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Sample records for deep phase profile

  1. Deep Seismic Reflection Profiling in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attoh, K.; Brown, L. D.

    2006-05-01

    Africa represents one of the true frontiers for systematic deep seismic reflection profiling of the type pioneered by COCORP, LITHOPROBE, BIRPS, DEKORP, and ECORS in the northern hemisphere. However, there have been a number of notable individual surveys that have sampled key components of the African lithosphere, and several systematic regional geophysical initiatives which suggest African is fertile ground for future efforts. Among the latter are the KRISP refraction/wide-angle program to probe the East African Rift system in the 1990's, the Kaapvaal Experiment to image the deep lithosphere with passive techniques and most recently the EAGLE active/passive experiments in the Afar. Examples of true multichannel deep reflection surveys to delineate crustal structure include the transects of the Limpopo Belt, a Neoarchean mobile zone that sutures the Kaapval and Zimbabwe cratons, deep oil prospecting surveys in the Nosop basin of southern Botswana that reveal dramatic basement reflectors off the NW margin of the Kaapvaal craton, and most recently deep vibroseis surveys within the Kaapvaal craton that indicate a crustal stack of tectonic slivers as well as tectonic shingling of the upper mantle. The passive margin of western Africa, with its strategic oil resources, has been a target of several deep studies using marine seismic surveys, including the PROBE initiative of the late 1980's and more recent deep surveys offshore Angola. Reprocessing of lines from oil exploration grids reveal Proterozoic mid-lower crustal features offshore of Ghana. Among the potentially rich targets for future surveys in Africa are the West African and Congo cratons and their suturing Pan-African (Neoproterozoic) mobile belts. This suite of cratonic lithosphere elements is largely largely untouched by modern high resolution seismic methodologies. New initiatives such as LEGENDS ( targeting the East African Orogen) and exploitation of existing oil industry seismic data for deep information

  2. Deep profiling of multitube flow cytometry data

    PubMed Central

    O’Neill, Kieran; Aghaeepour, Nima; Parker, Jeremy; Hogge, Donna; Karsan, Aly; Dalal, Bakul; Brinkman, Ryan R.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: Deep profiling the phenotypic landscape of tissues using high-throughput flow cytometry (FCM) can provide important new insights into the interplay of cells in both healthy and diseased tissue. But often, especially in clinical settings, the cytometer cannot measure all the desired markers in a single aliquot. In these cases, tissue is separated into independently analysed samples, leaving a need to electronically recombine these to increase dimensionality. Nearest-neighbour (NN) based imputation fulfils this need but can produce artificial subpopulations. Clustering-based NNs can reduce these, but requires prior domain knowledge to be able to parameterize the clustering, so is unsuited to discovery settings. Results: We present flowBin, a parameterization-free method for combining multitube FCM data into a higher-dimensional form suitable for deep profiling and discovery. FlowBin allocates cells to bins defined by the common markers across tubes in a multitube experiment, then computes aggregate expression for each bin within each tube, to create a matrix of expression of all markers assayed in each tube. We show, using simulated multitube data, that flowType analysis of flowBin output reproduces the results of that same analysis on the original data for cell types of >10% abundance. We used flowBin in conjunction with classifiers to distinguish normal from cancerous cells. We used flowBin together with flowType and RchyOptimyx to profile the immunophenotypic landscape of NPM1-mutated acute myeloid leukemia, and present a series of novel cell types associated with that mutation. Availability and implementation: FlowBin is available in Bioconductor under the Artistic 2.0 free open source license. All data used are available in FlowRepository under accessions: FR-FCM-ZZYA, FR-FCM-ZZZK and FR-FCM-ZZES. Contact: rbrinkman@bccrc.ca. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25600947

  3. Natural deep eutectic solvents: cytotoxic profile.

    PubMed

    Hayyan, Maan; Mbous, Yves Paul; Looi, Chung Yeng; Wong, Won Fen; Hayyan, Adeeb; Salleh, Zulhaziman; Mohd-Ali, Ozair

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic profiles of different ternary natural deep eutectic solvents (NADESs) containing water. For this purpose, five different NADESs were prepared using choline chloride as a salt, alongside five hydrogen bond donors (HBD) namely glucose, fructose, sucrose, glycerol, and malonic acid. Water was added as a tertiary component during the eutectics preparation, except for the malonic acid-based mixture. Coincidentally, the latter was found to be more toxic than any of the water-based NADESs. A trend was observed between the cellular requirements of cancer cells, the viscosity of the NADESs, and their cytotoxicity. This study also highlights the first time application of the conductor-like screening model for real solvent (COSMO-RS) software for the analysis of the cytotoxic mechanism of NADESs. COSMO-RS simulation of the interactions between NADESs and cellular membranes' phospholipids suggested that NADESs strongly interacted with cell surfaces and that their accumulation and aggregation possibly defined their cytotoxicity. This reinforced the idea that careful selection of NADESs components is necessary, as it becomes evident that organic acids as HBD highly contribute to the increasing toxicity of these neoteric mixtures. Nevertheless, NADESs in general seem to possess relatively less acute toxicity profiles than their DESs parents. This opens the door for future large scale utilization of these mixtures. PMID:27386357

  4. Deep space LADAR, phase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Randy W.; Rawlins, Greg; Zepkin, Neil; Bohlin, John

    1989-03-01

    A pseudo-ranging laser radar (PRLADAR) concept is proposed to provide extended range capability to tracking LADAR systems meeting the long-range requirements of SDI mission scenarios such as the SIE midcourse program. The project will investigate the payoff of several transmitter modulation techniques and a feasibility demonstration using a breadboard implementation of a new receiver concept called the Phase Multiplexed Correlator (PMC) will be accomplished. The PRLADAR concept has specific application to spaceborne LADAR tracking missions where increased CNR/SNR performance gained by the proposed technique may reduce the laser power and/or optical aperture requirement for a given mission. The reduction in power/aperture has similar cost reduction advantages in commercial ranging applications. A successful Phase 1 program will lay the groundwork for a quick reaction upgrade to the AMOS/LASE system in support of near term SIE measurement objectives.

  5. Deep seismic reflection profiling and continental growth curves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemperer, Simon L.

    1988-01-01

    The results of deep seismic reflection profiling is discussed which shows that the lower crust is prominently layered, in many continental areas, regardless of the age of the surface rocks. The seismic Moho is commonly shallower than the petrological Moho, leading to the question of the nature and origin of this prominent reflector in the deep crust. The lower crust is much less well defined in Phanerozoic and Proterozoic accreted terranes, suggesting possible differences in types of lower crusts.

  6. Simplified method of deep-tow seismic profiling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robb, James M.; Sylwester, Richard E.; Penton, Ronald

    1981-01-01

    To improve resolution of seismic-reflection profiles in continental slope water depths of 900 to 1500 m, a single hydrophone was towed about 150 m off the bottom to receive reflected signals from a surface-towed sparker sound source. That deep-towed hydrophone data show that valleys which appear V-shaped in records from a surface-towed hydrophone are flat-bottomed, and that subbottom reflections from an erosional unconformity can be much better resolved. The data produced by this technique are very hepful when used in conjunction with records from conventional surface-towed seismic-profiling equipment.

  7. Continuous contour phase plates for tailoring the focal plane irradiance profile

    SciTech Connect

    Dixit, S.N.; Rushford, M.C.; Thomas, I.M.; Perry, M.D.

    1995-08-09

    We present fully continuous phase screens for producing super-Gaussian focal-plane irradiance profiles. Such phase screens are constructed with the assumption of either circular symmetric near-field and far-field profiles or a separable phase screen in Cartesian co-ordinates. In each case, the phase screen is only a few waves deep. Under illumination by coherent light, such phase screens produce high order super-Gaussian profiles in the focal plane with high energy content effects of beam aberrations on the focal profiles and their energy content are also discussed.

  8. Deep structures beneath Karakoram Fault revealed by deep seismic reflection profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.; Gao, R.; Klemperer, S. L.; Kelly, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Karakoram fault is one of the most important structures in southwest Tibet, associated with the collision between India and Eurasia. In order to discover the deep structures of the Karakoram fault, SinoProbe has acquired a deep seismic reflection profiles with 110 km length across the Ayila Ri'gyu mountain in the southeast part of the Karakoram fault. Preliminary reflection images of the crustal structures of the Karakoram fault show that Moho reflections appear at 23 ~ 24 s (TWT) beneath deep seismic reflection line. Many north and south dipping reflections in the crust form v-shaped structures along the reflection line and suggest the Karakoram fault as a crustal scale. Beneath the Gangdese granite belt, there are many "bright-spot" reflections in the upper and middle crust

  9. Stochastic Phase Resetting: a Theory for Deep Brain Stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tass, Peter A.

    2000-03-01

    A stochastic approach to phase resetting in clusters of interacting oscillators is presented. This theory explains how a stimulus, especially a single pulse, induces synchronization and desynchronization processes. The theory is used to design a new technique for deep brain stimulation in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease or essential tremor that do no longer respond to drug therapy. This stimulation mode is a feedback controlled single pulse stimulation. The feedback signal is registered with the deep brain electrode, and the desynchronizing pulses are administered via the same electrode. The stochastic phase resetting theory is used as a starting point of a model based design of intelligent and gentle deep brain stimulation techniques.

  10. Fabrication of large aperture kinoform phase plates in fused silica for smoothing focal plane intensity profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Rushford, M.; Dixit, S.; Thomas, I.; Perry, M.

    1996-04-26

    We have fabricated large aperture (40-cm) kinoform phase plates for producing super-Gaussian focal plane intensity profiles. The continuous phase screen, designed using a new iterative procedure, was fabricated in fused silica as a 16-level, one-wave deep rewrapped phase profile using a lithographic process and wet etching in buffered hydrofluoric acid. The observed far-field contains 94% of the incident energy inside the desired spot.

  11. GAS PHASE EXPOSURE HISTORY DERIVED FROM MATERIAL PHASE CONCENTRATION PROFILES USING SOLID PHASE MICRO-EXTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Identifier: F8P31059
    Title: Gas Phase Exposure History Derived from Material Phase Concentration Profiles Using Solid Phase Micro-Extraction
    Fellow (Principal Investigator): Jonathan Lewis McKinney
    Institution: University of Missouri - ...

  12. Giddings Austin chalk enters deep lean-gas phase

    SciTech Connect

    Moritis, G.

    1995-12-25

    Deep lean gas is the latest phase in the growth of the Giddings field Austin chalk play. The first phase involved drilling vertical oil and gas wells. Next came the horizontal well boom in the shallower Austin chalk area, which is still continuing. And now this third phase places horizontal laterals in the Austen chalk at about 14,000--15,000 ft to produce lean gas. The article describes the producing wells and gas gathering.

  13. Crustal structure of China from deep seismic sounding profiles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, S.; Mooney, W.D.

    1998-01-01

    More than 36,000 km of Deep Seismic Sounding (DSS) profiles have been collected in China since 1958. However, the results of these profiles are not well known in the West due to the language barrier. In this paper, we summarize the crustal structure of China with a new contour map of crustal thickness, nine representative crustal columns, and maps showing profile locations, average crustal velocity, and Pn velocity. The most remarkable aspect of the crustal structure of China is the well known 70+ km thickness of the crust of the Tibetan Plateau. The thick (45-70 km) crust of western China is separated from the thinner (30-45 km) crust of eastern China by the north-south trending seismic belt (105??E). The average crustal velocity of China ranges from 6.15 to 6.45 km/s, indicating a felsic-to-intermediate bulk crustal composition. Upper mantle (Pn) velocities are 8.0 ?? 0.2 km/s, equal to the global continental average. We interpret these results in terms of the most recent thermo-tectonic events that have modified the crust. In much of eastern China, Cenoxoic crustal extension has produced a thin crust with a low average crustal velocity, similar to western Europe and the Basin and Range Province, western USA. In western China, Mesozoic and Cenoxoic arc-continent and continent-continent collisions have led to crustal growth and thickening. Inferences on the process of crustal thickening are provided by the deep crustal velocity structure as determined by DSS profiles and other seismological studies. A high velocity (7.0-7.4 km/s) lower-crustal layer has been reported in western China only beneath the southernmost Tibetan Plateau. We identity this high-velocity layer as the cold lower crust of the subducting Indian plate. As the Indian crust is injected northward into the Tibetan lower crust, it heats and assimilates by partial melting, a process that results in a reduction in the seismic velocity of the lower crust in the central and northern Tibetan Plateau

  14. Stochastic Phase Resetting: A Theory for Deep Brain Stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tass, P. A.

