classified…

  11. Declare the Causes: The Declaration of Independence--Understanding Its Structure and Origin. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Humanities (NFAH), Washington, DC.

    A list of grievances comprises the longest portion of the Declaration of Independence, but the source of the document's power is its firm philosophic foundation. In this unit, the teacher can capitalize on the propensity to complain to increase student awareness of the precedents behind the Declaration of Independence. The unit can help students…

  12. Declaratoria del IV Congreso Nacional de Educacion Normal (Declaration of the Fourth National Congress on Normal Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Maestro, Mexico, 1970

    1970-01-01

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a desclaration drawn up by the participants of the Fourth Mexican National Congress of Normal Education. The declaration points out the importance of teacher training in the educational system, the fundamental problems presently facing this level of studies and the…

  13. Direction Asymmetries in Spoken and Signed Language Interpreting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicodemus, Brenda; Emmorey, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Spoken language (unimodal) interpreters often prefer to interpret from their non-dominant language (L2) into their native language (L1). Anecdotally, signed language (bimodal) interpreters express the opposite bias, preferring to interpret from L1 (spoken language) into L2 (signed language). We conducted a large survey study ("N" =…

  14. Weight Bias in University Health Professions Students.

    PubMed

    Blanton, Cynthia; Brooks, Jennifer K; McKnight, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Negative attitudes toward people with high body weight have been documented in pre-professional health students, prompting concern that such feelings may manifest as poor patient care in professional practice. This study assessed weight bias in university students in the non-physician health professions. A convenience sample of 206 students completed an online survey composed of a validated 14-item scale (1-5 lowest to highest weight bias) and questions regarding personal experiences of weight bias. Respondents were grouped by discipline within graduate and undergraduate levels. Weight bias was present in a majority of respondents. Overall, the percentage of responses indicative of weight bias was 92.7%. The mean total score was 3.65. ± 0.52, and the rating exceeded 3 for all 14 scale descriptors of high-weight people. In graduate students, discipline had a significant main effect on total score (p=0.01), with lower scores in dietetics (3.17 ± 0.46) vs audiology/sign language/speech language pathology (3.84 ± 0.41) and physician assistant students (3.78 ± 0.51; p<0.05). These findings show that weight bias is prevalent in health professions students at a mountain west university. Well-controlled studies that track students into professional practice would help determine whether bias-reduction interventions in college improve provider behaviors and clinical outcomes. PMID:27585618

  15. Declarative and Non-declarative Memory Consolidation in Children with Sleep Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Csábi, Eszter; Benedek, Pálma; Janacsek, Karolina; Zavecz, Zsófia; Katona, Gábor; Nemeth, Dezso

    2016-01-01

    Healthy sleep is essential in children’s cognitive, behavioral, and emotional development. However, remarkably little is known about the influence of sleep disorders on different memory processes in childhood. Such data could give us a deeper insight into the effect of sleep on the developing brain and memory functions and how the relationship between sleep and memory changes from childhood to adulthood. In the present study we examined the effect of sleep disorder on declarative and non-declarative memory consolidation by testing children with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) which is characterized by disrupted sleep structure. We used a story recall task to measure declarative memory and Alternating Serial Reaction time (ASRT) task to assess non-declarative memory. This task enables us to measure two aspects of non-declarative memory, namely general motor skill learning and sequence-specific learning. There were two sessions: a learning phase and a testing phase, separated by a 12 h offline period with sleep. Our data showed that children with SDB exhibited a generally lower declarative memory performance both in the learning and testing phase; however, both the SDB and control groups exhibited retention of the previously recalled items after the offline period. Here we showed intact non-declarative consolidation in SDB group in both sequence-specific and general motor skill. These findings suggest that sleep disorders in childhood have a differential effect on different memory processes (online vs. offline) and give us insight into how sleep disturbances affects developing brain. PMID:26793090

  16. Declarative and Non-declarative Memory Consolidation in Children with Sleep Disorder.

    PubMed

    Csábi, Eszter; Benedek, Pálma; Janacsek, Karolina; Zavecz, Zsófia; Katona, Gábor; Nemeth, Dezso

    2015-01-01

    Healthy sleep is essential in children's cognitive, behavioral, and emotional development. However, remarkably little is known about the influence of sleep disorders on different memory processes in childhood. Such data could give us a deeper insight into the effect of sleep on the developing brain and memory functions and how the relationship between sleep and memory changes from childhood to adulthood. In the present study we examined the effect of sleep disorder on declarative and non-declarative memory consolidation by testing children with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) which is characterized by disrupted sleep structure. We used a story recall task to measure declarative memory and Alternating Serial Reaction time (ASRT) task to assess non-declarative memory. This task enables us to measure two aspects of non-declarative memory, namely general motor skill learning and sequence-specific learning. There were two sessions: a learning phase and a testing phase, separated by a 12 h offline period with sleep. Our data showed that children with SDB exhibited a generally lower declarative memory performance both in the learning and testing phase; however, both the SDB and control groups exhibited retention of the previously recalled items after the offline period. Here we showed intact non-declarative consolidation in SDB group in both sequence-specific and general motor skill. These findings suggest that sleep disorders in childhood have a differential effect on different memory processes (online vs. offline) and give us insight into how sleep disturbances affects developing brain. PMID:26793090

  17. Post-trial obligations in the Declaration of Helsinki 2013: classification, reconstruction and interpretation.

    PubMed

    Mastroleo, Ignacio

    2016-08-01

    The general aim of this article is to give a critical interpretation of post-trial obligations towards individual research participants in the Declaration of Helsinki 2013. Transitioning research participants to the appropriate health care when a research study ends is a global problem. The publication of a new version of the Declaration of Helsinki is a great opportunity to discuss it. In my view, the Declaration of Helsinki 2013 identifies at least two clearly different types of post-trial obligations, specifically, access to care after research and access to information after research. The agents entitled to receive post-trial access are the individual participants in research studies. The Declaration identifies the sponsors, researchers and host country governments as the main agents responsible for complying with the post-trial obligations mentioned above. To justify this interpretation of post-trial obligations, I first introduce a classification of post-trial obligations and illustrate its application with examples from post-trial ethics literature. I then make a brief reconstruction of the formulations of post-trial obligations of the Declaration of Helsinki from 2000 to 2008 to correlate the changes with some of the most salient ethical arguments. Finally I advance a critical interpretation of the latest formulation of post-trial obligations. I defend the view that paragraph 34 of 'Post-trial provisions' is an improved formulation by comparison with earlier versions, especially for identifying responsible agents and abandoning ambiguous 'fair benefit' language. However, I criticize the disappearance of 'access to other appropriate care' present in the Declaration since 2004 and the narrow scope given to obligations of access to information after research. PMID:26481322

