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Sample records for decontamination des surfaces

  1. Decontaminating metal surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Childs, Everett L.

    1984-11-06

    Radioactively contaminated surfaces can be electrolytically decontaminated with greatly increased efficiencies by using electrolytes containing higher than heretofore conventional amounts of nitrate, e.g.,>600 g/l of NaNO.sub.3, or by using nitrate-containing electrolytes which are acidic, e.g., of a pH<6.

  2. Decontaminating metal surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Childs, E.L.

    1984-01-23

    Radioactively contaminated surfaces can be electrolytically decontaminated with greatly increased efficiencies by using electrolytes containing higher than heretofore conventional amounts of nitrate, e.g., >600 g/1 of NaNO/sub 3/, or by using nitrate-containing electrolytes which are acidic, e.g., of a pH < 6.

  3. Innovative Laser Ablation Technology for Surface Decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Winston C. H.

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a novel laser ablation in liquid for surface decontamination. It aims to achieve more efficient surface decontamination without secondary contamination. Another aim is to make this surface decontamination technology becomes economically feasible for large scale decontamination.

  4. NOVEL LASER ABLATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SURFACE DECONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project is to develop a novel Laser Ablation Decontamination in Liquid (LADIL) technology for surface decontamination and safe removal of radioactive and/or toxic contaminants. It aims to achieve more efficient surface decontamination without secondary conta...

  5. Decontamination of large horizontal concrete surfaces outdoors

    SciTech Connect

    Barbier, M.M.; Chester, C.V.

    1980-01-01

    A study is being conducted of the resources and planning that would be required to clean up an extensive contamination of the outdoor environment. As part of this study, an assessment of the fleet of machines needed for decontaminating large outdoor surfaces of horizontal concrete will be attempted. The operations required are described. The performance of applicable existing equipment is analyzed in terms of area cleaned per unit time, and the comprehensive cost of decontamination per unit area is derived. Shielded equipment for measuring directional radiation and continuously monitoring decontamination work are described. Shielding of drivers' cabs and remote control vehicles is addressed.

  6. Novel Laser Ablation Technology for Surface Decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Chung H.

    2004-06-01

    Laser ablation for surface cleaning has been pursued for the removal of paint on airplanes. It has also been pursued for the cleaning of semiconductor surfaces. However, all these approaches have been pursued by laser ablation in air. For highly contaminated surface, laser ablation in air can easily cause secondary contamination. Thus it is not suitable to apply to achieve surface decontamination for DOE facilities since many of these facilities have radioactive contaminants on the surface. Any secondary contamination will be a grave concern. The objective of this project is to develop a novel technology for laser ablation in liquid for surface decontamination. It aims to achieve more efficient surface decontamination without secondary contamination and to evaluate the economic feasibility for large scale surface decontamination with laser ablation in liquid. When laser ablation is pursued in the solution, all the desorbed contaminants will be confined in liquid. The contaminants can be precipitated and subsequently contained in a small volume for disposal. It can reduce the risk of the decontamination workers. It can also reduce the volume of contaminants dramatically.

  7. Surface decontamination compositions and methods

    DOEpatents

    Wright; Karen E.; Cooper, David C.; Peterman, Dean R.; Demmer, Ricky L.; Tripp, Julia L.; Hull, Laurence C.

    2011-03-29

    Clay-based compositions capable of absorbing contaminants from surfaces or objects having surface faces may be applied to a surface and later removed, the removed clay-based compositions absorbing at least a portion of the contaminant from the surface or object to which it was applied.

  8. Method for the decontamination of metallic surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Purohit, Ankur; Kaminski, Michael D.; Nunez, Luis

    2003-01-01

    A method of decontaminating a radioactively contaminated oxide on a surface. The radioactively contaminated oxide is contacted with a diphosphonic acid solution for a time sufficient to dissolve the oxide and subsequently produce a precipitate containing most of the radioactive values. Thereafter, the diphosphonic solution is separated from the precipitate. HEDPA is the preferred diphosphonic acid and oxidizing and reducing agents are used to initiate precipitation. SFS is the preferred reducing agent.

  9. The ROVCO2 surface decontamination system

    SciTech Connect

    Resnick, A.M.; Reed, M.; Lopez-Yanes, O.

    1996-12-31

    DOE needs to decontaminated over one million square feet of nuclear contaminated concrete surfaces. The 1000 lb ROVCO2 system, which automates blasting functions and eliminates secondary blasting waste, integrates a remotely operated vehicle and an enhanced commercial CO{sub 2} blasting system with an Oceaneering-developed work arm and control system. The remote operation protects the operation from contamination and supports functional automation of tedious tasks. The blasting system shoots pellets of dry ice propelled by pressurized gas at the surface to be cleaned. Impact of the pellets fractures and scales off a layer of the contaminated surface. At impact, the pellets return to a gaseous state which is vacuumed up with the debris. The CO{sub 2} gas and debris are passed through the vacuum filter, leaving only the removed material for waste disposal. Phase 2 testing achieved nearly all of the success criteria, with the exception of the commercial workhead`s performance.

  10. Surface Decontamination Using Laser Ablation Process - 12032

    SciTech Connect

    Moggia, Fabrice; Lecardonnel, Xavier; Damerval, Frederique

    2012-07-01

    A new decontamination method has been investigated and used during two demonstration stages by the Clean-Up Business Unit of AREVA. This new method is based on the use of a Laser beam to remove the contaminants present on a base metal surface. In this paper will be presented the type of Laser used during those tests but also information regarding the efficiency obtained on non-contaminated (simulated contamination) and contaminated samples (from the CEA and La Hague facilities). Regarding the contaminated samples, in the first case, the contamination was a quite thick oxide layer. In the second case, most of the contamination was trapped in dust and thin grease layer. Some information such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray scattering spectroscopy and decontamination factors (DF) will be provided in this paper. Laser technology appears to be an interesting one for the future of the D and D applications. As shown in this paper, the results in terms of efficiency are really promising and in many cases, higher than those obtained with conventional techniques. One of the most important advantages is that all those results have been obtained with no generation of secondary wastes such as abrasives, chemicals, or disks... Moreover, as mentioned in introduction, the Laser ablation process can be defined as a 'dry' process. This technology does not produce any liquid waste (as it can be the case with chemical process or HP water process...). Finally, the addition of a vacuum system allows to trap the contamination onto filters and thus avoiding any dissemination in the room where the process takes place. The next step is going to be a commercial use in 2012 in one of the La Hague buildings. (authors)

  11. Metal Surface Decontamination by the PFC Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Hui-Jun Won; Gye-Nam Kim; Wang-Kyu Choi; Chong-Hun Jung; Won-Zin Oh

    2006-07-01

    PFC (per-fluorocarbon) spray decontamination equipment was fabricated and its decontamination behavior was investigated. Europium oxide powder was mixed with the isotope solution which contains Co-60 and Cs-137. The different shape of metal specimens artificially contaminated with europium oxide powder was used as the surrogate contaminants. Before and after the application of the PFC spray decontamination method, the radioactivity of the metal specimens was measured by MCA. The decontamination factors were in the range from 9.6 to 62.4. The spent PFC solution was recycled by distillation. Before and after distillation, the turbidity of PFC solution was also measured. From the test results, it was found that more than 98% of the PFC solution could be recycled by a distillation. (authors)

  12. Method and coating composition for protecting and decontaminating surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Overhold, D C; Peterson, M D

    1959-03-10

    A protective coating useful in the decontamination of surfaces exposed to radioactive substances is described. This coating is placed on the surface before use and is soluble in water, allowing its easy removal in the event decontamination becomes necessary. Suitable coating compositions may be prepared by mixing a water soluble carbohydrate such as sucrose or dextrin, together with a hygroscopic agent such as calcium chloride or zinc chloride.

  13. METHOD AND COATING COMPOSITION FOR PROTECTING AND DECONTAMINATING SURFACES

    DOEpatents

    Overhold, D.C.; Peterson, M.D.

    1959-03-10

    A protective coating useful in the decontamination of surfaces exposed to radioactive substances is presented. This coating is placed on the surface before use and is soluble in waters allowing its easy removal in the event decontamination becomes necessary. Suitable coating compositions may be prepared by mixing a water soluble carbohydrate such as sucrose or dextrin, together with a hygroscopic agent such as calcium chloride or zinc chloride.

  14. Benefits of automated surface decontamination of a radioiodine ward.

    PubMed

    Westcott, Eliza; Broadhurst, Alicia; Crossley, Steven; Lee, Lloyd; Phan, Xuyen; Scharli, Rainer; Xu, Yan

    2012-02-01

    A floor-washing robot has been acquired to assist physicists with decontamination of radioiodine therapy ward rooms after discharge of the patient at Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital. The effectiveness of the robot in decontaminating the ward has been evaluated. A controlled experiment was performed by deliberately contaminating a polyvinyl chloride flooring offcut with 131I followed by automated decontamination with the robot. The extent of fixed and removable contamination was assessed before and after decontamination by two methods: (1) direct Geiger-Mueller counting and (2) beta-counting wipe tests. Surface contamination was also assessed in situ on the ward by Geiger-Mueller counting and wipe testing. Contamination maps confirmed that contamination was removed rather than spread around by the robot. Wipe testing revealed that the robot was successful in clearing approximately 60-80% of removable contamination. The robotic floor-washing device was considered suitable to provide effective automated decontamination of the radioiodine ward. In addition, the robot affords other benefits: the time spent by the physicists decontaminating the room is greatly reduced offering financial and occupational safety and health benefits. The robot has also found utility in other decontamination applications in the healthcare environment. PMID:22249471

  15. Decontamination.

    PubMed

    Houston, Marc; Hendrickson, Robert G

    2005-10-01

    Decontamination is the removal or reduction of chemical, biologic, or radiologic agents from the patient's skin, mucosa, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract. Decontamination is an important step in decreasing the clinical effects of the agent on the patient, as well as protecting coworkers from exposure. For most agents and the vast majority of scenarios, the removal of clothing and a simple 5- to 6-minute shower with soap and water is sufficient to eliminate the risks to the patient and hospital staff. In rare circumstances, additional steps in decontamination including gastric lavage, broncho-alveolar lavage, surgical removal of wound foreign bodies, and administration of activated charcoal, polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution, and radioisotope binding agents, may be necessary. PMID:16168307

  16. Environmental decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Cristy, G.A.; Jernigan, H.C.

    1981-02-01

    The record of the proceedings of the workshop on environmental decontamination contains twenty-seven presentations. Emphasis is placed upon soil and surface decontamination, the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, and assessments of instrumentation and equipment used in decontamination. (DLS)

  17. Method for decontamination of radioactive metal surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Bray, Lane A.

    1996-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for removing radioactive contaminants from metal surfaces by applying steam containing an inorganic acid and cerium IV. Cerium IV is applied to contaminated metal surfaces by introducing cerium IV in solution into a steam spray directed at contaminated metal surfaces. Cerium IV solution is converted to an essentially atomized or vapor phase by the steam.

  18. Method for decontamination of radioactive metal surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Bray, L.A.

    1996-08-13

    Disclosed is a method for removing radioactive contaminants from metal surfaces by applying steam containing an inorganic acid and cerium IV. Cerium IV is applied to contaminated metal surfaces by introducing cerium IV in solution into a steam spray directed at contaminated metal surfaces. Cerium IV solution is converted to an essentially atomized or vapor phase by the steam.

  19. Foam and gel methods for the decontamination of metallic surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Nunez, Luis; Kaminski, Michael Donald

    2007-01-23

    Decontamination of nuclear facilities is necessary to reduce the radiation field during normal operations and decommissioning of complex equipment. In this invention, we discuss gel and foam based diphosphonic acid (HEDPA) chemical solutions that are unique in that these solutions can be applied at room temperature; provide protection to the base metal for continued applications of the equipment; and reduce the final waste form production to one step. The HEDPA gels and foams are formulated with benign chemicals, including various solvents, such as ionic liquids and reducing and complexing agents such as hydroxamic acids, and formaldehyde sulfoxylate. Gel and foam based HEDPA processes allow for decontamination of difficult to reach surfaces that are unmanageable with traditional aqueous process methods. Also, the gel and foam components are optimized to maximize the dissolution rate and assist in the chemical transformation of the gel and foam to a stable waste form.

  20. High-Power Ultrasound in Surface Cleaning and Decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Sami B.

    High-power ultrasound is being widely utilized for decontamination in different industrial applications. The same technology is also being investigated as an effective tool for cleaning of components in the decontamination of produce. An understanding of the basic technology and how it works in cleaning various industrial parts should help in applying it on a large scale in the food industry. The technology has evolved throughout the past four decades. Different frequencies were developed and are now industrially available. The frequency range is from 20 kHz to 1 MHz. Current sound technology provides a uniform ultrasonic activity throughout the cleaning vessel, which was a major disadvantage in the earlier technology. The two main driving forces that affect cleaning of surfaces are cavitation and acoustic streaming. Both are generated as a result of the direct interaction of high-frequency sound waves with fluids.

  1. Contaminant Organic Complexes: Their Structure and Energetics in Surface Decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel Traina; Shankar Sharma

    2005-07-12

    The Department of Energy has a goal of decontaminating an estimated 180,000 metric tons of metal wastes in various surplus facilities. Uranium (U) and other radioactive actinides and lanthanides are embedded within the mixed oxide structures of the passivity layers of corroded iron and steel. These toxic metals can be dissolved out of the surface layers by a naturally occurring bacterial siderophore called Desferrioxamine B (DFB). DFB is a trihydroxamate ligand with one amine and three hydroxamate groups, which chelates with metals through hydroxamate coordination. Complexation of DFB with U can be utilized in decontamination strategy of the passivity layers. Therefore, we have been studying reactions of uranyl U(VI) with zerovalent iron (Fe0) followed by dissolution by DFB. The objectives were to determine the structure and speciation of solution and solid phases of U and to assess the effectiveness of DVB in U dissolution.

  2. Surface concrete decontamination equipment developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Halter, J M; Sullivan, R G; Bevan, J L

    1982-08-01

    This report documents a project that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted to identify and develop techniques for removing contaminated concrete surfaces. A major problem associated with nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning is how to economically demolish and dispose of contaminated concrete. Removing only the contaminated portion of the concrete can substantially reduce costs. Evaluation of various methods for removing concrete surfaces shows that several techniques presently used require excessive manpower, time, and energy. Many times more material is removed than necessary, increasing the quantity of waste that must be handled under controlled conditions. These evaluations generated the basic criteria for developing a suitable concrete removal technique: provide a convenient method for cleaning surfaces (such as those contaminated by a small spill); reduce the contaminated waste volume that has to be placed into controlled storage; remove surfaces quickly; and minimize personal exposure to potentially harmful radiation or toxic materials. Removal to 1/4 to 1/2 in. of contaminated surface layer is sufficient for cleanup of most facilities. Two unique decontamination methods have been developed: the concrete spaller and the water cannon. The concrete spaller is the most efficient technique: it removes the concrete surface faster than the water cannons and at a lower cost (as little as $3.00/ft/sup 2/ of concrete surface). However, the .458 magnum water cannon may be well suited for small or hard-to-reach locations.

  3. UV/Ozone treatment to decontaminate tritium contaminated surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Krasznai, J.P.; Mowat, R.

    1995-10-01

    Tritium contamination on surfaces is often encountered during operation and maintenance of equipment at the Darlington Tritium Removal Facility and likely at other tritium handling facilities. The use of efficient decontamination techniques that produce little or no secondary wastes is desirable. At Ontario Hydro Technologies (OHT) we have been developing a process utilizing a combination of ultraviolet (UV) radiation and ozone gas to remove tritium surface contamination from materials often used in tritium service. This paper summarizes the performance of the technique. The results are encouraging because the technique is very effective, simple in terms of equipment requirements and concentrates tritium in an easily managed waste form. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Decontamination of Surfaces Exposed to Carbonbased Nanotubes and Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Zahra

    Contamination of surfaces by nanomaterials can happen due to accidental spillage and release or gradual accumulation during processing or handling. Considering the increasingly wide use of nanomaterials in industry and research labs and also taking into account the diversity of physical and chemical properties of different nanomaterials (such as solubility, aggregation/agglomeration, and surface reactivity), there is a pressing need to define reliable nanomaterial-specific decontamination guidelines. In this project, we propose and investigate a potential method for surface decontamination of carbon-based nanomaterials using solvent cleaning and wipes. The results show that the surfactant-assisted removal efficiencies of multi-walled carbon nanotubes, single walled carbon nantubes and single walled carbon nano-horns from silicon wafers through wiping is greater than 95%, 90% and 78%, respectively. The need for further studies to understand the mechanisms of nanomaterial removal from surfaces and development of standard techniques for surface decontamination of nanomaterials is highlighted. Another phase of experiments were performed to examine the efficiency of surfactants to remove multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) from silicon substrates with nano and microscaled features. In the first set of experiments, nanoscale features were induced on silicon wafers using SF6 and O2 plasma. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to observe the surface topology and roughness. In the second set, well-defined microscale topological features were induced on silicon wafers using photo lithography and plasma etching. The etching time was varied to create semi-ellipsoidal pits with average diameter and height of ~ 7-9 microm, and ~ 1-3 microm, respectively. MWCNTs in the form of liquid solution were deposited on the surface of silicon wafers using the spin coating process. For the cleaning process, the contaminated surfaces were first sprayed with different types of surfactant

  5. Composition suitable for decontaminating a porous surface contaminated with cesium

    DOEpatents

    Kaminski, Michael D.; Finck, Martha R.; Mertz, Carol J.

    2010-06-15

    A method of decontaminating porous surfaces contaminated with water soluble radionuclides by contacting the contaminated porous surfaces with an ionic solution capable of solubilizing radionuclides present in the porous surfaces followed by contacting the solubilized radionuclides with a gel containing a radionuclide chelator to bind the radionuclides to the gel, and physically removing the gel from the porous surfaces. A dry mix is also disclosed of a cross-linked ionic polymer salt, a linear ionic polymer salt, a radionuclide chelator, and a gel formation controller present in the range of from 0% to about 40% by weight of the dry mix, wherein the ionic polymer salts are granular and the non cross-linked ionic polymer salt is present as a minor constituent.

  6. A Nanosecond Pulsed Plasma Brush for Surface Decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuber, Johanna; Malik, Muhammad; Song, Shutong; Jiang, Chunqi

    2015-11-01

    This work optimizes a non-thermal, atmospheric pressure plasma brush for surface decontamination. The generated plasma plumes with a maximum length of 2 cm are arranged in a 5 cm long, brush-like array. The plasma was generated in ambient air with <= 10 kV, 200 ns pulses at a repetition rate of 1.5 kHz. The energy per pulse and average power are in the range of 1-3 mJ and 0.5-1.5 W, respectively. Helium containing varying concentrations of water vapor was evaluated as the carrier gas and was fed into the plasma chamber at a rate varying between 1 to 7 SLPM. Optimization of the cold plasma brush for surface decontamination was tested in a study of the plasma inactivation of two common pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii. Laminate surfaces inoculated with over-night cultured bacteria were subject to the plasma treatment for varying water concentrations in He, flow rates and discharge voltages. It was found that increasing the water content of the feed gas greatly enhanced the bactericidal effect. Emission spectroscopy was performed to identify the reactive plasma species that contribute to this variation. Additional affiliation: Frank Reidy Research Center for Bioelectrics

  7. A compact surface decontamination system for surface-sensitive magnetic imaging.

    PubMed

    Konoto, M; Akoh, H; Tokura, Y

    2009-08-01

    A surface decontamination system for application in surface sensitive magnetic imaging tools, such as a spin-polarized scanning electron microscope, is described. Adsorbed contaminant is chemically decomposed with the use of active oxygen in a compact vacuum chamber mounted in a microscope. The present method is especially suitable for fragile magnetic surfaces of complex oxide materials to which the conventional physical etching widely used for magnetic metals could cause serious structural damage. We have succeeded in detecting magnetic signals from a decontaminated oxide surface and visualizing domain images with sufficient magnetic contrast to analyze detailed domain structures. PMID:19725685

  8. A compact surface decontamination system for surface-sensitive magnetic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Konoto, M.; Akoh, H.; Tokura, Y.

    2009-08-15

    A surface decontamination system for application in surface sensitive magnetic imaging tools, such as a spin-polarized scanning electron microscope, is described. Adsorbed contaminant is chemically decomposed with the use of active oxygen in a compact vacuum chamber mounted in a microscope. The present method is especially suitable for fragile magnetic surfaces of complex oxide materials to which the conventional physical etching widely used for magnetic metals could cause serious structural damage. We have succeeded in detecting magnetic signals from a decontaminated oxide surface and visualizing domain images with sufficient magnetic contrast to analyze detailed domain structures.

  9. Laser decontamination of epoxy painted concrete surfaces in nuclear plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthofer, A.; Lippmann, W.; Hurtado, A.

    2014-04-01

    Laser technology offers an efficient decontamination of surfaces contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) by precise application of highly focused laser beam power. In the context of nuclear decommissioning all walls and floors of a reactor building have to be cleaned from chemical-toxic substances. State of the art is a manual and mechanic ablation and a subsequent treatment in a hazardous waste incinerator. In this study, alternatively, a laser-based system exhibiting, decontamination rates of up to 6.4 m2/h has been operated using a 10 kW diode laser in continuous wave (CW) mode with a spot size of 45×10 mm2 and a wavelength of 980-1030 nm. The system allows a rapid heating of the surfaces up to temperatures of more than 1000 °C leading to ablation and thermal decomposition of PCB in one process step. Thermal quenching prevents formation of polychlorinated dioxines (PCDD) and polychlorinate furans (PCDF) in the flue gas. Additionally, an in situ measurement system based on laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is developed to monitor the thermal decomposition of PCB. For initial experiments samples covered with epoxy paint were used to evaluate the process and to carry out finite element based simulations. In this paper, experimental results of ablation tests by laser irradiation of epoxy painted concrete are presented and discussed.

  10. Comparative study of different surface decontaminants on chicken quality.

    PubMed

    Sinhamahapatra, M; Biswas, S; Das, A K; Bhattacharyya, D

    2004-10-01

    (1) A comparative study on the effect of different surface decontaminants: hot water at 70 degrees C for one minute; 2% lactic acid for 30 s; 1200 p.p.m. acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) solution for 5 s and 50 p.p.m. chlorine solution for 5 min in the form of dips and sprays on the surface of dressed broilers for 0, 24 and 48 h of storage was conducted. (2) The variables studied were, total plate count (TPC), presumptive coliform count (PCC), pH and extract release volume (ERV). All treatments reduced TPC and PCC. (3) Lactic acid dip and hot water dip were the most effective for reducing TPC (1.36 and 1.28 log/cm2, respectively) with no significant difference between them. (4) ASC and hot water in dip could diminish PCC (1.37 and 1.34 log/cm2, respectively) and did not vary significantly. (5) No treatment affected muscle pH, water holding capacity (WHC), ERV, appearance, smell, tenderness and overall acceptability of treated broilers significantly. (6) Hot water treatment is the cheapest, most convenient and simplest decontamination technique for hygienic and wholesome poultry production. PMID:15623215

  11. Contaminated implant surfaces: an in vitro comparison of implant surface coating and treatment modalities for decontamination.

    PubMed

    Dennison, D K; Huerzeler, M B; Quinones, C; Caffesse, R G

    1994-10-01

    The relationship between implant surfaces and decontamination treatments was studied in vitro to determine which implant surfaces were most effectively decontaminated, and which treatment was most effective for treating a particular implant surface. The implants used in the study were press fit cylindrical titanium units with machined, plasma sprayed, and hydroxyapatite-coated surfaces. Radioactive endotoxin (125I-LPS) was prepared from Porphyromonas gingivalis (ATCC 33277). Implants were coated with 125I-LPS and treated by burnishing with a cotton pellet soaked in water, citric acid solution (CA), or 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX); or treated with an air-powder abrasive (AIR). Radioactivity was determined after each of two treatment cycles. The results for each implant surface were analyzed using ANOVA to determine differences between treatments. The remaining 125I-LPS after two treatment cycles were: for machined implants AIR < CA, with AIR = water = CHX and water = CHX = CA; for plasma sprayed implants AIR < water = CHX = CA; for hydroxyapatite implants AIR = CA < water < CHX. In evaluating treatment modalities, it was found that machined implants were decontaminated more effectively than the other surfaces by all treatments; the exception was citric acid treatment which was equally effective on either machined or hydroxyapatite surfaces. These results indicate that machined implants (without surface coating) are most readily decontaminated by a variety of methods; this characteristic should be considered, since long-term success of implants may involve treating periimplantitis. Further, the results indicate that air abrasives are effective for decontaminating implant surface, with the exception that hydroxyapatite coated surfaces can be treated equally with air abrasives or citric acid. PMID:7823276

  12. Laser ablation system, and method of decontaminating surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Ferguson, Russell L.; Edelson, Martin C.; Pang, Ho-ming

    1998-07-14

    A laser ablation system comprising a laser head providing a laser output; a flexible fiber optic cable optically coupled to the laser output and transmitting laser light; an output optics assembly including a nozzle through which laser light passes; an exhaust tube in communication with the nozzle; and a blower generating a vacuum on the exhaust tube. A method of decontaminating a surface comprising the following steps: providing an acousto-optic, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser light ablation system having a fiber optically coupled output optics assembly; and operating the laser light ablation system to produce an irradiance greater than 1.times.10.sup.7 W/cm.sup.2, and a pulse width between 80 and 170 ns.

  13. Decontamination of dental implant surface in peri-implantitis treatment: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Buitrago-Vera, Pedro; Solá-Ruiz, María F.; Ferrer-García, Juan C.

    2013-01-01

    Etiological treatment of peri-implantitis aims to reduce the bacterial load within the peri-implant pocket and decontaminate the implant surface in order to promote osseointegration. The aim of this literature review was to evaluate the efficacy of different methods of implant surface decontamination. A search was conducted using the PubMed (Medline) database, which identified 36 articles including in vivo and in vitro studies, and reviews of different decontamination systems (chemical, mechanical, laser and photodynamic therapies). There is sufficient consensus that, for the treatment of peri-implant infections, the mechanical removal of biofilm from the implant surface should be supplemented by chemical decontamination with surgical access. However, more long-term research is needed to confirm this and to establish treatment protocols responding to different implant characterics. Key words:Peri-implantitis, treatment, decontamination, implant surface, laser. PMID:23986023

  14. CONTAMINANT-ORGANIC COMPLEXES, THEIR STRUCTURE AND ENERGETICS IN SURFACE DECONTAMINATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DOE must decontaminated and decommission a large number of surplus facilities. At present there about 7,000 contaminated facilities that require deactivation and decommissioning. A major need associated with this effort is improvement of metal surface decontamination. The DO...

  15. Efficacy of liquid and foam decontamination technologies for chemical warfare agents on indoor surfaces.

    PubMed

    Love, Adam H; Bailey, Christopher G; Hanna, M Leslie; Hok, Saphon; Vu, Alex K; Reutter, Dennis J; Raber, Ellen

    2011-11-30

    Bench-scale testing was used to evaluate the efficacy of four decontamination formulations on typical indoor surfaces following exposure to the liquid chemical warfare agents sarin (GB), soman (GD), sulfur mustard (HD), and VX. Residual surface contamination on coupons was periodically measured for up to 24h after applying one of four selected decontamination technologies [0.5% bleach solution with trisodium phosphate, Allen Vanguard Surface Decontamination Foam (SDF™), U.S. military Decon Green™, and Modec Inc. and EnviroFoam Technologies Sandia Decontamination Foam (DF-200)]. All decontamination technologies tested, except for the bleach solution, performed well on nonporous and nonpermeable glass and stainless-steel surfaces. However, chemical agent residual contamination typically remained on porous and permeable surfaces, especially for the more persistent agents, HD and VX. Solvent-based Decon Green™ performed better than aqueous-based bleach or foams on polymeric surfaces, possibly because the solvent is able to penetrate the polymer matrix. Bleach and foams out-performed Decon Green for penetrating the highly polar concrete surface. Results suggest that the different characteristics needed for an ideal and universal decontamination technology may be incompatible in a single formulation and a strategy for decontaminating a complex facility will require a range of technologies. PMID:21944706

  16. Plasma decontamination of uranium oxide from stainless steel surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Veilleux, J.M.; El-Genk, M.S.; Chamberlin, E.P.

    1997-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is expected to have 845000 m{sup 3} of transuranic (TRU) waste by the year 2000 that has accumulated during the development and assembly of the nation`s nuclear stockpile. The TRU disposal costs alone range up to $28000/m{sup 3}, which could be reduced to $1800/m{sup 3} or less by treating and converting the material to low-level waste. Plasma-based processes have been shown to remove plutonium and uranium surface contaminants from metallic components and could be used to treat TRU with significant cost avoidance, estimated at over $1.0 billion. Martz and Hess conducted the initial work of plutonium etching in low-power radio-frequency (rf) plasma with etch rates ranging from 0.007 to 0.025 kg/m{sup 2}{center_dot}h. Veilleux et al. reported that plasma decontamination of uranium from the interior of aluminum objects results in etch rates an order of magnitude greater. The current work reports on removal rates of uranium from stainless steel surfaces and includes estimates of the etch rates and characteristic times for removal.

  17. Particle generation by ultraviolet-laser ablation during surface decontamination.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doh-Won; Cheng, Meng-Dawn

    2006-11-01

    A novel photonic decontamination method was developed for removal of pollutants from material surfaces. Such a method relies on the ability of a high-energy laser beam to ablate materials from a contaminated surface layer, thus producing airborne particles. In this paper, the authors presented the results obtained using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) system and an aerosol particle sizer (APS). Particles generated by laser ablation from the surfaces of cement, chromium-embedded cement, and alumina were experimentally investigated. Broad particle distributions from nanometer to micrometer in size were measured. For stainless steel, virtually no particle > 500 nm in aerodynamic size was detected. The generated particle number concentrations of all three of the materials were increased as the 266-nm laser fluence (millijoules per square centimeter) increased. Among the three materials tested, cement was found to be the most favorable for particle removal, alumina next, and stainless steel the least. Chromium (dropped in cement) showed almost no effects on particle production. For all of the materials tested except for stainless steel, bimodal size distributions were observed; a smaller mode peaked at approximately 50-70 nm was detected by SMPS and a larger mode (peaked at approximately 0.70-0.85 microm) by APS. Based on transmission electron microscopy observations, the authors concluded that particles in the range of 50-70 nm were aggregates of primary particles, and those of size larger than a few hundred nanometers were produced by different mechanisms, for example, massive object ejection from the material surfaces. PMID:17117745

  18. Decontamination of VX, GD, and HD on a surface using modified vaporized hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Wagner, George W; Sorrick, David C; Procell, Lawrence R; Brickhouse, Mark D; Mcvey, Iain F; Schwartz, Lewis I

    2007-01-30

    Vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP) has proven efficacy for biological decontamination and is a common gaseous sterilant widely used by industry. Regarding chemical warfare agent decontamination, VHP is also effective against HD and VX, but not GD. Simple addition of ammonia gas to VHP affords reactivity toward GD, while maintaining efficacy for HD (and bioagents) and further enhancing efficacy for VX. Thus, modified VHP is a broad-spectrum CB decontaminant suitable for fumigant-type decontamination scenarios, i.e., building, aircraft, and vehicle interiors and sensitive equipment. Finally, as an interesting aside to the current study, commercial ammonia-containing cleaners are also shown to be effective surface decontaminants for GD, but not for VX or HD. PMID:17241030

  19. FINAL REPORT. "GREEN" BIOPOLYMERS FOR IMPROVED DECONTAMINATION OF METALS FROM SURFACES: SORPTIVE CHARACTERIZATION AND COATING PROPERTIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proposed research aimed to develop a fundamental understanding of important biological and physical chemical parameters for effective decontamination of metal surfaces using environmentally benign aqueous-based biopolymer solutions. Understanding how heavy metal-chelating bio...

  20. "GREEN" BIOPOLYMERS FOR IMPROVED DECONTAMINATION OF METALS FROM SURFACES: SORPTIVE CHARACTERIZATION AND COATING PROPERTIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proposed research aims to develop a fundamental understanding of important biological and physical chemical parameters for effective decontamination of metal surfaces using environmentally benign aqueous-based biopolymer solutions. Understanding how heavy metal- chelating bio...

  1. Decontamination of dental implant surface in peri-implantitis treatment: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Mellado-Valero, Ana; Buitrago-Vera, Pedro; Solá-Ruiz, María-Fernanda; Ferrer-García, Juan-Carlos

    2013-11-01

    Etiological treatment of peri-implantitis aims to reduce the bacterial load within the peri-implant pocket and decontaminate the implant surface in order to promote osseointegration. The aim of this literature review was to evaluate the efficacy of different methods of implant surface decontamination. A search was conducted using the PubMed (Medline) database, which identified 36 articles including in vivo and in vitro studies, and reviews of different decontamination systems (chemical, mechanical, laser and photodynamic therapies). There is sufficient consensus that, for the treatment of peri-implant infections, the mechanical removal of biofilm from the implant surface should be supplemented by chemical decontamination with surgical access. However, more long-term research is needed to confirm this and to establish treatment protocols responding to different implant characterics. PMID:23986023

  2. Decontamination of actinides and fission products from stainless steel surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Mertz, C.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Chen, L.; Conner, C.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Drockelman, D.; Kaminski, M.; Landsberger, S.; Stubbins, J.

    1996-04-01

    Seven in situ decontamination processes were evaluated as possible candidates to reduce radioactivity levels in nuclear facilities throughout the DOE complex. These processes were tested using stainless steel coupons (Type 304) contaminated with actinides (Pu and Am) or fission products (a mixture of Cs, Sr, and Gd). The seven processes were decontamination with nitric acid, nitric acid plus hydrofluoric acid, fluoboric acid, silver(II) persulfate, hydrogen peroxide plus oxalic acid plus hydrofluoric acid, alkaline persulfate followed by citric acid plus oxalic acid, and electropolishing using nitric acid electrolyte. Of the seven processes, the nitric acid plus hydrofluoric acid and fluoboric acid solutions gave the best results; the decontamination factors for 3- to 6-h contacts at 80{degree}C were as high as 600 for plutonium, 5500 for americium, 700 for cesium, 15000 for strontium, and 1100 for gadolinium.

  3. Infection and decontamination of citrus-canker-inoculated leaf surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is now considered endemic in Florida and continues to spread. Personnel and equipment decontamination is practiced in both disease-endemic and disease-free areas to reduce the risk of bacterial spread by man or machinery. We used grapefruit leaf su...

  4. Decontamination of Terrorist-Dispersed Radionuclides from Surfaces in Urban Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Robert; Sutton, Mark; Gates-Anderson, Dianne; Gray, Jeremy; Hu, Qinhong; McNab, Walt; Viani, Brian

    2008-01-15

    Research is currently underway at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to advance the basic scientific knowledge of radionuclide-substrate interactions in the urban environment. Investigations have focused on more optimized decontamination agents for cesium (Cs) and americium (Am) specifically for use in mass transit infrastructure and urban environments. This project is designed to enhance the capability of the United States to effectively respond to a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) attack. The work addresses recognized data gaps by advancing the basic scientific knowledge of radionuclide-substrate interactions in the urban environment and provides a solution to a national need. The research is focused in four major areas: (1) a better understanding of urban surface conditions that influence the efficacy of decontamination processes, (2) development of prototype decontamination agents for Am and Cs optimized for use in urban environments, (3) the development of capabilities to realistically contaminate surfaces at both the real world and laboratory scale and (4) a validated model for radionuclide-surface interactions. The decontamination of urban surfaces following the detonation of an RDD presents a number of challenges. The following key points are found to be critical for the efficiency of decontamination agents in an urban environment: - Particle size and surface deposition of radionuclide particles on urban surface materials. - Interactions between radionuclides and urban materials. - The presence of grime and carbonation/alteration layers on the surface of urban surfaces. - Post-detonation penetration of radionuclides strongly affected by the dynamic wetting/drying processes. A laboratory scale contamination system has been developed allowing for samples to be contaminated and radionuclide interactions to be studied. In combination with laboratory scale experiments, a real scale outdoor test is scheduled for the spring of 2007. In conclusion

  5. Surface Decontamination of Simulated Chemical Warfare Agents Using a Nonequilibrium Plasma with Off-Gas Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, Trevor M.; Alexander, M. Lizabeth; Engelhard, Mark H.; Gaspar, Dan J.; Luna, Maria L.; Irving, Patricia M.

    2002-08-01

    InnovaTek is developing a surface decontamination technology that utilizes active species generated in a nonequilibrium corona plasma. The plasma technology was tested against DMMP, a simulant for the chemical agent Sarin. GC-MS analysis showed that a greater than four log10 destruction of the DMMP on an aluminum surface was achieved in a 10 minute treatment. An ion-trap mass spectrometer was utilized to collect time-resolved data on the treatment off-gases. These data indicate that only non-toxic fragments of the broken down DMMP molecule were present in the gas phase. The technology is being further refined to develop a product that will not only decontaminate surfaces but will also sense when decontamination is complete

  6. WASTE VOLUME REDUCTION USING SURFACE CHARACTERIZATION AND DECONTAMINATION BY LASER ABLATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The waste stream generated in the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear facilities includes a significant volume of material that is contaminated only in the surface or near-surface region. The U.S. Department of Energy will require disposal of as much as 109 ft2 (...

  7. Possibilities of a metal surface radioactive decontamination using a pulsed CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milijanic, Scepan S.; Stjepanovic, Natasa N.; Trtica, Milan S.

    2000-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the laser radioactive decontamination of metal surfaces. It offers advantages over conventional methods: improved safety, reduction of secondary waste, reduced waste volume, acceptable cost. A main mechanism of cleaning in by lasers is ablation. In this work a pulsed TEA CO2 laser was used for surface cleaning, primarily in order to demonstrate that the ablation from metal surfaces with this laser is possible even with relatively low pulse energies, and secondary, that it could be competitive with other lasers because of much higher energy efficiencies. The laser pulse contains two parts, one strong and shot peak at the beginning, followed with a tail. The beam was focused onto a contaminated surface with a KBr lens. The surface was contaminated with 137Cs. Three different metals were used: stainless steel, copper and aluminum. The evaporated material was pumped out in air atmosphere and transferred to a filter. Presence of the activity on the filter was proved by a germanium detector-multichannel analyzer. Activity levels were measured by a GM counter. Calculated decontamination factors as well as collection factors have shown that ablation takes place with relatively high efficiency of decontamination. This investigation suggests that decontamination using the CO2 laser should be seriously considered.

  8. Determination of the Efficacy of Two Building Decontamination Strategies by Surface Sampling with Culture and Quantitative PCR Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Buttner, Mark P.; Cruz, Patricia; Stetzenbach, Linda D.; Klima-Comba, Amy K.; Stevens, Vanessa L.; Cronin, Tracy D.

    2004-01-01

    The efficacy of currently available decontamination strategies for the treatment of indoor furnishings contaminated with bioterrorism agents is poorly understood. Efficacy testing of decontamination products in a controlled environment is needed to ensure that effective methods are used to decontaminate domestic and workplace settings. An experimental room supplied with materials used in office furnishings (i.e., wood laminate, painted metal, and vinyl tile) was used with controlled dry aerosol releases of endospores of Bacillus atrophaeus (“Bacillus subtilis subsp. niger,” also referred to as BG), a Bacillus anthracis surrogate. Studies were performed using two test products, a foam decontaminant and chlorine dioxide gas. Surface samples were collected pre- and posttreatment with three sampling methods and analyzed by culture and quantitative PCR (QPCR). Additional aerosol releases with environmental background present on the surface materials were also conducted to determine if there was any interference with decontamination or sample analysis. Culture results indicated that 105 to 106 CFU per sample were present on surfaces before decontamination. After decontamination with the foam, no culturable B. atrophaeus spores were detected. After decontamination with chlorine dioxide gas, no culturable B. atrophaeus was detected in 24 of 27 samples (89%). However, QPCR analysis showed that B. atrophaeus DNA was still present after decontamination with both methods. Environmental background material had no apparent effect on decontamination, but inhibition of the QPCR assay was observed. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of two decontamination methods and illustrate the utility of surface sampling and QPCR analysis for the evaluation of decontamination strategies. PMID:15294810

  9. Surface Decontamination of System Components in Uranium Conversion Plant at KAERI

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, W. K.; Kim, K. N.; Won, H. J.; Jung, C. H.; Oh, W. Z.

    2003-02-25

    A chemical decontamination process using nitric acid solution was selected as in-situ technology for recycle or release with authorization of a large amount of metallic waste including process system components such as tanks, piping, etc., which is generated by dismantling a retired uranium conversion plant at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The applicability of nitric acid solution for surface decontamination of metallic wastes contaminated with uranium compounds was evaluated through the basic research on the dissolution of UO2 and ammonium uranyl carbonate (AUC) powder. Decontamination performance was verified by using the specimens contaminated with such uranium compounds as UO2 and AUC taken from the uranium conversion plant. Dissolution rate of UO2 powder is notably enhanced by the addition of H2O2 as an oxidant even in the condition of a low concentration of nitric acid and low temperature compared with those in a nitric acid solution without H2O2. AUC powders dissolve easily in nitric acid solutions until the solution pH attains about 2.5 {approx} 3. Above that solution pH, however, the uranium concentration in the solution is lowered drastically by precipitation as a form of U3(NH3)4O9 . 5H2O. Decontamination performance tests for the specimens contaminated with UO2 and AUC were quite successful with the application of decontamination conditions obtained through the basic studies on the dissolution of UO2 and AUC powders.

  10. ''Green'' Biopolymers for Improved Decontamination of Metals from Surfaces: Sorptive Characterization and Coating Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, Brian H.; Kuritz, Tanya

    2000-06-01

    The proposed research aims to develop a fundamental understanding of important biological and physical chemical parameters for effective decontamination of metal surfaces using environmentally benign aqueous-based biopolymer solutions. Understanding how heavy metal-chelating biopolymers coat and interact with contaminated surfaces will benefit the development of novel, safe, easy-to-apply decontamination methodologies for removal of radionuclides and heavy metals. The benefits of these methodologies will include the following: (1) decreased exposure hazards for workers; (2) decreased secondary waste generation; (3) increased efficiency of decontamination; (4) positive public appeal and development of novel, nature-friendly business opportunities; and (5) lower cost of cleanup to the government. We propose to use aqueous biopolymer solutions to coat a contaminated metal surface (i.e., steel), solubilize the heavy metals (e.g., uranium) from the surface, and bind the heavy metals into the biopolymer. The biopolymer coating (containing the immobilized hazardous metal contaminants) will then be removed as a viscous film, as a dry powder, or by washing. This ''apply, wait, and remove'' procedure will reduce the amount of worker time spent in decontamination activities.

  11. ''Green'' Biopolymers for Improved Decontamination of Metals from Surfaces: Sorptive Characterization and Coating Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, Brian H.; Kurtiz,Tanya

    1999-06-01

    The proposed research aims to develop a fundamental understanding of important biological and physical chemical parameters for effective decontamination of metal surfaces using environmentally benign aqueous-based biopolymer solutions. Understanding how heavy metal-chelating biopolymers coat and interact with contaminated surfaces will benefit the development of novel, safe, easy-to-apply decontamination methodologies for removal of radionuclides and heavy metals. The benefits of these methodologies will include the following: (1) decreased exposure hazards for workers; (2) decreased secondary waste generation; (3) increased efficiency of decontamination; (4) positive public appeal and development of novel, nature-friendly business opportunities; and (5) lower cost of cleanup to the government. We propose to use aqueous biopolymer solutions to coat a contaminated metal surface (i.e., steel), solubilize the heavy metals (e.g., uranium) from the surface, and bind the heavy metals into the biopolymer. The biopolymer coating (containing the immobilized hazardous metal contaminants) will then be removed as a viscous film, as a dry powder, or by washing. This ''apply, wait, and remove'' procedure will reduce the amount of worker time spent in decontamination activities.

  12. ''Green'' Biopolymers for Improved Decontamination of Metals from Surfaces: Sorptive Characterization and Coating Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, Brian H.

    2002-04-30

    The proposed research aimed to develop a fundamental understanding of important biological and physical chemical parameters for effective decontamination of metal surfaces using environmentally benign aqueous-based biopolymer solutions. Understanding how heavy metal-chelating biopolymers coat and interact with contaminated surfaces will benefit the development of novel, safe, easy-to-apply decontamination methodologies for removal of radionuclides and heavy metals. The benefits of these methodologies include the following: decreased exposure hazards for workers; decreased secondary waste generation; increased efficiency of decontamination; positive public appeal and development of novel, nature-friendly business opportunities; and lower cost of cleanup to the government. We proposed to use aqueous biopolymer solutions to coat a contaminated metal surface (i.e., steel), solubilize the heavy metals (e.g., uranium) from the surface, and bind the heavy metals into the biopolymer. The biopolymer coating (containing the immobilized hazardous metal contaminants) was to be removed as a viscous film, as a dry powder, or by washing. This ''apply, wait, and remove'' procedure will reduce the amount of worker time spent in decontamination activities.

  13. Surface decontamination of Type 304L stainless steel with electrolytically generated hydrogen: Design and operation of the electrolyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Bellanger, G. )

    1993-11-01

    The surface of tritiated Type 304L stainless steel is decontaminated by isotopic exchange with the hydrogen generated in an electrolyzer. This steel had previously been exposed to tritium in a tritium gas facility for several years. The electrolyzer for the decontamination uses a conducting solid polymer electrolyte made of a Nafion membrane. The cathode where the hydrogen is formed is nickel deposited on one of the polymer surfaces. This cathode is placed next to the region of the steel to be decontaminated. The decontamination involves, essentially, the tritiated oxide layers of which the initial radioactivity is [approximately] 5 kBq/cm[sup 2]. After treatment for 1 h, the decontamination factor is 8. 9 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Contaminant Organic Complexes: Their Structure and Energetics in Surface Decontamination Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Satish C. B. Myneni

    2005-12-13

    Siderophores are biological macromolecules (400-2000 Da) released by bacteria in iron limiting situations to sequester Fe from iron oxyhydroxides and silicates in the natural environment. These molecules contain hydroxamate and phenolate functional groups, and exhibit very high affinity for Fe{sup 3+}. While several studies were conducted to understand the behavior of siderophores and their application to the metal sequestration and mineral dissolution, only a few of them have examined the molecular structure of siderophores and their interactions with metals and mineral surfaces in aqueous solutions. Improved understanding of the chemical state of different functional moieties in siderophores can assist in the application of these biological molecules in actinide separation, sequestration and decontamination processes. The focus of our research group is to evaluate the (a) functional group chemistry of selected siderophores and their metal complexes in aqueous solutions, and (b) the nature of siderophore interactions at the mineral-water interfaces. We selected desferrioxamine B (desB), a hydroxamate siderophore, and its small structural analogue, acetohydroxamic acid (aHa), for this investigation. We examined the functional group chemistry of these molecules as a function of pH, and their complexation with aqueous and solid phase Fe(III). For solid phase Fe, we synthesized all naturally occurring Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides (goethite, lepidocrocite, akaganeite, feroxyhite) and hematite. We also synthesized Fe-oxides (goethite and hematite) of different sizes to evaluate the influence of particle size on mineral dissolution kinetics. We used a series of molecular techniques to explore the functional group chemistry of these molecules and their complexes. Infrared spectroscopy is used to specifically identify the variations in oxime group as a function of pH and Fe(III) complexation. Resonance Raman spectroscopy was used to evaluate the nature of hydroxamate binding in

  15. Reusable nanoengineered surfaces for bacterial recruitment and decontamination.

    PubMed

    Ista, Linnea K; Yu, Qian; Parthasarathy, Anand; Schanze, Kirk S; López, Gabriel P

    2016-03-01

    Biofouling, or accumulation of unwanted biofilms, on surfaces is a major concern for public health and human industry. Materials either avoiding contamination (fouling resistant) and/or directly killing attached microbes (biocidal) have thus far failed to achieve the goal of eliminating biofouling; fouling resistant surfaces eventually foul and biocidal surfaces accumulate debris that eventually decrease their efficacy. Combined biocidal and fouling release materials offer the potential for both killing and removing debris and are promising candidates for reducing biofouling on manufactured materials. Interference lithography was used to create nanopatterns of initiators, which were then used to initiate atom transfer radical polymerization of the temperature-responsive polymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) as a fouling release component. Biocidal activity was conferred by subsequent layer-by-layer deposition of cationic and anionic poly(phenylene ethynylenes) into the valleys between the PNIPAAm. For both Gram positive and Gram negative model bacteria, dark-regime biocidal activity was observed that did not increase upon exposure to light, suggesting that the mode of antimicrobial activity is due to ionic disruption of the cell wall. Subsequent to killing, bacteria and cellular debris were removed upon a temperature-induced phase transition of the PNIPAAm. These materials exhibited capture, killing, and release activity over multiple cycles of use. PMID:26739292

  16. Surface Decontamination of Chemical Agent Surrogates Using an Atmospheric Pressure Air Flow Plasma Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhanguo; Li, Ying; Cao, Peng; Zhao, Hongjie

    2013-07-01

    An atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma jet generator using air flow as the feedstock gas was applied to decontaminate the chemical agent surrogates on the surface of aluminum, stainless steel or iron plate painted with alkyd or PVC. The experimental results of material decontamination show that the residual chemical agent on the material is lower than the permissible value of the National Military Standard of China. In order to test the corrosion effect of the plasma jet on different material surfaces in the decontamination process, corrosion tests for the materials of polymethyl methacrylate, neoprene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE), phenolic resin, iron plate painted with alkyd, stainless steel, aluminum, etc. were carried out, and relevant parameters were examined, including etiolation index, chromatism, loss of gloss, corrosion form, etc. The results show that the plasma jet is slightly corrosive for part of the materials, but their performances are not affected. A portable calculator, computer display, mainboard, circuit board of radiogram, and a hygrometer could work normally after being treated by the plasma jet.

  17. Study on the decontamination of surface of radioactive metal device using plasmatron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jong-Keun; Yang, Ik-Jun; Kim, Seung-Hyeon; Rai, Suresh; Lee, Heon-Ju

    2015-09-01

    Radioactive waste contiguously produced during operation of NPP (nuclear power plant). Therefore, KHNP (korea hydro & nuclear power co., ltd) decided to disband the NPP unit 1 in the Kori area. Since most of the metallic radioactive wastes are not contaminated ones themselves but rather ones containing polluted nuclides on their surface, the amount of wastes can be sharply reduced through decontamination process. In this study DC plasmatron and isotope sheet of radioactive cobalt was used to study the decontamination process. Decontamination can be achieved by etching the contaminated layer from the surface. Due to the restricted usage of radioactive materials, we have studied etching of Cobalt (Co) sheet to imitate the radioactive contamination. Plasma was generated using mixture gas of CF4/O2 in the ratio of 10:0, 9:1, 8:2, 7:3, 6:4 maintaining the plasma sample distance of 20 mm, 30 mm, 40 mm and exposed time of 60 sec, 120 sec, 180 sec using fixed Ar carrier gas flow rate of 1000 sccm. As a result, we obtained maximum etching rate of 9.24 μm/min when the mixture ratio of CF4/O2 gas was 4:1, which was confirmed by SEM and mass-meter. It was confirmed that more close positioning the Co samples to the plasmatron nozzle yields maximum etching rate.

  18. Vapor-phase hydrogen peroxide as a surface decontaminant and sterilant.

    PubMed

    Klapes, N A; Vesley, D

    1990-02-01

    The feasibility of utilizing vapor-phase hydrogen peroxide (VPHP) as a surface decontaminant and sterilant was evaluated in a centrifuge application. The prototype VPHP decontamination system, retrofitted into a Beckman L8-M ultracentrifuge, was designed to vaporize a 30% (wt/wt) solution of aqueous hydrogen peroxide continuously injecting and withdrawing VPHP in a deep-vacuum flow-through system. VPHP cycles of 4, 8, 16, and 32 min were examined for cidal activity against spores of Bacillus subtilis subsp. globigii and Bacillus stearothermophilus. Spore inocula (approximately 10(6)/coupon) were dried onto 0.5-in. (1.27-cm)-square stainless-steel coupons, and coupons were suspended in the centrifuge chamber, the space between the refrigeration can and the barrier ring (inner gap), and the space between the barrier ring and the vacuum ring (outer gap). At a chamber temperature of 4 degrees C, B. subtilis subsp. globigii spores were inactivated within 8 min, while inactivation of spores located in the outer gap at 27 degrees C required 32 min. The elevated temperature and high surface area/volume ratios in the outer gap may serve to decompose the gas more rapidly, thus reducing cidal efficacy. Of the two test spores, B. stearothermophilus was more resistant to VPHP. Nonetheless, VPHP was shown to possess significant sporicidal capability. For practical decontamination applications of the type described, VPHP shows promise as an effective and safer alternative to currently used ethylene oxide or formaldehyde vapors. PMID:2106287

  19. Vapor-phase hydrogen peroxide as a surface decontaminant and sterilant.

    PubMed Central

    Klapes, N A; Vesley, D

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of utilizing vapor-phase hydrogen peroxide (VPHP) as a surface decontaminant and sterilant was evaluated in a centrifuge application. The prototype VPHP decontamination system, retrofitted into a Beckman L8-M ultracentrifuge, was designed to vaporize a 30% (wt/wt) solution of aqueous hydrogen peroxide continuously injecting and withdrawing VPHP in a deep-vacuum flow-through system. VPHP cycles of 4, 8, 16, and 32 min were examined for cidal activity against spores of Bacillus subtilis subsp. globigii and Bacillus stearothermophilus. Spore inocula (approximately 10(6)/coupon) were dried onto 0.5-in. (1.27-cm)-square stainless-steel coupons, and coupons were suspended in the centrifuge chamber, the space between the refrigeration can and the barrier ring (inner gap), and the space between the barrier ring and the vacuum ring (outer gap). At a chamber temperature of 4 degrees C, B. subtilis subsp. globigii spores were inactivated within 8 min, while inactivation of spores located in the outer gap at 27 degrees C required 32 min. The elevated temperature and high surface area/volume ratios in the outer gap may serve to decompose the gas more rapidly, thus reducing cidal efficacy. Of the two test spores, B. stearothermophilus was more resistant to VPHP. Nonetheless, VPHP was shown to possess significant sporicidal capability. For practical decontamination applications of the type described, VPHP shows promise as an effective and safer alternative to currently used ethylene oxide or formaldehyde vapors. PMID:2106287

  20. Bio-Decontamination of Water and Surfaces by DC Discharges in Atmospheric Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machala, Zdenko; Tarabová, Barbora; Pelach, Michal; Šipoldová, Zuzana; Hensel, Karol; Janda, Mário; Šikurová, Libuša

    Two types of DC-driven atmospheric air discharges, including a streamer corona and a transient spark with short high current pulses of limited energy, were employed for bio-decontamination of water and various surfaces (agar plates, plastic foils, human teeth) contaminated by bacteria or spores (Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus cereus). Both discharges generate cold non-equilibrium plasma. The discharges combined with the electro-spraying of the treated water through the needle electrode lead to fast and efficient bio-decontamination. Experiments comparing direct and indirect plasma effects, oxidation stress measurements in the cell membranes, and chemical changes induced in the treated water enable assessment of the plasma agents being responsible for microbial inactivation. Radicals and reactive oxygen species seem to be dominant biocidal agents, although deeper understanding of the plasma-induced water chemistry and of the temporal evolution of the bio-inactivation processes is needed.

  1. Low pressure plasma discharges for the sterilization and decontamination of surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, F.; Kylián, O.; Rauscher, H.; Hasiwa, M.; Gilliland, D.

    2009-11-01

    The mechanisms of sterilization and decontamination of surfaces are compared in direct and post discharge plasma treatments in two low-pressure reactors, microwave and inductively coupled plasma. It is shown that the removal of various biomolecules, such as proteins, pyrogens or peptides, can be obtained at high rates and low temperatures in the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) by using Ar/O2 mixtures. Similar efficiency is obtained for bacterial spores. Analysis of the discharge conditions illustrates the role of ion bombardment associated with O radicals, leading to a fast etching of organic matter. By contrast, the conditions obtained in the post discharge lead to much lower etching rates but also to a chemical modification of pyrogens, leading to their de-activation. The advantages of the two processes are discussed for the application to the practical case of decontamination of medical devices and reduction of hospital infections, illustrating the advantages and drawbacks of the two approaches.

  2. The use of laser therapy for dental implant surface decontamination: a narrative review of in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Marina Salah; Khosa, Amardeep; Tawse-Smith, Andrew; Leichter, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this narrative review was to critically evaluate in vitro studies assessing the efficacy of lasers in the bacterial decontamination of titanium implant surfaces. The MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge and Embase electronic databases were used to search for articles relating to the use of lasers in the bacterial decontamination of titanium specimen surfaces using predetermined search statements. Clinical studies, case reports, case series, review articles and animal models were excluded. Study selection was carried out independently and then cross-checked by two authors through abstract viewing. Eighteen articles were selected for full-text analysis. Erbium-doped yttrium-aluminium-garnet lasers had a wide range of powers capable of inducing bacterial decontamination. While carbon dioxide and gallium-aluminium-arsenide diode lasers demonstrated the ability to produce bacterial decontamination, the bacterial sensitivity to each varied depending on the species involved. There is no concensus on the laser type or settings that are optimal for bacterial decontamination of titanium implant surfaces as studies employ various test specimens, contamination methodologies, irradiation settings and protocols, and outcome measures resulting in limited study comparability. More investigations are required to provide guidelines for the use of laser therapy in the decontamination of implant surfaces. PMID:23907604

  3. Surface decontamination and quality enhancement in meat steaks using plant extracts as natural biopreservatives.

    PubMed

    Tayel, Ahmed A; El-Tras, Wael F; Moussa, Shaaban H; El-Sabbagh, Sabha M

    2012-08-01

    Nine plant extracts were evaluated as biopreservatives to decontaminate and maintain the quality of meat steaks. Most of the extracts exhibited a remarkable antibacterial activity against antibiotic resistant strains from Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus. The pomegranate peel extract (PPE), cinnamon bark extract (CBE), and lemon grass leaves extract (LGE) were the most effective as bactericides, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 250, 350, and 550 μg/mL, respectively. The most effective treatments, for decontaminating meat steak surfaces, were the application of combined PPE, CBE, and LGE at their MIC values and the treatment with double MIC from PPE; these treatments resulted in complete bacterial inhibitions during the first 2 days of storage period for 7 days. The sensory evaluation of treated steaks revealed that these two treatments had the highest panelist overall scores. The highest scores, for individual attributes, were observed in the treated steaks with double MIC from PPE. Application of plant extracts could be impressively recommended for comprehensive meat decontamination and quality attributes enhancement. PMID:22827400

  4. Reactive decontamination formulation

    DOEpatents

    Giletto, Anthony; White, William; Cisar, Alan J.; Hitchens, G. Duncan; Fyffe, James

    2003-05-27

    The present invention provides a universal decontamination formulation and method for detoxifying chemical warfare agents (CWA's) and biological warfare agents (BWA's) without producing any toxic by-products, as well as, decontaminating surfaces that have come into contact with these agents. The formulation includes a sorbent material or gel, a peroxide source, a peroxide activator, and a compound containing a mixture of KHSO.sub.5, KHSO.sub.4 and K.sub.2 SO.sub.4. The formulation is self-decontaminating and once dried can easily be wiped from the surface being decontaminated. A method for decontaminating a surface exposed to chemical or biological agents is also disclosed.

  5. Mechanisms of Radionuclide-Hyroxycarboxylic Acid Interactions for Decontamination of Metallic Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    A.J. Francis; C.J. Dodge; J.B. Gillow; G.P. Halada; C.R. Clayton

    2002-04-24

    Is this EMSP program we investigated the key fundamental issues involved in the use of simple and safe methods for the removal of radioactive contamination from equipment and facilities using hydroxycarboxylic acids. Specifically, we investigate (i) the association of uranium with various iron oxides commonly formed on corroding plain carbon steel surfaces, (ii) the association of uranium with corroding metal coupons under a variety of conditions, and (iii) the decontamination of the uranium contaminated metal coupons by citric acid or citric acid formulations containing oxalic acid and hydrogen peroxide.

