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Sample records for decremental open lung

  1. A decremental PEEP trial for determining open-lung PEEP in a rabbit model of acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Hua, Yi-Ming; Lien, Shao-Hung; Liu, Tao-Yuan; Lee, Chuen-Ming; Yuh, Yeong-Seng

    2008-04-01

    A positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) above the lower inflection point (LIP) of the pressure-volume curve has been thought necessary to maintain recruited lung volume in acute lung injury (ALI). We used a strategy to identify the level of open-lung PEEP (OLP) by detecting the maximum tidal compliance during a decremental PEEP trial (DPT). We performed a randomized controlled study to compare the effect of the OLP to PEEP above LIP and zero PEEP on pulmonary mechanics, gas exchange, hemodynamic change, and lung injury in 26 rabbits with ALI. After recruitment maneuver, the lavage-injured rabbits received DPTs to identify the OLP. Animals were randomized to receive volume controlled ventilation with either: (a) PEEP = 0 cm H2O (ZEEP); (b) PEEP = 2 cm H2O above OLP (OLP + 2); or (c) PEEP = 2 cm H2O above LIP (LIP + 2). Peak inspiratory pressure and mean airway pressure were recorded and arterial blood gases were analyzed every 30 min. Mean blood pressure and heart rate were monitored continuously. Lung injury severity was assessed by lung wet/dry weight ratio. Animals in OLP + 2 group had less lung injury as well as relatively better compliance, more stable pH, and less hypercapnia compared to the LIP + 2 and ZEEP groups. We concluded that setting PEEP according to the OLP identified by DPTs is an effective method to attenuate lung injury. This strategy could be used as an indicator for optimal PEEP. The approach is simple and noninvasive and may be of clinical interest. PMID:18293413

  2. Respiratory and haemodynamic changes during decremental open lung positive end-expiratory pressure titration in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gernoth, Christian; Wagner, Gerhard; Pelosi, Paolo; Luecke, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Introduction To investigate haemodynamic and respiratory changes during lung recruitment and decremental positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) titration for open lung ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) a prospective, clinical trial was performed involving 12 adult patients with ARDS treated in the surgical intensive care unit in a university hospital. Methods A software programme (Open Lung Tool™) incorporated into a standard ventilator controlled the recruitment (pressure-controlled ventilation with fixed PEEP at 20 cmH2O and increased driving pressures at 20, 25 and 30 cmH2O for two minutes each) and PEEP titration (PEEP lowered by 2 cmH2O every two minutes, with tidal volume set at 6 ml/kg). The open lung PEEP (OL-PEEP) was defined as the PEEP level yielding maximum dynamic respiratory compliance plus 2 cmH2O. Gas exchange, respiratory mechanics and central haemodynamics using the Pulse Contour Cardiac Output Monitor (PiCCO™), as well as transoesophageal echocardiography were measured at the following steps: at baseline (T0); during the final recruitment step with PEEP at 20 cmH2O and driving pressure at 30 cmH2O, (T20/30); at OL-PEEP, following another recruitment manoeuvre (TOLP). Results The ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) to fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) increased from T0 to TOLP (120 ± 59 versus 146 ± 64 mmHg, P < 0.005), as did dynamic respiratory compliance (23 ± 5 versus 27 ± 6 ml/cmH2O, P < 0.005). At constant PEEP (14 ± 3 cmH2O) and tidal volumes, peak inspiratory pressure decreased (32 ± 3 versus 29 ± 3 cmH2O, P < 0.005), although partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) was unchanged (58 ± 22 versus 53 ± 18 mmHg). No significant decrease in mean arterial pressure, stroke volume or cardiac output occurred during the recruitment (T20/30). However, left ventricular end-diastolic area decreased at T20/30 due to a decrease in the left ventricular end-diastolic septal

  3. OZONE-INDUCED RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS AND LUNG FUNCTION DECREMENTS IN HUMANS: EXPOSURE-RESPONSE MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Short duration exposure to ozone (<8 hr) is known to result in lung function decrements and respiratory symptoms in humans. The magnitudes of these responses are functions of ozone concentration (C), activity level measured by minute ventilation (Ve), duration of exposure (T), a...

  4. Diesel exhaust modulates ozone-induced lung function decrements in healthy human volunteers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The potential effects of combinations of dilute whole diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (O3), each a common component of ambient airborne pollutant mixtures, on lung function were examined. Healthy young human volunteers were exposed for 2 hr to pollutants while exercising (~50 L/min) intermittently on two consecutive days. Day 1 exposures were either to filtered air, DE (300 μg/m3), O3 (0.300 ppm), or the combination of both pollutants. On Day 2 all exposures were to O3 (0.300 ppm), and Day 3 served as a followup observation day. Lung function was assessed by spirometry just prior to, immediately after, and up to 4 hr post-exposure on each exposure day. Functional pulmonary responses to the pollutants were also characterized based on stratification by glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1) genotype. On Day 1, exposure to air or DE did not change FEV1 or FVC in the subject population (n = 15). The co-exposure to O3 and DE decreased FEV1 (17.6%) to a greater extent than O3 alone (9.9%). To test for synergistic exposure effects, i.e., in a greater than additive fashion, FEV1 changes post individual O3 and DE exposures were summed together and compared to the combined DE and O3 exposure; the p value was 0.057. On Day 2, subjects who received DE exposure on Day 1 had a larger FEV1 decrement (14.7%) immediately after the O3 exposure than the individuals’ matched response following a Day 1 air exposure (10.9%). GSTM1 genotype did not affect the magnitude of lung function changes in a significant fashion. These data suggest that altered respiratory responses to the combination of O3 and DE exposure can be observed showing a greater than additive manner. In addition, O3-induced lung function decrements are greater with a prior exposure to DE compared to a prior exposure to filtered air. Based on the joint occurrence of these pollutants in the ambient environment, the potential exists for interactions in more than an additive fashion affecting lung physiological

  5. Ozone-induced lung function decrements do not correlate with early airway inflammatory or antioxidant responses.

    PubMed

    Blomberg, A; Mudway, I S; Nordenhäll, C; Hedenström, H; Kelly, F J; Frew, A J; Holgate, S T; Sandström, T

    1999-06-01

    decrements observed. The results therefore indicate that the initial lung function decrements are not predictive of, or causally related to the O3-induced inflammatory events in normal human subjects. PMID:10445622

  6. Assessing exposure risk for dust storm events-associated lung function decrement in asthmatics and implications for control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Nan-Hung; Liao, Chung-Min

    2013-04-01

    Asian dust storms (ADS) events are seasonally-based meteorological phenomena that exacerbate chronic respiratory diseases. The purpose of this study was to assess human health risk from airborne dust exposure during ADS events in Taiwan. A probabilistic risk assessment framework was developed based on exposure and experimental data to quantify ADS events induced lung function decrement. The study reanalyzed experimental data from aerosol challenge in asthmatic individuals to construct the dose-response relationship between inhaled dust aerosol dose and decreasing percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (%FEV1). An empirical lung deposition model was used to predict deposition fraction for size specific dust aerosols in pulmonary regions. The toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic models were used to simulate dust aerosols binding kinetics in lung airway in that %FEV1 change was also predicted. The mask respirators were applied to control the inhaled dose under dust aerosols exposure. Our results found that only 2% probability the mild ADS events were likely to cause %FEV1 decrement higher than 5%. There were 50% probability of decreasing %FEV1 exceeding 16.9, 18.9, and 7.1% in north, center, and south Taiwan under severe ADS events, respectively. Our result implicates that the use of activated carbon of mask respirators has the best efficacy for reducing inhaled dust aerosol dose, by which the %FEV1 decrement can be reduced up to less than 1%.

  7. Diesel Exhaust Modulates Ozone-induced Lung Function Decrements in Healthy Human Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential effects of combinations of dilute whole diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (03), each a common component of ambient airborne pollutant mixtures, on lung function were examined. Healthy young human volunteers were exposed for 2 hr to pollutants while exercising (~50 L/min...

  8. Open lung biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... of different conditions, such as: Rheumatoid lung disease Sarcoidosis Wegener granulomatosis Risks There is a possibility of ... fibrous Mesothelioma - malignant Pulmonary tuberculosis Rheumatoid lung disease Sarcoidosis Simple pulmonary eosinophilia Viral pneumonia X-ray Update ...

  9. [Minimally Invasive Open Surgery for Lung Cancer].

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Kazuo; Watanabe, Shunichi

    2016-07-01

    Significant efforts have been made to reduce the invasiveness of surgical procedures by surgeons for a long time. Surgeons always keep it in mind that the basic principle performing less invasive surgical procedures for malignant tumors is to decrease the invasiveness for patients without compromising oncological curability and surgical safety. Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) has been used increasingly as a minimally invasive approach to lung cancer surgery. Whereas, whether VATS lobectomy is a less invasive procedure and has equivalent or better clinical effect compared with open lobectomy for patients with lung cancer remains controversial because of the absence of randomized prospective studies. The degree of difficulty for anatomical lung resection depends on the degree of the fissure development, mobility of hilar lymph nodes, and the degree of pleural adhesions. During pulmonary surgery, thoracic surgeons always have to deal with not only these difficulties but other unexpected events such as intraoperative bleeding. Recently, we perform pulmonary resection for lung cancer with minimally invasive open surgery (MIOS) approach. In this article, we introduce the surgical procedure of MIOS and demonstrate short-term results. Off course, the efficacy of MIOS needs to be further evaluated with long-term results. PMID:27440030

  10. [Evaluating the effectiveness of "open lung" maneuvre].

    PubMed

    Eremenko, A A; Borisov, R Iu; Egorov, V M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study--a comparative evaluation of the treatment of postoperative acute respiratory insufficiency in cardio surgical patients with lung opening maneuver and conventional mechanical ventilation. The study included 81 patients operated on the heart and magistral vessels in which the immediate postoperative period was complicated by the development of acute lung injury. Patients were divided into 2 groups: 1 (main) group (48 patients), on which the open lung technique was used, 2 (control) group (33 patients) who underwent a standard respiratory support. The initial values of the partial oxygen pressure in arterial blood and the oxygenation index in patients of both groups were significantly reduced, and the fraction of intrapulmonary shunting - significantly increased. Starting with 1 day sharp increase in PaO2 and IE in patients with the first group was noticed, which coincides with the beginning of the opening of the alveoli. At the same time, the dynamics of these indicators in the second group had the reverse tendency. After the recruiting maneuver in all patients significant improvements in the mechanics of breathing were noticed. As a result of the recruiting maneuver in the first group sustained improvement of arterial oxygenation was achieved in 35 patients. In patients with acute postoperative respiratory failure recruiting maneuver led to a significant increase in arterial oxygenation and reduce the fraction of intrapulmonary shunt. Application of "open lung" maneuver leads to the resolution of respiratory failure, which greatly reduces the timing of mechanical ventilation and length of stay of patients in intensive care units in comparison with traditional methods of respiratory therapy. PMID:21851022

  11. Dielectric decrement effects in electrokinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figliuzzi, Bruno; Chan, Wai Hong Ronald; Buie, Cullen; Moran, Jeffrey

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the nonlinear phenomena that occur in the electric double layer (EDL) that forms at charged surfaces is a key issue in electrokinetics. In recent studies, Nakayama and Andelman [J. Chem. Physics 2015] Hatlo et al. [EPL 2012], and Zhao and Zhai [JFM 2013] demonstrated that dielectric decrement significantly influences the ionic concentration in the electric double layer (EDL) at high zeta potential, leading to the formation of a condensed layer near the particle's surface. In this presentation, we apply the dielectric decrement model to study two archetypal problems in electrokinetics, namely the electrophoresis of particles with fixed surface charges and the electrophoresis of ideally polarizable particles. Our aim is to rely on numerical simulations to incorporate nonlinear effects including crowding effects due to the finite size of ions, dielectric decrement in the EDL, surface conduction, concentration polarization and advection in the bulk solution. In parallel, we derive a simplified composite layer model that enables us to obtain analytical estimates of the physical quantities involved in the physical description of the problem.

  12. The safety of the open lung approach in neurosurgical patients.

    PubMed

    Wolf, S; Schürer, L; Trost, H A; Lumenta, C B

    2002-01-01

    A recent randomized controlled trial in patients with ARDS showed the beneficial effect of mechanical ventilation according to the so called Open Lung Approach, consisting of low tidal volumes and elevated PEEP settings after performing recruiting maneuvers. However, neurosurgical patients were excluded from this and other ARDS trials due to concerns of intracranial deterioration. In this report, we present the clinical data of eleven patients with known intracranial pathology and concomitant ARDS which was treated according to the Open Lung concept. The mean oxygenation index (paO2/FiO2) increased from 132 +/- 88 to 325 +/- 64 measured 24 hours after initiation of Open Lung ventilation (p < 0.001). Mean PEEP level after the first recruiting maneuver was 14.9 +/- 3.2 mmHg. Comparison of mean and peak ICP values over 24 hours of time before and after the first recruitment maneuver revealed a non-significant decline in ICP despite a moderate increase in mean paCO2. Although two patients needed additional ICP treatment, no patient had to be withdrawn from Open Lung ventilation. In our series, Open Lung ventilation in neurosurgical patients with ARDS was a safe method to improve oxygenation. Careful ICP monitoring provided, there is no reason to withhold this modern ARDS treatment in the neurosurgical intensive care unit. PMID:12168369

  13. Contribution of opening and closing of lung units to lung hysteresis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, W; DeLong, D S; Franz, G N; Petsonk, E L; Frazer, D G

    1995-12-01

    The recruitment and derecruitment of lung units is one explanation of the hysteresis observed in an excised lung during inflation and deflation. A simplified model has been proposed in which the recruitment-derecruitment process is a function of end-expiratory pressure (Frazer, D.G., K.C. Weber and G.N. Franz, Respir. Physiol. 61: 277-288, 1985). The object of this study was to test this model with three experimental procedures. During the first set of experiments, progressively larger pressure-volume (PL-VL) loops were recorded with end-expiratory pressure held at either -5 cmH2O, where all lung units are assumed to be closed, or +5 cmH2O, where all recruited lung units are assumed to be open. In the first case hysteresis is maximal, in the second, minimal. The difference in hysteresis is presumed to arise from the recruitment-derecruitment process. In the second set of experiments, excised lungs are slowly inflated and then deflated at a constant rate while constant-amplitude sinusoidal volume oscillations are superimposed. The end-expiratory pressure of the superimposed loops gradually rose as the lung was inflated and fell as the lung was deflated. Hysteresis was minimal when end-expiratory pressure was above 4 +/- 1 cmH2O even as peak-to-peak loop pressure greatly varied. This supports the notion of an end-expiratory pressure dependent mechanism of recruitment/derecruitment. During the third set of experiments lungs were inflated to either 50%, 75%, or 100% TLC. Volumes of air were then withdrawn and replaced so that the initial volume was restored in sinusoidal fashion as the amplitude of the volume excursions increased. For PL-VL loops with end-expiratory pressures between +4 and -2 cmH2O, pressure amplitudes rose and the hysteresis index (loop area/tidal volume) increased, regardless of the initial lung volume. These results are consistent with the previously described model of Frazer et al. (1985) which assumed that PL-VL curves can be divided into an

  14. Loudness enhancement and decrement in four paradigms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmasian, R.; Galambos, R.; Bernheim, A., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    When one tone burst (the conditioner) preceeds another (the target) by 100 ms, target loudness is enhanced if the conditioner is more intense and decreased if it is less intense. We show here that similar loudness enhancements and decrements occur when the conditioner follows the target. In all instances, monaural loudness enhancements (in which the conditioner and target are delivered to the same ear) are greater than the dichotic enhancements (in which the conditioner is presented contralaterally), but the decrements, which are smaller than the enhancements, are similar in magnitude. Loudness enhancements and decrements are similar to sequential loudness effects and central tendency effects; the major difference is the relatively very large increases in loudness obtainable in loudness enhancement experiments. We outline a mechanism to account for these loudness phenomena and suggest that this mechanism is responsible for similar perceptual effects that occur in other stimulus dimensions and modalities.

  15. Balmer decrements of T Tau stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katysheva, N. A.

    1981-04-01

    The relative intensities of Balmer lines calculated on the basis of Sobolev's probability method (1947) and the observed decrements of T Tau stars in the catalog of Cohen and Kuhi (1979) are compared with spectral classes between K5 and M5. For the group of stars, G5-K5, studied by Grinin (1980), emission was found to be predominantly of an envelope type, with less of a part played by chromospheric radiation. In K5-M5 stars, however, the envelope makes a smaller contribution to the total radiation, and most of the emission arises in the dense gas at the surface of the star. A comparison of the Balmer decrements of T Tau stars of different spectral classes and flare stars shows that in a transition to stars of lower luminosity, the role of chromospheric radiation increases.

  16. The Effect of Arousal on Warm Up Decrement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anshel, Mark H.

    1985-01-01

    This study examined whether particular strategies would enhance affective arousal and if these techniques would affect warm-up decrement during performance of a sport skill. One strategy eliminated warm-up decrement and two had no effect. Positive and negative arousal and the correlation of arousal level to warm-up decrement are explored.…

  17. The cognitive effects and decrements following concussion.

    PubMed

    Covassin, Tracey; Elbin, Robert J

    2010-01-01

    Sports-related concussion is an injury that continues to receive attention from both the popular media and sports medicine community. The many different symptom presentations and cognitive decrements that follow concussions, have made this injury difficult to detect and manage. Furthermore, concussed athletes should not always be entrusted to appropriately self-report their concussion symptoms; therefore the burden falls on the clinician and coach. Recent management recommendations call for using a multi-faceted approach to managing concussion, which consists of neurocognitive testing before (ie, baseline/preseason) and after injury. In addition age, sex, and previous history of concussion have been found to influence the risk and recovery from this injury. PMID:24198543

  18. Antihistamine- and decongestant-induced performance decrements.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, E O

    1990-04-01

    Among the most common of health problems, allergies afflict more than one of every six Americans. In the allergic reaction, mast cells degranulate, releasing inflammatory mediators such as histamine. These mediators in turn cause smooth muscle contraction, itch, mucus secretion, and vascular leakage. A number of pharmacologic agents, including the H1 receptor antihistamines and the sympathomimetic decongestants, have been developed in an attempt to minimize such effects. Antihistamines were first used clinically 50 years ago. Currently taken by approximately 30 million Americans each year, they are grouped by structure into six classes. Until recently, all of the classes, or first-generation antihistamines, were thought to be relatively equal in efficacy and, because of their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, they all caused varying degrees of sedation. The effects of antihistamines on psychomotor reflexes and driving skills, antihistamine-induced drowsiness, and the interaction of antihistamines with alcohol and tranquilizers are reviewed. The centrally acting first-generation agents, and the performance decrements these agents commonly induce, are compared with the newer, nonsedating, second-generation antihistamines (eg, terfenadine, astemizole, cetirizine, and loratadine). Although decongestants do not appear to cause impaired performance, this needs to be evaluated further, particularly with regard to decongestant-induced insomnia. PMID:1970834

  19. Posture-Dependent Human 3He Lung Imaging in an Open Access MRI System: Initial Results

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, L. L.; Mair, R. W.; Li, C.-H.; Rosen, M. S.; Patz, S.; Walsworth, R. L.

    2008-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives The human lung and its functions are extremely sensitive to orientation and posture, and debate continues as to the role of gravity and the surrounding anatomy in determining lung function and heterogeneity of perfusion and ventilation. However, study of these effects is difficult. The conventional high-field magnets used for most hyperpolarized 3He MRI of the human lung, and most other common radiological imaging modalities including PET and CT, restrict subjects to lying horizontally, minimizing most gravitational effects. Materials and Methods In this paper, we briefly review the motivation for posture-dependent studies of human lung function, and present initial imaging results of human lungs in the supine and vertical body orientations using inhaled hyperpolarized 3He gas and an open-access MRI instrument. The open geometry of this MRI system features a “walk-in” capability that permits subjects to be imaged in vertical and horizontal positions, and potentially allows for complete rotation of the orientation of the imaging subject in a two-dimensional plane. Results Initial results include two-dimensional lung images acquired with ~ 4 × 8 mm in-plane resolution and three-dimensional images with ~ 2 cm slice thickness. Conclusion Effects of posture variation are observed, including posture-related effects of the diaphragm and distension of the lungs while vertical. PMID:18486009

  20. Mueller-Lyer decrement: practice or prolonged inspection?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiano, D. J.; Jordan, K.

    1990-01-01

    Noting the similarity between the illusion decrement and selective adaptation paradigms, Long has challenged the view that illusion decrement effects reflect a strategic--as opposed to a structural--underlying mechanism, and has called for further research on this issue. To investigate the confound between prolonged free inspection and repeated trials in the standard decrement procedure, the effects of three inspection conditions (continuous, intermittent, and immediate) on the magnitude of the overestimation Mueller-Lyer illusion have been assessed under two levels of trials (a total of two or six judgments). Significant illusion decline was found only under conditions of repeated trials, with either continuous or intermittent inspection. These findings do not support the predictions of purely structural theories (including neural adaptation and efferent readiness theories), according to which degree of decrement should be determined solely by viewing time. Instead, the data demonstrate that illusion decrement is a product of practice, providing converging evidence for the view of decrement as involving a cognitive 'recalibration' or learning process.

  1. Anticipation of Monetary Reward Can Attenuate the Vigilance Decrement

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Mallory; Liu, Guanyu; Mitko, Alex; Morris, Rachael; DeGutis, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Motivation and reward can have differential effects on separate aspects of sustained attention. We previously demonstrated that continuous reward/punishment throughout a sustained attention task improves overall performance, but not vigilance decrements. One interpretation of these findings is that vigilance decrements are due to resource depletion, which is not overcome by increasing overall motivation. However, an alternative explanation is that as one performs a continuously rewarded task there are less potential gains/losses as the task progresses, which could decrease motivation over time, producing a vigilance decrement. This would predict that keeping future gains/losses consistent throughout the task would reduce the vigilance decrement. In the current study, we examined this possibility by comparing two versions (continuous-small loss vs. anticipate-large loss) of a 10-minute gradual onset continuous performance task (gradCPT), a challenging go/no-go sustained attention task. Participants began each task with the potential to keep $18. In the continuous-small-loss version, small monetary losses were accrued continuously throughout the task for each error. However, in the anticipate-large-loss version, participants lost all $18 if they erroneously responded to one target that always appeared toward the end of the vigil. Typical vigilance decrements were observed in the continuous-small-loss condition. In the anticipate-large-loss condition, vigilance decrements were reduced, particularly when the anticipate-large loss condition was completed second. This suggests that the looming possibility of a large loss can attenuate the vigilance decrement and that this attenuation may occur most consistently after sufficient task experience. We discuss these results in the context of current theories of sustained attention. PMID:27472785

  2. Anticipation of Monetary Reward Can Attenuate the Vigilance Decrement.

    PubMed

    Esterman, Michael; Grosso, Mallory; Liu, Guanyu; Mitko, Alex; Morris, Rachael; DeGutis, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Motivation and reward can have differential effects on separate aspects of sustained attention. We previously demonstrated that continuous reward/punishment throughout a sustained attention task improves overall performance, but not vigilance decrements. One interpretation of these findings is that vigilance decrements are due to resource depletion, which is not overcome by increasing overall motivation. However, an alternative explanation is that as one performs a continuously rewarded task there are less potential gains/losses as the task progresses, which could decrease motivation over time, producing a vigilance decrement. This would predict that keeping future gains/losses consistent throughout the task would reduce the vigilance decrement. In the current study, we examined this possibility by comparing two versions (continuous-small loss vs. anticipate-large loss) of a 10-minute gradual onset continuous performance task (gradCPT), a challenging go/no-go sustained attention task. Participants began each task with the potential to keep $18. In the continuous-small-loss version, small monetary losses were accrued continuously throughout the task for each error. However, in the anticipate-large-loss version, participants lost all $18 if they erroneously responded to one target that always appeared toward the end of the vigil. Typical vigilance decrements were observed in the continuous-small-loss condition. In the anticipate-large-loss condition, vigilance decrements were reduced, particularly when the anticipate-large loss condition was completed second. This suggests that the looming possibility of a large loss can attenuate the vigilance decrement and that this attenuation may occur most consistently after sufficient task experience. We discuss these results in the context of current theories of sustained attention. PMID:27472785

  3. Customization of an open-lung ventilation strategy to treat a case of life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Grooms, David A; Sibole, Stephen H; Tomlinson, James R; Marik, Paul E; Chatburn, Robert L

    2011-04-01

    The ARDS Network low-tidal-volume protocol is considered the standard of care for patients with acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The protocol is built on the foundation of low-tidal-volume ventilation, use of a combined PEEP and F(IO(2)) table, and managing alveolar end-inspiratory pressure by limiting the plateau airway pressure to ≤ 30 cm H(2)O. Although this strategy, to date, is the only method that significantly improves ALI/ARDS survival, alternative methods of improving hypoxemia and minimizing ventilator-induced lung injury, in conjunction with low-tidal-volume ventilation, can be used for life-threatening ARDS. We present a case in which we customized the use of alveolar recruitment maneuvers by analyzing the hysteresis of the pressure-volume curve to assess lung recruitability, decremental PEEP to sustain lung recruitment, and careful use of plateau pressure ≥ 30 cm H(2)O, which improved our patient's life-threatening hypoxemia within the first 36 min of arrival to our ICU. PMID:21255504

  4. Nonlinear electrophoresis in the presence of dielectric decrement.

    PubMed

    Figliuzzi, B; Chan, W H R; Buie, C R; Moran, J L

    2016-08-01

    The nonlinear phenomena that occur in the electric double layer (EDL) that forms at charged surfaces strongly influence electrokinetic effects, including electro-osmosis and electrophoresis. In particular, saturation effects due to either dielectric decrement or ion crowding effects are of paramount importance. Dielectric decrement significantly influences the ionic concentration in the EDL at high ζ potential, leading to the formation of a condensed layer near the particle's surface. In this article, we present a model incorporating both steric effects due to the finite size of ions and dielectric decrement to describe the physics in the electric double layer. The model remains valid in both weakly and strongly nonlinear regimes, as long as the electric double layer remains in quasiequilibrium. We apply this model to the study of two archetypal problems in electrokinetics, namely the electrophoresis of particles with fixed surface charges and the electrophoresis of ideally polarizable particles. PMID:27627400

  5. A System for Open-Access 3He Human Lung Imaging at Very Low Field

    PubMed Central

    RUSET, I.C.; TSAI, L.L.; MAIR, R.W.; PATZ, S.; HROVAT, M.I.; ROSEN, M.S.; MURADIAN, I.; NG, J.; TOPULOS, G.P.; BUTLER, J.P.; WALSWORTH, R.L.; HERSMAN, F.W.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a prototype system built to allow open-access very-low-field MRI of human lungs using laser-polarized 3He gas. The system employs an open four-coil electromagnet with an operational B0 field of 4 mT, and planar gradient coils that generate gradient fields up to 0.18 G/cm in the x and y direction and 0.41 G/cm in the z direction. This system was used to obtain 1H and 3He phantom images and supine and upright 3He images of human lungs. We include discussion on challenges unique to imaging at 50 –200 kHz, including noise filtering and compensation for narrow-bandwidth coils. PMID:20354575

  6. Fatigue and associated performance decrements in air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyman, E. G.; Orlady, H. W.

    1981-01-01

    A study of safety reports was conducted to examine the hypothesis that fatigue and associated performance decrements occur in air transport operations, and that these are associated with some combination of factors: circadian desynchronosis, duty time; pre-duty activity; sleep; work scheduling; workload; and environmental deprivation. The findings are based on a selected sample of reported incidents in which the reporter associated fatigue with the occurrence. In comparing the fatigue reports with a control set, significant performance decrements were found to exist related to time-of-day, awareness and attention to duty, less significantly, final phases of flights. The majority of the fatigue incidents involved such unsafe events as altitude deviations, takeoffs and landing without clearance, and the like. Considerations of duty and sleep are the major factors in the reported fatigue conditions.

  7. Dielectric Decrement Effects on Nonlinear Electrophoresis of Ideally Polarizable Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Jeffrey L.; Chan, Wai Hong Ronald; Buie, Cullen R.; Figliuzzi, Bruno

    2014-11-01

    We present numerical simulations of nonlinear electrophoresis of ideally polarizable particles that specifically include the effects of a spatially non-uniform dielectric permittivity near the particle surface. Models for this dielectric decrement phenomenon have been developed by several authors, including Ben-Yaakov et al. [J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 2009] Hatlo et al. [EPL 2012], and Zhao & Zhai [JFM 2013]. We extend this work to ideally polarizable particles and include the effects of surface conduction and advective transport in the electric double layer. By numerically solving for the coupled velocity field, electric potential, and ionic concentration distributions in the bulk solution surrounding the particle, we demonstrate that the dielectric decrement model predicts ionic saturation around the particle and thus physical implications that resemble those resulting from the steric model developed by Kilic et al. [PRE 2007], albeit with differences that reflect the nonlinearity of the modified Poisson-Boltzmann equation. In addition, we develop a generalized condensed layer model that approximates both the steric and dielectric decrement models in the limits of strong electric fields and negligible surface conduction to obtain more physical insights into these models. We demonstrate that the mobility in both models asymptotically scales as the square root of the electric field at high fields, recovering the result of Bazant et al. [Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 2009].