  18. The Larnaca Declaration on Learning Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalziel, James; Conole, Grainne; Wills, Sandra; Walker, Simon; Bennett, Sue; Dobozy, Eva; Cameron, Leanne; Badilescu-Buga, Emil; Bower, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The Larnaca Declaration on Learning Design arose from a 2012 meeting of experts in Larnaca, Cyprus who sought to provide a new theoretical foundation for the field of Learning Design, based on a synthesis of research and practice in the field to date. It begins by acknowledging the vast benefits that would arise from wider sharing of effective…

  19. 15 CFR 715.2 - Amended declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Amended declaration. 715.2 Section 715.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING UNSCHEDULED DISCRETE ORGANIC CHEMICALS...

  20. 19 CFR 122.43 - General declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General declaration. 122.43 Section 122.43 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements...

  1. 33 CFR 401.74 - Transit declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transit declaration. 401.74 Section 401.74 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... cargo to or from an overseas port, a copy of the cargo manifest, duly certified, shall be forwarded...

  2. 33 CFR 401.74 - Transit declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transit declaration. 401.74 Section 401.74 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... cargo to or from an overseas port, a copy of the cargo manifest, duly certified, shall be forwarded...

  3. 33 CFR 401.74 - Transit declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transit declaration. 401.74 Section 401.74 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... cargo to or from an overseas port, a copy of the cargo manifest, duly certified, shall be forwarded...

  4. 33 CFR 401.74 - Transit declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transit declaration. 401.74 Section 401.74 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... from an overseas port, a copy of the cargo manifest, duly certified, shall be forwarded with the...

  5. Sudan Genocide Declaration Stirs the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    One week after Secretary of State Colin Powell declared that the killings, rapes and other atrocities committed in Darfur amount to "genocide," in mid-September the United Nations' World Health Organization issued new figures saying 6,000 to 10,000 people are dying per month there in one of Africa's worst humanitarian crises. Powell had based his…

  6. 19 CFR 122.43 - General declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General declaration. 122.43 Section 122.43 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements...

  7. 32 CFR 701.43 - Fee declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fee declarations. 701.43 Section 701.43 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS AVAILABILITY OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY RECORDS AND PUBLICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  8. 32 CFR 701.43 - Fee declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fee declarations. 701.43 Section 701.43 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS AVAILABILITY OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY RECORDS AND PUBLICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  9. 32 CFR 701.43 - Fee declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fee declarations. 701.43 Section 701.43 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS AVAILABILITY OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY RECORDS AND PUBLICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  10. 32 CFR 701.43 - Fee declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fee declarations. 701.43 Section 701.43 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS AVAILABILITY OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY RECORDS AND PUBLICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  11. 32 CFR 701.43 - Fee declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fee declarations. 701.43 Section 701.43 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS AVAILABILITY OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY RECORDS AND PUBLICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  12. 19 CFR 122.43 - General declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing Within... declaration, Customs Form 7507, shall be filed for all aircraft required to enter under § 122.41...

  13. 19 CFR 122.43 - General declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing Within... declaration, Customs Form 7507, shall be filed for all aircraft required to enter under § 122.41...

  14. 19 CFR 122.43 - General declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing Within... declaration, Customs Form 7507, shall be filed for all aircraft required to enter under § 122.41...

  15. 15 CFR 715.2 - Amended declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES... PSF chemical; and (5) Production range of each plant at the declared plant site that individually produced more than 30 metric tons of a single PSF chemical. (b) Changes to company and plant...

  16. 19 CFR 10.821 - Declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.821 Declaration. (a) General. An importer who claims preferential tariff... tariff treatment that sets forth all pertinent information concerning the production of the...

  17. The Amsterdam declaration on fungal nomenclature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature was developed at a international symposium convened in Amsterdam on 19-20 April 2011 under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). The purpose of the symposium was to address the issue of whether or how the curren...

  18. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landorf, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    A study of human rights prepares students for their role as global citizens and their study of practices in the world's countries that relate to the rights of human beings. Today, when one talks of human rights it is usually with reference to the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). It is the task of teachers to give students the…

  19. 19 CFR 10.848 - Declaration of compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... through Partnership Encouragement Act of 2006 § 10.848 Declaration of compliance. (a) General. Each... importer. The declaration of compliance must be sent to: Office of International Trade, 1300...

  20. The Subtle Transmission of Race Bias via Televised Nonverbal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Weisbuch, Max; Pauker, Kristin; Ambady, Nalini

    2013-01-01

    As compared to more explicit racial slurs and sexist statements, biased facial expressions and body language may resist conscious identification and thus produce a hidden social influence. In four studies we show that race biases can be subtly transmitted via televised nonverbal behavior. Characters on 11 popular television shows exhibited more negative nonverbal behavior toward black than toward status-matched white characters. Critically, exposure to pro-white (vs. pro-black) nonverbal bias increased viewers’ bias even though patterns of nonverbal behavior could not be consciously reported. These findings suggest that hidden patterns of televised nonverbal behavior influence bias among viewers. PMID:20019288

  1. Uncovering Racial Bias in Nursing Fundamentals Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Michelle M.

    2001-01-01

    The portrayal of African Americans in nursing fundamentals textbooks was analyzed, resulting in 11 themes in the areas of history, culture, and physical assessment. Few African American leaders were included, and racial bias and stereotyping were apparent. Differences were often discussed using Eurocentric norms, and language tended to minimize…

  2. 19 CFR 145.11 - Declarations of value and invoices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Declarations of value and invoices. 145.11 Section... value and invoices. (a) Customs declaration. A clear and complete Customs declaration on the form provided by the foreign post office, giving a full and accurate description of the contents and value...