  6. Decontamination of U-metal Surface by an Oxidation Etching System

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, R B; Kansa, E J; Shaffer, R J; Weed, H C

    2000-12-18

    A surface oxidation treatment is described to remove surface contamination from uranium (U) metal and/or hydrides of uranium and heavy metals (HM) from U-metal parts. In the case of heavy metal atomic contamination on a surface, and potentially several atomic layers beneath, the surface oxidation treatment combines both chemical and chemically driven mechanical processes. The chemical process is a controlled temperature-time oxidization process that creates a thin film of uranium oxide (UO{sub 2} and higher oxides) on the U-metal surface. The chemically driven mechanical process is strain induced by the volume increase as the U-metal surface transforms to a UO{sub 2} surface film. These volume strains are sufficiently large to cause surface failure spalling/scale formation and thus, removal of a U-oxide film that contains the HM-contaminated surface. The case of a HM-hydride surface contamination layer can be treated similarly by using inert hot gas to decompose the U-hydrides and/or HM-hydrides that are contiguous with the surface. A preliminary analysis to design and to plan for a sequence of tests is developed. The tests will provide necessary and sufficient data to evaluate the effective implementation and operational characteristics of a safe and reliable system. The following description is limited to only a surface oxidation process for HM-decontamination.

  7. Decontamination of Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores on selected surfaces by chlorine dioxide gas*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan-ju; Zhu, Neng; Jia, Hai-quan; Wu, Jin-hui; Yi, Ying; Qi, Jian-cheng

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Chlorine dioxide (CD) gas has been used as a fumigant in the disinfection of biosafety laboratories. In this study, some experiments were conducted to assess the inactivation of spores inoculated on six materials [stainless steel (SS), painted steel (PS), polyvinyl chlorid (PVC), polyurethane (PU), glass (GS), and cotton cloth (CC)] by CD gas. The main aims of the study were to determine the sporicidal efficacy of CD gas and the effect of prehumidification before decontamination on sporicidal efficacy. Methods: Material coupons (1.2 cm diameter of SS, PS, and PU; 1.0 cm×1.0 cm for PVC, GS, and CC) were contaminated with 10 μl of Bacillus subtilis var. niger (ATCC 9372) spore suspension in mixed organic burden and then dried in a biosafety cabinet for 12 h. The spores were recovered by soaking the coupons in 5 ml of extraction liquid for 1 h and then vortexing the liquid for 1 min. Results: The log reductions in spore numbers on inoculated test materials exposed to CD gas [0.080% (volume ratio, v/v) for 3 h] were in the range of from 1.80 to 6.64. Statistically significant differences were found in decontamination efficacies on test material coupons of SS, PS, PU, and CC between with and without a 1-h prehumidification treatment. With the extraction method, there were no statistically significant differences in the recovery ratios between the porous and non-porous materials. Conclusions: The results reported from this study could provide information for developing decontamination technology based on CD gas for targeting surface microbial contamination. PMID:22467366

  8. Technical Report: Contaminant Organic Complexes: Their structure and energetics in surface decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel J. Traina; Shankar Sharma

    2007-04-22

    The Department of Energy has a goal of decontaminating an estimated 180,000 metric tons of metal wastes in various surplus facilities. Uranium (U) and other radioactive actinides and lanthanides are embedded within the mixed oxide structures of the passivity layers of corroded iron and steel. These toxic metals can be dissolved out of the surface layers by a naturally occurring bacterial siderophore called Desferrioxamine B (DFB). DFB is a trihydroxamate ligand with one amine (pK1 =10.89) and three hydroxamate groups (pK2 =9.70, pK3 =9.03, and pK4 =8.30), which chelates with metals through hydroxamate coordination. Complexation of DFB with U can be utilized in decontamination strategy of the passivity layers. Therefore, we have been studying reactions of uranyl U(VI) with zerovalent iron (Fe0) followed by dissolution by DFB. The objectives were to determine the structure and speciation of solution and solid phases of U and to assess the effectiveness of DFB in U dissolution.

  9. Gross decontamination experiment report

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

    1983-07-01

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment.

  10. Chemical decontamination of the tritium-sorbing surface of Type 316 stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirabayashi, T.; Saeki, M.; Tachikawa, E.

    1985-11-01

    The chemical decontamination of Type 316 stainless steel surfaces exposed to gaseous tritium has been examined by using a technique of combined thermal desorption and chemical treatment with corrosive solutions. With the finding that the tritium sorbed at the various sites on the stainless steel surface can selectively be eliminated by treatment with a particular corrosive solution, the distributions of sites and their properties have been elucidated. On the basis of the results, it has been demonstrated that a two-step chemical treatment, i.e., the dipping in dilute HCl for the whole surface corrosion and then in a CuSO 4-H 2SO 4 solution for intergranular corrosion, leads to an almost complete removal of tritium sorbed on the stainless steel surface with minimized dissolution of the bulk. It is also shown that the non-oxidizing acids like HC1 accelerate the sorbed tritium to release in the form of HT, while the oxidizing acids like HNO 3 allow it in the form of HTO.

  11. Homogenous photocatalytic decontamination of prion infected stainless steel and titanium surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Berberidou, Chrysanthi; Xanthopoulos, Konstantinos; Paspaltsis, Ioannis; Lourbopoulos, Athanasios; Polyzoidou, Eleni; Sklaviadis, Theodoros; Poulios, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Prions are notorious for their extraordinary resistance to traditional methods of decontamination, rendering their transmission a public health risk. Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (iCJD) via contaminated surgical instruments and medical devices has been verified both experimentally and clinically. Standard methods for prion inactivation by sodium hydroxide or sodium hypochlorite have failed, in some cases, to fully remove prion infectivity, while they are often impractical for routine applications. Prion accumulation in peripheral tissues and indications of human-to-human bloodborne prion transmission, highlight the need for novel, efficient, yet user-friendly methods of prion inactivation. Here we show both in vitro and in vivo that homogenous photocatalytic oxidation, mediated by the photo-Fenton reagent, has the potential to inactivate the pathological prion isoform adsorbed on metal substrates. Photocatalytic oxidation with 224 μg mL−1 Fe3+, 500 μg mL−1 h−1 H2O2, UV-A for 480 min lead to 100% survival in golden Syrian hamsters after intracranial implantation of stainless steel wires infected with the 263K prion strain. Interestingly, photocatalytic treatment of 263K infected titanium wires, under the same experimental conditions, prolonged the survival interval significantly, but failed to eliminate infectivity, a result that we correlate with the increased adsorption of PrPSc on titanium, in comparison to stainless steel. Our findings strongly indicate that our, user- and environmentally friendly protocol can be safely applied to the decontamination of prion infected stainless steel surfaces. PMID:24247293

  12. CONTAMINANT-ORGANIC COMPLEXES: THEIR STRUCTURE AND ENERGETICS IN SURFACE DECONTAMINATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current debate over possible decontamination processes for U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities is centered on disparate decontamination problems, but the key contaminants (uranium [U], plutonium [Pu], and neptunium [Np]) are universally important. There is no single d...

  13. RE-ENTERING BUILDING FOLLOWING CHEMICAL ATTACK: MEASURING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SURFACE DECONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prior to re-entering a building following a chemical attack, decontamination and testing must be conducted to determine whether toxic agents have been eliminated or reduced to safe levels. Building contents must also be decontaminated and tested or destroyed. Recent incidents i...

  14. Decontamination of room air and adjoining wall surfaces by nebulizing hydrogen peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Koburger, Torsten; Below, Harald; Dornquast, Tina; Kramer, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Aim: In 2010, the ASP GLOSAIRTM 400 was introduced in Germany for nebulizing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Since there were no results of practical experience, the new method was to be checked under practical conditions for its effectiveness in decontaminating air in rooms, infested with mold after water damage and, at the same time, under experimentally controlled conditions, test surfaces, contaminated with Aspergillus brasiliensis. Method: After the nebulizer was used in two rooms with a massive mold infestation, the air colony count was determined (MAS-100® Zinsser Analytik) and, at the same time, the mold infestation in samples of wall plaster. As part of this controlled study, test surfaces contaminated with Aspergillus brasiliensis were positioned vertically and horizontally in a test room. The effectiveness of the nebulization (5–6% H2O2 for 2 hours) was tested on these surfaces according to EN 13697. Results: In a massive mold infestation resulting from water damage (worst case), an approximately 9-fold decrease in the mold content and an approximately 13-fold decrease in the number of colony-forming units (sum of the bacteria + fungi) could be detected in the room air immediately after the nebulizing was finished. Even in samples of wall and joint plaster, the molds were reduced, although to a distinctly lesser extent. By indoor nebulization of 5–6% H2O2, A. brasiliensis was reduced >4 log on vertical and horizontal surfaces. Discussion: In rooms with a massive mold infestation, the ASP GLOSAIRTM 400 system is suitable for attaining a clear reduction in the fungal and bacterial room air load, lasting for a week. On vertical and horizontal surfaces, contaminated experimentally with A. brasiliensis, a reduction of >4 lg is achieved. As a load of 104 to 105 fungal spores is unlikely to occur on pre-cleaned surfaces, the GLOSAIRTM 400 can be considered a suitable complementary process for the substantial reduction of fungal contamination. PMID:22242090

  15. Evaluation of hydrogen peroxide vapour as a method for the decontamination of surfaces contaminated with Clostridium botulinum spores.

    PubMed

    Johnston, M D; Lawson, S; Otter, J A

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of hydrogen peroxide vapour (HPV) against spores of Clostridium botulinum, for use as a method for decontaminating environments where this pathogen has been handled. Spores were dried onto stainless steel slides and exposed to HPV in a sealed glovebox enclosure, transferred to a quenching agent at timed intervals during the exposure period, before survivors were cultured and enumerated. D-values were calculated from graphs of log10 survivors plotted against time and were found to range from 1.41 to 4.38 min. HPV was found to be effective at deactivating spores of toxigenic Cl. botulinum, non-toxigenic Clostridium spp. and Geobacillus stearothermophilus dried onto stainless steel surfaces. HPV could be used to decontaminate cabinets and rooms where Cl. botulinum has been handled. The cycle parameters should be based on studies carried out with relevant spores of this organism, rather than based on inactivation data for G. stearothermophilus spores, which have been used in the past as a standard biological challenge for disinfection and sterilisation procedures. HPV could provide an attractive alternative to other decontamination methods, as it was rapid, residue-free and did not give rise to the health and safety concerns associated with other gaseous decontamination systems. PMID:15649542

  16. Surface decontamination using a teleoperated vehicle and Kelly spray/vacuum system

    SciTech Connect

    Zollinger, W.T.; Dyches, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    A commercial teleoperated wheeled vehicle was fitted with a modified commercial spray/vacuum decontamination system to allow floor and wall decontamination of an existing process room in one of the chemical separations areas at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Custom end-of-arm tooling was designed to provide sufficient compliance for routine cleaning operations. An operator console was designed to allow complete control of the vehicle base and are movements as well as viewing operations via multiple television monitors. 3 refs.

  17. Surface decontamination using a teleoperated vehicle and Kelly spray/vacuum system

    SciTech Connect

    Zollinger, W.T.; Dyches, G.M.

    1990-12-31

    A commercial teleoperated wheeled vehicle was fitted with a modified commercial spray/vacuum decontamination system to allow floor and wall decontamination of an existing process room in one of the chemical separations areas at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Custom end-of-arm tooling was designed to provide sufficient compliance for routine cleaning operations. An operator console was designed to allow complete control of the vehicle base and are movements as well as viewing operations via multiple television monitors. 3 refs.

  18. Application of Surface Micro-Discharge plasma to spacecraft component decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Satoshi; Barczyk, Simon; Rettberg, Petra; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Klaempfl, Tobias; Zimmermann, Julia; Weber, Peter; Morfill, Gregor; Thomas, Hubertus

    2013-09-01

    In the field of extinct or extant extraterrestrial life research on other planets and moons, the prevention of biological contamination through spaceprobes is one of the most important requirements, and its detailed conditions are defined by the COSPAR planetary protection policy. Currently, a dry heat microbial reduction (DHMR) method is the only applicable way to satisfy the demand, which could, however, damage the sophisticated components like integrated circuits. In this study, cold atmospheric plasma based on the Surface Micro-Discharge technology was investigated for inactivation of different types of bacteria and endospores as an alternative method. After 90 min of plasma gas exposure, 3-6 log reductions were observed for the vegetative bacteria Escherichia coliand Deinococcus radiodurans and several types of bacterial endospores - including Bacillus atrophaeus, B. safensis, B. megaterium, B. megaterium 2c1 and B. thuringiensis E24. Furthermore, the applicability of the system for spacecraft decontamination was checked by studying the inactivation homogeneity, the temperature at the area of interest and the effects of the plasma gas exposure on different materials. The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support from Deutches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (FKZ 50 JR1005).

  19. ''Green'' Biopolymers for Improved Decontamination of Metals from Surfaces: Sorptive Characterization and Coating Properties.. Annual report to be submitted to DOE Program Managers for posting on web page.

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, BH

    2001-06-15

    The proposed research aims to develop a fundamental understanding of important biological and physical chemical parameters for effective decontamination of metal surfaces using environmentally benign aqueous-based biopolymer solutions. Understanding how heavy metal-chelating biopolymers coat and interact with contaminated surfaces will benefit the development of novel, safe, easy-to-apply decontamination methodologies for removal of radionuclides and heavy metals. The benefits of these methodologies will include the following: decreased exposure hazards for workers; decreased secondary waste generation; increased efficiency of decontamination; positive public appeal and development of novel, nature-friendly business opportunities; and lower cost of cleanup to the government.

  20. Temperature elevations in endosseous dental implants and the peri-implant bone during diode-laser-assisted surface decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreisler, Matthias; Schoof, Juergen; Langnau, Ernst; Al Haj, Haitham; d'Hoedt, Bernd

    2002-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate temperature elevations in the implant surface and the peri-implant bone during simulated surface decontamination of endosseous dental implants with an 809 nm semiconductor laser. Stepped cylinder implants were inserted into bone blocks cut from resected pig femurs. An artificial peri-implant bone defect provided access for the irradiation of the implant surface. A 600 micron optic fiber was used at a distance of 0.5 mm from the implant surface. Power output varied between 0.5 and 2.5 W in the cw-mode. Power density was between 176.9 and 884.6 Wcm-2. The bone block was placed into a 37 degree(s)C water bath in order to simulate in vivo thermal conductivity and diffusitivity of heat. Temperature elevations during irradiation were registered by means of K-Type thermocouples and a short wave thermocamera. In a time and energy-dependant manner, the critical threshold of 47 degree(s)C was exceeded in the peri-implant bone. Surface peak temperatures in the focus of up to 427.8 degree(s)C were observed. Implant surface decontamination with an 809 nm GaAlAs laser must be limited to a maximum of 10 s at an energy density below 350 wcm-2 to ensure a safe clinical treatment.

  1. Long lasting decontamination foam

    DOEpatents

    Demmer, Ricky L.; Peterman, Dean R.; Tripp, Julia L.; Cooper, David C.; Wright, Karen E.

    2010-12-07

    Compositions and methods for decontaminating surfaces are disclosed. More specifically, compositions and methods for decontamination using a composition capable of generating a long lasting foam are disclosed. Compositions may include a surfactant and gelatin and have a pH of less than about 6. Such compositions may further include affinity-shifting chemicals. Methods may include decontaminating a contaminated surface with a composition or a foam that may include a surfactant and gelatin and have a pH of less than about 6.

  2. PFC Decontamination of a Metal Surface and the Recycling of a Spent PFC Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, C.H.; Won, H.J.; Oh, W.Z.; Moon, J.K.; Park, J.H.

    2006-07-01

    PFC (per-fluorocarbon) ultrasonic decontamination behavior of loosely contaminated metal specimens such as a plate, pipe, welding and a crevice specimen in a mixed solution of PFC and an anionic surfactant was investigated. Perfluoroheptane (C{sub 7}F{sub 16}) was used as a PFC ultrasonic media. The contaminants were completely removed for almost all of the tested specimens except for the longest pipe length specimen. For the 6-cm long specimen, 98.5 % of the contaminants were removed. For the recycling of the PFC solution, a distillation test for the spent PFC solution was also performed. The results show that 97.5 % of the PFC was recycled without a loss of the decontamination efficiency. (authors)

  3. Decontamination of concrete surfaces in Building 3019, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [After Nov. 20, 1959 incident

    SciTech Connect

    Parrott, Sr, J R

    1980-01-01

    This building was built in 1943 to serve as a pilot plant for separating isotopes from irradiated fuels. A chemical explosion leading to widespread Pu contamination occurred on Nov. 20, 1959, and the steps taken to treat the building afterwards are discussed, in particular the floor and the cells. The experience shows how hard it is to decontaminate concrete; smooth coatings should be utilized. (DLC)

  4. Decontamination of surfaces by blasting with crystals of H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, C.E.; Parfitt, J.E.; Patton, B.D.

    1995-02-01

    A major mission of the US Department of Energy during the 1990s is site and environmental cleanup. In pursuit of this mission, numerous remediation projects are under way and many others are being planned at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In this report, tests using two proposed methods for decontaminating surfaces one using water ice crystals [Crystalline Ice Blast (CIB)], the other using dry ice crystals (CO{sub 2} Cleanblast{trademark}) -- are described. Both methods are adaptations of the commonly used sand blasting technology. The two methods tested differ from sand blasting in that the particles are not particularly abrasive and do not accumulate as particles in the wastes. They differ from each other in that the CO{sub 2} particles sublime during and after impact and the ice particles melt. Thus, the two demonstrations provide important information about two strong candidate decontamination methodologies. Each process was tested at ORNL using contaminated lead bricks and contaminated tools and equipment. Demonstrations with the prototype Crystalline Ice Blast and the CO{sub 2} Cleanblast systems showed that paint, grease, and oil can be removed from metal, plastic, asphalt, and concrete surfaces. Furthermore, removal of contamination from lead bricks was highly effective. Both processes were found to be less effective, under the conditions tested, with contaminated tools and equipment that had chemically bonded contamination or contamination located in crevices since neither technology abrades the substrates or penetrates deeply into crevices to remove particulates. Some process improvements are recommended.

  5. A multiscale approach to assess the complex surface of polyurethane catheters and the effects of a new plasma decontamination treatment on the surface properties.

    PubMed

    Mrad, Omar; Saunier, Johanna; Aymes-Chodur, Caroline; Rosilio, Véronique; Bouttier, Sylvie; Agnely, Florence; Aubert, Pascal; Vigneron, Jacky; Etcheberry, Arnaud; Yagoubi, Najet

    2010-12-01

    Polyurethane catheters made of Pellethane 2363-80AE® were treated with a low temperature plasma developed for the decontamination of reusable polymer devices in hospitals. We investigated the modifications of the polymer surface by studying the topographic modifications, the chemical modifications, and their consequences on the wettability and bacterial adhesion. This study showed that plasma treatment modified the topography and grafted oxygen and nitrogen species onto the surface, resulting in an increase in the surface polarity. This effect could be correlated to the number of nitrogen atoms interacting with the surface. Moreover, this study demonstrated the significance of multiscale heterogeneities, and the complexity of industrial medical devices made from polymers. Their surface can be heterogeneous, and they contain additives that can migrate and change the surface composition. PMID:20920389

  6. Caracterisation du coefficient de retrodiffusion radar des surfaces d'hydrocarbure: Modelisation et interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonneau, Francois

    La surveillance maritime est un domaine d'applications ou l'interet politique et scientifique croit constamment au Canada. Un des outils privilegies pour la surveillance maritime est l'acquisition de donnees radars, par des systemes aeroportes ou spatio-portes (ERS-2, RADARSAT et Envisat). Par leur grande couverture spatiale, ainsi que leur sensibilite a la geometrie de surface, les donnees radars permettent, en autres, la detection de cibles ponctuelles (bateaux), estimation des vents, detection des glaces de mer, ainsi que la detection de deversement d'hydrocarbure. Les limites et les avantages de la detection d'hydrocarbure par acquisitions de donnees radars sont bien connus, mais il reste encore des lacunes au niveau de l'extraction des parametres physiques d'une surface d'hydrocarbure. Ce projet a pour objectif de caracteriser le coefficient de retrodiffusion radar associe a une surface d'hydrocarbure en milieu oceanique, par l'introduction d'un modele thermodynamique d'attenuation de la surface, au modele theorique radar IEM. Le modele global permet de simuler le comportement de sigma° en fonction des proprietes visco-elastiques, ainsi que de l'epaisseur de la couche d'hydrocarbure et en fonction des parametres d'acquisition radar. Le modele developpe fut valide a partir des donnees SIR-C acquises lors d'experimentations controlees. A partir des informations environnementales et du type d'hydrocarbure, notre modele a permis d'estime le contraste d'intensite avec une precision de 1 a 1,5 dB, a la bande C. Alors qu'a la bande L, l'erreur sur le contraste est d'environ 1,5 a 2 dB sur l'ensemble des mesures. Ce qui est excellant considerant l'heterogeneite des surfaces analysees. Egalement, nous effectuons des analyses multi-polarisees et polarimetriques avec les donnees SIR-C acquises au-dessus de sites experimentaux. II en ressort que le ratio de polarisation VV/HH, ainsi que le facteur d'anisotropie sont des pistes de recherche prometteuses qu'il faudra

  7. Effectiveness and reaction networks of H2O2 vapor with NH3 gas for decontamination of the toxic warfare nerve agent, VX on a solid surface.

    PubMed

    Gon Ryu, Sam; Wan Lee, Hae

    2015-01-01

    The nerve agent, O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX) must be promptly eliminated following its release into the environment because it is extremely toxic, can cause death within a few minutes after exposure, acts through direct skin contact as well as inhalation, and persists in the environment for several weeks after release. A mixture of hydrogen peroxide vapor and ammonia gas was examined as a decontaminant for the removal of VX on solid surfaces at ambient temperature, and the reaction products were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR). All the VX on glass wool filter disks was found to be eliminated after 2 h of exposure to the decontaminant mixtures, and the primary decomposition product was determined to be non-toxic ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA); no toxic S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioic acid (EA-2192), which is usually produced in traditional basic hydrolysis systems, was found to be formed. However, other by-products, such as toxic O-ethyl S-vinyl methylphosphonothioate and (2-diisopropylaminoethyl) vinyl disulfide, were detected up to 150 min of exposure to the decontaminant mixture; these by-products disappeared after 3 h. The two detected vinyl byproducts were identified first in this study with the decontamination system of liquid VX on solid surfaces using a mixture of hydrogen peroxide vapor and ammonia gas. The detailed decontamination reaction networks of VX on solid surfaces produced by the mixture of hydrogen peroxide vapor and ammonia gas were suggested based on the reaction products. These findings suggest that the mixture of hydrogen peroxide vapor and ammonia gas investigated in this study is an efficient decontaminant mixture for the removal of VX on solid surfaces at ambient temperature despite the formation of a toxic by-product in the reaction process. PMID:26327407

  8. Modelisations des effets de surface sur les jets horizontaux subsoniques d'hydrogene et de methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Luis Fernando

    Le developpement des codes et de normes bases sur une methodologie scientifique requiert la capacite de predire l'etendue inflammable de deversements gazeux d'hydrogene sous differentes conditions. Des etudes anterieures ont deja etabli des modeles bases sur les lois de conservation de la mecanique des fluides basees sur des correlations experimentales qui permettent de predire la decroissance de la concentration et de la vitesse d'un gaz le long de l'axe d'un jet libre vertical. Cette etude s'interesse aux effets de proximite a une surface horizontale parallele sur un jet turbulent. Nous nous interessons a son impact sur l'etendue du champ de la concentration et sur l'enveloppe inflammable en particulier. Cette etude est comparative : l'hydrogene est compare au methane. Ceci permet de degager l'influence des effets de difference de la densite sur le comportement du jet, et de comparer le comportement de l'hydrogene aux correlations experimentales, qui ont ete essentiellement etablies pour le methane. Un modele decrivant l'evolution spatio-temporelle du champ de concentration du gaz dilue est propose, base sur la mecanique des fluides computationnelle. Cette approche permet de varier systematiquement les conditions aux frontieres (proximite du jet a la surface, par exemple) et de connaitre en detail les proprietes de l'ecoulement. Le modele est implemente dans le code de simulations par volumes finis de FLUENT. Les resultats des simulations sont compares avec les lois de similitudes decoulant de la theorie des jets d'ecoulements turbulents libres ainsi qu'avec les resultats experimentaux disponibles. L'effet de la difference des masses molaires des constituantes du jet et des constituantes du milieu de dispersion est egalement etudie dans le contexte du comportement d'echelle de la region developpee du jet.

  9. Modeling of an atmospheric-pressure HE/CF[sub 4]/O[sub 2]plasma used for surface decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Teslow, H. L.; Rosocha, L. A.; Kim, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Atmospheric-pressure plasmas have been shown to be useful in many different applications, including surface decontamination. We will describe a useful plasma source, a non-thermal Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ), for such applications. In recent APPJ experiments, a plasma consisting of helium mixed with small percentages of carbon tetrafluoride and molecular oxygen was used to etch tantalum foils as well as plutonium on the surface of a sample metal coupon. Understanding the plasma, chemical, and surface kinetics of this plasma is crucial to the widespread application of this procedure to various contaminants, such as chemical and biological warfare agents (CBW). A complete, detailed model of the plasma, post-plasma gas chemistry, and surface chemistry is needed to determine the reactive species and exact surface reactions occurring in each of the experiments. Using commercial software (KINEMA and ELENDIF), we have created a post-plasma gas chemistry model which utilizes over 180 chemical reactions and initial conditions determined by gaseous electronics modeling. Multiple reaction reduction techniques were used to ascertain the most important reactions and relevant species. This model indicates that although fluorine may be a reactive species, other oxyfluorides such as OF, F{sub 2}O, and FCOO most likely contribute significantly to the etching process. Comparison with experimental data suggests that fluorine is not the sole etchant.

  10. Malonic acid: A potential reagent in decontamination processes for Ni-rich alloy surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, D.; Bruyère, V. I. E.; Bordoni, R.; Olmedo, A. M.; Morando, P. J.

    2011-05-01

    The ability of malonic acid as a dissolution agent toward synthetic Ni ferrite and Alloy 600 and 800 corrosion products was explored. Its performance in the dissolution kinetics of Ni ferrite powders was compared with the one of oxalic acid. Kinetic parameters were obtained and the dependency on external Fe(II) was modelled. Oxidized samples used in descaling tests were prepared by exposure of coupons of both alloys to lithiated aqueous solutions, under hydrothermal conditions and hydrogen overpressure, simulating PHWR conditions. Oxide layer morphology, the influence of exposure time to corrosive medium and LiOH concentration on its thickness were characterized. Descaling tests consisting on a two-stage method (a first oxidizing step with alkaline permanganate followed by a reducing step with oxalic or malonic acid were carried out). Results were compared to those obtained with a well known chemical cleaning formulation (APAC: Alkaline Permanganate Ammonium Citrate) used in decontamination of several reactors and loops and the competitiveness of malonic acid was demonstrated.

  11. Foam and gel decontamination techniques

    SciTech Connect

    McGlynn, J.F.; Rankin, W.N.

    1989-01-01

    The Savannah River Site is investigating decontamination technology to improve current decontamination techniques, and thereby reduce radiation exposure to plant personnel, reduce uptake of radioactive material, and improve safety during decontamination and decommissioning activities. When decontamination chemicals are applied as foam and gels, the contact time and cleaning ability of the chemical increases. Foam and gel applicators apply foam or gel that adheres to the surface being decontaminated for periods ranging from fifteen minutes (foam) to infinite contact (gel). This equipment was started up in a cold environment. The desired foam and gel consistency was achieved, operators were trained in its proper maintenance and operation, and the foam and gel were applied to walls, ceilings, and hard to reach surfaces. 17 figs.

  12. Atmospheric pressure argon surface discharges propagated in long tubes: physical characterization and application to bio-decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalova, Zuzana; Leroy, Magali; Jacobs, Carolyn; Kirkpatrick, Michael J.; Machala, Zdenko; Lopes, Filipa; Laux, Christophe O.; DuBow, Michael S.; Odic, Emmanuel

    2015-11-01

    Pulsed corona discharges propagated in argon (or in argon with added water vapor) at atmospheric pressure on the interior surface of a 49 cm long quartz tube were investigated for the application of surface bio-decontamination. H2O molecule dissociation in the argon plasma generated reactive species (i.e. OH in ground and excited states) and UV emission, which both directly affected bacterial cells. In order to facilitate the evaluation of the contribution of UV radiation, a DNA damage repair defective bacterial strain, Escherichia coli DH-1, was used. Discharge characteristics, including propagation velocity and plasma temperature, were measured. Up to ~5.5 and ~5 log10 reductions were observed for E. coli DH-1 bacteria (from 106 initial load) exposed 2 cm and 44 cm away from the charged electrode, respectively, for a 20 min plasma treatment. The factors contributing to the observed bactericidal effect include desiccation, reactive oxygen species (OH) plus H2O2 accumulation in the liquid phase, and UV-B (and possibly VUV) emission in dry argon. The steady state temperature measured on the quartz tube wall did not exceeded 29 °C the contribution of heating, along with that of H2O2 accumulation, was estimated to be low. The effect of UV-B emission alone or in combination with the other stress factors of the plasma process was examined for different operating conditions.

  13. Decontamination of Streptococci biofilms and Bacillus cereus spores on plastic surfaces with DC and pulsed corona discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koval'ová, Zuzana; Tarabová, Kataŕna; Hensel, Karol; Machala, Zdenko

    2013-02-01

    Cold air plasmas of DC and pulsed corona discharges: positive streamers and negative Trichel pulses were used for bio-decontamination of Streptococci biofilm and Bacillus cereus spores on polypropylene plastic surfaces. The reduction of bacterial population (evaluated as log10) in the biofilm on plastic surfaces treated by DC corona reached 2.4 logs with 10 min treatment time and 3.3 logs with 2 min treatment time with water spraying. The enhancement of plasma biocidal effects on the biofilm by electro-spraying of water through a hollow needle high-voltage electrode was investigated. No significant polarity effect was found with DC corona. Pulsed corona was demonstrated slightly more bactericidal for spores, especially in the negative polarity where the bacterial population reduction reached up to 2.2 logs at 10 min exposure time. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

  14. Electrokinetic decontamination of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Lomasney, H.

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has assigned a priority to the advancement of technology for decontaminating concrete surfaces which have become contaminated with radionuclides, heavy metals, and toxic organics. This agency is responsible for decontamination and decommissioning of thousands of buildings. Electrokinetic extraction is one of the several innovative technologies which emerged in response to this initiative. This technique utilizes an electropotential gradient and the subsequent electrical transport mechanism to cause the controlled movement of ionics species, whereby the contaminants exit the recesses deep within the concrete. This report discusses the technology and use at the Oak Ridge k-25 plant.

  15. Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System

    DOEpatents

    Gentile, Charles A. , Guttadora, Gregory L. , Parker, John J.

    2006-02-07

    The Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System, OTDS, provides a method and apparatus for reduction of tritium surface contamination on various items. The OTDS employs ozone gas as oxidizing agent to convert elemental tritium to tritium oxide. Tritium oxide vapor and excess ozone gas is purged from the OTDS, for discharge to atmosphere or transport to further process. An effluent stream is subjected to a catalytic process for the decomposition of excess ozone to diatomic oxygen. One of two configurations of the OTDS is employed: dynamic apparatus equipped with agitation mechanism and large volumetric capacity for decontamination of light items, or static apparatus equipped with pressurization and evacuation capability for decontamination of heavier, delicate, and/or valuable items.

  16. Decontamination of surgical instruments from prions. II. In vivo findings with a model system for testing the removal of scrapie infectivity from steel surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lemmer, Karin; Mielke, Martin; Kratzel, Christine; Joncic, Marion; Oezel, Muhsin; Pauli, Georg; Beekes, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The unusual resistance of agents causing transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) to chemical or thermal inactivation requires special decontamination procedures in order to prevent accidental transmission of these pathogens by surgical instruments. In the search for effective, instrument-compatible and routinely applicable decontamination procedures, a previous study [Lemmer, K., Mielke, M., Pauli, G. & Beekes, M. (2004). J Gen Virol 85, 3805-3816] identified promising reagents in an in vitro carrier assay using steel wires contaminated with the disease-associated prion protein, PrP(Sc). In the follow-up study presented here, these reagents were validated for their decontamination potential in vivo. Steel wires initially loaded with >or=3 x 10(5) LD(50) of 263K scrapie infectivity were implanted into the brains of hamsters after treatment for decontamination and subsequently monitored for their potential to trigger clinical disease or subclinical cerebral PrP(Sc) deposition within an observation period of 500 days. It was found that routinely usable reagents such as a commercially available alkaline cleaner (pH 12.2) applied for 1 h at 23 degrees C or for 10 min at 55 degrees C and a mixture of 0.2 % SDS and 0.3 % NaOH (pH 12.8) applied for 5 or 10 min at 23 degrees C achieved removal of 263K scrapie infectivity below the threshold of detection (titre reduction of >or=5.5 log(10) units). The increasing use during the past few years of similar model systems by different research groups will facilitate comparison and integration of findings on the decontamination of steel surfaces from prions. Methods identified as highly effective in the 263K steel wire model need to be validated for human TSE agents on different types of instrument surfaces. PMID:18089760

  17. FINAL REPORT. WASTE VOLUME REDUCTION USING SURFACE CHARACTERIZATION AND DECONTAMINATION BY LASER ABLATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laser ablation was studied as a method for removing contaminated surface layers from concrete. The objectives of this research were to determine the mechanism and efficacy of laser ablation, to understand the chemistry of contaminated concrete surfaces, and to chemically and phys...

  18. Repainting decontaminated canyon cranes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-08-23

    The paint on the H-area hot canyon crane is expected to be at least partially removed during the planned decontamination with high pressure Freon/reg sign/ blasting. Tests to evaluate two candidate finishes, DuPont Imron/reg sign/ polyurethane enamel and DuPont Colar/reg sign/ epoxy were carried out at Quadrex Co., Oak Ridge, TN, March 1984. Three types of 304L stainless steel surface finishes were included in the test (ASTM No. 1, bead blasted ASTM No. 1, and ASTM No. 2B). Two types of contamination were used (diluted dissolver solution, the type of contamination encountered in existing canyons; and raw sludge plus volatiles, the type of contamination expected in DWPF). Some specimens were coated with the type of grease (Mystic JT-6) used on cranes in SRP separations areas. The results of the test indicate that smoother surfaces are easier to decontaminate than rougher surfaces. Statistical analysis of the data from this experiment by R.L. Postles leads to the following conclusions: There is no statistical difference between the decontamination properties of DuPont Imron/reg sign/ polyurethane enamel and DuPont Colar/reg sign/ epoxy; DuPont Imron/reg sign/ polyurethane enamel and perhaps Type 304L stainless steel with an ASTM No. 2B surface finish are easier to decontaminate than Type 304L stainless steel with an ASTM No. 1 surface finish; dilute dissolver solution is harder to remove than raw sludge plus volatiles; specimens with grease are easier to decontaminate than specimens with no grease; and, Freon/reg sign/ blasting pressure has no statistically significant effect. 2 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  19. TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE METHODS FOR DECONTAMINATION OF INDOOR SURFACES CONTAMINATED WITH BIOLOGICAL OR CHEMICAL AGENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To support the Nation's Homeland Security Program, this U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) project is conducted to verify the performance of commercially available products, methods, and equipment for decontamination of hard and...

  20. Surface decontamination for blister agents Lewisite, sulfur mustard and agent yellow, a Lewisite and sulfur mustard mixture.

    PubMed

    Stone, Harry; See, David; Smiley, Autumn; Ellingson, Anthony; Schimmoeller, Jessica; Oudejans, Lukas

    2016-08-15

    Sulfur mustard (HD) and Lewisite (L) are blister agents that have a high potential for terrorist use; Agent Yellow (HL) is the eutectic mixture of HD and L. Bench-scale testing was used to determine the residual amount of these chemical warfare agents remaining on three building materials (wood, metal and glass) after application of various decontaminants (household bleach, full strength and dilute; hydrogen peroxide 3% solution; and EasyDECON(®) DF200). All decontaminants reduced the amount of L recovered from coupons. Application of dilute bleach showed little or no difference compared to natural attenuation in the amount of HD recovered from coupons. Full-strength bleach was the most effective of four decontaminants at reducing the amount of HD from coupons. Hydrogen peroxide (3% solution) and DF200 did decrease the amount of HD recovered from coupons more than natural attenuation (except DF200 against HD on metal), but substantial amounts of HD remained on some materials. Toxic HD by-products were generated by hydrogen peroxide treatment. The effectiveness of decontaminants was found to depend on agent, material, and decontaminant. Increased decontaminant reaction time (60min rather than 30min) did not significantly increase effectiveness. PMID:27107236

  1. Proceedings of the concrete decontamination workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Halter, J.M.; Sullivan, R.G.; Currier, A.J.

    1980-05-28

    Fourteen papers were presented. These papers describe concrete surface removal methods and equipment, as well as experiences in decontaminating and removing both power and experimental nuclear reactors.

  2. Non-destructive decontamination of building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holecek, Josef; Otahal, Petr

    2015-11-01

    For nondestructive radiation decontamination of surfaces it is necessary to use varnishes, such as ARGONNE, DG1101, DG1108, etc. This text evaluates the use of manufactured strippable coatings for radiation decontamination. To evaluate decontamination capability of such coatings the following varnishes were selected and subsequently used: AZ 1-700 and AXAL 1807S. The varnishes were tested on different building materials surfaces contaminated by short-term radioisotopes of Na-24 or La-140, in water soluble or water insoluble forms. Decontamination quality was assessed by the decontamination efficiency value, defined as the proportion of removed activity to the applied activity. It was found that decontamination efficiency of both used varnishes depends not only on the form of contaminant, but in the case of application of AXAL 1807S varnish it also depends on the method of its application on the contaminated surface. The values of the decontamination efficiency for AZ1-700 varnish range from 46% for decontamination of a soluble form of the radioisotope from concrete surface to 98% for the decontamination of a soluble form of the radioisotope from ceramic tile surface. The decontamination efficiency values determined for AXAL 1807S varnish range from 48% for decontamination of a soluble form of the radioisotope from concrete surface to 96% for decontamination of an insoluble form of the radioisotope from ceramic tile surface. Comparing these values to the values given for the decontaminating varnishes we can conclude that AXAL 1807S varnish is possible to use on all materials, except highly porous materials, such as plasterboard or breeze blocks, or plastic materials. AZ 1-700 varnish can be used for all dry materials except plasterboard.

  3. Cold plasma rapid decontamination of food contact surfaces contaminated with Salmonella biofilms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cross-contamination of fresh produce and other foods from persistent pathogen reservoirs is a known risk factor in processing environments. Industry requires a rapid, waterless, zero-contact, chemical-free method for removing pathogens from food-contact surfaces. Cold plasma was tested for its abili...

  4. MECHANISMS OF RADIONUCLIDE-HYDROXYCARBOXYLIC ACID INTERACTIONS FOR DECONTAMINATION OF METALLIC SURFACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project addresses key fundamental issues involved in the use of simple and safe methods for the removal of radioactive contaminants from slightly contaminated steel and other surfaces at the DOE sites so that the metals can be reused. The objectives of this research are to ...

  5. System and method for removing contaminants from solid surfaces and decontaminating waste

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.L.; Geiss, A.J.; Grieco, S.; Neubauer, E.D.; Rhea, J.R.

    1995-10-10

    A method and system are disclosed for removing a surface layer contaminated with radioactive and/or hazardous material and subsequently treating the waste to remove contaminants and provide an essentially contaminant-free final effluent. The contaminated material is removed by blasting the surface with a pressurized stream of air and sodium bicarbonate abrasive media, and the media is dissolved in water subsequent to the blasting operation. The resulting waste is treated in a sequence of steps including adjustment of pH, aeration and separation into primarily solid and liquid phases by precipitation of solids, which are removed for appropriate disposal. The primarily liquid phase is successively passed through a particle filter, a granulated activated carbon filter and a polishing unit to produce the clean final effluent. 1 fig.

  6. Cold Air Plasma To Decontaminate Inanimate Surfaces of the Hospital Environment

    PubMed Central

    Claro, Tânia; O'Connor, Niall; Cafolla, Anthony A.; Stevens, Niall T.; Daniels, Stephen; Humphreys, Hilary

    2014-01-01

    The hospital environment harbors bacteria that may cause health care-associated infections. Microorganisms, such as multiresistant bacteria, can spread around the patient's inanimate environment. Some recently introduced biodecontamination approaches in hospitals have significant limitations due to the toxic nature of the gases and the length of time required for aeration. This study evaluated the in vitro use of cold air plasma as an efficient alternative to traditional methods of biodecontamination of hospital surfaces. Cultures of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli, and Acinetobacter baumannii were applied to different materials similar to those found in the hospital environment. Artificially contaminated sections of marmoleum, mattress, polypropylene, powder-coated mild steel, and stainless steel were then exposed to a cold air pressure plasma single jet for 30 s, 60 s, and 90 s, operating at approximately 25 W and 12 liters/min flow rate. Direct plasma exposure successfully reduced the bacterial load by log 3 for MRSA, log 2.7 for VRE, log 2 for ESBL-producing E. coli, and log 1.7 for A. baumannii. The present report confirms the efficient antibacterial activity of a cold air plasma single-jet plume on nosocomial bacterially contaminated surfaces over a short period of time and highlights its potential for routine biodecontamination in the clinical environment. PMID:24441156

  7. Transfer and Decontamination of S. aureus in Transmission Routes Regarding Hands and Contact Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Arinder, Pernilla; Johannesson, Pär; Karlsson, Ingela; Borch, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Hand hygiene, cleaning and disinfection are pre-requirements for hygiene management in hospital settings and the food industry. In order to facilitate risk management, different contamination scenarios and interventions need to be evaluated. In the present study data on transfer rates and reductions of Staphylococcus aureus were provided in an experimental set-up using artificial skin. Using this methodology, test persons were not exposed with pathogenic bacteria. An exposure assessment model was developed and applied to evaluate different contamination routes and hygiene interventions. The transfer rates of S. aureus from inoculated VITRO-SKIN® to fomites were calculated from blotting series. The VITRO-SKIN® was more prone to spread bacteria than fomites. When different surfaces were cleaned, the reduction of S. aureus varied between <1 and 7 log CFU. It could not be concluded that a certain coupon material, cleaning agent, cleaning wipe, soiling or humidity consistently resulted in a high or low reduction of S. aureus. The reduction of S. aureus and E. coli during hand washing was evaluated on artificial skin, VITRO-SKIN®. The reduction of E. coli on VITRO-SKIN® was similar to the log reduction obtained when washing human hands. The S. aureus count on a human hand was both calculated in different scenarios describing different contamination routes starting from a contaminated hand using the exposure assessment model, and measured on an experimental setup using VITRO-SKIN® for validation. A linear relationship was obtained between the analysed level of S. aureus and the calculated level. However, the calculated levels of S. aureus on the VITRO-SKIN® in the scenarios were 1–1.5 log lower than the analysed level. One of the scenarios was used to study the effect of interventions like hand washing and cleaning of surfaces. PMID:27280772

  8. Efficacy of UV, acidified sodium hypochlorite, and mild heat for decontamination of surface and infiltrated Escherichia coli O157:H7 on green onions and baby spinach.

    PubMed

    Durak, M Zeki; Churey, John J; Worobo, Randy W

    2012-07-01

    Produce-associated foodborne illnesses outbreaks have highlighted the need for more effective decontamination methods to ensure the safety of fresh produce. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the individual and combined efficacies of germicidal UV light (12.5 to 500 mJ/cm(2)), acidified sodium hypochlorite (ASC 10 to 200 ppm), and mild heat (40 to 50°C) for decontaminating green onions and baby spinach infected with Escherichia coli O157:H7. Samples were inoculated by spot and dip inoculation methods to mimic surface and infiltrated E. coli O157:H7 contamination, respectively. In green onions and baby spinach, the individual efficacies of UV, ASC, and mild-heat treatments varied based on the produce type and contamination method. Following analysis of the efficacies of the single treatments, a combined treatment with 125 mJ/cm(2) UV and 200 ppm of ASC at 50°C was selected for spot-inoculated green onions, and a combined treatment with 125 mJ/cm(2) UV and 200 ppm of ASC at 20°C was selected for spot- and dip-inoculated baby spinach. While a >5-log reduction was achieved with the combination treatment for spot-inoculated green onions with an initial contamination level of 7.2 log CFU per spot, the same treatment reduced E. coli O157:H7 populations below the detection limit (<1 log) on green onions spot inoculated at a lower contamination level (4.3 log CFU per spot). On spot- and dip-inoculated baby spinach, the combined treatment reduced E. coli O157:H7 populations by 2.8 log CFU per spot and 2.6 log CFU/g, respectively. The combined treatment of 500 mJ/cm(2) UV and 200 ppm of ASC at 50°C selected for the decontamination of dip-inoculated green onions resulted in a 2.2-log CFU/g reduction. These findings suggest that when foodborne pathogens contaminate produce and subsequently infiltrate, attach to, or become localized into protected areas, the individual or combined applications of UV, ASC, and mild-heat treatments have limited decontamination

  9. An examination of the utility of a nuclear DNA/mitochondrial DNA duplex qPCR assay to assess surface decontamination of hair.

    PubMed

    Date-Chong, Mavis; Buoncristiani, Martin R; Aceves, Margaret; Orrego, Cristián

    2013-05-01

    The goal of this study was to compare two commonly used methods for the surface decontamination of human hair shafts, and to evaluate the use of a duplex real-time qPCR assay to assess decontamination effectiveness for the purpose of mitochondrial DNA typing. Hair shafts of known mitochondrial DNA haplotype were coated with undiluted saliva, semen or blood, each of known mitochondrial haplotype distinct from the test hair. Surface decontamination was conducted by enzymatic treatment with Terg-a-zyme™ and by chemical treatment with dilutions of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO, bleach). Following DNA extraction, a duplex (nuclear and mitochondrial DNA) real-time qPCR assay was used to quantify mitochondrial DNA and to test for surface contamination by quantifying the exogenous nuclear DNA not removed from the hair shaft. The NaClO treatment was found to be more effective for removing surface contamination than the Terg-a-zyme™ treatment, and it was procedurally simpler to implement, resulting in a significant savings of sample processing time. Exposure to 3% NaClO for up to two minutes had no detrimental effect on quantity or typing of the mitochondrial DNA belonging to the hair. In addition, we demonstrated that the duplex real-time PCR assay is a convenient early-warning diagnostic method for the detection of the presence of external DNA contamination, providing an assessment of the purity of the sample prior to embarking on further analysis by more laborious mitochondrial DNA typing methods. PMID:23582697

  10. Electrochemical decontamination of actinide processing gloveboxes

    SciTech Connect

    Lugo, J.L.; Wedman, D.E.; Nelson, T.O.

    1997-12-31

    Electrochemical technology for the decontamination of metallic surfaces has been successfully demonstrated. Highly enriched uranium and stainless steel surfaces are readily decontaminated to Low Level Waste (LLW) criteria using this process. This process is similar to electropolishing and utilizes the anodic dissolution of the substrate material to generate a clean surface. The surface contaminants are thus removed and collected along with the stripped substrate material as a compact precipitate. This separation allows the electrolyte to be recycled indefinitely. Using an alkaline Sodium Sulfate electrolyte solution, we are able to decontaminate to low levels of alpha activity, gloveboxes previously used in Actinide processing. Surfaces with contamination levels > 1,000,000 cpm alpha activity have been decontaminated to levels as low as 7,000. The process is rapid with decontamination occurring at a rate of over 3 square cm/sec.

  11. Rapid and Highly Sensitive Detection of Variant Creutzfeldt - Jakob Disease Abnormal Prion Protein on Steel Surfaces by Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification: Application to Prion Decontamination Studies

    PubMed Central

    Belondrade, Maxime; Nicot, Simon; Béringue, Vincent; Coste, Joliette; Lehmann, Sylvain; Bougard, Daisy

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in the population remains uncertain, although it has been estimated that 1 in 2000 people in the United Kingdom are positive for abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE) by a recent survey of archived appendix tissues. The prominent lymphotropism of vCJD prions raises the possibility that some surgical procedures may be at risk of iatrogenic vCJD transmission in healthcare facilities. It is therefore vital that decontamination procedures applied to medical devices before their reprocessing are thoroughly validated. A current limitation is the lack of a rapid model permissive to human prions. Here, we developed a prion detection assay based on protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) technology combined with stainless-steel wire surfaces as carriers of prions (Surf-PMCA). This assay allowed the specific detection of minute quantities (10−8 brain dilution) of either human vCJD or ovine scrapie PrPTSE adsorbed onto a single steel wire, within a two week timeframe. Using Surf-PMCA we evaluated the performance of several reference and commercially available prion-specific decontamination procedures. Surprisingly, we found the efficiency of several marketed reagents to remove human vCJD PrPTSE was lower than expected. Overall, our results demonstrate that Surf-PMCA can be used as a rapid and ultrasensitive assay for the detection of human vCJD PrPTSE adsorbed onto a metallic surface, therefore facilitating the development and validation of decontamination procedures against human prions. PMID:26800081

  12. Rapid and Highly Sensitive Detection of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Abnormal Prion Protein on Steel Surfaces by Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification: Application to Prion Decontamination Studies.

    PubMed

    Belondrade, Maxime; Nicot, Simon; Béringue, Vincent; Coste, Joliette; Lehmann, Sylvain; Bougard, Daisy

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in the population remains uncertain, although it has been estimated that 1 in 2000 people in the United Kingdom are positive for abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE) by a recent survey of archived appendix tissues. The prominent lymphotropism of vCJD prions raises the possibility that some surgical procedures may be at risk of iatrogenic vCJD transmission in healthcare facilities. It is therefore vital that decontamination procedures applied to medical devices before their reprocessing are thoroughly validated. A current limitation is the lack of a rapid model permissive to human prions. Here, we developed a prion detection assay based on protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) technology combined with stainless-steel wire surfaces as carriers of prions (Surf-PMCA). This assay allowed the specific detection of minute quantities (10-8 brain dilution) of either human vCJD or ovine scrapie PrPTSE adsorbed onto a single steel wire, within a two week timeframe. Using Surf-PMCA we evaluated the performance of several reference and commercially available prion-specific decontamination procedures. Surprisingly, we found the efficiency of several marketed reagents to remove human vCJD PrPTSE was lower than expected. Overall, our results demonstrate that Surf-PMCA can be used as a rapid and ultrasensitive assay for the detection of human vCJD PrPTSE adsorbed onto a metallic surface, therefore facilitating the development and validation of decontamination procedures against human prions. PMID:26800081

  13. Decontamination of protective clothing against radioactive contamination.

    PubMed

    Vošahlíková, I; Otáhal, P

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the experimental results of external surface mechanical decontamination of the studied materials forming selected suits. Seven types of personal protective suits declaring protection against radioactive aerosol contamination in different price ranges were selected for decontamination experiments. The outcome of this study is to compare the efficiency of a double-step decontamination process on various personal protective suits against radioactive contamination. A comparison of the decontamination effectiveness for the same type of suit, but for the different chemical mixtures ((140)La in a water-soluble or in a water-insoluble compound), was performed. PMID:25084793

  14. Electrokinetic decontamination of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Lomasney, H.

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy has assigned a priority to the advancement of technology for decontaminating concrete surfaces which have become contaminated with radionuclides, heavy metals, and toxic organics. This agency is responsible for decontamination and decommissioning of thousands of buildings. Electrokinetic extraction is one of the several innovative technologies which emerged in response to this initiative. This technique utilizes an electropotential gradient and the subsequent electrical transport mechanism to cause the controlled movement of ionics species, whereby the contaminants exit the recesses deep within the concrete. The primary objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach as a means to achieve ``release levels`` which could be consistent with unrestricted use of a decontaminated building. The secondary objectives were: To establish process parameters; to quantify the economics; to ascertain the ALARA considerations; and to evaluate wasteform and waste volume. The work carried out to this point has achieved promising results to the extent that ISOTRON{reg_sign} has been authorized to expand the planned activity to include the fabrication of a prototype version of a commercial device.

  15. 40 CFR 761.378 - Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decontamination, reuse, and disposal...-Porous Surfaces § 761.378 Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment. (a) Decontamination. Decontaminate solvents and non-porous surfaces on equipment in accordance with the standards...

  16. 40 CFR 761.378 - Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Decontamination, reuse, and disposal...-Porous Surfaces § 761.378 Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment. (a) Decontamination. Decontaminate solvents and non-porous surfaces on equipment in accordance with the standards...

  17. 40 CFR 761.378 - Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Decontamination, reuse, and disposal...-Porous Surfaces § 761.378 Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment. (a) Decontamination. Decontaminate solvents and non-porous surfaces on equipment in accordance with the standards...

  18. 40 CFR 761.378 - Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Decontamination, reuse, and disposal...-Porous Surfaces § 761.378 Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment. (a) Decontamination. Decontaminate solvents and non-porous surfaces on equipment in accordance with the standards...

  19. 40 CFR 761.378 - Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Decontamination, reuse, and disposal...-Porous Surfaces § 761.378 Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment. (a) Decontamination. Decontaminate solvents and non-porous surfaces on equipment in accordance with the standards...

  20. DECONTAMINATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR FACILITY REUSE

    SciTech Connect

    Bossart, Steven J.; Blair, Danielle M.

    2003-02-27

    As nuclear research and production facilities across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons complex are slated for deactivation and decommissioning (D&D), there is a need to decontaminate some facilities for reuse for another mission or continued use for the same mission. Improved technologies available in the commercial sector and tested by the DOE can help solve the DOE's decontamination problems. Decontamination technologies include mechanical methods, such as shaving, scabbling, and blasting; application of chemicals; biological methods; and electrochemical techniques. Materials to be decontaminated are primarily concrete or metal. Concrete materials include walls, floors, ceilings, bio-shields, and fuel pools. Metallic materials include structural steel, valves, pipes, gloveboxes, reactors, and other equipment. Porous materials such as concrete can be contaminated throughout their structure, although contamination in concrete normally resides in the top quarter-inch below the surface. Metals are normally only contaminated on the surface. Contamination includes a variety of alpha, beta, and gamma-emitting radionuclides and can sometimes include heavy metals and organic contamination regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This paper describes several advanced mechanical, chemical, and other methods to decontaminate structures, equipment, and materials.

  1. Vibratory finishing as a decontamination process

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, M.W.; Arrowsmith, H.W.; Allen, R.P.

    1980-10-01

    The major objective of this research is to develop vibratory finishing into a large-scale decontamination technique that can economicaly remove transuranic and other surface contamination from large volumes of waste produced by the operation and decommissioning of retired nuclear facilities. The successful development and widespread application of this decontamination technique would substantially reduce the volume of waste requiring expensive geologic disposal. Other benefits include exposure reduction for decontamination personnel and reduced risk of environmental contamination. Laboratory-scale studies showed that vibratory finishing can rapidly reduce the contamination level of transuranic-contaminated stainless steel and Plexiglas to well below the 10-nCi/g limit. The capability of vibratory finishing as a decontamination process was demonstrated on a large scale. The first decontamination demonstration was conducted at the Hanford N-Reactor, where a vibratory finisher was installed to reduce personnel exposure during the summer outage. Items decontaminated included fuel spacers, process-tube end caps, process-tube inserts, pump parts, ball-channel inspection tools and miscellaneous hand tools. A second demonstration is currently being conducted in the decontamination facility at the Hanford 231-Z Building. During this demonstration, transuranic-contaminated material from decommissioned plutonium facilities is being decontaminated to <10 nCi/g to minimize the volume of material that will require geologic disposal. Items that are being decontaminated include entire glove boxes, process-hood structural material and panels, process tanks, process-tank shields, pumps, valves and hand tools used during the decommissioning work.

  2. Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System

    SciTech Connect

    Charles A. Gentile; John J. Parker; Gregory L. Guttadora; Lloyd P. Ciebiera

    2002-02-11

    The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Tritium Systems Group has developed and fabricated an Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System (OTDS), which is designed to reduce tritium surface contamination on various components and items. The system is configured to introduce gaseous ozone into a reaction chamber containing tritiated items that require a reduction in tritium surface contamination. Tritium surface contamination (on components and items in the reaction chamber) is removed by chemically reacting elemental tritium to tritium oxide via oxidation, while purging the reaction chamber effluent to a gas holding tank or negative pressure HVAC system. Implementing specific concentrations of ozone along with catalytic parameters, the system is able to significantly reduce surface tritium contamination on an assortment of expendable and non-expendable items. This paper will present the results of various experimentation involving employment of this system.

  3. Gnome site decontamination and decommissioning project

    SciTech Connect

    Orcutt, J.A.; Sorom, E.R.

    1982-08-01

    In July 1977, DOE/Headquarters directed DOE/NV to design a decontamination and decommissioning plan for the Gnome site, 48 kilometers southeast of Carlsbad, New Mexico. The plan incorporated three distinct phases. During Phase I, both aerial and ground radiological surveys were conducted on the site. Radiological decontamination criteria were established, and a decontamination plan was developed based on the radiological survey results. During Phase II, site preparatory and rehabilitation work was completed. The actual land area decontamination was accomplished during Phase III with conventional earthmoving equipment. A gravity water injection system deposited 36,700 metric tons of contaminated soil and salt in the Gnome cavity. After completion of the decontamination and decommissioning operations, the Gnome site was returned to the Bureau of Land Management for unrestricted surface use.

  4. 40 CFR 761.79 - Decontamination standards and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... disassembled electrical equipment), concrete, and non-porous surfaces covered with a porous surface, such as... person decontaminating porous surfaces other than concrete under paragraph (b)(4) of this section and non..., concrete, or non-porous surfaces. (1) The decontamination standard for water containing PCBs is: (i)...

  5. Electrochemical decontamination system for actinide processing gloveboxes

    SciTech Connect

    Wedman, D.E.; Lugo, J.L.; Ford, D.K.; Nelson, T.O.; Trujillo, V.L.; Martinez, H.E.

    1998-03-01

    An electrolytic decontamination technology has been developed and successfully demonstrated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for the decontamination of actinide processing gloveboxes. The technique decontaminates the interior surfaces of stainless steel gloveboxes utilizing a process similar to electropolishing. The decontamination device is compact and transportable allowing it to be placed entirely within the glovebox line. In this way, decontamination does not require the operator to wear any additional personal protective equipment and there is no need for additional air handling or containment systems. Decontamination prior to glovebox decommissioning reduces the potential for worker exposure and environmental releases during the decommissioning, transport, and size reduction procedures which follow. The goal of this effort is to reduce contamination levels of alpha emitting nuclides for a resultant reduction in waste level category from High Level Transuranic (TRU) to low Specific Activity (LSA, less than or equal 100 nCi/g). This reduction in category results in a 95% reduction in disposal and disposition costs for the decontaminated gloveboxes. The resulting contamination levels following decontamination by this method are generally five orders of magnitude below the LSA specification. Additionally, the sodium sulfate based electrolyte utilized in the process is fully recyclable which results in the minimum of secondary waste. The process bas been implemented on seven gloveboxes within LANL`s Plutonium Facility at Technical Area 55. Of these gloveboxes, two have been discarded as low level waste items and the remaining five have been reused.

  6. Studies on residue-free decontaminants for chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Wagner, George W

    2015-03-17

    Residue-free decontaminants based on hydrogen peroxide, which decomposes to water and oxygen in the environment, are examined as decontaminants for chemical warfare agents (CWA). For the apparent special case of CWA on concrete, H2O2 alone, without any additives, effectively decontaminates S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX), pinacolyl methylphosphorofluoridate (GD), and bis(2-choroethyl) sulfide (HD) in a process thought to involve H2O2 activation by surface-bound carbonates/bicarbonates (known H2O2 activators for CWA decontamination). A plethora of products are formed during the H2O2 decontamination of HD on concrete, and these are characterized by comparison to synthesized authentic compounds. As a potential residue-free decontaminant for surfaces other than concrete (or those lacking adsorbed carbonate/bicarbonate) H2O2 activation for CWA decontamination is feasible using residue-free NH3 and CO2 as demonstrated by reaction studies for VX, GD, and HD in homogeneous solution. Although H2O2/NH3/CO2 ("HPAC") decontaminants are active for CWA decontamination in solution, they require testing on actual surfaces of interest to assess their true efficacy for surface decontamination. PMID:25710477

  7. Laboratory Demonstration of Radiological Decontamination Using Radpro

    SciTech Connect

    Lear, P.; Greene, R.; Isham, J.; Martin, R.; Norton, C.