    The basic principles of a stochastic approach to phase resetting in populations of interacting phase oscillators are presented in this article. This theory explains how synchronization and desynchronization processes are caused by a pulsatile stimulus. It is a central goal of this approach to establish a theoretical basis for the design of efficient and intelligent new deep brain stimulation techniques. Accordingly, the theory is used to design a new deep brain stimulation technique with feedback control in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease or essential tremor.

  15. Skeleton-migration: Applications in deep crustal reflection seismic profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, D. W.; Vasudevan, K.

    2009-12-01

    The reflection geometry of the sub-surface is three-dimensional in character. A 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing would be the ideal modus operandi for true seismic interpretation. However, almost all deep-crustal reflection profiles recorded on land follow quasi-linear geometry, for economic reasons. Although conventional processing of the lines accommodates crooked-line geometry, the migration algorithms used to produce seismic images for interpretation are generally 2-D in nature. Consequently, the effects of 3-D geometry are not usually well-accounted for. For example, the out-of-plane reflections lead to mislocation errors that increase with recording time. The events may be mislocated by 10’s of km and show spurious apparent dip after migration. In order to circumvent these problems and to gain insight into 3-D structures, we present an easy-to-implement “Skeleton-migration” algorithm. The skeleton-migration method follows a two-step procedure. In the first step, we introduce a fast skeletonization of the final pre-processed stack to generate a digital catalogue containing a variety of event attributes including two-way travel times and location information in UTM co-ordinates. In the second step, we apply ray-based migration to the catalogue of events or two-way travel times of the 2-D stack using an appropriate velocity model for the crust and upper mantle. Since often we do not know a priori the strike direction of the reflectors, we have implemented a fast visualization-based optimization procedure to determine the strike. In subsequent steps, we use visualization methods to view and interpret the skeleton-migration results. We illustrate the usefulness of the method with examples from both the synthetic and deep crustal seismic reflection data. For the synthetic examples, we consider physical models corresponding to a point-scatterer, a synform, a fault and a subducting slab. In all these instances, we use an elastic Kirchhoff algorithm

  16. Strike fault links mountain building from top to deep: evidence from the deep seismic reflection profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, R.; Wang, H.; Lu, Z.; Wang, C.; Klemperer, S. L.; Yin, A.

    2013-12-01

    The formation of mountains was influenced by large-scale strike-slip faults in Tibet. At the south and north borders of the Tibetan Plateau, the Karakorum and Kunlun strike-slip faults cut the Himalayas and the Kunlun Mountains crust respectively. Based on the detection results of deep seismic reflection profiles, we report the structures of these strike-slip faults and shear deformation depth. The Karakoram fault and Indus-Yarlung suture (IYS) zone are two important structures in southwest and south Tibet, associated with the collision between India and Eurasia. SinoProbe has acquired two deep seismic reflection profiles with 210 km length. The northwestern profile spans 120 km and crosses the southeast part of the Karakoram fault where dextrally sheared mylonite and mylonitized gneiss-granite are exposed along the fault. The southeastern profile spans 90km and crosses the ophiolite belt of the western IYS. Our preliminary images show: Moho reflections appear at ~ 24 s (TWT) beneath both lines. Flower-structures imaged at the Karakoram fault zone are suggestive of strike-slip structure. There are significant differences in lower-crustal structure between the two lines. Many north and south dipping reflections in the lower crust form v-shaped structures along the northwest line. On the southeastern line, there are many north-dipping but few south-dipping reflections in the lower crust. Kunlun seismic profile crosses the active left-slip Kunlun fault, which is ~1000-km long and was inferred to merge downward with a continental subduction zone. The fault was initiated at 15-8 Ma, moved at a rate of 5-16 mm/year, and has a total slip of 65-120 km. The results of our seismic-reflection study across northeastern Tibet show that the actively deforming middle Tibetan crust is dominated by discrete sub-horizontal simple-shear zones that terminate the subvertical, left-slip Kunlun fault above. The flat shear zones appear to act as roof and floor thrusts of large duplex

  17. Saudi Arabian seismic deep-refraction profiles; final project report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, J.H.; Mooney, W.D.; Blank, H.R.; Gettings, M.E.; Kohler, W.M.; Lamson, R.J.; Leone, L.E.

    1983-01-01

    In February 1978 a seismic deep-refraction profile was recorded by the U.S. Geological Survey along a 1000-km line across the Arabian Shield in western Saudi Arabia. The line begins in Mesozoic cover rocks near Riyadh on the Arabian Platform, leads southwesterly across three major Precambrian tectonic provinces, traverses Cenozoic rocks of the coastal plain near Jizan (Tihamat-Asir), and terminates at the outer edge of the Farasan Bank in the southern Red Sea. More than 500 surveyed recording sites were occupied, including 19 in the Farasan Islands. Six shot points were used: five on land, with most charges placed below the water table in drill holes, and one at sea, with charges placed on the sea floor and detonated from a ship. Slightly more than 61 metric tons of explosives were used in 19 discrete firings. Seismic energy was recorded by 100 newly-developed portable seismic stations deployed in approximately 200 km-long arrays for each firing. Each station consisted of a standard 2-Hz vertical component geophone coupled to a self-contained analog recording instrument equipped with a magnetic-tape cassette. In this final report, we fully document the field and data-processing procedures and present the final seismogram data set as both a digital magnetic tape and as record sections for each shot point. Record sections include a normalized set of seismograms, reduced at 6 km/s, and a true-amplitude set, reduced at 8 km/s, which have been adjusted for amplifier gain, individual shot size, and distance from the shot point. Appendices give recorder station and shot information, digital data set descriptions, computer program listings, arrival times used in the interpretation, and a bibliography of reports published as a result of this project. We used two-dimensional ray-tracing techniques in the data analysis, and our interpretation is based primarily on horizontally layered models. The Arabian Shield is composed, to first-order, of two layers, each about 20 km

  18. Deep seismic profiling using off-line recorders, Miura Peninsula, Kanto, Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, T.; Hirata, N.; Sato, H.; Onishi, M.; Noda, K.

    2003-12-01

    The deep seismic profiling around Metropolitan Tokyo (Kanto area) began from 2002 under the project named . The deep seismic profiling was performed along the Tokyo Bay (Tokyo Bay 2003) from July to August in 2003, to obtain an image of the source fault of the Kanto earthquake of 1923 (M7.9), and deeper extension of inland active faults in Miura Peninsula. In the Tokyo Bay 2003, seismic reflection data were acquired along a 71-km-long seismic line from the Miura Peninsula to Tokyo Bay, using digital-telemetry cable system, including ocean bottom cables. However, this seismic line at Miura Peninsula passes through the densely populated area and due to the cultural noise the low S/N ratio was expected. Keeping away from the noise along the cable-type receiver line, 51 off-line recorders with a 4.5 Hz and 3-compornent geophone were deployed at carefully selected, quiet receiver points. During 90 days continuous recording, seismic signals produced by four vibroseis trucks at 195 locations and air-guns (1500 cu. inch) at 4280 locations were recorded including ca. 150 of earthquakes. Judging from the preliminary receiver gathers, two later phases (A and B) are recognized. The later phase A, located at TWT (Two-way travel time) 4 to 5.5 sec., is interpreted as a reflection from the top of the Philippine Sea Plate. The later phase B at TWT 7 to 8 sec. corresponds to the deeper reflection under the Philippine Sea Plate, respectively.

  19. Deep Structure of the NE Tibetan Plateau: An Introduction to Project INDEPTH, Phase IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, W.; Brown, L.; Zhenhan, W.; Klemperer, S.; Shi, D.; Mechie, J.; Su, H.; Tilmann, F.; Guangqi, X.; Karplus, M.; Kind, R.; Makovsky, Y.; Meissner, R.

    2007-12-01

    Since 1992, INDEPTH has acquired active and passive seismic data in three major experiments from south of the High Himalaya to the Qiangtang terrane, north of the Banggong suture. Phase IV of Project INDEPTH is focussed on delineating deep crustal and mantle structure beneath the northeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau, thought by many to represent the focus of active growth of the plateau into the Asian continent. Primary scientific objectives include: i) elucidating the crustal geometry of the thrust/strike slip fault system of the Kunlun that marks the edge of the high plateau, ii) testing the controversial suggestion that the Asian continental lithosphere is underthrusting southwestward beneath the Tibetan Plateau beneath the Kunlun, iii) assessing the role of partial melting in the tectonics of NE Tibet, and contraints on postulated crustal flow. The major technical components of this year's work include: 1) Active seismic imaging with near-vertical and wide-angle techniques; 2) Passive seismic profiling using dense seismometer spacing (ca 5 km) designed to produce high resolution receiver-function images of lithospheric structure; and 3) Geological surface investigations. Additional components scheduled for next year include: 1) a high resolution gravity survey along the seismic profile, and 2) wideband MT and long-period MT ( LIMS ) measurements to investigate deep electrical conductivity along the seismic profiles. The INDEPTH IV controlled source profile extends from Qarhan Salt Lake in the center of the Qaidam basin, across the Kunlun mountains of northern Tibet to Quemalai near the Chumaer River. The INDEPTH IV passive- source profiles are collocated with the controlled source profile across the Kunlun, but includes a second high resolution profile across the Jinsha Suture on the Tibetan Plateau. The INDEPTH IV geological studies are focussed on the timing of crustal shortening and uplift of the Kunlun and adjacent Plateau. Preliminary results will be

  20. Deep Space Habitat Team: HEFT Phase 2 Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toups, Larry D.; Smitherman, David; Shyface, Hilary; Simon, Matt; Bobkill, Marianne; Komar, D. R.; Guirgis, Peggy; Bagdigian, Bob; Spexarth, Gary

    2011-01-01

    HEFT was a NASA-wide team that performed analyses of architectures for human exploration beyond LEO, evaluating technical, programmatic, and budgetary issues to support decisions at the highest level of the agency in HSF planning. HEFT Phase I (April - September, 2010) and Phase II (September - December, 2010) examined a broad set of Human Exploration of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) Design Reference Missions (DRMs), evaluating such factors as elements, performance, technologies, schedule, and cost. At end of HEFT Phase 1, an architecture concept known as DRM 4a represented the best available option for a full capability NEO mission. Within DRM4a, the habitation system was provided by Deep Space Habitat (DSH), Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV), and Crew Transfer Vehicle (CTV) pressurized elements. HEFT Phase 2 extended DRM4a, resulting in DRM4b. Scrubbed element-level functionality assumptions and mission Concepts of Operations. Habitation Team developed more detailed concepts of the DSH and the DSH/MMSEV/CTV Conops, including functionality and accommodations, mass & volume estimates, technology requirements, and DDT&E costs. DRM 5 represented an effort to reduce cost by scaling back on technologies and eliminating the need for the development of an MMSEV.