  3. 49 CFR 374.405 - Baggage excess value declaration procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Baggage excess value declaration procedures. 374... REGULATIONS PASSENGER CARRIER REGULATIONS Notice of and Procedures for Baggage Excess Value Declaration § 374.405 Baggage excess value declaration procedures. All motor common carriers of passengers and...

  4. 19 CFR 145.11 - Declarations of value and invoices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Declarations of value and invoices. 145.11 Section... value and invoices. (a) Customs declaration. A clear and complete Customs declaration on the form provided by the foreign post office, giving a full and accurate description of the contents and value...

  5. 19 CFR 145.11 - Declarations of value and invoices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Declarations of value and invoices. 145.11 Section... value and invoices. (a) Customs declaration. A clear and complete Customs declaration on the form provided by the foreign post office, giving a full and accurate description of the contents and value...

  6. 49 CFR 374.405 - Baggage excess value declaration procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Baggage excess value declaration procedures. 374... REGULATIONS PASSENGER CARRIER REGULATIONS Notice of and Procedures for Baggage Excess Value Declaration § 374.405 Baggage excess value declaration procedures. All motor common carriers of passengers and...

  7. 8 CFR 334.11 - Declaration of intention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Declaration of intention. 334.11 Section... NATURALIZATION § 334.11 Declaration of intention. (a) Application. Any person who is a lawful permanent resident over 18 years of age may file an application for a declaration of intention to become a citizen of...

  8. 8 CFR 334.11 - Declaration of intention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Declaration of intention. 334.11 Section... NATURALIZATION § 334.11 Declaration of intention. (a) Application. Any person who is a lawful permanent resident over 18 years of age may file an application for a declaration of intention to become a citizen of...

  9. 37 CFR 1.67 - Supplemental oath or declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Declaration § 1.67 Supplemental oath or declaration. (a) The Office may require, or inventors and applicants...) Deficiencies or inaccuracies relating to all the inventors or applicants (§§ 1.42, 1.43, or § 1.47) may be corrected with a supplemental oath or declaration signed by all the inventors or applicants....

  10. 37 CFR 1.63 - Inventor's oath or declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inventor's oath or... Declaration § 1.63 Inventor's oath or declaration. (a) The inventor, or each individual who is a joint inventor of a claimed invention, in an application for patent must execute an oath or declaration...

  11. Oral presentation bias: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Decullier, Evelyne; Chapuis, François

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess oral presentation bias at a national level. This was a retrospective cohort study with initial characteristics of the approved protocols extracted from the committee's archives, and follow-up characteristics obtained from a questionnaire mailed to the principal investigators. A representative sample of French research ethics committees (25/48), the only committees legally endorsed for ethical authorisation in biomedical research, were studied. All completed research protocols, which had been approved in 1994 by these committees, were included. Initial characteristics (design, study size, investigator) of completed studies and follow-up information (direction of results, rates of publication and rates of oral presentation) were collected. Complete information on results and their dissemination was available for 248 completed non-confidential protocols. Half of these (49%) were declared as orally presented. The observed ranking for strategies to disseminate results was the following: orally presented and published, published only, neither orally presented nor published and orally presented only. Confirmatory results were more often orally presented, with an adjusted OR of 6.4 (95% CI 2.69 to 15.22). Other associated variables are the following: national/international scope of the study, protocol writer's university status, adverse events and interim analysis. There is a trend to submit or accept confirmatory results for oral presentations: meetings are a biased representation of research, and oral presentation bias could even be higher than publication bias. PMID:17325393

  12. 37 CFR 2.168 - Affidavit or declaration under section 15 combined with affidavit or declaration under sections 8...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... under section 15 combined with affidavit or declaration under sections 8 or 71, or with renewal... Affidavit or declaration under section 15 combined with affidavit or declaration under sections 8 or 71, or... section 15 of the Act may be combined with an application for renewal of a registration under section 9...

  13. Detecting Bias in Selection for Higher Education: Three Different Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennet-Cohen, Tamar; Turvall, Elliot; Oren, Carmel

    2014-01-01

    This study examined selection bias in Israeli university admissions with respect to test language and gender, using three approaches for the detection of such bias: Cleary's model of differential prediction, boundary conditions for differential prediction and difference between "d's" (the Constant Ratio Model). The university…

  14. The Anti-Bias Approach in Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creaser, Barbara; Dau, Elizabeth

    This book on an anti-bias approach to early childhood education addresses aspects of diversity such as gender, race, and language within Australian society and provides strategies for working with families and staff to challenge existing attitudes and practices. Key features of the book include case studies showing anti-bias principles in action,…

  15. Bias in Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malouff, John

    2008-01-01

    Bias in grading can be conscious or unconscious. The author describes different types of bias, such as those based on student attractiveness or performance in prior courses, and a variety of methods of reducing bias, including keeping students anonymous during grading and using detailed criteria for subjective grading.