    2007-07-01

    In the event of terrorist activity involving the explosive dispersion of radioactive materials (a 'dirty' bomb), a number of different types of surfaces and substrates, including concrete, granite, brick, cinder block, tile, asphalt, wood, glass, plastic, iron, and steel, may become radiologically contaminated. Incident cleanup is assumed to involve decontamination of these surfaces. Laboratory testing was conducted using samples of concrete, ferrous metal, steel, aluminum, lead, tin, glass, lexan, vinyl, asphalt shingle, wood, and rubber surfaces. The surfaces were sprayed with Cs-137 or Co-60 solutions to simulate contamination. The entire surface area of the samples was surveyed using a Ludlum Model 2360 scaler/ratemeter with Ludlum Model 43-93-2 100 cm{sup 2} open area alpha/beta scintillation probe. The surfaces were then decontaminated using RadPro{sup R} chemical decontamination technology that is currently field proven and ready to deploy. The entire surface area of the samples was re-surveyed following decontamination. The RadPro{sup R} chemical decontamination technology was able to remove virtually all of the removable contamination and over 90% of the fixed contamination from these surfaces during the laboratory testing. (authors)

  8. Showering effectiveness for human hair decontamination of the nerve agent VX.

    PubMed

    Josse, Denis; Wartelle, Julien; Cruz, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    In this work, our goals were to establish whether hair decontamination by showering one hour post-exposure to the highly toxic organophosphate nerve agent VX was effective, whether it required the addition of a detergent to water and, if it could be improved by using the adsorbent Fuller's Earth (FE) or the Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) 30 min prior to showering. Hair exposure to VX and decontamination was performed by using an in vitro model. Hair showering led to 72% reduction of contamination. Addition of detergent to water slightly increased the decontamination effectiveness. Hair treatment with FE or RSDL improved the decontamination rate. Combination of FE use and showering, which yielded a decontamination factor of 41, was demonstrated to be the most effective hair decontamination procedure. Hair wiping after showering was shown to contribute to hair decontamination. Altogether, our results highlighted the importance of considering hair decontamination as an important part of body surface decontamination protocols. PMID:25791764

  9. Filming in decontamination by mopping

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, W.N.; Toole, P.A.

    1993-09-28

    Technical assistance was provided High Level Waste Engineering in the investigation and prevention of filming during decontamination by mopping. After mopping operations in a Tank Farm application, a film of the cleaning agent sometimes remained on the surface being cleaned which interfered with monitoring to detect the presence of radioactive material. Scoping tests were conducted to investigate filming characteristics of two cleaning materials. In addition, rinsing test were conducted to demonstrate how filming can be prevented.

  10. Electroosmotic decontamination of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, W.D.; Bush, S.A.; Marsh, G.C.; Henson, H.M.; Box, W.D.; Morgan, I.L.

    1993-03-01

    A method is described for the electroosmotic decontamination of concrete surfaces, in which an electrical field is used to induce migration of ionic contaminants from porous concrete into an electrolyte solution that may be disposed of as a low-level liquid radioactive waste (LLRW); alternately, the contaminants from the solution can be sorbed onto anion exchange media in order to prevent contaminant buildup in the solution and to minimize the amount of LLRW generated. We have confirmed the removal of uranium (and infer the removal of {sup 99}Tc) from previously contaminated concrete surfaces. In a typical experimental configuration, a stainless steel mesh is placed in an electrolyte solution contained within a diked cell to serve as the negative electrode (cathode) and contaminant collection medium, respectively, and an existing metal penetration (e.g., piping, conduit, or rebar reinforcement within the concrete surface) serves as the positive electrode (anode) to complete the cell. Typically we have achieved 70 to >90% reductions in surface activity by applying <400 V and <1 A for 1--3 h (energy consumption of 0.4--12 kWh/ft{sup 2}).

  11. Efficacy of antimicrobial compounds on surface decontamination of seven Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella inoculated onto fresh beef.

    PubMed

    Kalchayanand, Norasak; Arthur, Terrance M; Bosilevac, Joseph M; Schmidt, John W; Wang, Rong; Shackelford, Steven; Wheeler, Tommy L

    2015-03-01

    Several antimicrobial compounds have been used in commercial meat processing plants for decontamination of pathogens on beef carcasses, but there are many commercially available, novel antimicrobial compounds that may be more effective and suitable for use in beef processing pathogen-reduction programs. Sixty-four prerigor beef flanks (cutaneous trunci) were used in a study to determine whether hypobromous acid, neutral acidified sodium chlorite, and two citric acid-based antimicrobial compounds effectively reduce seven Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups and Salmonella on the surface of fresh beef. Two cocktail mixtures were inoculated onto prerigor beef flank surfaces. Cocktail mixture 1 was composed of STEC serogroups O26, O103, O111, O145, and O157; and cocktail mixture 2 was composed of STEC serogroups O45, O121, and O157 and Salmonella. The inoculated fresh beef flanks were subjected to spray treatments with four antimicrobial compounds. Following antimicrobial treatments, both control and treated fresh beef samples were either enumerated immediately or were stored for 48 h at 4°C before enumeration. All four antimicrobial compounds caused 0.7- to 2.0-log reductions of STEC, Salmonella, aerobic plate counts, and Enterobacteriaceae. Results also indicated that the four antimicrobial compounds were as effective at reducing the six non-O157 STEC strains as they were at reducing E. coli O157:H7 on the surfaces of fresh beef. The recovery of all seven STEC strains and Salmonella in a low-inoculation study indicated that none of the four antimicrobial compounds eliminated all of the tested pathogens. PMID:25719873

  12. NPOx Decontamination System

    SciTech Connect

    Archibald, K.; Demmer, R.; Argyle, M.; Ancho, M.; Hai-Pao, J.

    2002-02-25

    The nitric acid/potassium permanganate/oxalic acid (NPOx) Phase II system is being prepared for remote operation at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Several tests have been conducted to prepare the system for remote operation. This system performs very well with high decontamination efficiencies and very low quantities of waste generated during decontamination.

  13. Decontamination after a release of B. anthracis spores.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Chris G; Kirvel, Robert D; Love, Adam H; Bailey, Christopher G; Miles, Robin; Schweickert, Jerry; Sutton, Mark; Raber, Ellen

    2012-03-01

    Decontaminating civilian facilities or large urban areas following an attack with Bacillus anthracis poses daunting challenges because of the lack of resources and proven technologies. Nevertheless, lessons learned from the 2001 cleanups together with advances derived from recent research have improved our understanding of what is required for effective decontamination. This article reviews current decontamination technologies appropriate for use in outdoor environments, on material surfaces, within large enclosed spaces, in water, and on waste contaminated with aerosolized B. anthracis spores. PMID:22352747

  14. Cold plasma rapid decontamination of food contact surfaces contaminated with Salmonella and Escherichia coli 0157:H7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cross-contamination of fresh produce from persistent pathogen reservoirs is a known risk factor in processing environments. Industry requires a waterless, zero-contact, chemical-free method for removing pathogens from food-contact surfaces. Cold plasma was tested for its ability to remove biofilms f...

  15. Decontamination of beef carcass surface tissue by steam vacuuming alone and combined with hot water and lactic acid sprays.

    PubMed

    Castillo, A; Lucia, L M; Goodson, K J; Savell, J W; Acuff, G R

    1999-02-01

    Hot beef carcass surface regions (outside round, brisket, and clod) contaminated with feces spread over a 5-cm2 (1-in2) area were cleaned using a steam-vacuum spot-cleaning system alone or combined with subsequent sanitizing treatments of hot water (95 degrees C at the nozzle), or warm (55 degrees C) 2% lactic acid spray, or combinations of these two sanitizing methods. These treatments were compared for effectiveness in reducing aerobic plate counts (APC) and counts of Enterobacteriaceae, total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, and Escherichia coli. All treatments significantly reduced the numbers of each group of bacteria on beef carcass surfaces. However, reductions obtained by steam vacuuming were significantly smaller than those obtained by a combination of steam vacuuming with any sanitizing treatment. No differences in bacterial reductions were observed between different carcass surface regions. Steam vacuuming reduced the number of different indicator organisms tested by ca. 3.0 log cycles but also spread the bacterial contamination to areas of the carcass surface adjacent to the contaminated sites. This relocated contamination after steam vacuuming was most effectively reduced by spraying with hot water and then lactic acid. This combined treatment consistently reduced the numbers of Enterobacteriaceae, total and thermotolerant coliforms, and E. coli to undetectable levels (<1.0 log10 CFU/cm2) on areas outside the initial 5-cm2 inoculated areas. PMID:10030633

  16. Pickering emulsions for skin decontamination.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Alicia; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Rolland, Pauline; Chevalier, Yves; Josse, Denis; Briançon, Stéphanie

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed at developing innovative systems for skin decontamination. Pickering emulsions, i.e. solid-stabilized emulsions, containing silica (S-PE) or Fuller's earth (FE-PE) were formulated. Their efficiency for skin decontamination was evaluated, in vitro, 45min after an exposure to VX, one of the most highly toxic chemical warfare agents. Pickering emulsions were compared to FE (FE-W) and silica (S-W) aqueous suspensions. PE containing an oil with a similar hydrophobicity to VX should promote its extraction. All the formulations reduced significantly the amount of VX quantified on and into the skin compared to the control. Wiping the skin surface with a pad already allowed removing more than half of VX. FE-W was the less efficient (85% of VX removed). The other formulations (FE-PE, S-PE and S-W) resulted in more than 90% of the quantity of VX removed. The charge of particles was the most influential factor. The low pH of formulations containing silica favored electrostatic interactions of VX with particles explaining the better elimination from the skin surface. Formulations containing FE had basic pH, and weak interactions with VX did not improve the skin decontamination. However, these low interactions between VX and FE promote the transfer of VX into the oil droplets in the FE-PE. PMID:27021875

  17. Nuclear reactor cooling system decontamination reagent regeneration

    DOEpatents

    Anstine, Larry D.; James, Dean B.; Melaika, Edward A.; Peterson, Jr., John P.

    1985-01-01

    An improved method for decontaminating the coolant system of water-cooled nuclear power reactors and for regenerating the decontamination solution. A small amount of one or more weak-acid organic complexing agents is added to the reactor coolant, and the pH is adjusted to form a decontamination solution which is circulated throughout the coolant system to dissolve metal oxides from the interior surfaces and complex the resulting metal ions and radionuclide ions. The coolant containing the complexed metal ions and radionuclide ions is passed through a strong-base anion exchange resin bed which has been presaturated with a solution containing the complexing agents in the same ratio and having the same pH as the decontamination solution. As the decontamination solution passes through the resin bed, metal-complexed anions are exchanged for the metal-ion-free anions on the bed, while metal-ion-free anions in the solution pass through the bed, thus removing the metal ions and regenerating the decontamination solution.

  18. Soil removal as a decontamination practice and radiocesium accumulation in tadpoles in rice paddies at Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Masaru; Gomi, Takashi; Nunokawa, Masanori; Wakahara, Taeko; Onda, Yuichi

    2014-04-01

    We investigated the biological accumulation of radiocesium in tadpoles [Rana (Pelophylax) porosa porosa] in rice paddies with and without decontamination practice at Fukushima. Radiocesium was accumulated in surface part of soils both in the control and decontaminated paddies one year after decontamination. Mean (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentrations in tadpoles in the control and decontaminated paddies were 3000 and 4500, and 600 and 890 Bq/kg dry weight, respectively. Radiocesium concentrations in surface soil (0-5 cm depth) and tadpoles in the decontaminated paddy were five times smaller than in the control paddy. These results suggest that decontamination practice can reduce radiocesium concentrations in both soil and tadpoles. However, at the decontaminated paddy, radiocesium concentrations in surface soils became 3.8 times greater one year after decontamination, which indicates that monitoring the subsequent movement of radiocesium in rice paddies and surrounding areas is essential for examining contamination propagation. PMID:24463474

  19. Quantitative Method To Determine Sporicidal Decontamination of Building Surfaces by Gaseous Fumigants, and Issues Related to Laboratory-Scale Studies▿

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Vipin K.; Wallace, Lalena; Smith, Lisa S.; Ryan, Shawn P.; Martin, Blair

    2009-01-01

    Chlorine dioxide gas and vaporous hydrogen peroxide sterilant have been used in the cleanup of building interiors contaminated with spores of Bacillus anthracis. A systematic study, in collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, was jointly undertaken by the U.S. Army-Edgewood Chemical Biological Center to determine the sporicidal efficacies of these two fumigants on six building structural materials: carpet, ceiling tile, unpainted cinder block, painted I-beam steel, painted wallboard, and unpainted pinewood. Critical issues related to high-throughput sample processing and spore recovery from porous and nonporous surfaces included (i) the extraction of spores from complex building materials, (ii) the effects of titer challenge levels on fumigant efficacy, and (iii) the impact of bioburden inclusion on spore recovery from surfaces and spore inactivation. Small pieces (1.3 by 1.3 cm of carpet, ceiling tile, wallboard, I-beam steel, and pinewood and 2.5 by 1.3 cm for cinder block) of the materials were inoculated with an aliquot of 50 μl containing the target number (1 × 106, 1 × 107, or 1 × 108) of avirulent spores of B. anthracis NNR1Δ1. The aliquot was dried overnight in a biosafety cabinet, and the spores were extracted by a combination of a 10-min sonication and a 2-min vortexing using 0.5% buffered peptone water as the recovery medium. No statistically significant drop in the kill efficacies of the fumigants was observed when the spore challenge level was increased from 6 log units to 8 log units, even though a general trend toward inhibition of fumigant efficacy was evident. The organic burden (0 to 5%) in the spore inoculum resulted in a statistically significant drop in spore recovery (at the 2 or 5% level). The effect on spore killing was a function of the organic bioburden amount and the material type. In summary, a high-throughput quantitative method was developed for determining the efficacies of fumigants, and the spore recoveries

  20. Concrete decontamination scoping tests

    SciTech Connect

    Archibald, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    This report details the research efforts and scoping tests performed at the Idaho Chemical Process Plant using scabbling, chemical, and electro-osmotic decontamination techniques on radiologically contaminated concrete.

  1. Food decontamination using nanomaterials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The research indicates that nanomaterials including nanoemulsions are promising decontamination media for the reduction of food contaminating pathogens. The inhibitory effect of nanoparticles for pathogens could be due to deactivate cellular enzymes and DNA; disrupting of membrane permeability; and/...

  2. Facility decontamination technology workshop

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    Purpose of the meeting was to provide a record of experience at nuclear facilities, other than TMI-2, of events and incidents which have required decontamination and dose reduction activities, and to furnish GPU and others involved in the TMI-2 cleanup with the results of that decontamination and dose reduction technology. Separate abstracts were prepared for 24 of the 25 papers; the remaining paper had been previously abstracted. (DLC)

  3. Efficacy of antimicrobial compounds on surface decontamination of seven shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Salmonella inoculated onto fresh beef

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several antimicrobial compounds have been implemented in commercial meat processing plants for decontamination of pathogens on beef carcasses, but there are many commercially available, novel antimicrobial compounds that may be more effective and suitable to be implemented in beef processing pathoge...

  4. Lessons Learned from Decontamination Experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, JH

    2000-11-16

    This interim report describes a DOE project currently underway to establish what is known about decontamination of buildings and people and the procedures and protocols used to determine when and how people or buildings are considered ''clean'' following decontamination. To fulfill this objective, the study systematically examined reported decontamination experiences to determine what procedures and protocols are currently employed for decontamination, the timeframe involved to initiate and complete the decontamination process, how the contaminants were identified, the problems encountered during the decontamination process, how response efforts of agencies were coordinated, and the perceived social psychological effects on people who were decontaminated or who participated in the decontamination process. Findings and recommendations from the study are intended to aid decision-making and to improve the basis for determining appropriate decontamination protocols for recovery planners and policy makers for responding to chemical and biological events.

  5. Mass Casualty Decontamination in the United States: An Online Survey of Current Practice.

    PubMed

    Power, Sarah; Symons, Charles; Carter, Holly; Jones, Emma; Amlôt, Richard; Larner, Joanne; Matar, Hazem; Chilcott, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    Mass casualty decontamination is a public health intervention that would be employed by emergency responders following a chemical, biological, or radiological incident. The decontamination of large numbers of casualties is currently most often performed with water to remove contaminants from the skin surface. An online survey was conducted to explore US fire departments' decontamination practices and their preparedness for responding to incidents involving mass casualty decontamination. Survey respondents were asked to provide details of various aspects of their decontamination procedures, including expected response times to reach casualties, disrobing procedures, approaches to decontamination, characteristics of the decontamination showering process, provision for special populations, and any actions taken following decontamination. The aim of the survey was to identify any differences in the way in which decontamination guidance is implemented across US states. Results revealed that, in line with current guidance, many US fire departments routinely use the "ladder-pipe system" for conducting rapid, gross decontamination of casualties. The survey revealed significant variability in ladder-pipe construction, such as the position and number of fire hoses used. There was also variability in decontamination characteristics, such as water temperature and water pressure, detergent use, and shower duration. The results presented here provide important insights into the ways in which implementation of decontamination guidance can vary between US states. These inconsistencies are thought to reflect established perceived best practices and local adaptation of response plans to address practical and logistical constraints. These outcomes highlight the need for evidence-based national guidelines for conducting mass casualty decontamination. PMID:27442794

  6. DECONTAMINATION OF NEUTRON-IRRADIATED REACTOR FUEL

    DOEpatents

    Buyers, A.G.; Rosen, F.D.; Motta, E.E.

    1959-12-22

    A pyrometallurgical method of decontaminating neutronirradiated reactor fuel is presented. In accordance with the invention, neutron-irradiated reactor fuel may be decontaminated by countercurrently contacting the fuel with a bed of alkali and alkaine fluorides under an inert gas atmosphere and inductively melting the fuel and tracking the resulting descending molten fuel with induction heating as it passes through the bed. By this method, a large, continually fresh surface of salt is exposed to the descending molten fuel which enhances the efficiency of the scrubbing operation.

  7. Chemical Warfare Agent Degradation and Decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Talmage, Sylvia Smith; Watson, Annetta Paule; Hauschild, Veronique; Munro, Nancy B; King, J.

    2007-02-01

    The decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA) from structures, environmental media, and even personnel has become an area of particular interest in recent years due to increased homeland security concerns. In addition to terrorist attacks, scenarios such as accidental releases of CWA from U.S. stockpile sites or from historic, buried munitions are also subjects for response planning. To facilitate rapid identification of practical and effective decontamination approaches, this paper reviews pathways of CWA degradation by natural means as well as those resulting from deliberately applied solutions and technologies; these pathways and technologies are compared and contrasted. We then review various technologies, both traditional and recent, with some emphasis on decontamination materials used for surfaces that are difficult to clean. Discussion is limited to the major threat CWA, namely sulfur mustard (HD, bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), VX (O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate), and the G-series nerve agents. The principal G-agents are GA (tabun, ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate), GB (sarin, isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate), and GD (soman, pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate). The chemical decontamination pathways of each agent are outlined, with some discussion of intermediate and final degradation product toxicity. In all cases, and regardless of the CWA degradation pathway chosen for decontamination, it will be necessary to collect and analyze pertinent environmental samples during the treatment phase to confirm attainment of clearance levels.

  8. Method for electrochemical decontamination of radioactive metal

    SciTech Connect

    Ekechukwu, Amy A.

    2008-06-10

    A decontamination method for stripping radionuclides from the surface of stainless steel or aluminum material comprising the steps of contacting the metal with a moderately acidic carbonate/bicarbonate electrolyte solution containing sodium or potassium ions and thereafter electrolytically removing the radionuclides from the surface of the metal whereby radionuclides are caused to be stripped off of the material without corrosion or etching of the material surface.

  9. Radioactive scrap metal decontamination technology assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Buckentin, J.M.; Damkroger, B.K.; Schlienger, M.E.

    1996-04-01

    Within the DOE complex there exists a tremendous quantity of radioactive scrap metal. As an example, it is estimated that within the gaseous diffusion plants there exists in excess of 700,000 tons of contaminated stainless steel. At present, valuable material is being disposed of when it could be converted into a high quality product. Liquid metal processing represents a true recycling opportunity for this material. By applying the primary production processes towards the material`s decontamination and re-use, the value of the strategic resource is maintained while drastically reducing the volume of material in need of burial. Potential processes for the liquid metal decontamination of radioactively contaminated metal are discussed and contrasted. Opportunities and technology development issues are identified and discussed. The processes compared are: surface decontamination; size reduction, packaging and burial; melting technologies; electric arc melting; plasma arc centrifugal treatment; air induction melting; vacuum induction melting; and vacuum induction melting and electroslag remelting.

  10. Decontamination: back to basics.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Susan J; Sjorgen, Geoff

    2008-07-01

    My invitation from this Journal's Editor, Felicia Cox, to provide a paper for this themed issue, included the sentence 'I was wondering if you or a colleague would like to contribute a back to basics article on the relevant standards and guidelines for decontamination, including what is compliance?'. The reason it is so interesting to me is that the term 'back to basics' implies reverting to a simpler time in life - when by just sticking to the rules, life became easier. However, with decontamination this is not actually true. PMID:18710126

  11. Water-surface profiles of Raccoon River at Des Moines, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, Philip J.; Appel, David H.

    1966-01-01

    The Raccoon River., having a drainage area of 3,630 square miles, borders the south edge of the Des Moines downtown business district before flowing into the Des Moines River at mile 201.6. A large residential area and the city airport are separated from downtown Des Moines by the Raccoon River (fig. 1). Five highway bridges and one railroad bridge span the river between the mouth and mile 205.75, the limits of this report (fig. 1). The river is confined to a narrow channel from the mouth to the Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy Railroad bridge (mile 202.6); upstream of this bridge the river is not confined and during high water spreads over a wide flood plain. Fleur Drive, a principal traffic artery to the downtown area, is the only roadway of the five that crosses this wide flood plain. It has been flooded 15 times during the period 1903, 1918-1965.

  12. Decision Analysis System for Selection of Appropriate Decontamination Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Ebadian, M.A.; Boudreaux, J.F.; Chinta, S.; Zanakis, S.H.

    1998-01-01

    The principal objective for designing Decision Analysis System for Decontamination (DASD) is to support DOE-EM's endeavor to employ the most efficient and effective technologies for treating radiologically contaminated surfaces while minimizing personnel and environmental risks. DASD will provide a tool for environmental decision makers to improve the quality, consistency, and efficacy of their technology selection decisions. The system will facilitate methodical comparisons between innovative and baseline decontamination technologies and aid in identifying the most suitable technologies for performing surface decontamination at DOE environmental restoration sites.

  13. INTEGRATED VERTICAL AND OVERHEAD DECONTAMINATION (IVOD) SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    The deactivation and decommissioning of 1200 buildings within the U.S. Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management complex will require the disposition of a large quantity of contaminated concrete and metal surfaces. It has been estimated that 23 million cubic meters of concrete and over 600,000 tons of metal will need disposition. The disposition of such large quantities of material presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The final disposition of this large amount of material will take time and money as well as risk to the D&D work force. A single automated system that would decontaminate and characterize surfaces in one step would not only reduce the schedule and decrease cost during D&D operations but would also protect the D&D workers from unnecessary exposures to contaminated surfaces. This report summarizes the activities performed during FY00 and describes the planned activities for FY01. Accomplishments for FY00 include the following: Development and field-testing of characterization system; Completion of Title III design of deployment platform and decontamination unit; In-house testing of deployment platform and decontamination unit; Completion of system integration design; Identification of deployment site; and Completion of test plan document for deployment of IVOD at Rancho Seco nuclear power facility.

  14. Biological Decontamination Using Pulsed Filamentary Microplasma Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pothiraja, Ramasamy; Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Keil, Gernot; Bibinov, Nikita; Awakowicz, Peter

    Microplasma jet for the generation of pulsed filamentary discharge at atmospheric pressure has been devised for biological decontamination as well as for modification of surface properties. Long plasma-filament is generated inside a quartz tube and characterized using optical emission spectroscopy, current voltage measurements, numerical simulations and microphotography. Efficiency of our plasma source for the decontamination on inner surface of the tube as well as on objects placed in proximity of plasma effluent is studied. Escherichia coli (Gram-negative bacteria) and spores of Bacillus atrophaeus (Gram-positive bacteria) are used for the decontamination studies. Decontamination of Bacillus atrophaeus endospores, which are layered on PET polymer material, and placed in the proximity of plasma effluent, shows the mean logarithmic bacterial reduction of 3.67 for the treatment time of 120 s. Inactivation of Escherichia coli coated on inner surface of the tube shows the mean logarithmic bacterial reduction of about 5 for the treatment time of 30 s. In addition to this, inhibition studies of bacteria coated on agar plate are also carried out. It shows plasma effluent generated in our plasma source is very effective for the inhibition of bacterial colonization.

  15. Chemical analyses of surface water in Illinois, 1975-77; Volume 1, Des Plaines River basin and Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grason, David; Healy, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Samples of surface water were collected and analyzed by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. The results from water years 1975 to 1977 are presented in three volumes. The history of sampling and analytical methods used during that period are summarized. Stream discharge data from records of the U.S. Geological Survey are included for all sites where samples were collected at gaging stations or near enough that reliable discharge estimates could be made. Volume I includes the Des Plaines River basin and Lake Michigan. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Decontamination: a microbiologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Graham, G S

    1988-01-01

    The primary objective of decontamination is to protect healthcare workers who handle medical devices from infectious diseases that may be present on those devices. Ideally, the decontamination process should provide both cleaning and biocidal activity. A wide range of equipment, from automatic washer/sterilizers to semi-automated washer/sanitizers are commercially available to satisfy this need. The primary difference between these pieces of equipment, from a microbiology perspective, is in the level of safety they provide. A summary comparison of the decontamination methods is shown in Table 1. Without a doubt, steam sterilization as a method of decontamination provides a greater safety level than may be required. However, the question is, "Do disinfection and sanitization provide an adequate safety level?" Although items do not necessarily need to be sterile to be safe to handle, sterilization processes provide the greatest margin of safety because of the significant microbial lethality and the ability to effectively monitor the process via biological indicators. Sterilization effectively eliminates the concern regarding the nearly unanswerable question of bioburden. Unfortunately, not all items are capable of being processed through a washer/sterilizer. Therefore, consideration must be given to the process compatibility of each device. Disinfection processes provide the next level of safety. Unfortunately, there is no recognized or accepted method for quantitatively describing or monitoring a thermal disinfection process. As is the case with sterilization consideration must be given to the process compatibility of each device. Sanitization provides the lowest level of safety for the decontamination process.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10285793

  17. [Advances in peroxide-based decontaminating technologies].

    PubMed

    Xi, Hai-ling; Zhao, San-ping; Zhou, Wen

    2013-05-01

    With the boosting demand for eco-friendly decontaminants, great achievements in peroxide-based decontaminating technologies have been made in recent years. These technologies have been applied in countering chemical/biological terrorist attacks, dealing with chemical/biological disasters and destructing environmental pollutants. Recent research advances in alpha-nucleophilic/oxidative reaction mechanisms of peroxide-based decontamination against chemical warfare agents were reviewed, and some classical peroxide-based decontaminants such as aqueous decontaminating solution, decontaminating foam, decontaminating emulsions, decontaminating gels, decontaminating vapors, and some newly developed decontaminating media (e.g., peroxide-based self-decontaminating materials and heterogeneous nano-catalytic decontamination systems) were introduced. However, currently available peroxide-based decontaminants still have some deficiencies. For example, their decontamination efficiencies are not as high as those of chlorine-containing decontaminants, and some peroxide-based decontaminants show relatively poor effect against certain agents. More study on the mechanisms of peroxide-based decontaminants and the interfacial interactions in heterogeneous decontamination media is suggested. New catalysts, multifunctional surfactants, self-decontaminating materials and corrosion preventing technologies should be developed before peroxide-based decontaminants really become true "green" decontaminants. PMID:23914512

  18. Decontamination of the populated areas contaminated as a result of nuclear accident

    SciTech Connect

    Voronik, N.I.; Shatilo, N.N.; Davydov, Y.P.

    1996-12-31

    Decontamination tests on urban surfaces contaminated by the Chernobyl accident have shown that Chernobyl fallout behaves differently from fallout from nuclear weapons tests and contamination on surfaces in nuclear power plant. The effectiveness of various decontamination compositions for removing Chernobyl fallout from urban surfaces and machinery was determined in a series of laboratory experiments and field trials.

  19. Comparison and Evaluation of Various Tritium Decontamination Techniques and Processes

    SciTech Connect

    C.A. Gentile; S.W. Langish; C.H. Skinner; L.P. Ciebiera

    2004-09-10

    In support of fusion energy development, various techniques and processes have been developed over the past two decades for the removal and decontamination of tritium from a variety of items, surfaces, and components. Tritium decontamination, by chemical, physical, mechanical, or a combination of these methods, is driven by two underlying motivational forces. The first of these motivational forces is safety. Safety is paramount to the established culture associated with fusion energy. The second of these motivational forces is cost. In all aspects, less tritium contamination equals lower operational and disposal costs. This paper will discuss and evaluate the various processes employed for tritium removal and decontamination.

  20. Decontamination of radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Gadea, Luis; Cerezo, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Contaminations with radioactive material may occur in several situations related to medicine, industry or research. Seriousness of the incident depends mainly on the radioactive element involved; usually there are no major acute health effects, but in the long term can cause malignancies, leukemia, genetic defects and teratogenic anomalies. The most common is superficial contamination, but the radioactive material can get into the body and be retained by the cells of target organs, injuring directly and permanently sensitive elements of the body. Rapid intervention is very important to remove the radioactive material without spreading it. Work must be performed in a specially prepared area and personnel involved should wear special protective clothing. For external decontamination general cleaning techniques are used, usually do not require chemical techniques. For internal decontamination is necessary to use specific agents, according to the causative element, as well physiological interventions to enhance elimination and excretion. PMID:24376972

  1. Decontamination of radioisotopes

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-Gadea, Luis; Cerezo, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Contaminations with radioactive material may occur in several situations related to medicine, industry or research. Seriousness of the incident depends mainly on the radioactive element involved; usually there are no major acute health effects, but in the long term can cause malignancies, leukemia, genetic defects and teratogenic anomalies. The most common is superficial contamination, but the radioactive material can get into the body and be retained by the cells of target organs, injuring directly and permanently sensitive elements of the body. Rapid intervention is very important to remove the radioactive material without spreading it. Work must be performed in a specially prepared area and personnel involved should wear special protective clothing. For external decontamination general cleaning techniques are used, usually do not require chemical techniques. For internal decontamination is necessary to use specific agents, according to the causative element, as well physiological interventions to enhance elimination and excretion. PMID:24376972

  2. Electrolytic decontamination of the 3013 inner can

    SciTech Connect

    Wedman, D.E.; Nelson, T.O.; Rivera, Y.; Weisbrod, K.; Martinez, H.E.; Limback, S.

    1998-12-31

    Disposition of plutonium recovered from nuclear weapons or production residues must be stored in a manner that ensures safety. The criteria that has been established to assure the safety of stored materials for a minimum of 50 years is DOE-STD-3013. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has designed a containment package in accordance with the DOE standard. The package consists of an optional convenience (food pack) can, a welded type 304L stainless steel inner (primary) can, and a welded type 304L stainless steel outer (secondary) can. With or without the food pack can, the material is placed inside the primary can and welded shut under a helium atmosphere. This activity takes place totally within the confinement of the glove box line. Following the welding process, the can is checked for leaks and then sent down the line for decontamination. Once decontaminated, the sealed primary can may be removed from the glove box line. Welding of the secondary container takes place outside the glove box line. The highly automated decontamination process that has been developed to support the packaging of Special Nuclear Materials is based on an electrolytic process similar to the wide spread industrial technique of electropolishing. The can is placed within a specially designed stainless steel fixture built within a partition of a glove box. This fixture is then filled with a flowing electrolyte solution. A low DC electric current is made to flow between the can, acting as the anode, and the fixture, acting as the cathode. Following the decontamination, the system provides a flow of rinse water through the fixture to rinse the can of remaining salt residues. The system then carried out a drying cycle. Finally, the fixture is opened from the opposite side of the partition and the can surface monitored directly and through surface smears to assure that decontamination is adequate.

  3. Decontamination technologies for release from bioprocessing facilities. Part I. Introduction. Part II. Decontamination of wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Wickramanayake, G.B. )

    1990-01-01

    Genetically engineered microorganisms are widely used in biotechnology. Wastewater from bioprocessing facilities will require treatment to ensure that effluents discharged into surface water or other waste streams are not a source of viable organisms or transmittable genetic material. The application of treatment technologies used in other industries to decontaminate the releases from biotechnology processing facilities was evaluated. Since published literature on the inactivation of recombinant-DNA organisms is very limited, information for bacteria, viruses, fungi and subcellular components was obtained. The data indicated that ozone, chlorine, chlorine dioxide, heat, ultraviolet light and ionizing radiation offer good performance potential for decontamination of rDNA processing wastewater. 180 refs., 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  4. Decontamination Processes for Restorative Operations and as a Precursor to Decommissioning: A Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J. L.; Divine, J. R.

    1981-05-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted an comprehensive literature review of actual reactor decontamination processes that are currently available. In general, any decontamination process should be based on the following criteria: effectiveness, efficiency, safety, and waste production. The information that was collected and analyzed has been divided into three major categories of decontamination: chemical, mechanical, and electrochemical. Chemical methods can be further classified as either low-concentration, singlestep processes or high-concentration, single- or multistep processes. Numerous chemical decontamination methods are detailed. Mechanical decontamination methods are usually restricted to the removal of a contaminated surface layer, whlch limits their versatility; several mechanical decontamination methods are described. Electrochemical decontamination. is both fast and easily controlled, and numerous processes that have been used in industry for many years are discussed. Information obtained from this work is tabulated in Appendix A for easy access, and a bibliography and a glossary have been provided.

  5. [Selective bowel decontamination].

    PubMed

    Szántó, Zoltán; Pulay, István; Kotsis, Lajos; Dinka, Tibor

    2006-04-01

    Infective complications play major role in mortality of high risk patients demanding intensive care. Selective Bowel Decontamination prevents endogenous infections by reducing the number of potentially pathogen microbes (aerobic bacteria, fungi) in the oropharynx and gastrointestinal tract, saving anaerobic bacteria. It had been used 20 years ago for the first time. Authors survey it's literature ever since. Selective Bowel Decontamination is performed by the mixture of antibiotics and antimycotic drug, administered orally in hydrogel, and suspension form in nasojejunal tube. The number of Gram negative optional aerobic bacteria and fungi decrease significantly in the gut, and the microbial translocation is following this tendency. Foreign authors achieved good results in acute necrotizing pancreatitis, after liver transplant, in polytrauma, in serious burn and in haematological malignancies. According to the literature Selective Bowel Decontamination shows advantages in selected groups of high risk surgical patients. In some studies the administration took few months, but the minimum time was one week. There was no report of increasing MRSA appearance. Regular bacteriological sampling is highly recommended in order to recognize any new antibiotic resistance in time. PMID:16711371

  6. Decontamination of high-level waste canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Nesbitt, J.F.; Slate, S.C.; Fetrow, L.K.

    1980-12-01

    This report presents evaluations of several methods for the in-process decontamination of metallic canisters containing any one of a number of solidified high-level waste (HLW) forms. The use of steam-water, steam, abrasive blasting, electropolishing, liquid honing, vibratory finishing and soaking have been tested or evaluated as potential techniques to decontaminate the outer surfaces of HLW canisters. Either these techniques have been tested or available literature has been examined to assess their applicability to the decontamination of HLW canisters. Electropolishing has been found to be the most thorough method to remove radionuclides and other foreign material that may be deposited on or in the outer surface of a canister during any of the HLW processes. Steam or steam-water spraying techniques may be adequate for some applications but fail to remove all contaminated forms that could be present in some of the HLW processes. Liquid honing and abrasive blasting remove contamination and foreign material very quickly and effectively from small areas and components although these blasting techniques tend to disperse the material removed from the cleaned surfaces. Vibratory finishing is very capable of removing the bulk of contamination and foreign matter from a variety of materials. However, special vibratory finishing equipment would have to be designed and adapted for a remote process. Soaking techniques take long periods of time and may not remove all of the smearable contamination. If soaking involves pickling baths that use corrosive agents, these agents may cause erosion of grain boundaries that results in rough surfaces.

  7. Planning guidance for nuclear-power-plant decontamination. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, L.F.; Divine, J.R.; Martin, J.B.

    1983-06-01

    Direct and indirect costs of decontamination are considered in the benefit-cost analysis. A generic form of the benefit-cost ratio is evaluated in monetary and nonmonetary terms, and values of dollar per man-rem are cited. Federal and state agencies that may have jurisiction over various aspects of decontamination and waste disposal activities are identified. Methods of decontamination, their general effectiveness, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are outlined. Dilute or concentrated chemical solutions are usually used in-situ to dissolve the contamination layer and a thin layer of the underlying substrate. Electrochemical techniques are generally limited to components but show high decontamination effectiveness with uniform corrosion. Mechanical agents are particularly appropriate for certain out-of-system surfaces and disassembled parts. These processes are catagorized and specific concerns are discussed. The treatment, storage, and disposal or discharge or discharge of liquid, gaseous, and solid wastes generated during the decontamination process are discussed. Radioactive and other hazardous chemical wastes are considered. The monitoring, treatment, and control of radioactive and nonradioactive effluents, from both routine operations and possible accidents, are discussed. Protecting the health and safety of personnel onsite during decontamination is of prime importance and should be considered in each facet of the decontamination process. The radiation protection philosophy of reducing exposure to levels as low as reasonably achievable should be stressed. These issues are discussed.

  8. Preconceptual design of the gas-phase decontamination demonstration cart

    SciTech Connect

    Munday, E.B.

    1993-12-01

    Removal of uranium deposits from the interior surfaces of gaseous diffusion equipment will be a major portion of the overall multibillion dollar effort to decontaminate and decommission the gaseous diffusion plants. Long-term low-temperature (LTLT) gas-phase decontamination is being developed at the K-25 Site as an in situ decontamination process that is expected to significantly lower the decontamination costs, reduce worker exposure to radioactive materials, and reduce safeguard concerns. This report documents the preconceptual design of the process equipment that is necessary to conduct a full-scale demonstration of the LTLT method in accordance with the process steps listed above. The process equipment and method proposed in this report are not intended to represent a full-scale production campaign design and operation, since the gas evacuation, gas charging, and off-gas handling systems that would be cost effective in a production campaign are not cost effective for a first-time demonstration. However, the design presented here is expected to be applicable to special decontamination projects beyond the demonstration, which could include the Deposit Recovery Program. The equipment will therefore be sized to a 200 ft size 1 converter (plus a substantial conservative design margin), which is the largest item of interest for gas phase decontamination in the Deposit Recovery Program. The decontamination equipment will allow recovery of the UF{sub 6}, which is generated from the reaction of ClF{sub 3} with the uranium deposits, by use of NaF traps.

  9. Bacterial decontamination using ambient pressure nonthermal discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Birmingham, J.G.; Hammerstrom, D.J.

    2000-02-01

    Atmospheric pressure nonthermal plasmas can efficiently deactivate bacteria in gases, liquids, and on surfaces, as well as can decompose hazardous chemicals. This paper focuses on the changes to bacterial spores and toxic biochemical compounds, such as mycotoxins, after their treatment in ambient pressure discharges. The ability of nonthermal plasmas to decompose toxic chemicals and deactivate hazardous biological materials has been applied to sterilizing medical instruments, ozonating water, and purifying air. In addition, the fast lysis of bacterial spores and other cells has led us to include plasma devices within pathogen detection instruments, where nucleic acids must be accessed. Decontaminating chemical and biological warfare materials from large, high value targets such as building surfaces, after a terrorist attack, are especially challenging. A large area plasma decontamination technology is described.

  10. Electrolytic decontamination of the 3013 inner can

    SciTech Connect

    Wedman, D.E.; Nelson, T.O.; Rivera, Y.; Weisbrod, K.; Martinez, H.E.; Limback, S.

    1998-12-31

    Disposition of plutonium recovered from nuclear weapons or production residues must be stored in a manner that ensures safety. The criteria that has been established to assure the safety of stored materials for a minimum of 50 years is DOE-STD-3013. This standard specifies both the requirements for containment and furthermore specifies that the inner container be decontaminated to a level of {le}20 dpm/100 cm{sup 2} swipable and {le}500 dpm/100 cm{sup 2} direct alpha such that a failure of the outer containment barrier will have a lower probability of resulting in a spread of contamination. The package consists of an optional convenience (food pack) can, a welded type 304L stainless steel inner (primary) can, and a welded type 304L stainless steel outer (secondary) can. Following the welding process, the can is checked for leaks and then sent down the line for decontamination. Once decontaminated, the sealed primary can may be removed from the glove box line. Welding of the secondary container takes place outside the glove box line. The highly automated decontamination process that has been developed to support the packaging of Special Nuclear Materials is based on an electrolytic process similar to the wide spread industrial technique of electropolishing. The can is placed within a specially designed stainless steel fixture built within a partition of a glove box. The passage of current through this electrolytic cell results in a uniform anodic dissolution of the surface metal layers of the can. This process results in a rapid decontamination of the can. The electrolyte is fully recyclable, and the separation of the chromium from the actinides results in a compact, non RCRA secondary waste product.

  11. DESCALING AND DECONTAMINATING METHOD FOR METALS

    DOEpatents

    Baybarz, R.D.

    1961-04-25

    Oxide scale is removed from the surface of stainless steels and similar metals by contacting the metal under an inert atmosphere with a dilute sulfuric acid solution containing chromous sulfate. The removed oxide scale is either dissolved or disintegrated into a slurry by the solution. Preferred reagent concentrations are 0.3 to 0.5 M chromous sulfate and 0.4 to 0.6 M sulfuric acid. This process is particularly applicable to decontamination of aqueous homogsneous nuclear reactor systems.

  12. Chemical analyses of surface water in Illinois, 1958-74; Volume I, Des Plaines River basin and Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, R.W.; Toler, L.G.

    1978-01-01

    Samples of surface water were collected and analyzed by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency and its predecessor, the Stream Pollution Control Bureau of the Illinois Department of Public Health. The results for the period 1958 to 1974 are presented in tabular form and the history of sampling and analytical methods are summarized. Stream discharge data from records of the U.S. Geological Survey are included for all sites where samples were collected at gaging stations or near enough that reliable discharge estimates could be made. The report is contained in three volumes. This volume (Volume I) includes Des Plaines River basin and Lake Michigan. (See also W78-10035 and W78-10036) (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Decontamination solution development studies

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.P.; Fetrow, L.K.; Kjarmo, H.E.; Pool, K.H.

    1993-09-01

    This study was conducted for the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of the Hanford Grout Technology Program (HGTP). The objective of this study was to identify decontamination solutions capable of removing radioactive contaminants and grout from the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) process equipment and to determine the impact of these solutions on equipment components and disposal options. The reference grout used in this study was prepared with simulated double-shell slurry feed (DSSF) and a dry blend consisting of 40 wt % limestone flour, 28 wt % blast furnace slag, 28 wt % fly ash, and 4 wt % type I/II Portland cement.

  14. Decontaminating pesticide protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Laughlin, J

    1993-01-01

    The review of recent work on the mechanisms of soil removal from textiles assists in understanding decontamination of pesticide protective clothing. The current work provides explanatory conclusions about residue retention as a basis of making recommendations for the most effective decontamination procedures. A caution about generalizations: Some pesticides produce very idiosyncratic responses to decontamination. An example is the paraquat/salt response. Other pesticides exhibit noticeable and unique responses to a highly alkaline medium (carbaryl), or to bleach (chlorpyrifos), or are quickly volatilized (methyl parathion). Responses such as these do not apply to other pesticides undergoing decontamination. Given this caution, there are soil, substrate, and solvent responses that do maximize residue removal. Residue removal is less complete as the concentration of pesticide increases. The concentration of pesticide in fabric builds with successive exposures, and the more concentrated the pesticide, the more difficult the removal. Use a prewash product and/or presoak. The surfactant and/or solvent in a prewash product is a booster in residue removal. Residues transfer from contaminated clothing to other clothing during the washing cycle. Use a full washer of water for a limited number of garments to increase residue removal. The hotter the washing temperature, the better. Generally, this means a water temperature of at least 49 degrees C, and preferably 60 degrees C. Select the detergent shown to be more effective for the formulation: heavy-duty liquid detergents for emulsifiable concentrate formulations and powdered phosphate detergents for wettable powder formulations. If the fabric has a soil-repellent finish, use 1.25 times the amount recommended on the detergent label. For water hardness above 300 ppm, an additional amount of powdered phosphate detergent is needed to obtain the same level of residue removal as obtained with the heavy-duty liquid detergent when

  15. Integrated decontamination process for metals

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Thomas S.; Whitlow, Graham A.

    1991-01-01

    An integrated process for decontamination of metals, particularly metals that are used in the nuclear energy industry contaminated with radioactive material. The process combines the processes of electrorefining and melt refining to purify metals that can be decontaminated using either electrorefining or melt refining processes.

  16. Decontamination Technologies, Task 3, Urban Remediation and Response Project

    SciTech Connect

    Heiser,J.; Sullivan, T.

    2009-06-30

    In the aftermath of a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD, also known as a dirty bomb) it will be necessary to remediate the site including building exteriors and interiors, equipment, pavement, vehicles, personal items etc. Remediation will remove or reduce radioactive contamination from the area using a combination of removing and disposing of many assets (including possible demolition of buildings), decontaminating and returning to service other assets, and fixing in place or leaving in place contamination that is deemed 'acceptable'. The later will require setting acceptable dose standards, which will require negotiation with all involved parties and a balance of risk and cost to benefit. To accomplish the first two, disposal or decontamination, a combination of technologies will be deployed that can be loosely classified as: Decontamination; Equipment removal and size reduction; and Demolition. This report will deal only with the decontamination technologies that will be used to return assets to service or to reduce waste disposal. It will not discuss demolition, size reduction or removal technologies or equipment (e.g., backhoe mounted rams, rock splitter, paving breakers and chipping hammers, etc.). As defined by the DOE (1994), decontamination is removal of radiological contamination from the surfaces of facilities and equipment. Expertise in this field comes primarily from the operation and decommissioning of DOE and commercial nuclear facilities as well as a small amount of ongoing research and development closely related to RDD decontamination. Information related to decontamination of fields, buildings, and public spaces resulting from the Goiania and Chernobyl incidents were also reviewed and provide some meaningful insight into decontamination at major urban areas. In order to proceed with decontamination, the item being processed needs to have an intrinsic value that exceeds the cost of the cleaning and justifies the exposure of any workers during the

  17. MERCURY CONTAMINATED MATERIAL DECONTAMINATION METHODS: INVESTIGATION AND ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    Over the years mercury has been recognized as having serious impacts on human health and the environment. This recognition has led to numerous studies that deal with the properties of various mercury forms, the development of methods to quantify and speciate the forms, fate and transport, toxicology studies, and the development of site remediation and decontamination technologies. This report reviews several critical areas that will be used in developing technologies for cleaning mercury from mercury-contaminated surfaces of metals and porous materials found in many DOE facilities. The technologies used for decontamination of water and mixed wastes (solid) are specifically discussed. Many technologies that have recently appeared in the literature are included in the report. Current surface decontamination processes have been reviewed, and the limitations of these technologies for mercury decontamination are discussed. Based on the currently available technologies and the processes published recently in the literature, several processes, including strippable coatings, chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, chemisorbing surface wipes with forager sponge and grafted cotton, and surface/pore fixation through amalgamation or stabilization, have been identified as potential techniques for decontamination of mercury-contaminated metal and porous surfaces. Their potential merits and applicability are discussed. Finally, two processes, strippable coatings and chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, were experimentally investigated in Phase II of this project.

  18. Evaluation of commercially available decontamination chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Shurte, E.A.; Rankin, W.N.

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness of commercially available decontamination solutions was compared with the effectiveness of 10% oxalic acid in controlled laboratory tests. Type 304L stainless steel and Inconel 625 specimens were used. Contamination was sludge from Savannah River Plant (SRP) high level waste tanks. Measured amounts of contamination were placed on each specimen. They were then heated to bond the contamination to the surface and cleaned according to the manufacturer's directions. The effectiveness of the product was determined by monitoring specimens before and after cleaning. Four of the 16 solutions evaluated removed all the contamination from Type 304L stainless steel. Inconel 625 was more difficult to decontaminate. Further tests are planned with the chemicals that were most effective in this test. 4 refs., 6 tabs.

  19. Nuclear reactor cooling system decontamination reagent regeneration. [PWR; BWR

    DOEpatents

    Anstine, L.D.; James, D.B.; Melaika, E.A.; Peterson, J.P. Jr.

    1980-06-06

    An improved method for decontaminating the coolant system of water-cooled nuclear power reactors and for regenerating the decontamination solution is described. A small amount of one or more weak-acid organic complexing agents is added to the reactor coolant, and the pH is adjusted to form a decontamination solution which is circulated throughout the coolant system to dissolve metal oxides from the interior surfaces and complex the resulting metal ions and radionuclide ions. The coolant containing the complexed metal ions and radionuclide ions is passed through a strong-base anion exchange resin bed which has been presaturated with a solution containing the complexing agents in the same ratio and having the same pH as the decontamination solution. As the decontamination solution passes through the resin bed, metal-complexed anions are exchanged for the metal-ion-free anions on the bed, while metal-ion-free anions in the solution pass through the bed, thus removing the metal ions and regenerating the decontamination solution.

  20. A survey of decontamination processes applicable to DOE nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Conner, C.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1997-05-01

    The objective of this survey was to select an appropriate technology for in situ decontamination of equipment interiors as part of the decommissioning of U.S. Department of Energy nuclear facilities. This selection depends on knowledge of existing chemical decontamination methods. This report provides an up-to-date review of chemical decontamination methods. According to available information, aqueous systems are probably the most universally used method for decontaminating and cleaning metal surfaces. We have subdivided the technologies, on the basis of the types of chemical solvents, into acid, alkaline permanganate, highly oxidizing, peroxide, and miscellaneous systems. Two miscellaneous chemical decontamination methods (electrochemical processes and foam and gel systems) are also described. A concise technical description of various processes is given, and the report also outlines technical considerations in the choice of technologies, including decontamination effectiveness, waste handing, fields of application, and the advantages and limitations in application. On the basis of this survey, six processes were identified for further evaluation. 144 refs., 2 tabs.

  1. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  2. Glovebox decontamination technology comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Quintana, D.M.; Rodriguez, J.B.; Cournoyer, M.E.

    1999-09-26

    Reconfiguration of the CMR Building and TA-55 Plutonium Facility for mission requirements will require the disposal or recycle of 200--300 gloveboxes or open front hoods. These gloveboxes and open front hoods must be decontaminated to meet discharge limits for Low Level Waste. Gloveboxes and open front hoods at CMR have been painted. One of the deliverables on this project is to identify the best method for stripping the paint from large numbers of gloveboxes. Four methods being considered are the following: conventional paint stripping, dry ice pellets, strippable coatings, and high pressure water technology. The advantages of each technology will be discussed. Last, cost comparisons between the technologies will be presented.

  3. Granulated decontamination formulations

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Mark D.

    2007-10-02

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a sorbent additive, and water. A highly adsorbent sorbent additive (e.g., amorphous silica, sorbitol, mannitol, etc.) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  4. Electrolytic decontamination of conductive materials for hazardous waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Wedman, D.E.; Martinez, H.E.; Nelson, T.O.

    1996-12-31

    Electrolytic removal of plutonium and americium from stainless steel and uranium surfaces has been demonstrated. Preliminary experiments were performed on the electrochemically based decontamination of type 304L stainless steel in sodium nitrate solutions to better understand the metal removal effects of varying cur-rent density, pH, and nitrate concentration parameters. Material removal rates and changes in surface morphology under these varying conditions are reported. Experimental results indicate that an electropolishing step before contamination removes surface roughness, thereby simplifying later electrolytic decontamination. Sodium nitrate based electrolytic decontamination produced the most uniform stripping of material at low to intermediate pH and at sodium nitrate concentrations of 200 g L{sup -1} and higher. Stirring was also observed to increase the uniformity of the stripping process.

  5. Skin decontamination: principles and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Chan, Heidi P; Zhai, Hongbo; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard I

    2013-11-01

    Skin decontamination is the primary intervention needed in chemical, biological and radiological exposures, involving immediate removal of the contaminant from the skin performed in the most efficient way. The most readily available decontamination system on a practical basis is washing with soap and water or water only. Timely use of flushing with copious amounts of water may physically remove the contaminant. However, this traditional method may not be completely effective, and contaminants left on the skin after traditional washing procedures can have toxic consequences. This article focuses on the principles and practices of skin decontamination. PMID:22851522

  6. Laryngoscope decontamination techniques: A survey

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Rajiv; Gupta, Akhilesh; Gupta, Anshu; Kumar, Mritunjay

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: India is a vast country with variable, nonuniform healthcare practices. A laryngoscope is an important tool during general anesthesia and resuscitation. The study aimed to determine the current practices of laryngoscope decontamination in India. Material and Methods: An online survey was conducted amongst 100 anesthesiologists to determine the common methods of laryngoscope decontamination adopted in their settings. The survey was done over 6 months after validating the questionnaire. Results: A total of 73 responses were received out of 100. The result of the survey revealed that there is no uniform technique of laryngoscope decontamination. There is marked variability in techniques followed not only among different institutions, but also within the same institution. Conclusion: There are no fixed protocols adopted for laryngoscope decontamination. Thus, there is a need to develop definitive guidelines on this subject, which can be implemented in India. PMID:27006551

  7. IV INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ATOM AND MOLECULAR PULSED LASERS (AMPL'99): Surface oxide removal by a XeCl laser for decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentis, M. L.; Delaporte, Ph; Marine, W.; Uteza, O.

    2000-06-01

    The laser ablation performed with an automated excimer XeCl laser unit is used for large surface cleaning. The study focuses on metal surfaces that are oxidised and are representative of contaminated surfaces with radionuclides in a context of nuclear power plant maintenance. The unit contains an XeCl laser, the beam delivery system, the particle collection cell, and the system for real-time control of cleaning processes. The interaction of laser radiation with a surface is considered, in particular, the surface damage caused by cleaning radiation. The beam delivery system consists of an optical fibre bundle of 5 m long and allows delivering 150 W at 308 nm for laser surface cleaning. The cleaning process is controlled by analysing in real time the plasma electric field evolution. The system permits the cleaning of 2 to 6 m2 h-1 of oxides with only slight substrate modifications.

  8. Large-bore pipe decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of 1200 buildings within the US Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Complex will require the disposition of miles of pipe. The disposition of large-bore pipe, in particular, presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The pipe is potentially contaminated internally as well as externally. This situation requires a system capable of decontaminating and characterizing both the inside and outside of the pipe. Current decontamination and characterization systems are not designed for application to this geometry, making the direct disposal of piping systems necessary in many cases. The pipe often creates voids in the disposal cell, which requires the pipe to be cut in half or filled with a grout material. These methods are labor intensive and costly to perform on large volumes of pipe. Direct disposal does not take advantage of recycling, which could provide monetary dividends. To facilitate the decontamination and characterization of large-bore piping and thereby reduce the volume of piping required for disposal, a detailed analysis will be conducted to document the pipe remediation problem set; determine potential technologies to solve this remediation problem set; design and laboratory test potential decontamination and characterization technologies; fabricate a prototype system; provide a cost-benefit analysis of the proposed system; and transfer the technology to industry. This report summarizes the activities performed during fiscal year 1997 and describes the planned activities for fiscal year 1998. Accomplishments for FY97 include the development of the applicable and relevant and appropriate regulations, the screening of decontamination and characterization technologies, and the selection and initial design of the decontamination system.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF BIODEGRADABLE ISOSACCHARINATE-CONTAINING FOAMS FOR DECONTAMINATION OF ACTINIDES: THERMODYNAMIC AND KINETIC REACTIONS BETWEEN ISOSACCHARINATE AND ACTINIDES ON METAL AND CONCRETE SURFACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Actinide contamination of steel and concrete surfaces is a major problem within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. For steel surfaces, the primary problem is contamination of sections of nuclear power reactors, weapons production facilities, laboratories, and waste tank...

  10. Caractérisation de l'état de surface et des contraintes résiduelles engendrées par meulage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gognau, D.; Blehaut, H.; Dürr, J.; Hariri, S.; Khouchaf, L.; Flahaut, P.

    2002-07-01

    grinding operations are generally used to prepare surfaces or improve surface state before or after welding. These operations, when carried out manually with portable machines, induce superficial work hardening, modification of the structure of material and residual stresses. An experimental study about the influence of grinding has been carried out on two metallic materials, a low carbon steel (A42-CP) and an austenitic stainless steel (316L), in order to characterise the grinding effects. Manual grinding being difficult to control (no repeatable effects), a test rig using a portable machine has been made. This test rig enables to control the grinding parameters in order to obtain repeatable grinding operations. Characterisation of the ground surfaces was made by 2D profilometry and measurements of residual stresses have been carried out with a Set-X Elphyse apparatus. The profiles of residual stresses obtained show, on the one hand, that on each material, identical grindings generate identical states of stresses and on the other hand, that materials have not the same behaviour, From a metallurgical point of view, we also observe that the grinding effects are different for both materials. The grinding of the A42 steel highlights a crushing of the grain near the surface while the 316L stainless steel grinding reveals sliding bands. Des opérations de meulage sont régulièrement effectuées sur des matériaux métalliques pour préparer les surfaces ou pour améliorer l'état de ces surfaces après soudage. Ces opérations réalisées manuellement engendrent un écrouissage superficiel, une modification de la structure du matériau et par conséquent des contraintes résiduelles. Une étude expérimentale a été menée sur un acier à bas carbone (A42-CP) et un acier inoxydable austénitique (316L) afin de caractériser les effets du meulage. Le meulage manuel étant difficile à maîtriser (effets non reproductibles), un banc d'essai utilisant une machine

  11. Radiological decontamination, survey, and statistical release method for vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwill, M.E.; Lively, J.W.; Morris, R.L.

    1996-06-01

    Earth-moving vehicles (e.g., dump trucks, belly dumps) commonly haul radiologically contaminated materials from a site being remediated to a disposal site. Traditionally, each vehicle must be surveyed before being released. The logistical difficulties of implementing the traditional approach on a large scale demand that an alternative be devised. A statistical method for assessing product quality from a continuous process was adapted to the vehicle decontamination process. This method produced a sampling scheme that automatically compensates and accommodates fluctuating batch sizes and changing conditions without the need to modify or rectify the sampling scheme in the field. Vehicles are randomly selected (sampled) upon completion of the decontamination process to be surveyed for residual radioactive surface contamination. The frequency of sampling is based on the expected number of vehicles passing through the decontamination process in a given period and the confidence level desired. This process has been successfully used for 1 year at the former uranium millsite in Monticello, Utah (a cleanup site regulated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act). The method forces improvement in the quality of the decontamination process and results in a lower likelihood that vehicles exceeding the surface contamination standards are offered for survey. Implementation of this statistical sampling method on Monticello projects has resulted in more efficient processing of vehicles through decontamination and radiological release, saved hundreds of hours of processing time, provided a high level of confidence that release limits are met, and improved the radiological cleanliness of vehicles leaving the controlled site.

  12. Electrochemical Decontamination of Painted and Heavily Corroded Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Marczak, S.; Anderson, J.; Dziewinski, J.

    1998-09-08

    The radioactive metal wastes that are generated from nuclear fuel plants and radiochemical laboratories are mainly contaminated by the surface deposition of radioactive isotopes. There are presently several techniques used in removing surface contamination involving physical and chemical processes. However, there has been very little research done in the area of soiled, heavily oxidized, and painted metals. Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory have been developing electrochemical procedures for the decontamination of bare and painted metal objects. These methods have been found to be effective on highly corroded as well as relatively new metals. This study has been successful in decontaminating projectiles and shrapnel excavated during environmental restoration projects after 40+ years of exposure to the elements. Heavily corroded augers used in sampling activities throughout the area were also successfully decontaminated. This process has demonstrated its effectiveness and offers several advantages over the present metal decontamination practices of media blasting and chemical solvents. These advantages include the addition of no toxic or hazardous chemicals, low operating temperature and pressure, and easily scaleable equipment. It is in their future plans to use this process in the decontamination of gloveboxes destined for disposal as TRU waste.

  13. Lasers for the radioactive decontamination of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, N.S.; Flesher, D.J.