  8. Work exposure and vigilance decrements in closed circuit television surveillance.

    PubMed

    Donald, Fiona; Donald, Craig; Thatcher, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine operator effectiveness in terms of detection rates and potential vigilance decrements in a proactive or real time CCTV surveillance task. The study was conducted in two stages. During stage one, 42 operators who were employed full-time in CCTV surveillance observed a 90-min video and were required to detect four types of target behaviours. No vigilance decrement was found for this sample as a whole. Stage two involved collecting additional data from 31 novices and dividing the existing operators into two sub-samples, consisting of generalists and specialists depending on the type of surveillance they performed at work (total N = 73). Fifty percent of target behaviours were detected and false alarms were high. Vigilance decrements were found for novices and generalists, but specialists maintained their performance for the first hour and then increased it. Results are discussed in terms of surveillance background, work exposure, transfer of learning, selection, training and motivation and the impact of these on vigilance and CCTV performance. PMID:25479991

  9. Hypokinesia without decrement distinguishes progressive supranuclear palsy from Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ling, Helen; Massey, Luke A; Lees, Andrew J; Brown, Peter; Day, Brian L

    2012-04-01

    Repetitive finger tapping is commonly used to assess bradykinesia in Parkinson's disease. The Queen Square Brain Bank diagnostic criterion of Parkinson's disease defines bradykinesia as 'slowness of initiation with progressive reduction in speed and amplitude of repetitive action'. Although progressive supranuclear palsy is considered an atypical parkinsonian syndrome, it is not known whether patients with progressive supranuclear palsy have criteria-defined bradykinesia. This study objectively assessed repetitive finger tap performance and handwriting in patients with Parkinson's disease (n = 15), progressive supranuclear palsy (n = 9) and healthy age- and gender-matched controls (n = 16). The motion of the hand and digits was recorded in 3D during 15-s repetitive index finger-to-thumb tapping trials. The main finding was hypokinesia without decrement in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy, which differed from the finger tap pattern in Parkinson's disease. Average finger separation amplitude in progressive supranuclear palsy was less than half of that in controls and Parkinson's disease (P < 0.001 in both cases). Change in tap amplitude over consecutive taps was computed by linear regression. The average amplitude slope in progressive supranuclear palsy was nearly zero (0.01°/cycle) indicating a lack of decrement, which differed from the negative slope in patients with Parkinson's disease OFF levodopa (-0.20°/cycle, P = 0.002). 'Hypokinesia', defined as <50% of control group's mean amplitude, combined with 'absence of decrement', defined as mean positive amplitude slope, were identified in 87% of finger tap trials in the progressive supranuclear palsy group and only 12% in the Parkinson's disease OFF levodopa group. In progressive supranuclear palsy, the mean amplitude was not correlated with disease duration or other clinimetric scores. In Parkinson's disease, finger tap pattern was compatible with criteria-defined bradykinesia

  10. Open-Access, Low-Magnetic-Field MRI System for Lung Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mair, Ross W.; Rosen, Matthew S.; Tsai, Leo L.; Walsworth, Ronald L.; Hrovat, Mirko I.; Patz, Samuel; Ruset, Iullian C.; Hersman, F. William

    2009-01-01

    An open-access magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system is being developed for use in research on orientational/gravitational effects on lung physiology and function. The open-access geometry enables study of human subjects in diverse orientations. This system operates at a magnetic flux density, considerably smaller than the flux densities of typical other MRI systems, that can be generated by resistive electromagnet coils (instead of the more-expensive superconducting coils of the other systems). The human subject inhales air containing He-3 or Xe-129 atoms, the nuclear spins of which have been polarized by use of a laser beam to obtain a magnetic resonance that enables high-resolution gas space imaging at the low applied magnetic field. The system includes a bi-planar, constant-current, four-coil electromagnet assembly and associated electronic circuitry to apply a static magnetic field of 6.5 mT throughout the lung volume; planar coils and associated circuitry to apply a pulsed magnetic-field-gradient for each spatial dimension; a single, detachable radio-frequency coil and associated circuitry for inducing and detecting MRI signals; a table for supporting a horizontal subject; and electromagnetic shielding surrounding the electromagnet coils.

  11. Variable versus conventional lung protective mechanical ventilation during open abdominal surgery: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background General anesthesia usually requires mechanical ventilation, which is traditionally accomplished with constant tidal volumes in volume- or pressure-controlled modes. Experimental studies suggest that the use of variable tidal volumes (variable ventilation) recruits lung tissue, improves pulmonary function and reduces systemic inflammatory response. However, it is currently not known whether patients undergoing open abdominal surgery might benefit from intraoperative variable ventilation. Methods/Design The PROtective VARiable ventilation trial (‘PROVAR’) is a single center, randomized controlled trial enrolling 50 patients who are planning for open abdominal surgery expected to last longer than 3 hours. PROVAR compares conventional (non-variable) lung protective ventilation (CV) with variable lung protective ventilation (VV) regarding pulmonary function and inflammatory response. The primary endpoint of the study is the forced vital capacity on the first postoperative day. Secondary endpoints include further lung function tests, plasma cytokine levels, spatial distribution of ventilation assessed by means of electrical impedance tomography and postoperative pulmonary complications. Discussion We hypothesize that VV improves lung function and reduces systemic inflammatory response compared to CV in patients receiving mechanical ventilation during general anesthesia for open abdominal surgery longer than 3 hours. PROVAR is the first randomized controlled trial aiming at intra- and postoperative effects of VV on lung function. This study may help to define the role of VV during general anesthesia requiring mechanical ventilation. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01683578 (registered on September 3 3012). PMID:24885921

  12. Open lung ventilation in neurosurgery: an update on brain tissue oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Wolf, S; Plev, D V; Trost, H A; Lumenta, C B

    2005-01-01

    Recently, we showed the feasibility of ventilating neurosurgical patients with acute intracranial pathology and concomitant acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) according the so-called Open Lung approach. This technique consists of low tidal volume, elevated positive expiratory pressure (PEEP) level and initial recruitment maneuvers to open up collapsed alveoli. In this report, we focus on our experience to guide recruitment with brain tissue oxygenation (pbrO2) probes. We studied recruitment maneuvers in thirteen patients with ARDS and acute brain injury such as subarachnoid hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury. A pbrO2 probe was implanted in brain tissue at risk for hypoxia. Recruitment maneuvers were performed at an inspired oxygen frcation (FiO2) of 1.0 and a PEEP level of 30 40 cmH2O for 40 seconds. The mean FiO2 necessary for normoxemia could be decreased from 0.85 +/- 0.17 before recruitment to 0.55 +/- 0.12 after 24 hours, while mean PbrO2 (24.6 mmHg before recruitment) did not change. At a mean of 17 minutes after the first recruitment maneuver, PbrO2 showed peak a value of 35.6 +/- 16.6 mmHg, reflecting improvement in arterial oxygenation at an FiO2 of 1.0. Brain tissue oxygenation monitoring provides a useful adjunct to estimate the effects of recruitment maneuvers and ventilator settings in neurosurgical patients with acute lung injury. PMID:16463830

  13. Preferences for treatment of lobectomy in Chinese lung cancer patients: video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery or open thoracotomy?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Zhao, Fang; Zong, Zhenfeng; Yuan, Jun; Song, Xiang; Ren, Mingming; Meng, Qingjun; Dai, Guoguang; Kong, Fanyi; Xie, Shumin; Cheng, Siying; Gao, Tianwen

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was designed to investigate the preferences for treatment of lobectomy in Chinese lung cancer patients and differences in the psychological and social factors that influence treatment decision-making. Methods One hundred and forty patients with stage I lung cancer were recruited from Hebei Cangzhou Central Hospital. Before surgery, the patients completed a questionnaire that surveyed their preferences for treatment and the relevant influencing factors. Differences in psychological and social characteristics were compared between lung cancer patients who chose video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) and those who opted for open thoracotomy. Results Among the 135 valid questionnaires, 79 patients preferred VATS and 56 patients chose open thoracotomy. Potential side effects, doctors’ recommendation, the prognosticated chance for cure, cosmesis, and financial burden influenced the patients’ decisions. Conclusion The minimally invasive advantages of VATS, including lesser trauma to the chest wall, earlier remission of postoperative pain, faster recovery, less bleeding, and improved cardiopulmonary function made VATS more attractive to patients needing lobectomy for lung cancer. However, the choice of VATS over open thoracotomy is still influenced by the degree of prognosticated cure and the feasibility of surgery. PMID:25336927

  14. Glutathione Decrement Drives Thermogenic Program In Adipose Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lettieri Barbato, Daniele; Tatulli, Giuseppe; Maria Cannata, Stefano; Bernardini, Sergio; Aquilano, Katia; Ciriolo, Maria R.

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue metabolically adapts to external stimuli. We demonstrate that the induction of the thermogenic program in white adipocytes, through cold exposure in mice or in vitro adrenergic stimulation, is accompanied by a decrease in the intracellular content of glutathione (GSH). Moreover, the treatment with a GSH depleting agent, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), recapitulates the effect of cold exposure resulting in the induction of thermogenic program. In particular, BSO treatment leads to enhanced uncoupling respiration as demonstrated by increased expression of thermogenic genes (e.g. Ucp1, Ppargc1a), augmented oxygen consumption and decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Buffering GSH decrement by pre-treatment with GSH ester prevents the up-regulation of typical markers of uncoupling respiration. We demonstrate that FoxO1 activation is responsible for the conversion of white adipocytes into a brown phenotype as the “browning” effects of BSO are completely abrogated in cells down-regulating FoxO1. In mice, the BSO-mediated up-regulation of uncoupling genes results in weight loss that is at least in part ascribed to adipose tissue mass reduction. The induction of thermogenic program has been largely proposed to counteract obesity-related diseases. Based on these findings, we propose GSH as a novel therapeutic target to increase energy expenditure in adipocytes. PMID:26260892

  15. Glutathione Decrement Drives Thermogenic Program In Adipose Cells.

    PubMed

    Lettieri Barbato, Daniele; Tatulli, Giuseppe; Maria Cannata, Stefano; Bernardini, Sergio; Aquilano, Katia; Ciriolo, Maria R

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue metabolically adapts to external stimuli. We demonstrate that the induction of the thermogenic program in white adipocytes, through cold exposure in mice or in vitro adrenergic stimulation, is accompanied by a decrease in the intracellular content of glutathione (GSH). Moreover, the treatment with a GSH depleting agent, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), recapitulates the effect of cold exposure resulting in the induction of thermogenic program. In particular, BSO treatment leads to enhanced uncoupling respiration as demonstrated by increased expression of thermogenic genes (e.g. Ucp1, Ppargc1a), augmented oxygen consumption and decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Buffering GSH decrement by pre-treatment with GSH ester prevents the up-regulation of typical markers of uncoupling respiration. We demonstrate that FoxO1 activation is responsible for the conversion of white adipocytes into a brown phenotype as the "browning" effects of BSO are completely abrogated in cells down-regulating FoxO1. In mice, the BSO-mediated up-regulation of uncoupling genes results in weight loss that is at least in part ascribed to adipose tissue mass reduction. The induction of thermogenic program has been largely proposed to counteract obesity-related diseases. Based on these findings, we propose GSH as a novel therapeutic target to increase energy expenditure in adipocytes. PMID:26260892

  16. Noise masking of S-cone increments and decrements

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Quanhong; Richters, David P.; Eskew, Rhea T.

    2014-01-01

    S-cone increment and decrement detection thresholds were measured in the presence of bipolar, dynamic noise masks. Noise chromaticities were the L-, M-, and S-cone directions, as well as L−M, L+M, and achromatic (L+M+S) directions. Noise contrast power was varied to measure threshold Energy versus Noise (EvN) functions. S+ and S− thresholds were similarly, and weakly, raised by achromatic noise. However, S+ thresholds were much more elevated by S, L+M, L–M, L- and M-cone noises than were S− thresholds, even though the noises consisted of two symmetric chromatic polarities of equal contrast power. A linear cone combination model accounts for the overall pattern of masking of a single test polarity well. L and M cones have opposite signs in their effects upon raising S+ and S− thresholds. The results strongly indicate that the psychophysical mechanisms responsible for S+ and S− detection, presumably based on S-ON and S-OFF pathways, are distinct, unipolar mechanisms, and that they have different spatiotemporal sampling characteristics, or contrast gains, or both. PMID:25391300

  17. Noise masking of S-cone increments and decrements.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quanhong; Richters, David P; Eskew, Rhea T

    2014-01-01

    S-cone increment and decrement detection thresholds were measured in the presence of bipolar, dynamic noise masks. Noise chromaticities were the L-, M-, and S-cone directions, as well as L-M, L+M, and achromatic (L+M+S) directions. Noise contrast power was varied to measure threshold Energy versus Noise (EvN) functions. S+ and S- thresholds were similarly, and weakly, raised by achromatic noise. However, S+ thresholds were much more elevated by S, L+M, L-M, L- and M-cone noises than were S- thresholds, even though the noises consisted of two symmetric chromatic polarities of equal contrast power. A linear cone combination model accounts for the overall pattern of masking of a single test polarity well. L and M cones have opposite signs in their effects upon raising S+ and S- thresholds. The results strongly indicate that the psychophysical mechanisms responsible for S+ and S- detection, presumably based on S-ON and S-OFF pathways, are distinct, unipolar mechanisms, and that they have different spatiotemporal sampling characteristics, or contrast gains, or both. PMID:25391300

  18. 3He lung imaging in an open access, very-low-field human magnetic resonance imaging system.

    PubMed

    Mair, R W; Hrovat, M I; Patz, S; Rosen, M S; Ruset, I C; Topulos, G P; Tsai, L L; Butler, J P; Hersman, F W; Walsworth, R L

    2005-04-01

    The human lung and its functions are extremely sensitive to gravity; however, the conventional high-field magnets used for most laser-polarized (3)He MRI of the human lung restrict subjects to lying horizontally. Imaging of human lungs using inhaled laser-polarized (3)He gas is demonstrated in an open-access very-low-magnetic-field (<5 mT) MRI instrument. This prototype device employs a simple, low-cost electromagnet, with an open geometry that allows variation of the orientation of the imaging subject in a two-dimensional plane. As a demonstration, two-dimensional lung images were acquired with 4-mm in-plane resolution from a subject in two orientations: lying supine and sitting in a vertical position with one arm raised. Experience with this prototype device will guide optimization of a second-generation very-low-field imager to enable studies of human pulmonary physiology as a function of subject orientation. PMID:15799045

  19. Carbohydrate supplementation attenuates decrement in performance in overtrained rats.

    PubMed

    Coutinho de Oliveira, Caio Victor; Barbosa, Carlos Vinícius; Massa, Nayara Moreira; Pereira, Reabias de Andrade; Félix, Gustavo da Silva; Aquino, Jailane de Souza; de Oliveira, Edilamar Menezes; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate ingestion at the end of a single exercise is recognized as delaying fatigue and accelerating recovery, but whether chronic ingestion can prevent overtraining during periods of intense training has not yet been elucidated. This study aimed to determine whether carbohydrate supplementation minimizes overtraining in Wistar rats. The animals underwent 11 weeks of training (running) on a treadmill, and the last 3 weeks were designed to induce overtraining. One group was supplemented with carbohydrates (EX-CHO) (n = 13), 1 group had no supplementation (EX) (n = 10), and a third group remained inactive (C) (n = 9). Performance tests were given before training (Pr1) and at the 8th (Pr2) and 11th (Pr3) training week. Food intake, body weight, testosterone, cortisol, malondialdehyde, creatine kinase, and activities of the PI3-K, Akt-1, mTOR, and GSK-3 enzymes were measured. In the EX group, there was a significant 32.6% performance decrease at Pr3 when compared with Pr2. In addition, at protocol completion, the EX-CHO group had a greater gastrocnemius weight than did the C group (p = 0.02), which the EX group did not. Training caused anorexia, decreased testosterone (p = 0.001), and increased malondialdehyde (p = 0.009) in both exercise groups compared with the C group, with no influence of carbohydrate supplementation on these variables (p > 0.05). Compared with in the C group, the activity of Akt-1 was higher in the EX-CHO group but not in the EX group (p = 0.013). Carbohydrate supplementation promoted an attenuation in the performance decrement and maintained gastrocnemius muscle mass in animals that had undergone overtraining protocols, which was accompanied by increased activity of the Akt-1 molecular indicator. PMID:26701118

  20. Adaptation of spatiotemporal mechanisms by increment and decrement stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purkiss, Todd J.; Demarco, Paul J.

    2002-08-01

    Sawtooth modulation has been used in the past to examine visual sensitivity to luminance increments and decrements. The threshold elevation caused by adaptation depends on the spatial profile of the stimulus field and the polarities of the adaptation and test stimuli. We hypothesized that the adaptation effects reflect a change in the sensitivity of the spatiotemporal channels that detect the stimuli. We used a 2-deg disk centered in a larger surround field. Five levels of contrast between the test field and surround were investigated: equiluminant, three intermediate levels, and dark. At each contrast, observers adapted for 5 s to 2-Hz sawtooth modulation (rapid-on or rapid-off). Immediately after adaptation, thresholds were measured for detection of a single cycle of either a rapid-on or a rapid-off waveform. Varying the contrast of the surround affected observers sensitivity to the polarity of the sawtooth stimulus to the extent that the pattern of sensitivity with the equiluminant surround was the opposite of that with the dark surround. To examine temporal factors, we measured thresholds for slow (500-ms ramps) and fast (8.3-ms pulses) test stimuli. The adaptation effect was preserved with the ramp stimuli but not with the pulse stimuli. Blurring the edge between the test and surround fields in the equiluminant surround condition raised thresholds for all sawtooth test stimuli, suggesting that spatiotemporal channels sensitive to high spatial frequencies and low temporal frequencies facilitate detection in that condition. These findings suggest that adaptation to sawtooth modulation can differentially effect the sensitivity of ON and OFF pathways, but the relative desensitization of each pathway depends on an interaction with the adaptation state of spatiotemporal channels that are involved in detection. 2002 Optical Society of America

  1. An integrated exercise response and muscle fatigue model for performance decrement estimates of workloads in oxygen-limiting environments.

    PubMed

    Ng, Laurel J; Sih, Bryant L; Stuhmiller, James H

    2012-04-01

    The performance dynamic physiology model (DPM-PE) integrates a modified muscle fatigue model with an exercise physiology model that calculates the transport and delivery of oxygen to working muscles during exposures of oxygen-limiting environments. This mathematical model implements a number of physiologic processes (respiration, circulation, tissue metabolism, diffusion-limited gas transfer at the blood/gas lung interface, and ventilatory control with afferent feedback, central command and humoral chemoreceptor feedback) to replicate the three phases of ventilatory response to a variety of exertion patterns, predict the delivery and transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide from the lungs to tissues, and calculate the amount of aerobic and anaerobic work performed. The ventilatory patterns from passive leg movement, unloaded work, and stepped and ramping loaded work compare well against data. The model also compares well against steady-state ventilation, cardiac output, blood oxygen levels, oxygen consumption, and carbon dioxide generation against a range of exertion levels at sea level and at altitude, thus demonstrating the range of applicability of the exercise model. With the ability to understand and predict gas transport and delivery of oxygen to working muscle tissue for different workloads and environments, the correlation between blood oxygen measures and the recovery factor of the muscle fatigue model was explored. Endurance data sets in normoxia and hypoxia were best replicated using arterial oxygen saturation as the correlate with the recovery factor. This model provides a physiologically based method for predicting physical performance decrement due to oxygen-limiting environments. PMID:21769737

  2. Differential capacitance of the electric double layer: the interplay between ion finite size and dielectric decrement.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Yasuya; Andelman, David

    2015-01-28

    We study the electric double layer by combining the effects of ion finite size and dielectric decrement. At high surface potential, both mechanisms can cause saturation of the counter-ion concentration near a charged surface. The modified Grahame equation and differential capacitance are derived analytically for a general expression of a permittivity ε(n) that depends on the local ion concentration, n, and under the assumption that the co-ions are fully depleted from the surface. The concentration at counter-ion saturation is found for any ε(n), and a criterion predicting which of the two mechanisms (steric vs. dielectric decrement) is the dominant one is obtained. At low salinity, the differential capacitance as function of surface potential has two peaks (so-called camel-shape). Each of these two peaks is connected to a saturation of counter-ion concentration caused either by dielectric decrement or by their finite size. Because these effects depend mainly on the counter-ion concentration at the surface proximity, for opposite surface-potential polarity either the cations or anions play the role of counter-ions, resulting in an asymmetric camel-shape. At high salinity, we obtain and analyze the crossover in the differential capacitance from a double-peak shape to a uni-modal one. Finally, several nonlinear models of the permittivity decrement are considered, and we predict that the concentration at dielectrophoretic saturation shifts to higher concentration than those obtained by the linear decrement model. PMID:25638002

  3. An Open-Access, Very-Low-Field MRI System for Posture-Dependent 3He Human Lung Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, L. L.; Mair, R. W.; Rosen, M. S.; Patz, S.; Walsworth, R. L.

    2008-01-01

    We describe the design and operation of an open-access, very-low-field, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system for in-vivo hyperpolarized 3He imaging of the human lungs. This system permits the study of lung function in both horizontal and upright postures, a capability with important implications in pulmonary physiology and clinical medicine, including asthma and obesity. The imager uses a bi-planar B0 coil design that produces an optimized 65 G (6.5 mT) magnetic field for 3He MRI at 210 kHz. Three sets of bi-planar coils produce the x, y, and z magnetic field gradients while providing a 79-cm inter-coil gap for the imaging subject. We use solenoidal Q-spoiled RF coils for operation at low frequencies, and are able to exploit insignificant sample loading to allow for pre-tuning/matching schemes and for accurate pre-calibration of flip angles. We obtain sufficient SNR to acquire 2D 3He images with up to 2.8 mm resolution, and present initial 2D and 3D 3He images of human lungs in both supine and upright orientations. 1H MRI can also be performed for diagnostic and calibration reasons. PMID:18550402

  4. An open-access, very-low-field MRI system for posture-dependent 3He human lung imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, L. L.; Mair, R. W.; Rosen, M. S.; Patz, S.; Walsworth, R. L.

    2008-08-01

    We describe the design and operation of an open-access, very-low-field, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system for in vivo hyperpolarized 3He imaging of the human lungs. This system permits the study of lung function in both horizontal and upright postures, a capability with important implications in pulmonary physiology and clinical medicine, including asthma and obesity. The imager uses a bi-planar B0 coil design that produces an optimized 65 G (6.5 mT) magnetic field for 3He MRI at 210 kHz. Three sets of bi-planar coils produce the x, y, and z magnetic field gradients while providing a 79-cm inter-coil gap for the imaging subject. We use solenoidal Q-spoiled RF coils for operation at low frequencies, and are able to exploit insignificant sample loading to allow for pre-tuning/matching schemes and for accurate pre-calibration of flip angles. We obtain sufficient SNR to acquire 2D 3He images with up to 2.8 mm resolution, and present initial 2D and 3D 3He images of human lungs in both supine and upright orientations. 1H MRI can also be performed for diagnostic and calibration reasons.

  5. Time-on-task decrements in "steer clear" performance of patients with sleep apnea and narcolepsy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Findley, L. J.; Suratt, P. M.; Dinges, D. F.

    1999-01-01

    Loss of attention with time-on-task reflects the increasing instability of the waking state during performance in experimentally induced sleepiness. To determine whether patients with disorders of excessive sleepiness also displayed time-on-task decrements indicative of wake state instability, visual sustained attention performance on "Steer Clear," a computerized simple RT driving simulation task, was compared among 31 patients with untreated sleep apnea, 16 patients with narcolepsy, and 14 healthy control subjects. Vigilance decrement functions were generated by analyzing the number of collisions in each of six four-minute periods of Steer Clear task performance in a mixed-model analysis of variance and linear regression equations. As expected, patients had more Steer Clear collisions than control subjects (p=0.006). However, the inter-subject variability in errors among the narcoleptic patients was four-fold that of the apnea patients, and 100-fold that of the controls volunteers; the variance in errors among untreated apnea patients was 27-times that of controls. The results of transformed collision data revealed main effects for group (p=0.006), time-on-task (p=0.001), and a significant interaction (p=0.022). Control subjects showed no clear evidence of increasing collision errors with time-on-task (adjusted R2=0.22), while apnea patients showed a trend toward vigilance decrement (adjusted R2=0.42, p=0.097), and narcolepsy patients evidenced a robust linear vigilance decrement (adjusted R2=0.87, p=0.004). The association of disorders of excessive somnolence with escalating time-on-task decrements makes it imperative that when assessment of neurobehavioral performance is conducted in patients, it involves task durations and analyses that will evaluate the underlying vulnerability of potentially sleepy patients to decrements over time in tasks that require sustained attention and timely responses, both of which are key components in safe driving performance.

  6. Color appearance of spatial pattern: the role of increments and decrements.

    PubMed

    Bäuml, Karl-Heinz

    2002-06-01

    In a number of recent adaptational studies evidence for a different processing of incremental and decremental cone signals has been reported. The present study examined whether such asymmetries occur in spatial pattern as well. Subjects set color matches between a uniform, 2 degrees matching box and bars within squarewave patterns. The squarewaves varied in spatial frequency, color direction, and contrast. For all three cone signals the asymmetric matches showed clear evidence for increment-decrement asymmetries: Although both incremental and decremental matches scaled roughly linearly with pattern contrast, in general, the scalings for the two types of color signals differed. This difference in scaling increased with spatial frequency, thus leading to an increase in the size of the increment-decrement asymmetry with spatial frequency. The matches were well described by means of two-stage models, consisting of a color transformation in the first stage and a pattern-dependent scaling in the second stage. Analyses based on these pattern-color separable models suggest that the asymmetries are mediated mainly through a white-black mechanism and much less, if at all, through a red-green and yellow-blue mechanism. PMID:12079791

  7. Challenges in the Detection of Working Memory and Attention Decrements Among Overweight Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Lance O.; Manning, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The present study is unique in employing unusually difficult attention and working memory tasks to reveal subtle cognitive decrements among overweight/obese adolescents. It evaluated novel measures of background electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during one of the tasks and tested correlations of these and other measures with psychological and psychiatric predictors of obesity maintenance or progression. Methods Working memory and sustained attention tasks were presented to 158 female adolescents who were rated on dichotomous (body mass index percentile < vs. >=85) and continuous (triceps skinfold thickness) measures of adiposity. Results The results revealed a significant association between excess adiposity and performance errors during the working memory task. During the sustained attention task, overweight/obese adolescents exhibited more EEG frontal beta power as well as greater intraindividual variability in reaction time and beta power across task periods than their normal-weight peers. Secondary analyses showed that frontal beta power during the sustained attention task was positively correlated with anxiety, panic, borderline personality features, drug abuse, and loss of control over food intake. Conclusions The findings suggest that working memory and sustained attention decrements do exist among overweight/obese adolescent girls. The reliable detection of the decrements may depend on the difficulty of the tasks as well as the manner in which performance and brain activity are measured. Future studies should examine the relevance of these decrements to diet education efforts and treatment response. PMID:26812684

  8. Genetics Home Reference: lung cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions lung cancer lung cancer Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Lung cancer is a disease in which certain cells ...

  9. Effect of metalworking fluid mist exposure on cross-shift decrement in peak expiratory flow.

    PubMed

    Park, Donguk; Chin, Kuwon; Kwag, Hunseok; Youn, Kanwoo; Choi, Sangjun; Ha, Kwonchul; Yoon, Chungsik; Yim, Sanghyuk

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to metalworking fluids (MWF) mist and cross-shift decrements in peak expiratory flow (PEF) were evaluated and their relationship was analyzed using several statistical methods. The objective of this study was to assess workers, exposure to MWF mineral mist and to find the MWF mist level for predicting cross-shift decrements in PEF. A total of 158 workers handling water-soluble MWF had MWF mist exposures with an arithmetic mean (AM) of 0.4 mg/m(3) (range: LOD-13.5 mg/m(3)), and 9.2% of workers (219) showed a cross-shift decline greater than 10% in PEF. MWF mist exposure and cross-shift decrements in PEF that were matched (n=113) were linearly significantly associated (R(2)=0.036, p=0.045) although the correlation was quite weak (r=0.189). We found a slight increase in cross-shift decrements in PEF with increased exposure to MWF aerosol mass concentration. The MWF mist exposure level was categorized into two or three groups by the cutoffs of either the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Recommended Exposure Level (NIOSH REL: 0.5 mg/m(3)) or the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists Notice of Intended Change (ACGIH NIC: 0.2 mg/m(3)). The cross-shift decrement in PEF observed from workers exposed to > or =0.2 mg/m(3) was slightly higher than that of the exposure level of < or =0.2 mg/m(3) at p=0.207 while significant differences among categorized exposure groups (2 categories, <0.5 and > or =0.5 mg/m(3), or 3 categories, <0.2, 0.2-0.5 and > or =0.5 mg/m(3)) were not detected. In order to find out whether there is a specific level that allows us to predict cross-shift decrements in PEF, several statistical models were constructed. Logistic regression showed that the MWF concentration, whether treated as a continuous variable or a categorical variable, was not significantly associated with cross-shift decrements dichotomized by a cutoff of either 10% or 15% in PEF. We couldn't find evidence of a significant PEF decrement

  10. BRAF mutations in non-small cell lung cancer: has finally Janus opened the door?

    PubMed

    Caparica, Rafael; de Castro, Gilberto; Gil-Bazo, Ignacio; Caglevic, Christian; Calogero, Raffaele; Giallombardo, Marco; Santos, Edgardo S; Raez, Luis E; Rolfo, Christian

    2016-05-01

    B-Raf mutations occur in about 1-2% of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). These mutations generate a permanent activation of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, which promotes tumor growth and proliferation. In the present review, we discuss B-Raf mutation epidemiology, diagnostic methods to detect B-Raf mutations, the role of B-Raf as a driver mutation and a potential therapeutic target in NSCLC. The results of clinical trials involving B-Raf or MAPK pathway inhibitors for the treatment of NSCLC are also discussed. Clinical trials evaluating B-Raf inhibitors in BRAF mutated NSCLC patients have shown promising results, and larger prospective studies are warranted to validate these findings. Enrollment of these patients in clinical trials is an interesting strategy to offer a potentially more effective and less toxic targeted therapy. PMID:26960735

  11. Antegrade and Retrograde Decremental Conduction Properties of an Accessory Pathway Associated with the Coronary Sinus Musculature

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Kohki; Naito, Shigeto; Kaseno, Kenichi; Oshima, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    A 32-year-old man underwent catheter ablation of an orthodromic atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia. The sinus rhythm electrocardiogram exhibited a normal PQ interval and no delta waves, but atrial pacing produced a prolonged PQ interval and wide QRS morphology with right bundle-branch block due to antegrade accessory pathway (AP) conduction. During the tachycardia, atrial double potentials consisting of the coronary sinus musculature (CSM) and left atrial (LA) potentials were observed. Ventricular extrastimulation exhibited retrograde decremental conduction with an identical atrial activation sequence as during the tachycardia. A radiofrequency application within the posterolateral CS during ventricular pacing eliminated the CSM-LA conduction and concomitantly the ventriculoatrial conduction via the AP was abolished. In this case, the CSM was associated with the bidirectional decremental conduction properties of the AP, and the antegrade slow conduction resulted in the absence of a shortening of the PQ interval and delta waves during sinus rhythm despite the continuous presence of antegrade AP conduction. PMID:25852243

  12. On-line failure detection and damping measurement of aerospace structures by random decrement signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, H. A., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Random decrement signatures of structures vibrating in a random environment are studied through use of computer-generated and experimental data. Statistical properties obtained indicate that these signatures are stable in form and scale and hence, should have wide application in one-line failure detection and damping measurement. On-line procedures are described and equations for estimating record-length requirements to obtain signatures of a prescribed precision are given.