  1. Simple and Integrated Spintip-Based Technology Applied for Deep Proteome Profiling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wendong; Wang, Shuai; Adhikari, Subash; Deng, Zuhui; Wang, Lingjue; Chen, Lan; Ke, Mi; Yang, Pengyuan; Tian, Ruijun

    2016-05-01

    Great efforts have been taken for developing high-sensitive mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic technologies, among which sample preparation is one of the major focus. Here, a simple and integrated spintip-based proteomics technology (SISPROT) consisting of strong cation exchange beads and C18 disk in one pipet tip was developed. Both proteomics sample preparation steps, including protein preconcentration, reduction, alkylation, and digestion, and reversed phase (RP)-based desalting and high-pH RP-based peptide fractionation can be achieved in a fully integrated manner for the first time. This easy-to-use technology achieved high sensitivity with negligible sample loss. Proteomic analysis of 2000 HEK 293 cells readily identified 1270 proteins within 1.4 h of MS time, while 7826 proteins were identified when 100000 cells were processed and analyzed within only 22 h of MS time. More importantly, the SISPROT can be easily multiplexed on a standard centrifuge with good reproducibility (Pearson correlation coefficient > 0.98) for both single-shot analysis and deep proteome profiling with five-step high-pH RP fractionation. The SISPROT was exemplified by the triplicate analysis of 100000 stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED). This led to the identification of 9078 proteins containing 3771 annotated membrane proteins, which was the largest proteome data set for dental stem cells reported to date. We expect that the SISPROT will be well suited for deep proteome profiling for fewer than 100000 cells and applied for translational studies where multiplexed technology with good label-free quantification precision is required. PMID:27062885

  2. Comparing vertical profiles of natural tracers in the Williston Basin to estimate the onset of deep aquifer activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendry, M. Jim; Harrington, Glenn A.

    2014-08-01

    Comparing high-resolution depth profiles of different naturally occurring environmental tracers in aquitards should yield consistent and perhaps complementary information about solute transport mechanisms and the timing of major hydrogeological and climatological events. This study evaluated whether deep, continuous profiles of aquitard pore water chloride concentration could provide further insight into the paleohydrology of the Williston Basin, Canada, than possible using high-resolution depth profiles of stable H/O isotopes of water (δ18O, δ2H). Pore water samples were obtained from extracts of cores taken over 392 m of the thick Cretaceous shale aquitard. Water samples were also collected from wells installed in the underlying regional sandy aquifer (Mannville Group; 93 m thick) and from seepage inflows into potash mine shafts (to 825 m below ground). Numerical modeling of the 1-D vertical Cl- profile supported diffusion dominated solute transport in the shales. The modeling also showed a similar time frame for development of the Cl- profile prior to activation of the aquifer as determined from the δ18O profile (20-25 Ma); however, it provided a significantly longer and potentially better-constrained time frame for evolution of the profile during the activation phase of the aquifer (0.5-1 Ma). The dominant paleoevent reflected in present-day profiles of both tracers is the introduction of glaciogenic meteoric water to the Mannville aquifer underlying the shale during the Pleistocene. The source area of this water remains to be determined.

  3. Phase 2 Methyl Iodide Deep-Bed Adsorption Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, Nick; Watson, Tony

    2014-09-01

    Nuclear fission produces fission products (FPs) and activation products, including iodine-129, which could evolve into used fuel reprocessing facility off-gas systems, and could require off-gas control to limit air emissions to levels within acceptable emission limits. Research, demonstrations, and some reprocessing plant experience have indicated that diatomic iodine can be captured with efficiencies high enough to meet regulatory requirements. Research on the capture of organic iodides has also been performed, but to a lesser extent. Several questions remain open regarding the capture of iodine bound in organic compounds. Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has progressed according to a multi-laboratory methyl iodide adsorption test plan. This report summarizes the second phase of methyl iodide adsorption work performed according to this test plan using the deep-bed iodine adsorption test system at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), performed during the second half of Fiscal Year (FY) 2014. Test results continue to show that methyl iodide adsorption using AgZ can achieve total iodine decontamination factors (DFs, ratios of uncontrolled and controlled total iodine levels) above 1,000, until breakthrough occurred. However, mass transfer zone depths are deeper for methyl iodide adsorption compared to diatomic iodine (I2) adsorption. Methyl iodide DFs for the Ag Aerogel test adsorption efficiencies were less than 1,000, and the methyl iodide mass transfer zone depth exceeded 8 inches. Additional deep-bed testing and analyses are recommended to (a) expand the data base for methyl iodide adsorption under various conditions specified in the methyl iodide test plan, and (b) provide more data for evaluating organic iodide reactions and reaction byproducts for different potential adsorption conditions.

  4. Seeking the Profile of an Elementary Educator: Phase III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arth, Alfred A.; And Others

    This paper presents the third phase of a student-faculty investigation seeking the profile of the elementary school teacher. Phase I discovered an indication of different personality traits in elementary and secondary teachers. Phase II redesigned the original questionnaire and supported the findings with additional research. This third phase…

  5. PROTEOFORMER: deep proteome coverage through ribosome profiling and MS integration

    PubMed Central

    Crappé, Jeroen; Ndah, Elvis; Koch, Alexander; Steyaert, Sandra; Gawron, Daria; De Keulenaer, Sarah; De Meester, Ellen; De Meyer, Tim; Van Criekinge, Wim; Van Damme, Petra; Menschaert, Gerben

    2015-01-01

    An increasing amount of studies integrate mRNA sequencing data into MS-based proteomics to complement the translation product search space. However, several factors, including extensive regulation of mRNA translation and the need for three- or six-frame-translation, impede the use of mRNA-seq data for the construction of a protein sequence search database. With that in mind, we developed the PROTEOFORMER tool that automatically processes data of the recently developed ribosome profiling method (sequencing of ribosome-protected mRNA fragments), resulting in genome-wide visualization of ribosome occupancy. Our tool also includes a translation initiation site calling algorithm allowing the delineation of the open reading frames (ORFs) of all translation products. A complete protein synthesis-based sequence database can thus be compiled for mass spectrometry-based identification. This approach increases the overall protein identification rates with 3% and 11% (improved and new identifications) for human and mouse, respectively, and enables proteome-wide detection of 5′-extended proteoforms, upstream ORF translation and near-cognate translation start sites. The PROTEOFORMER tool is available as a stand-alone pipeline and has been implemented in the galaxy framework for ease of use. PMID:25510491

  6. Phase error compensation methods for high-accuracy profile measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zewei; Liu, Xiaoli; Peng, Xiang; Zhang, Zonghua; Jiang, Hao; Yin, Yongkai; Huang, Shujun

    2016-04-01

    In a phase-shifting algorithm-based fringe projection profilometry, the nonlinear intensity response, called the gamma effect, of the projector-camera setup is a major source of error in phase retrieval. This paper proposes two novel, accurate approaches to realize both active and passive phase error compensation based on a universal phase error model which is suitable for a arbitrary phase-shifting step. The experimental results on phase error compensation and profile measurement of standard components verified the validity and accuracy of the two proposed approaches which are robust when faced with changeable measurement conditions.

  7. Deep Temperature Profiles to Evaluate Recharge in the Desert Southwest, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowman, C. E.; Dowman, C. E.; Hoffmann, J. P.; Ferre', P. A.

    2001-12-01

    Natural recharge is one of the most poorly constrained aspects of hydrologic budgets in the southwestern United States. One component of natural recharge to alluvial aquifers in many basins in the desert Southwest occurs through infiltration beneath ephemeral stream channels. Shallow temperature methods have been successfully used to estimate recharge beneath these channels. These methods rely on variations in shallow (less than 5 meters) temperature changes, which are due to advective flow of heat from infiltrating water, and are often applied in areas where depth to ground water is shallow. In cases where shallow temperature methods are used in thick unsaturated zones, it must be assumed that flux beyond the depth of the measurement is equivalent to recharge. For thick unsaturated zones, deep temperature profiles can be used to estimate recharge. This method relies on the alteration of temperature profiles deeper in unsaturated zones by percolating water. Reduced gradients deep beneath active channels indicate downward heat transfer by percolation of water. This heat transfer perturbs the geothermal gradient, resulting in a heat deficit in the vertical profile. This investigation uses deep temperature profiles below stream channels for analysis of the effects of percolation on the geothermal gradient. Recharge estimates made on the basis of heat deficits are compared with recharge estimates made using shallow-temperature methods. Utility of the deep temperature-profile method in areas where shallow-temperature methods may not be appropriate is examined. The analysis evaluates temperature profiles from boreholes within and adjacent to ephemeral stream channels in the Sonoran and Mojave Deserts.

  8. Phase 1 Methyl Iodide Deep-Bed Adsorption Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg; Tony Watson

    2014-08-01

    Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products (FPs) and activation products including iodine-129, which could evolve into used fuel reprocessing facility off-gas systems, and could require off-gas control to limit air emissions to levels within acceptable emission limits. Research, demonstrations, and some reprocessing plant experience have indicated that diatomic iodine can be captured with efficiencies high enough to meet regulatory requirements. Research on the capture of organic iodides has also been performed, but to a lesser extent [Jubin 2012b]. Several questions remain open regarding the capture of iodine bound in organic compounds. Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has progressed according to a multi-laboratory methyl iodide adsorption test plan. This report summarizes the first phase of methyl iodide adsorption work performed according to this test plan using the deep-bed iodine adsorption test system at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), performed during Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 and early FY-2014. Testing has been performed to address questions posed in the test plan, and followed the testing outline in the test plan. Tests established detection limits, developed procedures for sample analysis with minimal analytical interferences, and confirmed earlier results that show that the methyl iodide reacts when in contact with the AgZ sorbent, and not significantly in the gas flow upstream of the sorbent. The reaction(s) enable separation of the iodine from the organic moiety, so that the iodine can chemisorb onto the sorbent. The organic moiety can form other compounds, some of which are organic compounds that are detected and can be tentatively identified using GC-FID and GCMS. Test results also show that other gas constituents (NOx and/or H2O) can affect the methyl iodide reactions. With NOx and H2O present in the gas stream, the majority of uncaptured iodine exiting iodine-laden sorbent beds is in the form of I2 or HI, species that

  9. Reverse Phase Protein Arrays for Compound Profiling.

    PubMed

    Moerke, Nathan; Fallahi-Sichani, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Reverse phase protein arrays (RPPAs), also called reverse phase lysate arrays (RPLAs), involve immobilizing cell or tissue lysates, in small spots, onto solid supports which are then probed with primary antibodies specific for proteins or post-translational modifications of interest. RPPA assays are well suited for large-scale, high-throughput measurement of protein and PTM levels in cells and tissues. RPPAs are affordable and highly multiplexable, as a large number of arrays can readily be produced in parallel and then probed separately with distinct primary antibodies. This article describes a procedure for treating cells and preparing cell lysates, as well as a procedure for generating RPPAs using these lysates. A method for probing, imaging, and analyzing RPPAs is also described. These procedures are readily adaptable to a wide range of studies of cell signaling in response to drugs and other perturbations. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27622568

  10. Afghanistan environmental profile. Phase 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    Afghanistan's environment, already scarred by 12 years of conflict, is likely to undergo severe stress as external and internal refugees are resettled, according to this preliminary environmental profile. Following an introduction, Chapter 2 discusses the state of Afghanistan's environment in 1978 prior to the Soviet invasion, while Chapter 3 documents the environmental impacts of events since that time, including population relocation, deforestation, and locust and sunn-pest infestations. Chapter 4 examines major environmental areas (vegetation, wildlife, soil erosion, pesticides, public health, environmental infrastructure, energy, and air quality) with respect to both existing conditions and what is likely to occur when resettlement begins in earnest. Chapter 5 presents potential mitigation measures, including a set of environmental guidelines for the Government of Afghanistan. Chapter 6 discusses the Geographic Information System being developed under USAID's Agricultural Services Support Program; it discusses the extent to which GIS data can contribute to environmental studies, and vice versa.