  16. Bias in Mental Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Lloyd

    1981-01-01

    While some forms of test bias (for example, bias in selection and prediction) appear amenable to definitional consensus, a definition of cultural bias will remain problematic so long as it is confused with the nature/nurture issue. (Author/BW)

  17. Demonstrating the Correspondence Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Jennifer L.; Shepperd, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Among the best-known and most robust biases in person perception is the correspondence bias--the tendency for people to make dispositional, rather than situational, attributions for an actor's behavior. The correspondence bias appears in virtually every social psychology textbook and in many introductory psychology textbooks, yet the authors'…

  18. Recalibrating Academic Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yancey, George

    2012-01-01

    Whether political and/or religious academic bias exists is a question with important ramifications for the educational institutions. Those arguing for the presence of such bias contend that political conservatives and the highly religious in academia are marginalized and face discrimination. The question of academic bias tends to be cast in a…

  19. Future research in weight bias: What next?

    PubMed

    Alberga, Angela S; Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; von Ranson, Kristin M; McLaren, Lindsay; Ramos Salas, Ximena; Sharma, Arya M

    2016-06-01

    The 2015 Canadian Weight Bias Summit disseminated the newest research advances and brought together 40 experts, stakeholders, and policy makers in various disciplines in health, education, and public policy to identify future research directions in weight bias. In this paper we aim to share the results of the Summit as well as encourage international and interdisciplinary research collaborations in weight bias reduction. Consensus emerged on six research areas that warrant further investigation in weight bias: costs, causes, measurement, qualitative research and lived experience, interventions, and learning from other models of discrimination. These discussions highlighted three key lessons that were informed by the Summit, namely: language matters, the voices of people living with obesity should be incorporated, and interdisciplinary stakeholders should be included. PMID:27129601

  20. The amsterdam declaration on fungal nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Hawksworth, David L; Crous, Pedro W; Redhead, Scott A; Reynolds, Don R; Samson, Robert A; Seifert, Keith A; Taylor, John W; Wingfield, Michael J; Abaci, Ozlem; Aime, Catherine; Asan, Ahmet; Bai, Feng-Yan; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Begerow, Dominik; Berikten, Derya; Boekhout, Teun; Buchanan, Peter K; Burgess, Treena; Buzina, Walter; Cai, Lei; Cannon, Paul F; Crane, J Leland; Damm, Ulrike; Daniel, Heide-Marie; van Diepeningen, Anne D; Druzhinina, Irina; Dyer, Paul S; Eberhardt, Ursula; Fell, Jack W; Frisvad, Jens C; Geiser, David M; Geml, József; Glienke, Chirlei; Gräfenhan, Tom; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Groenewald, Marizeth; de Gruyter, Johannes; Guého-Kellermann, Eveline; Guo, Liang-Dong; Hibbett, David S; Hong, Seung-Beom; de Hoog, G Sybren; Houbraken, Jos; Huhndorf, Sabine M; Hyde, Kevin D; Ismail, Ahmed; Johnston, Peter R; Kadaifciler, Duygu G; Kirk, Paul M; Kõljalg, Urmas; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Lagneau, Paul-Emile; Lévesque, C André; Liu, Xingzhong; Lombard, Lorenzo; Meyer, Wieland; Miller, Andrew; Minter, David W; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Norvell, Lorelei; Ozerskaya, Svetlana M; Oziç, Rasime; Pennycook, Shaun R; Peterson, Stephen W; Pettersson, Olga V; Quaedvlieg, William; Robert, Vincent A; Ruibal, Constantino; Schnürer, Johan; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Shivas, Roger; Slippers, Bernard; Spierenburg, Henk; Takashima, Masako; Taşkın, Evrim; Thines, Marco; Thrane, Ulf; Uztan, Alev Haliki; van Raak, Marcel; Varga, János; Vasco, Aida; Verkley, Gerard; Videira, Sandra I R; de Vries, Ronald P; Weir, Bevan S; Yilmaz, Neriman; Yurkov, Andrey; Zhang, Ning

    2011-06-01

    The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature was agreed at an international symposium convened in Amsterdam on 19-20 April 2011 under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). The purpose of the symposium was to address the issue of whether or how the current system of naming pleomorphic fungi should be maintained or changed now that molecular data are routinely available. The issue is urgent as mycologists currently follow different practices, and no consensus was achieved by a Special Committee appointed in 2005 by the International Botanical Congress to advise on the problem. The Declaration recognizes the need for an orderly transitition to a single-name nomenclatural system for all fungi, and to provide mechanisms to protect names that otherwise then become endangered. That is, meaning that priority should be given to the first described name, except where that is a younger name in general use when the first author to select a name of a pleomorphic monophyletic genus is to be followed, and suggests controversial cases are referred to a body, such as the ICTF, which will report to the Committee for Fungi. If appropriate, the ICTF could be mandated to promote the implementation of the Declaration. In addition, but not forming part of the Declaration, are reports of discussions held during the symposium on the governance of the nomenclature of fungi, and the naming of fungi known only from an environmental nucleic acid sequence in particular. Possible amendments to the Draft BioCode (2011) to allow for the needs of mycologists are suggested for further consideration, and a possible example of how a fungus only known from the environment might be described is presented. PMID:22679594

  1. The Declaration of Sydney on human death

    PubMed Central

    Machado, C; Korein, J; Ferrer, Y; Portela, L; de la C García, M; Chinchilla, M; Machado, Y; Machado, Y; Manero, J M

    2007-01-01

    On 5 August 1968, publication of the Harvard Committee's report on the subject of “irreversible coma” established a standard for diagnosing death on neurological grounds. On the same day, the 22nd World Medical Assembly met in Sydney, Australia, and announced the Declaration of Sydney, a pronouncement on death, which is less often quoted because it was overshadowed by the impact of the Harvard Report. To put those events into present-day perspective, the authors reviewed all papers published on this subject and the World Medical Association web page and documents, and corresponded with Dr A G Romualdez, the son of Dr A Z Romualdez. There was vast neurological expertise among some of the Harvard Committee members, leading to a comprehensible and practical clinical description of the brain death syndrome and the way to diagnose it. This landmark account had a global medical and social impact on the issue of human death, which simultaneously lessened reception of the Declaration of Sydney. Nonetheless, the Declaration of Sydney faced the main conceptual and philosophical issues on human death in a bold and forthright manner. This statement differentiated the meaning of death at the cellular and tissue levels from the death of the person. This was a pioneering view on the discussion of human death, published as early as in 1968, that should be recognised by current and future generations. PMID:18055899

  2. Reconsolidation of declarative memory in humans

    PubMed Central

    Forcato, Cecilia; Burgos, Valeria L.; Argibay, Pablo F.; Molina, Victor A.; Pedreira, María E.; Maldonado, Hector