  13. Advances in Computational High-Resolution Mechanical Spectroscopy HRMSPart I: Logarithmic Decrement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, M.; Piłat, A.; Magalas, L. B.

    2012-02-01

    The comparison between different methods used to compute the logarithmic decrement in high-resolution mechanical spectroscopy (HRMS) is analyzed. The performance of parametric OMI method (Optimization in Multiple Intervals) and interpolated discrete Fourier transform (IpDFT) methods are investigated as a function of the sampling frequency used to digitize free decaying oscillations in low-frequency resonant mechanical spectrometers. It is clearly demonstrated that a new Yoshida-Magalas (YM) method is the most powerful IpDFT-based method which outperforms the standard Yoshida (Y) method and other DFT-based methods. Four IpDFT methods and the OMI method are carefully analyzed as a function of the sampling frequency. The results presented in this work clearly show that the relative error in the estimation of the logarithmic decrement depends both on the length of free decaying signal and on the sampling frequency. The effect of the sampling frequency was not yet reported in the literature. The performance of different methods used in the computations of the logarithmic decrement can be listed in the following order: (1) the OMI, (2) the Yoshida-Magalas YM, (3) the Yoshida-Magalas YMC, and finally (4) the Yoshida Y.

  14. Life span decrements in fluid intelligence and processing speed predict mortality risk.

    PubMed

    Aichele, Stephen; Rabbitt, Patrick; Ghisletta, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    We examined life span changes in 5 domains of cognitive performance as predictive of mortality risk. Data came from the Manchester Longitudinal Study of Cognition, a 20-plus-year investigation of 6,203 individuals ages 42-97 years. Cognitive domains were general crystallized intelligence, general fluid intelligence, verbal memory, visuospatial memory, and processing speed. Life span decrements were evident across these domains, controlling for baseline performance at age 70 and adjusting for retest effects. Survival analyses stratified by sex and conducted independently by cognitive domain showed that lower baseline performance levels in all domains-and larger life span decrements in general fluid intelligence and processing speed-were predictive of increased mortality risk for both women and men. Critically, analyses of the combined predictive power of cognitive performance variables showed that baseline levels of processing speed (in women) and general fluid intelligence (in men), and decrements in processing speed (in women and in men) and general fluid intelligence (in women), accounted for most of the explained variation in mortality risk. In light of recent evidence from brain-imaging studies, we speculate that cognitive abilities closely linked to cerebral white matter integrity (such as processing speed and general fluid intelligence) may represent particularly sensitive markers of mortality risk. In addition, we presume that greater complexity in cognition-survival associations observed in women (in analyses incorporating all cognitive predictors) may be a consequence of longer and more variable cognitive declines in women relative to men. PMID:26098167

  15. Hot and Hypoxic Environments Inhibit Simulated Soccer Performance and Exacerbate Performance Decrements When Combined

    PubMed Central

    Aldous, Jeffrey W. F.; Chrismas, Bryna C. R.; Akubat, Ibrahim; Dascombe, Ben; Abt, Grant; Taylor, Lee

    2016-01-01

    The effects of heat and/or hypoxia have been well-documented in match-play data. However, large match-to-match variation for key physical performance measures makes environmental inferences difficult to ascertain from soccer match-play. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the hot (HOT), hypoxic (HYP), and hot-hypoxic (HH) mediated-decrements during a non-motorized treadmill based soccer-specific simulation. Twelve male University soccer players completed three familiarization sessions and four randomized crossover experimental trials of the intermittent Soccer Performance Test (iSPT) in normoxic-temperate (CON: 18°C 50% rH), HOT (30°C; 50% rH), HYP (1000 m; 18°C 50% rH), and HH (1000 m; 30°C; 50% rH). Physical performance and its performance decrements, body temperatures (rectal, skin, and estimated muscle temperature), heart rate (HR), arterial blood oxygen saturation (SaO2), perceived exertion, thermal sensation (TS), body mass changes, blood lactate, and plasma volume were all measured. Performance decrements were similar in HOT and HYP [Total Distance (−4%), High-speed distance (~−8%), and variable run distance (~−12%) covered] and exacerbated in HH [total distance (−9%), high-speed distance (−15%), and variable run distance (−15%)] compared to CON. Peak sprint speed, was 4% greater in HOT compared with CON and HYP and 7% greater in HH. Sprint distance covered was unchanged (p > 0.05) in HOT and HYP and only decreased in HH (−8%) compared with CON. Body mass (−2%), temperatures (+2–5%), and TS (+18%) were altered in HOT. Furthermore, SaO2 (−8%) and HR (+3%) were changed in HYP. Similar changes in body mass and temperatures, HR, TS, and SaO2 were evident in HH to HOT and HYP, however, blood lactate (p < 0.001) and plasma volume (p < 0.001) were only significantly altered in HH. Perceived exertion was elevated (p < 0.05) by 7% in all conditions compared with CON. Regression analysis identified that absolute TS and absolute

  16. Controlling decremental and inflationary effects in reliability estimation resulting from violations of assumptions.

    PubMed

    Becker, G

    2001-10-01

    Two assumptions in classical test theory, essential tau-equivalence and independence of measurement errors, when violated may produce attenuated or inflated estimates of reliability, respectively. Inflation stemming from correlated errors can be controlled by a procedure in which systematically created equivalent halves of a given measuring instrument are administered across two occasions. When poor approximations to equivalent halves are constructed for this purpose, however, distortion in the opposite direction may result, being sometimes quite large when measuring instruments are not essentially tau-equivalent (or, at the practical level, unidimensional). The nature of these decrements are discussed and illustrated, and a number of procedures for eliminating them introduced. PMID:11783569

  17. A system identification technique based on the random decrement signatures. Part 1: Theory and simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedewi, Nabih E.; Yang, Jackson C. S.

    1987-01-01

    Identification of the system parameters of a randomly excited structure may be treated using a variety of statistical techniques. Of all these techniques, the Random Decrement is unique in that it provides the homogeneous component of the system response. Using this quality, a system identification technique was developed based on a least-squares fit of the signatures to estimate the mass, damping, and stiffness matrices of a linear randomly excited system. The mathematics of the technique is presented in addition to the results of computer simulations conducted to demonstrate the prediction of the response of the system and the random forcing function initially introduced to excite the system.

  18. Indomethacin pretreatment reduces ozone-induced pulmonary function decrements in human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Schelegle, E.S.; Adams, W.C.; Siefkin, A.D.

    1987-12-01

    We studied whether O/sub 3/-induced pulmonary function decrements could be inhibited by the prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor, indomethacin, in healthy human subjects. Fourteen college-age males completed six 1-h exposure protocols consisting of no drug, placebo, and indomethacin (Indocin SR 75 mg every 12 h for 5 days) pretreatments, with filtered air and O/sub 3/ (0.35 ppm) exposures within each pretreatment. Pretreatments were delivered weekly in random order in a double-blind fashion. Ozone and filtered air exposures, separated by 72 h, were delivered in random order in a single-blind fashion. Exposures consisted of 1-h exercise on a bicycle ergometer with work loads set to elicit a mean minute ventilation of 60 L/min. Statistical analysis revealed significant (p less than 0.05) across pretreatment effects for FVC and FEV1, with no drug versus indomethacin and placebo versus indomethacin comparisons being significant. These findings suggest that cyclooxygenase products of arachidonic acid, which are sensitive to indomethacin inhibition, play a prominent role in the development of pulmonary function decrements consequent to acute O/sub 3/ exposure.

  19. A decrement in probabilistic category learning in cocaine users after controlling for marijuana and alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Vadhan, Nehal P; Myers, Catherine E; Benedict, Elysia; Rubin, Eric; Foltin, Richard W; Gluck, Mark A

    2014-02-01

    Aspects of stimulus-response (S-R) learning, mediated by striatal dopamine signaling, have been found to be altered in cocaine users relative to healthy controls. However, the influence of cocaine users' marijuana and alcohol use has not been accounted for. This study evaluated S-R learning and other neurocognitive functions in cocaine users while controlling for the relative influences of marijuana and alcohol use. Twenty-five long-term cocaine users and 2 control groups (25 moderate marijuana and alcohol users and 23 healthy controls) completed a computerized assessment of probabilistic category learning (the Weather Prediction task), as well as measures of equivalence learning, declarative learning, and executive, attentional, and motor function. Cocaine users exhibited decreased performance on the Weather Prediction task, as well as measures of declarative learning, attention, and motor function (p < 0.05), relative to both control groups. Cocaine users exhibited decrements in probabilistic category learning, declarative recall, and attentional and motor function, compared with both marijuana and alcohol users and nondrug users. Therefore, these decrements appear to be specifically related to the cocaine use, but not the moderate marijuana and alcohol use, of long-term cocaine users. PMID:24188172

  20. Measuring performance decrements in aviation personnel infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Mapou, R L; Kay, G G; Rundell, J R; Temoshok, L

    1993-02-01

    There is controversy over whether cognitive impairment occurs in early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. When impairment is reported, findings are typically subclinical, affect only a minority, and their relationship to occupational functioning has not been established. Despite such findings, it has been recommended that HIV-seropositive pilots be disqualified from flying. This paper reviews research relevant to measuring performance decrements in HIV-infected aviators. Based upon current data, we conclude that although subtle neurobehavioral dysfunction may occur in some asymptomatic HIV-seropositive individuals, there is no research which has demonstrated associated decrements in aviation-related skills. Thus, it may be premature to recommend medical disqualification of all HIV-seropositive aviators. We propose, instead, that sensitive neurocognitive measures, incorporated into a comprehensive neurodiagnostic evaluation, could be used to evaluate asymptomatic HIV-seropositive aviators. Only those who are impaired on evaluation would be disqualified from flying. Concurrently, research investigating the relationship between abnormalities and aviation abilities would be conducted. PMID:8431191

  1. Spatially Resolved Dust Maps from Balmer Decrements in Galaxies at z ~ 1.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Erica June; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Wuyts, Stijn; Franx, Marijn; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Skelton, Rosalind E.

    2016-01-01

    We derive average radial gradients in the dust attenuation toward H ii regions in 609 galaxies at z ˜ 1.4, using measurements of the Balmer decrement out to r ˜ 3 kpc. The Balmer decrements are derived from spatially resolved maps of Hα and Hβ emission from the 3D-HST survey. We find that with increasing stellar mass M both the normalization and strength of the gradient in dust attenuation increases. Galaxies with a mean mass of < {log} M> =9.2M⊙ have little dust attenuation at all radii, whereas galaxies with < {log} M> =10.2M⊙ have AHα ≈ 2 mag in their central regions. We parameterize this as {A}{{H}α }=b+c{log} r, with b=0.9+{log}1.0{M}10, c = -1.9-2.2 log M10, r in kpc, and M10 the stellar mass in units of 1010 M⊙. This expression can be used to correct spatially resolved measurements of Hα to radial distributions of star formation. When applied to our data, we find that the star formation rates (SFRs) in the central r < 1 kpc of galaxies in the highest mass bin are ˜6 M⊙ yr-1, six times higher than before correction and approximately half of the total SFR of these galaxies. If this high central SFR is maintained for several Gyr, a large fraction of the stars in present-day bulges likely formed in situ.

  2. The effects of deep and light propofol anesthesia on stress response in patients undergoing open lung surgery: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sung Mee

    2015-01-01

    Background This prospective, randomized controlled study was undertaken to compare stress hormone response to open thoracotomy for lung resection at different anesthetic depths, as determined by bispectral index (BIS) monitoring, in patients under propofol-remifentanil anesthesia. Methods Forty-eight adult patients scheduled for lung resection surgery using one-lung ventilation were randomly assigned to either a deep anesthesia group (BIS score of 40 ± 5, n = 24) or a light anesthesia group (BIS score of 60 ± 5, n = 24) by adjusting propofol infusion rates. Blood norepinephrine, epinephrine, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and cortisol levels were measured before the induction of anesthesia, at the end of surgery, and at 2 hours postoperatively. Blood glucose, hemodynamic, and oxygenation-ventilation variables, and postoperative outcomes were also measured. Results Norepinephrine and epinephrine levels remained unchanged over time in the deep group, but norepinephrine levels significantly increased in the light group at 2 h after surgery than at baseline (P = 0.007 and 0.004, respectively). Temporal changes in norepinephrine, but not in epinephrine, were significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.036). Plasma glucose levels in the light group increased with time and were significantly higher than in the deep group at the end of surgery (P = 0.002). Conclusions A deep level of anesthesia achieved using high propofol infusion rates during lung surgery provided lower perioperative norepinephrine and glucose responses than light level of anesthesia during the early postoperative period but failed to affect immediate postoperative outcomes. PMID:26045924

  3. Estimating the ride quality characteristics of vehicles with random decrement analysis of on-the-road vibration response data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainalis, Daniel; Rouillard, Vincent; Sek, Michael

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the application of a practical analytical technique based on the random decrement method to estimate the rigid sprung mass dynamic characteristics (frequency response function) of road vehicles using only vibration response data during constant-speed operation. A brief history and development of the random decrement technique is presented, along with a summary of work undertaken on optimal parameter selection to establish the random decrement signature. Two approaches to estimate the dynamic characteristics from the random decrement signature are described and evaluated. A custom, single-wheeled vehicle (physical quarter car) was commissioned to undertake a series of on-the-road experiments at various nominally constant operating speeds. The vehicle, also instrumented as an inertial profilometer, simultaneously measured the longitudinal pavement profile to establish the vehicle's actual dynamic characteristics during operation. The main outcome of the paper is that the random decrement technique can be used to provide accurate estimates of the sprung mass mode of the vehicle's dynamic characteristics for both linear and nonlinear suspension systems of an idealised vehicle.

  4. Open lung biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... tell your provider about all the medicines you take, including herbs, supplements, and those bought without a prescription. Follow your surgeon's instructions for not eating or drinking before the procedure.

  5. THE ATACAMA COSMOLOGY TELESCOPE: DETECTION OF SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH DECREMENT IN GROUPS AND CLUSTERS ASSOCIATED WITH LUMINOUS RED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, Nick; Das, Sudeep; Dunkley, Joanna; Hajian, Amir; Appel, John W.; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fowler, Joseph W.; Hincks, Adam D.; Battaglia, Nick; Richard Bond, J.; Devlin, Mark J.; Klein, Jeff; Duenner, Rolando; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hilton, Matt; Hlozek, Renee; Hughes, John P.; Irwin, Kent D.; Kosowsky, Arthur

    2011-07-20

    We present a detection of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) decrement associated with the luminous red galaxy (LRG) sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The SZ data come from 148 GHz maps of the equatorial region made by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope. The LRG sample is divided by luminosity into four bins, and estimates for the central SZ temperature decrement are calculated through a stacking process. We detect and account for a bias of the SZ signal due to weak radio sources. We use numerical simulations to relate the observed decrement to Y{sub 200} and clustering properties to relate the galaxy luminosity to halo mass. We also use a relation between brightest cluster galaxy luminosity and cluster mass based on stacked gravitational lensing measurements to estimate the characteristic halo masses. The masses are found to be around 10{sup 14} M{sub sun}.

  6. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Detection or Sunyaev-Zel'Dovich Decrement in Groups and Clusters Associated with Luminous Red Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hand, Nick; Appel, John William; Battaglia, Nick; Bond, J. Richard; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J.; Dunkley, Joanna; Dunner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fowler, Joseph W.; Hajian, Amir; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hilton, Matt; Hincks, Adam D.; Hlozek, Renee; Hughes, John P.; Irwin, Kent D.; Klein, Jeff; Kosowsky, Arthur; Lin, Yen-Ting; Marriage, Tobias A.; Marsden, Danica; McLaren, Mike; Wollack, Ed

    2010-01-01

    We present a detection of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) decrement associated with the Luminous Red Galaxy (LRG) sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The SZ data come from 148 GHz maps of the equatorial region made by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). The LRG sample is divided by luminosity into four bins, and estimates for the central Sunyaev-Zel'dovich temperature decrement are calculated through a stacking process. We detect and account for a bias of the SZ signal due to weak radio sources. We use numerical simulations to relate the observed decrement to Y(sub 200) and clustering properties to relate the galaxy luminosity bins to mass. We also use a relation between BCG luminosity and cluster mass based on stacked gravitational lensing measurements to estimate the characteristic halo masses. The masses are found to be in the range approx.10(exp 13) - 10(exp 14)/h Stellar Mass, a lower range than has been previously probed.

  7. Non-overlapped random decrement technique for parameter identification in operational modal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Song, H. W.

    2016-03-01

    The random decrement technique (RDT) is used to estimate free vibration response from output data generated by Gaussian white noise. The principle is to decay the excitation via averaging of segments in output data. With RDT, the triggering condition for determining the initial points of segments causes overlap during averaging; the consequence is a residual excitation, peaking at the first natural frequency. This paper presents a modified RDT with non-overlapped segments to eliminate this peak. Numerical comparison between non-overlapped RDT (NRDT) and RDT shows the accuracy improvement of damping. However, time history data is sometimes not long enough in NRDT, which results in an inevitable overlap. In order to keep the accuracy of NRDT, the first natural period is viewed as the critical length between adjacent initial points to distinguish the inevitable overlap from that in RDT.

  8. Modal identification of structures from the responses and random decrement signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brahim, S. R.; Goglia, G. L.

    1977-01-01

    The theory and application of a method which utilizes the free response of a structure to determine its vibration parameters is described. The time-domain free response is digitized and used in a digital computer program to determine the number of modes excited, the natural frequencies, the damping factors, and the modal vectors. The technique is applied to a complex generalized payload model previously tested using sine sweep method and analyzed by NASTRAN. Ten modes of the payload model are identified. In case free decay response is not readily available, an algorithm is developed to obtain the free responses of a structure from its random responses, due to some unknown or known random input or inputs, using the random decrement technique without changing time correlation between signals. The algorithm is tested using random responses from a generalized payload model and from the space shuttle model.

  9. Stimulated emission and the flat Balmer decrements of cataclysmic variable stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elitzur, M.; Ferland, G. J.; Mathews, S. G.; Shields, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    Balmer emission lines from cataclysmic variables often have nearly equal intensities rather than the rapid decrement predicted by simple nebular theory. Traditionally, this has been interpreted in terms of local thermodynamic equilibrium emission from a dense gas with small volume located just above the accretion disk. It is shown that the intense radiation field within a close binary system can affect excited state populations and optical emission in ways which allow a relatively low density gas to closely mimic the high density situation. In at least one case, the old nova V603 Aql, the emitting gas has a low density and nearly fills the orbital plane of the system. If this is characteristic of other systems, then the determination of orbital parameters and masses of cataclysmic variables from emission line radial velocities, as well as the prediction of soft X-ray emission from accreting binaries, will be affected.

  10. Auditory Memory Decrements, Without Dissimulation, among Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Considine, Ciaran M.; Weisenbach, Sara L.; Walker, Sara J.; McFadden, E. Michelle; Franti, Lindsay M.; Bieliauskas, Linas A.; Maixner, Daniel F.; Giordani, Bruno; Berent, Stanley; Langenecker, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Questions have been raised about whether poor performance on memory tasks by individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) might be the result of poor or variable effort or disease-related disruption of neural circuits supporting memory functions. The present study examined performance on a measure of task engagement and on an auditory memory task among 45 patients with MDD (M age = 47.82, SD = 19.55) relative to 32 healthy controls (HC; M age = 51.03, SD = 22.09). One-hundred percent of HC and MDD volunteers performed above the threshold for adequate effort on a formal measure of task engagement. The MDD subjects performed significantly more poorly than the HC subjects on an auditory learning and memory test. The present results suggest that auditory memory difficulties do occur among those with MDD and that decrements in performance in this group may be related to factors other than lack of effort. PMID:21593060

  11. Cognitive performance decrement in US Army aircrews. Technical report, 21 May 1984-31 August 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, J.I.; Archer, M.A.; Moyer, M.J.

    1985-08-31

    This study investigates the use of subjective estimates to assess the cognitive effects of intermediate doses of radiation on helicopter crew performance. A mission analysis performed across several aircraft with scenarios developed for the CH-47 and AH-1 followed the detailed task analysis and classifications. Thirty-four CH-47 crews performed 9 tasks on a CH-47 simulator and their task times were measured. An analysis was made of the task times including a comparison of actual times against pilot estimates of times for each task. Pilot estimates of radiation effects were analyzed and methods for predicting such estimates are discussed. The primary study recommendation was for validation of questionnaire techniques for predicting radiation-induced performance decrement.

  12. Nonuniform, age-related decrements in regional sweating and skin blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Lacy M.; Kenney, W. Larry

    2013-01-01

    Aging is associated with attenuated thermoregulatory function that varies regionally over the body. Decrements in vasodilation and sweating are well documented with age, yet limited data are available concerning the regional relation between these responses. We aimed to examine age-related alterations in the relation between regional sweating (RSR) and skin blood flow (SkBF) to thermal and pharmacological stimuli. Four microdialysis fibers were inserted in the ventral forearm, abdomen, thigh, and lower back of eight healthy aged subjects (64 ± 7 yr) and nine young (23 ± 3 yr) during 1) ACh dose response (1 × 10−7 to 0.1 M, mean skin temperature 34°C) and 2) passive whole body heating to Δ1°C rise in oral temperature (Tor). RSR and SkBF were measured over each microdialysis membrane using ventilated capsules and laser-Doppler flowmetry. Maximal SkBF was measured at the end of both protocols (50 mM SNP). Regional sweating thresholds and RSR were attenuated in aged vs. young at all sites (P < 0.0001) during whole body heating. Vasodilation thresholds were similar between groups (P > 0.05). Attenuated SkBF were observed at the arm and back in the aged, representing 56 and 82% of those in the young at these sites, respectively (0.5 ΔTor). During ACh perfusion, SkBF (P = 0.137) and RSR were similar between groups (P = 0.326). Together these findings suggest regional age-related decrements in heat-activated sweat gland function but not cholinergic sensitivity. Functional consequences of such thermoregulatory impairment include the compromised ability of older individuals to defend core temperature during heat exposure and a subsequently greater susceptibility to heat-related illness and injury. PMID:23926135

  13. Age-related decrements in bone mineral density in women over 65

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steiger, P.; Cummings, S. R.; Black, D. M.; Spencer, N. E.; Genant, H. K.

    1992-01-01

    Age-related changes in bone density contribute to the risk of fractures. To describe the relationship between age and bone mass in elderly women, we studied a large cohort of women over age 65 years who were recruited from population-based lists in four cities in the United States. Bone density in g/cm2 was measured by single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the distal and proximal radius, the calcaneus, the lumbar spine, and the proximal femur. Centralized data collection was used to control data quality and consistency. We found a strong inverse relationship between bone density and age for most sites. Decrements in bone density between women aged 65-69 years and women 85 years and older exceeded 16% in all regions except the spine, where the difference between the two age groups was 6%. Ward's triangle and the calcaneus exhibited the largest decrements, with 26 and 21%, respectively. The estimates of annual changes in bone mineral density by linear regression at sites other than the spine ranged from -0.82% at the femoral neck and trochanter to -1.30% at Ward's triangle. Correlations between the different regions ranged from r = 0.51 between the proximal radius and Ward's triangle to r = 0.66 between the distal radius and calcaneus. We conclude that the inverse relationship between age and bone mass measured by absorptiometry techniques in white women continues into the ninth decade of life. The relationship is strongest for bone density of Ward's triangle and the calcaneus and weakest for the spine.

  14. Associated decrements in rate of force development and neural drive after maximal eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Farup, J; Rahbek, S K; Bjerre, J; de Paoli, F; Vissing, K

    2016-05-01

    The present study investigated the changes in contractile rate of force development (RFD) and the neural drive following a single bout of eccentric exercise. Twenty-four subjects performed 15 × 10 maximal isokinetic eccentric knee extensor contractions. Prior to and at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 168 h during post-exercise recovery, isometric RFD (30, 50 100, and 200 ms), normalized RFD [1/6,1/2, and 2/3 of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)] and rate of electromyography rise (RER; 30, 50, and 75 ms) were measured. RFD decreased by 28-42% peaking at 48 h (P < 0.01-P < 0.001) and remained depressed at 168 h (P < 0.05). Normalized RFD at 2/3 of MVC decreased by 22-39% (P < 0.01), peaked at 72 h and returned to baseline at 168 h. These changes in RFD were associated with a decrease in RER at 48 h-96 h (P < 0.05-P < 0.001). Accumulated changes (area under curve) revealed a greater relative decrease in accumulated RFD at 100 ms by -2727 ± 309 (%h; P < 0.05) and 200 ms by -3035 ± 271 (%h; P < 0.001) compared with MVC, which decreased, by -1956 ± 234 (%h). In conclusion, RFD and RER are both markedly reduced following a bout of maximal eccentric exercise. This association suggests that exercise-induced decrements in RFD can, in part, be explained decrements in neural drive. PMID:25944178

  15. Sleep Deprivation and Time-on-Task Performance Decrement in the Rat Psychomotor Vigilance Task

    PubMed Central

    Oonk, Marcella; Davis, Christopher J.; Krueger, James M.; Wisor, Jonathan P.; Van Dongen, Hans P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: The rat psychomotor vigilance task (rPVT) was developed as a rodent analog of the human psychomotor vigilance task (hPVT). We examined whether rPVT performance displays time-on-task effects similar to those observed on the hPVT. Design: The rPVT requires rats to respond to a randomly presented light stimulus to obtain a water reward. Rats were water deprived for 22 h prior to each 30-min rPVT session to motivate performance. We analyzed rPVT performance over time on task and as a function of the response-stimulus interval, at baseline and after sleep deprivation. Setting: The study was conducted in an academic research vivarium. Participants: Male Long-Evans rats were trained to respond to a 0.5 sec stimulus light within 3 sec of stimulus onset. Complete data were available for n = 20 rats. Interventions: Rats performed the rPVT for 30 min at baseline and after 24 h total sleep deprivation by gentle handling. Measurements and Results: Compared to baseline, sleep deprived rats displayed increased performance lapses and premature responses, similar to hPVT lapses of attention and false starts. However, in contrast to hPVT performance, the time-on-task performance decrement was not significantly enhanced by sleep deprivation. Moreover, following sleep deprivation, rPVT response times were not consistently increased after short response-stimulus intervals. Conclusions: The rat psychomotor vigilance task manifests similarities to the human psychomotor vigilance task in global performance outcomes, but not in post-sleep deprivation effects of time on task and response-stimulus interval. Citation: Oonk M, Davis CJ, Krueger JM, Wisor JP, Van Dongen HPA. Sleep deprivation and time-on-task performance decrement in the rat psychomotor vigilance task. SLEEP 2015;38(3):445–451. PMID:25515099

  16. Brief and Rare Mental "Breaks" Keep You Focused: Deactivation and Reactivation of Task Goals Preempt Vigilance Decrements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariga, Atsunori; Lleras, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    We newly propose that the vigilance decrement occurs because the cognitive control system fails to maintain active the goal of the vigilance task over prolonged periods of time (goal habituation). Further, we hypothesized that momentarily deactivating this goal (via a switch in tasks) would prevent the activation level of the vigilance goal from…

  17. Lung Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Lung Transplant? A lung transplant is surgery to remove a person's diseased lung ... a healthy lung from a deceased donor. Lung transplants are used for people who are likely to ...