  11. Temporal profile of improvement of tardive dystonia after globus pallidus deep brain stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Aasef G.; Mewes, Klaus; DeLong, Mahlon R.; Gross, Robert E.; Triche, Shirley D.; Jinnah, H.A.; Boulis, Nicholas; Willie, Jon T.; Freeman, Alan; Alexander, Garrett E.; Aia, Pratibha; Butefisch, Cathrine M.; Esper, Christine D.; Factor, Stewart A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Several case reports and small series have indicated that tardive dystonia is responsive to globus pallidus deep brain stimulation. Whether different subtypes or distributions of tardive dystonia are associated with different outcomes remains unknown. Methods We assessed the outcomes and temporal profile of improvement of eight tardive dystonia patients who underwent globus pallidus deep brain stimulation over the past six years through record review. Due to the retrospective nature of this study, it was not blinded or placebo controlled. Results: Consistent with previous studies, deep brain stimulation improved the overall the Burkee–Fahn–Marsden motor scores by 85.1 ± 13.5%. The distributions with best responses in descending order were upper face, lower face, larynx/pharynx, limbs, trunk, and neck. Patients with prominent cervical dystonia demonstrated improvement in the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale but improvements took several months. In four patients the effects of deep brain stimulation on improvement in Burke Fahn Marsden score was rapid, while in four cases there was partial rapid response of neck and trunk dystonia followed by was gradual resolution of residual symptoms over 48 months. Conclusion Our retrospective analysis shows excellent resolution of tardive dystonia after globus pallidus deep brain stimulation. We found instantaneous response, except with neck and trunk dystonia where partial recovery was followed by further resolution at slower rate. Such outcome is encouraging for using deep brain stimulation in treatment of tardive dystonia. PMID:25465373

  12. Mantle phase changes and deep-earthquake faulting in subducting lithosphere.

    PubMed

    Kirby, S H; Durham, W B; Stern, L A

    1991-04-12

    Inclined zones of earthquakes are the primary expression of lithosphere subduction. A distinct deep population of subduction-zone earthquakes occurs at depths of 350 to 690 kilometers. At those depths ordinary brittle fracture and frictional sliding, the faulting processes of shallow earthquakes, are not expected. A fresh understanding of these deep earthquakes comes from developments in several areas of experimental and theoretical geophysics, including the discovery and characterization of transformational faulting, a shear instability connected with localized phase transformations under nonhydrostatic stress. These developments support the hypothesis that deep earthquakes represent transformational faulting in a wedge of olivine-rich peridotite that is likely to persist metastably in coldest plate interiors to depths as great as 690 km. Predictions based on this deep structure of mantle phase changes are consistent with the global depth distribution of deep earthquakes, the maximum depths of earthquakes in individual subductions zones, and key source characteristics of deep events. PMID:17769266

  13. Mantle phase changes and deep-earthquake faulting in subducting lithosphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, S.H.; Durham, W.B.; Stern, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    Inclined zones of earthquakes are the primary expression of lithosphere subduction. A distinct deep population of subduction-zone earthquakes occurs at depths of 350 to 690 kilometers. At those depths ordinary brittle fracture and frictional sliding, the faulting processes of shallow earthquakes, are not expected. A fresh understanding of these deep earthquakes comes from developments in several areas of experimental and theoretical geophysics, including the discovery and characterization of transformational faulting, a shear instability connected with localized phase transformations under nonhydrostatic stress. These developments support the hypothesis that deep earthquakes represent transformational faulting in a wedge of olivine-rich peridotite that is likely to persist metastably in coldest plate interiors to depths as great as 690 km. Predictions based on this deep structure of mantle phase changes are consistent with the global depth distribution of deep earthquakes, the maximum depths of earthquakes in individual subductions zones, and key source characteristics of deep events.

  14. Structure of Precambrian crust in the U. S. from COCORP deep seismic profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.D. )

    1992-01-01

    COCORP and industry seismic reflection profiles probing beneath the thin veneer of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of the US mid-continent are mapping a complex, largely unknown three dimensional mosaic of major fault zones and sutures, a highly variable Moho, and extensive sequences of unexplored volcanic and/or sedimentary strata. Key features of the Precambrian suggested by COCORP and other deep profiling include: Pervasive, distributed reflectivity, often diffractive, dominating the middle and lower crust. Moho that is rarely reflective, usually evident as a downward transition of distributed crustal reflectivity into mantle transparency. Volcano-clastic filled graben of the late Proterozoic Keweenawan rift buried beneath Paleozoic strata in Kansas and Michigan. Extensive, subhorizontal Precambrian stratification in the upper crust beneath the east- central US and the Texas-Oklahoma border region, argued to be either an extensive volcano-clastic basin, a voluminous felsic volcanic outpouring or a major intrusive sill complex. Crustal penetrating, dipping reflection zones that mark known (Grenville front) or inferred (Cashocton zone, Trans-Hudson orogen) shear zones. Non-reflective ( ) basement beneath the Appalachian foreland suggesting transparent massifs'' that serve as collisional buttresses during terrane accretion. Deep structure is sometimes at odds with simple extrapolations of surface geology. Clearly deep seismic profiling has only begun to reveal the buried craton in the US. It is time for an integrated program for the systematic exploration of this special scientific frontier.

  15. Investigation of deep implanted fluorine channeling profiles in silicon using resonant NRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokkoris, M.; Perdikakis, G.; Vlastou, R.; Papadopoulos, C. T.; Aslanoglou, X. A.; Posselt, M.; Grötzschel, R.; Harissopulos, S.; Kossionides, S.

    2003-04-01

    Si(1 0 0) and (1 1 1) crystals were irradiated in the random as well as in the channeling direction, using 5 MeV 19F + ions, to a maximum fluence of approximately 1×10 17 particles/cm 2. The occurring deep implanted profiles were subsequently investigated using the Resonant Nuclear Reaction Analysis technique in the energy range Ep=950-1200 keV. The reaction 19F(p,αγ) 16O reaction exhibits a strong resonant behavior in the above mentioned energy range, thus providing an excellent tool for the depth profiling of fluorine, yielding minimum detection limits of the order of a few ppm. The occurring profiles are analyzed with SRIM and c-TRIM codes and an attempt is made to explain the characteristics of the experimental spectra, as well as to compare with results already existing in literature.

  16. Deep Space Habitat Concept of Operations for Transit Mission Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has begun evaluating various mission and system components of possible implementations of what the U.S. Human Spaceflight Plans Committee (also known as the Augustine Committee) has named the flexible path (Anon., 2009). As human spaceflight missions expand further into deep space, the duration of these missions increases to the point where a dedicated crew habitat element appears necessary. There are several destinations included in this flexible path a near Earth asteroid (NEA) mission, a Phobos/Deimos (Ph/D) mission, and a Mars surface exploration mission that all include at least a portion of the total mission in which the crew spends significant periods of time (measured in months) in the deep space environment and are thus candidates for a dedicated habitat element. As one facet of a number of studies being conducted by the Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) a workshop was conducted to consider how best to define and quantify habitable volume for these future deep space missions. One conclusion reached during this workshop was the need for a description of the scope and scale of these missions and the intended uses of a habitat element. A group was set up to prepare a concept of operations document to address this need. This document describes a concept of operations for a habitat element used for these deep space missions. Although it may eventually be determined that there is significant overlap with this concept of operations and that of a habitat destined for use on planetary surfaces, such as the Moon and Mars, no such presumption is made in this document.

  17. Deep seismic soundings on the 1-AP profile in the Barents Sea: Methods and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakoulina, T. S.; Kashubin, S. N.; Pavlenkova, G. A.

    2016-07-01

    Profile 1-AP with a length of 1300 km intersects the Barents Sea from The Kola Peninsula to Franz Josef Land. The combined Common Depth Point (CDP) and Deep Seismic Sounding (DSS) seismic studies were carried out on this profile. The DSS measurements were conducted with the standalone bottom seismic stations with an interval of 5-20 km between them. The stations recorded the signals generated by the large air guns with a step of 250 m. Based on these data, the detailed P-velocity section of the Earth's crust and uppermost mantle have been constructed for the entire profile and the S-velocity section for its southern part. The use of a variety of methods for constructing the velocity sections enabled us to assess the capabilities of each method from the standpoint of the highest reliability and informativity of the models. The ray tracing method yielded the best results. The 1-PR profile crosses two large basins—the South Barents and North Barents ones, with the thickness of the sediments increasing from 8 to 10 km in the south to 12-15 km in the north. The Earth's crust pertains to the continental type along the entire profile. Its thickness averages 32 to 36 km and only increases to 43 km at the boundary between the two basins. The distinct change in the wave field at this boundary suggests the presence of a large deep fault in this zone. The high-velocity blocks are revealed in the crust of the South Barents basin, whereas the North Barents crust is characterized by relatively low velocities.

  18. Gas-phase exposure history derived from material-phase concentration profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, G. C.; Little, J. C.; Xu, Y.; Rao, M.; Enke, D.

    Non-reactive gas-phase pollutants such as benzene diffuse into indoor furnishings and leave behind a unique material-phase concentration profile that serves as a record of the past gas-phase indoor concentrations. The inverse problem to be solved is the diffusion equation in a slab such as vinyl flooring. Using knowledge of the present material-phase concentration profile in the slab, we seek to determine the historical material-phase concentration at the surface exposed to indoor air, and hence the historical gas-phase concentration, which can be used directly to determine exposure. The problem as posed has a unique solution that may be solved using a variety of approaches. We use a trained artificial neural network (ANN) to derive solutions for hypothetical exposure scenarios. The ANN results show that it is possible to estimate the intensity and timing of past exposures from the material-phase concentration profile in a building material. The overall method is limited by (1) the resolution of techniques for measuring spatial material-phase concentration profiles, (2) how far back in time we seek to determine exposure and (3) the representational power of the ANN solution. For example, we estimate that this technique can estimate exposure to phenol up to 0.5 y in the past from analyses of vinyl flooring.

  19. Deep Seismic Reflection Profiles Reveal The Crust Structures Beneath Xing'an-Mongolian Orogenic Belt and Its Neighboring Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, H.; Gao, R.; Keller, R. G.; Li, Q.; Li, W.; Li, H.; Xiong, X.; Guo, L.

    2012-12-01

    high-order NMO, detailed velocity analysis and maximum energy residual static correction, prestack time migration methods, etc. The migrated stack profiles reveal the deep structural and tectonic relationship between the northern margin of the North China craton and the Xing'an-Mongolia orogenic belt. Many curved reflection phases with strong amplitudes beneath the igneous province suggest magma activity obversed. It is notable that a strong Moho reflection appears to be spatially associated with ancient collision or subduction zones exhibits complicated characters. This scenario may suggest multiple tectonic events that are spatially correlated from topgraphy to deep structure. We think the east-dipping reflections beneath the eastside of Great Xing'An Mountain Range within upper crust related with the Mesozoic detachment event in North China. All the profiles provides a rare opportunity to study signatures of ancient orogenic processes in the context of a continental interior. This research is supported by SinoProbe-02, China NSF (No.40830316, No.41104060), China Geological Survey (No.1212011120975), US NSF PIRE grant (0730154).

  20. Sodium storage in deep paleoweathering profiles beneath the Paleozoic-Triassic unconformity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiry, M.; Parcerisa, D.; Ricordel-Prognon, C.; Schmitt, J.-M.

    2009-04-01

    A major sodium accumulation has been recognized for long and by numerous authors in the Permo-Triassic salt deposits (Hay et al., 2006). Beside these basinal deposits, important masses of sodium were stored on the continents within deep palaeoweathering profiles in form of albite. Indeed, wide surfaces and huge volumes of granito-gneissic basements of the Hercynian massifs are albitized from North-Africa up to Scandinavia. These albitized rocks have usually been considered as related to tardi-magmatic metasomatic processes (Cathelineau 1986; Petersson and Eliasson 1997). Geometrical arrangement and dating of these alterations point out that these albitizations, or at least a part of them, developed under low temperature subsurface conditions in relation with the Triassic palaeosurface (Ricordel et al., 2007; Parcerisa et al., 2009). Petrology The albitized igneous rocks show a strong alteration with pseudomorphic replacement of the primary plagioclases into albite, replacement of primary biotite by chlorite and minor precipitation of neogenic minerals like albite, chlorite, apatite, haematite, calcite and titanite. Albitized rocks are characterized by their pink coloration due to the presence of minute haematite inclusions in the albite. The development and distribution of the albitization and related alterations above the unaltered basement occurs in three steps that define a vertical profile, up to 100-150 m depth. 1) In the lower part of the profile, albitization occurs within pink-colored patches in the unaltered rock, giving a pink-spotted aspect to the rock. 2) In the middle part of the profile, rocks have an overall pink coloration due to the albitization of the primary Ca-bearing igneous plagioclases. Usually, this facies develops in a pervasive manner, affecting the whole rock, but it may also be restricted to joints, giving a sharp-pink coloration to the fracture wall. 3) Finally, the top of the profile is defined by the same mineral paragenesis as in the

  1. Laser nitriding of iron: Nitrogen profiles and phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illgner, C.; Schaaf, P.; Lieb, K. P.; Schubert, E.; Queitsch, R.; Bergmann, H.-W.