    2007-01-01

    The reconsolidation hypothesis states that a consolidated memory could again become unstable and susceptible to facilitation or impairment for a discrete period of time after a reminder presentation. The phenomenon has been demonstrated in very diverse species and types of memory, including the human procedural memory of a motor skill task but not the human declarative one. Here we provide evidence for both consolidation and reconsolidation in a paired-associate learning (i.e., learning an association between a cue syllable and the respective response syllable). Subjects were given two training sessions with a 24-h interval on distinct verbal material, and afterward, they received at testing two successive retrievals corresponding to the first and second learning, respectively. Two main results are noted. First, the first acquired memory was impaired when a reminder was presented 5 min before the second training (reconsolidation), and also when the second training was given 5 min instead of 24 h after the first one (consolidation). Second, the first retrieval proved to influence negatively on the later one (the retrieval-induced forgetting [RIF] effect), and we used the absence of this RIF effect as a very indicator of the target memory impairment. We consider the demonstration of reconsolidation in human declarative memory as backing the universality of this phenomenon and having potential clinical relevance. On the other hand, we discuss the possibility of using the human declarative memory as a model to address several key topics of the reconsolidation hypothesis. PMID:17522018

  3. The Declaration of Sydney on human death.

    PubMed

    Machado, C; Korein, J; Ferrer, Y; Portela, L; García, M de la C; Chinchilla, M; Machado, Y; Machado, Y; Manero, J M

    2007-12-01

    On 5 August 1968, publication of the Harvard Committee's report on the subject of "irreversible coma" established a standard for diagnosing death on neurological grounds. On the same day, the 22nd World Medical Assembly met in Sydney, Australia, and announced the Declaration of Sydney, a pronouncement on death, which is less often quoted because it was overshadowed by the impact of the Harvard Report. To put those events into present-day perspective, the authors reviewed all papers published on this subject and the World Medical Association web page and documents, and corresponded with Dr A G Romualdez, the son of Dr A Z Romualdez. There was vast neurological expertise among some of the Harvard Committee members, leading to a comprehensible and practical clinical description of the brain death syndrome and the way to diagnose it. This landmark account had a global medical and social impact on the issue of human death, which simultaneously lessened reception of the Declaration of Sydney. Nonetheless, the Declaration of Sydney faced the main conceptual and philosophical issues on human death in a bold and forthright manner. This statement differentiated the meaning of death at the cellular and tissue levels from the death of the person. This was a pioneering view on the discussion of human death, published as early as in 1968, that should be recognised by current and future generations. PMID:18055899

  4. Queries for Bias Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Diana F.

    1992-01-01

    Selecting a good bias prior to concept learning can be difficult. Therefore, dynamic bias adjustment is becoming increasingly popular. Current dynamic bias adjustment systems, however, are limited in their ability to identify erroneous assumptions about the relationship between the bias and the target concept. Without proper diagnosis, it is difficult to identify and then remedy faulty assumptions. We have developed an approach that makes these assumptions explicit, actively tests them with queries to an oracle, and adjusts the bias based on the test results.

  5. Renormalized halo bias

    SciTech Connect

    Assassi, Valentin; Baumann, Daniel; Green, Daniel; Zaldarriaga, Matias E-mail: dbaumann@damtp.cam.ac.uk E-mail: matiasz@ias.edu

    2014-08-01

    This paper provides a systematic study of renormalization in models of halo biasing. Building on work of McDonald, we show that Eulerian biasing is only consistent with renormalization if non-local terms and higher-derivative contributions are included in the biasing model. We explicitly determine the complete list of required bias parameters for Gaussian initial conditions, up to quartic order in the dark matter density contrast and at leading order in derivatives. At quadratic order, this means including the gravitational tidal tensor, while at cubic order the velocity potential appears as an independent degree of freedom. Our study naturally leads to an effective theory of biasing in which the halo density is written as a double expansion in fluctuations and spatial derivatives. We show that the bias expansion can be organized in terms of Galileon operators which aren't renormalized at leading order in derivatives. Finally, we discuss how the renormalized bias parameters impact the statistics of halos.

  6. Cognitive foundations of organizational learning: re-introducing the distinction between declarative and non-declarative knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Kump, Barbara; Moskaliuk, Johannes; Cress, Ulrike; Kimmerle, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary research into socio-cognitive foundations of organizational learning tends to disregard the distinction between declarative and non-declarative knowledge. By reviewing the literature from organizational learning research and cognitive psychology we explain that this distinction is crucial. We describe the foundations of organizational learning by referring to models that consider the interplay between individual and collective knowledge-related processes in organizations. We highlight the existence of a research gap resulting from the finding that these approaches have widely neglected the existence of different types of knowledge. We then elaborate on characteristics of declarative and non-declarative knowledge in general, consider organizations as structures of distributed cognition, and discuss the relationship between organizational knowledge and practice. Subsequently, we examine the role of declarative and non-declarative knowledge in the context of organizational learning. Here, we analyze (1) the cognitive and social mechanisms underlying the development of declarative and non-declarative knowledge within structures of distributed cognition; and (2) the relationship between alterations in declarative and non-declarative types of knowledge on the one hand and changes in organizational practice on the other. Concluding, we discuss implications of our analysis for organizational learning research. We explain how our integrative perspective may offer starting points for a refined understanding of the sub-processes involved in organizational learning and unlearning and may support a better understanding of practical problems related to organizational learning and change. PMID:26483739

  7. Lagrangian bias in the local bias model

    SciTech Connect

    Frusciante, Noemi; Sheth, Ravi K. E-mail: sheth@ictp.it

    2012-11-01

    It is often assumed that the halo-patch fluctuation field can be written as a Taylor series in the initial Lagrangian dark matter density fluctuation field. We show that if this Lagrangian bias is local, and the initial conditions are Gaussian, then the two-point cross-correlation between halos and mass should be linearly proportional to the mass-mass auto-correlation function. This statement is exact and valid on all scales; there are no higher order contributions, e.g., from terms proportional to products or convolutions of two-point functions, which one might have thought would appear upon truncating the Taylor series of the halo bias function. In addition, the auto-correlation function of locally biased tracers can be written as a Taylor series in the auto-correlation function of the mass; there are no terms involving, e.g., derivatives or convolutions. Moreover, although the leading order coefficient, the linear bias factor of the auto-correlation function is just the square of that for the cross-correlation, it is the same as that obtained from expanding the mean number of halos as a function of the local density only in the large-scale limit. In principle, these relations allow simple tests of whether or not halo bias is indeed local in Lagrangian space. We discuss why things are more complicated in practice. We also discuss our results in light of recent work on the renormalizability of halo bias, demonstrating that it is better to renormalize than not. We use the Lognormal model to illustrate many of our findings.