    1993-10-01

    The use of lasers for removing radioactive contamination from concrete surfaces is being investigated at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. A major advantage of a laser decontamination process is that no additional waste is generated. Test results using 50- and 600-W YAG (yttrium-aluminum-garnet) lasers have been extrapolated to more powerful commercially available units. The minimum removal rate for concrete in air is estimated at 420 cm{sup 2}/h (0.45 ft{sup 2}/h) to a depth of 0.64 cm (0.25 in.); underwater rates would be considerably reduced.

  14. Process for Descaling and Decontaminating Metals

    DOEpatents

    Baybarz, R. D.

    1961-04-25

    The oxide scale on the surface of stainless steels and similar metals is removed by contacting the metal under an inert atmosphere with a dilute H/sub 2/ SO/sub 4/ solution containing CrSO/sub 4/. The removed oxide scale is either dissolved or disintegrated into a slurry by the solution. Preferred reagent concentrations are 0.3 to 0.5 M CrSO/sub 4/ and 0.5 to 0.6 M H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The process is particularly applicable to decontamination of aqueous homogeneous nuclear reactor systems. (AEC)

  15. Decontamination formulations for disinfection and sterilization

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Mark D.; Engler, Daniel E.

    2007-09-18

    Aqueous decontamination formulations that neutralize biological pathogens for disinfection and sterilization applications. Examples of suitable applications include disinfection of food processing equipment, disinfection of areas containing livestock, mold remediation, sterilization of medical instruments and direct disinfection of food surfaces, such as beef carcasses. The formulations include at least one reactive compound, bleaching activator, inorganic base, and water. The formulations can be packaged as a two-part kit system, and can have a pH value in the range of 7-8.

  16. Lactic acid as a decontaminant in slaughter and processing procedures.

    PubMed

    Snijders, J M; van Logtestijn, J G; Mossel, D A; Smulders, F J

    1985-10-01

    An attempt was made to interrelate the data obtained in experiments conducted by our Department along beef, veal and pig slaughter lines, using lactic acid (LA) for the decontamination of carcasses, cold and hot boned primal cuts, slaughter byproducts, and butcher's knives. First and foremost it was observed, that provided Good Manufacturing Practices are strictly followed, the microbial load of carcass surfaces will be substantially reduced. LA-decontamination may result in an additional reduction. Since in the early post-mortem period bacteria are not yet attached to the meat surface, LA-decontamination should preferably be applied to the hot carcass. It was demonstrated that, dependent on mode and duration of application, LA sprays not exceeding 1% v/v (beef), 1.25% v/v (veal) and 1.5% v/v (pork) resulted in acceptable carcass colour scores. Blood spots, which are particularly prone to discolouration by lactic acid application, should be removed at an early post-mortem stage e.g. by strong showering. The difference in surface pH between LA-treated and control carcasses disappeared within 72 hours post-mortem. Veal longissimus chops treated with LA solutions up to 2% v/v were not identified by a consumer taste panel as significantly different from controls. The 'immediate' bactericidal effect of LA-decontamination for beef, veal and pig carcasses, as well as for pig liver and veal brain, amounted to approximately 1.5 log cycles for the aerobic colony counts, strongly dependent on substrate and conditions of decontamination. In addition, a 'delayed' bacteriostatic effect was observed during storage, which is probably the result of a prolonged lag phase of acid-injured micro-organisms surviving lactic acid decontamination.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4071948

  17. Water decontamination via the removal of Pb (II) using a new generation of highly energetic surface nano-material: Co(+2)Mo(+6) LDH.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Mohsen S; Bakr, Al-Sayed A; El Naggar, Ahmed M A; Sultan, El-Sayed A

    2016-01-01

    CoMo(CO3(2-)) layered double hydroxide of a highly energetic surface, as a new LDH consisting of divalent and hexavalent cations (M(+2)/M(+6)-LDH), was prepared by a homogeneous co-precipitation method. The structure and morphology of the prepared material was confirmed by several analytical techniques namely; X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and thermal gravimetric analysis (DSC-TGA), N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The highly energetic surface of the prepared LDH was demonstrated via the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface energy is due to the formation of +4 surface charges in the brucite layer between Co(+2) and Mo(+6). The prepared LDH was applied as a novel adsorbent for the removal of Pb (II) from its aqueous solution at different experimental conditions of time, temperature and initial Pb (II) concentrations. The change of the Pb (II) concentrations; due to adsorption, was monitored by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The maximum uptake of Pb (II) by the Co Mo LDH was (73.4 mg/g) at 298 K. The Pb (II) adsorption was found to follow Langmuir isotherm and pseudo second order model. The adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. The interference of other cations on the removal of the Pb (II) was studied. Na(+) and K(+) were found to increase the adsorption capacity of the Co Mo LDH toward Pb (II) while it was slightly decreased by the presence of Mn(+2) and Cu(+2). The synthesized LDH showed a great degree of recoverability (7 times) while completely conserving its parental morphology and adsorption capacity. The mechanism of the lead ions removal had exhibited more reliability through a surface adsorption by the coordination between the Mo(+6) of the brucite layers and the oxygen atoms of the nitrates counter ions. PMID:26402785

  18. Progress of electro-hydraulic scabbling technology for concrete decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Goldfarb, V.; Gannon, R.

    1997-05-01

    Concrete decontamination from organics, metals, and radionuclides requires removal of up to one inch of the surface layer. The Electro- Hydraulic Scabbling (EHS) technique has been developed within a 3- phase program. A prototype 8 kW EHS unit was designed and assembled in Phase II. This system was tested initially by scabbling noncontaminated concrete, and later at the DOE Fernald site where a concrete floor containing uranium was decontaminated. In the latter test, the unit operated without problems and reduced the counts per minute by more than 90%. Currently in Phase III, a larger 30 kW unit has been assembled and prepared for testing/demonstration.

  19. Dual enzymatic detergents: a safer way to decontaminate.

    PubMed

    Dernbach, C M

    1989-09-01

    1. Although the technology of mechanical equipment has advanced, manual cleaning of contaminated items has not been eliminated in the initial decontamination phase. 2. Proteolytic enzymes dissolve and lift the protein contaminate while detergents remove the dissolved organic particulate from the surface of the item. 3. A dual proteolytic enzyme detergent can be used over a wide range of pH levels and temperatures. 4. Dual enzymatic detergents reduce employee exposure through manual cleaning and assure the complete removal of gross organic debris during the initial decontamination phase. PMID:2675392

  20. Concrete decontamination by Electro-Hydraulic Scabbling (EHS)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    EHS is being developed for decontaminating concrete structures from radionuclides, organic substances, and hazardous metals. EHS involves the generation of powerful shock waves and intense cavitation by a strong pulsed electric discharge in a water layer at the concrete surface; high impulse pressure results in stresses which crack and peel off a concrete layer of controllable thickness. Scabbling produces contaminated debris of relatively small volume which can be easily removed, leaving clean bulk concrete. Objective of Phase I was to prove the technical feasibility of EH for controlled scabbling and decontamination of concrete. Phase I is complete.

  1. Decontamination in the Aftermath of a Radiological Attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yassif, Jaime

    2004-05-01

    Much of the damage caused by a radiological weapon would result from long-term contamination, yet the U.S. lacks a coherent plan for cleanup in the aftermath of an attack. A rapidly implemented decontamination strategy could minimize economic damage by restoring normal activity, when possible, and could ease the cleanup process, which can become more difficult as time passes. Loose dust particles can become trapped under layers of oxidized metal and organic materials or penetrate deeper into porous surfaces, and reactive elements, such as cesium-137, chemically bind to components of glass, asphalt and concrete. Decontamination planning requires identification of appropriate existing technologies that are transferable from small-scale tasks, such as nuclear facility decommissioning, and adaptable to urban-scale operations. Applicable technologies should effectively contain and remove fixed and loose contamination with α-, β- and γ-emitters without generating large quantities of secondary waste. Development of new technologies is also necessary, particularly to improve α-detection, as is research to test existing technologies for their effectiveness in large-scale operations. These techniques will be most effective if integrated into a broad strategy that identifies appropriate exposure limits, prioritizes decontamination tasks and assigns authority and responsibility for performing these tasks. This talk will address existing decontamination thresholds and suggest ways to modify them and will discuss appropriate, existing technologies that can decontaminate to the required levels.

  2. DECONTAMINATION OF STRUCTURES AND DEBRIS AT SUPERFUND SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two building decontamination technologies were demonstrated and evaluated: a method for in situ degradation of PCB's requiring application of an alkali metal/polyethylene glycolate mixture directly on concrete surfaces; and a shotblasting technique using steel shot to cut away co...

  3. Minimal impact, waterless decontamination technologies for improving food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pathogen contamination of produce, meats, poultry, shellfish, and other foods remains an ongoing concern. Chemical sanitizers are widely employed for foods and food contact surfaces. However, there is growing interest in the development of minimal impact, waterless decontamination processes that wil...

  4. Release of organic reagents from solidified decontamination wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Piciulo, P.L.; Adams, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    In order to provide technical information needed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to evaluate the adequacy of near-surface disposal of decontamination wastes, Brookhaven National Laboratory has measured the release of organic reagents from solidified simulated decontamination wastes. The waste streams consisted of either mixed-bed ion-exchange resins or anion exchange resins equilibrated with EDTA, oxalic acid, citric acid, picolinic acid or simulated LOMI decontamination reagent. These simulated resin wastes were solidified in either cement or vinyl ester-styrene. Samples were tested by a fixed interval leach procedure or according to the standard ANS 16.1 procedure. The leachability indices, which were calculated as prescribed in ANS 16.1, varied with leach period for some of the composites tested. 4 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  5. ITP Filter Particulate Decontamination Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Dworjanyn, L.O.

    1993-05-21

    A new test method was developed which showed the installed In- Tank Precipitation Filter Unit {number_sign}3 provided at least 40, 000 x decontamination of the precipitated potassium tetraphenylborate (KTPB) during the cold chemical runs.This filter is expected to meet the needed 40,000 x hot cesium decontamination requirements, assuming that the cesium precipitate, CsTPB, behaves the same as KTPB. The new method permits cold chemicals field testing of installed filters to quantify particulate decontamination and verify filter integrity before going hot. The method involves a 1000 x concentration of fine particulate KTPB in the filtrate to allow direct analysis by counting for naturally radioactive isotope K-40 using the underground SRTC gamma spectroscopy facility. The particulate concentration was accomplished by ultra filtration at Rhone-Poulenc, NJ, using a small cross-flow bench facility, followed by collection of all suspended solids on a small filter disc for K analysis.

  6. 10 CFR 60.132 - Additional design criteria for surface facilities in the geologic repository operations area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... Surface facility ventilation systems supporting waste transfer, inspection, decontamination, processing... decontamination or dismantlement to the same extent as would be required, under other parts of this chapter,...

  7. 10 CFR 60.132 - Additional design criteria for surface facilities in the geologic repository operations area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Surface facility ventilation systems supporting waste transfer, inspection, decontamination, processing... decontamination or dismantlement to the same extent as would be required, under other parts of this chapter,...

  8. 10 CFR 60.132 - Additional design criteria for surface facilities in the geologic repository operations area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... Surface facility ventilation systems supporting waste transfer, inspection, decontamination, processing... decontamination or dismantlement to the same extent as would be required, under other parts of this chapter,...

  9. 10 CFR 60.132 - Additional design criteria for surface facilities in the geologic repository operations area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... Surface facility ventilation systems supporting waste transfer, inspection, decontamination, processing... decontamination or dismantlement to the same extent as would be required, under other parts of this chapter,...

  10. Imagerie Resolue dans le Temps des Photons et Neutres Metastables Emis D'une Surface Par Stimulation Electronique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclerc, Gregoire

    L'appareil que nous presentons ici a ete mis au point pour permettre d'accumuler des images numeriques, resolues dans le temps, de la desorption par stimulation electronique (DSE) d'ions positifs et negatifs, de photons et de neutres metastables, tout en conservant des capacites de base de diffraction d'electrons lents (DEL) et de transmission d'electrons lents (TEL). Le spectrometre comporte un monochromateur d'electrons a secteur cylindrique de 127^ circ dont l'optique de sortie permet la focalisation du faisceau d'electrons sur une large gamme d'energies. Le detecteur consiste en un empilement de galettes de microcanaux et d'une anode resistive a encodage de division de charges. La reponse spatiale du detecteur a ete calibree et plusieurs causes de non-linearite ont ete localisees et corrigees. Des methodes de correction materielle et logicielle des distorsions spatiales sont presentees. La resolution temporelle des evenements est obtenue en pulsant le faisceau d'electrons, et de facon synchrone la detection, laquelle est couplee a un micro-ordinateur. La premiere partie de ce travail est consacree a la caracterisation du spectrometre et la presentation de nombreux parametres operationnels, obtenus soit au moment de la conception, soit experimentalement. Suit la presentation de donnees de DEL et de DSE pour le systeme Ar/Pt(111) en films minces a 15K. Les sequences temporelles d'images de metastables d'Ar desorbes ont revele la presence de plusieurs populations distinctes, ayant des distributions angulaires et distributions d'energie cinetique que nous avons pu separer. Les fonctions d'excitation de l'emission de photons et de la desorption de differentes composantes de metastables, ainsi que la dependance de ces signaux sur l'epaisseur des films d'Ar, sont aussi presentees et analysees. Les techniques que nous avons developpees ont permis de cerner les mecanismes en jeu pour la desorption et la luminescence.

  11. A remotely operated robot for decontamination tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Dudar, A.M.; Vandewalle, R.C.

    1994-02-01

    Engineers in the Robotics Development Group at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) have developed a robot which will be used to decontaminate a pipe gallery of a tank farm used for nuclear waste storage. Personnel access is required into this pipe gallery to inspect existing pipes and perform repairs to secondary containment walls around the tank farm. Presently, the pipe gallery is littered with debris of various sizes and its surface is contaminated with activity levels up to 2.5E6 DPM (disintegrations per minute) alpha and exposure levels as high as 20 Rad/hr. Cleaning up this pipe gallery win be the mission of an all-hydraulic robotic vehicle developed in-house at WSRC caged the ``Remote Decon`` robot. The Remote Decon is a tracked vehicle which utilizes skid steering and features a six-degree-of-freedom (DOF) manipulator arm, a five-DOF front end loader type bucket with a rotating brush for scrubbing and decontaminating surfaces, and a three-DOF pan/tilt mechanism with cameras and lights. The Remote Decon system is connected to a control console via a 200 foot tethered cable. The control console was designed with ergonomics and simplicity as the main design factors and features three joysticks, video monitors, LED panels, and audible alarms.

  12. Phase 2 microwave concrete decontamination results

    SciTech Connect

    White, T.L.; Foster, D. Jr.; Wilson, C.T.; Schaich, C.R.

    1995-04-01

    The authors report on the results of the second phase of a four-phase program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop a system to decontaminate concrete using microwave energy. The microwave energy is directed at the concrete surface through the use of an optimized wave guide antenna, or applicator, and this energy rapidly heats the free water present in the interstitial spaces of the concrete matrix. The resulting steam pressure causes the surface to burst in much the same way popcorn pops in a home microwave oven. Each steam explosion removes several square centimeters of concrete surface that are collected by a highly integrated wave guide and vacuum system. The authors call this process the microwave concrete decontamination, or MCD, process. In the first phase of the program the principle of microwaves concrete removal concrete surfaces was demonstrated. In these experiments, concrete slabs were placed on a translator and moved beneath a stationary microwave system. The second phase demonstrated the ability to mobilize the technology to remove the surfaces from concrete floors. Area and volume concrete removal rates of 10.4 cm{sup 2}/s and 4.9 cm{sup 3}/S, respectively, at 18 GHz were demonstrated. These rates are more than double those obtained in Phase 1 of the program. Deeper contamination can be removed by using a longer residence time under the applicator to create multiple explosions in the same area or by taking multiple passes over previously removed areas. Both techniques have been successfully demonstrated. Small test sections of painted and oil-soaked concrete have also been removed in a single pass. Concrete with embedded metal anchors on the surface has also been removed, although with some increased variability of removal depth. Microwave leakage should not pose any operational hazard to personnel, since the observed leakage was much less than the regulatory standard.

  13. Decontamination analysis of the NUWAX-83 accident site using DECON

    SciTech Connect

    Tawil, J.J.

    1983-11-01

    This report presents an analysis of the site restoration options for the NUWAX-83 site, at which an exercise was conducted involving a simulated nuclear weapons accident. This analysis was performed using a computer program deveoped by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The computer program, called DECON, was designed to assist personnel engaged in the planning of decontamination activities. The many features of DECON that are used in this report demonstrate its potential usefulness as a site restoration planning tool. Strategies that are analyzed with DECON include: (1) employing a Quick-Vac option, under which selected surfaces are vacuumed before they can be rained on; (2) protecting surfaces against precipitation; (3) prohibiting specific operations on selected surfaces; (4) requiring specific methods to be used on selected surfaces; (5) evaluating the trade-off between cleanup standards and decontamination costs; and (6) varying of the cleanup standards according to expected exposure to surface.

  14. Response surface modeling for hot, humid air decontamination of materials contaminated with Bacillus anthracis ∆Sterne and Bacillus thuringiensis Al Hakam spores

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Response surface methodology using a face-centered cube design was used to describe and predict spore inactivation of Bacillus anthracis ∆Sterne and Bacillus thuringiensis Al Hakam spores after exposure of six spore-contaminated materials to hot, humid air. For each strain/material pair, an attempt was made to fit a first or second order model. All three independent predictor variables (temperature, relative humidity, and time) were significant in the models except that time was not significant for B. thuringiensis Al Hakam on nylon. Modeling was unsuccessful for wiring insulation and wet spores because there was complete spore inactivation in the majority of the experimental space. In cases where a predictive equation could be fit, response surface plots with time set to four days were generated. The survival of highly purified Bacillus spores can be predicted for most materials tested when given the settings for temperature, relative humidity, and time. These predictions were cross-checked with spore inactivation measurements. PMID:24949256

  15. 40 CFR 170.150 - Decontamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Decontamination. 170.150 Section 170... PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.150 Decontamination. (a)(1) Requirement. The agricultural employer must provide decontamination supplies for workers in accordance with this section whenever:...

  16. 40 CFR 170.250 - Decontamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Decontamination. 170.250 Section 170... PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Pesticide Handlers § 170.250 Decontamination. (a) Requirement. During any..., decontamination supplies for washing off pesticides and pesticide residues. (b) General conditions. (1)...

  17. 40 CFR 170.150 - Decontamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Decontamination. 170.150 Section 170... PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.150 Decontamination. (a)(1) Requirement. The agricultural employer must provide decontamination supplies for workers in accordance with this section whenever:...

  18. 40 CFR 170.150 - Decontamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Decontamination. 170.150 Section 170... PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.150 Decontamination. (a)(1) Requirement. The agricultural employer must provide decontamination supplies for workers in accordance with this section whenever:...

  19. 40 CFR 170.150 - Decontamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Decontamination. 170.150 Section 170... PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.150 Decontamination. (a)(1) Requirement. The agricultural employer must provide decontamination supplies for workers in accordance with this section whenever:...

  20. 40 CFR 170.150 - Decontamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decontamination. 170.150 Section 170... PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.150 Decontamination. (a)(1) Requirement. The agricultural employer must provide decontamination supplies for workers in accordance with this section whenever:...

  1. 46 CFR 154.1410 - Decontamination shower.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Decontamination shower. 154.1410 Section 154.1410... Equipment § 154.1410 Decontamination shower. When Table 4 references this section, a vessel carrying the listed cargo must have a decontamination shower and an eye wash that: (a) Are on the weatherdeck; and...

  2. 46 CFR 154.1410 - Decontamination shower.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Decontamination shower. 154.1410 Section 154.1410... Equipment § 154.1410 Decontamination shower. When Table 4 references this section, a vessel carrying the listed cargo must have a decontamination shower and an eye wash that: (a) Are on the weatherdeck; and...

  3. 46 CFR 154.1410 - Decontamination shower.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Decontamination shower. 154.1410 Section 154.1410... Equipment § 154.1410 Decontamination shower. When Table 4 references this section, a vessel carrying the listed cargo must have a decontamination shower and an eye wash that: (a) Are on the weatherdeck; and...

  4. 46 CFR 154.1410 - Decontamination shower.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Decontamination shower. 154.1410 Section 154.1410... Equipment § 154.1410 Decontamination shower. When Table 4 references this section, a vessel carrying the listed cargo must have a decontamination shower and an eye wash that: (a) Are on the weatherdeck; and...

  5. 46 CFR 154.1410 - Decontamination shower.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Decontamination shower. 154.1410 Section 154.1410... Equipment § 154.1410 Decontamination shower. When Table 4 references this section, a vessel carrying the listed cargo must have a decontamination shower and an eye wash that: (a) Are on the weatherdeck; and...

  6. Public experiences of mass casualty decontamination.

    PubMed

    Carter, Holly; Drury, John; Rubin, G James; Williams, Richard; Amlôt, Richard

    2012-09-01

    In this article, we analyze feedback from simulated casualties who took part in field exercises involving mass decontamination, to gain an understanding of how responder communication can affect people's experiences of and compliance with decontamination. We analyzed questionnaire data gathered from 402 volunteers using the framework approach, to provide an insight into the public's experiences of decontamination and how these experiences are shaped by the actions of emergency responders. Factors that affected casualties' experiences of the decontamination process included the need for greater practical information and better communication from responders, and the need for privacy. Results support previous findings from small-scale incidents that involved decontamination in showing that participants wanted better communication from responders during the process of decontamination, including more practical information, and that the failure of responders to communicate effectively with members of the public led to anxiety about the decontamination process. The similarity between the findings from the exercises described in this article and previous research into real incidents involving decontamination suggests that field exercises provide a useful way to examine the effect of responder communication strategies on the public's experiences of decontamination. Future exercises should examine in more detail the effect of various communication strategies on the public's experiences of decontamination. This will facilitate the development of evidence-based communication strategies intended to reduce anxiety about decontamination and increase compliance among members of the public during real-life incidents that involve mass decontamination. PMID:22823588

  7. Decontamination and size reduction of plutonium contaminated process exhaust ductwork and glove boxes

    SciTech Connect

    LaFrate, P.; Elliott, J.; Valasquez, M.

    1996-11-15

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Decommissioning Program has decontaminated and demolished two filter plenum buildings at Technical Area 21 (TA-21). During the project a former hot cell was retrofitted to perform decontamination and size reduction of highly Pu contaminated process exhaust (1,100 ft) and gloveboxes. Pu-238/239 concentrations were as high a 1 Ci per linear foot and averaged approximately 1 mCi/ft. The Project decontamination objective was to reduce the plutonium contamination on surfaces below transuranic levels. If possible, metal surfaces were decontaminated further to meet Science and Ecology Group (SEG) waste classification guidelines to enable the metal to be recycled at their facility in oak Ridge, Tennessee. Project surface contamination acceptance criteria for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), transuranic waste, and SEG waste acceptance criteria will be presented. Ninety percent of all radioactive waste for the project was characterized as LLRW. Twenty percent of this material was shipped to SEG. Process exhaust and glove boxes were brought to the project decontamination area, an old hot cell in Building 4 North. This paper focuses on process exhaust and glovebox decontamination methodology, size reduction techniques, waste characterization, airborne contamination monitoring, engineering controls, worker protection, lessons learned, and waste minimization. Decontamination objectives are discussed in detail.

  8. ORNL decontamination and decommissioning program

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    A program has been initiated at ORNL to decontaminate and decommission surplus or abandoned nuclear facilities. Program planning and technical studies have been performed by UCC-ND Engineering. A feasibility study for decommissioning the Metal Recovery Facility, a fuel reprocessing pilot plant, has been completed.

  9. Decontamination processes for waste glass canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, W.N.

    1981-06-01

    The process which will be used to decontaminate waste glass canisters at the Savannah River Plant consists of: decontamination (slurry blasting); rinse (high-pressure water); and spot decontamination (high-pressure water plus slurry). No additional waste will be produced by this process because glass frit used in decontamination will be mixed with the radioactive waste and fed into the glass melter. Decontamination of waste glass canisters with chemical and abrasive blasting techniques was investigated. The ability of a chemical technique with HNO/sub 3/-HF and H/sub 2/C/sub 2/O/sub 4/ to remove baked-on contamination was demonstrated. A correlation between oxide removal and decontamination was observed. Oxide removal and, thus, decontamination by abrasive blasting techniques with glass frit as the abrasive was proposed and demonstrated.

  10. A decontamination study of simulated chemical and biological agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Lee, Han Y.; Hong, Yong C.; Shin, Dong H.; Park, Yun H.; Hong, Yi F.; Lee, Chong K.

    2007-07-01

    A comprehensive decontamination scheme of the chemical and biological agents, including airborne agents and surface contaminating agents, is presented. When a chemical and biological attack occurs, it is critical to decontaminate facilities or equipments to an acceptable level in a very short time. The plasma flame presented here may provide a rapid and effective elimination of toxic substances in the interior air in isolated spaces. As an example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22cm diameter and 30cm length, purifies air with an airflow rate of 5000l/min contaminated with toluene, the simulated chemical agent, and soot from a diesel engine, the simulated aerosol for biological agents. Although the airborne agents in an isolated space are eliminated to an acceptable level by the plasma flame, the decontamination of the chemical and biological agents cannot be completed without cleaning surfaces of the facilities. A simulated sterilization study of micro-organisms was carried out using the electrolyzed ozone water. The electrolyzed ozone water very effectively kills endospores of Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC 9372) within 3min. The electrolyzed ozone water also kills the vegetative micro-organisms, fungi, and virus. The electrolyzed ozone water, after the decontamination process, disintegrates into ordinary water and oxygen without any trace of harmful materials to the environment.

  11. A decontamination study of simulated chemical and biological agents

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Han S.; Lee, Han Y.; Hong, Yong C.; Shin, Dong H.; Park, Yun H.; Hong, Yi F.; Lee, Chong K.

    2007-07-01

    A comprehensive decontamination scheme of the chemical and biological agents, including airborne agents and surface contaminating agents, is presented. When a chemical and biological attack occurs, it is critical to decontaminate facilities or equipments to an acceptable level in a very short time. The plasma flame presented here may provide a rapid and effective elimination of toxic substances in the interior air in isolated spaces. As an example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22 cm diameter and 30 cm length, purifies air with an airflow rate of 5000 l/min contaminated with toluene, the simulated chemical agent, and soot from a diesel engine, the simulated aerosol for biological agents. Although the airborne agents in an isolated space are eliminated to an acceptable level by the plasma flame, the decontamination of the chemical and biological agents cannot be completed without cleaning surfaces of the facilities. A simulated sterilization study of micro-organisms was carried out using the electrolyzed ozone water. The electrolyzed ozone water very effectively kills endospores of Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC 9372) within 3 min. The electrolyzed ozone water also kills the vegetative micro-organisms, fungi, and virus. The electrolyzed ozone water, after the decontamination process, disintegrates into ordinary water and oxygen without any trace of harmful materials to the environment.

  12. Plasma Decontamination of Space Equipment for Planetary Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Hubertus; Barczyk, Simon; Rettberg, Petra; Shimizu, Satoshi; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Klaempfl, Tobias; Morfill, Gregor; Zimmermann, Julia; Weber, Peter

    The search for extraterrestrial life is one of the most challenging science topics for the next decades. Space missions, like ExoMars, plan to land and search for biological remnants on planets and moons in our nearby Solar system. Planetary protection regulations defined by COSPAR prevent that during the mission biological contamination of the bodies occur through the space probes. Therefore decontamination of the probes and more general space equipment is necessary before the launch. The up-to-date accepted decontamination procedure originate from the old NASA Viking missions and use dry heat (T>110°C for 30h) - a technology not well suited for sensitive equipment nowadays. We investigated in a study financed by the German Space Agency* cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) as an alternative for such decontamination. It is well known that CAP can kill bacteria or spores within seconds or minutes, respectively, if the plasma is in direct contact with the treated sample. This procedure might also be quite aggressive to the treated surface materials. Therefore, we developed an afterglow CAP device specially designed for the soft treatment of space equipment. Afterglow plasma produced by a SMD device in air is transported into a “larger” treatment chamber where the samples are positioned. It could be shown that samples of different bacteria and spores, the latter defined by COSPAR as a means to show the effectiveness of the decontamination process, positioned on different materials (steel, Teflon, quartz) could be effectively inactivated. The surface materials were investigated after the plasma treatment to identify etching or deposition problems. The afterglow in the treatment chamber could even overcome obstacles (tubes of different height and diameter) which simulate more complicated structures of the relevant surfaces. Up to now, CAP looks like a quite promising alternative to decontaminate space equipment and need to be studied in greater detail in the near future

  13. Decontamination of metal substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, L.D.

    1998-12-31

    A brief look at the history of surface corrosion and contamination of steel is important for understanding the best approach to proper cleaning of substrates prior to surface preparation and application of coatings and linings, particularly in immersion conditions such as encountered in railroad hopper and tank cars. All contaminants contribute to reduction of the coating or lining`s capacity to either protect the substrate or prevent contamination of the liquid cargo. This paper will explore the types of tests available to determine the levels of contamination, particularly sulfides, sulfates and chlorides, along with suggested methods to reduce theses contaminants to acceptable levels.

  14. Modification et caractérisation de la surface de fibres de verre pour son insertion postérieure dans des matériaux cimentaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bismarck, A.; Ajuriagojeaskoa, E. E.; Springer, J.; Habel, W. R.

    1999-07-01

    Optical fibres are widely used as physical and mechanical sensors in various matrices. Those commercial available fibres are mostly coated with different polymers (e.g. polyimide). The problem of using such coatings is the undefined adhesion and the stress transmission from the matrix material into the fibre as well as the alkaline attack from the cementitious environments onto the glass surface. Therefore the known silanisation process with alkylsilanes for surface modification was studied. To achieve a silane film onto the fibre surface as close as possible a fibre pre-treatment in oxygen plasma was applied. The wetting behaviour of the oxygen plasma treated fibres as well as the silanized fibres were studied using the Wilhelmy-method. The influence of the silane concentration and the time of the pre-treatment on the wetting properties was investigated. By scanning electron microscopy, changes of the surface morphology were detected. Additionally, the mechanical properties of the oxygen plasma treated fibres, and silanized fibres exposed to a highly alkaline pore solution were measured. For selected fibre samples (decoated and untreated as well as silanized fibres) the adhesion to a concrete matrix was studied using the indention test. Les fibres optiques sont de plus en plus utilisées comme capteurs des propriétés physiques et mécaniques de nombreuses matrices. Ces fibres commerciales sont généralement enrobées avec différents polymères (par exemple polyimide). Les problèmes dus à l'enrobage des fibres optiques sont une adhésion et une transmission de charge de la matrice du béton à la fibre non définies. Un autre problème majeur est l'alcalinité du béton et son influence sur la surface de la fibre. Nous avons utilisé le procédé de silanisation. Pour obtenir un film de silane le plus homogène possible sur la surface, les fibres sont pré-traitées par le plasma d?oxygène. Le mouillage de fibres traitées par le plasma d?oxygène, ainsi que

  15. Preliminary design and estimate of capital and operating costs for a production scale application of laser decontamination technology

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, Ho-ming; Edelson, M.C.

    1994-08-06

    The application of laser ablation technology to the decontamination of radioactive metals, particularly the surfaces of equipment, is discussed. Included is information related to the design, capital and operating costs, and effectiveness of laser ablation technology, based on commercial excimer and Nd:YAG lasers, for the decontamination of production scale equipment.

  16. Application of SO(4)(2-)/TiO2 solid superacid in decontaminating radioactive pollutants.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hong-Ling; Tan, Zhao-Yi; Liao, Yan-Tai; Feng, Yi-Jun

    2006-01-01

    Polyaniline doped with SO(4)(2-)/TiO(2) superacid shows good conductive ability. When used in a strippable coating film for decontaminating radioactive pollutants, the SO(4)(2-)/TiO(2) solid superacid replacing HCl exhibits higher electrical conductivity (7.01 s/cm) and a decontamination ratio higher than 97%. Coating and electrolyzing the film in solution or in dry medium were effective methods, the latter was more promising for decontaminating radioactive pollutants which were attached to the surface or within the body of equipments used in nuclear industry. PMID:16442674

  17. Electrolytic decontamination of conductive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, T.O.; Campbell, G.M.; Parker, J.L.; Getty, R.H.; Hergert, T.R.; Lindahl, K.A.; Peppers, L.G.

    1993-10-01

    Using the electrolytic method, the authors have demonstrated removal of Pu from contaminated conductive material. At EG&G Rocky Flats, they electrolytically decontaminated stainless steel. Results from this work show removal of fixed contamination, including the following geometries: planar, large radius, bolt holes, glove ports, and protruding studs. More specifically, fixed contamination was reduced from levels ranging > 1,000,000 counts per minute (cpm) down to levels ranging from 1,500 to < 250 cpm with the electrolytic method. More recently, the electrolytic work has continued at LANL as a joint project with EG&G. Impressively, electrolytic decontamination experiments on removal of Pu from oralloy coupons have shown decreases in swipable contamination that initially ranged from 500,000 to 1,500,000 disintegrations per minute (dpm) down to 0--2 dpm.

  18. Bacterial infections: antibiotics and decontamination.

    PubMed

    Gould, Dinah

    Infectious disease is caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa and micro-organisms including the mycoplasmas, rickettsiae and chlamydiae. Most of the infections commonly encountered in the UK are caused either by bacteria or viruses. This article describes bacterial structure and function to explain how antibiotics work and the processes of decontamination such as cleaning, disinfection and sterilisation, which are important in infection control. PMID:15224613

  19. New Waste Calcining Facility Non-Radioactive Process Decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, Michael C.

    2001-09-30

    This report documents the results of a test of the New Calcining Facility (NWCF) process decontamination system. The decontamination system test occurred in December 1981, during non-radioactive testing of the NWCF. The purpose of the decontamination system test was to identify equipment whose design prevented effective calcine removal and decontamination. Effective equipment decontamination was essential to reduce radiation fields for in-cell work after radioactive processing began. The decontamination system test began with a pre-decontamination inspection of the equipment. The pre- decontamination inspection documented the initial condition and cleanliness of the equipment. It provided a basis for judging the effectiveness of the decontamination. The decontamination consisted of a series of equipment flushes using nitric acid and water. A post-decontamination equipment inspection determined the effectiveness of the decontamination. The pre-decontamination and post-decontamination equipment inspections were documented with photographs. The decontamination system was effective in removing calcine from most of the NWCF equipment as evidenced by little visible calcine residue in the equipment after decontamination. The decontamination test identified four areas where the decontamination system required improvement. These included the Calciner off-gas line, Cyclone off-gas line, fluidizing air line, and the Calciner baffle plates. Physical modifications to enhance decontamination were made to those areas, resulting in an effective NWCF decontamination system.

  20. Soil Washing Experiment for Decontamination of Contaminated NPP Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Son, J.K.; Kang, K.D.; Kim, K.D.; Ha, J.H.; Song, M.J.

    2006-07-01

    The preliminary experiment was performed to obtain the operating conditions of soil washing decontamination process such as decontamination agent, decontamination temperature, decontamination time and ratio of soil and decontamination agent. To estimate decontamination efficiency, particle size of soil was classified into three categories; {>=} 2.0 mm, 2.0 {approx} 0.21 mm and {<=} 0.21 mm. Major target of this experiment was decontamination of Cs-137. The difference of decontamination efficiency using water and neutral salts as decontamination agent is not high. It is concluded that the best temperature of decontamination agent is normal temperature and the best decontamination time was about 60 minutes. And the best ratio of soil and decontamination agent is 1:10. In case of Cs decontamination for fine soils, the decontamination results using neutral salts such as Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} shows some limits while using strong acid such as sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid shows high decontamination efficiency ({>=}90%). But we conclude that decontamination using strong acid is also inappropriate because of the insufficiency of decontamination efficiency for highly radioactive fine soils and the difficulty for treatment of secondary liquid waste. It is estimated that the best decontamination process is to use water as decontamination agent for particles which can be decontaminated to clearance level, after particle size separation. (authors)

  1. New Waste Calcining Facility Non-radioactive Process Decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, Michael Clair

    2001-09-01

    This report documents the results of a test of the New Calcining Facility (NWCF) process decontamination system. The decontamination system test occurred in December 1981, during non-radioactive testing of the NWCF. The purpose of the decontamination system test was to identify equipment whose design prevented effective calcine removal and decontamination. Effective equipment decontamination was essential to reduce radiation fields for in-cell work after radioactive processing began. The decontamination system test began with a pre-decontamination inspection of the equipment. The pre-decontamination inspection documented the initial condition and cleanliness of the equipment. It provided a basis for judging the effectiveness of the decontamination. The decontamination consisted of a series of equipment flushes using nitric acid and water. A post-decontamination equipment inspection determined the effectiveness of the decontamination. The pre-decontamination and post-decontamination equipment inspections were documented with hotographs. The decontamination system was effective in removing calcine from most of the NWCF equipment as evidenced by little visible calcine residue in the equipment after decontamination. The decontamination test identified four areas where the decontamination system required improvement. These included the Calciner off-gas line, Cyclone off-gas line, fluidizing air line, and the Calciner baffle plates. Physical modifications to enhance decontamination were made to those areas, resulting in an effective NWCF decontamination system.

  2. Ultrasonic decontamination of prototype fast breeder reactor fuel pins.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Aniruddha; Bhatt, R B; Behere, P G; Afzal, Mohd

    2014-04-01

    Fuel pin decontamination is the process of removing particulates of radioactive material from its exterior surface. It is an important process step in nuclear fuel fabrication. It assumes more significance with plutonium bearing fuel known to be highly radio-toxic owing to its relatively longer biological half life and shorter radiological half life. Release of even minute quantity of plutonium oxide powder in the atmosphere during its handling can cause alarming air borne activity and may pose a severe health hazard to personnel working in the vicinity. Decontamination of fuel pins post pellet loading operation is thus mandatory before they are removed from the glove box for further processing and assembly. This paper describes the setting up of ultrasonic decontamination process, installed inside a custom built fume-hood in the production line, comprising of a cleaning tank with transducers, heaters, pin handling device and water filtration system and its application in cleaning of fuel pins for prototype fast breeder reactor. The cleaning process yielded a typical decontamination efficiency of more than 99%. PMID:24405906

  3. Change in tensile properties of neoprene and nitrile gloves after repeated exposures to acetone and thermal decontamination.

    PubMed

    Gao, Pengfei; Tomasovic, Beth

    2005-11-01

    This study investigated the change in tensile properties of neoprene and nitrile gloves after repeated cycles of exposure to acetone, followed by thermal decontamination. The glove was exposed to acetone (outer surface in contact with chemical), subjected to thermal decontamination, and tested for the tensile strength and the ultimate elongation. Thermal decontamination was carried out inside an oven for 16 hours at 100 degrees C. The exposure/decontamination procedure was repeated for a maximum of 10 cycles. For neoprene versus acetone, the mean tensile strength consistently decreased after each exposure/decontamination cycle. Multiple comparisons indicated that the mean tensile strengths between the new swatches and each exposure/decontamination group were significantly different (p < 0.05). The loss of either tensile strength or ultimate elongation was less than 23% compared with new swatches after four exposure/decontamination cycles. Swatches with out acetone exposure were then cycled through the oven in the same manner. It was found that both the heat used for thermal decontamination and acetone exposure significantly affected the tensile strength and ultimate elongation. For nitrile gloves exposed to acetone, the mean tensile strength remained virtually unchanged (p > 0.05). The mean tensile strength for the new swatches was 37.1 MPa and the mean tensile strength after nine exposure/decontamination cycles was 36.0 MPa, with a loss less than 3%. The largest single cycle loss for ultimate elongation occurred during the first exposure/decontamination cycle for both glove materials. In our previous study, decisions regarding the effectiveness of the decontamination process were based on having no discernible change in the breakthrough time and steady-state permeation rate. The results of this study indicate that the effectiveness of the decontamination process cannot be based on permeation parameters alone but must also take into account the change in physical

  4. Properties and solidification of decontamination wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.S.; Piciulo, P.L.; Bowerman, B.S.; Adams, J.W.; Milian, L.

    1983-01-01

    LWRs will require one or more chemical decontaminations to achieve their designed lifetimes. Primary system decontamination is designed to lower radiation fields in areas where plant maintenance personnel must work. Chemical decontamination methods are either hard (concentrated chemicals, approximately 5 to 25 weight percent) or soft (dilute chemicals less than 1 percent by weight). These methods may have different chemical reagents, some tailor-made to the crud composition and many methods are and will be proprietary. One factor common to most commercially available processes is the presence of organic acids and chelates. These types of organic reagents are known to enhance the migration of radionuclides after disposal in a shallow land burial site. The NRC sponsors two programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory that are concerned with the management of decontamination wastes which will be generated by the full system decontamination of LWRs. These two programs focus on potential methods for degrading or converting decontamination wastes to more acceptable forms prior to disposal and the impact of disposing of solidified decontamination wastes. The results of the solidification of simulated decontamination resin wastes will be presented. Recent results on combustion of simulated decontamintion wastes will be described and procedures for evaluating the release of decontamination reagents from solidified wastes will be summarized.

  5. Decontamination pays off for nuke owners

    SciTech Connect

    Smock, R.

    1984-11-01

    As radiation levels build up in aging reactors, decontamination is rapidly becoming a routine maintenance procedure. The industry is coping with the problem with improved technology and with the support by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Decontamination of subsystems does not require public hearings or special licenses. Dilute chemical solvents remove radioactive deposits while lessening the problems of corrosion and waste disposal. Utility representatives shared experiences at a conference with decontamination of both light water and pressurized water reactors. They agreed that the next step should be full primary coolant system decontamination to improve savings even more. 1 figure, 2 tables.

  6. Evaluation of the efficiency of radioactive decontamination for alkyd and epoxy-urethane coating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jevremović, Milutin; Milošević, Bratislav; Lazarević, Nataša

    2010-01-01

    This article presents experimental results obtained by the investigation of the efficiency of radioactive decontamination of a metal surface with alkyd and epoxy-urethane coating systems, which are used for the painting of military equipment. During the evaluation of the efficiency of decontamination, the impact of contaminants on the coating was not examined but the amount of contaminants residual after decontamination was, and was determined by activity measurements of the surface. The samples for testing were painted aluminum plates contaminated by liquid solutions of radioactive isotopes 60Co, 133Ba, 152Eu and 241Am (A=12297.91 Bq/ml). Decontamination of contaminated samples was performed with 0.5% detergent solution on the basis of synthetic surfactants. The activity measurements of samples were conducted using gamma spectroscopy system with a high-resolution high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector of relative efficiency of 50% at 60Co (1.33 MeV). The degree of removal of the radioactivity on the samples was observed as an indicator of the efficiency of decontamination. A comparison of the results is presented in relation to the retention time of the contamination on the surface coating, which is an important factor for the efficiency of decontamination. The samples with an alkyd coating system showed better efficiency of decontamination than the samples with the epoxy-urethane coating system, although the coatings based on epoxy and urethane resin were superior in relation to the alkyd in terms of protection, decorative characteristics and chemical resistance. The difference in the efficiency of decontamination for the examined coatings increases almost linearly in relation to the retention time of the contaminants in the coating.

  7. Decontamination of Anthrax spores in critical infrastructure and critical assets.

    SciTech Connect

    Boucher, Raymond M.; Crown, Kevin K.; Tucker, Mark David; Hankins, Matthew Granholm

    2010-05-01

    Decontamination of anthrax spores in critical infrastructure (e.g., subway systems, major airports) and critical assets (e.g., the interior of aircraft) can be challenging because effective decontaminants can damage materials. Current decontamination methods require the use of highly toxic and/or highly corrosive chemical solutions because bacterial spores are very difficult to kill. Bacterial spores such as Bacillus anthracis, the infectious agent of anthrax, are one of the most resistant forms of life and are several orders of magnitude more difficult to kill than their associated vegetative cells. Remediation of facilities and other spaces (e.g., subways, airports, and the interior of aircraft) contaminated with anthrax spores currently requires highly toxic and corrosive chemicals such as chlorine dioxide gas, vapor- phase hydrogen peroxide, or high-strength bleach, typically requiring complex deployment methods. We have developed a non-toxic, non-corrosive decontamination method to kill highly resistant bacterial spores in critical infrastructure and critical assets. A chemical solution that triggers the germination process in bacterial spores and causes those spores to rapidly and completely change to much less-resistant vegetative cells that can be easily killed. Vegetative cells are then exposed to mild chemicals (e.g., low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, quaternary ammonium compounds, alcohols, aldehydes, etc.) or natural elements (e.g., heat, humidity, ultraviolet light, etc.) for complete and rapid kill. Our process employs a novel germination solution consisting of low-cost, non-toxic and non-corrosive chemicals. We are testing both direct surface application and aerosol delivery of the solutions. A key Homeland Security need is to develop the capability to rapidly recover from an attack utilizing biological warfare agents. This project will provide the capability to rapidly and safely decontaminate critical facilities and assets to return them to

  8. Assessing microbial decontamination of indoor air with particular focus on human pathogenic viruses.

    PubMed

    Duchaine, Caroline

    2016-09-01

    Transmission of bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens is of primary importance in public and occupational health and infection control. Although several standardized protocols have been proposed to target microbes on fomites through surface decontamination, use of microbicidal agents, and cleaning processes, only limited guidance is available on microbial decontamination of indoor air to reduce the risk of pathogen transmission between individuals. This article reviews the salient aspects of airborne transmission of infectious agents, exposure assessment, in vitro assessment of microbicidal agents, and processes for air decontamination for infection prevention and control. Laboratory-scale testing (eg, rotating chambers, wind tunnels) and promising field-scale methodologies to decontaminate indoor air are also presented. The potential of bacteriophages as potential surrogates for the study of airborne human pathogenic viruses is also discussed. PMID:27590696

  9. A DECONTAMINATION PROCESS FOR METAL SCRAPS FROM THE DECOMMISSIONING OF TRR

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, T.Y.; Gan, J.S.; Lin, K.M.; Chung, Z.J.

    2003-02-27

    A decontamination facility including surface condition categorizing, blasting, chemical/electrochemical cleaning, very low radioactivity measuring, and melting, is being established at INER. The facility will go into operation by the end of 2004. The main purpose is to clean the dismantled metal wastes from the decommissioning of Taiwan Research Reactor (TRR). The pilot test shows that over 70% of low level metal waste can be decontaminated to very low activity and can be categorized as BRC (below regulatory concern) waste. All the chemical decontamination technologies applied are developed by INER. In order to reduce the secondary wastes, chemical reagents will be regenerated several times with a selective precipitation method. The exhausted chemical reagent will be solidified with INER's patented process. The total secondary waste is estimated about 0.1-0.3 wt.% of the original waste. This decontamination process is accessed to be economic and feasible.

  10. DISPOSAL OF RESIDUES FROM BUILDING DECONTAMINATION ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    After a building has gone through decontamination activities from a chemical attack there will be a significant amount of building decontamination residue that will need to undergo disposal. This project consists of a fundamental study to investigate the desorption of simulated c...

  11. INTEGRATED VERTICAL AND OVERHEAD DECONTAMINATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities performed during FY98 and describes the planned activities for FY99. Accomplishments for FY98 include identifying and selecting decontamination, the screening of potential characterization technologies, development of minimum performance factors for the decontamination technology, and development and identification of Applicable, Relevant and Appropriate Regulations (ARARs).

  12. [Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents].

    PubMed

    Seto, Yasuo

    2009-01-01

    Chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA's) are diverse in nature; volatile acute low-molecular-weight toxic compounds, chemical warfare agents (CWA's, gaseous choking and blood agents, volatile nerve gases and blister agents, nonvolatile vomit agents and lacrymators), biological toxins (nonvolatile low-molecular-weight toxins, proteinous toxins) and microbes (bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae). In the consequence management against chemical and biological terrorism, speedy decontamination of victims, facilities and equipment is required for the minimization of the damage. In the present situation, washing victims and contaminated materials with large volumes of water is the basic way, and additionally hypochlorite salt solution is used for decomposition of CWA's. However, it still remains unsolved how to dispose large volumes of waste water, and the decontamination reagents have serious limitation of high toxicity, despoiling nature against the environments, long finishing time and non-durability in effective decontamination. Namely, the existing decontamination system is not effective, nonspecifically affecting the surrounding non-target materials. Therefore, it is the urgent matter to build up the usable decontamination system surpassing the present technologies. The symposiast presents the on-going joint project of research and development of the novel decontamination system against CBWA's, in the purpose of realizing nontoxic, fast, specific, effective and economical terrorism on-site decontamination. The projects consists of (1) establishment of the decontamination evaluation methods and verification of the existing technologies and adaptation of bacterial organophosphorus hydrolase, (2) development of adsorptive elimination technologies using molecular recognition tools, and (4) development of deactivation technologies using photocatalysis. PMID:19122437

  13. Fighting Ebola with novel spore decontamination technologies for the military

    SciTech Connect

    Doona, Christopher J.; Feeherry, Florence E.; Kustin, Kenneth; Olinger, Gene G.; Setlow, Peter; Malkin, Alexander J.; Leighton, Terrance

    2015-08-12

    Recently, global public health organizations such as Doctors without Borders (MSF), the World Health Organization (WHO), Public Health Canada, National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the U.S. government developed and deployed Field Decontamination Kits (FDKs), a novel, lightweight, compact, reusable decontamination technology to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical devices at remote clinical sites lacking infra-structure in crisis-stricken regions of West Africa (medical waste materials are placed in bags and burned). The basis for effectuating sterilization with FDKs is chlorine dioxide (ClO2) produced from a patented invention developed by researchers at the US Army Natick Soldier RD&E Center (NSRDEC) and commercialized as a dry mixed-chemical for bacterial spore decontamination. In fact, the NSRDEC research scientists developed an ensemble of ClO2 technologies designed for different applications in decontaminating fresh produce; food contact and handling surfaces; personal protective equipment; textiles used in clothing, uniforms, tents, and shelters; graywater recycling; airplanes; surgical instruments; and hard surfaces in latrines, laundries, and deployable medical facilities. These examples demonstrate the far-reaching impact, adaptability, and versatility of these innovative technologies. Here, we present the unique attributes of NSRDEC’s novel decontamination technologies and a Case Study of the development of FDKs that were deployed in West Africa by international public health organizations to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical equipment. FDKs use bacterial spores as indicators of sterility. We review the properties and structures of spores and the mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by ClO2. We also review mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by novel, emerging, and established non-thermal technologies for food preservation, such as high pressure processing, irradiation, cold plasma, and chemical

  14. Fighting Ebola with novel spore decontamination technologies for the military

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Doona, Christopher J.; Feeherry, Florence E.; Kustin, Kenneth; Olinger, Gene G.; Setlow, Peter; Malkin, Alexander J.; Leighton, Terrance

    2015-08-12

    Recently, global public health organizations such as Doctors without Borders (MSF), the World Health Organization (WHO), Public Health Canada, National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the U.S. government developed and deployed Field Decontamination Kits (FDKs), a novel, lightweight, compact, reusable decontamination technology to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical devices at remote clinical sites lacking infra-structure in crisis-stricken regions of West Africa (medical waste materials are placed in bags and burned). The basis for effectuating sterilization with FDKs is chlorine dioxide (ClO2) produced from a patented invention developed by researchers at the US Army Natick Soldier RD&E Center (NSRDEC) and commercialized as amore » dry mixed-chemical for bacterial spore decontamination. In fact, the NSRDEC research scientists developed an ensemble of ClO2 technologies designed for different applications in decontaminating fresh produce; food contact and handling surfaces; personal protective equipment; textiles used in clothing, uniforms, tents, and shelters; graywater recycling; airplanes; surgical instruments; and hard surfaces in latrines, laundries, and deployable medical facilities. These examples demonstrate the far-reaching impact, adaptability, and versatility of these innovative technologies. Here, we present the unique attributes of NSRDEC’s novel decontamination technologies and a Case Study of the development of FDKs that were deployed in West Africa by international public health organizations to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical equipment. FDKs use bacterial spores as indicators of sterility. We review the properties and structures of spores and the mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by ClO2. We also review mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by novel, emerging, and established non-thermal technologies for food preservation, such as high pressure processing, irradiation, cold plasma, and chemical sanitizers, using an array of

  15. Fighting Ebola with novel spore decontamination technologies for the military.

    PubMed

    Doona, Christopher J; Feeherry, Florence E; Kustin, Kenneth; Olinger, Gene G; Setlow, Peter; Malkin, Alexander J; Leighton, Terrance

    2015-01-01

    Recently, global public health organizations such as Doctors without Borders (MSF), the World Health Organization (WHO), Public Health Canada, National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the U.S. government developed and deployed Field Decontamination Kits (FDKs), a novel, lightweight, compact, reusable decontamination technology to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical devices at remote clinical sites lacking infra-structure in crisis-stricken regions of West Africa (medical waste materials are placed in bags and burned). The basis for effectuating sterilization with FDKs is chlorine dioxide (ClO2) produced from a patented invention developed by researchers at the US Army Natick Soldier RD&E Center (NSRDEC) and commercialized as a dry mixed-chemical for bacterial spore decontamination. In fact, the NSRDEC research scientists developed an ensemble of ClO2 technologies designed for different applications in decontaminating fresh produce; food contact and handling surfaces; personal protective equipment; textiles used in clothing, uniforms, tents, and shelters; graywater recycling; airplanes; surgical instruments; and hard surfaces in latrines, laundries, and deployable medical facilities. These examples demonstrate the far-reaching impact, adaptability, and versatility of these innovative technologies. We present herein the unique attributes of NSRDEC's novel decontamination technologies and a Case Study of the development of FDKs that were deployed in West Africa by international public health organizations to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical equipment. FDKs use bacterial spores as indicators of sterility. We review the properties and structures of spores and the mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by ClO2. We also review mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by novel, emerging, and established non-thermal technologies for food preservation, such as high pressure processing, irradiation, cold plasma, and chemical sanitizers, using an array of Bacillus

  16. Fighting Ebola with novel spore decontamination technologies for the military

    PubMed Central

    Doona, Christopher J.; Feeherry, Florence E.; Kustin, Kenneth; Olinger, Gene G.; Setlow, Peter; Malkin, Alexander J.; Leighton, Terrance

    2015-01-01

    Recently, global public health organizations such as Doctors without Borders (MSF), the World Health Organization (WHO), Public Health Canada, National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the U.S. government developed and deployed Field Decontamination Kits (FDKs), a novel, lightweight, compact, reusable decontamination technology to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical devices at remote clinical sites lacking infra-structure in crisis-stricken regions of West Africa (medical waste materials are placed in bags and burned). The basis for effectuating sterilization with FDKs is chlorine dioxide (ClO2) produced from a patented invention developed by researchers at the US Army Natick Soldier RD&E Center (NSRDEC) and commercialized as a dry mixed-chemical for bacterial spore decontamination. In fact, the NSRDEC research scientists developed an ensemble of ClO2 technologies designed for different applications in decontaminating fresh produce; food contact and handling surfaces; personal protective equipment; textiles used in clothing, uniforms, tents, and shelters; graywater recycling; airplanes; surgical instruments; and hard surfaces in latrines, laundries, and deployable medical facilities. These examples demonstrate the far-reaching impact, adaptability, and versatility of these innovative technologies. We present herein the unique attributes of NSRDEC’s novel decontamination technologies and a Case Study of the development of FDKs that were deployed in West Africa by international public health organizations to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical equipment. FDKs use bacterial spores as indicators of sterility. We review the properties and structures of spores and the mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by ClO2. We also review mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by novel, emerging, and established non-thermal technologies for food preservation, such as high pressure processing, irradiation, cold plasma, and chemical sanitizers, using an array of Bacillus

  17. The effect of saliva decontamination procedures on dentin bond strength after universal adhesive curing

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jayang; Hong, Sungok; Choi, Yoorina

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of multiple decontamination procedures for salivary contamination after curing of a universal adhesive on dentin bond strength according to its etch modes. Materials and Methods Forty-two extracted bovine incisors were trimmed by exposing the labial dentin surfaces and embedded in cylindrical molds. A universal adhesive (All-Bond Universal, Bisco) was used. The teeth were randomly divided into groups according to etch mode and decontamination procedure. The adhesive was applied according to the manufacturer's instructions for a given etch mode. With the exception of the control groups, the cured adhesive was contaminated with saliva for 20 sec. In the self-etch group, the teeth were divided into three groups: control, decontamination with rinsing and drying, and decontamination with rinsing, drying, and adhesive. In the etch-and-rinse group, the teeth were divided into four groups: control, decontamination with rinsing and drying, decontamination with rinsing, drying, and adhesive, and decontamination with rinsing, drying, re-etching, and reapplication of adhesive. A composite resin (Filtek Z350XT, 3M ESPE) was used for filling and was cured on the treated surfaces. Shear bond strength was measured, and failure modes were evaluated. The data were subjected to one-way analysis of variation and Tukey's HSD test. Results The etch-and-rinse subgroup that was decontaminated by rinse, drying, re-etching, and reapplication of adhesive showed a significantly higher bond strength. Conclusions When salivary contamination occurs after curing of the universal adhesive, additional etching improves the bond strength to dentin. PMID:26587416

  18. Psychosocial considerations for mass decontamination.

    PubMed

    Lemyre, Louise; Johnson, Colleen; Corneil, Wayne

    2010-11-01

    Mass exposure to explosions, infectious agents, foodborne illnesses, chemicals or radiological materials may require mass decontamination that have critical psychosocial implications for the public and for both traditional and non-traditional responders in terms of impact and of response. Five main issues are common to mass decontamination events: (i) perception, (ii) somatisation, (iii) media role and communication, (iv) information sharing, (v) behavioural guidance and (vi) organisational issues. Empirical evidence is drawn from a number of cases, including Chernobyl; Goiania, Brazil; the sarin gas attack in Tokyo; the anthrax attacks in the USA; Three Mile Island; and by features of the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome pandemic. In this paper, a common platform for mass casualty management is explored and suggestions for mass interventions are proposed across the complete event timeline, from pre-event threat and warning stages through to the impact and reconstruction phases. Implication for responders, healthcare and emergency infrastructure, public behaviour, screening processes, risk communication and media management are described. PMID:20924122

  19. Application of epifluorescence scanning for monitoring the efficacy of protein removal by RF gas-plasma decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, Helen C.; Richardson, Patricia R.; Campbell, Gaynor A.; Kovalev, Valeri I.; Maier, Robert; Barton, James S.; Jones, Anita C.; De Large, Greg; Casey, Mark; Baxter, Robert L.

    2009-11-01

    The development of methods for measuring the efficiency of gas-plasma decontamination has lagged far behind application. An approach to measuring the efficiency of protein removal from solid surfaces using fluorescein-labelled bovine serum albumin and epifluorescence scanning (EFSCAN) is described. A method for fluorescently labelling proteins, which are adsorbed and denatured on metal surfaces, has been developed. Both approaches have been used to evaluate the efficiency of radio frequency (RF) gas-plasma decontamination protocols. Examples with 'real' surgical instruments demonstrate that an argon-oxygen RF gas-plasma treatment can routinely reduce the protein load by about three orders of magnitude beyond that achieved by current decontamination methods.

  20. Using Low Temperature Plasma as a Method of Decontamination of Fruits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohades, Soheila; Jonas, Richard; Barekzi, Nazir; Laroussi, Mounir

    2013-09-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas have been investigated in biomedical applications as well as surface decontamination. The characteristics of the helium plasma generated by the plasma pencil have been elucidated using spectroscopy methods, which revealed the formation of radical and metastable states. The plasma pencil generates biologically tolerant plasma (BTP) that is not thermally harmful to biological living tissues. In addition, there are no persistent chemical residues as compared to the use of cleaning solutions. The rational for this study is that the low thermal load and the reactive species can be exploited in decontaminating fruit surfaces. The BTP is evaluated in the killing of bacteria in solution and on the surface of food. The focus of this paper is to evaluate the efficacy of decontaminating surfaces of plants such as green peppers. The doses of plasma, media and growth conditions, as well as the general effect of plasma on fruit without bacteria are investigated using bacterial killing assays and spectroscopy.