    1995-07-01

    Armco iron samples were surface nitrided by irradiating them with pulses of an excimer laser in a nitrogen atmosphere. The resulting nitrogen depth profiles measured by Resonant Nuclear Reaction Analysis (RNRA) and the phase formation determined by Conversion Electron Mössbauer Spectroscopy (CEMS) were investigated as functions of energy density and the number of pulses. The nitrogen content of the samples was found to be independent of the number of pulses in a layer of 50 nm from the surface and to increase in depths exceeding 150 nm. The phase composition did not change with the number of pulses. The nitrogen content can be related to an enhanced nitrogen solubility based on high temperatures and high pressures due to the laser-induced plasma above the sample. With increasing pulse energy density, the phase composition changes towards phases with higher nitrogen contents. Nitrogen diffusion seems to be the limiting factor for the nitriding process.

  2. Three-dimensional model of the Rhone deep-sea fan from sea-beam profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Bellaiche, G.; Droz, L.

    1988-08-01

    The authors model has been elaborated from the sea-beam map of the Rhone deep-sea fan established from a network of 328 parallel and overlapping sea-beam profiles 40 to 60 km long, issued from the Deltarho-Profans cruises of the R.V. Jean-Charcot. It represents marine areas ranging from /minus/2,580 to /minus/200 m. The area above /minus/200 m (marine and continental) has been constructed from preexisting data. This model has been built by Szep (Laboratoire de Geodynamique, Villefranche) at a scale of 1/200,000 by superimposing and pasting on a series of cut-out polystyrene sheets. The thickness of these sheets varies from 5 mm (corresponding to 50 m elevation), in the areas shallower than /minus/2,000 m, to 2 mm (20 m elevation) in the deeper areas in order to provide smoother, more precise fan morphology. The resulting vertical exaggeration is 20. The size of the model, in centimeters, is 144 (L) /times/ 78 (W) /times/ 33 (H). It weighs about 15 kg. All the main features displayed by the sea-beam map are striking: meandering deep central channel, abandoned channels, new fan construction linked with channel avulsion, gravity fault scars, damming salt domes. Other features such as deep, small basins at the foot of the canyons are very clear and illustrate the strength of the erosive processes occurring in these areas.

  3. Conjugate margins of Canada and Europe: Results from deep reflection profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keen, C.; Peddy, C.; de Voogd, B.; Matthews, D.

    1989-02-01

    Deep seismic reflection profiles have been collected across the conjugate margins of the North Atlantic Ocean. The eastern North Atlantic margin is traversed in the Goban Spur region, and the western North Atlantic margin is crossed in the vicinity of Flemish Cap in the Grand Banks region. These seismic profiles allow us to examine the deep structures and mode of extension in crust that was once contiguous. The Flemish Cap and Goban Spur margins have different structural styles: thick and relatively unfaulted crust is present on the Flemish Cap margin west of the continent-ocean boundary, whereas the Goban Spur margin exhibits a zone of extensional faulting and thinned continental crust. The restored rift zone displays overall symmetry in which a bridge of thin crust (< 15 km thick), about 60 km wide, joins the two crustal blocks of normal continental thickness (˜28 km). The configuration of the Moho, the geometry and distribution of the lower crustal reflections, and the overall symmetry of the rift zone favor pure-shear stretching in the lower lithosphere, although either pure or simple shear could accommodate crustal extension.

  4. Deep mantle structure and the postperovskite phase transition.

    PubMed

    Helmberger, D; Lay, T; Ni, S; Gurnis, M

    2005-11-29

    Seismologists have known for many years that the lowermost mantle of the Earth is complex. Models based on observed seismic phases sampling this region include relatively sharp horizontal discontinuities with strong zones of anisotropy, nearly vertical contrasts in structure, and small pockets of ultralow velocity zones (ULVZs). This diversity of structures is beginning to be understood in terms of geodynamics and mineral physics, with dense partial melts causing the ULVZs and a postperovskite solid-solid phase transition producing regional layering, with the possibility of large-scale variations in chemistry. This strong heterogeneity has significant implications on heat transport out of core, the evolution of the magnetic field, and magnetic field polarity reversals. PMID:16217029

  5. Influence of phase delay profile on diffraction efficiency of liquid crystal optical phased array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lin; Zhang, Jian; Wu, Li Ying

    2009-06-01

    The hardware structure and driving voltage of liquid crystal optical phased array (LCOPA) devices determine the produced phase delay characteristics. The phase delay profile influences directly the device's diffraction efficiency. In this paper, a sawtooth-shaped phase delay model of LCOPA was proposed to analyze quantitatively the influence factors of diffraction efficiency employing Fourier optics theory. Analysis results show that flyback region size is the main factor that affects diffraction efficiency. The influence extent varies with different maximum-phase-delays and grating periods. There exists an optimized curve between maximum-phase-delay and flyback region, and between maximum-phase-delay and grating period, individually. The smaller the grating period is or the larger the flyback region is, the more evident the optimization effect becomes, and the maximum increase ratio is up to 16%. Some feasible experiments were done to test theoretical analysis, and the experimental results agreed with the analysis results.

  6. Sodium storage in deep paleoweathering profiles beneath the Paleozoic-Triassic unconformity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiry, M.; Parcerisa, D.; Ricordel-Prognon, C.; Schmitt, J.-M.

    2009-04-01

    A major sodium accumulation has been recognized for long and by numerous authors in the Permo-Triassic salt deposits (Hay et al., 2006). Beside these basinal deposits, important masses of sodium were stored on the continents within deep palaeoweathering profiles in form of albite. Indeed, wide surfaces and huge volumes of granito-gneissic basements of the Hercynian massifs are albitized from North-Africa up to Scandinavia. These albitized rocks have usually been considered as related to tardi-magmatic metasomatic processes (Cathelineau 1986; Petersson and Eliasson 1997). Geometrical arrangement and dating of these alterations point out that these albitizations, or at least a part of them, developed under low temperature subsurface conditions in relation with the Triassic palaeosurface (Ricordel et al., 2007; Parcerisa et al., 2009). Petrology The albitized igneous rocks show a strong alteration with pseudomorphic replacement of the primary plagioclases into albite, replacement of primary biotite by chlorite and minor precipitation of neogenic minerals like albite, chlorite, apatite, haematite, calcite and titanite. Albitized rocks are characterized by their pink coloration due to the presence of minute haematite inclusions in the albite. The development and distribution of the albitization and related alterations above the unaltered basement occurs in three steps that define a vertical profile, up to 100-150 m depth. 1) In the lower part of the profile, albitization occurs within pink-colored patches in the unaltered rock, giving a pink-spotted aspect to the rock. 2) In the middle part of the profile, rocks have an overall pink coloration due to the albitization of the primary Ca-bearing igneous plagioclases. Usually, this facies develops in a pervasive manner, affecting the whole rock, but it may also be restricted to joints, giving a sharp-pink coloration to the fracture wall. 3) Finally, the top of the profile is defined by the same mineral paragenesis as in the

  7. Performance evaluation of digital phase-locked loops for advanced deep space transponders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, T. M.; Hinedi, S. M.; Yeh, H.-G.; Kyriacou, C.

    1994-01-01

    The performances of the digital phase-locked loops (DPLL's) for the advanced deep-space transponders (ADT's) are investigated. DPLL's considered in this article are derived from the analog phase-locked loop, which is currently employed by the NASA standard deep space transponder, using S-domain to Z-domain mapping techniques. Three mappings are used to develop digital approximations of the standard deep space analog phase-locked loop, namely the bilinear transformation (BT), impulse invariant transformation (IIT), and step invariant transformation (SIT) techniques. The performance in terms of the closed loop phase and magnitude responses, carrier tracking jitter, and response of the loop to the phase offset (the difference between in incoming phase and reference phase) is evaluated for each digital approximation. Theoretical results of the carrier tracking jitter for command-on and command-off cases are then validated by computer simulation. Both theoretical and computer simulation results show that at high sampling frequency, the DPLL's approximated by all three transformations have the same tracking jitter. However, at low sampling frequency, the digital approximation using BT outperforms the others. The minimum sampling frequency for adequate tracking performance is determined for each digital approximation of the analog loop. In addition, computer simulation shows that the DPLL developed by BT provides faster response to the phase offset than IIT and SIT.

  8. Generation of Data-Rate Profiles of Ka-Band Deep-Space Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shambayati, Shervin

    2006-01-01

    A short report discusses a methodology for designing Ka-band Deep-Space-to- Earth radio-communication links. This methodology is oriented toward minimizing the effects of weather on the Ka-band telecommunication link by maximizing the expected data return subject to minimum link availability and a limited number of data rates. This methodology differs from the current standard practices in which a link is designed according to a margin policy for a given link availability at 10 elevation. In this methodology, one chooses a data-rate profile that will maximize the average data return over a pass while satisfying a minimum-availability requirement for the pass, subject to mission operational limitations expressed in terms of the number of data rates used during the pass. The methodology is implemented in an intelligent search algorithm that first finds the allowable data-rate profiles from the mission constraints, spacecraft-to-Earth distance, spacecraft EIRP (effective isotropic radiated power), and the applicable zenith atmospheric noise temperature distribution, and then selects the best data rate in terms of maximum average data return from the set of allowable data-rate profiles.

  9. 30 CFR 203.41 - If I have a qualified deep well or a qualified phase 1 ultra-deep well, what royalty relief would...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false If I have a qualified deep well or a qualified phase 1 ultra-deep well, what royalty relief would my lease earn? 203.41 Section 203.41 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT RELIEF OR REDUCTION IN ROYALTY RATES...

  10. 30 CFR 203.42 - What conditions and limitations apply to royalty relief for deep wells and phase 1 ultra-deep wells?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What conditions and limitations apply to royalty relief for deep wells and phase 1 ultra-deep wells? 203.42 Section 203.42 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT RELIEF OR REDUCTION IN ROYALTY RATES OCS Oil,...

  11. Deep seismic reflection profiling of sedimentary basins offshore Brazil: Geological objectives and preliminary results in the Sergipe Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohriak, Webster Ueipass; Lira Rabelo, JoséHenrique; De Matos, Renato Darros; De Barros, Mozart C.

    1995-12-01

    The first deep seismic reflection profiles offshore Brazil were acquired in Campos Basin and processed to 10 s TWT in 1984. Starting in 1989, Petrobrás acquired an extensive data set of deep seismic profiles using special acquisition equipment capable of effectively penetrating through the sedimentary layers and imaging the whole crustal architecture. These deep (18 s TWT) seismic reflection profiles extend across the Atlantic-type marginal basins, from the platform to the deepwater province, presently considered frontier regions for petroleum exploration. This work addresses the geological objectives of a deep seismic profile in the Sergipe Basin and discusses the results obtained by integrating regional seismic, gravity and magnetic data. When combined, these data provide evidence that deep seismic reflectors observed in the Sergipe Basin are related to intracrustal-upper mantle structures rather than sedimentary features. The deep seismic reflection profile in the Sergipe Basin also suggests that, rather than a non-volcanic passive margin, the deepwater extension of this basin is marked by several magmatic structures, including thick wedges of seaward-dipping reflectors and volcanic plugs. These magmatic features are associated with basinforming processes resulting from lithospheric extension during the breakup of Gondwana in the Early Cretaceous and subsequent emplacement of oceanic crust. These results are compared to the crustal scale structures observed in the Campos Basin, in the southeastern margin of Brazil. The interpretation of the deep structure of these basins indicates that final separation between the South American and African plates formed passive margins characterized by different patterns of crustal attenuation underlying the rift blocks.