  8. Stress enhances reconsolidation of declarative memory.

    PubMed

    Bos, Marieke G N; Schuijer, Jantien; Lodestijn, Fleur; Beckers, Tom; Kindt, Merel

    2014-08-01

    Retrieval of negative emotional memories is often accompanied by the experience of stress. Upon retrieval, a memory trace can temporarily return into a labile state, where it is vulnerable to change. An unresolved question is whether post-retrieval stress may affect the strength of declarative memory in humans by modulating the reconsolidation process. Here, we tested in two experiments whether post-reactivation stress may affect the strength of declarative memory in humans. In both experiments, participants were instructed to learn neutral, positive and negative words. Approximately 24h later, participants received a reminder of the word list followed by exposure to the social evaluative cold pressor task (reactivation/stress group, nexp1=20; nexp2=18) or control task (reactivation/no-stress group, nexp1=23; nexp2=18). An additional control group was solely exposed to the stress task, without memory reactivation (no-reactivation/stress group, nexp1=23; nexp2=21). The next day, memory performance was tested using a free recall and a recognition task. In the first experiment we showed that participants in the reactivation/stress group recalled more words than participants in the reactivation/no-stress and no-reactivation/stress group, irrespective of valence of the word stimuli. Furthermore, participants in the reactivation/stress group made more false recognition errors. In the second experiment we replicated our observations on the free recall task for a new set of word stimuli, but we did not find any differences in false recognition. The current findings indicate that post-reactivation stress can improve declarative memory performance by modulating the process of reconsolidation. This finding contributes to our understanding why some memories are more persistent than others. PMID:24882163

  9. 37 CFR 1.64 - Person making oath or declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... supplemental oath or declaration (§ 1.67), must be made by all of the actual inventors except as provided for... supplemental oath or declaration is not the inventor (§§ 1.42, 1.43, 1.47, or § 1.67), the oath or declaration shall state the relationship of the person to the inventor, and, upon information and belief, the...

  10. 37 CFR 1.64 - Person making oath or declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... supplemental oath or declaration (§ 1.67), must be made by all of the actual inventors except as provided for... supplemental oath or declaration is not the inventor (§§ 1.42, 1.43, 1.47, or § 1.67), the oath or declaration shall state the relationship of the person to the inventor, and, upon information and belief, the...

  11. 37 CFR 1.64 - Person making oath or declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... supplemental oath or declaration (§ 1.67), must be made by all of the actual inventors except as provided for... supplemental oath or declaration is not the inventor (§§ 1.42, 1.43, 1.47, or § 1.67), the oath or declaration shall state the relationship of the person to the inventor, and, upon information and belief, the...

  12. 33 CFR 127.1317 - Declaration of Inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Operations § 127.1317 Declaration...

  13. [Registration of observational studies: it is time to comply with the Declaration of Helsinki requirement].

    PubMed

    Dal-Ré, Rafael; Delgado, Miguel; Bolumar, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Publication bias is a serious deficiency in the current system of disseminating the results of human research studies. Clinical investigators know that, from an ethical standpoint, they should prospectively register clinical trials in a public registry before starting them. In addition, it is believed that this approach will help to reduce publication bias. However, most studies conducted in humans are observational rather than experimental. It is estimated that less than 2% out of 2 million concluded or ongoing observational studies have been registered. The 2013 revision of the Declaration of Helsinki requires registration of any type of research study involving humans or identifiable samples or data. It is proposed that funding agencies, such as the Fondo de Investigaciones Sanitarias, as well as private companies, require preregistration of observational studies before providing funding. It is also proposed that Research Ethics Committees which, following Spanish regulation, have been using the Declaration as the framework for assessing the ethics of clinical trials with medicines since 1990, should follow the same provisions for the assessment of health-related observational studies: therefore, they should require prospective registration of studies before granting their final approval. This would allow observational study investigators to be educated in complying with an ethical requirement recently introduced in the most important ethical code for research involving humans. PMID:25433766

  14. Will They Ever Speak with Authority? Race, Post-Coloniality and the Symbolic Violence of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Awad

    2011-01-01

    Intersecting authority-language-and-symbolic power, this article tells the story of a group of continental Francophone African youth who find themselves in an urban French-language high school in southwestern Ontario, Canada. Through their narrative, one is confronted by the trauma of one's own language being declared an illegitimate child, hence…

  15. [Patients' declared intentions and emergency medicine].