  1. Plutonium Decontamination Using CBI Decon Gel 1101 in Highly Contaminated and Unique Areas at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, M; Fischer, R P; Thoet, M M; O'Neill, M; Edgington, G

    2008-06-09

    A highly contaminated glove-box at LLNL containing plutonium was decontaminated using a strippable decontamination gel. 6 x 12 inch quadrants were mapped out on each of the surfaces. The gel was applied to various surfaces inside the glove-box and was allowed to cure. The radioactivity in each quadrant was measured using a LLNL Blue Alpha meter with a 1.5 inch standoff distance. The results showed decontamination factors of 130 and 210 on cast steel and Lexan{reg_sign} surfaces respectively after several applications. The gel also absorbed more than 91% of the radiation emitted from the surfaces during gel curing. The removed strippable film was analyzed by neutron multiplicity counting and gamma spectroscopy, yielding relative mass information and radioisotopic composition respectively.

  2. Innovative decontamination technology by abrasion in vibratory vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Fabbri, Silvio; Ilarri, Sergio

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The possibility of using conventional vibratory vessel technology as a decontamination technique is the motivation for the development of this project. The objective is to explore the feasibility of applying the vibratory vessel technology for decontamination of radioactively-contaminated materials such as pipes and metal structures. The research and development of this technology was granted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Abrasion processes in vibratory vessels are widely used in the manufacture of metals, ceramics, and plastics. Samples to be treated, solid abrasive media and liquid media are set up into a vessel. Erosion results from the repeated impact of the abrasive particles on the surface of the body being treated. A liquid media, generally detergents or surfactants aid the abrasive action. The amount of material removed increases with the time of treatment. The design and construction of the machine were provided by Vibro, Argentina private company. Tests with radioactively-contaminated aluminum tubes and a stainless steel bar, were performed at laboratory level. Tests showed that it is possible to clean both the external and the internal surface of contaminated tubes. Results show a decontamination factor around 10 after the first 30 minutes of the cleaning time. (authors)

  3. Cold Atmospheric Plasma Technology for Decontamination of Space Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Hubertus; Rettberg, Petra; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Thoma, Markus; Morfill, Gregor; Zimmermann, Julia; Müller, Meike; Semenov, Igor

    2016-07-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) technology is very fast and effective in inactivation of all kinds of pathogens. It is used in hygiene and especially in medicine, since the plasma treatment can be applied to sensitive surfaces, like skin, too. In a first study to use CAP for the decontamination of space equipment we could show its potential as a quite promising alternative to the standard "dry heat" and H2O2 methods [Shimizu et al. Planetary and Space Science, 90, 60-71. (2014)]. In a follow-on study we continue the investigations to reach high application level of the technology. First, we redesign the actual setup to a plasma-gas circulation system, increasing the effectivity of inactivation and the sustainability. Additionally, we want to learn more about the plasma chemistry processes involved in the inactivation. Therefore, we perform detailed plasma and gas measurements and compare them to numerical simulations. The latter will finally be used to scale the decontamination system to sizes useful also for larger space equipment. Typical materials relevant for space equipment will be tested and investigated on surface material changes due to the plasma treatment. Additionally, it is planned to use electronic boards and compare their functionality before and after the CAP expose. We will give an overview on the status of the plasma decontamination project funded by the Bavarian Ministry of Economics.

  4. Methyl parathion in residential properties: relocation and decontamination methodology.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, J Milton; Bing-Canar, John; Renninger, Steve; Dollhopf, Ralph; El-Zein, Jason; Star, Dave; Zimmerman, Dea; Anisuzzaman, Abul; Boylan, Kathline; Tomaszewski, Terrence; Pearce, Ken; Yacovac, Rebecca; Erlwein, Bobby; Ward, John

    2002-01-01

    In November 1994 methyl parathion (MP), a restricted agricultural pesticide, was discovered to have been illegally sprayed within hundreds of residences in Lorain County, Ohio. Surface levels and air concentrations of MP revealed detectable levels of the pesticide 3 years after spraying. Because of the high toxicity of MP (lethal dose to 50% of rats tested [LD50] = 15 mg/kg) and long half-life indoors, risk-based relocation and decontamination criteria were created. Relocation criteria were derived based on levels of p-nitrophenol in urine, a metabolic byproduct of MP exposure. In Ohio, concentrations of MP on surfaces and in the air were also used to trigger relocations. The criteria applied in Ohio underwent refinement as cases of MP misuse were found in Mississippi and then in several other states. The MP investigation (1994-1997) was the largest pesticide misuse case in the nation, ultimately involving the sampling of 9,000 residences and the decontamination of 1,000 properties. This article describes the methodology used for relocation of residents and decontamination of properties having MP. PMID:12634141

  5. Ultrasonic decontamination in perfluorinated liquids of radioactive circuit boards

    SciTech Connect

    Yam, C.S.; Harling, O.K.; Kaiser, R.

    1994-12-31

    A laboratory-scale ultrasonic decontamination system has been developed to demonstrate the application of Entropic System`s enhanced particle removal process to the radioactive decontamination of electronic circuit boards. The process uses inert perfluorinated liquids as the working media; the liquids have zero ozone depletion potential, are nontoxic, non-flammable, and are generally recognized as nonhazardous materials. The parts to be cleaned are first sonicated with a dilute solution of a high-molecular-weight fluorocarbon surfactant in an inert perfluorinated liquid. The combination of ultrasonic agitation and liquid flow promotes the detachment of the particles from the surface of the part being cleaned, their transfer from the boundary layer into the bulk liquid, and their removal from the cleaning environment, thereby reducing the probability of particle redeposition. After the cleaning process, the parts are rinsed with the pure perfluorinated liquid to remove residual surfactant. The parts are recovered after the perfluorinated liquid is evaporated into air.

  6. DECONTAMINATION ASSESSMENT OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS, BACILLUS SUBTILIS, AND GEOBACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS SPORES ON INDOOR SURFACTS USING A HYDROGEN PERIOXIDE GAS GENERATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aims: To evaluate the decontamination of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus subtilis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on indoor surface materials using hydrogen peroxide gas. Methods and Results: B. anthracis, B. subtilis, and G. Stearothermophilus spores were dried on seven...

  7. Industrial Hygiene Concerns during the Decontamination and Decommissioning of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    M.E. Lumia; C.A. Gentile

    2002-01-18

    A significant industrial hygiene concern during the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was the oxidation of the lead bricks' surface, which were utilized for radiation shielding. This presented both airborne exposure and surface contamination issues for the workers in the field removing this material. This paper will detail the various protection and control methods tested and implemented to protect the workers, including those technologies deployed to decontaminate the work surfaces. In addition, those techniques employed to recycle the lead for additional use at the site will be discussed.

  8. A comparative study for radiological decontamination of laboratory fume hood materials.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Elizabeth; Sweet, Lucas; MacFarlan, Paul; McNamara, Bruce; Kerschner, Harrison

    2012-08-01

    The efficacy for radiological decontamination of the laboratory standard fume hood as constructed of stainless steel, compared to that of powder-coated carbon steel is described. While the chemical inertness of powder-coated surfaces is good, faced with everyday abrasion, aggressive inorganic solutions and vapors, and penetrating organics commonly employed in government laboratory fume hoods, radiological decontamination of powder-coated steel surfaces was found to be similar to those made of stainless steel for easily solubilized or digestible radionuclides. Plutonium was difficult to remove from stainless steel and powder-coated surfaces, especially after prolonged contact times. PMID:22739967

  9. Oxidative Decontamination of Tritiated Materials Employing Ozone Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Charles A. Gentile; John J. Parker; Gregory L. Guttadora

    2001-11-12

    The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has developed a process by which to significantly reduce surface and near surface tritium contamination from various materials. The Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System (OTDS) reacts gaseous state ozone (accelerated by presence of catalyst), with tritium entrained/deposited on the surface of components (stainless steel, copper, plastics, ceramics, etc.), for the purpose of activity reduction by means of oxidation-reduction chemistry. In addition to removing surface and near surface tritium contamination from (high monetary value) components for reuse in non-tritium environments, the OTDS has the capability of removing tritium from the surfaces of expendable items, which can then be disposed of in a less expensive fashion. The OTDS can be operated in a batch mode by which up to approximately 40 pounds of tritium contaminated (expendable) items can be processed and decontaminated to levels permissible for free release (less than1,000 dpm/100 cm 2). This paper will discuss the OTDS process, the level of tritium surface contamination removed from various materials, and a technique for ''deep scrubbing'' tritium from subsurface layers.

  10. Efficacy Assessment of Nucleic Acid Decontamination Reagents Used in Molecular Diagnostic Laboratories.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Melina; Renevey, Nathalie; Thür, Barbara; Hoffmann, Donata; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of nucleic acid cross contamination in the laboratory resulting in false positive results of diagnostic samples is seriously problematic. Despite precautions to minimize or even avoid nucleic acid cross contaminations, it may appear anyway. Until now, no standardized strategy is available to evaluate the efficacy of commercially offered decontamination reagents. Therefore, a protocol for the reliable determination of nucleic acid decontamination efficacy using highly standardized solution and surface tests was established and validated. All tested sodium hypochlorite-based reagents proved to be highly efficient in nucleic acid decontamination even after short reaction times. For DNA Away, a sodium hydroxide-based decontamination product, dose- and time-dependent effectiveness was ascertained. For two other commercial decontamination reagents, the phosphoric acid-based DNA Remover and the non-enzymatic reagent DNA-ExitusPlus™ IF, no reduction of amplifiable DNA/RNA was observed. In conclusion, a simple test procedure for evaluation of the elimination efficacy of decontamination reagents against amplifiable nucleic acid is presented. PMID:27410228

  11. Efficacy Assessment of Nucleic Acid Decontamination Reagents Used in Molecular Diagnostic Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Melina; Renevey, Nathalie; Thür, Barbara; Hoffmann, Donata; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of nucleic acid cross contamination in the laboratory resulting in false positive results of diagnostic samples is seriously problematic. Despite precautions to minimize or even avoid nucleic acid cross contaminations, it may appear anyway. Until now, no standardized strategy is available to evaluate the efficacy of commercially offered decontamination reagents. Therefore, a protocol for the reliable determination of nucleic acid decontamination efficacy using highly standardized solution and surface tests was established and validated. All tested sodium hypochlorite-based reagents proved to be highly efficient in nucleic acid decontamination even after short reaction times. For DNA Away, a sodium hydroxide-based decontamination product, dose- and time-dependent effectiveness was ascertained. For two other commercial decontamination reagents, the phosphoric acid-based DNA Remover and the non-enzymatic reagent DNA-ExitusPlus™ IF, no reduction of amplifiable DNA/RNA was observed. In conclusion, a simple test procedure for evaluation of the elimination efficacy of decontamination reagents against amplifiable nucleic acid is presented. PMID:27410228

  12. Off-site consequences of radiological accidents: methods, costs and schedules for decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Tawil, J.J.; Bold, F.C.; Harrer, B.J.; Currie, J.W.

    1985-08-01

    This report documents a data base and a computer program for conducting a decontamination analysis of a large, radiologically contaminated area. The data base, which was compiled largely through interviews with knowledgeable persons both in the public and private sectors, consists of the costs, physical inputs, rates and contaminant removal efficiencies of a large number of decontamination procedures. The computer program utilizes this data base along with information specific to the contaminated site to provide detailed information that includes the least costly method for effectively decontaminating each surface at the site, various types of property losses associated with the contamination, the time at which each subarea within the site should be decontaminated to minimize these property losses, the quantity of various types of labor and equipment necessary to complete the decontamination, dose to radiation workers, the costs for surveying and monitoring activities, and the disposal costs associated with radiological waste generated during cleanup. The program and data base are demonstrated with a decontamination analysis of a hypothetical site. 39 refs., 24 figs., 155 tabs.

  13. Decontamination of biological agents from drinking water infrastructure: a literature review and summary.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Jeff; Minamyer, Scott

    2014-11-01

    This report summarizes the current state of knowledge on the persistence of biological agents on drinking water infrastructure (such as pipes) along with information on decontamination should persistence occur. Decontamination options for drinking water infrastructure have been explored for some biological agents, but data gaps remain. Data on bacterial spore persistence on common water infrastructure materials such as iron and cement-mortar lined iron show that spores can be persistent for weeks after contamination. Decontamination data show that common disinfectants such as free chlorine have limited effectiveness. Decontamination results with germinant and alternate disinfectants such as chlorine dioxide are more promising. Persistence and decontamination data were collected on vegetative bacteria, such as coliforms, Legionella and Salmonella. Vegetative bacteria are less persistent than spores and more susceptible to disinfection, but the surfaces and water quality conditions in many studies were only marginally related to drinking water systems. However, results of real-world case studies on accidental contamination of water systems with E. coli and Salmonella contamination show that flushing and chlorination can help return a water system to service. Some viral persistence data were found, but decontamination data were lacking. Future research suggestions focus on expanding the available biological persistence data to other common infrastructure materials. Further exploration of non-traditional drinking water disinfectants is recommended for future studies. PMID:24548733

  14. Decontamination of chemical warfare agents. Final report, June 1991-August 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.C.; Baker, J.A.; Ward, J.R.

    1992-12-01

    Reviews of the development of systems to decontaminate chemical warfare agents and of the chemical reactions involved in decontamination are presented in this report. Decontamination is defined as the rapid removal of agents from contaminated surfaces. Simple physical methods, such as evaporation, washing, and scrubbing, fall under this broad definition; however, most of the decontaminants contain reactive components to detoxify as well as remove the agents. In nonaqueous media, a strong base reacts rapidly with the four major chemical agents; mustard, VX, GB, and GD. In aqueous mixtures, H and VX are detoxified with an oxidant; whereas, the G agents are hydrolyzed with an excess of hydroxide ion. Current research efforts are aimed at developing effective decontaminants that are noncorrosive, nontoxic, and environmentally safe. Both catalytic and enzymatic approaches using solid or heterogeneous liquid media are being pursued. A fundamental understanding of the chemical nature of the agents is essential in the success of these approaches.... Decontamination, Sarin, VX, Chemical agents, Soman, Hydrolysis, Review, Mustard gas.

  15. Decontamination of FAST (CPP-666) fuel storage area stainless steel fuel storage racks

    SciTech Connect

    Kessinger, G.F.

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this report was to identify and evaluate alternatives for the decontamination of the RSM stainless steel that will be removed from the Idaho Chemical Processing plant (ICPP) fuel storage area (FSA) located in the FAST (CPP-666) building, and to recommend decontamination alternatives for treating this material. Upon the completion of a literature search, the review of the pertinent literature, and based on the review of a variety of chemical, mechanical, and compound (both chemical and mechanical) decontamination techniques, the preliminary results of analyses of FSA critically barrier contaminants, and the data collected during the FSA Reracking project, it was concluded that decontamination and beneficial recycle of the FSA stainless steel produced is technically feasible and likely to be cost effective as compared to burying the material at the RWMC. It is recommended that an organic acid, or commercial product containing an organic acid, be used to decontaminate the FSA stainless steel; however, it is also recommended that other surface decontamination methods be tested in the event that this method proves unsuitable. Among the techniques that should be investigated are mechanical techniques (CO{sub 2} pellet blasting and ultra-high pressure water blasting) and chemical techniques that are compatible with present ICPP waste streams.

  16. Hairy skin exposure to VX in vitro: effectiveness of delayed decontamination.

    PubMed

    Rolland, P; Bolzinger, M-A; Cruz, C; Josse, D; Briançon, S

    2013-02-01

    The chemical warfare agents such as VX represent a threat for both military and civilians, which involves an immediate need of effective decontamination systems. Since human scalp is usually unprotected compared to other body regions covered with clothes, it could be a preferential site of exposure in case of terrorist acts. The purpose of this study was to determine if skin decontamination could be efficient when performed more than 1h after exposure. In addition, the impact of hairs in skin contamination was investigated. By using in vitro skin models, we demonstrated that about 75% of the applied quantity of VX was recovered on the skin surface 2h after skin exposition, which means that it is worth decontaminating even if contamination occurred 2h before. The stratum corneum reservoir for VX was quickly established and persistent. In addition, the presence of hairs modified the percutaneous penetration of the nerve agent by binding of VX to hairs. Hair shaft has thus to be taken into account in the decontamination process. Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) and Fuller's Earth (FE) were active in the skin decontamination 45min post-exposure, but RSDL was more efficient in reducing the amount of VX either in the skin or in the hair. PMID:22926045

  17. Radiation decontamination of poultry viscera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamdar, S. N.; Harikumar, P.

    2008-04-01

    Application of gamma radiation for decontamination of poultry viscera was examined. Exposure to a dose of 20 kGy rendered the viscera sterile (<1 CFU/10 g tissue), while 5 and 10 kGy reduced the total bacterial count by 4 and 6 log 10 cycles, respectively, eliminating the coliforms to <1 CFU/g of tissue. Analysis of organoleptic and biochemical parameters [proximate composition, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN), lipid peroxidation (TBARS value), and levels of TCA soluble peptides and proteolytic enzyme] showed that gamma irradiation (20 kGy) followed by storage at 4 °C for 62 days induced no significant change (except lipid peroxidation) in the acceptability of poultry viscera. However, storage at ambient temperature (26 °C) produced enhanced levels of TVBN and TCA soluble products accompanied by higher drip loss. Activities of proteolytic enzymes, except acid protease, did not show any significant change during post-irradiation storage at either temperature.

  18. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    DOEpatents

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  19. Decontamination work in the area surrounding Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant: another occupational health challenge of the nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Wada, Koji; Yoshikawa, Toru; Murata, Masaru

    2012-01-01

    This article describes occupational health measures for workers involved in decontamination of radioactive material discharged around Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant after the explosions in 2011. Decontamination is performed by removing radioactive particles (mainly cesium) from surfaces of soil, grass and trees, and buildings. Measurement of radiation doses is necessary to reduce exposure, and to determine whether workers can work below dose limits. Protective equipment for decontamination is determined based on the concentration of radiation in contaminated soil and the exposure to dust. Health examinations by physicians are mandated for decontamination workers upon hiring and every 6 months. While there is no possibility of acute radiation injury from decontamination, workers may be anxious about the unclear effects of chronic low level radiation exposure on health. Measures to protect the decontamination workers are the top priority. PMID:22845725

  20. Radioactive decontamination apparatus and process

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, O.L.

    1983-08-30

    Apparatus for removing radioactive contamination from metal objects is disclosed, consisting of three of three separate pieces. The first is an electro- polishing tank, pump and filter assembly, ventilation duct and filter assembly, and DC power supply. The second is a rinse tank and a pump and filter assembly therefor. The third is a divot crane. The electro-polishing tank assembly and the rinse tank assembly are each separately mounted on pallets to facilitate moving. The filter systems of the electro-polishing tank and the rinse tank are designed to remove the radioactive contamination from the fluids in those tanks. Heavy items or highly contaminated items are handled with the divot crane constructed of stainless steel. The electro- polishing tank and the rinse tank are also made of stainless steel. The ventilation system on the electro- polishing tank exhausts acid fumes resulting from the tank heaters and the electro-polishing process. Inside the electro-polishing tank are two swinging arms that carry two stainless steel probes that hang down in the electrolyte fluid. These negative DC probes and are electrically isolated from the tank and the rest of the system. Across the top center of the tank is a copper pipe, which is also electrically isolated from the tank. This is the positive side of the DC system. To decontaminate a metal object, it is suspended from the positive copper pipe, with good electrical contact, into the electrolyte fluid. The negative probes are then moved on their swinging arms to a close proximity to the object being decontaminated, without making contact.

  1. Deactivation, Decontamination and Decommissioning Project Summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, David Shane; Webber, Frank Laverne

    2001-07-01

    This report is a compilation of summary descriptions of Deactivation, Decontamination and Decommissioning, and Surveillance and Maintenance projects planned for inactive facilities and sites at the INEEL from FY-2002 through FY-2010. Deactivations of contaminated facilities will produce safe and stable facilities requiring minimal surveillance and maintenance pending further decontamination and decommissioning. Decontamination and decommissioning actions remove contaminated facilities, thus eliminating long-term surveillance and maintenance. The projects are prioritized based on risk to DOE-ID, the public, and the environment, and the reduction of DOE-ID mortgage costs and liability at the INEEL.

  2. Foam process for application of decontamination agents

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.M.; Miller, J.R.; Frazier, R.S.; Walter, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents the results and observations of a study performed by the authors to parametrically evaluate the performance characteristics of a foam process for application of decontamination agents. The initial tests were established to assess foam quality. Subsequent tests determined the ability of the foam as a carrier of chemical systems, and established system operating parameters. The technique was then applied in an actual decontamination task to verify effectiveness of these established parameters and to determine decontamination reduction factors. 4 figures, 5 tables.

  3. [Radioisotope decontamination of X-ray detector (photostimulable phosphor plate)].

    PubMed

    Onuma, Yoji; Hayashi, Michiko; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Sadamitsu

    2012-01-01

    We tried to remove contamination of radioisotope (RI) for an X-ray detector (photostimulable phosphor plate; IP) and verified that our procedure suggested by Nishihara et al. was effective for decontamination. The procedure was as follows. First, the IP was kept for approximately twelve hours, and then it was processed [image (A)] as well as a clinical processing mode. Second, using a wet-type chemical wiper, we scavenged the IP to remove the adhered RI on its surface. Then, once again, the IP was kept for approximately fifteen hours and processed [image (B)] in order to check an effect of decontamination. Finally, the two images of (A) and (B) were analyzed using ImageJ, which can be downloaded as a free software, and a percentage of removal was calculated. The procedure was applied to two IPs using the FCR 5501 plus. In the present case, the percentage of removal was approximately 96%. The removed radioisotopes in the chemical wipers were analyzed by Ge detector. Then, (134)Cs and (137)Cs were found with activities of 2.9 4.3 Bq and 3.5 5.2 Bq, respectively. For three months after that, we cannot see black spots on the IPs owing to the contamination of the RI and there are no defects caused by decontamination using a wet-type chemical wiper. PMID:22449904

  4. Skin decontamination of glyphosate from human skin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhai, H; Chan, H P; Hui, X; Maibach, H I

    2008-06-01

    This study compared three model decontaminant solutions (tap water, isotonic saline, and hypertonic saline) for their ability to remove a model herbicide (glyphosate) from an in vitro human skin model. Human cadaver skin was dosed (approximately 375microg) of [14C]-glyphosate on 3cm2 per skin. After each exposure time (1, 3, and 30min post-dosing, respectively), the surface skin was washed three times (4ml per time) with each solution. After washing, the skin was stripped twice with tape discs. Lastly, the wash solutions, strippings, receptor fluid, and remainder of skin were liquid scintillation analyzer counted to determine the amount of glyphosate. There were no statistical differences among these groups at any time points. The total mass balance recovery at three time exposure points was between 94.8% and 102.4%. The wash off rates (glyphosate in wash solutions) at three different exposure times is 79-101.2%. Thus the three tested decontaminants possess similar effectiveness in removing glyphosate from skin. This in vitro model is not only economic and rapid, but also provides quantitative data that may aid screening for optimal decontaminants. PMID:18407393

  5. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet for Chem/Bio Warfare Decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Hans W.; Henins, Ivars; Park, Jaeyoung; Selwyn, Gary S.

    1999-11-01

    Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ) technology may provide a much needed method of CBW decontamination which, unlike traditional decon methods, is dry and nondestructive to sensitive equipment and materials. The APPJ discharge uses a high-flow feedgas consisting primarily of an inert carrier gas, such as He, and a small amount of a reactive additive, such as O2, which flows between capacitively-coupled electrodes powered at 13.56 MHz. The plasma generates highly reactive metastable and atomic species of oxygen which are then directed onto a contaminated surface. The reactive effluent of the APPJ has been shown to effectively neutralize VX nerve agent as well as simulants for anthrax and mustard blister agent. Research efforts are now being directed towards reducing He consumption and increasing the allowable stand-off distance. Recent results demonstrate that by replacing the O2 reactive additive with CO2, ozone formation is greatly reduced. This has the result of extending the lifetime of atomic oxygen by an order of magnitude or more. A recirculating APP Decon Chamber which combines heat, vacuum, forced convection and reactivity is currently being developed for enhanced decontamination of sensitive equipment. Several techniques are also being evaluated for use in an APP Decon Jet for decontamination of items which cannot be placed inside a chamber.

  6. In vitro model for decontamination of human skin: formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Zhai, H; Barbadillo, S; Hui, X; Maibach, H I

    2007-04-01

    Decontamination of a chemical from skin is often an emergency measure. This study utilized an in vitro model to compare the decontamination capacity of three model decontaminant solutions (tap water, isotonic saline, and hypertonic saline). Human cadaver skin was dosed (approximately 0.25 microg on 3 cm(2) per skin) with radio-labeled [(14)C]-formaldehyde. After a defined exposure time (1, 3, and 30 min post-dosing, respectively), the surface skin was washed three times (4ml per time) with each solution. After washing, the skin was stripped with tape discs twice. Lastly, the wash solutions, strippings, receptor fluid, and remainder of skin were liquid scintillation analyzer counted to determine the amounts of formaldehyde. Additionally, an evaporation test at different exposure times (1min, 3min, 15min, 30min, and 60min, respectively) was conducted to monitor formaldehyde % evaporation. There were no statistical differences among these groups except isotonic saline, at 3min post-exposure (in wash solutions), showed a significantly difference (p<0.05) when compared to tap water. Formaldehyde % evaporation increased linearly with extending application times, and were 7.7%, 13.6%, 19.7%, 24.4%, and 35.9% (1min, 3min, 15min, 30min, and 60min, respectively). This data suggests that isotonic saline may be effective in removing formaldehyde from skin. However, results from this model need validation in vivo. The model may provide a facile and robust method of accelerating knowledge of decontamination mechanism and lead to enhanced efficacy. PMID:17123683

  7. DECONTAMINATION/DESTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION FOR ORGANICS IN TRANSURANIC WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Jones; Javier Del Campo; Patrick Nevins; Stuart Legg

    2002-08-01

    The United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site has approximately 5000 55-gallon drums of {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste in interim storage. These may not be shipped to WIPP in TRUPACT-II containers due to the high rate of hydrogen production resulting from the radiolysis of the organic content of the drums. In order to circumvent this problem, the {sup 238}Pu needs to be separated from the organics--either by mineralization of the latter or by decontamination by a chemical separation. We have conducted ''cold'' optimization trials and surrogate tests in which a combination of a mediated electrochemical oxidation process (SILVER II{trademark}) and ultrasonic mixing have been used to decontaminate the surrogate waste materials. The surrogate wastes were impregnated with copper oxalate for plutonium dioxide. Our process combines both mineralization of reactive components (such cellulose, rubber, and oil) and surface decontamination of less reactive materials such as polyethylene, polystyrene and polyvinylchloride. By using this combination of SILVER II and ultrasonic mixing, we have achieved 100% current efficiency for the destruction of the reactive components. We have demonstrated that: The degree of decontamination achieved would be adequate to meet both WIPP waste acceptance criteria and TRUPACT II packaging and shipping requirements; The system can maintain near absolute containment of the surrogate radionuclides; Only minimal pre-treatment (coarse shredding) and minimal waste sorting are required; The system requires minimal off gas control processes and monitoring instrumentation; The laboratory trials have developed information that can be used for scale-up purposes; The process does not produce dioxins and furans; Disposal routes for secondary process arisings have already been demonstrated in other programs. Based on the results from Phase 1, the recommendation is to proceed to Phase 2 and use the equipment at Savannah River Site to demonstrate

  8. 40 CFR 170.250 - Decontamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... is to be used for mixing pesticides, it shall not be used for decontamination or eye flushing, unless the tank is equipped with properly functioning valves or other mechanisms that prevent movement...

  9. Decontamination of laryngoscopes in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bucx, M J; Dankert, J; Beenhakker, M M; Harrison, T E

    2001-01-01

    In this study the decontamination procedures of laryngoscopes in Dutch hospitals are described, based on a structured telephone questionnaire. There were substantial differences between decontamination procedures in Dutch hospitals and the standards of the APIC (Association of Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology), CDC (Centers of Disease Control) and ASA (American Society of Anesthesiology) were met in full in 19.4% of the hospitals. The standards of manual decontamination, used in 78% of the 139 hospitals, were particularly disappointing; manual cleaning was considered inadequate in 22.9% of these hospitals and manual disinfection did not meet the standards of the APIC, CDC or ASA in any of these hospitals. Decontamination by instrument cleaning machines as a standard procedure was used in 30 (22%) hospitals. In three of these hospitals the blades were subsequently sterilized. We suggest adherence to the infection control guidelines of the CDC, APIC and ASA, until the safety of less conservative infection control practices are demonstrated. PMID:11575419

  10. Testing and comparison of seventeen decontamination chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Demmer, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    This report details the testing and evaluation of seventeen decontamination chemicals. Tests were conducted with SIMCON (simulated contamination) coupons under controlled conditions to compare cleaning effectiveness, overall corrosion potential for plant equipment, interim waste generation and final waste generation.

  11. Urban Decontamination Experience at Pripyat Ukraine - 13526

    SciTech Connect

    Paskevych, Sergiy; Voropay, Dmitry; Schmieman, Eric

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the efficiency of radioactive decontamination activities of the urban landscape in the town of Pripyat, Ukraine. Different methods of treatment for various urban infrastructure and different radioactive contaminants are assessed. Long term changes in the radiation condition of decontaminated urban landscapes are evaluated: 1. Decontamination of the urban system requires the simultaneous application of multiple methods including mechanical, chemical, and biological. 2. If a large area has been contaminated, decontamination of local areas of a temporary nature. Over time, there is a repeated contamination of these sites due to wind transport from neighboring areas. 3. Involvement of earth-moving equipment and removal of top soil by industrial method achieves 20-fold reduction in the level of contamination by radioactive substances, but it leads to large amounts of waste (up to 1500 tons per hectare), and leads to the re-contamination of treated areas due to scatter when loading, transport pollutants on the wheels of vehicles, etc.. (authors)

  12. LASER CLEANING OF CONTAMINATED PAINTED SURFACES

    SciTech Connect

    Ames A. Grisanti; Charlene R. Crocker; Robert R. Jensen

    1999-11-19

    Several techniques are available or under development for surface decontamination in nuclear facilities. Each technique has its merits; however, none of them is universally the best choice for all surface decontamination applications. Because of the multitude of factors which influence the environmental and economic aspects of selecting a surface decontamination technique, it is difficult to select the best method in a given situation; an objective basis for comparing techniques is needed. The objective of this project was to develop a software tool for use by personnel selecting a surface decontamination technique. The software incorporates performance data for available surface decontamination techniques. The beta release version of the Surface Decontamination Assistant Software has been completed and has undergone testing at the Energy and Environmental Research Center. Minor modifications to the software were completed, and a final release version of the software is ready to be issued.

  13. Decontaminating breast pump kits: new guidance.

    PubMed

    Oxtoby, Kathy

    Various methods can be used to decontaminate breast pump milk collection kits and items related to infant feeding but they have some drawbacks and risks. In 2015, the Joint Working Group of the Healthcare Infection Society and Infection Prevention Society published guidance to support the safe decontamination of this equipment at home and in hospital. This article summarises its recommendations for health professionals to use and communicate to other groups, such as parents and carers. PMID:27400623

  14. PROCESS OF DECONTAMINATING MATERIAL CONTAMINATED WITH RADIOACTIVITY

    DOEpatents

    Overholt, D.C.; Peterson, M.D.; Acken, M.F.

    1958-09-16

    A process is described for decontaminating metallic objects, such as stainless steel equipment, which consists in contacting such objects with nltric acid in a concentration of 35 to 60% to remove the major portion of the contamination; and thereafter contacting the partially decontaminated object with a second solution containing up to 20% of alkali metal hydroxide and up to 20% sodium tartrate to remove the remaining radioactive contaminats.

  15. Decontamination and disposal of PCB wastes.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, L E

    1985-01-01

    Decontamination and disposal processes for PCB wastes are reviewed. Processes are classed as incineration, chemical reaction or decontamination. Incineration technologies are not limited to the rigorous high temperature but include those where innovations in use of oxident, heat transfer and residue recycle are made. Chemical processes include the sodium processes, radiant energy processes and low temperature oxidations. Typical processing rates and associated costs are provided where possible. PMID:3928363

  16. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Salt Decontamination Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Rick Demmer; Stephen Reese

    2014-09-01

    On February 14, 2014, americium and plutonium contamination was released in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) salt caverns. At the request of WIPP’s operations contractor, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) personnel developed several methods of decontaminating WIPP salt, using surrogate contaminants and also americium (241Am). The effectiveness of the methods is evaluated qualitatively, and to the extent possible, quantitatively. One of the requirements of this effort was delivering initial results and recommendations within a few weeks. That requirement, in combination with the limited scope of the project, made in-depth analysis impractical in some instances. Of the methods tested (dry brushing, vacuum cleaning, water washing, strippable coatings, and mechanical grinding), the most practical seems to be water washing. Effectiveness is very high, and it is very easy and rapid to deploy. The amount of wastewater produced (2 L/m2) would be substantial and may not be easy to manage, but the method is the clear winner from a usability perspective. Removable surface contamination levels (smear results) from the strippable coating and water washing coupons found no residual removable contamination. Thus, whatever is left is likely adhered to (or trapped within) the salt. The other option that shows promise is the use of a fixative barrier. Bartlett Nuclear, Inc.’s Polymeric Barrier System (PBS) proved the most durable of the coatings tested. The coatings were not tested for contaminant entrapment, only for coating integrity and durability.

  17. Decontamination by cleaning with fluorocarbon surfactant solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, R.; Benson, C.E.; Meyers, E.S.; Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1994-02-01

    In the nuclear industry, facilities and their components inevitably become contaminated with radioactive materials. This report documents the application of a novel particle-removal process developed by Entropic Systems, Inc. (ESI), to decontaminate critical instruments and parts that are contaminated with small radioactive particles that adhere to equipment surfaces. The tests were performed as a cooperative effort between ESI and the Chemical Technology Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ESI developed a new, environmentally compatible process to remove small particles from solid surfaces that is more effective than spraying or sonicating with CFC-113. This process uses inert perfluorinated liquids as working media; the liquids have zero ozone-depleting potential, are nontoxic and nonflammnable, and are generally recognized as nonhazardous materials. In the ESI process, parts to be cleaned are first sprayed or sonicated with a dilute solution of a high-molecular-weight fluorocarbon surfactant in an inert perfluorinated liquid to effect particle removal. The parts are then rinsed with the perfluorinated liquid to remove the fluorocarbon surfactant applied in the first step, and the residual rinse liquid is then evaporated from the parts into an air or nitrogen stream from which it is recovered. Nuclear contamination is inherently a surface phenomenon. The presence of radioactive particles is responsible for all ``smearable`` contamination and, if the radioactive particles are small enough, for some of the fixed contamination. Because radioactivity does not influence the physical chemistry of particle adhesion, the ESI process should be just as effective in removing radioactive particles as it is in removing nonradioactive particles.

  18. DECONTAMINATION OF ZIRCALOY CLADDING HULLS FROM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.

    2010-09-29

    The feasibility of decontaminating spent fuel cladding hulls using hydrofluoric acid (HF) was investigated as part of the Global Energy Nuclear Partnership (GNEP) Separations Campaign. The concentrations of the fission product and transuranic (TRU) isotopes in the decontaminated hulls were compared to the limits for determining the low level waste (LLW) classification in the United States (US). The {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs concentrations met the disposal criteria for a Class C LLW; although, in a number of experiments the criteria for disposal as a Class B LLW were met. The TRU concentration in the hulls generally exceeded the Class C LLW limit by at least an order of magnitude. The concentration decreased sharply as the initial 30-40 {micro}m of the cladding hull surface were removed. At depths beyond this point, the TRU activity remained relatively constant, well above the Class C limit. Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel generates a cladding waste which would likely require disposal as a Greater than Class C LLW in the US. If the cladding hulls could be treated to remove a majority of the actinide and fission product contamination, the hulls could potentially meet acceptance criteria for disposal as a LLW or allow recycle of the Zr metal. Discard of the hulls as a LLW would result in significant cost savings compared to disposal as a Greater than Class C waste which currently has no disposition path. During fuel irradiation and reprocessing, radioactive materials are produced and deposited in the Zircaloy cladding. Due to short depths of penetration, the majority of the fission products and actinide elements are located in the ZrO{sub 2} layer which forms on the surface of the cladding during fuel irradiation. Therefore, if the oxide layer is removed, the majority of the contamination should also be removed. It is very difficult, if not impossible to remove all of the activity from spent fuel cladding since traces of U and Th in the unirradiated Zircaloy

  19. A multi-parametric assessment of decontamination protocols for the subglacial Lake Ellsworth probe.

    PubMed

    Magiopoulos, I; McQuillan, J S; Burd, C L; Mowlem, M; Tsaloglou, M-N

    2016-04-01

    Direct measurement and sampling of pristine environments, such as subglacial lakes, without introducing contaminating microorganisms and biomolecules from the surface, represents a significant engineering and microbiological challenge. In this study, we compare methods for decontamination of titanium grade 5 surfaces, the material extensively used to construct a custom-made probe for reaching, measuring and sampling subglacial Lake Ellsworth in West Antarctica. Coupons of titanium were artificially contaminated with Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria and then exposed to a number of decontamination procedures. The most effective sterilants were (i) hydrogen peroxide vapour, and (ii) Biocleanse™, a commercially available, detergent-based biocidal solution. After each decontamination procedure the bacteria were incapable of proliferation, and showed no evidence of metabolic activity based on the generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The use of ultraviolet irradiation or ethyl alcohol solution was comparatively ineffective for sterilisation. Hydrogen peroxide vapour and ultraviolet irradiation, which directly damage nucleic acids, were the most effective methods for removing detectable DNA, which was measured using 16S rRNA gene copy number and fluorescence-based total DNA quantification. Our results have not only been used to tailor the Ellsworth probe decontamination process, but also hold value for subsequent engineering projects, where high standards of decontamination are required. PMID:26892386

  20. Universal Oxidation for CBW Decontamination: L-Gel System Development and Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Raber, E.; McGuire, R.; Hoffman, M.; Alcaraz, A.; Shepley, D.; Elliot, J.; Krauter, P.; Garcia, E.

    2000-12-16

    decontaminating reagent and the contaminant agent, we selected gelled reagents as the primary carrier material. Gels have the additional advantage of adhering to vertical and even the underside of horizontal surfaces such as ceilings and walls. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, over a period of twenty years from the late 1960's to the late 1980's, developed a series of extrudable high explosives based on the gelling of polar energetic liquids. While never going into production, this development served as an experience base for formulation, characterization and dispersal system design and fabrication. It was a logical step, therefore, to adapt this work to the gelling of aqueous oxidizers for candidate BW/CW decontaminants.

  1. Des Moines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This document, intended for elementary students, contains articles and activities designed to acquaint young people with the history of Des Moines, Iowa. The articles are short, and new or difficult words are highlighted and defined for young readers. "The Raccoon River Indian Agency" discusses the archeological exploration of the indian…

  2. Le rôle des plantes dans le transfert du silicium à la surface des continentsThe role of plants in the transfer of silicon at the surface of the continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meunier, Jean-Dominique

    2003-12-01

    Silicon is the most abundant element after oxygen in the lithosphere (27 wt%). Plants and soil microorganisms are important contributors to the weathering of silicates. Plants are able to accumulate several percent of Si in the biomass. The importance of plants in the rates of Si output to surface waters is discussed in this paper. To cite this article: J.-D. Meunier, C. R. Geoscience 335 (2003).

  3. Decontamination Efficacy and Skin Toxicity of Two Decontaminants against Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Stratilo, Chad W.; Crichton, Melissa K. F.; Sawyer, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Decontamination of bacterial endospores such as Bacillus anthracis has traditionally required the use of harsh or caustic chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a chlorine dioxide decontaminant in killing Bacillus anthracis spores in solution and on a human skin simulant (porcine cadaver skin), compared to that of commonly used sodium hypochlorite or soapy water decontamination procedures. In addition, the relative toxicities of these decontaminants were compared in human skin keratinocyte primary cultures. The chlorine dioxide decontaminant was similarly effective to sodium hypochlorite in reducing spore numbers of Bacillus anthracis Ames in liquid suspension after a 10 minute exposure. After five minutes, the chlorine dioxide product was significantly more efficacious. Decontamination of isolated swine skin contaminated with Bacillus anthracis Sterne with the chlorine dioxide product resulted in no viable spores sampled. The toxicity of the chlorine dioxide decontaminant was up to two orders of magnitude less than that of sodium hypochlorite in human skin keratinocyte cultures. In summary, the chlorine dioxide based decontaminant efficiently killed Bacillus anthracis spores in liquid suspension, as well as on isolated swine skin, and was less toxic than sodium hypochlorite in cultures of human skin keratinocytes. PMID:26394165

  4. Decontamination Efficacy and Skin Toxicity of Two Decontaminants against Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Stratilo, Chad W; Crichton, Melissa K F; Sawyer, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    Decontamination of bacterial endospores such as Bacillus anthracis has traditionally required the use of harsh or caustic chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a chlorine dioxide decontaminant in killing Bacillus anthracis spores in solution and on a human skin simulant (porcine cadaver skin), compared to that of commonly used sodium hypochlorite or soapy water decontamination procedures. In addition, the relative toxicities of these decontaminants were compared in human skin keratinocyte primary cultures. The chlorine dioxide decontaminant was similarly effective to sodium hypochlorite in reducing spore numbers of Bacillus anthracis Ames in liquid suspension after a 10 minute exposure. After five minutes, the chlorine dioxide product was significantly more efficacious. Decontamination of isolated swine skin contaminated with Bacillus anthracis Sterne with the chlorine dioxide product resulted in no viable spores sampled. The toxicity of the chlorine dioxide decontaminant was up to two orders of magnitude less than that of sodium hypochlorite in human skin keratinocyte cultures. In summary, the chlorine dioxide based decontaminant efficiently killed Bacillus anthracis spores in liquid suspension, as well as on isolated swine skin, and was less toxic than sodium hypochlorite in cultures of human skin keratinocytes. PMID:26394165

  5. Reactive skin decontamination lotion (RSDL) for the decontamination of chemical warfare agent (CWA) dermal exposure.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, M D; Hurst, C G; Kirk, M A; Reedy, S J D; Braue, E H

    2012-08-01

    Rapid decontamination of the skin is the single most important action to prevent dermal absorption of chemical contaminants in persons exposed to chemical warfare agents (CWA) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) as a result of accidental or intentional release. Chemicals on the skin may be removed by mechanical means through the use of dry sorbents or water. Recent interest in decontamination systems which both partition contaminants away from the skin and actively neutralize the chemical has led to the development of several reactive decontamination solutions. This article will review the recently FDA-approved Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) and will summarize the toxicity and efficacy studies conducted to date. Evidence of RSDL's superior performance against vesicant and organophosphorus chemical warfare agents compared to water, bleach, and dry sorbents, suggests that RSDL may have a role in mass human exposure chemical decontamination in both the military and civilian arenas. PMID:22352732

  6. Plasma Decontamination of Uranium From the Interior of Aluminum Objects

    SciTech Connect

    Veilleux, J.M.; Munson, C.; Fitzpatrick, J.; Chamberlin, E.P.; El-Genk, M.S.

    1997-04-21

    RF plasma glow discharges are being investigated for removing and recovering radioactive elements from contaminated objects, especially those contaminated with transuranic (TRU) materials. These plasmas, using nitrogen trifluoride as the working gas, have been successful at removing uranium and plutonium contaminants from test coupons of stainless steel and aluminum surfaces, including small cracks and crevices, and the interior surfaces of relatively hard to reach aluminum pipes. Contaminant removal exceeded 99.9% from simple surfaces and contaminant recovery using cryogenic traps has exceeded 50%. Work continues with the objective of demonstrating that transuranic contaminated waste can be transformed to low level waste (LLW) and to better understand the physics of the interaction between plasma and surface contaminants. This work summarizes the preliminary results from plasma decontamination from the interior of aluminum objects--the nooks and crannies experiments.

  7. Feasibility of gas-phase decontamination of gaseous diffusion equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Munday, E.B.; Simmons, D.W.

    1993-02-01

    The five buildings at the K-25 Site formerly involved in the gaseous diffusion process contain 5000 gaseous diffusion stages as well as support facilities that are internally contaminated with uranium deposits. The gaseous diffusion facilities located at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant also contain similar equipment and will eventually close. The decontamination of these facilities will require the most cost-effective technology consistent with the criticality, health physics, industrial hygiene, and environmental concerns; the technology must keep exposures to hazardous substances to levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). This report documents recent laboratory experiments that were conducted to determine the feasibility of gas-phase decontamination of the internal surfaces of the gaseous diffusion equipment that is contaminated with uranium deposits. A gaseous fluorinating agent is used to fluorinate the solid uranium deposits to gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}), which can be recovered by chemical trapping or freezing. The lab results regarding the feasibility of the gas-phase process are encouraging. These results especially showed promise for a novel decontamination approach called the long-term, low-temperature (LTLT) process. In the LTLT process: The equipment is rendered leak tight, evacuated, leak tested, and pretreated, charged with chlorine trifluoride (ClF{sub 3}) to subatmospheric pressure, left for an extended period, possibly > 4 months, while processing other items. Then the UF{sub 6} and other gases are evacuated. The UF{sub 6} is recovered by chemical trapping. The lab results demonstrated that ClF{sub 3} gas at subatmospheric pressure and at {approx} 75{degree}F is capable of volatilizing heavy deposits of uranyl fluoride from copper metal surfaces sufficiently that the remaining radioactive emissions are below limits.

  8. Bleaching process preferred to decontaminate odorants

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The problem of decontaminating and disposing of out-of-service gas odorizers has long faced both gas transmission and distribution companies since the early 1980s. Finding a methodology to safely and effectively decontaminate odorant-contaminated equipment has caused many companies to simply cap the equipment and put it in storage. The recommended process of decontamination by odorant manufacturers is currently a bleaching-type process. A sodium hypochlorite solution is added to water and either circulated or left standing in the contaminated equipment. The sodium hypochlorite effectively neutralizes the smell of the odorant and slightly corrodes the inside of the equipment to neutralize any odorant which has permeated the metal. The waste sodium hypochlorite and water is then shipped as hazardous waste (pH of 12.5) or non-hazardous waste after the pH has been adjusted. The bleaching process has proven cost-effective and less time-consuming than most other methods including bioremediation. To effectively use it, there are several problems to overcome--most importantly the removal of residual product and the release of vapors into the atmosphere. River Valley Technologies, a contractor located in Cincinnati, OH, specializing in odorant-equipment decontamination, has developed several methods and engineering controls to eliminate most of the problems associated with decontaminating odorant equipment. The paper describes these methods.

  9. Decontamination and decommissioning of building 889 at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Dorr, K.A.; Hickman, M.E.; Henderson, B.J.; Sexton, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    At the Rocky Flats site, the building 889 decommissioning project was the first large-scale decommissioning project of a radiologically contaminated facility at Rocky Flats. The scope consisted of removal of all equipment and utility systems from the interior of the building, decontamination of interior building surfaces, and the demolition of the facility to ground level. Details of the project management plan, including schedule, engineering, cost, characterization methodologies, decontamination techniques, radiological control requirements, and demolition methods, are provided in this article. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  10. Evaluation of the efficacy of Rohm and Haas Ambergard XE-555 resin for decontamination of a biological simulant. Final report, Apr-Jul 91

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, S.P.; Kutchey, C.M.; Whally, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the efficacy of the Rohm and Haas Ambergard XE-555 decontaminant resin for the removal of Bacillus thuringiensis spores from four surfaces: rubber gloves, canteen covers, webbed belts, and canteens. The percentage of recoverable spores was compared between the same surfaces decontaminated with the XE-555 resin and laboratory paper towel. Results show that although there were some differences in the efficiency with which the paper towels and the resin pads removed spores from different surfaces, there was no evidence that the pads provided any significant degree of enhanced decontamination. The rationale for the comparison was that the paper towel and the resin pads should have similar ability to physically remove Bt spores from various surfaces. If the resin has any significant affinity for the spores or if it has any killing effect on them, correspondingly fewer living spores should be isolated from the surfaces decontaminated with the resin than with the paper towel.

  11. Chemical decontamination of the residual heat removal system (RHRS) of Flamanville 1

    SciTech Connect

    Steinkuhler, Claude; Coomans, Reginald; Koen, Lenie

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of the decontamination of the RHRS at Flamanville 1 was the reduction of the general dosimetry and the elimination of hot spots. This was done to allow the maintenance on the RHRS equipment. The main challenge of this project was the execution of a complicated operation on the critical path of a shutdown. The redox attack of the oxides at the surface of the circuit in Flamanville, was performed by an EDF qualified process of the EMMAC family. The functions required by the decontamination system were very diverse and therefore an existing decontamination loop, which was previously developed for the decontamination of small system volumes, was re-developed and adapted for bigger circuits. Due to different reasons, an important delay on the planning happened. Therefore, only one cycle EMMAg was performed, totalling 2 hours of decontamination. Despite this, a DRRF (dose rate reduction factor) of 3,7 average was reached. The re-designed equipment and a shortened process were validated during this project. An acceptable DRRF was reached with no delay on the critical path. The capability of maintenance on the RHRS equipment is recovered with a gain of factor 5 on dosimetry. (authors)

  12. All-Weather Hydrogen Peroxide-Based Decontamination of CBRN Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, George W.; Procell, Lawrence R.; Sorrick, David C.; Lawson, Glenn E.; Wells, Claire M.; Reynolds, Charles M.; Ringelberg, D. B.; Foley, Karen L.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Blanchard, David L.

    2010-03-11

    A hydrogen peroxide-based decontaminant, Decon Green, is efficacious for the decontamination of chemical agents VX (S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate), GD (Soman, pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate), and HD (mustard, bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide); the biological agent anthrax (Bacillus anthracis); and radiological isotopes Cs-137 and Co-60; thus demonstrating the ability of this decontamination approach to ameliorate the aftermath of all three types of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Reaction mechanisms afforded for the chemical agents are discussed as are rationales for the enhanced removal efficacy of recalcitrant 60Co on certain surfaces. Decontaminants of this nature can be deployed, and are effective, at very low temperatures (-32 °C), as shown for studies done with VX and HD simulants, without the need for external heat sources. Finally, the efficacy of a lower-logistics, dry decontaminant powder concentrate (utilizing the solid active-oxygen compounds peracetyl borate and Peroxydone) which can be reconstituted with water in the field prior to use, is presented.

  13. Efficacy of Cankerguard® Sprays for Effective Decontamination of Citrus Canker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is endemic in Florida. We used grapefruit leaf surfaces to explore the efficacy of the personnel decontaminant Cankerguard® to kill inoculum. In three experiments plants in flush (leaves 3/4 expanded) were sprayed with inoculum (2x104-9x105 CFU/ml)...

  14. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) decontaminated equipment self-container

    SciTech Connect

    Boehnke, W.M.

    1998-09-29

    The purpose of this Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) is to demonstrate that specific decontaminated equipment can be safely used as its own self-container. As a Decontaminated Equipment Self-Container (also referred to as a self-container), no other packaging, such as a burial box, would be required to transport the equipment onsite. The self-container will consist of a piece of equipment or apparatus which has all readily removable interior contamination removed, all of its external openings sealed, and all external surfaces decontaminated to less than 2000 dpm/100 cm for gamma-emitting radionuclides and less than 220 dpm/100 CM2 for alpha-emitting radionuclides.

  15. Effect of presilanization filler decontamination on aesthetics and degradation resistance of resin composites.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Shirai, Kenichi; Shintani, Hideaki; Okazaki, Masayuki; Suzuki, Kazuomi; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2002-12-01

    Filler-matrix coupling determines, to a large extent, the mechanical strength and clinical longevity of dental composites. The aim of this study was to examine how far a methodology to decontaminate filler prior to silanization may improve aesthetic performance in addition to physico-mechanical properties such as degradation resistance. It was reported that filler particles are surrounded and wrapped by a film that consists of multiple layers of silane molecules. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, however, revealed that silanization of filler particles largely depended upon siloxane bridge (Si-O-Si) formation between the silica surface and the silane molecule rather than on intermolecular bonding between adjacent silane molecules. In this study, we showed that filler decontamination resulted in a higher translucency, thereby providing a better aesthetic potential. In addition, experimental composites produced following presilanization decontamination of filler revealed a higher Vickers hardness value and a diametral tensile strength that was resistant to degradation by thermo-cycling. PMID:12608427

  16. In situ gamma spectrometry of piping in a CANDU heat transport system -- Application during decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Husain, A.; Breckenridge, C.E.; Storey, D.

    1995-02-01

    An in situ pipe gamma spectrometry technique was applied to determine the activity within piping during various stages of CANDU reactor decontaminations. Measurements were performed in general radiation fields up to {approximately}500 mR/h and required both the detector and the pipe being scanned to be appropriately shielded from other neighboring piping. Measured counts were interpreted using a pipe source efficiency calibration with due regard to its distance dependence. Cobalt-60 was the dominant radionuclide on the piping before the decontamination. Deposition of {sup 124}Sb occurred on out-core piping surfaces during the decontamination. The spectrometry measurements were supplemented with contact radiation field measurements, which were performed using survey detectors housed within specially designed pipe shields. Radiation fields estimated from measured radionuclide activities were compared with the measured radiation fields. On average, the ratio of measured to estimated fields was {approximately}72%. Reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.

  17. Decontamination of chemical agents from drinking water infrastructure: a literature review and summary.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Jeff; Minamyer, Scott

    2014-11-01

    This report summarizes the current state of knowledge on the persistence of chemical contamination on drinking water infrastructure (such as pipes) along with information on decontamination should persistence occur. Decontamination options for drinking water infrastructure have been explored for some chemical contaminants, but important data gaps remain. In general, data on chemical persistence on drinking water infrastructure is available for inorganics such as arsenic and mercury, as well as select organics such as petroleum products, pesticides and rodenticides. Data specific to chemical warfare agents and pharmaceuticals was not found and data on toxins is scant. Future research suggestions focus on expanding the available chemical persistence data to other common drinking water infrastructure materials. Decontaminating agents that successfully removed persistent contamination from one infrastructure material should be used in further studies. Methods for sampling or extracting chemical agents from water infrastructure surfaces are needed. PMID:24565672

  18. Decontamination trade study for the Light Duty Utility Arm

    SciTech Connect

    Rieck, R.H.

    1994-09-29

    Various methods were evaluated for decontaminating the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). Physical capabilities of each method were compared with the constraints and requirements for the LDUA Decontamination System. Costs were compared and a referred alternative was chosen.

  19. Selective decontamination and antibiotic resistance in ICUs.

    PubMed

    Plantinga, Nienke L; Bonten, Marc J M

    2015-01-01

    Selective digestive decontamination (SDD) and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD) have been associated with reduced mortality and lower ICU-acquired bacteremia and ventilator-associated pneumonia rates in areas with low levels of antibiotic resistance. However, the effect of selective decontamination (SDD/SOD) in areas where multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria are endemic is less clear. It will be important to determine whether SDD/SOD improves patient outcome in such settings and how these measures affect the epidemiology of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Here we review the current evidence on the effects of SDD/SOD on antibiotic resistance development in individual ICU patients as well as the effect on ICU ecology, the latter including both ICU-level antibiotic resistance and antibiotic resistance development during long-term use of SDD/SOD. PMID:26104045

  20. PYROCHEMICAL DECONTAMINATION METHOD FOR REACTOR FUEL

    DOEpatents

    Buyers, A.G.

    1959-06-30

    A pyro-chemical method is presented for decontaminating neutron irradiated uranium and separating plutonium therefrom by contact in the molten state with a metal chloride salt. Uranium trichloride and uranium tetrachloride either alone or in admixture with alkaline metal and alkaline eanth metal fluorides under specified temperature and specified phase ratio conditions extract substantially all of the uranium from the irradiated uranium fuel together with certain fission products. The phases are then separated leaving purified uranium metal. The uranium and plutonium in the salt phase can be reduced to forin a highly decontaminated uraniumplutonium alloy. The present method possesses advantages for economically decontaminating irradiated nuclear fuel elements since irradiated fuel may be proccessed immediately after withdrawal from the reactor and the uranium need not be dissolved and later reduced to the metallic form. Accordingly, the uranium may be economically refabricated and reinserted into the reactor.

  1. Radio-decontamination efficacy and safety studies on optimized decontamination lotion formulation.

    PubMed

    Rana, S; Bhatt, S; Dutta, M; Khan, A W; Ali, J; Sultana, S; Kotta, S; Ansari, S H; Sharma, R K

    2012-09-15

    Objective of the present study was to optimize decontamination lotion and to evaluate its relative decontamination efficacy using three radio-isotopes (Technetium-99m, Iodine-131 and Thallium-201) as contaminants with varying length of contaminant exposure (0-1h). Experiments were performed on Sprague Dawley rat's intact skin and human tissue equivalent models. Rat's hair was removed by using depilator after trimming with scissors. Relative decontamination efficacy of the optimized lotion was investigated and compared with water as control. Static counts were recorded before and after decontamination using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Measured decontamination efficacy (DE) values were analyzed using one way ANOVA and Student's t-test (p value<0.05) and were found statistically significant. Decontamination efficacy of the lotion was observed to be 90 ± 5%, 80 ± 2% and 85 ± 2%, for the (131)I, (201)Tl and (99m)Tc radio-contaminants respectively on skin. Reduced contaminant removal was recorded for the skin which was cleaned by depilator (50-60%). Skin decontamination was found more efficacious for rat skin decontamination than the human tissue equivalent model. Decontamination efficacy of the lotion against (99m)Tc was recorded 70 ± 15% at 0-1h on the tissue equivalent model. In vitro chelation efficacy of the lotion was also established by using the instant thin layer chromatography-slica gel (ITLC-SG) and >95% of (99m)Tc was recorded. Neither erythema nor edema was scored in the primary skin irritancy test visually observed for two weeks. PMID:22609966

  2. Polysaccharide-thickened aqueous fluoride solutions for rapid destruction of the nerve agent VX. Introducing the opportunity for extensive decontamination scenarios.

    PubMed

    Elias, Shlomi; Saphier, Sigal; Columbus, Ishay; Zafrani, Yossi

    2014-01-01

    Among the chemical warfare agents, the extremely toxic nerve agent VX (O-ethyl S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methylphosphonothioate) is a target of high importance in the development of decontamination methods, due to its indefinite persistence on common environmental surfaces. Liquid decontaminants are mostly characterized by high corrosivity, usually offer poor coverage, and tend to flow and accumulate in low areas. Therefore, the development of a noncorrosive decontaminant, sufficiently viscous to resist dripping from the contaminated surface, is necessary. In the present paper we studied different polysaccharides-thickened fluoride aqueous solutions as noncorrosive decontaminants for rapid and efficient VX degradation to the nontoxic product EMPA (ethyl methylphosphonic acid). Polysaccharides are environmentally benign, natural, and inexpensive. Other known decontaminants cannot be thickened by polysaccharides, due to the sensitivity of the latter toward basic or oxidizing agents. We found that the efficiency of VX degradation in these viscous solutions in terms of kinetics and product identity is similar to that of KF aqueous solutions. Guar gum (1.5 wt %) with 4 wt % KF was chosen for further evaluation. The benign nature, rheological properties, adhering capabilities to different surfaces, and decontamination from a porous matrix were examined. This formulation showed promising properties for implementation as a spray decontaminant for common and sensitive environmental surfaces. PMID:24517492

  3. Method of decontaminating a contaminated fluid by using photocatalytic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Gerald (Inventor); Ratcliff, Matthew A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A system for decontaminating the contaminated fluid by using photocatalytic particles. The system includes a reactor tank for holding the contaminated fluid and the photocatalytic particles suspended in the contaminated fluid to form a slurry. Light irradiates the surface of the slurry, thereby activating the photocatalytic properties of the particles. The system also includes stirring blades for continuously agitating the irradiated fluid surface and for maintaining the particles in a suspended state within the fluid. The system also includes a cross flow filter for segregating the fluid (after decomposition) from the semiconductor powder. The cross flow filter is occasionally back flushed to remove any semiconductor powder that might have caked on the filter. The semiconductor powder may be recirculated back to the tank for reuse, or may be stored for future use. A series of such systems may be used to gradually decompose a chemical in the fluid. Preferably, the fluid is pretreated to remove certain metal ions which interfere with the photocatalytic process. Such pretreatment may be accomplished by dispersing semiconductor particles within the fluid, which adsorb ions or photodeposit the metal as the free metal or its insoluble oxide or hydroxide, and then removing the semiconductor particles together with the adsorbed metal ions/oxides/hydroxide/free metal from the fluid. A method of decontaminating a contaminated fluid is also disclosed.

  4. Decontamination of control rod housing from Palisades Nuclear Power Station.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminski, M.D.; Nunez, L.; Purohit, A.