  12. POLCRUST - a deep reflection seismic profile across the Trans-European Suture Zone in SE Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guterch, A.; Malinowski, M.; Maksym, A.; Probulski, J.; Majdański, M.; Narkiewicz, M.; Czuba, W.; Gaczyński, E.; Grad, M.; Janik, T.; Jankowski, L.; Środa, P.

    2012-04-01

    A 240-km long deep reflection seismic profile (called POLCRUST) has been recently acquired in SE Poland. It is the first regional reflection profile ever acquired in the country. It traverses major tectonic units of SE Poland: East European Craton (EEC) with the Lublin Basin, Paleozoic terranes forming the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) (e.g. the Malopolska Block) with the Carpathian Foredeep and finally the young Alpine orogen, i.e. the Carpathians. The data were acquired with state-of-the art parameters (30 m receiver spacing, 60 m shot spacing) and high CDP fold (175). Most of the sources were Vibroseis (4 trucks) with very high source effort (45 s long sweeps). Correlated record length was 30 s. During the reflection data acquisition we also deployed refraction-type recorders (single channel RefTek-125) every 1.2 km along the line in order to record Vibroseis shots and produce common-receiver gather with extended offset range. This piggy-back experiment resulted in seismic sections with offset up to 25-30 km, which is significantly above the nominal offset range of the reflection spread (10 km). Using the refraction measurements we build a first-break tomography model that was used in further seismic imaging. Reflection seismic data were processed commercially. Some post-stack in-house processing was implemented to enhance the deeper part of the data. Signal penetration limit was estimated to range from 20 s in the NE part (EEC) to ca. 15 s in the SW part (Carpathians). For the interpretation of the deep crustal structure we used data from the nearby refraction/wide-angle reflection profiles from the CELEBRATION 2000 experiment (profiles CEL05 and CEL11). Velocity models were used for in-house post-stack migration and depth-conversion of reflection data. The POLCRUST-01 profile portraits the whole sedimentary cover with an unprecedented resolution. For the first time, the full structural setting of the Lublin Basin can be traced. We imaged the extended crust

  13. A simple deep-towed vertical array for high-resolution reflection seismic profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herber, R.; Nuppenau, V.; Weigel, W.; Wong, H. K.

    1986-06-01

    A simple, low cost, deep-towed system for high-resolution reflection seismic profiling is described. It consists of a vertical array with two hydrophones having a separation of 2.2 m and rigidly mounted onto streamlined tow bodies. Improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio is attained by simple stacking of the hydrophone outputs after signal conditioning and travel time corrections. The suppression of side echoes and surface reflections is achieved by an analog procedure which in effect improves the directional characteristics of the array. A circuit for automatic gain control is included to enhance weak signals as well as to suppress ringing. Results in Kiel Bay and over the crest of the Jan Mayen Ridge (northern Atlantic) suggest that this simple vertical array may supplement air gun systems better than conventional, surface pinger-type equipment.

  14. Low-fold, ultra-deep MCS Profiling of the Mariana Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tidwell, T.; Klemperer, S. L.; Kerr, B. C.; Goodliffe, A. M.

    2002-12-01

    We collected 2600 km of 12- and 15-fold MCS profiles in April 2002, using the R/V Ewing 6-km 240-channel streamer and a tuned 20-airgun array (10,810 cu. in.). The unusually low fold resulted because our primary focus was OBS wide-angle recording (Kerr et al., this session), so airguns were fired at a shot-interval of 90 to 110 s (shot-spacing of 200 m or 250 m) to allow water-column noise to decay between shots. As a positive aspect we recorded 60 s record lengths (the Syntrak-480 recording system could not record longer traces), so potentially imaging structure to over 200-km depth. We acquired 4 arc-parallel profiles: along the back-arc margin of the Mariana arc 30 km west of the main arc; along the volcanic line from 14°30'N (near Rota) to 18°00'N (latitude of Pagan), 30 km east of the arc along the uplifted forearc high; and along the forearc 80 km east of the arc but 140 km west of the trench. We also shot 6 arc-perpendicular lines to link the arc-parallel lines. All profiles were processed through post-stack migration during the cruise, but to only 20 s travel-time. Despite the low fold, the data provide excellent images of shallow basins between the volcanoes that shed light on the volumes and relative timings of eruptions along the arc, and of normal faults particularly along our eastern fore-arc line. Large and rapid topographic variations along the volcanic arc and uplifted forearc cause significant problems of sideswipe (Gunther et al., this session); and strong water-bottom multiples make recognition of deep structure almost impossible on the preliminarily processed data. However, beneath the shallowest, smoothest bathymetry (the guyot extending north of Farallon de Mendenilla in the uplifted forearc high) clear reflections are seen to 6 s (c. 15 km). In principle our low-frequency high-power source should penetrate deep into the mantle, and our streamer was towed at 12-m depth to minimize swell noise and enhance low-frequency signals. Currently we

  15. Anatomy of the southern Cordilleran hingeline, Utah and Nevada, from deep electrical resistivity profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Wannamaker, P.E.; Stodt, J.A.; Johnston, J.M.; Booker, J.R.

    1997-07-01

    To address outstanding questions in Mesozoic-Cenozoic structure and present-day deep physicochemical state in the region of the southern Cordilleran hingeline, a detailed, east-west profile of magnetotelluric (MT) soundings 155 km in length was acquired. From these soundings, a resistivity interpretation was produced using an inversion algorithm based on a structural parameterization. In the upper ten kilometers of the transect, the interpretation shows two segments of low resistivity lying beneath allochthonous rocks of the Late Mesozoic, Sevier thrust sheet. Subsequent industry drilling motivated in part by this surveying confirms the existence and position of the eastern subthrust conductor and, more spectacularly, identifies the presence of yet deeper, autochthonous Mesozoic rocks. A simple structural interpretation is offered where one underthrust segment of low-resistivity sediments was created originally, but this segment was broken later into two major ones during higher-angle Tertiary extension. For the middle and lower crust, the MT data imply a nearly 1-D resistivity structure of remarkable uniformity across the entire transect. Pre-existing structural fabrics have had no measurable influence on localizing regions of high temperature fluids and melting in the lower crust, at least averaged over the scale of tens of kilometers. Given its uniformity over a distance of 155 km or more, the depth to the regional deep conductor does not appear related to the distribution of high-temperature geothermal resources.

  16. Deep seismic reflection profiling of the subduction megathrust across the Sagimi trough and Tokyo bay, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Iwasaki, Takaya; Abe, Susumu; Saito, Hideo; Kawanaka, Taku; Hirata, Naoshi

    2010-05-01

    Beneath the metropolitan Tokyo, the Philippine Sea plate, in particular the fore arc portion of the Izu-Bonin island arc, has been subducted. Subduction megathrust beneath Tokyo generated M-8 class earthquakes, such as the 1923 Kanto (M7.9) and 1703 Genroku (M8.0) earthquakes. Due to the buyant subduction of the Izu-Bonin arc, the megathrust lies very shallow part of the crust. The Kozu-Matsuda fault, probable spray fault from the megathrust, emerged at the surface. In 2009, we acquired the deep seismic reflection data across the toe of the thrust system to reveal the connectivity of the probable spray fault to the megathrust. Together with the deep seismic section acquired in 2003, we show a 120-km-long deep seismic reflection profile from the front to 30 km in depth and discuss the geometry and characteristics of the thrust system. We performed deep seismic profiling across the Sagami trough for a 70-km-long seismic line in September 2009, using two ships for offshore seismic data acquisition: a gun-ship with a 3020 cu. inch air-gun and a cable-ship with a 2-km-long, streamer cable and a 480 cu. inch air-gun. The seismic signals were recorded at Miura and Izu peninsulas located both ends of the seismic line. At both sides of the onshore line, off-line recorders were deployed along total 20-km-long seismic lines at a 50m interval. Seismic reflection data were acquired by different offset of ships making large-offset gathers. The northeast end of the seismic line connected with the 2003 Tokyo bay seismic line (Sato et al., 2005: Science). The obtained seismic sections portray the detailed geometry of the spray faults, suggesting an emergent thrust with 4 km thick landward dipping strata. It merges to the megathrust at 6-7 sec (TWT). Judging from the geometry of fault-related fold in the trough fill sediments, the tip of the megathrust is located at 3 sec (TWT) beneath the trough axis. According to the co-seismic crustal deformation, the slip of the 1923 Kanto

  17. Deep RNA profiling identified CLOCK and molecular clock genes as pathophysiological signatures in collagen VI myopathy.

    PubMed

    Scotton, Chiara; Bovolenta, Matteo; Schwartz, Elena; Falzarano, Maria Sofia; Martoni, Elena; Passarelli, Chiara; Armaroli, Annarita; Osman, Hana; Rodolico, Carmelo; Messina, Sonia; Pegoraro, Elena; D'Amico, Adele; Bertini, Enrico; Gualandi, Francesca; Neri, Marcella; Selvatici, Rita; Boffi, Patrizia; Maioli, Maria Antonietta; Lochmüller, Hanns; Straub, Volker; Bushby, Katherine; Castrignanò, Tiziana; Pesole, Graziano; Sabatelli, Patrizia; Merlini, Luciano; Braghetta, Paola; Bonaldo, Paolo; Bernardi, Paolo; Foley, Reghan; Cirak, Sebahattin; Zaharieva, Irina; Muntoni, Francesco; Capitanio, Daniele; Gelfi, Cecilia; Kotelnikova, Ekaterina; Yuryev, Anton; Lebowitz, Michael; Zhang, Xiping; Hodge, Brian A; Esser, Karyn A; Ferlini, Alessandra

    2016-04-15

    Collagen VI myopathies are genetic disorders caused by mutations in collagen 6 A1, A2 and A3 genes, ranging from the severe Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy to the milder Bethlem myopathy, which is recapitulated by collagen-VI-null (Col6a1(-/-)) mice. Abnormalities in mitochondria and autophagic pathway have been proposed as pathogenic causes of collagen VI myopathies, but the link between collagen VI defects and these metabolic circuits remains unknown. To unravel the expression profiling perturbation in muscles with collagen VI myopathies, we performed a deep RNA profiling in both Col6a1(-/-)mice and patients with collagen VI pathology. The interactome map identified common pathways suggesting a previously undetected connection between circadian genes and collagen VI pathology. Intriguingly, Bmal1(-/-)(also known as Arntl) mice, a well-characterized model displaying arrhythmic circadian rhythms, showed profound deregulation of the collagen VI pathway and of autophagy-related genes. The involvement of circadian rhythms in collagen VI myopathies is new and links autophagy and mitochondrial abnormalities. It also opens new avenues for therapies of hereditary myopathies to modulate the molecular clock or potential gene-environment interactions that might modify muscle damage pathogenesis. PMID:26945058

  18. Deep transcriptome profiling of clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates reveals strain and sequence type-specific adaptation.