  18. Diet and obstructive lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Romieu, I; Trenga, C

    2001-01-01

    The results presented in this review suggest that the impact of nutrition on obstructive lung disease is most evident for antioxidant vitamins, particularly vitamin C and, to a lesser extent, vitamin E. By decreasing oxidant insults to the lung, antioxidants could modulate the development of chronic lung diseases and lung function decrement. Antioxidant vitamins could also play an important role in gene-environment interactions in complex lung diseases such as childhood asthma. Data also suggest that omega-3 fatty acids may have a potentially protective effect against airway hyperreactivity and lung function decrements; however, relevant data are still sparse. Although epidemiologic data suggest that consumption of fresh fruit may reduce risk of noncarcinogenic airway limitation, there are no clear data on which nutrients might be most relevant. While some studies evaluate daily intake of vitamin C, other studies use fruit consumption as a surrogate for antioxidant intake. Given the dietary intercorrelations among antioxidant vitamins, particularly vitamin C, beta-carotene, and flavonoids, as well as other micronutrients, it may be difficult to isolate a specific effect. Some population subgroups with higher levels of oxidative stress, such as cigarette smokers, may be more likely to benefit from dietary supplementation, since some studies have suggested that antioxidant intake may have a greater impact in this group. Studies of lung function decrement and COPD in adults suggest that daily intake of vitamin C at levels slightly exceeding the current Recommended Dietary Allowance (60 mg/day among nonsmokers and 100 mg/day among smokers) may have a protective effect (20). In the Schwartz and Weiss (85) and Britton et al. (87) studies, an increase of 40 mg/day in vitamin C intake led to an approximate 20-ml increase in FEV1. Daily mean vitamin C intakes in these studies were 66 mg and 99.2 mg, respectively, and the highest intake level (178 mg/day) was approximately

  19. Repeated open endotracheal suctioning causes gradual desaturation but does not exacerbate lung injury compared to closed endotracheal suctioning in a rabbit model of ARDS

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although endotracheal suctioning induces alveolar derecruitment during mechanical ventilation, it is not clear whether repeated endotracheal suctioning exacerbates lung injuries. The present study aimed to determine whether repeated open endotracheal suctioning (OS) exacerbates lung injury compared to closed endotracheal suctioning (CS) during mechanical ventilation in an animal model of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Methods Briefly, thirty six Japanese white rabbits were initially ventilated in pressure-controlled mode with a constant tidal volume (6 mL/kg). Then, lung injury was induced by repeated saline lavage. The rabbits were divided into four groups, namely: a) OS; b) CS; c) control with ARDS only; d) and healthy control (HC) without ARDS. Animals in all the groups were then ventilated with positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) at 10 cm H2O. CS was performed using 6 French-closed suctioning catheters connected to endotracheal tube under the following conditions: a) a suctioning time and pressure of 10 sec and 140 mm Hg, respectively; and b) a suction depth of 2 cm (length of adapter) plus tracheal tube. OS was performed using the same conditions described for CS, except the ventilator was disconnected from the animals. Each endotracheal suctioning was performed at an interval of 30 min. Results PaO2/FIO2 (P/F) ratio for CS, control and HC groups remained at >400 for 6 hours, whereas that of the OS group progressively declined to 300 (p < 0.05), with each suctioning. However, no difference was observed either in lung injury score (histology) or in the expression pattern of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6) after 6 hours between the OS and CS groups in the circulatory as well as the pulmonary tissues. Conclusions Progressive arterial desaturation under conditions of repeated endotracheal suctioning is greater in OS than in CS time-dependently. However, OS does not exacerbate lung injury

  20. Choking under pressure: the neuropsychological mechanisms of incentive-induced performance decrements.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rongjun

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the assumption of efficiency wage models, which state that wage incentives should be positively correlated with productivity, high incentives may produce performance decrements in real life scenarios. Such a "choking under pressure" phenomenon exemplifies how psychological stress can profoundly shape human behavior, for good or for bad. Previous theories suggest that individual choking under pressure because that high pressure may distract individuals' attention away from the task (the distraction account), raise the attention paid to step-by-step skill processes (the explicit monitoring account), or elevate the arousal in general (the over-arousal account). Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that several brain regions implicated in motivation and top-down control of attention also play a key role in stress-induced choking, supporting for the over-arousal and distraction theories of choking. This review aims to identify psychological factors that determine choking and the neural underpinnings of these processes. Insights into how incentives influence performance may aid engineering training regimens and interventions that equip individuals to better handle high-stakes-induced psychological stress, and to thrive under stress. PMID:25713517

  1. Choking under pressure: the neuropsychological mechanisms of incentive-induced performance decrements

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Rongjun

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the assumption of efficiency wage models, which state that wage incentives should be positively correlated with productivity, high incentives may produce performance decrements in real life scenarios. Such a “choking under pressure” phenomenon exemplifies how psychological stress can profoundly shape human behavior, for good or for bad. Previous theories suggest that individual choking under pressure because that high pressure may distract individuals’ attention away from the task (the distraction account), raise the attention paid to step-by-step skill processes (the explicit monitoring account), or elevate the arousal in general (the over-arousal account). Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that several brain regions implicated in motivation and top-down control of attention also play a key role in stress-induced choking, supporting for the over-arousal and distraction theories of choking. This review aims to identify psychological factors that determine choking and the neural underpinnings of these processes. Insights into how incentives influence performance may aid engineering training regimens and interventions that equip individuals to better handle high-stakes-induced psychological stress, and to thrive under stress. PMID:25713517

  2. The effects of incentive framing on performance decrements for large monetary outcomes: behavioral and neural mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Chib, Vikram S; Shimojo, Shinsuke; O'Doherty, John P

    2014-11-01

    There is a nuanced interplay between the provision of monetary incentives and behavioral performance. Individuals' performance typically increases with increasing incentives only up to a point, after which larger incentives may result in decreases in performance, a phenomenon known as "choking." We investigated the influence of incentive framing on choking effects in humans: in one condition, participants performed a skilled motor task to obtain potential monetary gains; in another, participants performed the same task to avoid losing a monetary amount. In both the gain and loss frame, the degree of participants' behavioral loss aversion was correlated with their susceptibility to choking effects. However, the effects were markedly different in the gain and loss frames: individuals with higher loss aversion were susceptible to choking for large prospective gains and not susceptible to choking for large prospective losses, whereas individuals with low loss aversion choked for large prospective losses but not for large prospective gains. Activity in the ventral striatum was predictive of performance decrements in both the gain and loss frames. Moreover, a mediation analysis revealed that behavioral loss aversion hindered performance via the influence of ventral striatal activity on motor performance. Our findings indicate that the framing of an incentive has a profound effect on an individual's susceptibility to choking effects, which is contingent on their loss aversion. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the ventral striatum serves as an interface between incentive-driven motivation and instrumental action, regardless of whether incentives are framed in terms of potential losses or gains. PMID:25378151

  3. Instant messaging addiction among teenagers in China: shyness, alienation, and academic performance decrement.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hanyun; Leung, Louis

    2009-12-01

    This exploratory research proposes the concept of instant messaging (IM) addiction and examines (a) whether IM addiction exists among Chinese teenagers and, if so, who the addicts are, what their symptoms are, and to what extent they are addicted; (b) whether psychological variables such as shyness and alienation can predict IM use or addiction among teenagers; and (c) whether IM use or IM addiction can impair the academic performance of teenagers. Using Young's classic definition of Internet addiction, results of a stratified random sample of 330 teenagers in China in 2007 found 95.8% of participants use IM, and 9.8% of them can be classified as IM addicts. Factor analysis identified four major IM addiction symptoms among teenagers: preoccupation with IM, loss of relationships due to overuse, loss of control, and escape. Results also showed that shyness and alienation from family, peers, and school are significantly and positively associated with levels of IM addiction. As expected, both the level of IM use and level of IM addiction are significantly linked to teenagers' academic performance decrement. PMID:19788380

  4. Memory load as a cognitive antidote to performance decrements in data entry.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Mary J; Healy, Alice F; Kole, James A

    2016-10-01

    In two experiments, subjects trained in data entry, typing one 4-digit number at a time. At training, subjects either typed the numbers immediately after they appeared (immediate) or typed the previous number from memory while viewing the next number (delayed). In Experiment 2 stimulus presentation time was limited and either nothing or a space (gap) was inserted between the second and third digits. In both experiments after training, all subjects completed a test with no gap and typed numbers immediately. Training with a memory load improved speed across training blocks (Experiment 1) and eliminated the decline in accuracy across training blocks (Experiment 2), thus serving as a cognitive antidote to performance decrements. An analysis of each keystroke revealed different underlying processes and strategies for the two training conditions, including when encoding took place. Chunking (in which the first and last two digits are treated separately) was more evident in the immediate than in the delayed condition and was exaggerated with a gap, even at test when there was no gap. These results suggest that such two-digit chunking is due to stimulus encoding and motor planning processes as well as memory, and those processes transferred from training to testing. PMID:26390366

  5. Harmonics elimination algorithm for operational modal analysis using random decrement technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modak, S. V.; Rawal, Chetan; Kundra, T. K.

    2010-05-01

    Operational modal analysis (OMA) extracts modal parameters of a structure using their output response, during operation in general. OMA, when applied to mechanical engineering structures is often faced with the problem of harmonics present in the output response, and can cause erroneous modal extraction. This paper demonstrates for the first time that the random decrement (RD) method can be efficiently employed to eliminate the harmonics from the randomdec signatures. Further, the research work shows effective elimination of large amplitude harmonics also by proposing inclusion of additional random excitation. This obviously need not be recorded for analysis, as is the case with any other OMA method. The free decays obtained from RD have been used for system modal identification using eigen-system realization algorithm (ERA). The proposed harmonic elimination method has an advantage over previous methods in that it does not require the harmonic frequencies to be known and can be used for multiple harmonics, including periodic signals. The theory behind harmonic elimination is first developed and validated. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated through a simulated study and then by experimental studies on a beam and a more complex F-shape structure, which resembles in shape to the skeleton of a drilling or milling machine tool. Cases with presence of single and multiple harmonics in the response are considered.

  6. Openings

    PubMed Central

    Selwyn, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Reviewing his clinic patient schedule for the day, a physician reflects on the history of a young woman he has been caring for over the past 9 years. What starts out as a routine visit then turns into a unique opening for communication and connection. A chance glimpse out the window of the exam room leads to a deeper meditation on parenthood, survival, and healing, not only for the patient but also for the physician. How many missed opportunities have we all had, without even realizing it, to allow this kind of fleeting but profound opening? PMID:26195687

  7. Openings.

    PubMed

    Selwyn, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Reviewing his clinic patient schedule for the day, a physician reflects on the history of a young woman he has been caring for over the past 9 years. What starts out as a routine visit then turns into a unique opening for communication and connection. A chance glimpse out the window of the exam room leads to a deeper meditation on parenthood, survival, and healing, not only for the patient but also for the physician. How many missed opportunities have we all had, without even realizing it, to allow this kind of fleeting but profound opening? PMID:26195687

  8. Long-term outcomes after video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomy versus lobectomy via open thoracotomy for clinical stage IA non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomy is a standard treatment for lung cancer. This study retrospectively compared long-term outcomes after VATS lobectomy versus lobectomy via open thoracotomy for clinical stage IA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods From July 2002 to June 2012, 160 patients were diagnosed with clinical stage IA NSCLC and underwent lobectomy. Of these, 114 underwent VATS lobectomy and 46 underwent lobectomy via open thoracotomy. Results The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 88.0% in the VATS group and 77.1% in the thoracotomy group for clinical stage IA NSCLC (p = 0.1504), and 91.5% in the VATS group and 93.8% in the thoracotomy group for pathological stage IA NSCLC (p = 0.2662). The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 94.1% in the VATS group and 81.8% in the thoracotomy group for clinical stage IA NSCLC (p = 0.0268), and 94.8% in the VATS group and 96.2% in the thoracotomy group for pathological stage IA NSCLC (p = 0.5545). The rate of accurate preoperative staging was 71.9% in the VATS group and 56.5% in the thoracotomy group (p = 0.2611). Inconsistencies between the clinical and pathological stages were mainly related to tumor size, nodal status, and pleural invasion. Local recurrence occurred for one lesion in the VATS group and six lesions (five patients) in the thoracotomy group (p = 0.0495). Conclusions The DFS and OS were not inferior after VATS compared with thoracotomy. Local control was significantly better after VATS than after thoracotomy. Preoperative staging lacked sufficient accuracy. PMID:24886655

  9. Rapid decrement in the effects of the Ponzo display dissociates action and perception.

    PubMed

    Whitwell, Robert L; Buckingham, Gavin; Enns, James T; Chouinard, Philippe A; Goodale, Melvyn A

    2016-08-01

    It has been demonstrated that pictorial illusions have a smaller influence on grasping than they do on perceptual judgments. Yet to date this work has not considered the reduced influence of an illusion as it is measured repeatedly. Here we studied this decrement in the context of a Ponzo illusion to further characterize the dissociation between vision for perception and for action. Participants first manually estimated the lengths of single targets in a Ponzo display with their thumb and index finger, then actually grasped these targets in another series of trials, and then manually estimated the target lengths again in a final set of trials. The results showed that although the perceptual estimates and grasp apertures were equally sensitive to real differences in target length on the initial trials, only the perceptual estimates remained biased by the illusion over repeated measurements. In contrast, the illusion's effect on the grasps decreased rapidly, vanishing entirely after only a few trials. Interestingly, a closer examination of the grasp data revealed that this initial effect was driven largely by undersizing the grip aperture for the display configuration in which the target was positioned between the diverging background lines (i.e., when the targets appeared to be shorter than they really were). This asymmetry between grasping apparently shorter and longer targets suggests that the sensorimotor system may initially treat the edges of the configuration as obstacles to be avoided. This finding highlights the sensorimotor system's ability to rapidly update motor programs through error feedback, manifesting as an immunity to the effects of illusion displays even after only a few trials. PMID:26555756

  10. Transient decrements in mood during energy deficit are independent of dietary protein-to-carbohydrate ratio.

    PubMed

    Karl, J Philip; Thompson, Lauren A; Niro, Philip J; Margolis, Lee M; McClung, James P; Cao, Jay J; Whigham, Leah D; Combs, Gerald F; Young, Andrew J; Lieberman, Harris R; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2015-02-01

    Energy deficit and dietary macronutrient intake are thought to independently modulate cognition, mood and sleep. To what extent manipulating the dietary ratio of protein-to-carbohydrate affects mood, cognition and sleep during short-term energy deficit is undetermined. Using a randomized, block design, 39 non-obese young adults (21±1 years, BMI 25±1 kg/m(2)) consumed diets containing 0.8 g, 1.6 g or 2.4 g protein per kg body weight per day for 31 days. Carbohydrate intake was reduced to accommodate higher protein intakes while dietary fat was maintained at 30% of total energy intake. Cognitive performance, mood, self-reported sleep quality, and plasma amino acid concentrations were periodically assessed during a 10-day energy balance period and a subsequent 21-day, 40% energy deficit period. Anger, tension and total mood disturbance increased during the initial ten days of energy deficit (P<0.05), but by the end of the energy deficit returned to levels not different from those measured during energy balance. No effects of dietary protein-to-carbohydrate ratio on cognitive performance, mood or self-reported sleep quality were observed during energy balance or energy deficit. Thus, high-protein, low-carbohydrate, moderate-fat diets do not appear to benefit or impair cognition, mood or sleep in non-obese adults during energy deficit. These findings suggest that energy deficit may initially be psychologically difficult for non-obese individuals attempting to lose weight, but that these changes are transient. Employing strategies that alleviate decrements in mood during this initial period of adaptation may help sustain weight loss efforts. PMID:25479571

  11. Functional Brain Networks Are Altered in Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes: Signs for Compensation of Cognitive Decrements? The Maastricht Study.

    PubMed

    van Bussel, Frank C G; Backes, Walter H; van Veenendaal, Tamar M; Hofman, Paul A M; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Schram, Miranda T; Sep, Simone J S; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Schaper, Nicolaas; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Wildberger, Joachim E; Jansen, Jacobus F A

    2016-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with cognitive decrements, accelerated cognitive decline, and increased risk for dementia. Patients with the metabolic syndrome, a major risk factor for diabetes, may display comparable cognitive decrements as seen in type 2 diabetes. Currently, the impact of diabetes and prediabetes on cognition and the underlying organization of functional brain networks still remain to be elucidated. This study investigated whether functional brain networks are affected in type 2 diabetes and prediabetes. Forty-seven participants with diabetes, 47 participants with prediabetes, and 45 control participants underwent detailed cognitive testing and 3-Tesla resting state functional MRI. Graph theoretical network analysis was performed to investigate alterations in functional cerebral networks. Participants with diabetes displayed altered network measures, characterized by a higher normalized cluster coefficient and higher local efficiency, compared with control participants. The network measures of the participants with prediabetes fell between those with diabetes and control participants. Lower processing speed was associated with shorter path length and higher global efficiency. Participants with type 2 diabetes have altered functional brain networks. This alteration is already apparent in the prediabetic stage to a somewhat lower level, hinting at functional reorganization of the cerebral networks as a compensatory mechanism for cognitive decrements. PMID:27217484

  12. Lung Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergencies Cardiac Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Lung Emergencies People with Marfan syndrome can be at ... should be considered an emergency. Symptoms of sudden lung collapse (pneumothorax) Symptoms of a sudden lung collapse ...

  13. Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Lung Cancer What is Lung Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made ... button on your keyboard.) Two Major Types of Lung Cancer There are two major types of lung ...

  14. Lung metastases

    MedlinePlus

    Metastases to the lung; Metastatic cancer to the lung ... Metastatic tumors in the lungs are cancers that developed at other places in the body (or other parts of the lungs) and spread through the ...

  15. Lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Aisner, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Pathology of Lung Cancer; Radiotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Cancer of the Lung; Chemotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; Immunotherapy in the Management of Lung Cancer; Preoperative Staging and Surgery for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; and Prognostic Factors in Lung Cancer.

  16. Repeated familiarisation with hypohydration attenuates the performance decrement caused by hypohydration during treadmill running.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Joseph; James, Lewis J

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the effect of repeated familiarisation to hypohydration on hypohydrated exercise performance. After familiarisation with the exercise protocol, 10 recreationally active males completed a euhydrated (EU-pre) and hypohydrated (HYPO-pre) trial, which involved a 45-min steady state run at 75% peak oxygen uptake (45SS) followed by a 5-km time trial (TT). Euhydration and hypohydration were induced by manipulating fluid intake in the 24-h pre-exercise and during the 45SS. Subjects then completed 4 habituation sessions that involved replication of the HYPO-pre trial, except they completed 60 min of running at 75% peak oxygen uptake and no TT. Subjects then replicated the euhydrated (EU-post) and hypohydrated (HYPO-post) trials. Body mass loss pre-TT was 0.2 (0.2)% (EU-pre), 2.4 (0.3)% (HYPO-pre), 0.1 (0.1)% (EU-post), and 2.4 (0.3)% (HYPO-post). TT performance was 5.8 (2.4)% slower during the HYPO-pre trial (1459 (250) s) than during the EU-pre trial (1381 (237) s) (p < 0.01), but only 1.2 (1.6)% slower during the HYPO-post trial (1381 (200) s) than during the EU-post trial (1366 (211) s) (p = 0.064). TT performance was not different between EU-pre and EU-post trials, but was 5.1 (2.3)% faster during the HYPO-post trial than the HYPO-pre trial (p < 0.01). Heart rate was greater during HYPO trials than EU trials (p < 0.001), whilst rating of perceived exertion (RPE) response was similar to TT time and was lower in the HYPO-post trial than the HYPO-pre trial (p < 0.01). In conclusion, hypohydration impaired 5-km running performance in subjects unfamiliar with the hypohydration protocol, but 4 familiarisation sessions designed to habituate subjects with the hypohydration protocol attenuated the performance decrement, seemingly via an attenuation of RPE during hypohydrated exercise. PMID:24476466

  17. Positive expression of protein chromosome 9 open reading frame 86 (C9orf86) correlated with poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Gui-Lin; Tao, Ya-Lan; Wu, Qi-Nian; Zhang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background Chromosome 9 open reading frame 86 (C9orf86) is a novel subfamily of GTPases. Previous studies have implicated C9orf86 as a potential oncogene. Methods C9orf86 expression was detected in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) cell lines by RT-PCR and western blotting. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to detect 180 consecutive NSCLC specimens and 16 normal lung tissues. The correlation between C9orf86 expression and clinicopathological parameters was evaluated. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox hazards ratio models were used to estimate the effect of C9orf86 expression on survival. Results C9orf86 was expressed in the cytoplasm in 74 of 180 (41.11%) NSCLC specimens. In clinical pathology analysis, C9orf86 expression significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis and clinical stage significantly (P<0.05). Multivariable analysis confirmed that C9orf86 expression increased the risk of death after adjusting for other clinicopathological factors (P<0.01). Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were significantly prolonged in the C9orf86 negative group compared to the C9orf86 positive group (P<0.001). Adjuvant chemotherapy prolonged OS and DFS in resected NSCLC patients with C9orf86 negative expression (P<0.001) but not C9orf86 positive. Conclusions Positive expression of C9orf86 is an independent prognostic factor for NSCLC patients, and C9orf86 may serve as a prognostic biomarker for patients with NSCLC. PMID:27499931

  18. Expectations induced by natural-like temporal fluctuations are independent of attention decrement: evidence from behavior and early visual evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Derosiere, Gerard; Farrugia, Nicolas; Perrey, Stéphane; Ward, Tomas; Torre, Kjerstin

    2015-01-01

    Temporal expectations and attention decrement affect human behavior in opposing ways: the former positively, the latter negatively yet both exhibit similar neural signatures - i.e., reduction in the early event-related potential components' amplitude - despite different underlying mechanisms. Furthermore, there is a significant and growing debate in the literature regarding the putative role of attention in the encoding of expectations in perception. The question then arises as to what are the behavioral and neural consequences, if any, of attention decrement on temporal expectations and related enhancement of sensory information processing. Here, we investigated behavioral performance and visual N1a, N1p and P1 components during a sustained attention reaction time task inducing attention decrement under two conditions. In one condition, the inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs) were randomly distributed to impede expectation effects while for the other, the ISI exhibited natural-like long-term correlations supposed to induce temporal expectations. Behavioral results show that natural-like fluctuations in ISI indeed induced faster RT due to temporal expectations. These temporal expectations were beneficial even under attention decrement circumstances. Further, temporal expectations were associated with reduced N1a amplitude while attention decrement was associated with reduced N1p amplitude. Our findings provide evidence that the effects of temporal expectations and attention decrement induced in a single task can be independent at the behavioral level, and are supported at separate information processing stages at the neural level in vision. PMID:25224996

  19. Primary TKI resistance in advanced non-small cell lung cancer with EGFR mutation: an open question.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Jacopo; Martelli, Salvatore; Remo, Andrea; Bonetti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The malignant behavior of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is caused by different driver mutations, which may include alterations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway. Activating mutations in exons 19 or 21 of EGFR in NSCLC are associated with increased sensitivity to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as gefitinib and erlotinib. However, approximately 10% of NSCLC patients show primary resistance to TKIs, and the resistance mechanism is poorly understood. We report the case of a 72-year-old nonsmoking Caucasian woman who underwent pulmonary segmentectomy for right peripheral T1N0M0 NSCLC. The tumor was an adenocarcinoma, with a point mutation in exon 21 of EGFR and with negative ALK gene rearrangement. Postoperative CT scan revealed right pleural effusion and abundant ascites without metastases to parenchymal organs. After paracentesis with positive cytology for adenocarcinoma, the patient started therapy with oral gefitinib 250 mg/day. CT scan after 2 months revealed disease progression with an increase in the pleural effusion (right and left) and ascites, as well as the appearance of solid tissue involving the right main bronchus and bronchus intermedius. Gefitinib was stopped and the patient died 1 month later of progressive NSCLC. The peculiarities of our case are the site of the metastatic disease and the complete lack of a response to gefitinib in a patient with an activating mutation in EGFR exon 21. PMID:25953440

  20. An integrated physiology model to study regional lung damage effects and the physiologic response

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This work expands upon a previously developed exercise dynamic physiology model (DPM) with the addition of an anatomic pulmonary system in order to quantify the impact of lung damage on oxygen transport and physical performance decrement. Methods A pulmonary model is derived with an anatomic structure based on morphometric measurements, accounting for heterogeneous ventilation and perfusion observed experimentally. The model is incorporated into an existing exercise physiology model; the combined system is validated using human exercise data. Pulmonary damage from blast, blunt trauma, and chemical injury is quantified in the model based on lung fluid infiltration (edema) which reduces oxygen delivery to the blood. The pulmonary damage component is derived and calibrated based on published animal experiments; scaling laws are used to predict the human response to lung injury in terms of physical performance decrement. Results The augmented dynamic physiology model (DPM) accurately predicted the human response to hypoxia, altitude, and exercise observed experimentally. The pulmonary damage parameters (shunt and diffusing capacity reduction) were fit to experimental animal data obtained in blast, blunt trauma, and chemical damage studies which link lung damage to lung weight change; the model is able to predict the reduced oxygen delivery in damage conditions. The model accurately estimates physical performance reduction with pulmonary damage. Conclusions We have developed a physiologically-based mathematical model to predict performance decrement endpoints in the presence of thoracic damage; simulations can be extended to estimate human performance and escape in extreme situations. PMID:25044032

  1. Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans-Flynn, Erin; Gregory, Kevin; Arsintescu, Lucia; Whitmire, Alexandra; Leveton, Lauren B.; Vessey, William

    2015-01-01

    Sleep loss, circadian desynchronization, and work overload occur to some extent for ground and flight crews, prior to and during spaceflight missions. Ground evidence indicates that such risk factors may lead to performance decrements and adverse health outcomes, which could potentially compromise mission objectives. Efforts are needed to identify the environmental and mission conditions that interfere with sleep and circadian alignment, as well as individual differences in vulnerability and resiliency to sleep loss and circadian desynchronization. Specifically, this report highlights a collection of new evidence to better characterize the risk and reveals new gaps in this risk.

  2. Nursing Performance and Mobile Phone Use: Are Nurses Aware of Their Performance Decrements?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Prior research has documented the effect of concurrent mobile phone use on medical care. This study examined the extent of hospital registered nurses’ awareness of their mobile-phone-associated performance decrements. Objective The objective of this study was to compare self-reported performance with reported observed performance of others with respect to mobile phone use by hospital registered nurses. Methods In March 2014, a previously validated survey was emailed to the 10,978 members of the Academy of Medical Surgical Nurses. The responses were analyzed using a two-proportion z test (alpha=.05, two-tailed) to examine whether self-reported and observed rates of error were significantly different. All possible demographic and employment confounders which could potentially contribute to self-reported and observed performance errors were tested for significance. Results Of the 950 respondents, 825 (8.68%, 825/950) met the inclusion criteria for analysis. The representativeness of the sample relative to the US nursing workforce was assessed using a two-proportion z test. This indicated that sex and location of primary place of employment (urban/rural) were represented appropriately in the study sample. Respondents in the age groups <40 years old were underrepresented, while age groups >55 years old were overrepresented. Whites, American Indians/Alaskan natives, and Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islanders were underrepresented, while Hispanic and multiple/other ethnicities were overrepresented. It was decided to report the unweighted, rather than the weighted survey data, with the recognition that the results, while valuable, may not be generalizable to the entire US registered nursing workforce. A significant difference was found between registered nurses’ self-reported and observed rates of errors associated with concurrent mobile phone use in following three categories (1) work performance (z=−26.6142, P<.001, Fisher’s exact test), (2) missing

  3. Lung Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... many disorders affecting the lungs, such as asthma, COPD, infections like influenza, pneumonia and tuberculosis, lung cancer, and many other breathing problems. Some lung diseases can lead to respiratory failure. Dept. of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health

  4. Collapsed Lung

    MedlinePlus

    A collapsed lung happens when air enters the pleural space, the area between the lung and the chest wall. If it is a ... is called pneumothorax. If only part of the lung is affected, it is called atelectasis. Causes of ...

  5. Lung surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... balloon-like tissues (blebs) that cause lung collapse ( pneumothorax ) Wedge resection, to remove part of a lobe ... Treat injuries that cause lung tissue to collapse ( pneumothorax or hemothorax ) Treat permanently collapsed lung tissue ( atelectasis ) ...

  6. Collapsed Lung

    MedlinePlus

    A collapsed lung happens when air enters the pleural space, the area between the lung and the chest wall. If it is a total collapse, it is called pneumothorax. If only part of the lung is affected, ...

  7. Lung disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the lungs to take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide. People with this type of lung disorder often ... the lungs to take up oxygen and release carbon dioxide. These diseases may also affect heart function. An ...

  8. Persistence of peak flow decrement in children following ozone exposures exceeding the national ambient air quality standard

    SciTech Connect

    Lioy, P.J.; Vollmuth, T.A.; Lippmann, M.

    1985-10-01

    A linear regression was calculated between the peak one-hour ozone concentration for a given day and forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) as determined the same day from spirograms for each of the 39 children tested on six or more days. All mean slopes were negative, except for FVC in boys, indicating a general tendency for decreased function with increasing ozone concentration. In another analysis, a summary weighted correlation coefficient between peak ozone level and each pulmonary function parameter was calculated for each of 49 children seen on four or more days. As in the regression analysis, decrements in PEFR were significantly correlated with the ozone exposure. Analysis of residuals from the regression lines provide evidence for responses of greater potential significance to the future health of the children. They indicate a different kind of response, i.e., a persistent decrement in function lasting for as much as a week after the end of a smog period of about four days' duration. The persistent effects associated with ozone could have been due to acidic sulfates as well as, or in addition to, ozone. 10 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  9. Topographical distribution of decrements and recovery in muscarinic receptors from rat brains repeatedly exposed to sublethal doses of soman

    SciTech Connect

    Churchill, L.; Pazdernik, T.L.; Jackson, J.L.; Nelson, S.R.; Samson, F.E.; McDonough, J.H. Jr.

    1984-08-01

    (3H)Quinuclidinyl benzilate binding to rat brain muscarinic receptors decreased after repeated exposure to soman, a potent organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor. The topographical distribution of this decrement was analyzed by quantitative receptor autoradiography. After 4 weeks of soman, three times a week, quinuclidinyl benzilate binding decreased to 67 to 80% of control in frontal and parietal cortex, caudate-putamen, lateral septum, hippocampal body, dentate gyrus, superior colliculus, nucleus of the fifth nerve, and central grey. Minor or no decreases were observed in thalamic or hypothalamic nuclei, reticular formation, pontine nuclei, inferior colliculus, nucleus of the seventh nerve, and cerebellum. Scatchard analyses of saturation curves using frontal cortex sections from soman-treated rats revealed a decrease in maximal quinuclidinyl benzilate binding from that in control rats and a return toward control levels by 24 days without any significant change in affinity. These brain areas showing significant decrements in muscarinic receptors recovered with a similar time course. An estimate of the time for 50% recovery for some of the brain areas was 14 days for superior colliculus, 16 days for cortex, and 19 days for hippocampal body. The application of quantitative receptor autoradiography to analyze receptor alterations has been valuable in localizing the telencephalon as a region more susceptible to change in receptor concentration.