    1999-05-03

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a novel decontamination solvent for removing oxide scales formed on ferrous metals typical of nuclear reactor piping. The decontamination process is based on the properties of the diphosphonic acids (specifically 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid or HEDPA) coupled with strong reducing-agents (e.g., sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate, SFS, and hydroxylamine nitrate, HAN). To study this solvent further, ANL has solicited actual stainless steel piping material that has been recently removed from an operating nuclear reactor. On March 3, 1999 ANL received segments of control rod housing from Consumers Energy's Palisades Nuclear Plant (Covert, MI) containing radioactive contamination from both neutron activation and surface scale deposits. Palisades Power plant is a PWR type nuclear generating plant. A total of eight segments were received. These segments were from control rod housing that was in service for about 6.5 years. Of the eight pieces that were received two were chosen for our experimentation--small pieces labeled Piece A and Piece B. The wetted surfaces (with the reactor's pressurized water coolant/moderator) of the pieces were covered with as a scale that is best characterized visually as a smooth, shiny, adherent, and black/brown in color type oxide covering. This tenacious oxide could not be scratched or removed except by aggressive mechanical means (e.g., filing, cutting).

  5. Green coffee decontamination by electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemtanu, Monica R.; Brasoveanu, Mirela; Grecu, Maria Nicoleta; Minea, R.

    2005-10-01

    Microbiological load of green coffee is a real problem considering that it is extremely sensitive to contamination. Irradiation is a decontamination method for a lot of foodstuffs, being a feasible, very effective and environment friendly one. Beans and ground green coffee were irradiated with electron beams up to 40 kGy. Microbial load, rheological behavior, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and visible spectroscopy were carried out. The results show that electron beam irradiation of green coffee could decontaminate it without severe changes in its properties.

  6. Decontamination of metals using chemical etching

    DOEpatents

    Lerch, Ronald E.; Partridge, Jerry A.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to chemical etching process for reclaiming contaminated equipment wherein a reduction-oxidation system is included in a solution of nitric acid to contact the metal to be decontaminated and effect reduction of the reduction-oxidation system, and includes disposing a pair of electrodes in the reduced solution to permit passage of an electrical current between said electrodes and effect oxidation of the reduction-oxidation system to thereby regenerate the solution and provide decontaminated equipment that is essentially radioactive contamination-free.

  7. TREATABILITY STUDIES USED TO TEST FOR EXOTHERMIC REACTIONS OF PLUTONIUM DECONTAMINATION CHEMICALS

    SciTech Connect

    EWALT, J.R.

    2005-06-06

    Fluor Hanford is decommissioning the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) at the Hanford site in Eastern Washington. Aggressive chemicals are commonly used to remove transuranic contaminants from process equipment to allow disposal as low level waste. Chemicals being considered for decontamination of gloveboxes in PFP include cerium(IV) nitrate in a nitric acid solution, and proprietary commercial solutions that include acids, degreasers, and sequestering agents. Fluor's decontamination procedure involves application of chemical solutions as a spray on the contaminated surfaces, followed by a wipe-down with rags. This process effectively transfers the transuranic materials to the decontamination liquids, which are then absorbed by rags and packaged for disposal as TRU waste. Concerns regarding the safety of this procedure developed following a fire at Rocky Flats in 2003. The fire occurred in a glovebox that had been treated with cerium nitrate, which is one of the decontamination chemicals that Fluor Hanford has proposed to use. The investigation of the event was hampered by the copious use of chemicals and water to extinguish the fire, and was not conclusive regarding the cause. However, the reviewers noted that rags were found in the glovebox, suggesting that the combination of rags and chemicals may have contributed to the fire. With that uncertainty, Fluor began an investigation into the potential for fire when using the chemicals and materials in the decontamination process. The focus of this work has been to develop a disposal strategy that will provide a chemically stable waste form at expected Hanford waste storage temperatures. Treatability tests under CERCLA were used to assess the use of certain chemicals and wipes during the decontamination process. Chemicals being considered for decontamination of gloveboxes at PFP include cerium (IV) nitrate in a nitric acid solution, and proprietary commercial solutions as RadPro{trademark} that include acids, degreasers

  8. Universal Oxidation for CBW Decontamination: L-Gel System Development and Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Raber, E.; McGuire, R.; Hoffman, M.; Shepley, D.; Carlsen, T.; Krauter, P.; Alcaraz, A.

    2000-07-10

    The optimum goal of this study is to develop a single decontamination system for chemical and biological agents which is non-toxic, non-corrosive, and easily deployable. The specific objective of this work was to evaluate oxidizer systems as reagents for detoxification and/or degradation to non-toxic environmentally acceptable components rather than necessitate complete destruction. Detoxification requires less reagent material than total oxidation, thereby reducing the logistic burden for a decontamination team. One of the goals is to develop decontamination systems for use by first responders as well as more complete systems to be used by specialized decontamination teams. Therefore, the overall project goal is to develop better decontamination methods that can be quickly implemented by these organizations. This includes early demonstrations and field work with companies or other government agencies who can identify implementation concerns and needs. The approach taken in this work is somewhat different than the standard military approach to decontamination. In a battlefield scenario, it is critical to decontaminate to a useful level in a very short time so the soldiers can continue their mission. In a domestic, urban scenario, time is of less consequence but collateral damage and re-certification (public perception and stakeholder acceptance) are of much greater importance. Since we wanted to maximize the contact time between the decontaminating reagent and the contaminant agent, we selected gelled reagents as the primary carrier material. Gels have the additional advantage of adhering to vertical or horizontal surfaces such as walls and ceilings. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, over a period of twenty years from the late 1960s to the late 1980s, developed a series of extrudable high explosives based on the gelling of polar energetic liquids. While never going into production, this development served as an experience base for formulation

  9. 41 CFR 101-45.001 - Demilitarization and decontamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... decontamination. 101-45.001 Section 101-45.001 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property..., ABANDONMENT, OR DESTRUCTION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY § 101-45.001 Demilitarization and decontamination. (a... characteristics, or otherwise making it unfit for further use. (b) Demilitarization or decontamination of...

  10. 41 CFR 101-45.001 - Demilitarization and decontamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... decontamination. 101-45.001 Section 101-45.001 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property..., ABANDONMENT, OR DESTRUCTION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY § 101-45.001 Demilitarization and decontamination. (a... characteristics, or otherwise making it unfit for further use. (b) Demilitarization or decontamination of...

  11. 41 CFR 101-45.001 - Demilitarization and decontamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... decontamination. 101-45.001 Section 101-45.001 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property..., ABANDONMENT, OR DESTRUCTION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY § 101-45.001 Demilitarization and decontamination. (a... characteristics, or otherwise making it unfit for further use. (b) Demilitarization or decontamination of...

  12. The feasibility study of hot cell decontamination by the PFC spray method

    SciTech Connect

    Hui-Jun Won; Chong-Hun Jung; Jei-Kwon Moon

    2008-01-15

    The characteristics of per-fluorocarbon compounds (PFC) are colorless, non-toxic, easily vaporized and nonflammable. Also, some of them are liquids of a high density, low surface tension, low latent heat and low specific heat. These particular chemical and physical properties of fluoro-organic compounds permit their use in very different fields such as electronics, medicine, tribology, nuclear and material science. The Sonatol process was developed under a contract with the DOE. The Sonatol process uses an ultrasonic agitation in a PFC solution that contains a fluorinated surfactant to remove radioactive particles from surfaces. Filtering the suspended particles allows the solutions to be reused indefinitely. They applied the Sonatol process to the decontamination of a heterogeneous legacy Pu-238 waste that exhibited an excessive hydrogen gas generation, which prevents a transportation of such a waste to a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is developing dry decontamination technologies applicable to a decontamination of a highly radioactive area loosely contaminated with radioactive particles. This contamination has occurred as a result of an examination of a post-irradiated material or the development of the DUPIC process. The dry decontamination technologies developed are the carbon dioxide pellet spray method and the PFC spray method. As a part of the project, PFC ultrasonic decontamination technology was developed in 2004. The PFC spray decontamination method which is based on the test results of the PFC ultrasonic method has been under development since 2005. The developed PFC spray decontamination equipment consists of four modules (spray, collection, filtration and distillation). Vacuum cup of the collection module gathers the contaminated PFC solution, then the solution is moved to the filtration module and it is recycled. After a multiple recycling of the spent PFC solution, it is purified in the distillation

  13. Annuaire du Bureau des longitudes - 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imcce; Bureau Des Longitudes

    2005-07-01

    This annual publication provides ephemerides and data to the use of professionnal and amateur astronomers. Divided in 11 chapters it covers concordance of various calendars, explanation of fondamental astronomy and various time scales, explanation for the use of ephemerides; tables provide ephemerides (positions, rise/set/passage) of the Sun and the Moon, planets, planetary satellites, asteroids, comets, bright stars; data and explanation for the physical observation of the surface of the Sun, the Moon, and planets; chart of the sky and a list of constellations and galaxies; prediction and ephemerides for astronomical phenomenon: occultation by the moon, stellar occultations by asteroids and appulses, solar eclipses and lunar eclipses; and an additional review about a hot scientific topic, this year: "Legendre et le méridien terrestre, 200 ans après". Cette publication annuelle fournit des éphémérides et des données à l'usage des astronomes professionnels et des astronomes amateurs. Composée de 11 chapitres elle comprend les rubriques sur les différents calendriers et leurs concordance, les fêtes légales en France, les dates et décrets sur les heures légales en France métropolitaine ; une introduction à l'astronomie fondamentale et aux différentes échelles de temps, des explications sur l'utilisation des éphémérides ; des tables fournissent les éphémérides (positions, heures de lever/coucher/passage) du Soleil et de la Lune, de planètes, de satellites naturels, d'astéroïdes, de comètes, d'étoiles brillantes ; des données pour l'observation de la surface du Soleil, de la Lune, et des planètes ; des cartes du ciel ainsi qu'une liste de constellations et de galaxies ; des prédictions des phénomènes astronomiques : occultation par la Lune, occultation stellaires par des astéroïdes et appulses, éclipses de Soleil et de la Lune; la liste et les coordonnées des observatoires astronomiques les plus connus ; et enfin un cahier th

  14. Testing and evaluation of light ablation decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Demmer, R.L.; Ferguson, R.L.

    1994-10-01

    This report details the testing and evaluation of light ablation decontamination. It details WINCO contracted research and application of light ablation efforts by Ames Laboratory. Tests were conducted with SIMCON (simulated contamination) coupons and REALCON (actual radioactive metal coupons) under controlled conditions to compare cleaning effectiveness, speed and application to plant process type equipment.

  15. Radiation decontamination of meat lyophylized products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migdał, W.; Owczarczyk, H. B.

    2002-03-01

    There is an increasing demand for a powder soups and sauces composed with lyophylizated meat. Technology of lyophylization is not always accompanied by thermal treatment of raw materials. That is the reason the meat lyophylization process does not ensure as good microbiological quality as is required. Degree of microbiological decontamination and organoleptic properties of lyophilized meat were investigated after radiation treatment.

  16. HAZARDOUS WASTE DECONTAMINATION WITH PLASMA REACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of electrical energy in the form of plasma has been considered as a potentially efficient means of decontaminating hazardous waste, although to date only a few attempts have been made to do so. There are a number of relative advantages and some potential disadvantages to...

  17. Advances in Sterilization and Decontamination: a Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Recent technical advances made in the field of sterilization and decontamination and their applicability to private and commercial interests are discussed. Government-sponsored programs by NASA produced the bulk of material presented in this survey. The summary of past and current research discussed is detailed to enhance an effective transfer of technology from NASA to potential users.

  18. Chemical and Biological Substances Decontamination Study for Mars Missions and Terrestrial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottage, Thomas; Walker, James; Bennett, Allan; Vrublevskis, John; Hovland, Scott

    This study, funded by the European Space Agency (ESA) and undertaken by the Health Protec-tion Agency, UK supported by Systems Engineering and Assessment Ltd., was devised to select suitable current decontamination technologies for development for future manned missions to the Moon and Mars. There is a requirement to decontaminate the habitat module due to the concerns about astronaut ill health, microbial deterioration of materials and potential forward contamination in the case of Mars. In the case of the MIR space station, biodeterioration of components and materials occurred, and dangerous levels of airborne microorganisms were detected during air sampling procedures which lead to the introduction of microbial exposure limits (as MORD SSP 50260) to ensure the health of the crew. COSPAR planetary protection guidelines highlight the need to reduce any potential forward or backwards contamination issues that may occur through the use of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) suits whilst on Mars. Decontamination of the suit exterior must be completed before any EVA activity on Mars, whilst a further decontamination cycle must be completed after entry to the airlock following EVA. Technologies and techniques have also been investigated for the microbial reduction of the interior surfaces of the EVA suit to stop biodeterioration of the materials and protect the user from pathogenic microbe accumulation. The first work package reviewed the systems description and requirements as detailed in the statement of work. The requirements were broken down into 12 further requirement sections, where they were updated and expanded, resulted in Technical Note (TN) 1 which was then used as the base document for WP2 and WP3. WP2 investigated the current technologies available for the decontamination of the habitat module interior on missions of up to 6 months and missions that have durations of greater than 6 months. A comprehensive review was carried out for the different methods that

  19. Concrete decontamination by Electro-Hydraulic Scabbling (EHS). Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-30

    Electro-Hydraulic Scabbling (EHS) technology and equipment for decontaminating concrete structures from radionuclides, organic substances, and hazardous metals is being developed by Textron Systems Division (TSD). This wet scabbling technique involves the generation of powerful shock waves and intense cavitation by a strong pulsed electric discharge in a water layer at the concrete surface. The high pressure impulse results in stresses which crack and peel off a concrete layer of a controllable thickness. Scabbling produces contaminated debris of relatively small volume which can be easily removed, leaving clean bulk concrete. This new technology is being developed under Contract No. DE-AC21-93MC30164. The project objective is to develop and demonstrate a cost-efficient, rapid, controllable process to remove the surface layer of contaminated concrete while generating minimal secondary waste. The primary target of this program is uranium-contaminated concrete floors which constitute a substantial part of the contaminated area at DOE weapon facilities.

  20. Innovative Decontamination Technology for Use in Gaseous Diffusion Plant Decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, M.J.; Norton, C.J.; Fraikor, G.B.; Potter, G.L.; Chang, K.C.

    2006-07-01

    The results of bench scale tests demonstrated that TechXtract{sup R} RadPro{sup TM} technology (hereinafter referred to as RadPro{sup R}) can provide 100% coverage of complex mockup gaseous diffusion plant (GDP) equipment and can decontaminate uranium (U) deposits with 98% to 99.99% efficiency. Deployment tests demonstrated RadPro{sup R} can be applied as foam, mist/fog, or steam, and fully cover the internal surfaces of complex mockup equipment, including large piping. Decontamination tests demonstrated that two formulations of RadPro{sup R}, one with neutron attenuators and one without neutron attenuators, could remove up to 99.99% of uranyl fluoride deposits, one of the most difficult to remove deposits in GDP equipment. These results were supplemented by results from previous tests conducted in 1994 that showed RadPro{sup R} could remove >97% of U and Tc-99 contamination from actual GDP components. Operational use of RadPro{sup R} at other DOE and commercial facilities also support these data. (authors)

  1. A solar powered handheld plasma source for microbial decontamination applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Y.; Lynch, M. J.; Modic, M.; Whalley, R. D.; Walsh, J. L.

    2016-09-01

    A fully portable atmospheric pressure air plasma system is reported to be suitable for the microbial decontamination of both surfaces and liquids. The device operates in quiescent air, and includes an integrated battery which is charged from a solar cell and weighs less than 750 g, making it highly amenable for a wide variety of applications beyond the laboratory. Using particle imaging velocimetry to visualise air flows around the device, the geometric configuration of the plasma generating electrodes was enhanced to induce a gas flow on the order of 0.5 m s‑1 directed towards a sample placed downstream, thus improving the transport of plasma generated reactive species to the sample. The microbial decontamination efficiency of the system was assessed using potable water samples inoculated with common waterborne organisms Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The reduction in the number of microorganisms was found to be in the range of 2–8 log and was strongly dependent on the plasma generation conditions.

  2. MINIMIZING DECOMPOSITION OF VAPORIZED HYDROGEN PEROXIDE IN CLEAN GALVANIZED STEEL DUCTING: IMPLICATIONS FOR BIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    Verce, M F; Jayaraman, B; Ford, T D; Fisher, S E; Gadgil, A J; Carlsen, T M

    2007-09-07

    This work examined the behavior of vaporous hydrogen peroxide (VHP) in clean, room-scale galvanized steel (GS) and polyvinylchloride-coated steel air ducts, to understand how it might be used to decontaminate larger ventilation systems. VHP injected into the GS duct decreased in concentration along the length of the duct, whereas VHP concentrations in the polyvinylchloride coated duct remained essentially constant, suggesting that VHP decomposed at the GS surface. However, decomposition was reduced at lower temperatures ({approx} 22 C) and higher flow rates ({approx} 80 actual cubic meter per hour). A computational fluid dynamics model incorporating reactive transport was used to estimate surface VHP concentrations where contamination is likely to reside, and also showed how bends encourage VHP decomposition. Use of G. stearothermophilus indicators, in conjunction with model estimates, indicated that a concentration-contact time of {approx} 100 mg/L H{sub 2}O{sub 2}(g){center_dot}min was required to achieve a 6 log reduction of indicator spores in clean GS duct, at 30 C. When VHP is selected for building decontamination, this work suggests the most efficacious strategy may be to decontaminate GS ducting separately from the rest of the building, as opposed to a single decontamination event in which the ventilation system is used to distribute VHP throughout the entire building.

  3. Decontamination of Chemical/Biological Warfare (CBW) Agents Using an Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Hans W.

    1998-11-01

    The atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is a non-thermal, high pressure, uniform glow discharge that produces a high velocity effluent stream of highly reactive chemical species. The discharge operates on a feedstock gas (e.g. He/O_2/H_2O) which flows between an outer, grounded, cylindrical electrode and an inner, coaxial electrode powered at 13.56 MHz RF. While passing through the plasma, the feedgas becomes excited, dissociated or ionized by electron impact. Once the gas exits the discharge volume, ions and electrons are rapidly lost by recombination, but the fast-flowing effluent still contains metastables (e.g. O2*, He*) and radicals (e.g. O, OH). These reactive species have been shown to be effective neutralizers of surrogates for anthrax spores, mustard blister agent and VX nerve gas. Unlike conventional, wet decontamination methods, the plasma effluent does not cause corrosion of most surfaces and does not damage wiring, electronics, nor most plastics. This makes it highly suitable for decontamination of high value sensitive equipment such as is found in vehicle interiors (i.e. tanks, planes...) for which there is currently no good decontamination technique. Furthermore, the reactive species rapidly degrade into harmless products leaving no lingering residue or harmful byproducts. Physics of the APPJ will be discussed and results of surface decontamination experiments using simulant and actual CBW agents will be presented.

  4. Hair decontamination procedure prior to multi-class pesticide analysis.

    PubMed

    Duca, Radu-Corneliu; Hardy, Emilie; Salquèbre, Guillaume; Appenzeller, Brice M R

    2014-06-01

    Although increasing interest is being observed in hair analysis for the biomonitoring of human exposure to pesticides, some limitations still have to be addressed for optimum use of this matrix in that specific context. One main possible issue concerns the need to differentiate chemicals biologically incorporated into hair from those externally deposited on hair surface from contaminated air or dust. The present study focuses on the development of a washing procedure for the decontamination of hair before analysis of pesticides from different chemical classes. For this purpose, three different procedures of artificial contamination (with silica, cellulose, and aqueous solution) were used to simulate pesticides deposition on hair surface. Several washing solvents (four organic: acetone, dichloromethane, methanol, acetonitrile; and four aqueous: water, phosphate buffer, shampoo, sodium dodecylsulfate) were evaluated for their capacity to remove artificially deposited pesticides from hair surface. The most effective washing solvents were sodium dodecylsulfate and methanol for aqueous and organic solvents, respectively. Moreover, after a first washing with sodium dodecylsulfate or methanol, the majority of externally deposited pesticides was removed and a steady-state was reached since significantly lower amounts were removed by additional second and third washings. Finally, the effectiveness of a decontamination procedure comprising washing with sodium dodecylsulfate and methanol was successively demonstrated. In parallel, it was determined that the final procedure did not affect the chemicals biologically incorporated, as hair strands naturally containing pesticides were used. Such a procedure appears to remove in one-shot the fraction of chemicals located on hair surface and does not require repeated washing steps. PMID:24817049

  5. Development and testing of a laser-based decontamination system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthofer, A.; Lippmann, W.; Hurtado, A.

    2013-06-01

    Decontamination of radioactive concrete surfaces may be necessary during operation or decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Usually only the upper layers of the concrete structure are contaminated and are removed using labor-intensive mechanical milling processes. Production of a large amount of dust, which can lead to secondary contamination, is inherent to these processes. Improvements in high-energy laser technology have now made it possible for laser radiation to be used in decontamination technologies for the removal of concrete layers. A decontamination unit comprising a diode laser with a beam power of 10 kW in continuous wave (CW) mode in combination with an autonomous manipulator was developed for use in nuclear plants. The laser beam melts the concrete surface to a depth of approximately 5 mm. Compressed air jets then detach the molten layer from the concrete surface and convey it to a suction system, with which it is transported to a collection container. Most of the radionuclides are trapped in the solidifying melt particles, which form an extremely stable effluent well suited to long-term storage. A relatively small amount of dust is generated in the process. Because there is no backlash during energy transfer, the laser device carrier can be designed to be lightweight and flexible. A specially developed manipulator that can move freely along walls and ceilings by means of suction plates is used for the carrier unit. This results in short setup times for preparing for use of the device and minimal personnel exposure to the radiation. Experiments were conducted on a concrete wall to demonstrate the functionality of the overall system in realistic conditions. An optimal ablation rate of 2.16 m²/h at an ablation depth of 1-5 mm was achieved. Today's commercially available diode lasers with powers higher than 50 kW enable ablation rates of >10 m²/h to be achieved and hence make these laser-based systems competitive alternatives to mechanical systems.

  6. Decontamination technology assessments - who assesses the assessments?

    PubMed

    Smith, A J

    2013-07-01

    The driver to improve surgical instrument decontamination has been the introduction of vCJD into the UK population over the last two decades, although concerns over transmission of other infectious agents remain valid. Though significant improvements have been made in primary care, this is usually in spite of limited access to technical advice on decontamination equipment. A technology assessment for key elements of equipment and processes used in this environment should be welcomed. However, two reports by the Scottish Health Technology Assessment Panel are flawed in estimating costs associated with wrapping instruments, omission of appropriate references and inaccurate data in the costing models. These assessments contribute little to health economics debates, confuse practitioners and frustrate technical experts. PMID:23887525

  7. APSIC Guidelines for environmental cleaning and decontamination.

    PubMed

    Ling, Moi Lin; Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Thu, Le Thi Anh; Villanueva, Victoria; Pandjaitan, Costy; Yusof, Mohamad Yasim

    2015-01-01

    This document is an executive summary of APSIC Guidelines for Environmental Cleaning and Decontamination. It describes best practices in routine cleaning and decontamination in healthcare facilities as well as in specific settings e.g. management of patients with isolation precautions, food preparation areas, construction and renovation, and following a flood. It recommends the implementation of environmental hygiene program to keep the environment safe for patients, staff and visitors visiting a healthcare facility. Objective assessment of cleanliness and quality is an essential component of this program as a method for identifying quality improvement opportunities. Recommendations for safe handling of linen and bedding; as well as occupational health and safety issues are included in the guidelines. A training program is vital to ensure consistent adherence to best practices. PMID:26719796

  8. Microbiological decontamination of natural honey by irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migdał, W.; Owczarczyk, H. B.; K ȩdzia, B.; Hołderna-K ȩdzia, E.; Madajczyk, D.

    2000-03-01

    Degree of microbiological decontamination, organoleptic and physico-chemical properties of natural honeys were investigated after radiation treatment. Seven kinds of honeys were irradiated with the beams of 10 MeV electrons from a 10 kW linear accelerator "Elektronika 10-10" at the dose 10 kGy. It was shown, that after irradiation, the total count of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and moulds decrease by 99%. The antibiotic value in investigated honeys increased in turn from 1.67 to 2.67 after irradiation. Such factors and parameters of investigated honeys as their consistency, content of water and saccharose, acidity, the diastase and 5-HMF values were not changed significantly after irradiation. Decontamination by irradiation is a process which allows us to obtain high microbiological purity of honeys. It is especially needed, when honeys are used in surgical treatment of injuries and in nutrition of babies with food deficiency.

  9. Decision Analysis Science Modeling for Application and Fielding Selection Applied to Concrete Decontamination Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Ebadian, M.A. Ross, T.L.

    1998-01-01

    Concrete surfaces contaminated with radionuclides present a significant challenge during the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) process. As structures undergo D and D, coating layers and/or surface layers of the concrete containing the contaminants must be removed for disposal in such a way as to present little to no risk to human health or the environment. The selection of a concrete decontamination technology that is safe, efficient, and cost-effective is critical to the successful D and D of contaminated sites. To support U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management objectives and to assist DOE site managers in the selection of the best-suited concrete floor decontamination technology(s) for a given site, two innovative and three baseline technologies have been assessed under standard, non-nuclear conditions at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU). The innovative technologies assessed include the Pegasus Coating Removal System and Textron's Electro-Hydraulic Scabbling System. The three baseline technologies assessed include: the Wheelabrator Blastrac model 1-15D, the NELCO Porta Shot Blast{trademark} model GPx-1O-18 HO Rider, and the NELCO Porta Shot Blast{trademark} model EC-7-2. These decontamination technology assessments provide directly comparable performance data that have previously been available for only a limited number of technologies under restrictive site-specific constraints. Some of the performance data collected during these technology assessments include: removal capability, production rate, removal gap, primary and secondary waste volumes, and operation and maintenance requirements. The performance data generated by this project is intended to assist DOE site managers in the selection of the safest, most efficient, and cost-effective decontamination technologies to accomplish their remediation objectives.

  10. Laser surface cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Crivella, E.C.; Freiwald, J.; Freiwald, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    Decontamination of contaminated metal and material recycle, two of 31 priority needs identified by the D&D focus group, are the most promising applications for laser ablation within the DOE complex. F2 Associates has developed a robotic laser ablation system that is capable of high contamination rates, waste volume reduction, surface pore cleaning, and real-time characterization of materials. It is being demonstrated that this system will be the most cost-effective technology for metal decontamination and material recycle.

  11. Advanced robotics for decontamination and dismantlement

    SciTech Connect

    Hamel, W.R.; Haley, D.C.

    1994-06-01

    The decontamination and dismantlement (D&D) robotics technology application area of the US Department of Energy`s Robotics Technology Development Program is explained and described. D&D robotic systems show real promise for the reduction of human exposure to hazards, for improvement of productivity, and for the reduction of secondary waste generation. Current research and development pertaining to automated floor characterization, robotic equipment removal, and special inspection is summarized. Future research directions for these and emerging activities is given.

  12. Decontamination and Decommisioning Equipment Tracking System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-08-26

    DDETS is Relational Data Base Management System (RDBMS) which incorporates 1-D (code 39) and 2-D (PDF417) bar codes into its equipment tracking capabilities. DDETS is compatible with the Reportable Excess Automated Property System (REAPS), and has add, edit, delete and query capabilities for tracking equipment being decontaminated and decommissioned. In addition, bar code technology is utilized in the inventory tracking and shipping of equipment.

  13. Gaseous and air decontamination technologies for Clostridium difficile in the healthcare environment.

    PubMed

    Davies, A; Pottage, T; Bennett, A; Walker, J

    2011-03-01

    The recent data for hospital-acquired infections suggest that infection rates for meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium difficile are beginning to decrease. However, while there is still pressure to maintain this trend, the resistance of C. difficile spores to standard detergents continues to present a problem for many UK hospitals trying to prevent its spread or control outbreaks. Alternative disinfection technologies such as gaseous decontamination are currently being marketed to the healthcare sector as an alternative/supplement to manual disinfection, and have been shown to be effective in reducing environmental contamination. When used correctly, they offer a complementary technology to manual cleaning that increases the probability of an effective reduction in viability and provides a comparatively uniform distribution of disinfectant. Three gaseous decontamination technologies are examined for their suitability in reducing environmental contamination with C. difficile: gaseous hydrogen peroxide, chlorine dioxide and ozone. Air decontamination and UV-based technologies are also briefly described. We conclude that while there is a role to play for these new technologies in the decontamination of ward surfaces contaminated with C. difficile, the requirement for both a preclean before use and the limited 'in vivo' evidence means that extensive field trials are necessary to determine their cost-effectiveness in a healthcare setting. PMID:21130521

  14. Decontamination of radiological agents from drinking water infrastructure: a literature review and summary.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Jeff; Minamyer, Scott

    2014-11-01

    This report summarizes the current state of knowledge on the persistence of radiological agents on drinking water infrastructure (such as pipes) along with information on decontamination should persistence occur. Decontamination options for drinking water infrastructure have been explored for some important radiological agents (cesium, strontium and cobalt), but important data gaps remain. Although some targeted experiments have been published on cesium, strontium and cobalt persistence on drinking water infrastructure, most of the data comes from nuclear clean-up sites. Furthermore, the studies focused on drinking water systems use non-radioactive surrogates. Non-radioactive cobalt was shown to be persistent on iron due to oxidation with free chlorine in drinking water and precipitation on the iron surface. Decontamination with acidification was an effective removal method. Strontium persistence on iron was transient in tap water, but adherence to cement-mortar has been demonstrated and should be further explored. Cesium persistence on iron water infrastructure was observed when flow was stagnant, but not with water flow present. Future research suggestions focus on expanding the available cesium, strontium and cobalt persistence data to other common infrastructure materials, specifically cement-mortar. Further exploration chelating agents and low pH treatment is recommended for future decontamination studies. PMID:24529629

  15. Mesoporous titanium-manganese dioxide for sulphur mustard and soman decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Stengl, Vaclav; Bludska, Jana; Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} New nano-dispersive materials for warfare agents decontamination. {yields} 95% decontamination activities for sulphur mustard. {yields} New materials base on titanium and manganese oxides. -- Abstract: Titanium(IV)-manganese(IV) nano-dispersed oxides were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of potassium permanganate and titanium(IV) oxo-sulphate with 2-chloroacetamide. Synthesised samples were characterised using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulphur mustard (HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulphide) and soman (GD or (3,3'-dimethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate). Mn{sup 4+} content affects the decontamination activity; with increasing Mn{sup 4+} content the activity increases for sulphur mustard and decreases for soman. The best decontamination activities for sulphur mustard and soman were observed for samples TiMn{sub 3}7 with 18.6 wt.% Mn and TiMn{sub 5} with 2.1 wt.% Mn, respectively.

  16. Decontamination of radionuclides from skin: an overview.

    PubMed

    Tazrart, Anissa; Bérard, Philippe; Leiterer, Alexandra; Ménétrier, Florence

    2013-08-01

    The accident in Fukushima has emphasized the need to increase the capacity of health protection for exposed workers, first responders, and the general public in a major accident situation with release of radioactivity. Skin contamination is one of the most probable risks following major nuclear or radiological incidents, but this risk also exists and incidents can happen in industry, research laboratories, or in nuclear medicine departments. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the products currently used after skin contamination in order to highlight the needs and ways to improve the medical management of victims. From this review, it can be observed that the current use of these radiological decontamination products is essentially based on empiricism. In addition, some of these products are harsh and irritating, even toxic, possibly damaging the skin barrier. In some emergency situations in which clean water is in short supply, most of the current products cannot be used. Research on the mechanisms of action of decontaminating products is needed to develop a decontamination strategy. PMID:23799505

  17. [Decontamination of chemical warfare agents by photocatalysis].

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Tsutomu; Mera, Nobuaki; Sano, Taizo; Negishi, Nobuaki; Takeuchi, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Photocatalysis has been widely applied to solar-energy conversion and environmental purification. Photocatalyst, typically titanium dioxide (TiO(2)), produces active oxygen species under irradiation of ultraviolet light, and can decompose not only conventional pollutants but also different types of hazardous substances at mild conditions. We have recently started the study of photocatalytic decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) under collaboration with the National Research Institute of Police Science. This article reviews environmental applications of semiconductor photocatalysis, decontamination methods for CWAs, and previous photocatalytic studies applied to CWA degradation, together with some of our results obtained with CWAs and their simulant compounds. The data indicate that photocatalysis, which may not always give a striking power, certainly helps detoxification of such hazardous compounds. Unfortunately, there are not enough data obtained with real CWAs due to the difficulty in handling. We will add more scientific data using CWAs in the near future to develop useful decontamination systems that can reduce the damage caused by possible terrorism. PMID:19122438

  18. Laser decontamination of the radioactive lightning rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potiens, A. J.; Dellamano, J. C.; Vicente, R.; Raele, M. P.; Wetter, N. U.; Landulfo, E.

    2014-02-01

    Between 1970 and 1980 Brazil experienced a significant market for radioactive lightning rods (RLR). The device consists of an air terminal with one or more sources of americium-241 attached to it. The sources were used to ionize the air around them and to increase the attraction of atmospheric discharges. Because of their ineffectiveness, the nuclear regulatory authority in Brazil suspended the license for manufacturing, commerce and installation of RLR in 1989, and determined that the replaced RLR were to be collected to a centralized radioactive waste management facility for treatment. The first step for RLR treatment is to remove the radioactive sources. Though they can be easily removed, some contaminations are found all over the remaining metal scrap that must decontaminated for release, otherwise it must be treated as radioactive waste. Decontamination using various chemicals has proven to be inefficient and generates large amounts of secondary wastes. This work shows the preliminary results of the decontamination of 241Am-contaminated metal scrap generated in the treatment of radioactive lightning rods applying laser ablation. A Nd:YAG nanoseconds laser was used with 300 mJ energy leaving only a small amount of secondary waste to be treated.

  19. Wide-area decontamination in an urban environment after radiological dispersion: A review and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Michael D; Lee, Sang Don; Magnuson, Matthew

    2016-03-15

    Nuclear or radiological terrorism in the form of uncontrolled radioactive contamination presents a unique challenge in the field of nuclear decontamination. Potential targets require an immediate decontamination response, or mitigation plan to limit the social and economic impact. To date, experience with urban decontamination of building materials - specifically hard, porous, external surfaces - is limited to nuclear weapon fallout and nuclear reactor accidents. Methods are lacking for performing wide-area decontamination in an urban environment so that in all release scenarios the area may be re-occupied without evaluation and/or restriction. Also lacking is experience in developing mitigation strategies, that is, methods of mitigating contamination and its resultant radiation dose in key areas during the immediate aftermath of an event and after lifesaving operations. To date, the tremendous strategy development effort primarily by the European community has focused on the recovery phase, which extends years beyond the release event. In this review, we summarize the methods and data collected over the past 70 years in the field of hard, external surface decontamination of radionuclide contaminations, with emphasis on methods suitable for response to radiological dispersal devices and their potentially unique physico-chemical characteristics. This review concludes that although a tremendous amount of work has been completed primarily by the European Community (EU) and the United Kingdom (UK), the few studies existing on each technique permit only very preliminary estimates of decontamination factors for various building materials and methods and extrapolation of those values for use in environments outside the EU and UK. This data shortage prevents us from developing an effective and detailed mitigation response plan and remediation effort. Perhaps most importantly, while the data available does include valuable information on the practical aspects of performing

  20. Decontamination formulation with additive for enhanced mold remediation

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Mark D.; Irvine, Kevin; Berger, Paul; Comstock, Robert

    2010-02-16

    Decontamination formulations with an additive for enhancing mold remediation. The formulations include a solubilizing agent (e.g., a cationic surfactant), a reactive compound (e.g., hydrogen peroxide), a carbonate or bicarbonate salt, a water-soluble bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate), a mold remediation enhancer containing Fe or Mn, and water. The concentration of Fe.sup.2+ or Mn.sup.2+ ions in the aqueous mixture is in the range of about 0.0001% to about 0.001%. The enhanced formulations can be delivered, for example, as a foam, spray, liquid, fog, mist, or aerosol for neutralization of chemical compounds, and for killing certain biological compounds or agents and mold spores, on contaminated surfaces and materials.

  1. Aquatic toxicity of the decontamination agent: Multipurpose (DAM) decontamination solution. Final report, May-December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Haley, M.V.; Kurnas, C.W.; Chester, N.A.; Muse, W.T.

    1994-05-01

    A new formulation, Decontaminating Agent: Multipurpose (DAM) Decontamination Solution, is being considered as a replacement to the DS-2 decontaminating solution. The new formulation is composed of calcium hypochlorite and N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidinone. Since this is a new formulation little environmental data exists. To estimate potential impact to an aquatic environment, Daphnia magna and Photobacterium phosphoreum (a luminescent marine bacterium) were exposed to the DAM solution and to the individual components (Calcium hypochlorite and N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidinone). The toxicity of the DAM solution to D. magna and P. phosphoreum was 5000 and 0.00053, respectively (highly toxic). The toxicity of calcium hypochlorite' and N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidinone to daphnia was 0.04 mg/L (highly toxic) and 107 mg/L (moderately toxic), respectively.

  2. Decontamination system study for the Tank Waste Retrieval System

    SciTech Connect

    Reutzel, T.; Manhardt, J.

    1994-05-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s decontamination study in support of the Tank Waste Retrieval System (TWRS) development program. Problems associated with waste stored in existing single shell tanks are discussed as well as the justification for the TWRS program. The TWRS requires a decontamination system. The subsystems of the TWRS are discussed, and a list of assumptions pertinent to the TWRS decontamination system were developed. This information was used to develop the functional and operational requirements of the TWRS decontamination system. The requirements were combined with a comprehensive review of currently available decontamination techniques to produced a set of evaluation criteria. The cleaning technologies and techniques were evaluated, and the CO{sub 2} blasting decontamination technique was chosen as the best technology for the TWRS.

  3. Equipment decontamination: A brief survey of the DOE complex

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, C.; Chamberlain, D.B; Chen, L.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1995-03-01

    Deactivation at DOE facilities has left a tremendous amount of contaminated equipment behind. In-situ methods are needed to decontaminate the interiors of the equipment sufficiently to allow either free release or land disposal. A brief survey was completed of the DOE complex on their needs for equipment decontamination with in-situ technology to determine (1) the types of contamination problems within the DOE complex, (2) decontamination processes that are being used or are being developed within the DOE, and (3) the methods that are available to dispose of spent decontamination solutions. In addition, potential sites for testing decontamination methods were located. Based on the information obtained from these surveys, the Rocky Flats Plant and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory appear to be best suited to complete the initial testing of the decontamination processes.

  4. Decontamination of clothing and building materials associated with the clandestine production of methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Kate A; Martyny, John W; Kofford, Shalece; Contreras, John R; Van Dyke, Mike V

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to determine how easily methamphetamine can be removed from clothing and building materials, utilizing different cleaning materials and methods. The study also addressed the penetration of methamphetamine into drywall and the ability of paints to encapsulate the methamphetamine on drywall. Clothing and building materials were contaminated in a stainless steel chamber by aerosolizing methamphetamine in a beaker heater. The amount of methamphetamine surface contamination was determined by sampling a grid pattern on the material prior to attempting to clean the materials. After cleaning, the materials were again sampled, and the degree of decontamination noted. We found that household clothing and response gear worn by first responders was easily decontaminated using a household detergent in a household washing machine. A single wash removed over 95% of the methamphetamine from these materials. The study also indicated that methamphetamine-contaminated, smooth non-porous surfaces can be easily cleaned to below detectable levels using only mild cleaners. More porous surfaces such as plywood and drywall were unlikely to be decontaminated to below regulatory levels even with three washes using a mild cleaner. This may be due to methamphetamine penetration into the paint on these surfaces. Evaluation of methamphetamine contamination on drywall indicated that approximately 40% of the methamphetamine was removed using a wipe, while another 60% remained in the paint layer. Stronger cleaners such as those with active ingredients including sodium hypochlorite or quaternary ammonia and commercial decontamination agents were more effective than mild detergent-based cleaners and may reduce methamphetamine contamination to below regulatory levels. Results from the encapsulation studies indicate that sprayed on oil-based paint will encapsulate methamphetamine on drywall and plywood surfaces up to 4.5 months, while latex paints were less effective. PMID

  5. Decontamination demonstration facility (D. D. F) modularization/mobility study

    SciTech Connect

    FitzPatrick, V.F.; Butts, H.L.; Moles, R.G.; Lundgren, R.A.

    1980-11-01

    The component decontamination technology, developed under the DOE sponsored TRU Waste Decontamination Program, has potential benefits to nuclear utility owners in four strategic areas: (1) Meeting ALARA Criteria for Maintenance/Operations; (2) Management of wastes and waste forms; (3) Accident Response; (4) Decommissioning. The most significant step in transferring this technology directly to the nuclear industry is embodied in the TMI Decontamination Demonstration Facility (D.D.F.).

  6. Personal protective equipment and decontamination of adults and children.

    PubMed

    Holland, Michael G; Cawthon, David

    2015-02-01

    Accurate identification of the hazardous material is essential for proper care. Efficient hospital security and triage must prevent contaminated victims from entering the emergency department (ED) and causing secondary contamination. The decontamination area should be located outside the ambulance entrance. Decontamination priorities are protection of the health care worker, utilization of Level C personal protective equipment, and proper decontamination of the exposed patient. Decontamination proceeds in a head-to-toe sequence. Run-off water is a hazardous waste. Hospital and Community Management Planning for these emergencies is essential for proper preparation and effective response to the hazardous materials incident. PMID:25455662

  7. Touchless Technologies for Decontamination in the Hospital: a Review of Hydrogen Peroxide and UV Devices.

    PubMed

    Doll, Michelle; Morgan, Daniel J; Anderson, Deverick; Bearman, Gonzalo

    2015-09-01

    Reduction of microbial contamination of the hospital environment is a challenge, yet has potential impacts on infection prevention efforts. Fumigation and UV light devices for environmental cleaning have expanded into the health care setting with the goal of decontamination of difficult to clean or overlooked surfaces. In an era of increased scrutiny of hospital-acquired infections, increasingly, health care centers are adopting these "touchless" cleaning techniques as adjuncts to traditional manual cleaning. The evidence for improved clinical outcomes is lacking; yet, the experience with these devices continues to accumulate in the literature. We review the recently published data related to the use of hydrogen peroxide and UV light-based decontamination systems for cleaning of hospital rooms. Touchless cleaning technologies may provide an incremental benefit to standard practices by limiting cross-transmission of pathogens via environmental surfaces, though evidence of prevention of infections remains limited. PMID:26252970

  8. DECISION ANALYSIS AND TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENTS FOR METAL AND MASONRY DECONTAMINATION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to conduct a comparative analysis of innovative technologies for the non-aggressive removal of coatings from metal and masonry surfaces and the aggressive removal of one-quarter to one-inch thickness of surface from structural masonry. The technologies tested should be capable of being used in nuclear facilities. Innovative decontamination technologies are being evaluated under standard, non-nuclear conditions at the FIU-HCET technology assessment site in Miami, Florida. This study is being performed to support the OST, the Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D) Focus Area, and the environmental restoration of DOE facilities throughout the DOE complex by providing objective evaluations of currently available decontamination technologies.

  9. Verification of screening level for decontamination implemented after Fukushima nuclear accident

    PubMed Central

    Ogino, Haruyuki; Ichiji, Takeshi; Hattori, Takatoshi

    2012-01-01

    The screening level for decontamination that has been applied for the surface of the human body and contaminated handled objects after the Fukushima nuclear accident was verified by assessing the doses that arise from external irradiation, ingestion, inhalation and skin contamination. The result shows that the annual effective dose that arises from handled objects contaminated with the screening level for decontamination (i.e. 100 000 counts per minute) is <1 mSv y−1, which can be considered as the intervention exemption level in accordance with the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations. Furthermore, the screening level is also found to protect the skin from the incidence of a deterministic effect because the absorbed dose of the skin that arises from direct deposition on the surface of the human body is calculated to be lower than the threshold of the deterministic effect assuming a practical exposure duration. PMID:22228683

  10. ELECTROSTATICALLY CHARGED AEROSOL DECONTAMINATION SYSTEM FOR SMALL BUILDING DECONTAMINATION - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    Existing decontamination procedures are time-consuming, labor-intensive, and produce low-yielding results, and they have a high risk of personnel exposure and equipment damage. Foster-Miller, Inc., has teamed with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and other reagent suppl...

  11. Role of alkyl alcohol on viscosity of silica-based chemical gels for decontamination of highly radioactive nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, B. S.; Yoon, S. B.; Jung, C. H.; Lee, K. W.; Moon, J. K.

    2012-07-01

    Silica-based chemical gel for the decontamination of nuclear facilities was prepared by using fumed silica as a viscosifier, a 0.5 M Ce (IV) solution dissolved in concentrated nitric acid as a chemical decontamination agent, and tripropylene glycol butyl ether (TPGBE) as a co-viscosifier. A new effective strategy for the preparation of the chemical gel was investigated by introducing the alkyl alcohols as organic solvents to effectively dissolve the co-viscosifier. The mixture solution of the co-viscosifier and alkyl alcohols was more effective in the control of viscosity than that of the co-viscosifier only in gel. Here, the alkyl alcohols played a key role as an effective dissolution solvent for the co-viscosifier in the preparation of the chemical gel, resulting in a reducing of the amount of the co-viscosifier and gel time compared with that of the chemical gel prepared without the alkyl alcohols. It was considered that the alkyl alcohols contributed to the effective dissolution of the co-viscosifier as well as the homogeneous mixing in the formation of the gel, while the co-viscosifier in an aqueous media of the chemical decontamination agent solution showed a lower solubility. The decontamination efficiency of the chemical gels prepared in this work using a multi-channel analyzer (MCA) showed a high decontamination efficiency of over ca. 94% and ca. 92% for Co-60 and Cs-137 contaminated on surface of the stainless steel 304, respectively. (authors)

  12. Utilization of microwave energy for decontamination of oil polluted soils.

    PubMed

    Iordache, Daniela; Niculae, Dumitru; Francisc, Ioan Hathazi

    2010-01-01

    Soil oil (petroleum) product pollution represents a great environmental threat as it may contaminate the neighboring soils and surface and underground water. Liquid fuel contamination may occur anywhere during oil (petroleum) product transportation, storing, handling and utilization. The polluted soil recovery represents a complex process due to the wide range of physical, chemical and biological properties of soils which should be analyzed in connection with the study of the contaminated soil behavior under the microwave field action. The soil, like any other non-metallic material, can be heated through microwave energy absorption due to the dielectric losses, expressed by its dielectric complex constant. Oil polluted soil behaves differently in a microwave field depending on the nature, structure and amount of the polluting fuel. Decontamination is performed through volatilization and retrieval of organic contaminant volatile components. After decontamination only a soil fixed residue remains, which cannot penetrate the underground anymore. In carrying out the soil recovery process by means of this technology we should also consider the soil characteristics such as: the soil type, temperature, moisture.The first part of the paper presents the theoretical aspects relating to the behavior of the polluted soil samples in the microwave field, as well as their relating experimental data. The experimental data resulting from the analysis of soils with a different level of pollution point out that the degree of pollutant recovery is high, contributing to changing the initial classification of soils from the point of view of pollution. The paper graphically presents the levels of microwave generated and absorbed power in soil samples, soil temperature during experimentations, specific processing parameters in a microwave field. It also presents the constructive solution of the microwave equipment designed for the contaminated soil in situ treatment. PMID:21721470

  13. Cold atmospheric plasma - A new technology for spacecraft component decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Satoshi; Barczyk, Simon; Rettberg, Petra; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Klaempfl, Tobias; Zimmermann, Julia L.; Hoeschen, Till; Linsmeier, Christian; Weber, Peter; Morfill, Gregor E.; Thomas, Hubertus M.

    2014-01-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) based on the Surface Micro-Discharge (SMD) technology was investigated for inactivation of different bacteria and endospores. The used technique was developed to serve as an alternative method for the decontamination of spacecraft components based on the COSPAR planetary protection policy where currently the dry heat microbial reduction method is the only applicable way to satisfy the required demands. However it is known, that dry heat can thermally damage sophisticated components installed on the device. Therefore, the development of a low temperature sterilization system is one of the high priority issues for upcoming space missions in the extraterrestrial field. In the study presented here, the vegetative bacteria Escherichia coli and Deinococcus radiodurans and several types of bacterial endospores - including Bacillus atrophaeus, Bacillus safensis, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus megaterium 2c1 and Bacillus thuringiensis E24 - were inactivated by exposing them indirectly i.e. only to the reactive gases produced by the SMD electrode at room temperature. The results showed a 5 log inactivation for E. coli after 10 min of exposure. In contrast D. radiodurans proved to be more resistant resulting in a reduction of 3 log after exposure of 30 min. More than 6 log reductions were achieved for B. safensis, B. megaterium and B. megaterium 2c1 after 90 min of exposure. Furthermore the applicability of the used CAP system for spacecraft decontamination according to the planetary protection policy was investigated. This included also the investigation of the inactivation homogeneity by the plasma gas, the control of the temperature at the area of interest, the measurement of the O3 density in the treatment region and the detailed investigation of the effects of the exposure on different materials.

  14. In-Situ Biological Decontamination of an Ice Melting Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digel, Ilya

    A major concern in space and even many terrestrial missions is the forward contamination of the alien environment with microbes and biological molecules, transported on spacecraft from Earth. Furthermore, organisms and molecules can be brought to the sampling place from the surface. All this can lead to serious misinterpretations of the obtained data and more impor-tantly, could irreversibly alter the pristine nature of the extraterrestrial environments. These issues were addressed and are constantly updated in COSPAR planetary protection policy (20 October 2002; Amended 24 March 2005; 20 July 2008). The objective of our study was to investigate the efficacy of different in-situ decontamination protocols in the conditions of thermo-mechanical ice-melting. We evaluated survival rate of microorganisms on the melting probe as a function of both time and penetration depth. Special focus was made on deter-mination of the optimal concentration of chemical decontaminants (hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite) the peculiarities of their antimicrobial action at low temperatures (-80 to 0C) combined with constant dilution with melted ice and mechanical abrasion. Common, non-pathogenic microbial strains belonging to different morphological and metabolic groups (Pseudomonas, Micrococcus, Escherichia, Bacillus and others) were chosen as test objects for this study. The working part of the melting probe was first controllably contaminated by in-cubation in suspension of microbial cells. After appropriate sedimentation of microbial cells had been reached, the drilling-melting process was started using specially prepared sterile ice blocks. Every 2 minutes the samples were taken and analyzed. In the control tests, 1 mL of distilled water was injected into the penetration site at the onset of drilling. In the other tests, 1 mL of hydrogen peroxide (30Collected data suggest high efficacy of both used compounds in respect of all tested microbial groups. Typically, 99.9

  15. Cyclodextrines as functional agents for decontamination of the skin contaminated by nerve agents.

    PubMed

    Cabal, Jirí; Kuca, Kamil; Sevelová-Bartosová, Lucie; Dohnal, Vlastimil

    2004-01-01

    Three decontamination solutions of beta-cyclodextrines were prepared. Their abilities to decontamine rat skin contamined with nerve agent soman were tested. Decontamination efficacy of the tested cyclodextrine solutions was compared with the same decontamination means but without the cyclodextrines. The efficacy of tested decontaminants was evaluated by the assessment of the ID50 values. Two decontamination prescriptions with cyclodextrines (tetraborate buffer and tetraborate buffer with acetone) do not show significantly better decontamination efficacies in comparison with prescriptions without cyclodextrines. Only in case of aqueous solution of 2-aminoethanol the addition of beta-cyclodextrine resulted in significant increase (32%) in decontamination efficacy. PMID:15446361

  16. Investigation of electrokinetic decontamination of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    DePaoli, D.W.; Harris, M.T.; Morgan, I.L.; Ally, M.R.

    1995-12-31

    Experiments have been conducted to investigate the capabilities of electrokinetic decontamination of concrete. Batch equilibration studies have determined that the loading of cesium and strontium on concrete may be decreased using electrolyte solutions containing competing cations, while solubilization of uranium and cobalt, that precipitate at high pH, will require lixiviants containing complexing agents. Dynamic electrokinetic experiments showed greater mobility of cesium than strontium, while some positive results were obtained for the transport of cobalt through concrete using EDTA and for uranium using carbonate.

  17. Microwave-Based Water Decontamination System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Byerly, Diane (Inventor); Sognier, Marguerite (Inventor); Dusl, John (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A system for decontaminating a medium. The system can include a medium having one or more contaminants disposed therein. The contaminants can be or include bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses, and combinations thereof. A microwave energy radiation device can be positioned proximate the medium. The microwave energy radiation device can be adapted to generate a signal having a frequency from about 10 GHz to about 100 GHz. The signal can be adapted to kill one or more of the contaminants disposed within the medium while increasing a temperature of the medium by less than about 10 C.

  18. Automated Single Cell Data Decontamination Pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Tennessen, Kristin; Pati, Amrita

    2014-03-21

    Recent technological advancements in single-cell genomics have encouraged the classification and functional assessment of microorganisms from a wide span of the biospheres phylogeny.1,2 Environmental processes of interest to the DOE, such as bioremediation and carbon cycling, can be elucidated through the genomic lens of these unculturable microbes. However, contamination can occur at various stages of the single-cell sequencing process. Contaminated data can lead to wasted time and effort on meaningless analyses, inaccurate or erroneous conclusions, and pollution of public databases. A fully automated decontamination tool is necessary to prevent these instances and increase the throughput of the single-cell sequencing process

  19. Evaluation of cloths for decontamination by wiping

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, W.N.; Reiff, D.J.; Fink, S.D. ); Luckenbach, R.L. )

    1990-01-01

    Treated polyester cloth was evaluated in laboratory-scale and larger-scale tests as an alternative to atomic wipes and cotton cloth for use in decontamination by wiping. The advantages of the treated polyester are as follows: does not react with nitric acid to form unstable product, more fire resistant, less volume of radioactive waste generated (versus atomic wipes), and product can be recovered by soaking the polyester cloths in nitric acid. Results are that even though treated polyester wiping cloths are slightly less effective than atomic wipes and cotton cloth, its many other benefits greatly outweigh this slight disadvantage. 5 figs.

  20. Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorial issue, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2005-07-15

    The focus of the July-August issue is on Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorials. Major interviews, articles and reports in this issue include: Increasing momentum, by Gary Taylor, Entergy Nuclear, Inc.; An acceptable investment, by Tom Chrisopher, Areva, Inc.; Fuel recycling for the U.S. and abroad, by Philippe Knoche, Areva, France; We're bullish on nuclear power, by Dan R. Keuter, Entergy Nuclear, Inc.; Ten key actions for decommissioning, by Lawrence E. Boing, Argonne National Laboratory; Safe, efficient and cost-effective decommissioning, by Dr. Claudio Pescatore and Torsten Eng, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), France; and, Plant profile: SONGS decommissioning.

  1. Large area cold plasma applicator for decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konesky, G. A.

    2008-04-01

    Cold plasma applicators have been used in the Medical community for several years for uses ranging from hemostasis ("stop bleeding") to tumor removal. An added benefit of this technology is enhanced wound healing by the destruction of infectious microbial agents without damaging healthy tissue. The beam is typically one millimeter to less than a centimeter in diameter. This technology has been adapted and expanded to large area applicators of potentially a square meter or more. Decontamination applications include both biological and chemical agents, and assisting in the removal of radiological agents, with minimal or no damage to the contaminated substrate material. Linear and planar multiemitter array plasma applicator design and operation is discussed.

  2. Micellisation et activité de surface des bromures de n-alkyltriméthylammonium en milieu eau-acide orthophosphorique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouni, S.; Hafiane, A.; Dhahbi, M.

    1998-05-01

    Measurements of superficial tension of n-alkyltrimethylammonium bromides in air/water-orthophosphoric acid interface have been made by “stripping method". Data were evaluated by approximation to the Von Szyszkowski equation. Thermodynamic parameters as (Γmax, F, A, B, Δ G^circ_A, Δ GM and CMC) at different concentrations of orhophosphoric acid (0 at 3 M) are calculted. The CMC values of the homologous series in relation to the chain length were determined. They showed a good correlation with the Klevens equation. A minimum of CMC and (-ΔGM) was observed for the n-octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, which has been attributed to the cosolvant effect and the change of medium properties. L'adsorption, de bromure de n-alkyltriméthylammonium à l'interface air/eau-acide orthophosphorique, a été étudiée par la mesure de tension superficielle en fonction du nombre d'atomes de carbone du groupement alkyle et de la concentration en acide orthophosphorique (0 à 3 M). L'analyse des résultats a été effectuée à l'aide de l'équation de Von Szyszkowski. Les grandeurs et paramètres thermodynamiques (Γmax, F, A, B, Δ G^circ_A, Δ GM and CMC) ont été déterminés et discutés selon l'équilibre de forces de répulsion électrostatique entre les têtes polaires et d'attraction hydrophobe des chaînes aliphatiques. Les valeurs des CMC obéissent à l'équation de Klevens. Dans le cas du bromure de n-octadécyltriméthylammonium les valeurs de la CMC et de (-ΔGM) présentent un minimum, attribué au changement des propriétés du binaire eau-acide orthophosphorique.

  3. Decontamination of chemical warfare sulfur mustard agent simulant by ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Meysam; Yekta, Sina; Ghaedi, Hamed

    2016-07-01

    In this study, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have been surveyed to decontaminate the chloroethyl phenyl sulfide as a sulfur mustard agent simulant. Prior to the reaction, ZnO NPs were successfully prepared through sol-gel method in the absence and presence of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). PVA was utilized as a capping agent to control the agglomeration of the nanoparticles. The formation, morphology, elemental component, and crystalline size of nanoscale ZnO were certified and characterized by SEM/EDX, XRD, and FT-IR techniques. The decontamination (adsorption and destruction) was tracked by the GC-FID analysis, in which the effects of polarity of the media, such as isopropanol, acetone and n-hexane, reaction time intervals from 1 up to 18 h, and different temperatures, including 25, 35, 45, and 55 °C, on the catalytic/decontaminative capability of the surface of ZnO NPs/PVA were investigated and discussed, respectively. Results demonstrated that maximum decontamination (100 %) occurred in n-hexane solvent at 55 °C after 1 h. On the other hand, the obtained results for the acetone and isopropanol solvents were lower than expected. GC-MS chromatograms confirmed the formation of hydroxyl ethyl phenyl sulfide and phenyl vinyl sulfide as the destruction reaction products. Furthermore, these chromatograms proved the role of hydrolysis and elimination mechanisms on the catalyst considering its surface Bronsted and Lewis acid sites. A non-polar solvent aids material transfer to the reactive surface acid sites without blocking these sites.

  4. WRDA SEDIMENT DECONTAMINATION PILOT-SCALE DATA REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thermal and non-thermal decontamination technologies have been undergoing demonstrations at the bench through full/commercial-scale levels. The decontamination program is being conducted under the auspices of the Water Resources Development Acts (92, 96) working in conjunction wi...

  5. [Air decontamination and the fine filtration system "Potok 150MK"].

    PubMed

    Kapustina, E A; Volodina, E V

    2004-01-01

    Longevity of space stations is dependent on efficiency and robustness of the life support systems. The article describes the principle of operation of air decontamination system Potok 150MK intended for providing microbial safety of the orbital station environment. High quality of air disinfection and decontamination has been demonstrated aboard SS Mir and the International space station. PMID:15233040

  6. Decontamination Study for Mixed Waste Storage Tanks RCRA Closure

    SciTech Connect

    Leaphart, D.M.; Reed, S.R.; Rankin, W.N.

    1995-03-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) plans to close six underground tanks storing mixed waste under RCRA regulations. In support of this closure effort, a study was performed to determine the optimal method of decontaminating these tanks to meet the closure requirements. Items consaidered in the evaluation of the decontamination methods included effectiveness, compatibility with existing waste residues, possible cleaning solution disposal methods, and cost.

  7. Decontamination of hot cells K-1, K-3, M-1, M-3, and A-1, M-Wing, Building 200: Project final report Argonne National Laboratory-East

    SciTech Connect

    Cheever, C.L.; Rose, R.W.