    PubMed

    Bruchmann, Sebastian; Muthukumarasamy, Uthayakumar; Pohl, Sarah; Preusse, Matthias; Bielecka, Agata; Nicolai, Tanja; Hamann, Isabell; Hillert, Roger; Kola, Axel; Gastmeier, Petra; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Häussler, Susanne

    2015-11-01

    Health-care-associated infections by multi-drug-resistant bacteria constitute one of the greatest challenges to modern medicine. Bacterial pathogens devise various mechanisms to withstand the activity of a wide range of antimicrobial compounds, among which the acquisition of carbapenemases is one of the most concerning. In Klebsiella pneumoniae, the dissemination of the K. pneumoniae carbapenemase is tightly connected to the global spread of certain clonal lineages. Although antibiotic resistance is a key driver for the global distribution of epidemic high-risk clones, there seem to be other adaptive traits that may explain their success. Here, we exploited the power of deep transcriptome profiling (RNA-seq) to shed light on the transcriptomic landscape of 37 clinical K. pneumoniae isolates of diverse phylogenetic origins. We identified a large set of 3346 genes which was expressed in all isolates. While the core-transcriptome profiles varied substantially between groups of different sequence types, they were more homogenous among isolates of the same sequence type. We furthermore linked the detailed information on differentially expressed genes with the clinically relevant phenotypes of biofilm formation and bacterial virulence. This allowed for the identification of a diminished expression of biofilm-specific genes within the low biofilm producing ST258 isolates as a sequence type-specific trait. PMID:26261087

  19. Deep-cryogenic-treatment-induced phase transformation in the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun-mei; Cheng, Nan-pu; Chen, Zhi-qian; Guo, Ning; Zeng, Su-min

    2015-01-01

    An aluminum alloy (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu) subjected to deep cryogenic treatment (DCT) was systematically investigated. The results show that a DCT-induced phase transformation varies the microstructures and affects the mechanical properties of the Al alloy. Both Guinier-Preston (GP) zones and a metastable η' phase were observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The phenomenon of the second precipitation of the GP zones in samples subjected to DCT after being aged was observed. The viability of this phase transformation was also demonstrated by first-principles calculations.

  20. Microbiological Profiles of Deep Terrestrial Sedimentary Rocks Revealed by an Aseptic Drilling Procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Y.; Suko, T.; Fukuda, A.; Kouduka, M.; Nanba, K.; Sakata, S.; Ito, K.

    2009-12-01

    Unlike the near-surface environments, it is difficult to determine the community structure and biogeochemical functions of microorganisms in the deep subsurface mainly due to accessibility without contamination and disturbance. In an inland fore-arc basin in central Japan, we applied a new drilling procedure using deoxygenated and/or filter-sterilized drilling fluid(s). Although DNA-stained and cultivable cell numbers and the contents of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) all indicated the presence of metabolically active microbial populations in sedimentary rocks at a depth range from 200 to 350 m, it was not successful to extract DNA from the drilled core samples. During drilling, drilling fluid used for drilling and coring in the borehole was collected from the borehole bottom and subjected to DNA extraction. Quantitative fluorogenic PCR revealed that bacterial DNA were detected in drilling fluid samples when drilling was performed for siltstone and silty sandstone layers with the limited flow of drilling fluid. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from the drilling fluid samples below a depth of 324 m were mostly related to Pseudomonas putida or Flavobacterium succinicans, while those related to other Pseudomonas spp. were predominant at depths of 298 and 299m. PLFA profiles of core samples from a depth range between 250 and 351 m showed the abundance of 16:0, 16:1ω7 and 18:1ω9 fatty acids, which are known as major cellular lipid components of Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium spp. From these results, it was suggested that the members of the genera Pseudomonas and F. succinicans might represent dominant microbial populations that inhabit the deep terrestrial sedimentary rocks in Central Japan. This study was supported by grants from the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) and Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES).

  1. Review of recent results from continental deep seismic profiling in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goleby, Bruce R.; Drummond, Barry J.; Korsch, Russell J.; Willcox, J. Barry; O'Brien, Geoffrey W.; Wake-Dyster, Kevin D.

    1994-04-01

    The Australian Geological Survey Organisation regularly collects 450-500 km of onshore deep seismic reflection data and up to 4500 km offshore each year in Australia. These recordings are made in a wide range of tectonic provinces, including, in the last few years, late Palaeozoic-Mesozoic intracontinental and Palaeozoic-Mesozoic-Cenozoic continental margin extensional basins, moderately deformed Palaeozoic transtensional basins and compressional fold belts, and Archaean greenstone terranes. Several of these provinces are major petroleum exploration provinces, whereas others contain significant mineral deposits. The primary purpose of the deep seismic profiling program is to resolve the tectonic history of the Australian continent, and thereby to encourage exploration for hydrocarbons and mineral resources in Australia. On the northwest Australian continental margin, major basin systems including the Bonaparte Basin, formed as a result of complex interactions since the Carboniferous, involving episodes of extension followed by strike-slip movements and inversion, which reactivated both the primary extensional and ancient basement structures. Off southeastern Australia, basins such as the Gippsland Basin formed as part of a linked transtensional system related to movement on a common mid-crustal detachment complex. On continental Australia, the Bowen Basin, in the northeast, was deformed by thrust faults that root in a major E-dipping detachment that flattens in the middle crust. The Cobar Basin, in the southeast, is a case where the seismic data support a detachment model in which the upper plate displacement vector can be calculated by plate reconstructions linking the geometry of the detachment surface with that of the basin. The greenstone terranes within the Eastern Goldfields region of Western Australia show crustal-scale fault systems that are planar and steep dipping, more in keeping with those interpreted in data from other Precambrian provinces rather than

  2. Deep Seismic Reflection Profiling in the Source Region of the 1923 Kanto Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, H.; Hirata, N.; Iwasaki, T.; Koketsu, K.; Ito, T.; Kasahara, K.; Ito, K.; Kawamura, T.; Ikawa, T.; Onishi, M.; Kawanaka, T.; Abe, S.

    2003-12-01

    The location and geometry of the source fault, and crustal velocity structure, provide the basic information for more precise estimation of strong ground motions with devastative earthquakes. The deep seismic profiling around Metropolitan Tokyo (Kanto area) began from 2002 under the project named `Regional Characterization of the Crust in Metropolitan Areas for Prediction of Strong Ground Motion' as five year's project. Deep seismic profiling was performed along the Sagami (Sagami 2003) and Tokyo Bay (Tokyo Bay 2003), to obtain an image of the source fault of the Kanto earthquake of 1923 (M7.9), upper surface of the Philippine Sea plate, and deeper extension of inland active faults. In Sagami 2003, seismic reflection data were acquired along a 75-km-long seismic line from the flank of the Hakone volcano to Tokyo Bay through the coast of Sagami Bay. The seismic source was four vibroseis trucks and air guns (1500 cu. inch). The seismic signals were recorded by geophones (10 Hz) on land along the coast with 20 33-km-long spread. The seismic data was processed by standard CMP-reflection method. The obtained seismic section portrays the east dipping reflectors beneath Odawara at depth ca. 4 km to Kamakura at depth ca. 13 km for 40-km-distance forming a narrow (< 1 km) concentrated zone of reflectors. The location and geometry of reflectors are almost coincidence with the source fault model (model II) proposed by MatsuOura et al. (1980) for the Kanto earthquake using a inverse method from geodetic data. Thus, it is interpreted that the source fault of the earthquake is in the narrow zone of the concentrated reflectors. The deeper extension of the Kozu-Matsuda Fault, showing the one of the highest slip rates (3 mm/y: vertical component) among active faults in Japan and was assessed high seismic risk, merges to the east dipping reflectors at ca. 6.5 km in depth beneath the Oiso hills. In the Tokyo Bay 2003, seismic reflection data were acquired along a 71-km

  3. Orogenic structure of the Eastern Alps, Europe, from TRANSALP deep seismic reflection profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüschen, Ewald; Lammerer, Bernd; Gebrande, Helmut; Millahn, Karl; Nicolich, Rinaldo; Transalp Working Group

    2004-09-01

    The TRANSALP Group, comprising of partner institutions from Italy, Austria and Germany, acquired data on a 340 km long deep seismic reflection line crossing the Eastern Alps between Munich and Venice. Although the field work was split into four campaigns, between fall 1998 and summer 2001, the project gathered for the first time a continuous profile across the Alps using consistent field acquisition and data processing parameters. These sections span the orogen itself, at its broadest width, as well as the editor Fred Davey and the two adjacent basins. Vibroseis and explosion data, complementary in their depth penetration and resolution characteristics, were obtained along with wide-angle and teleseismic data. The profile shows a bi-vergent asymmetric structure of the crust beneath the Alpine axis which reaches a maximum thickness of 55 km, and 80-100 km long transcrustal ramps, the southward dipping 'Sub-Tauern-Ramp' and the northward-dipping 'Sub-Dolomites-Ramp'. Strongly reflective patterns of these ramps can be traced towards the north to the Inn Valley and towards the south to the Valsugana thrust belt, both of which show enhanced seismicity in the brittle upper crust. The seismic sections do not reveal any direct evidence for the presence of the Periadriatic Fault system, the presumed equivalent to the Insubric Line in the Western Alps. According to our new evolutionary model, the Sub-Tauern-Ramp is linked at depth with remnants of the subducted Penninic Ocean. The 'crocodile'-type model describes an upper/lower crustal decoupling and wedging of both the European and the Adriatic-African continents.

  4. Deep seismic investigation of crustal extensional structures in the Danish Basin along the ESTRID-2 profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandrin, A.; Thybo, H.

    2008-05-01

    The crust and uppermost mantle in the Danish Basin are investigated by modelling the P-wave velocity distribution along the north-south trending seismic profile ESTRID-2. Seismic tomography and ray inversion modelling demonstrate a variable depth to the top of the crystalline crust, from ~10 km in the northern part of the profile, to ~2 km depth in the southernmost part. The crystalline crust shows very high P-wave velocity in the central part of the profile, with ~6.7 km s-1 at depths as shallow as 12 km, and ~7.3-7.5 km s-1 in the lowermost crust. These values confirm previous results obtained along the orthogonal ESTRID-1 profile and the Eugeno-S profile 2. This high velocity zone in the middle to lower crust is interpreted as a mafic intrusion, which explains a positive gravity anomaly of ~50 mGal (Silkeborg Gravity High). The total length of the intrusion is at least 80 km in the east-west direction and ~25- 35 km in the north-south direction. The estimated thickness of the intrusion, from its top to the Moho level is ~18-20 km, which gives a total minimum volume of ~40-50 000 km3. The reflectivity properties of the Moho discontinuity are variable along the profile. Below the intrusion, the PmP signal is very weak, due to the small velocity contrast between the lowermost crust (~7.4 km s-1) and uppermost mantle (~7.6-7.7 km s-1). The main Moho reflection has a `reverberative' character to the south of the intrusion. This feature is interpreted by layering at the Moho level, possibly due to magmatic underplating. The occurrence of a large crustal mafic intrusion associated with magmatic underplating may be related to extensional/transtensional tectonism in the Tornquist Fan area in the Late Palaeozoic. The extensional event probably caused the opening of a plumbing system for intrusion of mantle derived magma into the crust. The ascending magma may have been injected at upper-middle crustal levels and, during the late phases of the development, `squeezed

  5. Metastable mantle phase transformations and deep earthquakes in subducting oceanic lithosphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, S.H.; Stein, S.; Okal, E.A.; Rubie, David C.