  10. Whole-Body Vibration Training and Its Application to Age-Related Performance Decrements: An Exploratory Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hawkey, Adam; Griffiths, Katie; Babraj, John; Cobley, James N

    2016-02-01

    Hawkey, A, Griffiths, K, Babraj, J, and Cobley, JN. Whole-body vibration training and its application to age-related performance decrements: an exploratory analysis. J Strength Cond Res 30(2): 555-560, 2016-Middle age is associated with a pronounced decline in power and flexibility. Whilst whole-body vibration training (WBVT) improves performance in a range of populations, whether WBVT can improve muscle power and flexibility in a middle-aged population is not known. The present study aimed to determine the influence of 5 weeks progressive WBVT in middle-aged (45-55 years) and younger (20-30 years) recreationally active females. Participants in each age group were randomly allocated to an intervention (WBVT) or control group. The WBVT groups trained for 5 weeks on a vibration platform, while the control groups performed identical exercises, with no vibration. Prior to, and after, the 5-week study vertical countermovement jump (VCMJ) and range of motion (ROM) performance were measured. WBVT significantly (p = 0.001) improved VCMJ performance when compared to the control groups. This improvement was significantly (p = 0.001) greater in the middle-aged compared with the younger WBVT group. WBVT significantly (p = 0.001) improved ROM irrespective of age. Taken together, these results suggest that WBVT can off-set age related performance decrements, which has therapeutic implications for musculoskeletal aging. Therefore, WBVT could be undertaken to minimise age-related performance deterioration in middle-aged female populations. PMID:26244828

  11. Dabrafenib in BRAF V600E–Mutant Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: an Open-label, Single arm, Multicenter, Phase 2 Trial

    PubMed Central

    Planchard, David; Kim, Tae Min; Mazieres, Julien; Quoix, Elisabeth; Riely, Gregory; Barlesi, Fabrice; Souquet, Pierre-John; Smit, Egbert F.; Groen, Harry J. M.; Kelly, Ronan J.; Cho, B. C.; Socinski, Mark A.; Pandite, Lini; Nase, Christine; Ma, Bo; D’Amelio, Anthony; Mookerjee, Bijoyesh; Curtis, C. Martin; Johnson, Bruce E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Activating BRAF V600E mutations are found in approximately 1–2% of adenocarcinomas of the lung offering an opportunity to test targeted therapy for this disease. Dabrafenib is an oral selective inhibitor of the BRAF kinase. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical activity of dabrafenib in patients with advanced BRAF V600E-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods In this phase 2, multicenter, nonrandomized, open-label study of previously treated and untreated patients with stage IV, metastatic NSCLC and BRAF V600E mutation, we evaluated the antitumor activity and safety of oral dabrafenib (150 mg twice daily). The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed overall response rate (ORR) in patients receiving ≥ 1 dose of study drug. Safety analysis was performed on the all-treated population (all previously treated and untreated patients receiving ≥ 1 dose of study drug). The study is ongoing but not enrolling participants in this cohort. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01336634. Findings Between August 2011 and February 2014 a total of 84 previously treated and untreated patients were enrolled. Investigator-assessed ORR for 78 pretreated patients was 33% (95% confidence interval [CI], 23·1 to 44·9). Independent review committee assessment of ORR was consistent with investigator-based assessment. Four of the six previously untreated patients had an objective response. One patient died on study due to intracranial hemorrhage that was considered by the investigator to be due to study drug. Serious adverse events were reported in 35 (42%) of 84 patients. The most frequent grade 3 or higher adverse events were cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (10 [12%] of 84 patients), asthenia (4 [5%] of 84 patients), and basal cell carcinoma (4 [5%] of 84 patients). Interpretation This is, to our knowledge, the first prospective trial focusing on BRAF V600E-mutant NSCLC to show clinical activity of a BRAF inhibitor. The

  12. Lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jie; Kislinger, Thomas; Jurisica, Igor; Wigle, Dennis A.

    2010-01-01

    High-throughput genomic data for both lung development and lung cancer continue to accumulate. Significant molecular intersection between these two processes has been hypothesized due to overlap in phenotypes and genomic variation. Examining the network biology of both cancer and development of the lung may shed functional light on the individual signaling modules involved. Stem cell biology may explain a portion of this network intersection and consequently studying lung organogenesis may have relevance for understanding lung cancer. This review summarizes our understanding of the potential overlapping mechanisms involved in lung development and lung tumorigenesis. PMID:19202349

  13. Pulmonary function in children after open water SCUBA dives.

    PubMed

    Winkler, B E; Tetzlaff, K; Muth, C-M; Hebestreit, H

    2010-10-01

    An increasing number of children and adolescents is diving with Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus (SCUBA). SCUBA diving is associated with health risks such as pulmonary barotrauma, especially in children and in individuals with airflow limitation. As no data has been published on the effects of open-water diving on pulmonary function in children, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of SCUBA dives on airflow in children. 16 healthy children aged 10-13 years underwent spirometry and a cycle-exercise challenge while breathing cold air. They subsequently performed dives to 1-m and 8-m depth in random order. Pulmonary function was measured before and after the exercise challenge and the dives. There were statistically significant decreases in FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC, MEF25 and MEF50 after the cold-air exercise challenge and the dives. Changes in lung function following the exercise challenge did not predict the responses to SCUBA diving. In 3 children the post-dive decrements in FEV1 exceeded 10%. These children had a lower body weight and BMI percentile. SCUBA diving in healthy children may be associated with relevant airflow limitation. A low body mass might contribute to diving-associated bronchoconstriction. In the majority of subjects, no clinically relevant airway obstruction could be observed. PMID:20677123

  14. Time-on-task decrement in vigilance is modulated by inter-individual vulnerability to homeostatic sleep pressure manipulation.

    PubMed

    Maire, Micheline; Reichert, Carolin F; Gabel, Virginie; Viola, Antoine U; Krebs, Julia; Strobel, Werner; Landolt, Hans-Peter; Bachmann, Valérie; Cajochen, Christian; Schmidt, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Under sleep loss, vigilance is reduced and attentional failures emerge progressively. It becomes difficult to maintain stable performance over time, leading to growing performance variability (i.e., state instability) in an individual and among subjects. Task duration plays a major role in the maintenance of stable vigilance levels, such that the longer the task, the more likely state instability will be observed. Vulnerability to sleep-loss-dependent performance decrements is highly individual and is also modulated by a polymorphism in the human clock gene PERIOD3 (PER3). By combining two different protocols, we manipulated sleep-wake history by once extending wakefulness for 40 h (high sleep pressure condition) and once by imposing a short sleep-wake cycle by alternating 160 min of wakefulness and 80 min naps (low sleep pressure condition) in a within-subject design. We observed that homozygous carriers of the long repeat allele of PER3 (PER3 (5/5) ) experienced a greater time-on-task dependent performance decrement (i.e., a steeper increase in the number of lapses) in the Psychomotor Vigilance Task compared to the carriers of the short repeat allele (PER3 (4/4) ). These genotype-dependent effects disappeared under low sleep pressure conditions, and neither motivation, nor perceived effort accounted for these differences. Our data thus suggest that greater sleep-loss related attentional vulnerability based on the PER3 polymorphism is mirrored by a greater state instability under extended wakefulness in the short compared to the long allele carriers. Our results undermine the importance of time-on-task related aspects when investigating inter-individual differences in sleep loss-induced behavioral vulnerability. PMID:24639634

  15. Acute lung function responses to ambient acid aerosol exposures in children

    SciTech Connect

    Raizenne, M.E.; Burnett, R.T.; Stern, B.; Franklin, C.A.; Spengler, J.D.

    1989-02-01

    We examined the relationship between lung function changes and ambient acid aerosol episodes in children attending a residential summer camp. Young females (112) performed daily spirometry, and 96 were assessed on one occasion for airway hyperresponsiveness using a methacholine bronchoprovocation test. Air quality measurements were performed on site and four distinct acid aerosol episodes were observed during the 41-day study. The maximum values observed during the 41-day study were: O/sub 3/ at 143 ppb; H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ at 47.7 micrograms/m/sup 3/; and (H+) at 550 nmole/m/sup 3/. Maximum decrements of 3.5 and 7% for FEV1 and PEF, respectively, were observed to be associated with the air pollution episodes. There was some evidence of a differential lung function response to the episodes where children with a positive response to a methacholine challenge had larger decrements compared to their nonresponsive counterparts.

  16. Apoptotic potential of C-phycoerythrin from Phormidium sp. A27DM and Halomicronema sp. A32DM on human lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Madamwar, Datta; Patel, Dipak K; Desai, Swati N; Upadhyay, Kapil K; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V

    2015-01-01

    Phycobilisomes present in cyanobacteria are photosynthetic macromolecular protein complexes that are categorized into three types - phycoerythrins (high energy), phycocyanin (intermediate energy) and allophycocyanin (low energy). Structurally, they consist of α and β protein subunits and open chain tetrapyrrole prosthetic group (bilin chromophore), known for its antioxidant properties and therapeutic potential against a variety of physiological ailments. Phycoerythrins (C-PE) were purified from cyanobacterial strains Phormidium sp. A27DM and Halomicronema sp. A32DM and their respective apoptotic potentials were assessed on A549 human lung carcinoma cells. Both strains of cyanobacteria were cultured and the C-PE from each strain was extracted, quantified and characterized. C-PE accounted for a dose dependent decrement in cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential and an increment in lactate dehydrogenase release. Higher doses of C-PE (of both strains) accounted for loss of cell viability and nuclear pycnosis. These findings were further substantiated with flow cytometry that revealed a cell arrest at G0/G1 phase and a high percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis following C-PE treatment. These results confirm the efficacy of C-PE from Phormidium sp. or Halomicronema sp. in triggering apoptotic cell death. This study is the first to report on apoptotic property of C-PE against A549 human lung carcinoma cells and warrants further studies to establish its anti-cancer potential. PMID:26535041

  17. Apoptotic potential of C-phycoerythrin from Phormidium sp. A27DM and Halomicronema sp. A32DM on human lung carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Madamwar, Datta; Patel, Dipak K; Desai, Swati N; Upadhyay, Kapil K; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V

    2015-01-01

    Phycobilisomes present in cyanobacteria are photosynthetic macromolecular protein complexes that are categorized into three types - phycoerythrins (high energy), phycocyanin (intermediate energy) and allophycocyanin (low energy). Structurally, they consist of α and β protein subunits and open chain tetrapyrrole prosthetic group (bilin chromophore), known for its antioxidant properties and therapeutic potential against a variety of physiological ailments. Phycoerythrins (C-PE) were purified from cyanobacterial strains Phormidium sp. A27DM and Halomicronema sp. A32DM and their respective apoptotic potentials were assessed on A549 human lung carcinoma cells. Both strains of cyanobacteria were cultured and the C-PE from each strain was extracted, quantified and characterized. C-PE accounted for a dose dependent decrement in cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential and an increment in lactate dehydrogenase release. Higher doses of C-PE (of both strains) accounted for loss of cell viability and nuclear pycnosis. These findings were further substantiated with flow cytometry that revealed a cell arrest at G0/G1 phase and a high percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis following C-PE treatment. These results confirm the efficacy of C-PE from Phormidium sp. or Halomicronema sp. in triggering apoptotic cell death. This study is the first to report on apoptotic property of C-PE against A549 human lung carcinoma cells and warrants further studies to establish its anti-cancer potential. PMID:26535041

  18. Dopamine and ABeta-induced Stress Signaling and Decrements in CA2+ Buffering in Primary Neonatal Hippocampal Cells are Antagonized by Blueberry Extract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have shown previously that dietary blueberry (BB) extract supplementation (S) reversed several parameters of neuronal and behavioral (e.g., cognition) aging in rodents. Additionally, findings indicate that COS-7 cells transfected with muscarinic receptor subtypes (e.g., M1) showed decrements in C...

  19. Lung transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/pubmed/20675678 . Kotloff RM, Keshavjee S. Lung transplantation. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst MD, et ... 58. Solomon M, Grasemann H, Keshavjee S. Pediatric lung transplantation. Pediatr Clin North Am . 2010; 57(2):375- ...

  20. Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of ... in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  1. Lung transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... diseases that may require a lung transplant are: Cystic fibrosis Damage to the arteries of the lung because ... BC; Clinical Practice Guidelines for Pulmonary Therapies Committee; ... Therapies Committee. Cystic fibrosis pulmonary guidelines: ...

  2. Lung surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pneumonectomy; Lobectomy; Lung biopsy; Thoracoscopy; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery; VATS ... You will have general anesthesia before surgery. You will be asleep and unable to feel pain. Two common ways to do surgery on your lungs are thoracotomy and video- ...

  3. Lung Parenchymal Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Suki, Béla; Stamenovic, Dimitrije; Hubmayr, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    The lung parenchyma comprises a large number of thin-walled alveoli, forming an enormous surface area, which serves to maintain proper gas exchange. The alveoli are held open by the transpulmonary pressure, or prestress, which is balanced by tissues forces and alveolar surface film forces. Gas exchange efficiency is thus inextricably linked to three fundamental features of the lung: parenchymal architecture, prestress, and the mechanical properties of the parenchyma. The prestress is a key determinant of lung deformability that influences many phenomena including local ventilation, regional blood flow, tissue stiffness, smooth muscle contractility, and alveolar stability. The main pathway for stress transmission is through the extracellular matrix. Thus, the mechanical properties of the matrix play a key role both in lung function and biology. These mechanical properties in turn are determined by the constituents of the tissue, including elastin, collagen, and proteoglycans. In addition, the macroscopic mechanical properties are also influenced by the surface tension and, to some extent, the contractile state of the adherent cells. This article focuses on the biomechanical properties of the main constituents of the parenchyma in the presence of prestress and how these properties define normal function or change in disease. An integrated view of lung mechanics is presented and the utility of parenchymal mechanics at the bedside as well as its possible future role in lung physiology and medicine are discussed. PMID:23733644

  4. Multiple cystic lung disease.

    PubMed

    Ferreira Francisco, Flavia Angélica; Soares Souza, Arthur; Zanetti, Gláucia; Marchiori, Edson

    2015-12-01

    Multiple cystic lung disease represents a diverse group of uncommon disorders that can present a diagnostic challenge due to the increasing number of diseases associated with this presentation. High-resolution computed tomography of the chest helps to define the morphological aspects and distribution of lung cysts, as well as associated findings. The combination of appearance upon imaging and clinical features, together with extrapulmonary manifestations, when present, permits confident and accurate diagnosis of the majority of these diseases without recourse to open-lung biopsy. The main diseases in this group that are discussed in this review are lymphangioleiomyomatosis, pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis and folliculin gene-associated syndrome (Birt-Hogg-Dubé); other rare causes of cystic lung disease, including cystic metastasis of sarcoma, are also discussed. Disease progression is unpredictable, and understanding of the complications of cystic lung disease and their appearance during evolution of the disease are essential for management. Correlation of disease evolution and clinical context with chest imaging findings provides important clues for defining the underlying nature of cystic lung disease, and guides diagnostic evaluation and management. PMID:26621970

  5. Lung parenchymal mechanics.

    PubMed

    Suki, Béla; Stamenović, Dimitrije; Hubmayr, Rolf

    2011-07-01

    The lung parenchyma comprises a large number of thin-walled alveoli, forming an enormous surface area, which serves to maintain proper gas exchange. The alveoli are held open by the transpulmonary pressure, or prestress, which is balanced by tissues forces and alveolar surface film forces. Gas exchange efficiency is thus inextricably linked to three fundamental features of the lung: parenchymal architecture, prestress, and the mechanical properties of the parenchyma. The prestress is a key determinant of lung deformability that influences many phenomena including local ventilation, regional blood flow, tissue stiffness, smooth muscle contractility, and alveolar stability. The main pathway for stress transmission is through the extracellular matrix. Thus, the mechanical properties of the matrix play a key role both in lung function and biology. These mechanical properties in turn are determined by the constituents of the tissue, including elastin, collagen, and proteoglycans. In addition, the macroscopic mechanical properties are also influenced by the surface tension and, to some extent, the contractile state of the adherent cells. This chapter focuses on the biomechanical properties of the main constituents of the parenchyma in the presence of prestress and how these properties define normal function or change in disease. An integrated view of lung mechanics is presented and the utility of parenchymal mechanics at the bedside as well as its possible future role in lung physiology and medicine are discussed. PMID:23733644

  6. What Is Lung Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... starts in the lungs, it is called lung cancer. Lung cancer begins in the lungs and may spread ... lung cancer. For more information, visit the National Cancer Institute’s Lung Cancer. Previous Basic Information Basic Information Basic Information ...

  7. Lung Organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Warburton, David; El-Hashash, Ahmed; Carraro, Gianni; Tiozzo, Caterina; Sala, Frederic; Rogers, Orquidea; De Langhe, Stijn; Kemp, Paul J.; Riccardi, Daniela; Torday, John; Bellusci, Saverio; Shi, Wei; Lubkin, Sharon R; Jesudason, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    Developmental lung biology is a field that has the potential for significant human impact: lung disease at the extremes of age continues to cause major morbidity and mortality worldwide. Understanding how the lung develops holds the promise that investigators can use this knowledge to aid lung repair and regeneration. In the decade since the “molecular embryology” of the lung was first comprehensively reviewed, new challenges have emerged—and it is on these that we focus the current review. Firstly, there is a critical need to understand the progenitor cell biology of the lung in order to exploit the potential of stem cells for the treatment of lung disease. Secondly, the current familiar descriptions of lung morphogenesis governed by growth and transcription factors need to be elaborated upon with the reinclusion and reconsideration of other factors, such as mechanics, in lung growth. Thirdly, efforts to parse the finer detail of lung bud signaling may need to be combined with broader consideration of overarching mechanisms that may be therapeutically easier to target: in this arena, we advance the proposal that looking at the lung in general (and branching in particular) in terms of clocks may yield unexpected benefits. PMID:20691848

  8. Protection of rhesus monkeys against Soman and prevention of performance decrement by pretreatment with acetylcholinesterase. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, D.M.; Castro, C.A.; De La Hoz, D.M.; Gentry, M.K.; Gold, M.B.

    1992-12-31

    The ability of acetylcholinesterase from fetal bovine serum (FBS AChE) to protect against soman, a highly toxic organophosphorus (OP) compound, was tested in rhesus monkeys. Intravenous administration of FBS AChE produced a minimal behavioral effect on the serial probe recognition task, a sensitive test of cognitive function and short-term memory. Pharmacokinetic studies of injected FBS AChE indicated a plasma half-life of 40 hr for FBS AChE in monkeys. Both in vitro and in vivo titration of FBS AChE with soman produced a 1:1 stoichiometry between organophosphate-inhibited FBS AChE and the cumulative dose of the toxic stereoisomers of soman. Administration of FBS AChE protected monkeys against the lethal effects of up to 2.7 LD50 of soman and prevented any signs of organophosphate intoxication, e.g., excessive secretions, respiratory depression, muscle fasciculations, or convulsions. In addition, monkeys pretreated with FBS AChE were devoid of any behavioral incapacitation after soman challenge, as measured by the serial probe recognition task. Compared to the current multicomponent drug treatment against soman, which does not prevent the signs or the behavioral deficits resulting from OP intoxication, use of FBS AChE as a single pretreatment drug provides significantly effective protection against both the lethal and the behavioral effects of soman.... Pretreatment, Nonhuman primate, Performance decrements, Acetylcholinesterase, Soman, Nerve agents.

  9. [Diameter decrement of abdominal aorta and redistribution of systemic blood flow in non-ambulant Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients].

    PubMed

    Shinoe, T; Kawai, M

    1996-10-01

    Cardiomyopathy is a major life-threatening complication in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Cardiac output is always low in advanced stage patients. Impaired muscles presumably require extremely low circulation, while blood flow to brain and internal organs is probably maintained. Therefore, the redistribution of systemic circulation must be another important factor which determines whether or not the cardiomyopathy results in fatal heart failure. Although great efforts have been focused on the cardiac function, this problem has seldom attracted attentions. Assuming that diameter of blood vessels reflects blood flow, we measured the diameter of abdominal aorta on CT at four levels: 1) beginning of the abdominal aorta, 2) before and 3) after the branching of renal arteries, 4) before bifurcation of the common iliac arteries. Six bed-ridden DMD patients were compared with 10 ambulant patients suffering from other neurological and non-neurological diseases. We obtained following results. First, the diameter of abdominal aorta is significantly smaller in DMD patients. Second, the decrement is most prominent between before and after the branching of the renal arteries. These results clearly showed predilection of renointestinal circulation at the sacrifice of lower extremities. This narrowing of distal aorta was also observed in Kugelberg-Welander disease and understood as a sequelae of longstanding abolition of lower extremity functions. PMID:8997143

  10. A systematic review of the association between pleural plaques and changes in lung function

    PubMed Central

    Kopylev, Leonid; Christensen, Krista Yorita; Brown, James S; Cooper, Glinda S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To conduct a systematic review of changes in lung function in relation to presence of pleural plaques in asbestos-exposed populations. Methods Database searches of PubMed and Web of Science were supplemented by review of papers’ reference lists and journals’ tables of contents. Methodological features (eg, consideration of potential confounding by smoking) of identified articles were reviewed by ≥two reviewers. Meta-analyses of 20 studies estimated a summary effect of the decrements in per cent predicted (%pred) forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) associated with presence of pleural plaques. Results Among asbestos-exposed workers, the presence of pleural plaques was associated with statistically significant decrements in FVC (4.09%pred, 95% CI 2.31 to 5.86) and FEV1 (1.99%pred, 95% CI 0.22 to 3.77). Effects of similar magnitude were seen when stratifying by imaging type (X-ray or high-resolution CT) and when excluding studies with potential methodological limitations. Undetected asbestosis was considered as an unlikely explanation of the observed decrements. Several studies provided evidence of an association between size of pleural plaques and degree of pulmonary decrease, and presence of pleural plaques and increased rate or degree of pulmonary impairment. Conclusions The presence of pleural plaques is associated with a small, but statistically significant mean difference in FVC and FEV1 in comparison to asbestos-exposed individuals without plaques or other abnormalities. From a public health perspective, small group mean decrements in lung function coupled with an increased rate of decline in lung function of the exposed population may be consequential. PMID:25504898

  11. Haemodynamic Effects of Lung Recruitment Manoeuvres

    PubMed Central

    Szakmány, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Atelectasis caused by lung injury leads to increased intrapulmonary shunt, venous admixture, and hypoxaemia. Lung recruitment manoeuvres aim to quickly reverse this scenario by applying increased airway pressures for a short period of time which meant to open the collapsed alveoli. Although the procedure can improve oxygenation, but due to the heart-lung and right and left ventricle interactions elevated intrathoracic pressures can inflict serious effects on the cardiovascular system. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview on the pathophysiological background of the heart-lung interactions and the best way to monitor these changes during lung recruitment. PMID:26682219

  12. Farmer's lung

    PubMed Central

    Hapke, E. J.; Seal, R. M. E.; Thomas, G. O.; Hayes, M.; Meek, J. C.

    1968-01-01

    In assessing patients suffering from farmer's lung, the acute stage must be distinguished from the chronic stage of the disease. The conspicuous radiographic signs in the acute farmer's lung episode and the often dramatic clearing make an important contribution to the diagnosis. The radiographic changes in chronic farmer's lung are not specific and cover a wide range of appearances. Even minor nodular changes are significant. Farmer's lung, acute and chronic, is not a disease predominantly characterized by a defect in gas exchange. During the acute illness the reduction in diffusing capacity is often accompanied by a decrease in lung volumes; the pulmonary function profile of the chronic stage is variable. In only a relatively small proportion of chronic farmer's lung patients does a defect in gas exchange predominate, and in some it may be manifest only during exercise. Airway obstruction is a feature of chronic farmer's lung. In chronic farmer's lung patients discrepancies between the severity of complaints and results of pulmonary function tests are not infrequent. In some patients with considerable disability conventional pulmonary function studies may demonstrate little or no impairment of the functions measured. In patients suffering from an acute farmer's lung episode, serological tests should be positive, possibly in high titre. In the chronic stage of the disease the chance of finding positive serology in a patient diminishes with the length of time elapsed since the last acute episode. The period of serological transition appears to be the third year. Images PMID:4971361

  13. Lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Akhurst, Tim; MacManus, Michael; Hicks, Rodney J

    2015-04-01

    (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) plays a key role in the evaluation of undiagnosed lung nodules, when primary lung cancer is strongly suspected, or when it has already been diagnosed by other techniques. Although technical factors may compromise characterization of small or highly mobile lesions, lesions without apparent FDG uptake can generally be safely observed, whereas FDG-avid lung nodules almost always need further evaluation. FDG-PET/CT is now the primary staging imaging modality for patients with lung cancer who are being considered for curative therapy with either surgery or definitive radiation therapy. PMID:25829084

  14. Random Decrement Method and Modeling H/V Spectral Ratios: An Application for Soft Shallow Layers Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, H.; Huerta-Lopez, C. I.; Martinez-Cruzado, J. A.; Rodriguez-Lozoya, H. E.; Espinoza-Barreras, F.

    2009-05-01

    Results of an ongoing study to estimate the ground response upon weak and moderate earthquake excitations are presented. A reliable site characterization in terms of its soil properties and sub-soil layer configuration are parameters required in order to do a trustworthy estimation of the ground response upon dynamic loads. This study can be described by the following four steps: (1) Ambient noise measurements were collected at the study site where a bridge was under construction between the cities of Tijuana and Ensenada in Mexico. The time series were collected using a six channels recorder with an ADC converter of 16 bits within a maximum voltage range of ± 2.5 V, the recorder has an optional settings of: Butterworth/Bessel filters, gain and sampling rate. The sensors were a three orthogonal component (X, Y, Z) accelerometers with a sensitivity of 20 V/g, flat frequency response between DC to 200 Hz, and total full range of ±0.25 of g, (2) experimental H/V Spectral Ratios were computed to estimate the fundamental vibration frequency at the site, (3) using the time domain experimental H/V spectral ratios as well as the original recorded time series, the random decrement method was applied to estimate the fundamental frequency and damping of the site (system), and (4) finally the theoretical H/V spectral ratios were obtained by means of the stiffness matrix wave propagation method.. The interpretation of the obtained results was then finally compared with a geotechnical study available at the site.

  15. Programmed gradient descent biosorption of strontium ions by Saccaromyces cerevisiae and ashing analysis: A decrement solution for nuclide and heavy metal disposal.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingxue; Dong, Faqin; Zhang, Wei; Nie, Xiaoqin; Sun, Shiyong; Wei, Hongfu; Luo, Lang; Xiang, Sha; Zhang, Gege

    2016-08-15

    One of the waste disposal principles is decrement. The programmed gradient descent biosorption of strontium ions by Saccaromyces cerevisiae regarding bioremoval and ashing process for decrement were studied in present research. The results indicated that S. cerevisiae cells showed valid biosorption for strontium ions with greater than 90% bioremoval efficiency for high concentration strontium ions under batch culture conditions. The S. cerevisiae cells bioaccumulated approximately 10% of strontium ions in the cytoplasm besides adsorbing 90% strontium ions on cell wall. The programmed gradient descent biosorption presented good performance with a nearly 100% bioremoval ratio for low concentration strontium ions after 3 cycles. The ashing process resulted in a huge volume and weight reduction ratio as well as enrichment for strontium in the ash. XRD results showed that SrSO4 existed in ash. Simulated experiments proved that sulfate could adjust the precipitation of strontium ions. Finally, we proposed a technological flow process that combined the programmed gradient descent biosorption and ashing, which could yield great decrement and allow the supernatant to meet discharge standard. This technological flow process may be beneficial for nuclides and heavy metal disposal treatment in many fields. PMID:27136735

  16. Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  17. Lung transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, José Eduardo; Werebe, Eduardo de Campos; Carraro, Rafael Medeiros; Teixeira, Ricardo Henrique de Oliveira Braga; Fernandes, Lucas Matos; Abdalla, Luis Gustavo; Samano, Marcos Naoyuki; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lung transplantation is a globally accepted treatment for some advanced lung diseases, giving the recipients longer survival and better quality of life. Since the first transplant successfully performed in 1983, more than 40 thousand transplants have been performed worldwide. Of these, about seven hundred were in Brazil. However, survival of the transplant is less than desired, with a high mortality rate related to primary graft dysfunction, infection, and chronic graft dysfunction, particularly in the form of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. New technologies have been developed to improve the various stages of lung transplant. To increase the supply of lungs, ex vivo lung reconditioning has been used in some countries, including Brazil. For advanced life support in the perioperative period, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and hemodynamic support equipment have been used as a bridge to transplant in critically ill patients on the waiting list, and to keep patients alive until resolution of the primary dysfunction after graft transplant. There are patients requiring lung transplant in Brazil who do not even come to the point of being referred to a transplant center because there are only seven such centers active in the country. It is urgent to create new centers capable of performing lung transplantation to provide patients with some advanced forms of lung disease a chance to live longer and with better quality of life. PMID:26154550

  18. Lung Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    When you breathe, your lungs take in oxygen from the air and deliver it to the bloodstream. The cells in your body need oxygen to ... you breathe nearly 25,000 times. People with lung disease have difficulty breathing. Millions of people in ...

  19. PERSISTENCE OF PEAK FLOW DECREMENT IN CHILDREN FOLLOWING OZONE EXPOSURES EXCEEDING THE NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spironmetric measurements of lung function were made on six or more occasions over a five week period in 1982 in 39 children attending a summer day camp in Mendham, N.J. Mean slopes of the linear regressions of FVC, FEV1, MMEF and PEFR vs. peak 1 hr 03 concentrations for the day ...

  20. Systematic review of pleural plaques and lung function

    PubMed Central

    Kerper, Laura E.; Lynch, Heather N.; Zu, Ke; Tao, Ge; Utell, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Context US EPA proposed a Reference Concentration for Libby amphibole asbestos based on the premise that pleural plaques are adverse and cause lung function deficits. Objective We conducted a systematic review to evaluate whether there is an association between pleural plaques and lung function and ascertain whether results were dependent on the method used to identify plaques. Methods Using the PubMed database, we identified studies that evaluated pleural plaques and lung function. We assessed each study for quality, then integrated evidence and assessed associations based on the Bradford Hill guidelines. We also compared the results of HRCT studies to those of X-ray studies. Results We identified 16 HRCT and 36 X-ray studies. We rated six HRCT and 16 X-ray studies as higher quality based on a risk-of-bias analysis. Half of the higher quality studies reported small but statistically significant mean lung function decrements associated with plaques. None of the differences were clinically significant. Many studies had limitations, such as inappropriate controls and/or insufficient adjustment for confounders. There was little consistency in the direction of effect for the most commonly reported measurements. X-ray results were more variable than HRCT results. Pleural plaques were not associated with changes in lung function over time in longitudinal studies. Conclusion The weight of evidence indicates that pleural plaques do not impact lung function. Observed associations are most likely due to unidentified abnormalities or other factors. PMID:25518994

  1. Collapsed lung (pneumothorax)

    MedlinePlus

    Air around the lung; Air outside the lung; Pneumothorax dropped lung; Spontaneous pneumothorax ... Collapsed lung can be caused by an injury to the lung. Injuries can include a gunshot or knife wound ...

  2. Lung disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - lung disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on lung disease : American Lung Association -- www.lung.org National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov ...