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to remove radioactively contaminated materials and equipment from the hot cells, to decontaminate the hot cells, and to dispose of the radioactive waste. The goal was to reduce stack releases of Rn-220 and to place the hot cells in an emptied, decontaminated condition with less than 10 {micro}Sv/h (1 mrem/h) general radiation background. The following actions were needed: organize and mobilize a decontamination team; prepare decontamination plans and procedures; perform safety analyses to ensure protection of the workers, public, and environment; remotely size-reduce, package, and remove radioactive materials and equipment for waste disposal; remotely decontaminate surfaces to reduce hot cell radiation background levels to allow personnel entries using supplied air and full protective suits; disassemble and package the remaining radioactive materials and equipment using hands-on techniques; decontaminate hot cell surfaces to remove loose radioactive contaminants and to attain a less than 10 {micro}Sv/h (1 mrem/h) general background level; document and dispose of the radioactive and mixed waste; and conduct a final radiological survey.

  8. Decontamination of hard cheeses by pulsed UV light.

    PubMed

    Can, Fidan O; Demirci, Ali; Puri, Virendra M; Gourama, Hassan

    2014-10-01

    Cheese is a ready-to-eat food that may be contaminated on the surface by undesirable spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms during production, packaging, and postpackaging processes. Penicillium roqueforti is commonly found on cheese surfaces at refrigeration temperatures and is one of the most common spoilage fungal species. Consumption of cheese contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes can result in foodborne listeriosis. Therefore, cheese should be decontaminated at postprocessing stages. Pulsed UV light is a nonthermal method for food preservation that involves the use of intense short pulses to ensure microbial decontamination on the surface of foods or packaging materials. In this study, the efficacy of pulsed UV light for inactivation of P. roqueforti and L. monocytogenes inoculated onto packaged and unpackaged hard cheeses was investigated. Treatment times and the distance from the UV strobe were evaluated to determine optimum treatment conditions. Packaged and unpackaged cheeses were treated at distances of 5, 8, and 13 cm for up to 60 s. For P. roqueforti, maximum reduction after 40 s at 5 cm was 1.32 log CFU/cm(2) on unpackaged cheese and 1.24 log CFU/cm(2) on packaged cheese. Reductions of L. monocytogenes under the same treatment conditions were about 2.9 and 2.8 log CFU/cm(2) on packaged and unpackaged cheeses, respectively. The temperature changes and total energy increases were directly proportional to treatment time and inversely proportional to distance between the UV lamp and the samples. The changes in color and lipid oxidation were determined at mild (5 s at 13 cm), moderate (30 s at 8 cm), and extreme (40 s at 5 cm) treatments. The color and chemical quality of cheeses were not significantly different after mild treatments (P > 0.05). The mechanical properties of the plastic packaging material (polypropylene) also were evaluated after mild, moderate, and extreme treatments. A decreasing trend was noted for elastic modulus; however, no

  9. Laboratory evaluations of mechanical decontamination and descaling techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, H.R.; Polentz, L.M.; Bateman, D.B.

    1984-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate a number of nonchemical industrial techniques that have potential for use in decontamination of portions of the reactor coolant system at TMI-2. The basis for the evaluation was the performance of the technique in tubing/pipe with respect to: (1) removal of simulated loose fuel debris, (2) removal of a corrosion layer, (3) the condition of the cleaned surface, and (4) cleaning of 90/sup 0/ elbows. Testing of the techniques was accomplished by demonstrations conducted at vendor sites and by laboratory work at Quadrex. Corrosion layers were simulated by using 0.75 in. oxidized Inconel tubing and either painted or oxidized 3 in. type 304 stainless steel pipe. Loose fuel debris was simulated with a 50:50 mixture of one and five micron tungsten powder. The most useful techniques for removal of both loose debris and corrosion layers were a rotating brush-hone tipped with SiC and a rotating, expanding wire brush. Although high/ultrahigh-pressure water was demonstrated to remove both loose debris and a corrosion layer, the relative roughness of the surface produced may present a recontamination problem if the component is to be reused. Pigs with a variety of surface coverings very successfully removed loose debris but could not remove a corrosion layer in one pass.

  10. SAFETY STUDIES TO MEASURE EXOTHERMIC REACTIONS OF SPENT PLUTONIUM CONTAMINATION CHEMICALS USING WET AND DRY DECONTAMINATION METHODS

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, Andrea M.; Jackson, George W.; Minette, Michael J.; Ewalt, John R.; Cooper, Thurman D.; Scott, Paul A.; Jones, Susan A.; Scheele, Randall D.; Charboneau, Stacy L.

    2005-10-12

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) at the Hanford site in Eastern Washington is currently being decommissioned by Fluor Hanford. Chemicals being considered for decontamination of gloveboxes in PFP include cerium (IV) nitrate in a nitric acid solution, and proprietary commercial solutions that include acids and sequestering agents. Aggressive chemicals are commonly used to remove transuranic contaminants from process equipment to allow disposal of the equipment as low level waste. Fluor's decontamination procedure involves application of chemical solutions as a spray on the contaminated surfaces, followed by a wipe-down with rags. Alternatively, a process of applying oxidizing Ce IV ions contained in a gel matrix and vacuuming a dry gel material is being evaluated. These processes effectively transfer the transuranic materials to rags or a gel matrix which is then packaged as TRU waste and disposed. Fluor is investigating plutonium decontamination chemicals as a result of concerns regarding the safety of chemical procedures following a fire at Rocky Flats in 2003. The fire at Rocky Flats occurred in a glovebox that had been treated with cerium nitrate, which is one of the decontamination chemicals that Fluor Hanford has proposed to use. Although the investigation of the fire was not conclusive as to cause, the reviewers noted that rags were found in the glovebox, suggesting that the combination of rags and chemicals may have contributed to the fire. Because of this underlying uncertainty, Fluor began an investigation into the potential for fire when using the chemicals and materials using wet disposition and dry disposition of the waste generated in the decontamination process and the storage conditions to which the waste drum would be exposed. The focus of this work has been to develop a disposal strategy that will provide a chemically stable waste form at expected Hanford waste storage temperatures. Hanford waste storage conditions are such that there is added

  11. Effets des electrons secondaires sur l'ADN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudaiffa, Badia

    Les interactions des electrons de basse energie (EBE) representent un element important en sciences des radiations, particulierement, les sequences se produisant immediatement apres l'interaction de la radiation ionisante avec le milieu biologique. Il est bien connu que lorsque ces radiations deposent leur energie dans la cellule, elles produisent un grand nombre d'electrons secondaires (4 x 104/MeV), qui sont crees le long de la trace avec des energies cinetiques initiales bien inferieures a 20 eV. Cependant, il n'y a jamais eu de mesures directes demontrant l'interaction de ces electrons de tres basse energie avec l'ADN, du principalement aux difficultes experimentales imposees par la complexite du milieu biologique. Dans notre laboratoire, les dernieres annees ont ete consacrees a l'etude des phenomenes fondamentaux induits par impact des EBE sur differentes molecules simples (e.g., N2, CO, O2, H2O, NO, C2H 4, C6H6, C2H12) et quelques molecules complexes dans leur phase solide. D'autres travaux effectues recemment sur des bases de l'ADN et des oligonucleotides ont montre que les EBE produisent des bris moleculaires sur les biomolecules. Ces travaux nous ont permis d'elaborer des techniques pour mettre en evidence et comprendre les interactions fondamentales des EBE avec des molecules d'interet biologique, afin d'atteindre notre objectif majeur d'etudier l'effet direct de ces particules sur la molecule d'ADN. Les techniques de sciences des surfaces developpees et utilisees dans les etudes precitees peuvent etre etendues et combinees avec des methodes classiques de biologie pour etudier les dommages de l'ADN induits par l'impact des EBE. Nos experiences ont montre l'efficacite des electrons de 3--20 eV a induire des coupures simple et double brins dans l'ADN. Pour des energies inferieures a 15 eV, ces coupures sont induites par la localisation temporaire d'un electron sur une unite moleculaire de l'ADN, ce qui engendre la formation d'un ion negatif transitoire

  12. Analysis of Potential Concerete Floor Decontamination Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    M. A. Ebadian

    1997-08-06

    During the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities to be conducted at the Femald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), contaminated concrete waste will be generated from the D&D of approximately 200 buildings and other structures [1]. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owns the Fernald site. The site is a contractor-operated federal facility that produced high-purity uranium metal products for the DOE and its predecessor agency, the Atomic Energy Commission, from 1952 to 1989. Thorium being ores were also processed at FEMP, but on a smaller scale. Production activities ceased in 1989, and the production mission of the facility ended formally in 1991. FEMP was included on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List in 1989. The current mission of the site is environmental restoration according to the requirements specified by CERCLA [1]. Decontamination and decommissioning activities require the treatment of concrete floors to segregate technetium-99 contaminated concrete from the remainder of the concrete. Many proven commercial stiace removal technologies are available. These processes vary in aggressiveness, stiety requirements, waste generation, capital requirements, and operating and maintenance costs.

  13. Radiation decontamination unit for the community hospital.

    PubMed

    Waldron, R L; Danielson, R A; Shultz, H E; Eckert, D E; Hendricks, K O

    1981-05-01

    "Freestanding" radiation decontamination units including surgical capability can be developed and made operational in small/medium sized community hospitals at relatively small cost and with minimal plant reconstruction. Because of the development of nuclear power plants in relatively remote areas and widespread transportation of radioactive materials it is important for hospitals and physicians to be prepared to handle radiation accident victims. The Radiological Assistance Program of the United States Department of Energy and the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center Training Site of Oak Ridge Associated Universities are ready to support individual hospitals and physicians in this endeavor. Adequate planning rather than luck, should be used in dealing with potential radiation accident victims. The radiation emergency team is headed by a physician on duty in the hospital. It is important that the team leader be knowledgeable in radiation accident management and have personnel trained in radiation accident management as members of this team. The senior administrative person on duty is responsible for intramural and extramural communications. Rapid mobilization of the radiation decontamination unit is important. Periodic drills are necessary for this mobilization and the smooth operation of the unit. PMID:6784538

  14. Evaluation of Five Decontamination Methods for Filtering Facepiece Respirators

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Michael S.; Eimer, Benjamin C.; Shaffer, Ronald E.

    2009-01-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding the availability of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-certified N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) during an influenza pandemic. One possible strategy to mitigate a respirator shortage is to reuse FFRs following a biological decontamination process to render infectious material on the FFR inactive. However, little data exist on the effects of decontamination methods on respirator integrity and performance. This study evaluated five decontamination methods [ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI), ethylene oxide, vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP), microwave oven irradiation, and bleach] using nine models of NIOSH-certified respirators (three models each of N95 FFRs, surgical N95 respirators, and P100 FFRs) to determine which methods should be considered for future research studies. Following treatment by each decontamination method, the FFRs were evaluated for changes in physical appearance, odor, and laboratory performance (filter aerosol penetration and filter airflow resistance). Additional experiments (dry heat laboratory oven exposures, off-gassing, and FFR hydrophobicity) were subsequently conducted to better understand material properties and possible health risks to the respirator user following decontamination. However, this study did not assess the efficiency of the decontamination methods to inactivate viable microorganisms. Microwave oven irradiation melted samples from two FFR models. The remainder of the FFR samples that had been decontaminated had expected levels of filter aerosol penetration and filter airflow resistance. The scent of bleach remained noticeable following overnight drying and low levels of chlorine gas were found to off-gas from bleach-decontaminated FFRs when rehydrated with deionized water. UVGI, ethylene oxide (EtO), and VHP were found to be the most promising decontamination methods; however, concerns remain about the throughput capabilities for EtO and VHP

  15. Decontamination of nuclear systems at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station

    SciTech Connect

    Weed, R.D.; Baker, K.R.

    1996-12-31

    Early in 1994 Management at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station realized that a potential decontamination of several reactor systems was needed to maintain the commitments to the {open_quotes}As Low As Reasonably Achievable{close_quotes} (ALARA) program. There was a substantial amount of planned outage work required to repair and replace some internals in loop isolation valves and there were inspections and other outage work that needed to be accomplished as it had been postponed from previous outages because of the radiation exposure levels in and around the system equipment. Management scheduled for the procurement specification to be revised to incorporate additional boundary areas which had not been previously considered. The schedule included the period for gathering bids, awarding a contract, and reviewing the contractor`s procedures and reports and granting approval for the decontamination to proceed during the upcoming outage. In addition to the reviews required by the engineering group for overall control of the process, the plant system engineers had to prepare procedures at the system level to provide for a smooth operation to be made during the decontamination of the systems. The system engineers were required to make certain that the decontamination fluids would be contained within the systems being decontaminated and that they would not cross contaminate any other system not being decontaminated. Since these nuclear stations do not have the provisions for decontaminating these systems with using additional equipment, the equipment required is furnished by the contractor as skid mounted packaged units which can be moved into the area, set up near the system being decontaminated, and after the decontamination is completed, the skid mounted packages are removed as part of the contract. Figure 1 shows a typical setup in block diagram required to perform a reactor system decontamination. 1 fig.

  16. ANNUAL REPORT. ATMOSPHERIC-PRESSURE PLASMA CLEANING OF CONTAMINATED SURFACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this work is to demonstrate a practical, atmospheric pressure plasma tool for the surface decontamination of nuclear waste. Decontamination of radioactive materials that have accumulated on the surfaces of equipment and structures is a challenging and costly unde...

  17. Suitability of different construction materials for use in aseptic processing environments decontaminated with gaseous hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Unger, Beatriz; Rauschnabel, Uta; Düthorn, Berthold; Kottke, Volker; Hertel, Christian; Rauschnabel, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the behavior of different materials towards the microbial inactivation kinetic of gaseous hydrogen peroxide. Samples of 49 materials potentially used in aseptic processing environments were inoculated with 106 spores of Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC #12980 and exposed to defined periods using a reproducible hydrogen peroxide bio-decontamination cycle. The inactivation characteristic of each material was investigated by means of repeated D-value calculations. The results demonstrate that different materials show highly variable performance regarding the inactivation pattern of spores on each particular surface. Not only the chemical composition of the material but also differences in manufacturing processes and surface treatments were found to have an effect on the resistance of the test organisms. From the data obtained it is concluded that some correlation exists between the calculated D-values and roughness as well as wettability of the materials. Best- and worst-case materials were identified, and the dependence of specific decontamination characteristics on material properties was investigated. It is suggested to integrate studies regarding the inactivation characteristics of incorporated materials into the construction process of new aseptic processing systems bio-decontaminated with hydrogen peroxide. PMID:17933208

  18. Technical evaluation report for the demonstration of radio frequency soil decontamination at Site S-1

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, C.R.; Blanchard, C.F.; Whitt, L.H.

    1995-04-01

    The Air Force`s Armstrong Laboratory at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida, has supported the research and development of Radio Frequency Soil Decontamination. Radio frequency soil decontamination is essentially a heat-assisted soil vapor extraction process. Site S-1 at Kelly Air Force Base, San Antonio, Texas, was selected for the demonstration of two patented techniques. The site is a former sump that collected spills and surface run-off from a waste petroleum, oils, and lubricants and solvent storage and transfer area. In 1993, a technique developed by the IIT Research Institute using an array of electrodes placed in the soil was demonstrated. In 1994, a technique developed by KAI Technologies, Inc. using a single applicator placed in a vertical borehole was demonstrated. Approximately 120 tons of soil were heated during each demonstration to a temperature of about 150 degrees Celsius.

  19. Demonstration experience with an abrasive blasting technique for decontaminating concrete pads

    SciTech Connect

    Devgun, J.S. ); Land, R.R. ); Doane, R.W. )

    1990-01-01

    A demonstration was performed for decontaminating a radioactivity contaminated concrete pad with a portable abrasive blasting system. The system utilizes a rotating blast wheel that scours the concrete surface with metal abrasive. The metal abrasive, pulverized concrete dust, and contaminants rebound into a separator chamber. The reusable metal abrasive is recycled, and the pulverized media are removed to an integral dust collection system. The exhaust is HEPA filtered to minimize release of airborne contaminants. However, the technique had limited success in reducing contamination around the cracks and seams in the concrete where the higher activity levels of contamination were detected during the radiological survey before the cleanup. The technique can be successful and cost-effective in decontaminating large areas of low contamination; however, careful characterization and planning are necessary. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tabs.

  20. Decontaminating the DOE-STD-3013 Inner Container to Meet 10-CFR-835 Appendix D Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, H.E.; Nelson, T.O.; Rivera, Y.M.; Wedman, D.E.; Weisbrod, K.R.

    1999-03-03

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has published a standard that specifies the criteria for preparation and packaging of plutonium metals and oxides for safe long-term storage (DOE-STD-3013-96). This standard is followed for the packaging of materials resulting from the disassembly of nuclear weapons at Los Alamos National Laboratory under the Advanced Retirement and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) project. Declassified plutonium metal or oxide material from the ARES project is packaged into doubly contained and welded type 304L stainless steel containers that comply with the DOE standard. The 3013-96 standard describes requirements for maximum contamination limits on the outer surface of the sealed inner container. These limits are 500 dpm per 100 cm2 for direct measurements and 20 dpm per 100 cm2 for removable contamination. For containers filled, welded, and handled inside a highly contaminated glovebox line, these limits are difficult to obtain. Simple handling within the line is demonstrated to contaminate surfaces from 10,000 to 10,000,000 dpm alpha per 100 cm2. To routinely achieve contamination levels below the maximum contamination levels specified by the 3013-96 standard within a processing operation, a decontamination step must be included. In the ARIES line, this decontamination step is an electrolytic process that produces a controlled uniform etch of the container surfaces. Decontamination of the 3013-96 compliant ARIES inner container is well demonstrated. Within 30 to 50 minutes electrolysis time, tixed contamination is reduced to hundreds of dpm generally occurring only at electrode contact points and welds. Removable contamination is routinely brought to non-detectable levels. The total process time for the cycle (includes electrolysis, rinse, and dry stages) is on the order of 1.5 to 2 hours per container. The ARIES inner container decontamination system highly automated and consists of a plumbing loop, electronic controls and

  1. Concrete decontamination by electro-hydraulic scabbling (EHS). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    Contamination of concrete structures by radionuclides, hazardous metals and organic substances (including PCB`s) occurs at many DOE sites. The contamination of concrete structures (walls, floors, ceilings, etc.) varies in type, concentration, and especially depth of penetration into the concrete. In many instances, only the surface layer of concrete is contaminated, up to a depth of one inch, according to estimates provided in the R and D ID document. Then, removal of the concrete surface layer (scabbling) is considered to be the most effective decontamination method. Textron Systems Corp. (TSC) has developed a scabbling concept based on electro-mechanical phenomena accompanying strong electric pulses generated by applying high voltage at the concrete/water interface. Depending on the conditions, the electric discharge may occur either through a waste layer or through the concrete body itself. This report describes the development, testing, and results of this electro-mechanical process. Phase 1 demonstrated the feasibility of the process for the controlled removal of a thin layer of contaminated concrete. Phase 2 designed, fabricated, and tested an integrated subscale unit. This was tested at Fernald. In Phase 3, the scabbling unit was reconfigured to increase its power and processing rate. Technology transfer to an engineering contracting company is continuing.

  2. THE USE OF A TREATABILITY STUDY TO INVESTIGATE THE POTENTIAL FOR SELF HEATING & EXOTHERMIC REACTIONS IN DECONTAMINATION MATERIALS AT PFP

    SciTech Connect

    HOPKINS, A.M.

    2005-02-23

    Cerium Nitrate has been proposed for use in the decontamination of plutonium contaminated equipment at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) located on the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in eastern Washington. A Treatability Study was conducted to determine the validity of this decontamination technology in terms of meeting its performance goals and to understand the risks associated with the use of Cerium Nitrate under the conditions found at the PFP. Fluor Hanford is beginning the decommissioning of the PFP at the Hanford site. Aggressive chemicals are commonly used to remove transuranic contaminants from process equipment to allow disposal as low level waste. Chemicals being considered for decontamination of gloveboxes in PFP include cerium (IV) nitrate in a nitric acid solution, and proprietary commercial solutions that include acids, degreasers, and sequestering agents. Fluor's decontamination procedure involves application of the chemicals, followed by a wipe-down of the contaminated surfaces with rags. This process effectively transfers the decontamination liquids containing the transuranic materials to the rags, which can then be readily packaged for disposal as TRU waste. As part of a treatability study, Fluor Hanford and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have evaluated the potential for self-heating and exothermic reactions in the residual decontamination materials and the waste packages. Laboratory analyses and thermal-hydraulic modeling reveal a significant self-heating risk for cerium nitrate solutions when used with cotton rags. Exothermic reactions that release significant heat and off-gas have been discovered for cerium nitrate at higher temperatures. From these studies, limiting conditions have been defined to assure safe operations and waste packaging.

  3. Long-term decontamination engineering study. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Geuther, W.J.

    1995-04-03

    This report was prepared by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) with technical and cost estimating support from Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) and Parsons Environmental Services, Inc. (Parsons). This engineering study evaluates the requirements and alternatives for decontamination/treatment of contaminated equipment at the Hanford Site. The purpose of this study is to determine the decontamination/treatment strategy that best supports the Hanford Site environmental restoration mission. It describes the potential waste streams requiring treatment or decontamination, develops the alternatives under consideration establishes the criteria for comparison, evaluates the alternatives, and draws conclusions (i.e., the optimum strategy for decontamination). Although two primary alternatives are discussed, this study does identify other alternatives that may warrant additional study. hanford Site solid waste management program activities include storage, special processing, decontamination/treatment, and disposal facilities. This study focuses on the decontamination/treatment processes (e.g., waste decontamination, size reduction, immobilization, and packaging) that support the environmental restoration mission at the Hanford Site.

  4. Les effets des interfaces sur les proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches nickel/iron et cobalt/silver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, Teodor

    Cette these est consacree a l'etude de l'evolution structurale des proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches Ni/Fe et nanostructures a base de Co et de l'Ag. Dans une premiere partie, essentiellement bibliographique, nous introduisons quelques concepts de base relies aux proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches metalliques. Ensuite, nous presentons une breve description des methodes d'analyse des resultats. La deuxieme partie est consacree a l'etude des proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches ferromagnetiques/ferromagnetiques Ni/Fe. Nous montrerons qu'une interpretation coherente de ces proprietes necessite la prise en consideration des effets des interfaces. Nous nous attacherons a mettre en evidence, a evaluer et a etudier les effets de ces interfaces ainsi que leur evolution, et ce, suite a des traitements thermiques tel que le depot a temperature elevee et l'irradiation ionique. Les analyses correlees de la structure et de la magnetoresistance nous permettront d'emettre des conclusions sur l'influence des couches tampons entre l'interface et le substrat ainsi qu'entre les couches elles-memes sur le comportement magnetique des couches F/F. La troisieme partie est consacree aux systemes a Magneto-Resistance Geante (MRG) a base de Co et Ag. Nous allons etudier l'evolution de la microstructure suite a l'irradiation avec des ions Si+ ayant une energie de 1 MeV, ainsi que les effets de ces changements sur le comportement magnetique. Cette partie debutera par l'analyse des proprietes d'une multicouche hybride, intermediaire entre les multicouches et les materiaux granulaires. Nous analyserons a l'aide des mesures de diffraction, de relaxation superparamagnetique et de magnetoresistance, les evolutions structurales produites par l'irradiation ionique. Nous etablirons des modeles qui nous aideront a interpreter les resultats pour une serie des multicouches qui couvrent un large eventail de differents comportements magnetiques

  5. Clinical use of selective decontamination: the concept.

    PubMed

    van der Waaij, D; Manson, W L; Arends, J P; de Vries-Hospers, H G

    1990-01-01

    Infections can be classified according to: (1) the type of offending microorganism (virus, bacteria, fungi, parasites), (2) according to the clearance by the defence system (T cell dependent/independent) and (3) in case bacteria are the causative agents in Gram-positive and Gram-negative infections. The latter classification in Gram-positive and Gram-negative infections has appeared to have a practical consequence. Gram-negative bacteria, often involved in major infections and yeasts, appear to play practically no role in the intestinal ecological system. Consequently, it is nowadays increasingly attempted to eliminate Gram-negative bacteria and yeasts selectively from the digestive tract with antimicrobial agents. Selective suppression of Gram-positive bacteria may severely affect the ecosystem of the digestive tract. This selective suppression of Gram-negatives must be continued as long as patients are immunocompromised (locally or systemically) and is called selective decontamination of the digestive tract. PMID:2289993

  6. Uranium enrichment decontamination and decommissioning fund

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    One of the most challenging issues facing the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management is the cleanup of the three gaseous diffusion plants. In October 1992, Congress passed the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and established the Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decommissioning Fund to accomplish this task. This mission is being undertaken in an environmentally and financially responsible way by: devising cost-effective technical solutions; producing realistic life-cycle cost estimates, based on practical assumptions and thorough analysis; generating coherent long-term plans which are based on risk assessments, land use, and input from stakeholders; and, showing near-term progress in the cleanup of the gaseous diffusion facilities at Oak Ridge.

  7. Decontaminating soil organic pollutants with manufactured nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Chen, Xijuan; Zhuang, Jie; Chen, Xin

    2016-06-01

    Organic pollutants in soils might threaten the environmental and human health. Manufactured nanoparticles are capable to reduce this risk efficiently due to their relatively large capacity of sorption and degradation of organic pollutants. Stability, mobility, and reactivity of nanoparticles are prerequisites for their efficacy in soil remediation. On the basis of a brief introduction of these issues, this review provides a comprehensive summary of the application and effectiveness of various types of manufactured nanoparticles for removing organic pollutants from soil. The main categories of nanoparticles include iron (oxides), titanium dioxide, carbonaceous, palladium, and amphiphilic polymeric nanoparticles. Their advantages (e.g., unique properties and high sorption capacity) and disadvantages (e.g., high cost and low recovery) for soil remediation are discussed with respect to the characteristics of organic pollutants. The factors that influence the decontamination effects, such as properties, surfactants, solution chemistry, and soil organic matter, are addressed. PMID:26906002

  8. Radioactive hot cell access hole decontamination machine

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, William E.

    1982-01-01

    Radioactive hot cell access hole decontamination machine. A mobile housing has an opening large enough to encircle the access hole and has a shielding door, with a door opening and closing mechanism, for uncovering and covering the opening. The housing contains a shaft which has an apparatus for rotating the shaft and a device for independently translating the shaft from the housing through the opening and access hole into the hot cell chamber. A properly sized cylindrical pig containing wire brushes and cloth or other disks, with an arrangement for releasably attaching it to the end of the shaft, circumferentially cleans the access hole wall of radioactive contamination and thereafter detaches from the shaft to fall into the hot cell chamber.

  9. Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorial issue, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2008-07-15

    The focus of the July-August issue is on Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorials. Articles and reports in this issue include: D and D technical paper summaries; The role of nuclear power in turbulent times, by Tom Chrisopher, AREVA, NP, Inc.; Enthusiastic about new technologies, by Jack Fuller, GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; It's important to be good citizens, by Steve Rus, Black and Veatch Corporation; Creating Jobs in the U.S., by Guy E. Chardon, ALSTOM Power; and, and, An enviroment and a community champion, by Tyler Lamberts, Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. The Industry Innovations article is titled Best of the best TIP achievement 2008, by Edward Conaway, STP Nuclear Operating Company.

  10. Enhancement of electrokinetic decontamination with EDTA.

    PubMed

    Karim, M A; Khan, L I

    2012-01-01

    The effect of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) during electrokinetic decontamination (EKD) was investigated in this research. EDTA is a ligand that can form soluble complexes with precipitated heavy metals inside soil pores. Millpond sludge, primarily contaminated with lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn), was subjected to EKD with and without the presence of EDTA. Dilute EDTA solutions with strengths of 0.05 M and 0.125 M were injected into the millpond sludge by electroosmosis. Several beneficial effects of using EDTA were observed in this research. One was that the presence of EDTA substantially increased the electroosmotic (EO) flow in the millpond sludge indicating that it could significantly reduce the duration of EKD. Another advantage was that a significantly higher percentage of Pb and Zn removal was achieved from the solid phase due to the complexation of EDTA with these heavy metals. Also, EDTA was able to prevent the precipitation of metals at the cathode electrode, typically observed in EKD process. PMID:23393970

  11. ONLINE MEASUREMENT OF THE PROGRESS OF DECONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    In order to determine if the sensor technology and the decontamination technology will face problems once integrated, a feasibility study (see Appendix B) was produced in which the effect of motion on the efficiency of a radiation sensor was measured. It was found that the effect is not negligible; however, it is not catastrophic, and if the sensors are properly calibrated, this obstacle can be overcome. During the first year of this project, many important tasks have been accomplished. The search for radiation sensors provided knowledge on the technologies commercially available. This, in turn, allowed for a proper assessment of the properties, limitations, different methods of measurement, and requirements of a large number of sensors. The best possible characterization and data collection instrument and decontamination technologies were chosen using the requirement information in Appendix A. There are technical problems with installing sensors within the blasting head, such as steel shot and dust interference. Therefore, the sensor array is placed so that it will measure the radioactivity after the blasting. Sensors are rather sensitive, and therefore it is not feasible to place the sensor windows in such an abrasive environment. Other factors, such as the need for radiation hardening in extreme cases, and the possible interference of gamma rays with the radio frequency modem, have been considered. These factors are expected to be negligible and can be revisited at the time of prototype production. Factors that need to be addressed are the vibrations of the blasting unit and how to isolate the sensor array from these. In addition, an electromagnetic survey must be performed to ensure there will be no interference with the electronic component that will be integrated. The integration design is shown in section 4.0.

  12. Long term decontamination at the Hanford Site: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Geuther, W.J.; Hansen, G.E.

    1995-02-01

    This paper describes an engineering study that evaluates decontamination requirements at Hanford and the potential reutilization of the first plutonium processing production facility as a decontamination facility. The logic used to develop the study, the options available for a long-term decontamination mission, and the resultant strategy recommended in the study are presented. The paper provides a starting point for other similar study efforts. The process flowsheets, regulatory restrictions, and preconceptual designs developed in this study are common throughout the nuclear waste industry.

  13. An alternative simple method in laryngoscope blade decontamination.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Mehmet Emin; Saygun, Onur; Güzeldemir, M Erdal

    2002-06-01

    The cleaning and disinfection of laryngoscope blades is controversial. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of two different chemical disinfectant agents and tap water where the laryngoscope blades were contaminated by different microorganisms and try to create a simple, effective and easy decontamination method. The results of our study demonstrate that the decontamination of the laryngoscope blades, which are cleansed with tap water, is not a reliable approach. In conclusion, mechanical cleaning of blades with water and the immersion in 2% glutaraldehyde or 10% polyvinyl pyrrolidine iodine for 10 minutes is an effective method for decontamination of laryngoscope blades. PMID:12138517

  14. Decontamination of Johnston Island Coral: a preliminary study

    SciTech Connect

    Kochen, R.L.

    1986-02-17

    A preliminary investigation was completed on the characterization and decontamination of coral samples from Johnston Island. These samples were found to contain individual particles (2 to 0.25 mm) of contaminated coral as well as a piece of contaminated magnetic metal. They ranged in activity from about 70 to 811 nCi Am-241. The decontamination methods investigated were froth flotation, ferrite treatment, attrition scrubbing, ultrasonic treatment and dry sieving. Dry sieving, the more effective technique, separated about 42 wt % of the coral into a decontaminated fraction. This fraction (>4 mm) contained about 0.5% of the total activity. 7 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. Plutonium Decontamination of Uranium using CO2 Cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, M

    2002-12-01

    A concern of the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) and Defense Programs (DP), and of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), is the disposition of thousands of legacy and recently generated plutonium (Pu)-contaminated, highly enriched uranium (HEU) parts. These parts take up needed vault space. This presents a serious problem for LLNL, as site limit could result in the stoppage of future weapons work. The Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (NN-60) will also face a similar problem as thousands of HEU parts will be created with the disassembly of site-return pits for plutonium recovery when the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) becomes operational. To send HEU to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Y-12 Plant for disposition, the contamination for metal must be less than 20 disintegrations per minute (dpm) of swipable transuranic per 100 cm{sup 2} of surface area or the Pu bulk contamination for oxide must be less than 210 parts per billion (ppb). LANL has used the electrolytic process on Pu-contaminated HEU weapon parts with some success. However, this process requires that a different fixture be used for every configuration; each fixture cost approximately $10K. Moreover, electrolytic decontamination leaches the uranium metal substrate (no uranium or plutonium oxide) from the HEU part. The leaching rate at the uranium metal grain boundaries is higher than that of the grains and depends on the thickness of the uranium oxide layer. As the leaching liquid flows past the HEU part, it carries away plutonium oxide contamination and uranium oxide. The uneven uranium metal surface created by the leaching becomes a trap for plutonium oxide contamination. In addition, other DOE sites have used CO{sub 2} cleaning for Pu decontamination successfully. In the 1990's, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory investigated this technology and

  16. Transfer of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium from Beef to Tomato through Kitchen Equipment and the Efficacy of Intermediate Decontamination Procedures.

    PubMed

    Gkana, E; Lianou, A; Nychas, G-J E

    2016-07-01

    It is well established that a high percentage of foodborne illness is caused by failure of consumers to prepare food in a hygienic manner. Indeed, a common practice in households is to use the same kitchen equipment for both raw meat and fresh produce. Such a practice may lead to cross-contamination of fruits and vegetables, which are mainly consumed without further processing, with pathogenic microorganisms originating from raw meat. The present study was performed to examine the transfer of the pathogenic bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium from inoculated beef fillets to tomatoes via contact with high-density polyethylene (PE), stainless steel (SS), and wooden (WD) surfaces and through cutting with SS knives. Furthermore, the following decontamination procedures were applied: (i) rinsing with tap water, (ii) scrubbing with tap water and liquid dish detergent, and (iii) using a commercial antibacterial spray. When surfaces and knives that came into contact with contaminated beef fillets were not cleaned prior to handling tomatoes, the lowest level of pathogen transfer to tomatoes was observed through PE surfaces. All of the decontamination procedures applied were more effective on knives than on surfaces, while among the surface materials tested, WD surfaces were the most difficult to decontaminate, followed by PE and SS surfaces. Mechanical cleaning with tap water and detergent was more efficient in decontaminating WD surfaces than using commercial disinfectant spray, followed by rinsing only with water. Specifically, reductions of 2.07 and 1.09 log CFU/cm(2) were achieved by washing the WD surfaces with water and detergent and spraying the surfaces with an antibacterial product, respectively. Although the pathogen's populations on SS and PE surfaces, as well as on tomatoes, after both aforementioned treatments were under the detection limit, the surfaces were all positive after enrichment, and thus, the potential risk of cross-contamination cannot

  17. Separation of cobalt from synthetic intermediate and decontamination radioactive wastes using polyurethane foam

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, S.V.S.; Lal, K.B.; Narasimhan, S.V.; Ahmed, J.

    1997-12-01

    Studies have been carried out on the removal of radioactive cobalt ({sup 60}Co) from synthetic intermediate level waste (ILW) and decontamination waste using neat polyurethane (PU) foam as well as n-tributyl phosphate-polyurethane (TBP-PU) foam. The radioactive cobalt has been extracted on the PU foam as cobalt thiocyanate from the ILW. Maximum removal of cobalt has been observed when the concentration of thiocyanate in the solution is about 0.4 M. Cobalt can be separated from decontamination waste containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and iron(II). The extent of extraction of cobalt is slow and the separation of iron and cobalt is better with the neat PU foam compared to the TBP-PU foam. The presence of iron in the decontamination waste facilitates the extraction of cobalt thiocyanate on the PU foam. Column studies have been carried out in order to extend these studies to the plant scale. The capacities of the PU foams for cobalt have been determined. The effect of density and the surface area of PU foam have been investigated. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectral studies have been conducted to find out the interaction between PU foam and cobalt thiocyanate species.

  18. Waste treatment by ion-exchange and precipitation methods after LOMI decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Gokhale, A.S.; Venkateswaran, G.; Moorthy, P.N.

    1994-12-31

    Conventional polystyrene-based strong acid cation and strong base anion exchangers have been evaluated for the retention of {sup 60}Co from vanadium based low oxidation-state metal ion (LOMI) decontamination formulation. Cation exchange treatment results in decontamination factors (DFs) of 8--40 with respect to {sup 60}Co if the LOMI solution is treated immediately after decontamination but yields lower DFs of 3--4 if it is stored for >24 h under ambient conditions. In both cases, anionic treatment of the cation column effluent gives DFs in the range 45--400. These results point to the differential speciation of {sup 60}Co in fresh and stored LOMI solutions and hence the necessity of having both cation and anion exchange treatments for the near complete removal of {sup 60}Co. Coprecipitation with MnO{sub 2} obtained by mixing the used LOMI solution with the required amounts of alkaline KMnO{sub 4} employed for pretreating the oxide surfaces was also found to be an effective method for {sup 60}Co removal. From the point of view of total activity removal, the precipitation method was less efficient than ion-exchange method.

  19. A Planning Tool for Estimating Waste Generated by a Radiological Incident and Subsequent Decontamination Efforts - 13569

    SciTech Connect

    Boe, Timothy; Lemieux, Paul; Schultheisz, Daniel; Peake, Tom; Hayes, Colin

    2013-07-01

    Management of debris and waste from a wide-area radiological incident would probably constitute a significant percentage of the total remediation cost and effort. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Waste Estimation Support Tool (WEST) is a unique planning tool for estimating the potential volume and radioactivity levels of waste generated by a radiological incident and subsequent decontamination efforts. The WEST was developed to support planners and decision makers by generating a first-order estimate of the quantity and characteristics of waste resulting from a radiological incident. The tool then allows the user to evaluate the impact of various decontamination/demolition strategies on the waste types and volumes generated. WEST consists of a suite of standalone applications and Esri{sup R} ArcGIS{sup R} scripts for rapidly estimating waste inventories and levels of radioactivity generated from a radiological contamination incident as a function of user-defined decontamination and demolition approaches. WEST accepts Geographic Information System (GIS) shape-files defining contaminated areas and extent of contamination. Building stock information, including square footage, building counts, and building composition estimates are then generated using the Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA's) Hazus{sup R}-MH software. WEST then identifies outdoor surfaces based on the application of pattern recognition to overhead aerial imagery. The results from the GIS calculations are then fed into a Microsoft Excel{sup R} 2007 spreadsheet with a custom graphical user interface where the user can examine the impact of various decontamination/demolition scenarios on the quantity, characteristics, and residual radioactivity of the resulting waste streams. (authors)

  20. Modification of the Decontamination Facility at the Kruemmel NPP - 13451

    SciTech Connect

    Klute, Stefan; Kupke, Peter

    2013-07-01

    In February 2009, Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH was awarded the contract for the design, manufacture, delivery and construction of a new Decontamination Facility in the controlled area for Kruemmel NPP. The new decontamination equipment has been installed according to the state of art of Kruemmel NPP. The existing space required the following modification, retrofitting and reconstruction works: - Demounting of the existing installation: to create space for the new facility it was necessary to dismantle the old facility. The concrete walls and ceilings were cut into sizes of no more than 400 kg for ease of handling. This enabled decontamination so largest possible amount could be released for recycling. All steel parts were cut into sizes fitting for iron-barred boxes, respecting the requirement to render the parts decontaminable and releasable. - Reconstructing a decontamination facility: Reconstruction of a decontamination box with separate air lock as access area for the decontamination of components and assemblies was conducted using pressurized air with abrasives (glass beads or steel shots). The walls were equipped with sound protection, the inner walls were welded gap-free to prevent the emergence of interstices and were equipped with changeable wear and tear curtains. Abrasive processing unit positioned underneath the dry blasting box adjacent to the two discharge hoppers. A switch has been installed for the separation of the glass beads and the steel shot. The glass beads are directed into a 200 l drum for the disposal. The steel shot was cleaned using a separator. The cleaned steel shot was routed via transportation devices to the storage container, making it available for further blasting operations. A decontamination box with separate air lock as access area for the decontamination of components and assemblies using high pressure water technology was provided by new construction. Water pressures between 160 bar and 800 bar can be selected. The inner

  1. COMPILATION OF AVAILABLE DATA ON BUILDING DECONTAMINATION ALTERNATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents an analysis of selected technologies that have been tested for their potential effectiveness in decontaminating a building that has been attacked using biological or chemical warfare agents, or using toxic industrial compounds. The technologies selected to be ...

  2. Enhanced toxic cloud knockdown spray system for decontamination applications

    DOEpatents

    Betty, Rita G.; Tucker, Mark D.; Brockmann, John E.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Levin, Bruce L.; Leonard, Jonathan

    2011-09-06

    Methods and systems for knockdown and neutralization of toxic clouds of aerosolized chemical or biological warfare (CBW) agents and toxic industrial chemicals using a non-toxic, non-corrosive aqueous decontamination formulation.

  3. Decontamination of MMH- and NTO/MON-propellant Tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokela, K.; Kaelsch, I.

    2004-10-01

    Decontamination of liquid propellant tanks, namely MMH and NTO/MON tanks, due to emergency off- loading of a spacecraft can cause damage to the propellant tank material if safety precautions are not taken into account. MMH (Mono-Methyl Hydrazine) reacts with water with an exothermic reaction that causes temperature rise and hydrous reaction product formation. NTO and MON (Nitrogen Tetroxide Oxidiser / Mixed Oxides of Nitrogen) react with water forming nitrous and nitric acid, which may cause corrosion and enhance Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) in the titanium tank material. To avoid these problems, a new procedure with a numerical prediction tool for decontamination of MMH tank has been developed, used and assessed to decontaminate the MMH tank of the ESA Rosetta spacecraft successfully. The ESA proposed procedure for MON oxidiser tank emergency off-loading and decontamination is also presented.

  4. Steam Generator Group Project. Task 6. Channel head decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.P.; Clark, R.L.; Reece, W.D.

    1984-08-01

    The Steam Generator Group Project utilizes a retired-from-service pressurized-water-reactor steam generator as a test bed and source of specimens for research. An important preparatory step to primary side research activities was reduction of the radiation field in the steam generator channel head. This task report describes the channel head decontamination activities. Though not a programmatic research objective it was judged beneficial to explore the use of dilute reagent chemical decontamination techniques. These techniques presented potential for reduced personnel exposure and reduced secondary radwaste generation, over currently used abrasive blasting techniques. Two techniques with extensive laboratory research and vendors prepared to offer commercial application were tested, one on either side of the channel head. As indicated in the report, both techniques accomplished similar decontamination objectives. Neither technique damaged the generator channel head or tubing materials, as applied. This report provides details of the decontamination operations. Application system and operating conditions are described.

  5. Bionanoconjugate-based composites for decontamination of nerve agents.

    PubMed

    Borkar, Indrakant V; Dinu, Cerasela Zoica; Zhu, Guangyu; Kane, Ravi S; Dordick, Jonathan S

    2010-01-01

    We have developed enzyme-based composites that rapidly and effectively detoxify simulants of V- and G-type chemical warfare nerve agents. The approach was based on the efficient immobilization of organophosphorus hydrolase onto carbon nanotubes to form active and stable conjugates that were easily entrapped in commercially available paints. The resulting catalytic-based composites showed no enzyme leaching and rendered >99% decontamination of 10 g/m(2) paraoxon, a simulant of the V-type nerve agent, in 30 minutes and >95% decontamination of diisopropylfluorophosphate, a simulant of G-type nerve agent, in 45 minutes. The formulations are expected to be environmentally friendly and to offer an easy to use, on demand, decontamination alternative to chemical approaches for sustainable material self-decontamination. PMID:20859933

  6. Microbiological Burden on the Surfaces of Explorer XXXIII Spacecraft1

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Edmund M.

    1967-01-01

    The Explorer XXXIII Spacecraft (Anchored Interplanetary Monitoring Platform, or AIMP) was decontaminated to prevent gross contamination of the moon with terrestrial microorganisms. Assay of the total spacecraft surface before and after decontamination showed that the decontamination procedure reduced the viable microbiological burden from 1.40 × 106 to 3.60 × 104. However, assembly of parts which were not decontaminated for engineering reasons or were not assembled under cleanroom conditions increased the viable microbial burden at the time of launch to 2.62 × 105. Images Fig. 2 PMID:6053173

  7. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 252: Area 25 Engine Test Stand 1 Decontamination Pad, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    1999-08-20

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit 252 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 252 consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-07-02, Engine Test Stand-1 (ETS-1) Decontamination Pad. Located in Area 25 at the intersection of Road H and Road K at the Nevada Test Site, ETS-1 was designed for use as a mobile radiation checkpoint and for vehicle decontamination. The CAS consists of a concrete decontamination pad with a drain, a gravel-filled sump, two concrete trailer pads, and utility boxes. Constructed in 1966, the ETS-1 facility was part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station (NRDS) complex and used to test nuclear rockets. The ETS-1 Decontamination Pad and mobile radiation check point was built in 1968. The NRDS complex ceased primary operations in 1973. Based on site history, the focus of the field investigation activities will be to determine if any primary contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) (including radionuclides, total volatile organic compounds, total semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls) are present at this site. Vertical extent of migration of suspected vehicle decontamination effluent COPCs is expected to be less than 12 feet below ground surface. Lateral extent of migration of COPCs is expected to be limited to the sump area or near the northeast corner of the decontamination pad. Using a biased sampling approach, near-surface and subsurface sampling will be conducted at the suspected worst-case areas including the sump and soil near the northeast corner of the decontamination pad. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible e valuation

  8. Decontamination of process equipment using recyclable chelating solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Jevec, J.; Lenore, C.; Ulbricht, S.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is now faced with the task of meeting decontamination and decommissioning obligations at numerous facilities by the year 2019. Due to the tremendous volume of material involved, innovative decontamination technologies are being sought that can reduce the volumes of contaminated waste materials and secondary wastes requiring disposal. This report describes the results of the performance testing of chelates and solvents for the dissolution of uranium.

  9. Self-Decontaminating Fibrous Materials Reactive toward Chemical Threats.

    PubMed

    Bromberg, Lev; Su, Xiao; Martis, Vladimir; Zhang, Yunfei; Hatton, T Alan

    2016-07-13

    Polymers that possess highly nucleophilic pyrrolidinopyridine (Pyr) and primary amino (vinylamine, VAm) groups were prepared by free-radical copolymerization of N,N-diallylpyridin-4-amine (DAAP) and N-vinylformamide (NVF) followed by acidic hydrolysis of NVF into VAm. The resulting poly(DAAP-co-VAm-co-NVF) copolymers were water-soluble and reacted with water-dispersible polyurethane possessing a high content of unreacted isocyanate groups. Spray-coating of the nylon-cotton (NYCO), rayon, and poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) (Kevlar 119) fibers pretreated with phosphoric acid resulted in covalent bonding of the polyurethane with the hydroxyl groups on the fiber surface. A second spray-coating of aqueous solutions of poly(DAAP-co-VAm-co-NVF) on the polyurethane-coated fiber enabled formation of urea linkages between unreacted isocyanate groups of the polyurethane layer and the amino groups of poly(DAAP-co-VAm-co-NVF). Fibers with poly(DAAP-co-VAm-co-NVF) attached were compared with fibers modified by adsorption of water-insoluble poly(butadiene-co-pyrrolidinopyridine) (polyBPP) in terms of the stability against polymer leaching in aqueous washing applications. While the fibers modified by attachment of poly(DAAP-co-VAm-co-NVF) exhibited negligible polymer leaching, over 65% of adsorbed polyBPP detached and leached from the fibers within 7 days. Rayon fibers modified by poly(DAAP-co-VAm-co-NVF) were tested for sorption of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) in the presence of moisture using dynamic vapor sorption technique. Capability of the fibers modified with poly(DAAP-co-VAm-co-NVF) to facilitate hydrolysis of the sorbed DMMP in the presence of moisture was uncovered. The self-decontaminating property of the modified fibers against chemical threats was tested using a CWA simulant diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) in aqueous media at pH 8.7. Fibers modified with poly(DAAP-co-VAm-co-NVF) facilitated hydrolysis of DFP with the half-lives up to an order of magnitude

  10. Reuse of Concrete within DOE from Decontamination and Decommissioning Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Tripp, Julia Lynn; Meservey, Richard Harlan; Smith, Anthony Mactier; Chen, S. Y.; Kamboj, S.

    2000-09-01

    A protocol has been developed for use in the disposition of concrete from Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) projects. The purpose of this protocol is to assist U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites in releasing concrete for re-use within the DOE complex. Current regulations allow sites to release surface-contaminated materials if they contain very low amounts of radioactivity and to possibly release materials with volumetric contamination, or higher levels of surface contamination on a case-bycase basis. In all cases, an ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) analysis that evaluates the risks of releasing volumetrically contaminated concrete or concrete with higher levels of surface contamination, is required. To evaluate the dose impacts of re-using radioactively contaminated material, the measured radiation levels (pCi/g or disintegrations per minute (dpm)/100 cm2) must be converted to the estimated dose (mrem/yr) that would be received by affected individuals. The dose depends on the amounts and types of isotopes present and the time, distance, and method of exposure (e.g., inhalation or external exposure). For each disposition alternative, the protocol provides a systematic method to evaluate the impact of the dose on affected individuals. The cost impacts of re-using concrete also need to be evaluated. They too depend on the disposition alternative and the extent and type of contamination. The protocol provides a method to perform a detailed analysis of these factors and evaluate the dose and cost impacts for various disposition alternatives. Once the dose and cost impacts of the various alternatives have been estimated, the protocol outlines the steps required to release and re-use the concrete material.

  11. Application of Ultrasonic for Decontamination of Contaminated Soil - 13142

    SciTech Connect

    Vasilyev, A.P.; Lebedev, N.M.; Savkin, A.E.

    2013-07-01

    The trials of soil decontamination were carried out with the help of a pilot ultrasonic installation in different modes. The installation included a decontamination bath equipped with ultrasonic sources, a precipitator for solution purification from small particles (less than 80 micrometer), sorption filter for solution purification from radionuclides washing out from soil, a tank for decontamination solution, a pump for decontamination solution supply. The trials were carried out on artificially contaminated sand with specific activity of 4.5 10{sup 5} Bk/kg and really contaminated soil from Russian Scientific Center 'Kurchatovsky Institute' (RSC'KI') with specific activity of 2.9 10{sup 4} Bk/kg. It was established that application of ultrasonic intensify the process of soil reagent decontamination and increase its efficiency. The decontamination factor for the artificially contaminated soil was ∼200 and for soil from RSC'KI' ∼30. The flow-sheet diagram has been developed for the new installation as well as determined the main technological characteristics of the equipment. (authors)

  12. Anthrax Sampling and Decontamination: Technology Trade-Offs

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Phillip N.; Hamachi, Kristina; McWilliams, Jennifer; Sohn, Michael D.

    2008-09-12

    The goal of this project was to answer the following questions concerning response to a future anthrax release (or suspected release) in a building: 1. Based on past experience, what rules of thumb can be determined concerning: (a) the amount of sampling that may be needed to determine the extent of contamination within a given building; (b) what portions of a building should be sampled; (c) the cost per square foot to decontaminate a given type of building using a given method; (d) the time required to prepare for, and perform, decontamination; (e) the effectiveness of a given decontamination method in a given type of building? 2. Based on past experience, what resources will be spent on evaluating the extent of contamination, performing decontamination, and assessing the effectiveness of the decontamination in abuilding of a given type and size? 3. What are the trade-offs between cost, time, and effectiveness for the various sampling plans, sampling methods, and decontamination methods that have been used in the past?

  13. Demonstration recommendations for accelerated testing of concrete decontamination methods

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, K.S.; Ally, M.R.; Brown, C.H.; Morris, M.I.; Wilson-Nichols, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    A large number of aging US Department of Energy (DOE) surplus facilities located throughout the US require deactivation, decontamination, and decommissioning. Although several technologies are available commercially for concrete decontamination, emerging technologies with potential to reduce secondary waste and minimize the impact and risk to workers and the environment are needed. In response to these needs, the Accelerated Testing of Concrete Decontamination Methods project team described the nature and extent of contaminated concrete within the DOE complex and identified applicable emerging technologies. Existing information used to describe the nature and extent of contaminated concrete indicates that the most frequently occurring radiological contaminants are {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}U (and its daughters), {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, and tritium. The total area of radionuclide-contaminated concrete within the DOE complex is estimated to be in the range of 7.9 {times} 10{sup 8} ft{sup 2}or approximately 18,000 acres. Concrete decontamination problems were matched with emerging technologies to recommend demonstrations considered to provide the most benefit to decontamination of concrete within the DOE complex. Emerging technologies with the most potential benefit were biological decontamination, electro-hydraulic scabbling, electrokinetics, and microwave scabbling.

  14. Systems and strippable coatings for decontaminating structures that include porous material

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Robert V.; Avci, Recep; Groenewold, Gary S.

    2011-12-06

    Methods of removing contaminant matter from porous materials include applying a polymer material to a contaminated surface, irradiating the contaminated surface to cause redistribution of contaminant matter, and removing at least a portion of the polymer material from the surface. Systems for decontaminating a contaminated structure comprising porous material include a radiation device configured to emit electromagnetic radiation toward a surface of a structure, and at least one spray device configured to apply a capture material onto the surface of the structure. Polymer materials that can be used in such methods and systems include polyphosphazine-based polymer materials having polyphosphazine backbone segments and side chain groups that include selected functional groups. The selected functional groups may include iminos, oximes, carboxylates, sulfonates, .beta.-diketones, phosphine sulfides, phosphates, phosphites, phosphonates, phosphinates, phosphine oxides, monothio phosphinic acids, and dithio phosphinic acids.

  15. Diffusion des Metaux et Evolution Stellaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcotte, Sylvain

    Nous presentons dans cette these des modeles d'evolution stellaire incorporant la diffusion microscopique de maniere consistante. Pour la premiere fois, on a calcule l'evolution d'etoiles en tenant compte en detail de l'impact des variations d'abondances sur leur structure. Nous utilisons des spectres monochromatiques pour chacun des elements les plus abondants dans un melange solaire pour recalculer l'opacite pour les abondances et les conditions locales dans l'interieur d'une etoile au cours de son evolution. Nos modeles montrent que la diffusion atomique des metaux a un effet important sur les opacites dan les etoiles de plus de 1.3Msolar ou l'abondance du fer et des autres elements du pic du fer varient substantiellement. Ces etoiles, sans rotation ou champ magnetique, sont proches des etoiles de type Fm-Am dans lesquelles on observe une legere surabondance d'elements du pic du fer en plus d'une sous-abondance de calcium, sous-abondance que l'on obtient egalement. Nous obtenons cependant des surabondances depassant un facteur 10 pour les etoiles de plus de 1.4Msolar ce qui suggere qu'il existe un ou plusieurs mecanismes limitant la diffusion microscopique. La surabondance du fer en surface cause une augmentation, qui peut atteindre un facteur sept, de l'opacite a la limite de la zone convective. Ceci cause un accroissement de la temperature effective et de la masse de la zone convective comparativement aux modeles n'incluant que la diffusion de l'helium. Il s'agit la du principal effet de la diffusion sur la structure interne de ces etoiles. La diffusions n'a pas d'influence sur l'evolution de coeur stellaire dans les etoiles significativement plus massives quie le Soleil. Nous avons verife que l'utilisation de modeles consistants avec diffusion n'apporte pas d'amelioration sensible aux modeles solaires. Les forces radiatives calculees a partir des spectres d'OPAL pour les elements du pic du fer representent une fraction importante de la gravite. On obtient des

  16. Coating stainless steel plates with Ag/TiO2 for chlorpyrifos decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel Fattah, Wafa I.; Gobara, Mohammed M.; El-Hotaby, Walid; Mostafa, Sherif F. M.; Ali, Ghareib W.

    2016-05-01

    Spray coatings of either nanosilver (Ag), titanium (TiO2) or nanosilver titanium (Ag/TiO2) on stainless steel substrates prepared by sol–gel process were successfully achieved. The efficiency of the Ag/TiO2 coat onto 316 stainless steel surface towards cloropyrifos degradation as a chemical warfare agent (CWA) was proved. The crystalline structure and morphological characterization, as well as surface roughness measurements, were assessed. X-ray diffraction results proved the crystalline TiO2 anatase phase. The uniform distribution of Ag along with TiO2 nanoparticles was evidenced through transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy mapping. The hydrophilic nature of individual Ag, TiO2 and Ag/TiO2 coats was proved by contact angle measurements. The loading of Ag nanoparticles influenced positively the Ag/TiO2 coats surface roughness. The photocatalytic cloropyrifos degradation achieved about 50% within one-hour post UV treatment proving, therefore, the promising Ag/TiO2 continued decontamination efficiency. In conclusion, tuning the physical and morphological properties of TiO2 coated on stainless steel surface could be significantly enhanced by Ag nanoparticles incorporation. The developed Ag/TiO2 coat could be conveniently applied as CWA decontaminant.

  17. Mycotoxins - prevention and decontamination by yeasts.

    PubMed

    Pfliegler, Walter P; Pusztahelyi, Tünde; Pócsi, István

    2015-07-01

    The application of yeasts has great potential in reducing the economic damage caused by toxigenic fungi in the agriculture. Some yeasts may act as biocontrol agents inhibiting the growth of filamentous fungi. These species may also gain importance in the preservation of agricultural products and in the reduction of their mycotoxin contamination, yet the extent of mycotoxin production in the presence of biocontrol agents is relatively less understood. The application of yeasts in various technological processes may have a direct inhibitory effect on the toxin production of certain molds, which is independent of their growth suppressing effect. Furthermore, several yeast species are capable of accumulating mycotoxins from agricultural products, thereby effectively decontaminating them. Probiotic yeasts or products containing yeast cell wall are also applied to counteract mycotoxicosis in livestock. Several yeast strains are also able to degrade toxins to less-toxic or even non-toxic substances. This intensively researched field would greatly benefit from a deeper knowledge on the genetic and molecular basis of toxin degradation. Moreover, yeasts and their biotechnologically important enzymes may exhibit sensitivity to certain mycotoxins, thereby mounting a considerable problem for the biotechnological industry. It is noted that yeasts are generally regarded as safe; however, there are reports of toxin degrading species that may cause human fungal infections. The aspects of yeast-mycotoxin relations with a brief consideration of strain improvement strategies and genetic modification for improved detoxifying properties and/or mycotoxin resistance are reviewed here. PMID:25682759

  18. Skin contamination by radiopharmaceuticals and decontamination strategies.

    PubMed

    Bolzinger, M A; Bolot, C; Galy, G; Chabanel, A; Pelletier, J; Briançon, S

    2010-12-15

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the percutaneous penetration of five common radiopharmaceuticals ((99m)Tc, (67)Ga, (125)I, (111)In and (51)Cr) and to evaluate the effect of decontamination by a detergent solution dedicated to hospital institutions for that purpose. The skin kinetic profiles were established by using the in vitro Franz cell method over 24h. The skin distribution in each skin layer was quantified after 6h exposure time and the efficacy of the detergent solution to remove radionuclides was evaluated also after 6h. The most striking result was the repartition into two classes of kinetic profiles: (125)I and (99m)Tc permeated quickly (∼60% of applied activity after 24h) while the 3 other radionuclides permeated slowly (from ∼2.75% for (67)Ga to ∼10% of applied activity for (111)In). The lag times, i.e. the time necessary to cross the skin varied from 20min for (99m)Tc to 5h for (51)Cr, which accumulated in skin compartments. Skin washings with the detergent solution were particularly efficient for this radionuclide, contrary to the others for which the washing procedure should be applied earlier. The permeation of ions was dependent on their chemical and physical forms and on their salting-in or salting-out effects (coordination state and Hofmeister series). PMID:20888404

  19. Mobile worksystems for decontamination and dismantlement

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, J.; Bares, L.C.; Thompson, B.R.

    1995-12-01

    Many DOE nuclear facilities have aged beyond their useful lifetimes. They need to be decommissioned in order to be safe for human presence in the short term, to eventually recover valuable materials they contain, and ultimately to be transitioned to alternative uses or green field conditions. Decontamination and dismantlement are broad classes of activities that will enable these changes to occur. Most of these facilities - uranium enrichment plants, weapons assembly plants, research and production reactors, and fuel recycling facilities - are dormant, though periodic inspection, surveillance and maintenance activities within them are on-going. DOE estimates that there are over 5000 buildings that require deactivation to reduce the costs of performing such work with manual labor. In the long term, 1200 buildings will be decommissioned, and millions of metric tons of metal and concrete will have to be recycled or disposed of The magnitude of the problem calls for new approaches that are far more cost effective than currently available techniques. This paper describes two technologies that are viable solutions for facility D&D.