    PubMed

    Wurmb, T; Brederlau, J

    2016-03-01

    Patients with complex medical problems and acute life-threatening diseases deserve a physician with the capability of rapid decision making. Despite an emergency scenario with several unknown or uncertain variables an individual therapeutic plan needs to be defined for each patient. In order to achieve this goal the physician must define medical indications for each form of treatment. Secondly, the patients declared intentions must be respected concerning the previously defined medical indications; however, very often the patients' will is not known. It is very difficult to define an individual treatment plan especially if the patient is not able to adequately communicate. In these situations a custodian is helpful to find out the patients declared intentions towards the current medical situation. If there is no advance directive, family members often have to act as surrogates to find out what therapy goal is best for the individual patient. The patients' autonomy is a very highly respected ethical priority even when the ability for the otherwise usual practice of shared decision-making between physician and patient is compromised. Therefore, in order to do justice to this demanding situation it is necessary to deal with the characteristics of the physician-patient-relatives relationship in emergency medicine. PMID:26374338

  16. Declarative flow control for distributed instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Parvin, Bahram; Taylor, John; Fontenay, Gerald; Callahan, Daniel

    2001-06-01

    We have developed a 'microscopy channel' to advertise a unique set of on-line scientific instruments and to let users join a particular session, perform an experiment, collaborate with other users, and collect data for further analysis. The channel is a collaborative problem solving environment (CPSE) that allows for both synchronous and asynchronous collaboration, as well as flow control for enhanced scalability. The flow control is a declarative feature that enhances software functionality at the experimental scale. Our testbed includes several unique electron and optical microscopes with applications ranging from material science to cell biology. We have built a system that leverages current commercial CORBA services, Web Servers, and flow control specifications to meet diverse requirements for microscopy and experimental protocols. In this context, we have defined and enhanced Instrument Services (IS), Exchange Services (ES), Computational Services (CS), and Declarative Services (DS) that sit on top of CORBA and its enabling services (naming, trading, security, and notification) IS provides a layer of abstraction for controlling any type of microscope. ES provides a common set of utilities for information management and transaction. CS provides the analytical capabilities needed for online microscopy. DS provides mechanisms for flow control for improving the dynamic behavior of the system.

  17. How language production shapes language form and comprehension

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    2012-01-01

    Language production processes can provide insight into how language comprehension works and language typology—why languages tend to have certain characteristics more often than others. Drawing on work in memory retrieval, motor planning, and serial order in action planning, the Production-Distribution-Comprehension (PDC) account links work in the fields of language production, typology, and comprehension: (1) faced with substantial computational burdens of planning and producing utterances, language producers implicitly follow three biases in utterance planning that promote word order choices that reduce these burdens, thereby improving production fluency. (2) These choices, repeated over many utterances and individuals, shape the distributions of utterance forms in language. The claim that language form stems in large degree from producers' attempts to mitigate utterance planning difficulty is contrasted with alternative accounts in which form is driven by language use more broadly, language acquisition processes, or producers' attempts to create language forms that are easily understood by comprehenders. (3) Language perceivers implicitly learn the statistical regularities in their linguistic input, and they use this prior experience to guide comprehension of subsequent language. In particular, they learn to predict the sequential structure of linguistic signals, based on the statistics of previously-encountered input. Thus, key aspects of comprehension behavior are tied to lexico-syntactic statistics in the language, which in turn derive from utterance planning biases promoting production of comparatively easy utterance forms over more difficult ones. This approach contrasts with classic theories in which comprehension behaviors are attributed to innate design features of the language comprehension system and associated working memory. The PDC instead links basic features of comprehension to a different source: production processes that shape language form

  18. Are self-regulation and declaration of conflict of interest still the benchmark for relationships between physicians and industry?

    PubMed

    Haines, Ian E; Olver, Ian N

    2008-09-01

    Potential conflicts of interest do not imply wrongdoing, but can create bias, distort decision making, and create a perception that practitioners are being "bought "or "bribed" by industry. Transparency alone may not be sufficient to erase the doubts created when authors of clinical practice guidelines or editorials declare potential conflicts of interest. Can the subconscious obligation for reciprocation that exists when gifts are offered and accepted be fully negated? Analyses of published clinical cancer research studies have found a positive association between pharmaceutical industry sponsorship and reporting of positive outcomes, manipulation of clinical trials, and hiding of "preliminary data sets". More problematic is the issue of clinical researchers leaking preliminary results to the investment industry. Influential literature reviews and treatment guidelines have been associated with widespread declarations of conflict of interest. Some potential solutions are: regulating pharmaceutical companies to declare all gifts to clinicians, or ban such gifts; for clinicians to carefully declare potential conflicts of interest or to provide pro bono advice without accepting industry sponsorship; and for all gifts and payments from industry to academic physicians to be coordinated by an independent review committee. Journals should only allow reviews, editorials, guidelines and opinion pieces to be written by those without significant conflicts of interest. PMID:18759722

  19. Evaluating Self-declared Ancestry of U.S. Americans with Autosomal, Y-chromosomal and Mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Lao, Oscar; Vallone, Peter M; Coble, Michael D; Diegoli, Toni M; van Oven, Mannis; van der Gaag, Kristiaan J; Pijpe, Jeroen; de Knijff, Peter; Kayser, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    The current U.S. population represents an amalgam of individuals originating mainly from four continental regions (Africa, Europe, Asia and America). To study the genetic ancestry and compare with self-declared ancestry we have analyzed paternally, maternally and bi-parentally inherited DNA markers sensitive for indicating continental genetic ancestry in all four major U.S. American groups. We found that self-declared U.S. Hispanics and U.S. African Americans tend to show variable degrees of continental genetic admixture among the three genetic systems, with evidence for a marked sex-biased admixture history. Moreover, for these two groups we observed significant regional variation across the country in genetic admixture. In contrast, self-declared U.S. European and U.S. Asian Americans were genetically more homogeneous at the continental ancestry level. Two autosomal ancestry-sensitive markers located in skin pigmentation candidate genes showed significant differences in self-declared U.S. African Americans or U.S. European Americans, relative to their assumed parental populations from Africa or Europe. This provides genetic support for the importance of skin color in the complex process of ancestry identification. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20886636

  20. 76 FR 56213 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Crew's Effects Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Crew's Effects... Effects Declaration (CBP Form 1304). This request for comment is being made pursuant to the Paperwork... concerning the following information collection: Title: Crew's Effects Declaration. OMB Number:...

  1. Coalition releases declaration for healthy and productive oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-06-01

    Coalition releases declaration for healthy and productive oceans A coalition of 13 countries or federal agencies participating in a new Global Partnership for Oceans (GPO) indicated its support for a “Declaration for Healthy and Productive Oceans to Help Reduce Poverty” on 16 June, just prior to the Rio+20 conference in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  2. 44 CFR 206.35 - Requests for emergency declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Requests for emergency declarations. 206.35 Section 206.35 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY....35 Requests for emergency declarations. (a) When an incident occurs or threatens to occur in a...