  3. Lung flooding enables efficient lung sonography and tumour imaging in human ex vivo and porcine in vivo lung cancer model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sonography has become the imaging technique of choice for guiding intraoperative interventions in abdominal surgery. Due to artefacts from residual air content, however, videothoracoscopic and open intraoperative ultrasound-guided thermoablation of lung malignancies are impossible. Lung flooding is a new method that allows complete ultrasound imaging of lungs and their tumours. Methods Fourteen resected tumourous human lung lobes were examined transpleurally with B-mode ultrasound before (in atelectasis) and after lung flooding with isotonic saline solution. In two swine, the left lung was filled with 15 ml/kg isotonic saline solution through the left side of a double-lumen tube. Lung tumours were simulated by transthoracic ultrasound-guided injection of 5 ml of purified bovine serum albumin in glutaraldehyde, centrally into the left lower lung lobe. The rate of tumour detection, the severity of disability caused by residual gas, and sonomorphology of the lungs and tumours were assessed. Results The ex vivo tumour detection rate was 100% in flooded human lung lobes and 43% (6/14) in atelectatic lungs. In all cases of atelectasis, sonographic tumour imaging was impaired by residual gas. Tumours and atelectatic tissue were isoechoic. In 28% of flooded lungs, a little residual gas was observed that did not impair sonographic tumour imaging. In contrast to tumours, flooded lung tissue was hyperechoic, homogeneous, and of fine-grained structure. Because of the bronchial wall three-laminar structure, sonographic differentiation of vessels and bronchi was possible. In all cases, malignant tumours in the flooded lung appeared well-demarcated from the lung parenchyma. Adenocarcinoma, squamous, and large cell carcinomas were hypoechoic. Bronchioloalveolar cell carcinoma was slightly hyperechoic. Transpleural sonography identifies endobronchial tumour growth and bronchial wall destruction. With transthoracic sonography, the flooded animal lung can be completely

  4. Erlotinib plus capecitabine as first-line treatment for older Chinese patients with advanced adenocarcinoma of the lung (C-TONG0807): an open-label, single arm, multicenter phase II study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hong-Yun; Chen, Gong-Yan; Huang, Yan; Li, Xiao-li; Feng, Ji-Feng; Shi, Mei-Qi; Cheng, Ying; Ma, Li-Xia; Zhang, Yi-Ping; Gu, Cui-Ping; Song, Xiang-Qun; Zhou, Da; Zhang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical studies have shown synergism between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors and antifolates in solid tumors. This study is to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of erlotinib plus capecitabine as first-line treatment in older Chinese patients (≥ 65 years) with lung adenocarcinoma. This is an open-label, single arm, multicenter phase II clinical trial. Sixty- two patients with previously untreated stage IIIB/IV adenocarcinoma and age 65 years or above were enrolled at four tertiary teaching hospitals and 2 provincial hospitals in China; 58 patients fulfilled the study requirements. Erlotinib (150 mg/day) and capecitabine (1000 mg/m2 twice daily on days 1-14) were administered during every 21-day cycle. The primary endpoint was the non-progression rate at 12 weeks. EGFR and K-ras mutation rates were determined using PCR. Tumor expression of different biomarkers was assessed using immunohistochemistry. In a cohort of 58 patients, 34 patients had no disease progression at 12 weeks following treatment. The objective response rate was 29.3%, and the disease control rate was 75.9%. The objective response rate was significantly higher in patients with EGFR mutations than in those with wild-type EGFR. Patients with thymidine phosphorylase-negative tumors had significantly longer overall survival after one year than patients with thymidine phosphorylase-positive tumors. Forty-four patients had at least one primary adverse events (AEs), including skin rash (n = 30), grade 3 AEs (n = 17), and grade 4 AEs (n = 7). This is the first phase II clinical trial to assess erlotinib plus capecitabine combination therapy as first-line treatment in older patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Erlotinib/capecitabine chemotherapy was significantly better in patients with EGFR mutations and in those with thymidine phosphorylase-negative tumors. The use of fluorouracil derivatives for the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma warrants further study

  5. [A case of occupational lung disease (welder lung) in a mechanical worker].

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, L; Trabucco, S; Massola, A; Corfiati, M; Bello, A; Soleo, L

    2007-01-01

    A case of welder's lung is reported in a male hard smoker who had worked as welder-carpenter for almost 30 years. In order to establish an etiologic diagnosis, given the informed consent from the worker, open lung biopsy was performed that allowed to obtain sufficiently large specimens of affected lung to make histological, immunohistochemical and mineralogical examination. In such a way the pathologic features were accurately defined and a multidisciplinary approach was applied to differential diagnosis. The worker is recommended to undergo a strict health surveillance because of the reported association of welder's lung with lung cancer, especially in smokers. PMID:18409991

  6. Lung transplantation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Lung transplantation may be the only intervention that can prolong survival and improve quality of life for those individuals with advanced lung disease who are acceptable candidates for the procedure. However, these candidates may be extremely ill and require ventilator and/or circulatory support as a bridge to transplantation, and lung transplantation recipients are at risk of numerous post-transplant complications that include surgical complications, primary graft dysfunction, acute rejection, opportunistic infection, and chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD), which may be caused by chronic rejection. Many advances in pre- and post-transplant management have led to improved outcomes over the past decade. These include the creation of sound guidelines for candidate selection, improved surgical techniques, advances in donor lung preservation, an improving ability to suppress and treat allograft rejection, the development of prophylaxis protocols to decrease the incidence of opportunistic infection, more effective therapies for treating infectious complications, and the development of novel therapies to treat and manage CLAD. A major obstacle to prolonged survival beyond the early post-operative time period is the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), which is the most common form of CLAD. This manuscript discusses recent and evolving advances in the field of lung transplantation. PMID:23710330

  7. The use of lung ultrasonography to confirm lung isolation in an infant who underwent emergent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Jae-Sik; Park, Inkyung; Min, Hong-Gi

    2015-01-01

    Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for pediatric patients has gained popularity due to better outcomes than open surgery. For this procedure, one-lung ventilation may be necessary to provide an adequate surgical field. Confirming lung isolation is crucial when one-lung ventilation is required. Recently, we experienced a case in which one-lung ventilation was confirmed by ultrasonography using the lung sliding sign and the lung pulse in an infant. Since lung ultrasonography can be performed easily and quickly, it may be a useful method to confirm lung isolation, particularly in emergency surgeries with limited time, devices, and experienced anesthesiologists. PMID:26257857

  8. Beginnings of open-heart surgery in Gdansk – double role of the Pemco heart-lung machine and new facts about Dutch-Polish cooperation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The first open-heart surgery in Gdansk took place in 1975. It was possible thanks to the gift of a Pemco extracorporeal circulation machine from the Netherlands to the Surgery Institute of the Medical Academy of Gdansk. The article presents additional, unpublished informations which enable a new interpretation of the previously known facts. PMID:27516801

  9. Fast concurrent array-based stacks, queues and deques using fetch-and-increment-bounded, fetch-and-decrement-bounded and store-on-twin synchronization primitives

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Dong; Gara, Alana; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Ohmacht, Martin; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Wisniewski, Robert

    2014-09-16

    Implementation primitives for concurrent array-based stacks, queues, double-ended queues (deques) and wrapped deques are provided. In one aspect, each element of the stack, queue, deque or wrapped deque data structure has its own ticket lock, allowing multiple threads to concurrently use multiple elements of the data structure and thus achieving high performance. In another aspect, new synchronization primitives FetchAndIncrementBounded (Counter, Bound) and FetchAndDecrementBounded (Counter, Bound) are implemented. These primitives can be implemented in hardware and thus promise a very fast throughput for queues, stacks and double-ended queues.

  10. The "baby lung" became an adult.

    PubMed

    Gattinoni, Luciano; Marini, John J; Pesenti, Antonio; Quintel, Michael; Mancebo, Jordi; Brochard, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    The baby lung was originally defined as the fraction of lung parenchyma that, in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), still maintains normal inflation. Its size obviously depends on ARDS severity and relates to the compliance of the respiratory system. CO2 clearance and blood oxygenation primarily occur within the baby lung. While the specific compliance suggests the intrinsic mechanical characteristics to be nearly normal, evidence from positron emission tomography suggests that at least a part of the well-aerated baby lung is inflamed. The baby lung is more a functional concept than an anatomical one; in fact, in the prone position, the baby lung "shifts" from the ventral lung regions toward the dorsal lung regions while usually increasing its size. This change is associated with better gas exchange, more homogeneously distributed trans-pulmonary forces, and a survival advantage. Positive end expiratory pressure also increases the baby lung size, both allowing better inflation of already open units and adding new pulmonary units. Viewed as surrogates of stress and strain, tidal volume and plateau pressures are better tailored to baby lung size than to ideal body weight. Although less information is available for the baby lung during spontaneous breathing efforts, the general principles regulating the safety of ventilation are also applicable under these conditions. PMID:26781952

  11. Profusion of opacities in simple coal workers’ pneumoconiosis is associated with reduced lung function

    PubMed Central

    Blackley, David J.; Laney, A. Scott; Halldin, Cara N.; Cohen, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Background A large body of evidence demonstrates dose-response relationships of cumulative coal mine dust exposure with lung function impairment and with small opacity profusion. However, medical literature generally holds that simple coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP) is not associated with lung function impairment. This study examines the relationship between small opacity profusion and lung function in U.S. underground coal miners with simple CWP. Methods Miners were examined during 2005–2013 as part of the Enhanced Coal Workers’ Health Surveillance Program. Work histories were obtained, and chest radiographs and spirometry were administered. For those with multiple Program encounters, the most recent visit was used. Lung parenchymal abnormalities consistent with CWP were classified according to International Labour Organization guidelines, and reference values for FEV1 and FVC were calculated using reference equations derived from the 3rd National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Differences in lung function were evaluated by opacity profusion, and regression models were fit to characterize associations between profusion and lung function. Results A total of 8,230 miners were eligible for analysis; 269 had category 1 or 2 simple CWP. Decrements in FEV1 percent predicted were nearly consistent across profusion subcategories. Clear decrements in FVC percent predicted and FEV1/FVC were also observed, although these were less consistent. Controlling for smoking status, BMI, and mining tenure, each one-unit subcategory increase in profusion was associated with decreases of 1.5% (95% CI 1.0% to 1.9%), 1.0% (95% CI 0.6% to 1.3%), and 0.6% (95% CI 0.4% to 0.8%) in FEV1 percent predicted, FVC percent predicted, and FEV1/FVC, respectively. Conclusions We observed progressively lower lung function across the range of small opacity profusion. These findings address a longstanding question in occupational medicine, and point to the importance of medical

  12. Rheumatoid lung disease

    MedlinePlus

    Lung disease - rheumatoid arthritis; Rheumatoid nodules; Rheumatoid lung ... Lung problems are common in rheumatoid arthritis. They often cause no symptoms. The cause of lung disease associated with rheumatoid arthritis is unknown. Sometimes, the medicines used to ...

  13. Lung cancer - small cell

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC ...

  14. Lung cancer - small cell

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  15. Interstitial Lung Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Interstitial lung disease is the name for a large group of diseases that inflame or scar the lungs. The inflammation and ... is responsible for some types of interstitial lung diseases. Specific types include Black lung disease among coal ...

  16. Tsunami lung.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yoshihiro; Fujino, Yasuhisa; Onodera, Makoto; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Shozushima, Tatsuyori; Ogino, Nobuyoshi; Mori, Kiyoshi; Oikawa, Hirotaka; Koeda, Yorihiko; Ueda, Hironobu; Takahashi, Tomohiro; Terui, Katsutoshi; Nakadate, Toshihide; Aoki, Hidehiko; Endo, Shigeatsu

    2012-04-01

    We encountered three cases of lung disorders caused by drowning in the recent large tsunami that struck following the Great East Japan Earthquake. All three were females, and two of them were old elderly. All segments of both lungs were involved in all the three patients, necessitating ICU admission and endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. All three died within 3 weeks. In at least two cases, misswallowing of oil was suspected from the features noted at the time of the detection. Sputum culture for bacteria yielded isolation of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Legionella pneumophila, Burkholderia cepacia, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The cause of tsunami lung may be a combination of chemical induced pneumonia and bacterial pneumonia. PMID:22057370

  17. Analysis of Lung Tissue Using Ion Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, J. L.; Barrera, R.; Miranda, J.

    2002-08-01

    In this work a comparative study is presented of the contents of metals in lung tissue from healthy patients and with lung cancer, by means of two analytical techniques: Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). The samples of cancerous tissue were taken from 26 autopsies made to individuals died in the National Institute of Respiratory Disease (INER), 22 of cancer and 4 of other non-cancer biopsies. When analyzing the entirety of the samples, in the cancerous tissues, there were increments in the concentrations of S (4%), K (635%), Co (85%) and Cu (13%). Likewise, there were deficiencies in the concentrations of Cl (59%), Ca (6%), Fe (26%) and Zn (7%). Only in the cancerous tissues there were appearances of P, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Br and Sr. The tissue samples were classified according to cancer types (adenocarcinomas, epidermoides and of small cell carcinoma), personal habits (smokers and alcoholic), genetic predisposition and residence place. There was a remarkable decrease in the concentration of Ca and a marked increment in the Cu in the epidermoide tissue samples with regard to those of adenocarcinoma or of small cells cancer. Also, decrements were detected in K and increments of Fe, Co and Cu in the sample belonging to people that resided in Mexico City with regard to those that resided in the State of Mexico.

  18. Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn-Evans, Erin; Gregory, Kevin; Arsintescu, Lucia; Whitmire, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Sleep loss, circadian desynchronization, and work overload occur to some extent for ground and flight crews, prior to and during spaceflight missions. Ground evidence indicates that such risk factors may lead to performance decrements and adverse health outcomes, which could potentially compromise mission objectives. Efforts are needed to identify the environmental and mission conditions that interfere with sleep and circadian alignment, as well as individual differences in vulnerability and resiliency to sleep loss and circadian desynchronization. Specifically, this report highlights a collection of new evidence to better characterize the risk and reveals new gaps in this risk as follows: Sleep loss is apparent during spaceflight. Astronauts consistently average less sleep during spaceflight relative to on the ground. The causes of this sleep loss remain unknown, however ground-based evidence suggests that the sleep duration of astronauts is likely to lead to performance impairment and short and long-term health consequences. Further research is needed in this area in order to develop screening tools to assess individual astronaut sleep need in order to quantify the magnitude of sleep loss during spaceflight; current and planned efforts in BHP's research portfolio address this need. In addition, it is still unclear whether the conditions of spaceflight environment lead to sleep loss or whether other factors, such as work overload lead to the reduced sleep duration. Future data mining efforts and continued data collection on the ISS will help to further characterize factors contributing to sleep loss. Sleep inertia has not been evaluated during spaceflight. Ground-based studies confirm that it takes two to four hours to achieve optimal performance after waking from a sleep episode. Sleep inertia has been associated with increased accidents and reduced performance in operational environments. Sleep inertia poses considerable risk during spaceflight when emergency

  19. Lung Transplantation

    MedlinePlus

    ... years. Their conditions are so severe that other treatments, such as medicines or breathing devices, no longer work. Lung transplants most often are used to treat people who have severe COPD Cystic fibrosis Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency Pulmonary ...

  20. Therapeutic exercise attenuates neutrophilic lung injury and skeletal muscle wasting.

    PubMed

    Files, D Clark; Liu, Chun; Pereyra, Andrea; Wang, Zhong-Min; Aggarwal, Neil R; D'Alessio, Franco R; Garibaldi, Brian T; Mock, Jason R; Singer, Benjamin D; Feng, Xin; Yammani, Raghunatha R; Zhang, Tan; Lee, Amy L; Philpott, Sydney; Lussier, Stephanie; Purcell, Lina; Chou, Jeff; Seeds, Michael; King, Landon S; Morris, Peter E; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2015-03-11

    Early mobilization of critically ill patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has emerged as a therapeutic strategy that improves patient outcomes, such as the duration of mechanical ventilation and muscle strength. Despite the apparent efficacy of early mobility programs, their use in clinical practice is limited outside of specialized centers and clinical trials. To evaluate the mechanisms underlying mobility therapy, we exercised acute lung injury (ALI) mice for 2 days after the instillation of lipopolysaccharides into their lungs. We found that a short duration of moderate intensity exercise in ALI mice attenuated muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1)-mediated atrophy of the limb and respiratory muscles and improved limb muscle force generation. Exercise also limited the influx of neutrophils into the alveolar space through modulation of a coordinated systemic neutrophil chemokine response. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) concentrations were systemically reduced by exercise in ALI mice, and in vivo blockade of the G-CSF receptor recapitulated the lung exercise phenotype in ALI mice. Additionally, plasma G-CSF concentrations in humans with acute respiratory failure (ARF) undergoing early mobility therapy showed greater decrements over time compared to control ARF patients. Together, these data provide a mechanism whereby early mobility therapy attenuates muscle wasting and limits ongoing alveolar neutrophilia through modulation of systemic neutrophil chemokines in lung-injured mice and humans. PMID:25761888

  1. The efficacy of the time-scheduled decremental continuous infusion of fentanyl for postoperative patient-controlled analgesia after total intravenous anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Yeop; Park, Sung-Yong; Chang, Hyuk Soo; Nam, Si-Kwon

    2013-01-01

    Background Intravenous fentanyl has been used for acute postoperative pain management, but has not always provided reliable adequate analgesia, including patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of time-scheduled decremental infusion of fentanyl for postoperative analgesia. Methods Ninety-nine patients, aged 20-65 years, undergoing laparoscopic-assisted hysterectomy using total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) were randomly assigned into one of the three groups. Their background infusions of fentanyl diluent (2 ml/hr of diluent was equivalent with 0.5 µg/kg/hr of fentanyl) with PCA were maintained at the fixed-rate of 2 ml/hr until the postoperative 24 hr (FX2-2-2), or at the decremental rates of 6.0, 4.0, 2.0 ml/hr (D6-4-2) and 8.0, 4.0, 2.0 ml/hr (D8-4-2). The visual analogue score (VAS), incidence of inadequate analgesia, frequency of PCA intervention, and side effects were evaluated. Results VAS was significantly higher in FX2-2-2 than in D6-4-2 and D8-4-2 until postoperative 3 hr (P < 0.05). After postoperative 4 hr, VAS was significantly higher in FX2-2-2 than D8-4-2 (P < 0.05). The incidence of inadequate analgesia of FX2-2-2 was significantly greater than D6-4-2 (P = 0.038) and D8-4-2 (P < 0.001) until postoperative 1 hr. None of the patients had ventilatory depression, and postoperative nausea and vomiting were not significant among the groups. Conclusions The time-scheduled decremental background infusion regimens of fentanyl, based on the pharmacokinetic model, could provide more effective postoperative pain management after TIVA, and the side effects and the risk for morbidity were not different from the fixed-rate infusion regimen. PMID:24427461

  2. Cigarette smoking and lung destruction. Accumulation of neutrophils in the lungs of cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Hunninghake, G W; Crystal, R G

    1983-11-01

    It has been hypothesized that lung destruction in persons with emphysema associated with cigarette smoking is mediated by elastase released by neutrophils that have migrated to the alveolar structures in response to cigarette smoke. To directly evaluate this hypothesis, cell suspensions, isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and from open lung biopsies of nonsmokers and cigarette smokers with normal lung parenchyma and from open lung biopsies of nonsmokers and cigarette smokers who have sarcoidosis were evaluated for the presence of neutrophils. A significantly increased number of neutrophils was present in the cell suspensions isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and from open lung biopsies of both normal and sarcoid cigarette smokers compared with that in the nonsmokers (p less than 0.01, each comparison). Evaluation of the alveolar macrophages present in lavage fluid suggested a mechanism by which neutrophils may be attracted to the lungs of cigarette smokers: alveolar macrophages of cigarette smokers release a chemotactic factor for neutrophils, whereas alveolar macrophages of nonsmokers do not. In addition, alveolar macrophages of nonsmokers, after exposure to cigarette smoke, in vitro, are stimulated to release this chemotactic factor. These studies demonstrate that an increased number of neutrophils are present in the lungs of cigarette smokers compared with that in nonsmokers and suggest that cigarette smoke may attract neutrophils to the lung by stimulating alveolar macrophages to release a potent chemotactic factor for neutrophils. PMID:6556892

  3. Persistence of peak flow decrement in children following ozone exposures exceeding the National Ambient Air Quality Standard

    SciTech Connect

    Lioy, P.J.; Vollmuth, T.A.; Lippmann, M.

    1985-01-01

    Spironmetric measurements of lung function were made on six or more occasions over a five week period in 1982 in 39 children attending a summer day camp in Mendham, N.J. Mean slopes of the linear regressions of FVC, FEV1, MMEF and PEFR vs. peak 1-hr O/sub 3/ concentrations for the day of the function measurements in the individual children were negative, with PEFR showing the strongest effect. There were no consistent associations with other environmental variables. Analysis of residuals from the regression lines for PEFR vs. daily 1-hr O/sub 3/ peak and -hr H/sup +/ and SO/sub 4/= exposures for each child showed large overestimates in PEFR during the second week of the study. There was a photochemical smog episode immediately preceding the second week, with successive daily - hr O/sub 3/ peaks of 143, 185, 165, 135 and 115 ppb, and this smog exposure appears to be the most-likely cause of the persistent second week depression in PEFR from the values expected on the basis of an overall regression from the five weeks of data.

  4. An automatic approach towards modal parameter estimation for high-rise buildings of multicomponent signals under ambient excitations via filter-free Random Decrement Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasser, Fatima; Li, Zhongyang; Martin, Nadine; Gueguen, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposes an automatic modal analysis approach for signals of high-rise buildings recorded under real-world ambient excitations. The fact of working over such type of signals is faced with several challenges: the time-domain convolution between the system impulse response and the seismic noise, the existence of several components, the presence of closely-spaced frequency modes, with high additive noises, and low, exponential and damped amplitudes. The proposed approach handles these challenges simultaneously without the need for a user intervention. It is based on a filter-free Random Decrement Technique to estimate the free-decay response, followed by a spectral-based method for a rough modal estimate and finalized by a Maximum-Likelihood Estimation process to refine the modal estimates. Each of these processes is responsible to tackle one or more of the aforementioned challenges in the aim to provide an automatic and moreover a reliable modal analysis of the studied signals.

  5. Photoradiation Therapy Of Obstructing Endobronchial Lung Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balchum, Oscar J.; Doiron, Daniel R.

    1982-12-01

    Clinical trials of photoradiation therapy (PRT) have been carried out in 32 patients with lung cancer, 10 of which are reported here. The aim is the palliative treatment and control of cancer lesions obstructing an airway, whether in the trachea or in a large bronchus leading to a lung or to a lobe of a lung. The objective or patient benefit is the opening up of the lumen of the airway to improve ventilation to relieve shortness of breath, and to prevent the retention of secretions containing bacteria, that cause lung infections. Immediate results (one to several weeks) were uniformly good. Air passageways were opened up as revealed by subsequent bronchoscopy, after clearing away tumor debris. Short-term (several months) observations were limited in number but indicate potentially good results. Future research is directed toward better criteria for patient selection improved patient evaluation that will reveal potential cardiac and pulmonary complications, and the devising of more suitable laser light delivery techniques.

  6. Ventilator-induced Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kneyber, Martin C. J.; Zhang, Haibo; Slutsky, Arthur S.

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that mechanical ventilation can injure the lung, producing an entity known as ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). There are various forms of VILI, including volutrauma (i.e., injury caused by overdistending the lung), atelectrauma (injury due to repeated opening/closing of lung units), and biotrauma (release of mediators that can induce lung injury or aggravate pre-existing injury, potentially leading to multiple organ failure). Experimental data in the pediatric context are in accord with the importance of VILI, and appear to show age-related susceptibility to VILI, although a conclusive link between use of large Vts and mortality has not been demonstrated in this population. The relevance of VILI in the pediatric intensive care unit population is thus unclear. Given the physiological and biological differences in the respiratory systems of infants, children, and adults, it is difficult to directly extrapolate clinical practice from adults to children. This Critical Care Perspective analyzes the relevance of VILI to the pediatric population, and addresses why pediatric patients might be less susceptible than adults to VILI. PMID:25003705

  7. [Pancoast tumor-like primary lung lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Zaucha, Renata; Jassem, Jacek

    2007-01-01

    Apical lung location of lymphomas is extremely rare and may pose diagnostic problems. Here we present a case of advanced primary Pancoast-like left apical lung lymphoma incidentally diagnosed in a 72 year old asymptomatic woman after a routine, prophylactic chest X-ray performed in June 2005. FNB was not diagnostic therefore an open lung biopsy was attempted. Histopathological examination of the excised specimen was consistent with B-cell low-grade marginal zone extranodal NHL (BALTL); CD20+, CD3-. Treatment combined of 9 cycles of chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy of the residual mass allowed to achieve a long-term complete remission. PMID:17973229

  8. How Lungs Work

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health and Diseases > How Lungs Work How Lungs Work The Respiratory System Your lungs are part of ... Parts of the Respiratory System and How They Work Airways SINUSES are hollow spaces in the bones ...

  9. Lung Carcinoid Tumor: Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... for lung carcinoid tumor symptoms Surgery to treat lung carcinoid tumors Surgery is the main treatment for ... often be cured by surgery alone. Types of lung surgery Different operations can be used to treat ( ...

  10. Lung diffusion testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... as: Emphysema Interstitial fibrosis Pulmonary embolism Pulmonary hypertension Sarcoidosis Lung hemorrhage Asthma Risks There are no significant ... Read More Asbestosis Interstitial lung disease Lung disease Sarcoidosis Update Date 11/19/2015 Updated by: Denis ...

  11. Lung diffusion testing

    MedlinePlus

    Lung diffusion testing measures how well the lungs exchange gases. This is an important part of lung testing , because ... Gender Height Hemoglobin (the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen) level

  12. Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease? Childhood interstitial (in-ter-STISH-al) lung disease, ... with similar symptoms—it's not a precise diagnosis. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) also occurs in adults. However, the cause ...

  13. Ultrasensitive Characterization of Site-Specific Glycosylation of Affinity Purified Haptoglobin from Lung Cancer Patient Plasma Using 10 μm i.d. Porous Layer Open Tubular (PLOT) LC-LTQ-CID/ETD-MS

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongdong; Hincapie, Marina; Rejtar, Tomas; Karger, Barry L.

    2011-01-01

    Site-specific analysis of protein glycosylation is important for biochemical and clinical research efforts. Glycopeptide analysis using liquid chromatography - collision induced dissociation/electron transfer dissociation - mass spectrometry (LC-CID/ETD-MS) allows simultaneous characterization of glycan structure and attached peptide site. However, due to the low ionization efficiency of glycopeptides during electrospray ionization (ESI), 200–500 fmol of sample per injection is needed for a single LC-MS run, which makes it challenging for the analysis of limited amounts of glycoprotein purified from biological matrices. To improve the sensitivity of LC-MS analysis for glycopeptides, an ultra-narrow porous layer open tubular (PLOT) LC column (2.5 m × 10 μm i.d.) was coupled to a linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LTQ-CID/ETD-MS) to provide sensitive analysis of N-linked protein glycosylation heterogeneity. The potential of the developed method is demonstrated by the characterization of site-specific glycosylation using haptoglobin (Hpt) as a model protein. To limit the amount of haptoglobin to low pmole amounts of protein, we affinity purified it from 1 μL of pooled lung cancer patients plasma. A total of 26 glycoforms/glycan compositions on three Hpt tryptic glycopeptides were identified and quantified from 10 LC-MS runs with a consumption of 100 fmol Hpt digest (13 ng protein, 10 fmol per injection). Included in this analysis was the determination of the glycan occupancy level. At this sample consumption level, the high sensitivity of the PLOT LC-LTQ-CID/ETD-MS allowed glycopeptide identification and structure determination, along with relative quantitation of glycans presented on the same peptide backbone, even for low abundant glycopeptides at the ~100 attomole level. The PLOT LC-MS is shown to have sufficient sensitivity to allow characterization of site-specific protein glycosylation from trace levels of glycosylated proteins. PMID:21338062

  14. Interstitial lung disease

    MedlinePlus

    Diffuse parenchymal lung disease; Alveolitis; Idiopathic pulmonary pneumonitis (IPP) ... The lungs contain tiny air sacs (alveoli), which is where oxygen is absorbed. These air sacs expand with each ...

  15. Lung surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Thoracotomy - discharge; Lung tissue removal - discharge; Pneumonectomy - discharge; Lobectomy - discharge; Lung biopsy - discharge; Thoracoscopy - discharge; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - discharge; VATS - ...

  16. Lung surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Thoracotomy - discharge; Lung tissue removal - discharge; Pneumonectomy - discharge; Lobectomy - discharge; Lung biopsy - discharge; Thoracoscopy - discharge; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - discharge; VATS - discharge; Thoracoscopy - discharge

  17. Lung Circulation.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Karthik; Shimoda, Larissa A

    2016-01-01

    The circulation of the lung is unique both in volume and function. For example, it is the only organ with two circulations: the pulmonary circulation, the main function of which is gas exchange, and the bronchial circulation, a systemic vascular supply that provides oxygenated blood to the walls of the conducting airways, pulmonary arteries and veins. The pulmonary circulation accommodates the entire cardiac output, maintaining high blood flow at low intravascular arterial pressure. As compared with the systemic circulation, pulmonary arteries have thinner walls with much less vascular smooth muscle and a relative lack of basal tone. Factors controlling pulmonary blood flow include vascular structure, gravity, mechanical effects of breathing, and the influence of neural and humoral factors. Pulmonary vascular tone is also altered by hypoxia, which causes pulmonary vasoconstriction. If the hypoxic stimulus persists for a prolonged period, contraction is accompanied by remodeling of the vasculature, resulting in pulmonary hypertension. In addition, genetic and environmental factors can also confer susceptibility to development of pulmonary hypertension. Under normal conditions, the endothelium forms a tight barrier, actively regulating interstitial fluid homeostasis. Infection and inflammation compromise normal barrier homeostasis, resulting in increased permeability and edema formation. This article focuses on reviewing the basics of the lung circulation (pulmonary and bronchial), normal development and transition at birth and vasoregulation. Mechanisms contributing to pathological conditions in the pulmonary circulation, in particular when barrier function is disrupted and during development of pulmonary hypertension, will also be discussed. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:897-943, 2016. PMID:27065170

  18. Who Needs a Lung Transplant?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Who Needs a Lung Transplant? Your doctor may recommend a lung transplant ... lungs to pick up oxygen. Applying to a Lung Transplant Program Lung transplants are done in medical ...