  20. Mobile workstation for decontamination and decommissioning operations

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, W.L.; Osborn, J.F.; Thompson, B.R.

    1993-10-01

    This project is an interdisciplinary effort to develop effective mobile worksystems for decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities within the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex. These mobile worksystems will be configured to operate within the environmental and logistical constraints of such facilities and to perform a number of work tasks. Our program is designed to produce a mobile worksystem with capabilities and features that are matched to the particular needs of D&D work by evolving the design through a series of technological developments, performance tests and evaluations. The project has three phases. In this the first phase, an existing teleoperated worksystem, the Remote Work Vehicle (developed for use in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building basement), was enhanced for telerobotic performance of several D&D operations. Its ability to perform these operations was then assessed through a series of tests in a mockup facility that contained generic structures and equipment similar to those that D&D work machines will encounter in DOE facilities. Building upon the knowledge gained through those tests and evaluations, a next generation mobile worksystem, the RWV II, and a more advanced controller will be designed, integrated and tested in the second phase, which is scheduled for completion in January 1995. The third phase of the project will involve testing of the RWV II in the real DOE facility.

  1. Establishing the irradiation dose for paper decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moise, Ioan Valentin; Virgolici, Marian; Negut, Constantin Daniel; Manea, Mihaela; Alexandru, Mioara; Trandafir, Laura; Zorila, Florina Lucica; Talasman, Catalina Mihaela; Manea, Daniela; Nisipeanu, Steluta; Haiducu, Maria; Balan, Zamfir

    2012-08-01

    Museums, libraries and archives are preserving documents that are slowly degrading due to the inherent ageing of the cellulose substrate or to the technological errors of the past (acid paper, iron gall ink). Beside this, large quantities of paper are rapidly damaged by biological attacks following natural disasters and improper storage conditions. The treatment of paper documents with ionizing radiation can be used for mass decontamination of cultural heritage items but conservators and restaurators are still reserved because of the radiation induced degradation. We conducted a study for establishing the dose needed for the effective treatment of paper documents, taking into account the biological burden and the irradiation effects on paper structure. We used physical testing specific to paper industry and less destructive analytical methods (thermal analysis). Our results show that an effective treatment can be performed with doses lower than 10 kGy. Old paper appears to be less affected by gamma radiation than recent paper but the sampling is highly affected by the non-uniform degree of the initial degradation status. The extent of testing for degradation and the magnitude of acceptable degradation should take into account the biological threat and the expected life time of the paper documents.

  2. Decontamination & Decommissioning Equipment Tracking System (DDETS)

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, S.

    1994-07-01

    At the request of the Department of Energy (DOE)(EM-50), the Scientific Computing Unit developed a prototype system to track information and data relevant to equipment and tooling removed during decontamination and decommissioning activities. The DDETS proof-of-concept tracking system utilizes a one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) bar coding technology to retain and track information such as identification number, manufacturer, requisition information, and various contaminant information, etc. The information is encoded in a bar code, printed on a label and can be attached to corresponding equipment. The DDETS was developed using a proven relational database management system which allows the addition, modification, printing, and deletion of data. In addition, communication interfaces with bar code printers and bar code readers were developed. Additional features of the system include: (a) Four different reports available for the user (REAPS, transaction, and two inventory), (b) Remote automated inventory tracking capabilities, (c) Remote automated inventory tracking capability (2D bar codes allow equipment to be scanned/tracked without being linked to the DDETS database), (d) Edit, update, delete, and query capabilities, (e) On-line bar code label printing utility (data from 2D bar codes can be scanned directly into the data base simplifying data entry), and (f) Automated data backup utility. Compatibility with the Reportable Excess Automated Property System (REAPS) to upload data from DDETS is planned.

  3. Decontamination of radioactive milk--a review.

    PubMed

    Patel, A A; Prasad, S R

    1993-03-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in Russia in 1986 has further revealed the susceptibility of the environment to radioactive contamination. This can have serious implications for the safety of milk as well as other foods. Global fallout and other isotope releases can threaten to increase the radionuclide levels in milk alarmingly, and thus make it unfit for human consumption. Perception of such fears in the past resulted in considerable research efforts being directed towards radioactive decontamination of milk by different means. The holding of milk and milk products long enough to deactivate certain radioisotopes prior to consumption, conversion of milk into butter, and manufacturing cheese by using modified processes are some of the approaches in minimizing the radioactivity risk to consumers. Extensive studies carried out in the USA have shown that though somewhat expensive, ion-exchange treatment of milk in large-scale, automated plants can eliminate 90% or more of the radionuclides of concern, i.e. strontium-90, and iodine-131, and much of caesium-137. Various factors affecting the efficiency of the ion exchange process and properties of the treated milk are reviewed. Other processing techniques such as electrodialysis are also briefly discussed in relation to removal of radionuclides from milk. PMID:8095292

  4. Kit systems for granulated decontamination formulations

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Mark D.

    2010-07-06

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a sorbent additive, and water. A highly adsorbent sorbent additive (e.g., amorphous silica, sorbitol, mannitol, etc.) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field. The formulation can be pre-mixed and pre-packaged as a multi-part kit system, where one or more of the parts are packaged in a powdered, granulated form for ease of handling and mixing in the field.

  5. Decontamination of pesticide packing using ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, C. L.; Mori, M. N.; Kodama, Yasko; Oikawa, H.; Sampa, M. H. O.

    2007-11-01

    The Brazilian agriculture activities have consumed about 288,000 tons of pesticides per year conditioned in about 107,000,000 packing with weight of approximately 23,000 tons. The discharge of empty plastic packing of pesticides can be an environmental concern causing problems to human health, animals, and plants if done without inspection and monitoring. The objective of this work is to study the ionizing radiation effect in the main pesticides used in Brazil for plastic packing decontamination. Among the commercial pesticides, chlorpyrifos has significant importance because of its wide distribution and extensive use and persistence. The radiation-induced degradation of chlorpyrifos in liquid samples and in polyethylene pack was studied by gamma radiolysis. Packing of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) three layer coextruded, named COEX, contaminated with chlorpyrifos, were irradiated using both a multipurpose Co-60 gamma irradiator and a gamma source with 5000 Ci total activity Gamma cell type. The chemical analysis of the chlorpyrifos was made using a gas chromatography associated to the Mass Spectrometry—GCMS from Shimadzu Model QP 5000. Gamma radiation was efficient for removing chlorpyrifos from the plastic packing, in all studied cases.

  6. Decontamination and decommissioning of Shippingport commercial reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, J.

    1989-11-01

    To a certain degree, the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the Shippingport reactor was a joint venture with Duquesne Light Company. The structures that were to be decommissioned were to be removed to at least three feet below grade. Since the land had been leased from Duquesne Light, there was an agreement with them to return the land to them in a radiologically safe condition. The total enclosure volume for the steam and nuclear containment systems was about 1.3 million cubic feet, more than 80% of which was below ground. Engineering plans for the project were started in July of 1980 and the final environmental impact statement (EIS) was published in May of 1982. The plant itself was shut down in October of 1982 for end-of-life testing and defueling. The engineering services portion of the decommissioning plans was completed in September of 1983. DOE moved onto the site and took over from the Navy in September of 1984. Actual physical decommissioning began after about a year of preparation and was completed about 44 months later in July of 1989. This paper describes the main parts of D and D.

  7. Mobile worksystems for decontamination and dismantlement

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, J.; Bares, L.C.; Thompson, B.R.

    1995-10-01

    Many DOE nuclear facilities have aged beyond their useful lifetimes. They need to be decommissioned in order to be safe for human presence in the short term, to eventually recover valuable materials they contain, and ultimately to be transitioned to alternative uses or green field conditions. Decontamination and dismantlement are broad classes of activities that will enable these changes to occur. Most of these facilities - uranium enrichment plants, weapons assembly plants, research and production reactors, and fuel recycling facilities - are dormant, though periodic inspection, surveillance and maintenance activities within them are on-going. DOE estimates that there are over 5000 buildings that require deactivation to reduce the costs of performing such work with manual labor. In the long term, 1200 buildings will be decommissioned, and millions of metric tons of metal and concrete will have to be recycled or disposed of. The magnitude of the problem calls for new approaches that are far more cost effective than currently available techniques. This paper describes a mobile workstation termed ROSIE, which provides remote work capabilities for D&D activities.

  8. ASTM standards in radiological decontamination and decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Meservey, R.H.

    1994-12-31

    The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Subcommittee E10.03 was formed following a steering committee meeting held in April 1980. The meeting was initiated as a result of labor union concern for the safety of workers on decommissioning projects. Of particular concern at that time was the need for proper training of the workers and a means of tracking worker radiation-exposure records as they traveled to various decommissioning job sites. The steering committee concluded not only that worker protection standards were necessary for decommissioning activities but also that all phases of a decommissioning project could benefit from the appropriate guides or standards. These would provide worker protection, technical guidance, and consistency for decommissioning work. It recommended that Subcommittee E10.03 be formed and dedicated to the preparation of guides and standards that would support all phases of nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning. Subcommittee E10.03 has met regularly on a semiannual basis since that time.

  9. Improvement of Biological Indicators by Uniformly Distributing Bacillus subtilis Spores in Monolayers To Evaluate Enhanced Spore Decontamination Technologies.

    PubMed

    Raguse, Marina; Fiebrandt, Marcel; Stapelmann, Katharina; Madela, Kazimierz; Laue, Michael; Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Thwaite, Joanne E; Setlow, Peter; Awakowicz, Peter; Moeller, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Novel decontamination technologies, including cold low-pressure plasma and blue light (400 nm), are promising alternatives to conventional surface decontamination methods. However, the standardization of the assessment of such sterilization processes remains to be accomplished. Bacterial endospores of the genera Bacillus and Geobacillus are frequently used as biological indicators (BIs) of sterility. Ensuring standardized and reproducible BIs for reliable testing procedures is a significant problem in industrial settings. In this study, an electrically driven spray deposition device was developed, allowing fast, reproducible, and homogeneous preparation of Bacillus subtilis 168 spore monolayers on glass surfaces. A detailed description of the structural design as well as the operating principle of the spraying device is given. The reproducible formation of spore monolayers of up to 5 × 10(7) spores per sample was verified by scanning electron microscopy. Surface inactivation studies revealed that monolayered spores were inactivated by UV-C (254 nm), low-pressure argon plasma (500 W, 10 Pa, 100 standard cubic cm per min), and blue light (400 nm) significantly faster than multilayered spores were. We have thus succeeded in the uniform preparation of reproducible, highly concentrated spore monolayers with the potential to generate BIs for a variety of nonpenetrating surface decontamination techniques. PMID:26801572

  10. Des ballons pour demain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Régipa, R.

    A partir d'une théorie sur la détermination des formes et des contraintes globales d'un ballon de révolution, ou s'en rapprochant, une nouvelle famille de ballons a été définie. Les ballons actuels, dits de ``forme naturelle'', sont calculés en général pour une tension circonférencielle nulle. Ainsi, pour une mission donnée, la tension longitudinale et la forme de l'enveloppe sont strictement imposées. Les ballons de la nouvelle génération sont globalement cylindriques et leurs pôles sont réunis par un câble axial, chargé de transmettre une partie des efforts depuis le crochet (pôle inférieur), directement au pôle supérieur. De plus, la zone latérale cylindrique est soumise à un faible champ de tensions circonférencielles. Ainsi, deux paramètres permettent de faire évoluer la distribution des tensions et la forme de l'enveloppe: - la tension du câble de liaison entre pôles (ou la longueur de ce câble) - la tension circonférencielle moyenne désirée (ou le rayon du ballon). On peut donc calculer et réaliser: - soit des ballons de forme adaptée, comme les ballons à fond plat pour le bon fonctionnement des montgolfières infrarouge (projet MIR); - soit des ballons optimisés pour une bonne répartition des contraintes et une meilleure utilisation des matériaux d'enveloppe, pour l'ensemble des programmes stratosphériques. Il s'ensuit une économie sensible des coûts de fabrication, une fiabilité accrue du fonctionnement de ces ballons et une rendement opérationnel bien supérieur, permettant entre autres, d'envisager des vols à très haute altitude en matériaux très légers.

  11. A simplified model of decontamination by BWR steam suppression pools

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, D.A.

    1997-05-01

    Phenomena that can decontaminate aerosol-laden gases sparging through steam suppression pools of boiling water reactors during reactor accidents are described. Uncertainties in aerosol properties, aerosol behavior within gas bubbles, and bubble behavior in plumes affect predictions of decontamination by steam suppression pools. Uncertainties in the boundary and initial conditions that are dictated by the progression of severe reactor accidents and that will affect predictions of decontamination by steam suppression pools are discussed. Ten parameters that characterize boundary and initial condition uncertainties, nine parameters that characterize aerosol property and behavior uncertainties, and eleven parameters that characterize uncertainties in the behavior of bubbles in steam suppression pools are identified. Ranges for the values of these parameters and subjective probability distributions for parametric values within the ranges are defined. These uncertain parameters are used in Monte Carlo uncertainty analyses to develop uncertainty distributions for the decontamination that can be achieved by steam suppression pools and the size distribution of aerosols that do emerge from such pools. A simplified model of decontamination by steam suppression pools is developed by correlating features of the uncertainty distributions for total decontamination factor, DF(total), mean size of emerging aerosol particles, d{sub p}, and the standard deviation of the emerging aerosol size distribution, {sigma}, with pool depth, H. Correlations of the median values of the uncertainty distributions are suggested as the best estimate of decontamination by suppression pools. Correlations of the 10 percentile and 90 percentile values of the uncertainty distributions characterize the uncertainty in the best estimates. 295 refs., 121 figs., 113 tabs.

  12. Cladding hull decontamination and densification process. Part 1. The prototype cladding hull decontamination system

    SciTech Connect

    Lambright, T.M.; Montgomery, D.R.

    1980-04-01

    A prototype system for decontaminating Zircaloy-4 cladding hulls has been assembled and tested at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The decontamination process consists of treatment with a gaseous mixture of hydrogen fluoride (HF) and argon (Ar) followed by a dilute aqueous etch of ammonium oxalate, ammonium citrate, ammonium fluoride, and hydrogen peroxide. The continuous cleaning process described in this report successfully descaled small portions of most charges, but was unable to handle the original design capacity of 4 kg/hr because of problems in the following areas: control of HF reactor temperatures, regulation of HF and argon mixtures and flows, isolation of the HF reactor atmosphere from the aqueous washer/rinser atmosphere, regulation of undesirable side reactions, and control over hull transport through the system. Due to the limited time available to solve these problems, the system did not attain fully operational status. The work was performed with unirradiated hulls that simulated irradiated hulls. The system was not built to be remotely operable. The process chemistry and system equipment are described in this report with particular emphasis on critical operating areas. Recommendations for improved system operation are included.

  13. Streptococci biofilm decontamination on teeth by low-temperature air plasma of dc corona discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalóvá, Z.; Zahoran, M.; Zahoranová, A.; Machala, Z.

    2014-06-01

    Non-thermal plasmas of atmospheric pressure air direct current corona discharges were investigated for potential applications in dental medicine. The objective of this ex vivo study was to apply cold plasmas for the decontamination of Streptococci biofilm grown on extracted human teeth, and to estimate their antimicrobial efficiency and the plasma's impact on the enamel and dentine of the treated tooth surfaces. The results show that both positive streamer and negative Trichel pulse coronas can reduce bacterial population in the biofilm by up to 3 logs in a 10 min exposure time. This bactericidal effect can be reached faster (within 5 min) by electrostatic spraying of water through the discharge onto the treated tooth surface. Examination of the tooth surface after plasma exposure by infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy did not show any significant alteration in the tooth material composition or the tooth surface structures.

  14. Etude des phenomenes de penetration des especes chimiques dans les revetements cathodiques des cuves d'electrolyse de l'aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brisson, Pierre-Yves

    Cette these decrit l'etude effectuee sur les phenomenes d'insertion du sodium et de penetration du bain electrolytique dans les revetements cathodiques des cuves d'electrolyse de l'aluminium. L'etude fut effectuee a l'aide d'un montage permettant d'effectuer l'electrolyse en laboratoire. Trois types de revetement cathodiques furent etudies : des blocs semi-graphitique, des blocs graphitiques et des blocs graphitises. L'insertion du sodium dans les trois differents types de blocs fut etudiee a l'aide de la spectrometrie des photoelectrons X (XPS). L'analyse a permis de mettre en evidence deux formes de sodium dans l'anthracite et la phase liante des materiaux semi-graphitiques et graphitiques, indiquant qu'une fraction du sodium se retrouve sous forme adsorbee dans les micropores des materiaux alors que l'autre fraction est inseree dans la structure cristalline du carbone. Dans les phases graphitiques (materiaux graphitises et graphitiques), seuls les micropores sont occupes par le sodium Ce resultat explique la tendance observee selon laquelle l'ajout de graphite dans les blocs permet d'abaisser le gonflement sodique. Les mecanismes de penetration du bain dans le reseau poreux des materiaux furent etudies en microscopie electronique et en diffraction des rayons X sur des echantillons apres differents temps d'electrolyses et en variant l'atmosphere (soit sous argon ou sous azote). Ces analyses ont permis d'identifier le mecanisme conduisant a la mouillabilite du bain sur le carbone en fonction de l'atmosphere entourant l'electrolyse. Ainsi, sous azote, la formation de NaCN dans les pores des materiaux par reactions entre le sodium et l'azote permet une mouillabilite accrue du bain alors qu'en absence d'azote (sous argon), le carbure d'aluminium, formes a la surface des pores, joue un role similaire. Dans ce dernier cas, la penetration du bain est moins rapide etant donnee la necessite de toujours amener des especes contenant de l'aluminium en tete du front de

  15. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25 R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254, R-MAD Decontamination Facility, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 254 is comprised of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-23-06, Decontamination Facility. A corrective action investigation for this CAS as conducted in January 2000 as set forth in the related Corrective Action Investigation Plan. Samples were collected from various media throughout the CAS and sent to an off-site laboratory for analysis. The laboratory results indicated the following: radiation dose rates inside the Decontamination Facility, Building 3126, and in the storage yard exceeded the average general dose rate; scanning and static total surface contamination surveys indicated that portions of the locker and shower room floor, decontamination bay floor, loft floor, east and west decon pads, north and south decontamination bay interior walls, exterior west and south walls, and loft walls were above preliminary action levels (PALs). The investigation-derived contaminants of concern (COCs) included: polychlorinated biphenyls, radionuclides (strontium-90, niobium-94, cesium-137, uranium-234 and -235), total volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (Metals). During the investigation, two corrective action objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate human exposure to COCs. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the Nevada Test Site, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Unrestricted Release Decontamination and Verification Survey; and Alternative 3 - Unrestricted

  16. Amputation des quatre membres

    PubMed Central

    Feruzi, Maruis Kitembo; Milindi, Cédrick Sangwa; Zabibu, Mireille Kakinga; Mulefu, Jules Panda; Katombe, Francois Tshilombo

    2014-01-01

    Les auteurs présentent les cas d'amputation des quatre membres réalisée chez trois patients différents. Ce sont des amputations réalisées pour chaque patient au cours d'une seule hospitalisation et en un seul temps opératoire. Deux patients pour gangrène sèche infectée et un pour amputation traumatique des quatre membres. L'amputation d'urgence a été pratiquée en premier temps suivie de remodelage des moignons d'amputation en second temps. L’évolution de tous les patients a été bonne. PMID:25469177

  17. BNL Building 650 lead decontamination and treatment feasibility study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kalb, P.D.; Cowgill, M.G.; Milian, L.W.

    1995-10-01

    Lead has been used extensively at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for radiation shielding in numerous reactor, accelerator and other research programs. A large inventory of excess lead (estimated at 410,000 kg) in many shapes and sizes is currently being stored. Due to it`s toxicity, lead and soluble lead compounds are considered hazardous waste by the Environmental Protection Agency. Through use at BNL, some of the lead has become radioactive, either by contamination of the surface or through activation by neutrons or deuterons. This study was conducted at BNL`s Environmental and Waste Technology Center for the BNL Safety and Environmental Protection Division to evaluate feasibility of various treatment options for excess lead currently being stored. The objectives of this effort included investigating potential treatment methods by conducting a review of the literature, developing a means of screening lead waste to determine the radioactive characteristics, examining the feasibility of chemical and physical decontamination technologies, and demonstrating BNL polyethylene macro-encapsulation as a means of treating hazardous or mixed waste lead for disposal. A review and evaluation of the literature indicated that a number of physical and chemical methods are available for decontamination of lead. Many of these techniques have been applied for this purpose with varying degrees of success. Methods that apply mechanical techniques are more appropriate for lead bricks and sheet which contain large smooth surfaces amenable to physical abrasion. Lead wool, turnings, and small irregularly shaped pieces would be treated more effectively by chemical decontamination techniques. Either dry abrasion or wet chemical methods result in production of a secondary mixed waste stream that requires treatment prior to disposal.

  18. Enhancing enzyme stability by construction of polymer-enzyme conjugate micelles for decontamination of organophosphate agents.

    PubMed

    Suthiwangcharoen, Nisaraporn; Nagarajan, Ramanathan

    2014-04-14

    Enhancing the stability of enzymes under different working environments is essential if the potential of enzyme-based applications is to be realized for nanomedicine, sensing and molecular diagnostics, and chemical and biological decontamination. In this study, we focus on the enzyme, organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH), which has shown great promise for the nontoxic and noncorrosive decontamination of organophosphate agents (OPs) as well as for therapeutics as a catalytic bioscavanger against nerve gas poisoning. We describe a facile approach to stabilize OPH using covalent conjugation with the amphiphilic block copolymer, Pluronic F127, leading to the formation of F127-OPH conjugate micelles, with the OPH on the micelle corona. SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF confirmed the successful conjugation, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) revealed ∼100 nm size micelles. The conjugates showed significantly enhanced stability and higher activity compared to the unconjugated OPH when tested (i) in aqueous solutions at room temperature, (ii) in aqueous solutions at higher temperatures, (iii) after multiple freeze/thaw treatments, (iv) after lyophilization, and (v) in the presence of organic solvents. The F127-OPH conjugates also decontaminated paraoxon (introduced as a chemical agent simulant) on a polystyrene film surface and on a CARC (Chemical Agent Resistant Coating) test panel more rapidly and to a larger extent compared to free OPH. We speculate that, in the F127-OPH conjugates (both in the micellar form as well as in the unaggregated conjugate), the polypropylene oxide block of the copolymer interacts with the surface of the OPH and this confinement of the OPH reduces the potential for enzyme denaturation and provides robustness to OPH at different working environments. The use of such polymer-enzyme conjugate micelles with improved enzyme stability opens up new opportunities for numerous civilian and Warfighter applications. PMID

  19. Decontamination Systems Information and Reseach Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Echol E

    1998-04-01

    The following paragraphs comprise the research efforts during the first quarter of 1998 (January 1 - March 31). These tasks have been granted a continuation from the 1997 work and will all end in June 1998. This report represents the last technical quarterly report deliverable for the WVU Cooperative Agreement - Decontamination Systems Information and Research Program. Final reports for all of the 1997 projects will be submitted afterwards as one document. During this period, groundwater extraction operations were completed on Task 1.6 - Pilot Scale Demonstration of TCE Flushing Through PVDs at the DOE/RMI Extrusion Plant. The data have been evaluated and graphs are presented. The plot of TCE Concentration versus Time shows that the up-gradient groundwater monitoring well produced consistent levels of TCE contamination. A similar trend was observed for the down-gradient wells via grab samples tested. Groundwater samples from the PVD test pad Zone of Influence showed consistent reductions in TCE concentrations with respect to time. In addition, a natural pulse frequency is evident which will have a significant impact on the efficiency of the contaminant removal under natural groundwater advection/diffusion processes. The relationships between the PVD Extraction Flow Rate versus Cumulative Time shows a clear trend in flow rate. Consistent values between 20 to 30 g.p.m. at the beginning of the extraction duration, to less than 10 g.p.m. by the end of the extraction cycle are observed. As evidenced by the aquifer's diminishing recharge levels, the PVD extraction is affecting the response of the aquifer's natural attenuation capability. Progress was also marked on the Injection and Circulation of Potable Water Through PVDs task. Data reduction from this sequence of testing is ongoing. Work planned for next quarter includes completing the Injection / Extraction of potable water task and beginning the Surfactant Injection and removal task.

  20. Technology needs for decommissioning and decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Bundy, R.D.; Kennerly, J.M.

    1993-12-01

    This report summarizes the current view of the most important decontamination and decommissioning (D & D) technology needs for the US Department of Energy facilities for which the D & D programs are the responsibility of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. The source of information used in this assessment was a survey of the D & D program managers at each facility. A summary of needs presented in earlier surveys of site needs in approximate priority order was supplied to each site as a starting point to stimulate thinking. This document reflects a brief initial assessment of ongoing needs; these needs will change as plans for D & D are finalized, some of the technical problems are solved through successful development programs, and new ideas for D and D technologies appear. Thus, this assessment should be updated and upgraded periodically, perhaps, annually. This assessment differs from others that have been made in that it directly and solely reflects the perceived need for new technology by key personnel in the D & D programs at the various facilities and does not attempt to consider the likelihood that these technologies can be successfully developed. Thus, this list of technology needs also does not consider the cost, time, and effort required to develop the desired technologies. An R & D program must include studies that have a reasonable chance for success as well as those for which there is a high need. Other studies that considered the cost and probability of successful development as well as the need for new technology are documented. However, the need for new technology may be diluted in such studies; this document focuses only on the need for new technology as currently perceived by those actually charged with accomplishing D & D.

  1. Efficacy of common decontamination methods for cleaning contaminated wounds.

    PubMed

    Mannis, Daniel; Brandl, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    Emergency preparedness and response for work with hazardous materials, including radiological materials, necessarily have to involve injuries sustained by the workers. Removing radionuclide contamination from wounds in tissue is essential to minimizing the intake of radiological materials and the internal dose to the individual. This study compares the efficacy of common decontamination methods for removal of Co from contaminated wounds inflicted in pig tissue. The decontamination procedures investigated include a commercially available, non-prescription, surfactant-based, non-ionic wound cleanser spray; a physiologic saline solution spray; and a physiologic saline solution pour. Three different types of wounds are examined: smooth incision, jagged cut, and blunt force trauma wounds. The cleanser and saline sprays are more effective at decontaminating all three wounds than the saline pour. Within the statistical limitations of the study, the difference between the cleanser spray and the saline spray is not significant. However, the cleanser spray successfully decontaminates the wound to a lower mean value. The most noticeable impact in the decontamination process appears to be due to the spray pressure employed with the cleanser and saline sprays. PMID:25551653

  2. Skin decontamination cream for radiological contaminants: Formulation development and evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Abdul Wadood; Kotta, Sabna; Rana, Sudha; Ansari, Shahid Husain; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Ali, Javed

    2013-01-01

    Background: Increased use of the radioactive materials in the field of research, medical, nuclear power plant, and industry has increased the risk of accidental exposure. Intentional use of the radioisotopes by terrorist organizations could cause exposure/contamination of a number of the population. In view of the accidental contamination, there is a need to develop self-usable decontamination formulations that could be used immediately after contamination is suspected. Materials and Methods: Present work was planned to optimize and develop self-usable radiation decontamination cream formulation. Various pharmaceutical parameters were characterized. 99mTc-sodium pertechnetate was used as radiocontaminant. Static counts were recorded before and after decontamination using single photon emission computed tomography. Results: Decontamination efficacy of the cream was found to be 42% ± 3% at 0-0.5 h after the exposure. Primary skin irritancy test was satisfactory as no erythema or edema was observed visually after 2 weeks of the formulation application. Conclusion: The decontamination studies proved the potential of EDTA to remove the radiological contaminants effectively. PMID:23799206

  3. Modelling Mass Casualty Decontamination Systems Informed by Field Exercise Data

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Joseph R.; Amlôt, Richard

    2012-01-01

    In the event of a large-scale chemical release in the UK decontamination of ambulant casualties would be undertaken by the Fire and Rescue Service (FRS). The aim of this study was to track the movement of volunteer casualties at two mass decontamination field exercises using passive Radio Frequency Identification tags and detection mats that were placed at pre-defined locations. The exercise data were then used to inform a computer model of the FRS component of the mass decontamination process. Having removed all clothing and having showered, the re-dressing (termed re-robing) of casualties was found to be a bottleneck in the mass decontamination process during both exercises. Computer simulations showed that increasing the capacity of each lane of the re-robe section to accommodate 10 rather than five casualties would be optimal in general, but that a capacity of 15 might be required to accommodate vulnerable individuals. If the duration of the shower was decreased from three minutes to one minute then a per lane re-robe capacity of 20 might be necessary to maximise the throughput of casualties. In conclusion, one practical enhancement to the FRS response may be to provide at least one additional re-robe section per mass decontamination unit. PMID:23202768

  4. Analysis of residual chemicals on filtering facepiece respirators after decontamination.

    PubMed

    Salter, W B; Kinney, K; Wallace, W H; Lumley, A E; Heimbuch, B K; Wander, J D

    2010-08-01

    The N95 filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) is commonly used to protect individuals from infectious aerosols. Health care experts predict a shortage of N95 FFRs if a severe pandemic occurs, and an option that has been suggested for mitigating such an FFR shortage is to decontaminate and reuse the devices. Before the effectiveness of this strategy can be established, many parameters affecting respiratory protection must be measured: biocidal efficacy of the decontamination treatment, filtration performance, pressure drop, fit, and toxicity to the end user post treatment. This research effort measured the amount of residual chemicals created or deposited on six models of FFRs following treatment by each of 7 simple decontamination technologies. Measured amounts of decontaminants retained by the FFRs treated with chemical disinfectants were small enough that exposure to wearers will be below the permissible exposure limit (PEL). Toxic by-products were also evaluated, and two suspected toxins were detected after ethylene oxide treatment of FFR rubber straps. The results provide encouragement to efforts promoting the evolution of effective strategies for decontamination and reuse of FFRs. PMID:20526947

  5. Gas phase decontamination of gaseous diffusion process equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Bundy, R.D.; Munday, E.B.; Simmons, D.W.; Neiswander, D.W.

    1994-03-01

    D&D of the process facilities at the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) will be an enormous task. The EBASCO estimate places the cost of D&D of the GDP at the K-25 Site at approximately $7.5 billion. Of this sum, nearly $4 billion is associated with the construction and operation of decontamination facilities and the dismantlement and transport of contaminated process equipment to these facilities. In situ long-term low-temperature (LTLT) gas phase decontamination is being developed and demonstrated at the K-25 site as a technology that has the potential to substantially lower these costs while reducing criticality and safeguards concerns and worker exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials. The objective of gas phase decontamination is to employ a gaseous reagent to fluorinate nonvolatile uranium deposits to form volatile LJF6, which can be recovered by chemical trapping or freezing. The LTLT process permits the decontamination of the inside of gas-tight GDP process equipment at room temperature by substituting a long exposure to subatmospheric C1F for higher reaction rates at higher temperatures. This paper outlines the concept for applying LTLT gas phase decontamination, reports encouraging laboratory experiments, and presents the status of the design of a prototype mobile system. Plans for demonstrating the LTLT process on full-size gaseous diffusion equipment are also outlined briefly.

  6. Invention of Hollow Zirconium Tungesto-Vanadate at Nanotube Morphological Structure for Radionuclides and Heavy Metal Pollutants Decontamination from Aqueous Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkady, M. F.; Hassan, H. Shokry

    2015-12-01

    Zirconium tungesto-vanadate cation exchange material was successfully architectured at open ended nanotubes morphological structure in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol as a stabilizing agent using microwave route. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) of the material was recorded as 4.8 meq/g of about 640 m2/g for a specific surface area. The x-ray diffraction pattern of the material implies its crystallinity. Both scanning and transmission electron microscopes identified the average aspect ratio of the architectured nanotubes as 6.5 and its hollow structure. The material posed 96.4 % cadmium ion decontamination within 90 min compared with 84 % strontium decontamination at the same time.

  7. [Survey of methods of cleaning, decontamination, disinfection and sterilization in dental health services in tropical areas].

    PubMed

    Clapeau, G; Decroix, B; Bakayoko-Ly, R; Varenne, B; Dosso-Hien, D; Decroix, M O

    1997-01-01

    hygiene standards despite difficult practice conditions, exacerbated by supply problems. In all applications, hygiene involves a succession of closely-related, logical steps, which form an asepsis chain aimed at preventing the transmission of infection. Our survey shows that fundamental elements of hygiene require attention to achieve this aim. The cleaning, disinfection and sterilizing of floor surfaces and equipment should be improved and more widespread use made of disposable items. It is important to define the hygiene level required for particular treatments, taking into account the oral and dental micro flora and whether the equipment has been decontaminated, disinfected or sterilized. A piece of equipment is decontaminated if it has been mechanically cleaned and decontaminated. It is disinfected if these steps are followed by rinsing with sterile water, drying and conditioning. An item is described as sterilized if it is cleaned, decontaminated, rinsed, dried, conditioned and then sterilized. We found that a wide variety of chemicals were used to clean hands, surfaces and equipment. The nature and appropriate methods of use of these chemicals were not widely known. Understanding the chemical composition of these chemicals makes it possible to classify them into cleaning agents, detergents, decontaminating agents and disinfectants. The definition, choice and use of antiseptics and disinfectants should be strictly controlled. It is also vital that single-use disposable items are used only once and are never reused. Hygiene in the dental surgery is a chain of processes aimed at protecting the patient and the medical staff. There are many links in the chain, involving floor and surface hygiene, hand washing by dentists and dental assistants, washing of surgery linen and treatment of equipment. Dental practitioners should continually focus on ensuring that the chain of hygiene procedures is not broken, in their own interests as well as in those of their patients. PMID

  8. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 2, Technology Logic Diagram: Part A, Decontamination and Decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This report documents activities of decontamination and decommissioning at ORNL. Topics discussed include general problems, waste types, containment, robotics automation and decontamination processes.

  9. Systems analysis of decontamination options for civilian vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Foltz, Greg W.; Hoette, Trisha Marie

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this project, which was supported by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) Chemical and Biological Division (CBD), was to investigate options for the decontamination of the exteriors and interiors of vehicles in the civilian setting in order to restore those vehicles to normal use following the release of a highly toxic chemical. The decontamination of vehicles is especially challenging because they often contain sensitive electronic equipment, multiple materials some of which strongly adsorb chemical agents, and in the case of aircraft, have very rigid material compatibility requirements (i.e., they cannot be exposed to reagents that may cause even minor corrosion). A systems analysis approach was taken examine existing and future civilian vehicle decontamination capabilities.

  10. Treatment of spent NTA-based decontamination solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlík, A.; Semelová, M.; John, J.; Černochová, K.; Šebesta, F.

    2006-01-01

    This study deals with potential treatment of spent NTA-containing decontamination solutions for final disposal. The method proposed is based on the degradation of organic substances followed by the separation of radionuclides. The influence of various parameters (pH value, irradiation time, temperature, catalyst amount, type and various combinations of catalysts) on photocatalytic degradation of NTA has been studied. Photo-Fenton reagent (Fe3+/H2O2) as a homogenous catalyst was found to be much more efficient than the TiO2-based heterogeneous catalyst Degussa P25. Under optimum conditions NTA in a simulant of a spent decontamination solution without or with hydrazine could be degraded within 5 or 9 hours, respectively. The study of sorption properties of a series of absorbers revealed that radiostrontium and radiosilver can be effectively removed from the simulant of a spent decontamination solution even in the presence of NTA, while total NTA degradation is necessary for effective radiocobalt separation.

  11. Testing and evaluation of electrokinetic decontamination of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    DePaoli, D.W.; Harris, M.T.; Ally, M.R.

    1996-10-01

    The goals and objectives of the technical task plan (TTP) are to (1) describe the nature and extent of concrete contamination within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex and emerging and commercial technologies applicable to these problems; (2) to match technologies to the concrete problems and recommend up to four demonstrations; (3) to initiate recommended demonstrations; and (4) to continue investigation and evaluation of the application of electrokinetic decontamination processes to concrete. This document presents findings of experimental and theoretical studies of the electrokinetic decontamination (EK) process and their implications for field demonstrations. This effort is an extension of the work performed under TTP 142005, ``Electroosmotic Concrete Decontamination. The goals of this task were to determine the applicability of EK for treating contaminated concrete and, if warranted, to evaluate EK as a potential technology for demonstration. 62 refs.

  12. Decontamination of biological warfare agents by a microwave plasma torch

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Wilson; Lai, Henry; Kuo, Spencer P.; Tarasenko, Olga; Levon, Kalle

    2005-02-01

    A portable arc-seeded microwave plasma torch running stably with airflow is described and applied for the decontamination of biological warfare agents. Emission spectroscopy of the plasma torch indicated that this torch produced an abundance of reactive atomic oxygen that could effectively oxidize biological agents. Bacillus cereus was chosen as a simulant of Bacillus anthracis spores for biological agent in the decontamination experiments. Decontamination was performed with the airflow rate of 0.393 l/s, corresponding to a maximum concentration of atomic oxygen produced by the torch. The experimental results showed that all spores were killed in less than 8 s at 3 cm distance, 12 s at 4 cm distance, and 16 s at 5 cm distance away from the nozzle of the torch.

  13. Criteria for the evaluation of a dilute decontamination demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    FitzPatrick, V.F.; Divine, J.R.; Hoenes, G.R.; Munson, L.F.; Card, C.J.

    1981-12-01

    This document provides the prerequisite technical information required to evaluate and/or develop a project to demonstrate the dilute chemical decontamination of the primary coolant system of light water reactors. The document focuses on five key areas: the basis for establishing programmatic prerequisites and the key decision points that are required for proposal evaluation and/or RFP (Request for Proposal) issuance; a technical review of the state-of-the-art to identify the potential impacts of a reactor's primary-system decontamination on typical BWR and PWR plants; a discussion of the licensing, recertification, fuel warranty, and institutional considerations and processes; a preliminary identification and development of the selection criteria for the reactor and the decontamination process; and a preliminary identification of further research and development that might be required.

  14. EM Task 12 -- Laser cleaning of contaminated painted surfaces. Semi-annual report, April 1--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Grisanti, A.A.; Jenson, R.R.; Allan, S.E.

    1997-12-31

    Surface decontamination of concrete and steel surfaces in nuclear facilities provides cost savings during decommissioning operations by allowing recycling or reuse of concrete and steel structures. Separation of radionuclides and other contamination from the concrete or steel substrates also allows reduction in volume of hazardous materials during the D and D (decontamination and decommissioning) process, resulting in further cost savings. Several techniques are available or under development for surface decontamination in nuclear facilities. Each technique has its merits; however, none of them is universally the best choice for all surface decontamination applications. Because of the multitude of factors which influence the environmental and economic aspects of selecting a surface decontamination technique, it is difficult to select the best method in a given situation; an objective basis for comparing techniques is needed. The objective of this project is to develop a software tool for use by personnel selecting a surface decontamination technique. The software will incorporate performance data for available surface decontamination techniques. The major activities in the project are broken down as follows: Task 1--Complete decision tree development; Task 2--Literature search for surface decontamination reports; Task 3--Compilation of database from literature data; Task 4--Sensitivity analysis and model design; Task 5--Design of model data structures; and Task 6--PC software design and coding. Work during this reporting period completed Tasks 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6. Task 4 activities resulted in a prototype of the model design; sensitivity analysis and model modifications are in progress at the time of this report. Task 4 will be complete prior to the end of December 1997. A working prototype of the software implementation of the surface decontamination model and technology database has been completed. The program developed at the Energy and Environmental Research

  15. Controlled iodine release from polyurethane sponges for water decontamination.

    PubMed

    Aviv, Oren; Laout, Natalia; Ratner, Stanislav; Harik, Oshrat; Kunduru, Konda Reddy; Domb, Abraham J

    2013-12-28

    Iodinated polyurethane (IPU) sponges were prepared by immersing sponges in aqueous/organic solutions of iodine or exposing sponges to iodine vapors. Iodine was readily adsorbed into the polymers up to 100% (w/w). The adsorption of iodine on the surface was characterized by XPS and SEM analyses. The iodine loaded IPU sponges were coated with ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), in order to release iodine in a controlled rate for water decontamination combined with active carbon cartridge, which adsorbs the iodine residues after the microbial inactivation. The EVA coated IPU were incorporated in a water purifier and tested for iodine release to water and for microbial inactivation efficiency according to WQA certification program against P231/EPA for 250l, using 25l a day with flow rate of 6-8min/1l. The antimicrobial activity was also studied against Escherichia coli and MS2 phage. Bacterial results exceeded the minimal requirement for bacterial removal of 6log reduction throughout the entire lifespan. At any testing point, no bacteria was detected in the outlet achieving more than 7.1 to more than 8log reduction as calculated upon the inlet concentration. Virus surrogate, MS2, reduction results varied from 4.11log reduction under tap water, and 5.11log reduction under basic water (pH9) to 1.32 for acidic water (pH5). Controlled and stable iodine release was observed with the EVA coated IPU sponges and was effective in deactivating the bacteria and virus present in the contaminated water and thus, these iodinated PU systems could be used in water purification to provide safe drinking water. These sponges may find applications as disinfectants in medicine. PMID:24096017

  16. Decontamination Options for Drinking Water Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis Spores

    SciTech Connect

    Raber, E; Burklund, A

    2010-02-16

    Five parameters were evaluated with surrogates of Bacillus anthracis spores to determine effective decontamination options for use in a contaminated drinking water supply. The parameters were: (1) type of Bacillus spore surrogate (B. thuringiensis or B. atrophaeus); (2) spore concentration in suspension (10{sup 2} to 10{sup 6} spores/ml); (3) chemical characteristics of decontaminant [sodium dicholor-s-triazinetrione dihydrate (Dichlor), hydrogen peroxide, potassium peroxymonosulfate (Oxone), sodium hypochlorite, and VirkonS{reg_sign}]; (4) decontaminant concentration (0.01% to 5%); and (5) decontaminant exposure time (10 min to 24 hr). Results from 162 suspension tests with appropriate controls are reported. Hydrogen peroxide at a concentration of 5%, and Dichlor and sodium hypochlorite at a concentration of 2%, were effective at spore inactivation regardless of spore type tested, spore exposure time, or spore concentration evaluated. This is the first reported study of Dichlor as an effective decontaminant for B. anthracis spore surrogates. Dichlor's desirable characteristics of high oxidation potential, high level of free chlorine, and more neutral pH than that of other oxidizers evaluated appear to make it an excellent alternative. All three oxidizers were effective against B. atrophaeus spores in meeting EPA's biocide standard of greater than a 6 log kill after a 10-minute exposure time and at lower concentrations than typically reported for biocide use. Solutions of 5% VirkonS{reg_sign} and Oxone were less effective decontaminants than other options evaluated in this study and did not meet the EPA's efficacy standard for biocides. Differences in methods and procedures reported by other investigators make quantitative comparisons among studies difficult.

  17. A Comparative Study of Methods To Validate Formaldehyde Decontamination of Biological Safety Cabinets

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Kerry; Lanser, Janice; Flower, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Methods of validation of formaldehyde decontamination of biological safety cabinets were compared. Decontamination of metal strips inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis, poliovirus, or Bacillus spp. spores was compared with the results obtained with three biological indicators. Conditions for successful decontamination, particularly relative humidity, were defined. The Attest 1291 biological indicator was the only biological indicator which was an aid in the detection of gross decontamination failure. PMID:9925635

  18. Estimating doses and risks associated with decontamination and decommissioning activities using the CRRIS

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.W.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Cotter, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System (CRRIS) is applicable to determining doses and risks from a variety of decontamination and decommissioning activities. For example, concentrations in air from resuspended radionuclides initially deposited on the ground surface and the concentrations of deposited radionuclides in various soil layers can be obtained. The CRRIS will estimate exposure to radon and its progeny in terms of working-level months, and will compute the resulting health risks. The CRRIS consists of seven integrated computer codes that stand alone or are run as a system to calculate environmental transport, doses, and risks. PRIMUS output provides other CRRIS codes the capability to handle radionuclide decay chains. ANEMOS and RETADD-II calculate atmospheric dispersion and deposition for local and regional distances, respectively. Multiple ANEMOS runs for sources within a small area are combined on a master grid by SUMIT. MLSOIL is used to estimate effective ground surface concentrations for dose computations. TERRA calculates food chain transport, and ANDROS calculates individual or population exposures, doses, and risks. Applications of the CRRIS to decontamination problems are discussed. 16 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Cold atmospheric pressure plasma and decontamination. Can it contribute to preventing hospital-acquired infections?

    PubMed

    O'Connor, N; Cahill, O; Daniels, S; Galvin, S; Humphreys, H

    2014-10-01

    Healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) affect ∼4.5 million patients in Europe alone annually. With the ever-increasing number of 'multi-resistant' micro-organisms, alternative and more effective methods of environmental decontamination are being sought as an important component of infection prevention and control. One of these is the use of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) systems with clinical applications in healthcare facilities. CAPPs have been shown to demonstrate antimicrobial, antifungal and antiviral properties and have been adopted for other uses in clinical medicine over the past decade. CAPPs vary in their physical and chemical nature depending on the plasma-generating mechanism (e.g. plasma jet, dielectric barrier discharge, etc.). CAPP systems produce a 'cocktail' of species including positive and negative ions, reactive atoms and molecules (e.g. atomic oxygen, ozone, superoxide and oxides of nitrogen), intense electric fields, and ultraviolet radiation (UV). The effects of these ions have been studied on micro-organisms, skin, blood, and DNA; thus, a range of possible applications of CAPPs has been identified, including surface decontamination, wound healing, biofilm removal, and even cancer therapy. Here we evaluate plasma devices, their applications, mode of action and their potential role specifically in combating HCAIs on clinical surfaces. PMID:25146226

  20. PROPERTIES AND BEHAVIOR OF 238PU RELEVANT TO DECONTAMINATION OF BUILDING 235-F

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, A.; Kane, M.

    2009-11-24

    This report was prepared to document the physical, chemical and radiological properties of plutonium oxide materials that were processed in the Plutonium Fuel Form Facility (PuFF) in building 235-F at the Savannah River Plant (now known as the Savannah River Site) in the late 1970s and early 1980s. An understanding of these properties is needed to support current project planning for the safe and effective decontamination and deactivation (D&D) of PuFF. The PuFF mission was production of heat sources to power Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) used in space craft. The specification for the PuO{sub 2} used to fabricate the heat sources required that the isotopic content of the plutonium be 83 {+-} 1% Pu-238 due to its high decay heat of 0.57 W/g. The high specific activity of Pu-238 (17.1 Ci/g) due to alpha decay makes this material very difficult to manage. The production process produced micron-sized particles which proved difficult to contain during operations, creating personnel contamination concerns and resulting in the expenditure of significant resources to decontaminate spaces after loss of material containment. This report examines high {sup 238}Pu-content material properties relevant to the D&D of PuFF. These relevant properties are those that contribute to the mobility of the material. Physical properties which produce or maintain small particle size work to increase particle mobility. Early workers with {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} felt that, unlike most small particles, Pu-238 oxide particles would not naturally agglomerate to form larger, less mobile particles. It was thought that the heat generated by the particles would prevent water molecules from binding to the particle surface. Particles covered with bound water tend to agglomerate more easily. However, it is now understood that the self-heating effect is not sufficient to prevent adsorption of water on particle surfaces and thus would not prevent agglomeration of particles. Operational

  1. Decontamination of skin exposed to nanocarriers using an absorbent textile material and PEG-12 dimethicone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lademann, J.; Richter, H.; Baier, G.; Landfester, K.; Frazier, L.; Gefeller, H.; Wunderlich, U.; Gross, I.; Rühl, E.; Knorr, F.

    2014-11-01

    The removal of noxious particulate contaminants such as pollutants derived from particle-to-gas conversions from exposed skin is essential to avoid the permeation of potentially harmful substances into deeper skin layers via the stratum corneum or the skin appendages and their dispersion throughout the circulatory system. This study is aimed at evaluating the efficacy of using the silicone glycol polymer PEG-12 dimethicone and an absorbent textile material to remove fluorescing hydroxyethyl starch nanocapsules implemented as model contaminants from exposed porcine ear skin. Using laser scanning microscopy, it could be shown that while the application and subsequent removal of the absorbent textile material alone did not result in sufficient decontamination, the combined application with PEG-12 dimethicone almost completely eliminated the nanocapsules from the surface of the skin. By acting as a wetting agent, PEG-12 dimethicone enabled the transfer of the nanocapsules into a liquid phase which was taken up by the absorbent textile material. Only traces of fluorescence remained detectable in several skin furrows and follicular orifices, suggesting that the repeated implementation of the procedure may be necessary to achieve total skin surface decontamination.

  2. Decontamination of stainless steel canisters that contain high-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, L.A.; Thomas, N.M.

    1987-01-01

    At the West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSC) in West Valley, New York, high-level radioactive waste (HLW) will be vitrified into a borosilicate glass form and poured into large, stainless steel canisters. During the filling process, volatile fission products, principally {sup 137}Cs, condense on the exterior of the canisters. The smearable contamination that remains on the canisters after they are filled and partially cooled must be removed from the canisters' exterior surfaces prior to their storage and ultimate shipment to a US Department of Energy (DOE) repository for disposal. A simple and effective method was developed for decontamination of HLW canisters. This method of chemical decontamination is applicable to a wide variety of contaminated equipment found in the nuclear industry. The process employs a reduction-oxidation system (Ce(III)/Ce(IV)) in nitric acid solution to chemically mill the surface of stainless steel, similar to the electropolishing process, but without the need for an applied electrical current. Contaminated canisters are simply immersed in the solution at controlled temperature and Ce(IV) concentration levels.

  3. Nuclear Material Recovery at Los Alamos National Laboratory Using TechXtract{reg_sign} Decontamination Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Fay, S.; Dennison, D.; Fife, K.; Punjak, W.

    1999-09-12

    One mission of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is to affect pollution prevention and waste minimization surrounding operations at their Plutonium Facility. Efforts are underway and technologies are being deployed to capture the actinide at the source thereby reducing the amount of nuclear material leaving the facility as transuranic waste. Traditional processing alternatives for decontamination, such as strong acid leaching and surface brushing have not achieved the desired recovery efficiencies for plastic or non-actinide metal matrices. Much of the nuclear material present is fixed in the matrix, and is not susceptible to recovery with surface cleaning techniques. In addition, the relatively large secondary waste volumes associated with the acid leaching have persuaded LANL to evaluate alternative recovery methods. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and testing of a prototype chemical decontamination and co-precipitation process installed at the Los Al amos Plutonium Facility that is based on the patented TechXtract{reg_sign} system developed by Active Environmental Technologies Inc. (AET). The technology was enhanced under a PRDA contract awarded by DOE in 1997.

  4. Generic aspects of the airborne spread of human pathogens indoors and emerging air decontamination technologies.

    PubMed

    Ijaz, M Khalid; Zargar, Bahram; Wright, Kathryn E; Rubino, Joseph R; Sattar, Syed A

    2016-09-01

    Indoor air can be an important vehicle for a variety of human pathogens. This review provides examples of airborne transmission of infectious agents from experimental and field studies and discusses how airborne pathogens can contaminate other parts of the environment to give rise to secondary vehicles leading air-surface-air nexus with possible transmission to susceptible hosts. The following groups of human pathogens are covered because of their known or potential airborne spread: vegetative bacteria (staphylococci and legionellae), fungi (Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Cladosporium spp and Stachybotrys chartarum), enteric viruses (noro- and rotaviruses), respiratory viruses (influenza and coronaviruses), mycobacteria (tuberculous and nontuberculous), and bacterial spore formers (Clostridium difficile and Bacillus anthracis). An overview of methods for experimentally generating and recovering airborne human pathogens is included, along with a discussion of factors that influence microbial survival in indoor air. Available guidelines from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and other global regulatory bodies for the study of airborne pathogens are critically reviewed with particular reference to microbial surrogates that are recommended. Recent developments in experimental facilities to contaminate indoor air with microbial aerosols are presented, along with emerging technologies to decontaminate indoor air under field-relevant conditions. Furthermore, the role that air decontamination may play in reducing the contamination of environmental surfaces and its combined impact on interrupting the risk of pathogen spread in both domestic and institutional settings is discussed. PMID:27590695

  5. Decontamination and Recycling of Radioactive Material from Retired Components

    SciTech Connect

    Bushart, S.P.; Wood, C.J.; Bradbury, D.; Elder, G.

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes the development of the EPRI DFDX (Decontamination For Decommissioning, electrochemical ion exchange) process for the chemical decontamination of reactor coolant systems and components. A US patent has been awarded and a plant, conforming to exacting nuclear industry standards, has been constructed to demonstrate the process at a number of sites. The plant has completed successful demonstration tests at Studsvik in Sweden and Dounreay in Scotland. The R and D phase for this technology is now complete, and the plant is now in commercial operation in the United Kingdom. (authors)

  6. Electron beam irradiation for biological decontamination of Spirulina platensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasoveanu, Mirela; Nemtanu, Monica; Minea, R.; Grecu, Maria Nicoleta; Mazilu, Elena; Radulescu, Nora

    2005-10-01

    The Cyanobacterium Spirulina is commercialized for its use in health foods and for therapeutic purposes due to its valuable constituents particularly proteins and vitamins. The aim of the paper is to study the Spirulina platensis behaviour when it is electron beam irradiated for biological decontamination. Microbial load, antioxidant activity, enzymatic inhibition, electron spin resonance (ESR) and UV-Vis spectra were measured for doses up to 80 kGy. The results were correlated with doses in order to find where decontamination is efficient, keeping the Spirulina qualities.

  7. A mass casualty incident involving children and chemical decontamination.

    PubMed

    Timm, Nathan; Reeves, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Mass casualty incidents involving contaminated children are a rare but ever-present possibility. In this article we outline one such event that resulted in 53 pediatric patients and 3 adults presenting to the emergency department of a children's hospital for decontamination and treatment. We pay special attention to the training that allowed this responses to occur. We also outline the institutional response with emphasis on incident command, communication, and resource utilization. Specific lessons learned are explored in detail. Finally, we set forth a series of recommendations to assist other institutions should they be called upon to care for and decontaminate pediatric patients. PMID:17517363

  8. Developpement des betons semi autoplacants a rheologie adaptee pour des infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotomayor Cruz, Cristian Daniel

    BSAP-I optimisés à travers une caractérisation complète des propriétés mécaniques et de la durabilité a été réalisée. A la suite de cette étude, les résultats obtenus nous permettent de conclure que : (1) L'utilisation d'un BSAP-I avec un gros granulat de 5 - 14 mm, des rapports E/L = 0,37 et S/G = 0,52 et une teneur en air de 6 à 9% a été possible en conférant un équilibre optimal fluidité / stabilité à l'état frais, ainsi qu'un niveau de thixotropie adéquate au chantier permettant d'optimiser la conception du coffrage des piliers de pont et de conférer des qualités de surfaces très acceptables de ces infrastructures. (2) La méthode adaptée pour l'essai L-Box contenant 2 barres et une vibration de 5 secondes a permis de bien caractériser la capacité de remplissage d'un BSAP-I. (3) L'utilisation d'un plan factoriel 23 a permis d'obtenir des modèles statistiques fiables, capables de prédire les propriétés rhéologiques à l'état frais et les résistances en compression des BSAP-I avec des dosages en liant entre 370 et 420 kg/m3, des rapports E/L entre 0,34 et 0,40 et S/G entre 0,47 et 0,53. (4) Des mesures de vitesse d'écoulement T40 d'un BSAP-I sont très semblables à celles d'un BAP. En plus, des valeurs T40 montrent une bonne corrélation linéaire avec celles de T400 mesurés dans la boîte L-Box. (5) À la frontière du BAP et du BCV, une bande rhéologique possédant un τ0 entre 30 et 320 Pa et un η entre 10 et 140 Pa.s a été trouvée pour la conception optimale des BSAP-I. (6) Les BSAP-I optimisés ont également conféré une très bonne performance à l'état frais, en permettant maintenir un bon équilibre entre la rhéologie et la stabilité dans le temps, lorsqu'on utilise une énergie de vibration minimale pour amorcer son écoulement. (7) À l'état durci Les BSAP-I ont conféré une bonne performance présentant des résistances mécaniques élevées et des niveaux négligeables de pénétration aux ions chlores

  9. 48 CFR 1523.303-71 - Decontamination of Government-furnished property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Decontamination of... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Hazardous Material and Material Safety Data 1523.303-71 Decontamination of..., Decontamination of Government-Furnished Property, when it is anticipated that a Contractor will use...

  10. 41 CFR 102-75.955 - Who is responsible for decontaminating excess and surplus real property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Management of Excess and Surplus Real Property Decontamination § 102-75... responsible for all expenses to the Government and for the supervision of the decontamination of excess and... be exercised in the decontamination, management, and disposal of contaminated property in order...

  11. 41 CFR 102-75.955 - Who is responsible for decontaminating excess and surplus real property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Management of Excess and Surplus Real Property Decontamination § 102-75... responsible for all expenses to the Government and for the supervision of the decontamination of excess and... be exercised in the decontamination, management, and disposal of contaminated property in order...

  12. 41 CFR 102-75.955 - Who is responsible for decontaminating excess and surplus real property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Management of Excess and Surplus Real Property Decontamination § 102-75... responsible for all expenses to the Government and for the supervision of the decontamination of excess and... be exercised in the decontamination, management, and disposal of contaminated property in order...

  13. 48 CFR 1523.303-71 - Decontamination of Government-furnished property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Decontamination of... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Hazardous Material and Material Safety Data 1523.303-71 Decontamination of..., Decontamination of Government-Furnished Property, when it is anticipated that a Contractor will use...

  14. 48 CFR 1523.303-71 - Decontamination of Government-furnished property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Decontamination of... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Hazardous Material and Material Safety Data 1523.303-71 Decontamination of..., Decontamination of Government-Furnished Property, when it is anticipated that a Contractor will use...

  15. 41 CFR 102-75.955 - Who is responsible for decontaminating excess and surplus real property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Management of Excess and Surplus Real Property Decontamination § 102-75... responsible for all expenses to the Government and for the supervision of the decontamination of excess and... be exercised in the decontamination, management, and disposal of contaminated property in order...

  16. 41 CFR 102-75.955 - Who is responsible for decontaminating excess and surplus real property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Management of Excess and Surplus Real Property Decontamination § 102-75... responsible for all expenses to the Government and for the supervision of the decontamination of excess and... be exercised in the decontamination, management, and disposal of contaminated property in order...

  17. 48 CFR 1523.303-71 - Decontamination of Government-furnished property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Decontamination of... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Hazardous Material and Material Safety Data 1523.303-71 Decontamination of..., Decontamination of Government-Furnished Property, when it is anticipated that a Contractor will use...

  18. 48 CFR 1523.303-71 - Decontamination of Government-furnished property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Decontamination of... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Hazardous Material and Material Safety Data 1523.303-71 Decontamination of..., Decontamination of Government-Furnished Property, when it is anticipated that a Contractor will use...

  19. Wet decontamination-induced stratum corneum hydration--effects on the skin barrier function to diethylmalonate.

    PubMed

    Loke, W K; U, S H; Lau, S K; Lim, J S; Tay, G S; Koh, C H

    1999-01-01

    Decontamination of chemical agents from the skin uses both dry and wet decontamination processes. Recent studies have shown that wet decontamination frequently results in stratum corneum hydration. To evaluate the hydration effect of wet decontamination on the skin barrier function and hence on the decontamination efficiency, a series of comparative studies were carried out on human skin contaminated with the nerve agent simulant diethylmalonate, using decontamination media having different salinity and surfactants. The results showed that, compared to non-decontaminated skin, remnant diethylmalonate on decontaminated skin penetrated at an accelerated rate in the immediate 2 h following decontamination. This transient enhancement effect, ranging from 20 to 98%, was depended on the nature of the decontamination media used and was more obvious in skin samples that were decontaminated 1 h postexposure. All decontamination media exhibited this effect, with the greatest enhancement observed in the following order: anionic surfactant > cationic surfactant > non-ionic surfactant > deionized water > 0.9% saline > 9% saline. PMID:10439344

  20. Process for decontaminating radioactive liquids using a calcium cyanamide-containing composition. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Silver, G.L.

    1980-09-24

    The present invention provides a process for decontaminating a radioactive liquid containing a radioactive element capable of forming a hydroxide. This process includes the steps of contacting the radioactive liquid with a decontaminating composition and separating the resulting radioactive sludge from the resulting liquid. The decontaminating composition contains calcium cyanamide.