  3. 21 CFR 1313.13 - Contents of import declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Contents of import declaration. 1313.13 Section 1313.13 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND... declaration, all information known to the importer on the chain of distribution of the chemical from...

  4. 21 CFR 1313.13 - Contents of import declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Contents of import declaration. 1313.13 Section 1313.13 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND... declaration, all information known to the importer on the chain of distribution of the chemical from...

  5. 21 CFR 1313.13 - Contents of import declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Contents of import declaration. 1313.13 Section 1313.13 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND... declaration, all information known to the importer on the chain of distribution of the chemical from...

  6. 21 CFR 1313.13 - Contents of import declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Contents of import declaration. 1313.13 Section 1313.13 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND... declaration, all information known to the importer on the chain of distribution of the chemical from...

  7. 19 CFR 148.111 - Written declaration for unaccompanied articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Written declaration for unaccompanied articles... of the United States § 148.111 Written declaration for unaccompanied articles. The baggage... covers articles which do not accompany him and: (a) The articles are entitled to free entry under the...

  8. 19 CFR 148.111 - Written declaration for unaccompanied articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Written declaration for unaccompanied articles... of the United States § 148.111 Written declaration for unaccompanied articles. The baggage... covers articles which do not accompany him and: (a) The articles are entitled to free entry under the...

  9. 50 CFR 14.63 - Export declaration requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Export declaration requirements. 14.63... PLANTS IMPORTATION, EXPORTATION, AND TRANSPORTATION OF WILDLIFE Wildlife Declarations § 14.63 Export... exporter's agent, shall be filed with the Service prior to the export of any wildlife at the port...

  10. 77 FR 37915 - Kansas; Major Disaster Declaration and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Kansas; Major Disaster Declaration and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Kansas (FEMA-4063-DR), dated May 24, 2012, and... have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Kansas resulting from severe...

  11. 9 CFR 93.425 - Declaration for ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Declaration for ruminants. 93.425... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.425 Declaration for ruminants. For all ruminants offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall...

  12. 9 CFR 93.425 - Declaration for ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Declaration for ruminants. 93.425... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.425 Declaration for ruminants. For all ruminants offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall...

  13. 9 CFR 93.425 - Declaration for ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Declaration for ruminants. 93.425... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.425 Declaration for ruminants. For all ruminants offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall...

  14. 9 CFR 93.425 - Declaration for ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Declaration for ruminants. 93.425... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.425 Declaration for ruminants. For all ruminants offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall...

  15. 9 CFR 93.425 - Declaration for ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Declaration for ruminants. 93.425... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.425 Declaration for ruminants. For all ruminants offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall...

  16. 9 CFR 93.521 - Declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Declaration for swine. 93.521 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Mexico 9 § 93.521 Declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two copies...

  17. 9 CFR 93.521 - Declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Declaration for swine. 93.521 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Mexico 9 § 93.521 Declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two copies...

  18. 9 CFR 93.521 - Declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Declaration for swine. 93.521 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Mexico 9 § 93.521 Declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two copies...

  19. 9 CFR 93.521 - Declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Declaration for swine. 93.521 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Mexico 9 § 93.521 Declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two copies...

  20. 9 CFR 93.521 - Declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Declaration for swine. 93.521 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Mexico 9 § 93.521 Declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two copies...

  1. 37 CFR 1.162 - Applicant, oath or declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 1.162 Applicant, oath or declaration. The inventor named for a plant patent application must be the... which a patent is sought. The inventor's oath or declaration, in addition to the averments required by § 1.63 or § 1.64, must state that the inventor has asexually reproduced the plant. Where the plant...

  2. 19 CFR 148.111 - Written declaration for unaccompanied articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Written declaration for unaccompanied articles... of the United States § 148.111 Written declaration for unaccompanied articles. The baggage... covers articles which do not accompany him and: (a) The articles are entitled to free entry under the...

  3. 19 CFR 148.111 - Written declaration for unaccompanied articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Written declaration for unaccompanied articles... of the United States § 148.111 Written declaration for unaccompanied articles. The baggage... covers articles which do not accompany him and: (a) The articles are entitled to free entry under the...

  4. Accounting for Change in Declarative Memory: A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Jenny; Nelson, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    The medial temporal lobe memory system matures relatively early and supports rudimentary declarative memory in young infants. There is considerable development, however, in the memory processes that underlie declarative memory performance during infancy. Here we consider age-related changes in encoding, retention, and retrieval in the context of…

  5. 28 CFR 8.8 - Advertisement and declaration of forfeiture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertisement and declaration of forfeiture. 8.8 Section 8.8 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FBI FORFEITURE AUTHORITY FOR CERTAIN STATUTES § 8.8 Advertisement and declaration of forfeiture. (a) The notice required by customs laws, section 607, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended...

  6. 47 CFR 68.320 - Supplier's Declaration of Conformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplier's Declaration of Conformity. 68.320 Section 68.320 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK Conditions for Terminal Equipment Approval § 68.320 Supplier's Declaration...

  7. 47 CFR 2.1072 - Limitation on Declaration of Conformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitation on Declaration of Conformity. 2.1072 Section 2.1072 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Declaration...

  8. 76 FR 9231 - New Customs Declarations Label Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... 111 New Customs Declarations Label Requirements AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Final rule... declaration label. In addition, to ensure compliance with safety and security requirements of the United... Marshall Islands, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Definitions and Requirements for Items Sent to the CTUS...

  9. 78 FR 15031 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Ship's Store Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Ship's Store Declaration AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: 60-Day...'s Stores Declaration (CBP Form 1303). This request for comment is being made pursuant to...

  10. 21 CFR 1312.18 - Contents of import declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Contents of import declaration. 1312.18 Section 1312.18 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND EXPORTATION OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Importation of Controlled Substances § 1312.18 Contents of import declaration. (a) Any non-narcotic controlled...