  19. Lung Ultrasound in the Critically Ill Neonate.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, Daniel A; Mauriat, Philippe

    2012-08-01

    Critical ultrasound is a new tool for first-line physicians, including neonate intensivists. The consideration of the lung as one major target allows to redefine the priorities. Simple machines work better than up-to-date ones. We use a microconvex probe. Ten standardized signs allow a majority of uses: the bat sign (pleural line), lung sliding and the A-line (normal lung surface), the quad sign and sinusoid sign indicating pleural effusion regardless its echogenicity, the tissue-like sign and fractal sign indicating lung consolidation, the B-line artifact and lung rockets (indicating interstitial syndrome), abolished lung sliding with the stratosphere sign, suggesting pneumothorax, and the lung point, indicating pneumothorax. Other signs are used for more sophisticated applications (distinguishing atelectasis from pneumonia for instance...). All these disorders were assessed in the adult using CT as gold standard with sensitivity and specificity ranging from 90 to 100%, allowing to consider ultrasound as a reasonable bedside gold standard in the critically ill. The same signs are found, with no difference in the critically ill neonate. Fast protocols such as the BLUE-protocol are available, allowing immediate diagnosis of acute respiratory failure using seven standardized profiles. Pulmonary edema e.g. yields anterior lung rockets associated with lung sliding, making the B-profile. The FALLS-protocol, inserted in a Limited Investigation including a simple model of heart and vessels, assesses acute circulatory failure using lung artifacts. Interventional ultrasound (mainly, thoracocenthesis) provides maximal safety. Referrals to CT can be postponed. CEURF proposes personnalized bedside trainings since 1990. Lung ultrasound opens physicians to a visual medicine. PMID:23255876

  20. Fluoxetine-Induced Decrements in Sexual Responses of Female Rats and Hamsters Are Reversed by 3α,5α-THP

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Cheryl A.; Rhodes, Madeline E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Sexual dysfunction, as a result of selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment among women, is relatively common and is a factor in medication compliance. The mechanisms that underlie these side-effects of SSRIs are not well-understood. SSRIs can alter activity of catabolic enzymes that are involved in progesterone’s conversion to 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one (3α,5α-THP). 3α,5α-THP plays a key role in female reproductive physiology and behavior. Aims This study aimed to determine whether 3α,5α-THP, in the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA) may be a potential mechanism for fluoxetine’s reduction in sexual responding of female rodents. We hypothesized that if fluoxetine induces decrements in sexual responding in part through actions of 3α,5α-THP, then fluoxetine will inhibit sexual receptivity concomitant with reducing 3α,5α-THP levels, effects which can be reversed by 3α,5α-THP administration. Methods Experiment 1 investigated effects of acute systemic fluoxetine [20 mg/kg intraperitoneal (IP)] and/or 3α,5α-THP [500 µg, subcutaneous (SC)] administration on sexual responding of ovariectomized, hormone-primed rats. Experiment 2 examined effects of 3α,5α-THP administration to the midbrain VTA (100 ng) on fluoxetine-induced decrements in lordosis of ovariectomized, hormone-primed rats and hamsters. Main Outcome Measures Sexual responding was determined in rats and hamsters. For rats, the percentage of times that the lordosis response occurred following mounting by a sexually-vigorous male (lordosis quotients) was utilized. For hamsters, lateral displacement, the pelvic movement that females will make to facilitate intromissions by a male hamster, was utilized. Results Fluoxetine significantly reduced lordosis, and this was reversed SC 3α,5α-THP. Intra-VTA 3α,5α-THP attenuated fluoxetine’s detrimental effects on lordosis quotients and lateral displacement of rats and hamsters, respectively. Conclusions Thus, fluoxetine

  1. Lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Frödin, J E

    1996-01-01

    This synthesis of the literature on radiotherapy for lung cancer is based on 80 scientific articles, including 2 meta-analyses, 29 randomized studies, 19 prospective studies, and 21 retrospective studies. These studies involve 28172 patients. Basic treatment for limited-stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC), is chemotherapy. Addition of radiotherapy to the primary tumor and mediastinum reduces local recurrence, prolongs long-term survival, and is often indicated. Current, and future, studies can be expected to show successive improvements in results for SCLC by optimizing the combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Should these treatments be given simultaneously or sequentially, and in which order? Which fractionation is best? Probably, no change in resource requirements for radiotherapy will be necessary, with the possible exception of changes in fractionation. Surgery constitutes primary treatment for nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) stages I and II. Radiotherapy may provide an alternative for patients who are inoperable for medical reasons. The value of radiotherapy following radical surgery for NSCLC remains to be shown. It is not indicated based on current knowledge. For NSCLC stage III, radiotherapy shrinks tumors and prolongs survival at 2 and 3 years. Whether it influences long-term survival after 5 years has not been shown. Considering the side effects of treatment, one must question whether limited improvements in survival motivate routine radiotherapy in these patients. Earlier attempts to add chemotherapy to radiotherapy to improve treatment results of NSCLC have not yielded convincing results. Several studies are currently on-going. Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) greatly reduces the risk for brain metastases from SCLC. However, it has little influence on survival. Many treatment centers give PCI to SCLC patients who have achieved complete remission. This practice may be questioned since PCI is associated with serious complications. PCI is

  2. Lung surfactant.

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, S A

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of pulmonary surfactant are reviewed from a biochemical perspective. The major emphasis is on the lipid components of surfactant. Topics reviewed include surfactant composition, cellular and subcellular sites as well as pathways of biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, disaturated phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol. The surfactant system in the developing fetus and neonate is considered in terms of phospholipid content and composition, rates of precursor incorporation, activities of individual enzymes of phospholipid synthesis and glycogen content and metabolism. The influence of the following hormones and other factors on lung maturation and surfactant production is discussed: glucocorticoids, thyroid hormone, estrogen, prolactin, cyclic AMP, beta-adrenergic and cholinergic agonists, prostaglandins and growth factors. The influence of maternal diabetes, fetal sex, stress and labor are also considered. Nonphysiologic and toxic agents which influence surfactant in the fetus, newborn and adult are reviewed. PMID:6145585

  3. Interstitial Lung Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Interstitial lung disease is the name for a large group of diseases that inflame or scar the lungs. The inflammation and scarring make it hard to ... air is responsible for some types of interstitial lung diseases. Specific types include Black lung disease among ...

  4. Lung Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Treatment Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Lung cancer is ... non- skin cancer in the United States. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in men and in women. ...

  5. Ex vivo lung perfusion.

    PubMed

    Reeb, Jeremie; Cypel, Marcelo

    2016-03-01

    Lung transplantation is an established life-saving therapy for patients with end-stage lung disease. Unfortunately, greater success in lung transplantation is hindered by a shortage of lung donors and the relatively poor early-, mid-, and long-term outcomes associated with severe primary graft dysfunction. Ex vivo lung perfusion has emerged as a modern preservation technique that allows for a more accurate lung assessment and improvement in lung quality. This review outlines the: (i) rationale behind the method; (ii) techniques and protocols; (iii) Toronto ex vivo lung perfusion method; (iv) devices available; and (v) clinical experience worldwide. We also highlight the potential of ex vivo lung perfusion in leading a new era of lung preservation. PMID:26700566

  6. Bereavement is associated with time-dependent decrements in cellular immune function in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus type 1-seropositive homosexual men.

    PubMed Central

    Goodkin, K; Feaster, D J; Tuttle, R; Blaney, N T; Kumar, M; Baum, M K; Shapshak, P; Fletcher, M A

    1996-01-01

    Seventy-nine human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-seropositive homosexual men participating in a longitudinal study of HIV-1 infection were assessed twice, 6 months apart, to investigate associations between bereavement and cellular immune function. Subjects were assessed by using a theory-driven model comprising life stressors, social support and coping style, and control variables. Natural killer cell cytotoxicity was decreased among the bereaved at both times. Lymphocyte proliferative response to phytohemagglutinin was decreased among the bereaved at the second time point but not at the first. These functional immune decrements are associated with increased neuroendocrine responses of the sympathetic adrenomeduallary system as well as the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Implications for differential neuroendocrine responses over time are discussed. Active coping style was independently and positively related to both immune measures. The results imply that a bereavement support group intervention merits investigation for an effect on immunological measures and clinical progression of HIV-1 infection as well as grief resolution. PMID:8770514

  7. Fundamental Vibration Frequency and Damping Estimation: A Comparison Using the Random Decrement Method, the Empirical Mode Decomposition, and the HV Spectral Ratio Method for Local Site Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta-Lopez, C. I.; Upegui Botero, F. M.; Pulliam, J.; Willemann, R. J.; Pasyanos, M.; Schmitz, M.; Rojas Mercedes, N.; Louie, J. N.; Moschetti, M. P.; Martinez-Cruzado, J. A.; Suárez, L.; Huerfano Moreno, V.; Polanco, E.

    2013-12-01

    Site characterization in civil engineering demands to know at least two of the dynamic properties of soil systems, which are: (i) dominant vibration frequency, and (ii) damping. As part of an effort to develop understanding of the principles of earthquake hazard analysis, particularly site characterization techniques using non invasive/non destructive seismic methods, a workshop (Pan-American Advanced Studies Institute: New Frontiers in Geophysical Research: Bringing New Tools and Techniques to Bear on Earthquake Hazard Analysis and Mitigation) was conducted during july 15-25, 2013 in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic by the alliance of Pan-American Advanced Studies Institute (PASI) and Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), jointly supported by Department of Energy (DOE) and National Science Foundation (NSF). Preliminary results of the site characterization in terms of fundamental vibration frequency and damping are here presented from data collected during the workshop. Three different methods were used in such estimations and later compared in order to identify the stability of estimations as well as the advantage or disadvantage among these methodologies. The used methods were the: (i) Random Decrement Method (RDM), to estimate fundamental vibration frequency and damping simultaneously; (ii) Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), to estimate the vibration modes, and (iii) Horizontal to Vertical Spectra ratio (HVSR), to estimate the fundamental vibration frequency. In all cases ambient vibration and induced vibration were used.

  8. 76 FR 58523 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Advisory Council. The meeting... of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Advisory Council. ] Date: October 18, 2011. Open: 8...

  9. 78 FR 28229 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Advisory Council. The meeting... of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Advisory Council. ] Date: June 19, 2013. Open: 8:00...

  10. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ridge, Carole A.; McErlean, Aoife M.; Ginsberg, Michelle S.

    2013-01-01

    Incidence and mortality attributed to lung cancer has risen steadily since the 1930s. Efforts to improve outcomes have not only led to a greater understanding of the etiology of lung cancer, but also the histologic and molecular characteristics of individual lung tumors. This article describes this evolution by discussing the extent of the current lung cancer epidemic including contemporary incidence and mortality trends, the risk factors for development of lung cancer, and details of promising molecular targets for treatment. PMID:24436524

  11. Palliative Care in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Arvind M; Dashti, Azadeh

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide and is the leading cause of cancer death for both men and women in the USA. Symptom burden in patients with advanced lung cancer is very high and has a negative impact on their quality of life (QOL). Palliative care with its focus on the management of symptoms and addressing physical, psychosocial, spiritual, and existential suffering, as well as medically appropriate goal setting and open communication with patients and families, significantly adds to the quality of care received by advanced lung cancer patients. The Provisional Clinical Opinion (PCO) of American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) as well as the National Cancer Care Network's (NCCN) clinical practice guidelines recommends early integration of palliative care into routine cancer care. In this chapter, we will provide an overview of palliative care in lung cancer and will examine the evidence and recommendations with regard to a comprehensive and interdisciplinary approach to symptom management, as well as discussions of goals of care, advance care planning, and care preferences. PMID:27535397

  12. An open-label phase 2 trial of dabrafenib plus trametinib in patients with previously treated BRAF V600E–mutant metastatic non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Planchard, David; Besse, Benjamin; Groen, Harry J M; Souquet, Pierre-Jean; Quoix, Elisabeth; Baik, Christina S; Barlesi, Fabrice; Kim, Tae Min; Mazieres, Julien; Novello, Silvia; Rigas, James R; Upalawanna, Allison; D’Amelio, Anthony M; Zhang, Pingkuan; Mookerjee, Bijoyesh; Johnson, Bruce E

    2016-01-01

    Background BRAF mutations act as an oncogenic driver via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). BRAF inhibition has demonstrated antitumor activity in patients with BRAF V600E (Val600Glu)–mutant NSCLC. Dual MAPK pathway inhibition with BRAF and MEK inhibitors in BRAF V600E–mutant NSCLC may improve efficacy over BRAF-inhibitor monotherapy based on observations in BRAF V600–mutant melanoma. Methods In this phase 2, multicenter, nonrandomized, open-label study of patients with pretreated metastatic BRAF V600E–mutant NSCLC, antitumor activity and safety of oral dabrafenib (150 mg twice daily) plus oral trametinib (2 mg once daily) were evaluated. Adult patients (≥ 18 years) with documented progression following at least one prior platinum-based chemotherapy and no more than three prior systemic anticancer therapies were enrolled. Patients with prior BRAF or MEK inhibitor treatment were ineligible. Patients with brain metastases were permitted to enroll only if the lesions were asymptomatic, untreated (or stable > 3 weeks after local therapy if treated), and measured < 1 cm. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed overall response, which was assessed by intention-to-treat in the protocol-defined population (≥ second-line); safety was also assessed in this population. The study is ongoing but no longer recruiting patients. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01336634. Findings Fifty-seven patients previously treated with systemic chemotherapy for metastatic BRAF V600E–mutant NSCLC were enrolled. The investigator-assessed overall response was 63·2% (36 of 57; 95% CI 49·3–75·6). Serious adverse events were reported in 32 (56%) of 57 patients and included pyrexia (16%; 9 of 57), anemia (5%; 3 of 57), confusional state (4%; 2 of 57), decreased appetite (4%; 2 of 57), hemoptysis (4%; 2 of 57), hypercalcemia (4%; 2 of 57), nausea (4%; 2 of 57), and cutaneous squamous cell

  13. The therapeutic effects of tuberostemonine against cigarette smoke-induced acute lung inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyung-Hwa; Beak, Hyunjung; Park, Soojin; Shin, Dasom; Jung, Jaehoon; Park, Sangwon; Kim, Jinju; Bae, Hyunsu

    2016-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is mainly caused by cigarette smoking and is characterized by the destruction of lung parenchyma, structural alterations of the small airways, and systemic inflammation. Tuberostemonine (TS) is an alkaloid-type phytochemical from Stemona tuberosa. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of TS in a cigarette smoke (CS)-induced mouse model of acute lung inflammation. The mice were whole-body exposed to CS or fresh air for 7 days. TS was administered by an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection 1h before exposure to CS. To test the effects of TS, the numbers of total cells, neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were counted. Furthermore, we measured the levels of several chemokines, such as GCP-2, MIP-3α, MCP-1 and KC, in the lung tissue. The cellular profiles and histopathological analysis demonstrated that the infiltration of peribronchial and perivascular inflammatory cells significantly decreased in the TS-treated groups compared with the CS-exposure group. The TS treatment significantly ameliorated the airway epithelial thickness induced by CS exposure and caused a significant decrement in the production of chemokines in the lung. These results suggest that TS has anti-inflammatory effects against CS-induced acute lung inflammation. PMID:26849941

  14. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Malcolm V.; Ford, Jean G.; Samet, Jonathan M.; Spivack, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ever since a lung cancer epidemic emerged in the mid-1900s, the epidemiology of lung cancer has been intensively investigated to characterize its causes and patterns of occurrence. This report summarizes the key findings of this research. Methods: A detailed literature search provided the basis for a narrative review, identifying and summarizing key reports on population patterns and factors that affect lung cancer risk. Results: Established environmental risk factors for lung cancer include smoking cigarettes and other tobacco products and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, occupational lung carcinogens, radiation, and indoor and outdoor air pollution. Cigarette smoking is the predominant cause of lung cancer and the leading worldwide cause of cancer death. Smoking prevalence in developing nations has increased, starting new lung cancer epidemics in these nations. A positive family history and acquired lung disease are examples of host factors that are clinically useful risk indicators. Risk prediction models based on lung cancer risk factors have been developed, but further refinement is needed to provide clinically useful risk stratification. Promising biomarkers of lung cancer risk and early detection have been identified, but none are ready for broad clinical application. Conclusions: Almost all lung cancer deaths are caused by cigarette smoking, underscoring the need for ongoing efforts at tobacco control throughout the world. Further research is needed into the reasons underlying lung cancer disparities, the causes of lung cancer in never smokers, the potential role of HIV in lung carcinogenesis, and the development of biomarkers. PMID:23649439

  15. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yousheng; Yang, Ding; He, Jie; Krasna, Mark J

    2016-07-01

    Lung cancer has been transformed from a rare disease into a global problem and public health issue. The etiologic factors of lung cancer become more complex along with industrialization, urbanization, and environmental pollution around the world. Currently, the control of lung cancer has attracted worldwide attention. Studies on the epidemiologic characteristics of lung cancer and its relative risk factors have played an important role in the tertiary prevention of lung cancer and in exploring new ways of diagnosis and treatment. This article reviews the current evolution of the epidemiology of lung cancer. PMID:27261907

  16. Positive End-Expiratory Pressure and Variable Ventilation in Lung-Healthy Rats under General Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Camilo, Luciana M.; Ávila, Mariana B.; Cruz, Luis Felipe S.; Ribeiro, Gabriel C. M.; Spieth, Peter M.; Reske, Andreas A.; Amato, Marcelo; Giannella-Neto, Antonio; Zin, Walter A.; Carvalho, Alysson R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Variable ventilation (VV) seems to improve respiratory function in acute lung injury and may be combined with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in order to protect the lungs even in healthy subjects. We hypothesized that VV in combination with moderate levels of PEEP reduce the deterioration of pulmonary function related to general anesthesia. Hence, we aimed at evaluating the alveolar stability and lung protection of the combination of VV at different PEEP levels. Design Randomized experimental study. Setting Animal research facility. Subjects Forty-nine male Wistar rats (200–270 g). Interventions Animals were ventilated during 2 hours with protective low tidal volume (VT) in volume control ventilation (VCV) or VV and PEEP adjusted at the level of minimum respiratory system elastance (Ers), obtained during a decremental PEEP trial subsequent to a recruitment maneuver, and 2 cmH2O above or below of this level. Measurements and Main Results Ers, gas exchange and hemodynamic variables were measured. Cytokines were determined in lung homogenate and plasma samples and left lung was used for histologic analysis and diffuse alveolar damage scoring. A progressive time-dependent increase in Ers was observed independent on ventilatory mode or PEEP level. Despite of that, the rate of increase of Ers and lung tissue IL-1 beta concentration were significantly lower in VV than in VCV at the level of the PEEP of minimum Ers. A significant increase in lung tissue cytokines (IL-6, IL-1 beta, CINC-1 and TNF-alpha) as well as a ventral to dorsal and cranial to caudal reduction in aeration was observed in all ventilated rats with no significant differences among groups. Conclusions VV combined with PEEP adjusted at the level of the PEEP of minimal Ers seemed to better prevent anesthesia-induced atelectasis and might improve lung protection throughout general anesthesia. PMID:25383882

  17. A Multiple Decrement Life Table Reveals That Host Plant Resistance and Parasitism Are Major Causes of Mortality for the Wheat Stem Sawfly.

    PubMed

    Buteler, Micaela; Peterson, Robert K D; Hofland, Megan L; Weaver, David K

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the dynamics of parasitism, host plant resistance, pathogens, and predation on the demography of wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), developing in susceptible (hollow stem) and resistant (solid stem) wheat hosts. This study is also the first to investigate the prevalence and impact of cannibalism on wheat stem sawfly mortality. Wheat stem sawflies were sampled in two commercial wheat fields over 4 yr from the egg stage through adult emergence, and multiple decrement life tables were constructed and analyzed. Cannibalism, host plant resistance, or unknown factors were the most prevalent factors causing egg mortality. Summer mortality of prediapause larvae ranged from 28 to 84%, mainly due to parasitism by Bracon cephi (Gahan) and Bracon lissogaster Muesebeck, cannibalism, and host plant resistance. Winter mortality ranged from 6 to 54% of the overwintering larvae, mainly due to unknown factors or pathogens. Cannibalism is a major cause of irreplaceable mortality because it is absolute, with only a single survivor in every multiple infested stem. Subsequent to obligate cannibalism, mortality of feeding larvae due to host plant resistance was lower in hollow stem wheat than in solid stem wheat. Mortality from host plant resistance was largely irreplaceable. Irreplaceable mortality due to parasitoids was greater in hollow stem wheat than in solid stem wheat. Host plant resistance due to stem solidness and parasitism in hollow stems cause substantial mortality in populations of actively feeding larvae responsible for all crop losses. Therefore, enhancing these mortality factors is vital to effective integrated pest management of wheat stem sawfly. PMID:26314030

  18. Site Characterization in the Urban Area of Tijuana, B. C., Mexico by Means of: H/V Spectral Ratios, Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves, and Random Decrement Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapia-Herrera, R.; Huerta-Lopez, C. I.; Martinez-Cruzado, J. A.

    2009-05-01

    Results of site characterization for an experimental site in the metropolitan area of Tijuana, B. C., Mexico are presented as part of the on-going research in which time series of earthquakes, ambient noise, and induced vibrations were processed with three different methods: H/V spectral ratios, Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW), and the Random Decrement Method, (RDM). Forward modeling using the wave propagation stiffness matrix method (Roësset and Kausel, 1981) was used to compute the theoretical SH/P, SV/P spectral ratios, and the experimental H/V spectral ratios were computed following the conventional concepts of Fourier analysis. The modeling/comparison between the theoretical and experimental H/V spectral ratios was carried out. For the SASW method the theoretical dispersion curves were also computed and compared with the experimental one, and finally the theoretical free vibration decay curve was compared with the experimental one obtained with the RDM. All three methods were tested with ambient noise, induced vibrations, and earthquake signals. Both experimental spectral ratios obtained with ambient noise as well as earthquake signals agree quite well with the theoretical spectral ratios, particularly at the fundamental vibration frequency of the recording site. Differences between the fundamental vibration frequencies are evident for sites located at alluvial fill (~0.6 Hz) and at sites located at conglomerate/sandstones fill (0.75 Hz). Shear wave velocities for the soft soil layers of the 4-layer discrete soil model ranges as low as 100 m/s and up to 280 m/s. The results with the SASW provided information that allows to identify low velocity layers, not seen before with the traditional seismic methods. The damping estimations obtained with the RDM are within the expected values, and the dominant frequency of the system also obtained with the RDM correlates within the range of plus-minus 20 % with the one obtained by means of the H/V spectral

  19. The MOSDEF Survey: Measurements of Balmer Decrements and the Dust Attenuation Curve at Redshifts z ~ 1.4–2.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Naveen A.; Kriek, Mariska; Shapley, Alice E.; Freeman, William R.; Siana, Brian; Coil, Alison L.; Mobasher, Bahram; Price, Sedona H.; Sanders, Ryan L.; Shivaei, Irene

    2015-06-01

    We present results on the dust attenuation curve of z ∼ 2 galaxies using early observations from the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field survey. Our sample consists of 224 star-forming galaxies with zspec = 1.36–2.59 and high signal-to-noise ratio measurements of Hα and Hβ obtained with Keck/MOSFIRE. We construct composite spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies in bins of Balmer decrement to measure the attenuation curve. We find a curve that is similar to the SMC extinction curve at λ ≳ 2500 Å. At shorter wavelengths, the shape is identical to that of the Calzetti et al. relation, but with a lower normalization. Hence, the new attenuation curve results in star formation rates (SFRs) that are ≈ 20% lower, and stellar masses that are {Δ }{log}({M}*{/M}ȯ )≃ 0.16 dex lower, than those obtained with the Calzetti relation. We find that the difference in the total attenuation of the ionized gas and stellar continuum correlates strongly with SFR, such that for dust-corrected SFRs ≳ 20 M⊙ yr‑1, assuming a Chabrier initial mass function, the nebular emission lines suffer an increasing degree of obscuration relative to the continuum. A simple model that can account for these trends is one in which the UV through optical stellar continuum is dominated by a population of less-reddened stars, while the nebular line and bolometric luminosities become increasingly dominated by dustier stellar populations for galaxies with large SFRs, as a result of the increased dust enrichment that accompanies such galaxies. Consequently, UV- and SED-based SFRs may underestimate the total SFR at even modest levels of ≈20 M⊙ yr‑1. Based on data obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, and was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  20. Epithelioid haemangioendothelioma of the lung: clinical and pathological pitfalls.

    PubMed

    van Kasteren, M E; van der Wurff, A A; Palmen, F M; Dolman, A; Miseré, J F

    1995-09-01

    In 1973, a 10 year old boy presented with numerous bilateral lung nodules, diagnosed as histiocytosis X by open lung biopsy. The patient was treated with prednisone until 1984. In 1993, he developed severe pain in the neck. A biopsy of the spine revealed the same tumour morphology as was seen in the lung in 1973. Immunohistological examination of the former and present biopsy led to the definitive diagnosis of epithelioid haemangioendothelioma of the lung with metastases to spine and liver. Epithelioid haemangioendothelioma of the lung is a rare soft tissue tumour of vascular origin, readily mistaken for carcinoma or, as in this case, histiocytosis. The tumour has an intermediate malignant potential. Although metastases of epithelioid haemangioendothelioma of the lung are well-known, metastatic spread to bones, as in our case, has not previously been mentioned in the literature. PMID:8575593

  1. Lung Diseases and Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Lung Diseases and Conditions Breathing is a complex process. ... your bronchial tubes ( bronchitis ) or deep in your lungs ( pneumonia ). These infections cause a buildup of mucus ...

  2. Ex vivo lung perfusion.

    PubMed

    Machuca, Tiago N; Cypel, Marcelo

    2014-08-01

    Lung transplantation (LTx) is an established treatment option for eligible patients with end-stage lung disease. Nevertheless, the imbalance between suitable donor lungs available and the increasing number of patients considered for LTx reflects in considerable waitlist mortality. Among potential alternatives to address this issue, ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) has emerged as a modern preservation technique that allows for more accurate lung assessment and also improvement of lung function. Its application in high-risk donor lungs has been successful and resulted in safe expansion of the donor pool. This article will: (I) review the technical details of EVLP; (II) the rationale behind the method; (III) report the worldwide clinical experience with the EVLP, including the Toronto technique and others; (IV) finally, discuss the growing literature on EVLP application for donation after cardiac death (DCD) lungs. PMID:25132972

  3. Ex vivo lung perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Machuca, Tiago N.

    2014-01-01

    Lung transplantation (LTx) is an established treatment option for eligible patients with end-stage lung disease. Nevertheless, the imbalance between suitable donor lungs available and the increasing number of patients considered for LTx reflects in considerable waitlist mortality. Among potential alternatives to address this issue, ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) has emerged as a modern preservation technique that allows for more accurate lung assessment and also improvement of lung function. Its application in high-risk donor lungs has been successful and resulted in safe expansion of the donor pool. This article will: (I) review the technical details of EVLP; (II) the rationale behind the method; (III) report the worldwide clinical experience with the EVLP, including the Toronto technique and others; (IV) finally, discuss the growing literature on EVLP application for donation after cardiac death (DCD) lungs. PMID:25132972

  4. Mechanism of action of ozone on the human lung

    SciTech Connect

    Hazucha, M.J.; Bates, D.V.; Bromberg, P.A. )

    1989-10-01

    Fourteen healthy normal volunteers were randomly exposed to air and 0.5 ppm of ozone (O3) in a controlled exposure chamber for a 2-h period during which 15 min of treadmill exercise sufficient to produce a ventilation of approximately 40 l/min was alternated with 15-min rest periods. Before testing an esophageal balloon was inserted, and lung volumes, flow rates, maximal inspiratory (at residual volume and functional residual capacity) and expiratory (at total lung capacity and functional residual capacity) mouth pressures, and pulmonary mechanics (static and dynamic compliance and airway resistance) were measured before and immediately after the exposure period. After the postexposure measurements had been completed, the subjects inhaled an aerosol of 20% lidocaine until response to citric acid aerosol inhalation was abolished. All of the measurements were immediately repeated. We found that the O3 exposure (1) induced a significant mean decrement of 17.8% in vital capacity (this change was the result of a marked fall in inspiratory capacity without significant increase in residual volume), (2) significantly increased mean airway resistance and specific airway resistance but did not change dynamic or static pulmonary compliance or viscous or elastic work, (3) significantly reduced maximal transpulmonary pressure (by 19%) but produced no changes in inspiratory or expiratory maximal mouth pressures, and (4) significantly increased respiratory rate (in 5 subjects by more than 6 breaths/min) and decreased tidal volume.

  5. Occupational lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Cone, J E

    1987-01-01

    The author addresses the attribution of lung cancer to cigarette smoking and the problems of confounding synergistic effects of occupational and other carcinogenic risk factors, as well as the divergent trends of declining smoking rates and increasing rates of lung cancer. He also reviews the existing literature to document associations between lung cancer and occupational exposures. Finally, interventions for prevention of occupational lung cancer are discussed. PMID:3303381

  6. Occupational lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Cone, J.E.

    1987-04-01

    The author addresses the attribution of lung cancer to cigarette smoking and the problems of confounding synergistic effects of occupational and other carcinogenic risk factors, as well as the divergent trends of declining smoking rates and increasing rates of lung cancer. He also reviews the existing literature to document associations between lung cancer and occupational exposures. Finally, interventions for prevention of occupational lung cancer are discussed.

  7. Lung tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Hoganson, David M; Bassett, Erik K; Vacanti, Joseph P

    2014-01-01

    Lung tissue engineering is an emerging field focused on the development of lung replacement devices and tissue to treat patients with end stage lung disease. Microfluidic based lung assist devices have been developed that have biomimetically designed vascular networks that achieve physiologic blood flow. Gas exchange in these devices occurs across a thin respiratory membrane. Designed for intrathoracic implantation as a bridge to transplant or destination therapy, these lung assist devices will allow ambulation and hospital discharge for patients with end stage lung disease. Decellularized lungs subsequently recellularized with epithelial and endothelial cells have been implanted in small animal models with demonstration of initial gas exchange. Further development of these tissues and scaling to large animal models will validate this approach and may be an organ source for lung transplantation. Initial clinical success has been achieved with decellularized tracheal implants using autologous stem cells. Development of microfluidic lung models using similar architecture to the lung assist device technology allows study of lung biology and diseases with manipulation of lung cells and respiratory membrane strain. PMID:24896347

  8. Lung cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Slatore, Christopher; Sockrider, Marianna

    2014-11-15

    Lung cancer is a common form of cancer.There are things you can do to lower your risk of lung cancer. Stop smoking tobacco. Ask your health care provider for help in quitting, including use of medicines to help with nicotine dependence. discuss with your healthcare provider,what you are taking or doing to decrease your risk for lung cancer PMID:25398122

  9. [A Case of Differential Lung Ventilation Using a Double-lumen Endotracheal Tube for Tracheostomy Prior to Lung Surgery in a Patient with Congenital Laryngeal Web].

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Shinji; Okabe, Tadashi; Kadowaki, Noriyoshi; Sakamoto, Atsuhiro

    2015-11-01

    A 71-year-old male with left lung cancer was scheduled for endoscopic lung surgery under general anesthesia. During a preoperative examination, the patient had hoarseness and was diagnosed with congenital laryngeal web. Differential lung ventilation was needed throughout the surgery, but the opening orifice of the laryngeal web was estimated to be too small for intubation. Therefore, we performed a tracheostomy one week before surgery, for which a double-lumen endotracheal tube was used during differential lung ventilation. Under general anesthesia, the lung surgery was successfully completed, and the patient did not have any postoperative complications. PMID:26689069

  10. Unmasking the lung cancer epigenome.

    PubMed

    Belinsky, Steven A

    2015-01-01

    The reprogramming of the epigenome through silencing of genes and microRNAs by cytosine DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling is critical for the initiation and progression of lung cancer through affecting all major cell regulatory pathways. Importantly, the fact that epigenetic reprogramming is reversible by pharmacological agents has opened new avenues for clinical intervention. This review focuses on the tremendous progress made in elucidating genes and microRNAs that are epigenetically silenced in lung cancer and highlights how loss of function impacts cell phenotype and major signaling pathways. The article describes the utility of (a) an in vitro model using hTERT/Cdk4 immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell lines to identify genes and microRNAs silenced during premalignancy and (b) an in vivo orthotopic nude rat lung cancer model to evaluate response to epigenetic therapy. New insights regarding the advantage of aerosol delivery of demethylating agents and the concept of priming tumors for subsequent therapy are presented and discussed. PMID:25668024

  11. Lung cancer in women.

    PubMed

    Coscio, Angela M; Garst, Jennifer

    2006-07-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer in both men and women; however, there are some clear gender-based differences. As the incidence of lung cancer is declining in men, the incidence of lung cancer is increasing in women. Women are more likely than men to have adenocarcinoma, a histologic subtype that correlates with worsened prognosis, but women have improved survival compared with men. Genetic predisposition and the presence of estrogen receptors in lung cancer cells may predispose women to developing lung cancer. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanism and significance of these findings. PMID:17254523

  12. CFTR and lung homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Matalon, Sadis

    2014-01-01

    CFTR is a cAMP-activated chloride and bicarbonate channel that is critical for lung homeostasis. Decreases in CFTR expression have dire consequences in cystic fibrosis (CF) and have been suggested to be a component of the lung pathology in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Decreases or loss of channel function often lead to mucus stasis, chronic bacterial infections, and the accompanying chronic inflammatory responses that promote progressive lung destruction, and, eventually in CF, lung failure. Here we discuss CFTR's functional role airway surface liquid hydration and pH, in regulation of other channels such as the epithelial sodium channel, and in regulating inflammatory responses in the lung. PMID:25381027

  13. The lung in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prisk, G. Kim

    2005-01-01

    The lung is exquisitely sensitive to gravity, which induces gradients in ventilation, blood flow, and gas exchange. Studies of lungs in microgravity provide a means of elucidating the effects of gravity. They suggest a mechanism by which gravity serves to match ventilation to perfusion, making for a more efficient lung than anticipated. Despite predictions, lungs do not become edematous, and there is no disruption to, gas exchange in microgravity. Sleep disturbances in microgravity are not a result of respiratory-related events; obstructive sleep apnea is caused principally by the gravitational effects on the upper airways. In microgravity, lungs may be at greater risk to the effects of inhaled aerosols.

  14. Xenogeneic lung transplantation models

    PubMed Central

    Burdorf, Lars; Azimzadeh, Agnes M.; Pierson, Richard N.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Study of lung xenografts has proven useful to understand the remaining barriers to successful transplantation of other organ xenografts. In this chapter, the history and current status of lung xenotransplantation will be briefly reviewed and two different experimental models, the ex vivo porcine-to-human lung perfusion and the in vivo xenogeneic lung transplantation, will be presented. We will focus on the technical details of these lung xenograft models in sufficient detail, list the needed materials and mention analysis techniques to allow others to adopt them with minimal learning curve. PMID:22565996

  15. Perioperative lung injury.

    PubMed

    Slinger, Peter

    2008-03-01

    Patients are at risk for several types of lung injury in the perioperative period. These injuries include atelectasis, pneumonia, pneumothorax, bronchopleural fistula, acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Anesthetic management can cause, exacerbate or ameliorate most of these injuries. Clinical research trends show that traditional protocols for perioperative mechanical ventilation, using large tidal volumes without positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) can cause a sub-clinical lung injury and this injury becomes clinically important when any additional lung injury is added. Lung-protective ventilation strategies using more physiologic tidal volumes and appropriate levels of PEEP can decrease the extent of this injury. PMID:18494396

  16. Ozone inhalation effects in females varying widely in lung size: Comparison with males

    SciTech Connect

    Messineo, T.D.; Adams, W.C. )

    1990-07-01

    It has been suggested that lung size accounts for observed gender differences in responsiveness to the same total inhaled dose of O3. To test the hypothesis that lung size is a determinant of magnitude of response within a gender, two groups of 14 healthy young adult females differing significantly in forced vital capacity (FVC; i.e., small-lung group mean = 3.74 liters (range 3.2-4.0) and large-lung group mean = 5.11 liters (range 4.5-6.2)) were exposed for 1 h to filtered air (FA) and to 0.18 and 0.30 ppm O3. On each occasion, subjects exercised continuously on a cycle ergometer at a work rate that elicited a mean minute ventilation of approximately 47 l/min. For the small-lung group (mean total lung capacity (TLC) = 4.52 liters) exercise O2 uptake was 67% of maximal O2 uptake (VO2max), and that for the large-lung group (TLC 6.37 liters) was 61% of VO2max. Statistical analysis revealed significant decrements for both groups in FVC, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1.0), and forced expiratory flow rate in the middle half of FVC on exposure to 0.18 and 0.30 ppm O3. Exercise respiratory frequency increased, and tidal volume decreased significantly in both groups in response to 0.18 and 0.30 ppm O3 exposure. On exposure to 0.30 ppm O3, the number of individual subjective symptoms reported and their severity were significantly greater for both groups than those reported for the FA and 0.18 ppm O3 exposures. Both groups evidenced similar percent changes in pulmonary function and exercise ventilation response, and in subjective symptom response.

  17. SU-E-J-249: Correlation of Mean Lung Ventilation Value with Ratio of Total Lung Volumes

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, N; Qu, H; Xia, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Lung ventilation function measured from 4D-CT and from breathing correlated CT images is a novel concept to incorporate the lung physiologic function into treatment planning of radiotherapy. The calculated ventilation functions may vary from different breathing patterns, affecting evaluation of the treatment plans. The purpose of this study is to correlate the mean lung ventilation value with the ratio of the total lung volumes obtained from the relevant CTs. Methods: A ventilation map was calculated from the variations of voxel-to-voxel CT densities from two breathing phases from either 4D-CT or breathing correlated CTs. An open source image registration tool of Plastimatch was used to deform the inhale phase images to the exhale phase images. To calculate the ventilation map inside lung, the whole lung was delineated and the tissue outside the lung was masked out. With a software tool developed in house, the 3D ventilation map was then converted in the DICOM format associated with the planning CT images. The ventilation map was analyzed on a clinical workstation. To correlate ventilation map thus calculated with lung volume change, the total lung volume change was compared the mean ventilation from our method. Results: Twenty two patients who underwent stereotactic body irradiation for lung cancer was selected for this retrospective study. For this group of patients, the ratio of lung volumes for the inhale (Vin ) and exhale phase (Vex ) was shown to be linearly related to the mean of the local ventilation (Vent), Vin/Vex=1.+0.49*Vent (R2=0.93, p<0.01). Conclusion: The total lung volume change is highly correlated with the mean of local ventilation. The mean of local ventilation may be useful to assess the patient's lung capacity.

  18. Expanding a Comprehensive Lung Cancer Screening Program.

    PubMed

    Jansak, Buffy

    2015-01-01

    The OhioHealth Lung Cancer Screening Program is a high quality multi-disciplinary program that was launched in July 2013 at OhioHealth Riverside Methodist Hospital, OhioHealth Doctors Hospital, and OhioHealth Grant Medical Center in Columbus, Ohio. With the assistance of the AHRA & Toshiba Putting Patients First grant, we were able to expand community access for people at high risk of developing lung cancer by opening several more programs at OhioHealth Marion General and OhioHealth Grady Memorial Hospitals. A subsequent patient educational video was developed to highlight the comprehensive program, nurse navigational involvement, potential risks, benefits, and tobacco cessation. The tobacco cessation educational skills of the OhioHealth Lung Nurse Navigators were enhanced with the completion of the Tobacco Treatment Specialist certification. PMID:26710574

  19. Timolol-induced interstitial lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Hetain; Wilches, Lina Vanessa; Guerrero, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Timolol maleate is a non-selective beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agent with demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of open-angle glaucoma. A 76 year old female who presented with productive cough, progressive dyspnea and hypoxia after starting timolol maleate opthalamic drops following glaucoma surgery. The patient was diagnosed with interstitial lung disease secondary to timolol treatment and after cessation of the offending agent along with corticosteroid treatment, symptoms improved drastically. Elimination of other possible causes of disease along with evolution of radiological and functional signs left us with a diagnosis of timolol-induced interstitial lung disease. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of timolol-induced interstitial lung disease. PMID:26236595

  20. Lung transplantation at Duke

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Alice L.; Hartwig, Matthew G.

    2016-01-01

    Lung transplantation represents the gold-standard therapy for patients with end-stage lung disease. Utilization of this therapy continues to rise. The Lung Transplant Program at Duke University Medical Center was established in 1992, and since that time has grown to one of the highest volume centers in the world. The program to date has performed over 1,600 lung transplants. This report represents an up-to-date review of the practice and management strategies employed for safe and effective lung transplantation at our center. Specific attention is paid to the evaluation of candidacy for lung transplantation, donor selection, surgical approach, and postoperative management. These evidence-based strategies form the foundation of the clinical transplantation program at Duke. PMID:27076968

  1. The potential clinical applications and prospects of microRNAs in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ying; Gao, Fei; Ma, Jin-lu; Sun, Wen-ze; Song, Li-ping

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is the major cause of cancer deaths worldwide due to its late diagnosis and poor outcome. Understanding genomic medicine may widen our vision into the oncogenesis of lung cancer and may open the door to improvements in the clinical management of lung cancer. It is well known that almost half of all genes are regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs). This review focuses on the role of miRNAs in lung cancer and also touches on the value of miRNA-based novel therapies for lung cancers. PMID:24940074

  2. Lung Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Wu, Geena X; Raz, Dan J

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the United States and worldwide. Since lung cancer outcomes are dependent on stage at diagnosis with early disease resulting in longer survival, the goal of screening is to capture lung cancer in its early stages when it can be treated and cured. Multiple studies have evaluated the use of chest X-ray (CXR) with or without sputum cytologic examination for lung cancer screening, but none has demonstrated a mortality benefit. In contrast, the multicenter National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) from the United States found a 20 % reduction in lung cancer mortality following three consecutive screenings with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in high-risk current and former smokers. Data from European trials are not yet available. In addition to a mortality benefit, lung cancer screening with LDCT also offers a unique opportunity to promote smoking cessation and abstinence and may lead to the diagnoses of treatable chronic diseases, thus decreasing the overall disease burden. The risks of lung cancer screening include overdiagnosis, radiation exposure, and false-positive results leading to unnecessary testing and possible patient anxiety and distress. However, the reduction in lung cancer mortality is a benefit that outweighs the risks and major health organizations currently recommend lung cancer screening using age, smoking history, and quit time criteria derived from the NLST. Although more research is needed to clearly define and understand the application and utility of lung cancer screening in the general population, current data support that lung cancer screening is effective and should be offered to eligible beneficiaries. PMID:27535387

  3. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Ann G; Cote, Michele L

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer continues to be one of the most common causes of cancer death despite understanding the major cause of the disease: cigarette smoking. Smoking increases lung cancer risk 5- to 10-fold with a clear dose-response relationship. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among nonsmokers increases lung cancer risk about 20%. Risks for marijuana and hookah use, and the new e-cigarettes, are yet to be consistently defined and will be important areas for continued research as use of these products increases. Other known environmental risk factors include exposures to radon, asbestos, diesel, and ionizing radiation. Host factors have also been associated with lung cancer risk, including family history of lung cancer, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and infections. Studies to identify genes associated with lung cancer susceptibility have consistently identified chromosomal regions on 15q25, 6p21 and 5p15 associated with lung cancer risk. Risk prediction models for lung cancer typically include age, sex, cigarette smoking intensity and/or duration, medical history, and occupational exposures, however there is not yet a risk prediction model currently recommended for general use. As lung cancer screening becomes more widespread, a validated model will be needed to better define risk groups to inform screening guidelines. PMID:26667337

  4. Lung PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... emission tomography; PET - chest; PET - lung; PET - tumor imaging ... Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2015: ...

  5. Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer This page lists cancer ... in lung cancer that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Abitrexate ( ...

  6. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... for Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next ...

  7. Interstitial lung disease - adults - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... lung disease Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis Rheumatoid lung disease Sarcoidosis Patient Instructions Eating extra calories when sick - adults ... team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Interstitial Lung Diseases Sarcoidosis Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  8. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next ...

  9. TUBERCULOSIS AND LUNG CANCER.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Atsuhisa

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and lung cancer as comorbidities has been extensively discussed in many studies. In the past, it was well known that lung cancer is a specific epidemiological successor of PTB and that lung cancer often develops in scars caused by PTB. In recent years, the relevance of the two diseases has drawn attention in terms of the close epidemiological connection and chronic inflammation-associated carcinogenesis. In Japanese case series studies, most lung cancer patients with tuberculous sequelae received supportive care alone in the past, but more recently, the use of aggressive lung cancer treatment is increasing. Many studies on PTB and lung cancer as comorbidities have revealed that active PTB is noted in 2-5% of lung cancer cases, whereas lung cancer is noted in 1-2% of active PTB cases. In such instances of comorbidity, many active PTB cases showed Type II (non-extensively cavitary disease) and Spread 2-3 (intermediate-extensive diseases) on chest X-rays, but standard anti-tuberculosis treatment easily eradicates negative conversion of sputum culture for M. tuberculosis; lung cancer cases were often stage III- IV and squamous cell carcinoma predominant, and the administration of aggressive treatment for lung cancer is increasing. The major clinical problems associated with PTB and lung cancer as comorbidities include delay in diagnosis (doctor's delay) and therapeutic limitations. The former involves two factors of radiographic interpretation: the principles of parsimony (Occam's razor) and visual search; the latter involves three factors of lung cancer treatment: infectivity of M.tuberculosis, anatomical limitation due to lung damage by tuberculosis, and drug-drug interactions between rifampicin and anti-cancer drugs, especially molecularly targeted drugs. The comorbidity of these two diseases is an important health-related issue in Japan. In the treatment of PTB, the possibility of concurrent lung cancer should be kept

  10. An alternative method to achieve one-lung ventilation by surgical pneumothorax in difficult lung isolation patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Pin-Hung; Hsu, Po-Kai

    2016-04-01

    It is challenging to establish one-lung ventilation in difficult airway patients. Surgical pneumothorax under spontaneous breathing to obtain well-collapsed lung is a feasible method for thoracic surgery. A 76-year-old man with right empyema was scheduled for decortication. The patient had limited mouth opening due to facial cellulitis extending from the left cheek to neck. Generally, lung isolation is achieved by double-lumen endotracheal tube or bronchial blocker. Double-lumen tube insertion is difficult for patients with limited mouth opening and right-side placement of bronchial blocker usually causes insufficient deflation. We introduce an alternative lung isolation technique by surgical pneumothorax under spontaneous breathing simply with an endotracheal tube placement. This technique has never been applied into the management of difficult one-lung ventilation. By this method, we provide an ideal surgical condition with safer, less time-consuming, and less skill-demanding anesthesia. It would be an alternative choice for management of one-lung ventilation in the difficult lung isolation patient. PMID:26721826

  11. Lycopene and Lung Cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although epidemiological studies have shown dietary intake of lycopene is associated with decreased risk of lung cancer, the effect of lycopene on lung carcinogenesis has not been well studied. A better understanding of lycopene metabolism and the mechanistic basis of lycopene chemoprevention must ...

  12. Staging of Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of N2 means cancer has spread to the middle part of the chest (called the mediastinum). A rating ... so that the surgeon can remove the cancerous part of the lung and/or lymph node ... biopsied are your lungs, bones, and brain. These types of biopsies can be done with ...

  13. Rare lung cancers.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    There are several different kinds of lung cancer, often referred to as lung cancer subtypes. Some of these occur more often than others. In this factsheet we will specifically look at the subtypes of cancers that do not happen very often and are considered 'rare'. PMID:27066129

  14. Lung Cancer Indicators Recurrence

    Cancer.gov

    This study describes prognostic factors for lung cancer spread and recurrence, as well as subsequent risk of death from the disease. The investigators observed that regardless of cancer stage, grade, or type of lung cancer, patients in the study were more

  15. Immunosuppression for lung transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Choo Y.; Madsen, Joren C.; Rosengard, Bruce R.; Allan, James S.

    2010-01-01

    1. ABSTRACT As a result of advances in surgical techniques, immunosuppressive therapy, and postoperative management, lung transplantation has become an established therapeutic option for individuals with a variety of end-stage lung diseases. The current 1-year actuarial survival rate following lung transplantation is approaching 80%. However, the 5- year actuarial survival rate has remained virtually unchanged at approximately 50% over the last 15 years due to the processes of acute and chronic lung allograft rejection (1). Clinicians still rely on a vast array of immunosuppressive agents to suppress the process of graft rejection, but find themselves limited by an inescapable therapeutic paradox. Insufficient immunosuppression results in graft loss due to rejection, while excess immunosuppression results in increased morbidity and mortality from opportunistic infections and malignancies. Indeed, graft rejection, infection, and malignancy are the three principal causes of mortality for the lung transplant recipient. One should also keep in mind that graft loss in a lung transplant recipient is usually a fatal event, since there is no practical means of long-term mechanical support, and since the prospects of re-transplantation are low, given the shortage of acceptable donor grafts. This chapter reviews the current state of immunosuppressive therapy for lung transplantation and suggests alternative paradigms for the management of future lung transplant recipients. PMID:19273152

  16. Lung needle biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... when there is an abnormal condition near the surface of the lung, in the lung itself, or on the chest wall. Most often, it is done to rule out cancer. The biopsy is usually done after abnormalities appear on a chest x-ray or CT ...

  17. Lung cancer - non-small cell

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - lung - non-small cell; Non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC; Adenocarcinoma - lung; Squamous cell carcinoma - lung ... Smoking causes most cases (around 90%) of lung cancer. The risk depends on the number of cigarettes ...

  18. Estimation of Lung Ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Kai; Cao, Kunlin; Du, Kaifang; Amelon, Ryan; Christensen, Gary E.; Raghavan, Madhavan; Reinhardt, Joseph M.

    Since the primary function of the lung is gas exchange, ventilation can be interpreted as an index of lung function in addition to perfusion. Injury and disease processes can alter lung function on a global and/or a local level. MDCT can be used to acquire multiple static breath-hold CT images of the lung taken at different lung volumes, or with proper respiratory control, 4DCT images of the lung reconstructed at different respiratory phases. Image registration can be applied to this data to estimate a deformation field that transforms the lung from one volume configuration to the other. This deformation field can be analyzed to estimate local lung tissue expansion, calculate voxel-by-voxel intensity change, and make biomechanical measurements. The physiologic significance of the registration-based measures of respiratory function can be established by comparing to more conventional measurements, such as nuclear medicine or contrast wash-in/wash-out studies with CT or MR. An important emerging application of these methods is the detection of pulmonary function change in subjects undergoing radiation therapy (RT) for lung cancer. During RT, treatment is commonly limited to sub-therapeutic doses due to unintended toxicity to normal lung tissue. Measurement of pulmonary function may be useful as a planning tool during RT planning, may be useful for tracking the progression of toxicity to nearby normal tissue during RT, and can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a treatment post-therapy. This chapter reviews the basic measures to estimate regional ventilation from image registration of CT images, the comparison of them to the existing golden standard and the application in radiation therapy.

  19. Occupational lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Coultas, D.B.; Samet, J.M. )

    1992-06-01

    The overall importance of occupational agents as a cause of lung cancer has been a controversial subject since the 1970s. A federal report, released in the late 1970s, projected a surprisingly high burden of occupational lung cancer; for asbestos and four other agents, from 61,000 to 98,000 cases annually were attributed to these agents alone. Many estimates followed, some much more conservative. For example, Doll and Peto estimated that 15% of lung cancer in men and 5% in women could be attributed to occupational exposures. A number of population-based case-control studies also provide relevant estimates. In a recent literature review, Vineis and Simonato cited attributable risk estimates for occupation and lung cancer that ranged from 4% to 40%; for asbestos alone, the estimates ranged from 1% to 5%. These estimates would be expected to vary across locations and over time. Nevertheless, these recent estimates indicate that occupation remains an important cause of lung cancer. Approaches to Prevention. Prevention of lung cancer mortality among workers exposed to agents or industrial processes that cause lung cancer may involve several strategies, including eliminating or reducing exposures, smoking cessation, screening, and chemo-prevention. For example, changes in industrial processes that have eliminated or reduced exposures to chloromethyl ethers and nickel compounds have provided evidence of reduced risk of lung cancer following these changes. Although occupational exposures are important causes of lung cancer, cigarette smoking is the most important preventable cause of lung cancer. For adults, the work site offers an important location to target smoking cessation efforts. In fact, the work site may be the only place to reach many smokers.

  20. Airway hyperresponsiveness with chest strapping: A matter of heterogeneity or reduced lung volume?

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, Riccardo; Pompilio, Pasquale P; Bruni, Giulia Innocenti; Scano, Giorgio; Crimi, Claudia; Biasco, Luigi; Coletta, Giuseppe; Cornara, Giuseppe; Torchio, Roberto; Brusasco, Vito; Dellacà, Raffaele L

    2009-03-31

    Chest wall strapping has been recently shown to be associated with an increase in airway responsiveness to methacholine. To investigate whether this is the result of the decreased lung volume or an increased heterogeneity due to chest wall distortion, ten healthy volunteers underwent a methacholine challenge at control conditions and after selective strapping of the rib cage, the abdomen or the whole chest wall resulting in similar decrements of functional residual capacity and total lung capacity but causing different distribution of the bronchoconstrictor. Methacholine during strapping reduced forced expiratory flow, dynamic compliance, and reactance at 5Hz and increased pulmonary resistance and respiratory resistance at 5Hz that were significantly greater than at control and associated with a blunted bronchodilator effect of the deep breath. However, no significant differences were observed between selective and total chest wall strapping, suggesting that the major mechanism for increasing airway responsiveness with chest wall strapping is the breathing at low lung volume rather than regional heterogeneities. PMID:19429518

  1. Micro-imaging of the Mouse Lung via MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei

    Quantitative measurement of lung microstructure is of great significance in assessment of pulmonary disease, particularly in the earliest stages. Conventional stereological assessment of ex-vivo fixed tissue specimens under the microscope has a long and successful tradition and is regarded as a gold standard, but the invasive nature limits its applications and the practicality of use in longitudinal studies. The technique for diffusion MRI-based 3He lung morphometry was previously developed and validated for human lungs, and was recently extended to ex-vivo mouse lungs. The technique yields accurate, quantitative information about the microstructure and geometry of acinar airways. In this dissertation, the 3He lung morphometry technique is for the first time successfully implemented for in-vivo studies of mice. It can generate spatially-resolved maps of parameters that reveal the microstructure of mouse lung. Results in healthy mice indicate excellent agreement between in-vivo morphometry via 3He MRI and microscopic morphometry after sacrifice. The implementation and validation of 3He morphometry in healthy mice open up new avenues for application of the technique as a precise, noninvasive, in-vivo biomarker of changes in lung microstructure, within various mouse models of lung disease. We have applied 3He morphometry to the Sendai mouse model of lung disease. Specifically, the Sendai-virus model of chronic obstructive lung disease has demonstrated an innate immune response in mouse airways that exhibits similarities to the chronic airway inflammation in human COPD and asthma, but the effect on distal lung parenchyma had not been investigated. We imaged the time course and regional distribution of mouse lung microstructural changes in vivo after Sendai virus (SeV) infection with 1H and 3He diffusion MRI. 1H MR images detected the SeV-induced pulmonary inflammation in vivo and 3He lung morphometry showed modest increase in alveolar duct radius distal to airway

  2. Dolphin lung collapse and intramuscular circulation during free diving: evidence from nitrogen washout.

    PubMed

    Ridgway, S H; Howard, R

    1979-12-01

    Intramuscular nitrogen tensions in Tursiops truncatus after a schedule of repetitive ocean dives suggest a lung collapse depth of about 70 meters and suggest that intramuscular circulation is maintained during unrestrained diving in the open ocean. Therefore, the bottle-nosed dolphin is not protected by lung collapse from the decompression hazards of dives to depths shallower than 70 meters. PMID:505001

  3. LUNG CANCER AND INDOOR EXPOSURE OF UNVENTED COAL AND WOOD COMBUSTION EMISSIONS IN XUAN WEI, CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residents of Xuan Wei County in China have unusually high lung cancer mortality that cannot be attributed to tobacco use or occupational exposure. They are exposed to smoke from unvented, open pit coal or wood fires (often used for cooking and heating). The variation in lung canc...

  4. Lung Cancer Screening Update.

    PubMed

    Ruchalski, Kathleen L; Brown, Kathleen

    2016-07-01

    Since the release of the US Preventive Services Task Force and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services recommendations for lung cancer screening, low-dose chest computed tomography screening has moved from the research arena to clinical practice. Lung cancer screening programs must reach beyond image acquisition and interpretation and engage in a multidisciplinary effort of clinical shared decision-making, standardization of imaging and nodule management, smoking cessation, and patient follow-up. Standardization of radiologic reports and nodule management will systematize patient care, provide quality assurance, further reduce harm, and contain health care costs. Although the National Lung Screening Trial results and eligibility criteria of a heavy smoking history are the foundation for the standard guidelines for low-dose chest computed tomography screening in the United States, currently only 27% of patients diagnosed with lung cancer would meet US lung cancer screening recommendations. Current and future efforts must be directed to better delineate those patients who would most benefit from screening and to ensure that the benefits of screening reach all socioeconomic strata and racial and ethnic minorities. Further optimization of lung cancer screening program design and patient eligibility will assure that lung cancer screening benefits will outweigh the potential risks to our patients. PMID:27306387

  5. Lung Cell Oxidant Injury

    PubMed Central

    Suttorp, Norbert; Simon, Lawrence M.

    1982-01-01

    The oxidant damage of lung tissue during in vivo hyperoxic exposure appears to be amplified by neutrophils that release toxic amounts of oxygen metabolites. In our studies cloned lung epithelial cells (L2 cells), lung fibroblasts, and pulmonary artery endothelial cells were cultured under either ambient (Po2 ∼ 140 torr) or hyperoxic (Po2 ∼ 630 torr) conditions for 48 h (24 h for endothelial cells). After cultivation, phorbol myristate acetate- or opsonized zymosan-stimulated neutrophils were added to the cultivated monolayers for 4 h, and lung cell damage was quantitated using 51Cr release as an index. The data show that stimulated neutrophils are able to injure the three lung cell lines tested, with endothelial cells being highly susceptible to this injury and L2 cells being slightly more susceptible than lung fibroblasts. The studies also demonstrate that all three lung cell lines exposed to sustained hyperoxia are more susceptible to neutrophil-mediated cytotoxicity than their time-matched air controls. Hydrogen peroxide was the main toxic oxygen metabolite because catalase (2,500 U/ml) completely protected the target cells. Equivalent quantities of hydrogen peroxide generated by glucose oxidase instead of by neutrophils gave a similar degree of target cell injury. Superoxide dismutase at high concentrations (250 μg/ml) provided some protection. Other systems that detoxify oxygen metabolites were without protective effect. These findings indicate that the increase in susceptibility of lung cells to neutrophil-mediated oxidant damage is a toxic effect of hyperoxia on lung cells. This specific manifestation of oxygen damage provides insight into the integration between primary mechanisms (oxygen exposure) and secondary mechanisms (release of oxygen metabolites by neutrophils) with respect to the cellular basis for pulmonary oxygen toxicity. PMID:6284800

  6. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Treatment Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Lung cancer is ... non- skin cancer in the United States. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in men and in women. ...

  7. Bioengineering Lungs for Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, Sarah E; Charest, Jonathan M; Ren, Xi; Ott, Harald C

    2016-05-01

    Whole lung extracellular matrix scaffolds can be created by perfusion of cadaveric organs with decellularizing detergents, providing a platform for organ regeneration. Lung epithelial engineering must address both the proximal airway cells that function to metabolize toxins and aid mucociliary clearance and the distal pneumocytes that facilitate gas exchange. Engineered pulmonary vasculature must support in vivo blood perfusion with low resistance and intact barrier function and be antithrombotic. Repopulating the native lung matrix with sufficient cell numbers in appropriate anatomic locations is required to enable organ function. PMID:27112255

  8. Microgravity and the lung

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, John B.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented from studies of the effect of microgravity on the lungs of rats flown on the Cosmos 2044 mission, and from relevant laboratory experiments. The effects of microgravity fall into five categories: topographical structure and function, the lung volumes and mechanics, the intrathoracic blood pressures and volumes, the pulmonary deposition of aerosol, and denitrogenaton during EVA. The ultrastructure of the left lungs of rats flown for 14 days on the Cosmos 2044 spacecraft and that of some tail-suspended rats disclosed presence of red blood cells in the alveolar spaces, indicating that pulmonary hemorrhage and pulmonary edema occurred in these rats. Possible causes for this phenomenon are discussed.

  9. Lung Disease and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Imaizumi, Yuki; Eguchi, Kazuo; Kario, Kazuomi

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients are at a high risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Airflow limitation is a predictor of future risks of hypertension and cardiovascular events. COPD is now understood as a systemic inflammatory disease, with the focus on inflammation of the lungs. An association between inflammation and sympathetic overactivity has also been reported. In this article, we review the association between chronic lung disease and the risks of hypertension, cardiovascular morbidity, the underlying mechanisms, and the therapeutic approach to hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in patients with lung diseases. PMID:26587450

  10. Cystic and nodular lung disease.

    PubMed

    Richards, J Caleb; Lynch, David A; Chung, Jonathan H

    2015-06-01

    Diffuse cystic and nodular lung diseases have characteristic imaging findings. The most common causes of cystic lung disease are lymphangioleiomyomatosis and Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Other less common cystic lung diseases include Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis, and light chain deposition disease. Computed tomography is used to differentiate cystic lung disease from emphysema, honeycombing, cavities, and bronchiectasis, which mimic cystic lung disease. Diffuse nodular lung disease are categorized as centrilobular, perilymphatic, and random types. In diffuse nodular lung disease, a specific diagnosis is achieved through a combination of history, physical examination, and imaging findings. PMID:26024606