    1996-01-01

    Earth's deepest earthquakes occur as a population in subducting or previously subducted lithosphere at depths ranging from about 325 to 690 km. This depth interval closely brackets the mantle transition zone, characterized by rapid seismic velocity increases resulting from the transformation of upper mantle minerals to higher-pressure phases. Deep earthquakes thus provide the primary direct evidence for subduction of the lithosphere to these depths and allow us to investigate the deep thermal, thermodynamic, and mechanical ferment inside slabs. Numerical simulations of reaction rates show that the olivine ??? spinel transformation should be kinetically hindered in old, cold slabs descending into the transition zone. Thus wedge-shaped zones of metastable peridotite probably persist to depths of more than 600 km. Laboratory deformation experiments on some metastable minerals display a shear instability called transformational faulting. This instability involves sudden failure by localized superplasticity in thin shear zones where the metastable host mineral transforms to a denser, finer-grained phase. Hence in cold slabs, such faulting is expected for the polymorphic reactions in which olivine transforms to the spinel structure and clinoenstatite transforms to ilmenite. It is thus natural to hypothesize that deep earthquakes result from transformational faulting in metastable peridotite wedges within cold slabs. This consideration of the mineralogical states of slabs augments the traditional largely thermal view of slab processes and explains some previously enigmatic slab features. It explains why deep seismicity occurs only in the approximate depth range of the mantle transition zone, where minerals in downgoing slabs should transform to spinel and ilmenite structures. The onset of deep shocks at about 325 km is consistent with the onset of metastability near the equilibrium phase boundary in the slab. Even if a slab penetrates into the lower mantle, earthquakes

  6. Toxicity profile of choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents for fungi and Cyprinus carpio fish.

    PubMed

    Juneidi, Ibrahim; Hayyan, Maan; Mohd Ali, Ozair

    2016-04-01

    An investigation on the toxicological assessment of 10 choline chloride (ChCl)-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) towards four fungi strains and Cyprinus carpio fish was conducted. ChCl was combined with materials from different chemical groups such as alcohols, sugars, acids and others to form DESs. The study was carried out on the individual DES components, their aqueous mixture before DES formation and their formed DESs. The agar disc diffusion method was followed to investigate their toxicity on four fungi strains selected as a model of eukaryotic microorganisms (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Aspergillus niger, Lentinus tigrinus and Candida cylindracea). Among these DESs, ChCl:ZnCl2 exhibited the highest inhibition zone diameter towards the tested fungi growth in vitro, followed by the acidic group (malonic acid and p-toluenesulfonic acid). Another study was conducted to test the acute toxicity and determine the lethal concentration at 50 % (LC50) of the same DESs on C. carpio fish. The inhibition range and LC50 of DESs were found to be different from their individual components. DESs were found to be less toxic than their mixture or individual components. The LC50 of ChCl:MADES is much higher than that of ChCl:MAMix. Moreover, the DESs acidic group showed a lower inhibition zone on fungi growth. Thus, DESs should be considered as new components with different physicochemical properties and toxicological profiles, and not merely compositions of compounds. PMID:26743645

  7. The Mechanics of Deep Earthquakes: An Experimental Investigation of Slab Phase Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santangeli, J. R.; Dobson, D. P.; Hunt, S. A.; Meredith, P. G.

    2014-12-01

    The mechanics of deep earthquakes have remained a puzzle for researchers since 1928 when they were first accurately identified by Kiyoo Wadati1 in Japan. Deep earthquakes show a split distribution, with peaks centered around ~370-420km and ~520-550km. As these events are limited to subducting slabs, it is accepted that they may be due to phase changes in metastable slab material. Indeed, conditions at ~350km depth are nominally appropriate for the olivine - wadsleyite transition, consistent with the anticrack mechanism previously observed in (Mg,Fe)2SiO42. The additional peak around 520km suggests that there is another siesmogenic phase change; candidates include Ca-garnet -> Ca-perovskite, wadsleyite -> ringwoodite and enstatite -> majorite or ilmenite. Importantly, for large scale seismogenesis to occur candidate phase changes must be susceptible to a runaway mechanism. Typically this involves the release of heat during exothermic reactions, which acts to increase reaction and nucleation rates. It is worth noting that the post-spinel reaction (sp -> pv + fp) marks the cessation of deep earthquakes; possibly as a result of being endothermic. This research aims to identify which of these candidates could be responsible for seismogenesis. We use high-pressure split cylinder multi-anvil experiments with acoustic emission detection. Low-pressure analogue materials have been used to allow greater cell sizes and thus sample volumes to enable accurate location of AE to within the sample. The candidate phase is annealed below its phase boundary, and then taken through the boundary by further compression. Acoustic emissions, if generated, are observed in real time and later processed to ensure they emanate from within the sample volume. Initial results indicate that the pryroxene -> ilmenite transition in MgGeO3 is seismogenic, with several orders of magnitude increase in the energy of AE concurrent with the phase boundary. References:1) Wadati, K. (1928) Shallow and deep

  8. Hydride vapor phase GaN films with reduced density of residual electrons and deep traps

    SciTech Connect

    Polyakov, A. Y.; Smirnov, N. B.; Govorkov, A. V.; Yugova, T. G.; Cox, H.; Helava, H.; Makarov, Yu.; Usikov, A. S.

    2014-05-14

    Electrical properties and deep electron and hole traps spectra are compared for undoped n-GaN films grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) in the regular process (standard HVPE samples) and in HVPE process optimized for decreasing the concentration of residual donor impurities (improved HVPE samples). It is shown that the residual donor density can be reduced by optimization from ∼10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} to (2–5) × 10{sup 14} cm{sup −3}. The density of deep hole traps and deep electron traps decreases with decreased donor density, so that the concentration of deep hole traps in the improved samples is reduced to ∼5 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −3} versus 2.9 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3} in the standard samples, with a similar decrease in the electron traps concentration.

  9. Multiscale deep drawing analysis of dual-phase steels using grain cluster-based RGC scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjahjanto, D. D.; Eisenlohr, P.; Roters, F.

    2015-06-01

    Multiscale modelling and simulation play an important role in sheet metal forming analysis, since the overall material responses at macroscopic engineering scales, e.g. formability and anisotropy, are strongly influenced by microstructural properties, such as grain size and crystal orientations (texture). In the present report, multiscale analysis on deep drawing of dual-phase steels is performed using an efficient grain cluster-based homogenization scheme. The homogenization scheme, called relaxed grain cluster (RGC), is based on a generalization of the grain cluster concept, where a (representative) volume element consists of p  ×  q  ×  r (hexahedral) grains. In this scheme, variation of the strain or deformation of individual grains is taken into account through the, so-called, interface relaxation, which is formulated within an energy minimization framework. An interfacial penalty term is introduced into the energy minimization framework in order to account for the effects of grain boundaries. The grain cluster-based homogenization scheme has been implemented and incorporated into the advanced material simulation platform DAMASK, which purposes to bridge the macroscale boundary value problems associated with deep drawing analysis to the micromechanical constitutive law, e.g. crystal plasticity model. Standard Lankford anisotropy tests are performed to validate the model parameters prior to the deep drawing analysis. Model predictions for the deep drawing simulations are analyzed and compared to the corresponding experimental data. The result shows that the predictions of the model are in a very good agreement with the experimental measurement.

  10. Constraints on dissipation in the deep interiors of Ganymede and Europa from tidal phase-lags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussmann, Hauke; Shoji, Daigo; Steinbrügge, Gregor; Stark, Alexander; Sohl, Frank

    2016-08-01

    Jupiter's satellites are subject to strong tidal forces which result in variations of the gravitational potential and deformations of the satellites' surfaces on the diurnal tidal cycle. Such variations are described by the Love numbers k_2 and h_2 for the tide-induced potential variation due to internal mass redistribution and the radial surface displacement, respectively. The phase-lags φ _{k_2} and φ _{h_2} of these complex numbers contain information about the rheological and dissipative states of the satellites. Starting from interior structure models and assuming a Maxwell rheology to compute the tidal deformation, we calculate the phase-lags in application to Ganymede and Europa. For both satellites we assume a decoupling of the outer ice-shell from the deep interior by a liquid subsurface water ocean. We show that, in this case, the phase-lag difference Δ φ = φ _{k_2}- φ _{h_2} can provide information on the rheological and thermal state of the deep interiors if the viscosities of the deeper layers are small. In case of Ganymede, phase-lag differences can reach values of a few degrees for high-pressure ice viscosities {<}10^{14} Pa s and would indicate a highly dissipative state of the deep interior. In this case Δ φ is dominated by dissipation in the high-pressure ice layer rather than dissipation within the ice-I shell. These phase lags would be detectable from spacecraft in orbit around the satellite. For Europa Δ φ could reach values exceeding 20° and phase-lag measurements could help distinguish between (1) a hot dissipative silicate mantle which would in thermal equilibrium correspond to a very thin outer ice-I shell and (2) a cold deep interior implying that dissipation would mainly occur in a thick (several tens of km) outer ice-I shell. These measurements are highly relevant for ESA's Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE) and NASA's Europa Multiple Flyby Mission, both targeted for the Jupiter system.

  11. Moho depth variations beneath China continent from deep seismic sounding profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Jiwen; Zhang, Zhongjie; Zhang, Yongqian; Pi, Jiaolong; Deng, Yangfan; Zhang, Xiankang; Wang, Chunyong; Gao, Rui; Liu, Cai

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of Moho depth and crustal structure are required to study and explore the deep process and coupling response of the formation of mountains, basins, rocks and disasters. In the past half century, the geophysicists in China have completed more than 130 seismic refraction and wide-angle reflection profiles with a total length of 60000km and 11 global geosciences transections (GGT) in China. In this study, we aim to make a systematic research into the Moho depth and crustal structure in China based on the data of velocity models of the crust and upper mantle derived from these more than 130 wide-angle seismic profiles acquired in the last 50 years in China and the surrounding areas. With advanced interpolation technique, we obtain Moho map and average P-wave velocity model, and then make the study on the variations in Moho depth and crustal structure in different tectonics in the East Asia. According to our research results, the resultant Moho depth ranges within 10 and 80 km, and is featured with the deepest Moho discontinuity of about 70-85km beneath Tibetan plateau formed by ongoing continent-continent collision; and relatively constant 30-35 km beneath the eastern North China craton enduring destruction of Lithosphere destruction. Also, we analyzed the average crustal thickness of the consolidated crust beneath the three cratons in China, which is characterized by a gradual thickening from east to west with the values of 29~47 km beneath North-China craton (east), 30~56 km beneath Yangtze craton (south) and 42~59 km beneath Tarim craton (west). In addition, there are three major fold tectonic units in the continental domain and the adjacent oceanic areas, namely the Tethyan-Himalayan zone (south and west), the Paleo-Asian zone (northwest and northeast) and the Circum-Pacific zone (east), which in turn are subdivided into 15 orogenic zones. The Moho depth in these 15 orogenic zones is quite different, too.

  12. Optimized Structures for Low-Profile Phase Change Thermal Spreaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharratt, Stephen Andrew

    Thin, low-profile phase change thermal spreaders can provide cooling solutions for some of today's most pressing heat flux dissipation issues. These thermal issues are only expected to increase as future electronic circuitry requirements lead to denser and potentially 3D chip packaging. Phase change based heat spreaders, such as heat pipes or vapor chambers, can provide a practical solution for effectively dissipating large heat fluxes. This thesis reports a comprehensive study of state-of-the-art capillary pumped wick structures using computational modeling, micro wick fabrication, and experimental analysis. Modeling efforts focus on predicting the shape of the liquid meniscus inside a complicated 3D wick structure. It is shown that this liquid shape can drastically affect the wick's thermal resistance. In addition, knowledge of the liquid meniscus shape allows for the computation of key parameters such as permeability and capillary pressure which are necessary for predicting the maximum heat flux. After the model is validated by comparison to experimental results, the wick structure is optimized so as to decrease overall wick thermal resistance and increase the maximum capillary limited heat flux before dryout. The optimized structures are then fabricated out of both silicon and copper using both traditional and novel micro-fabrication techniques. The wicks are made super-hydrophilic using chemical and thermal oxidation schemes. A sintered monolayer of Cu particles is fabricated and analyzed as well. The fabricated wick structures are experimentally tested for their heat transfer performance inside a well controlled copper vacuum chamber. Heat fluxes as high as 170 W/cm2 are realized for Cu wicks with structure heights of 100 μm. The structures optimized for both minimized thermal resistance and high liquid supply ability perform much better than their non-optimized counterparts. The super-hydrophilic oxidation scheme is found to drastically increase the maximum

  13. In Vitro and In Vivo toxicity profiling of ammonium-based deep eutectic solvents.

    PubMed

    Hayyan, Maan; Looi, Chung Yeng; Hayyan, Adeeb; Wong, Won Fen; Hashim, Mohd Ali

    2015-01-01

    The cytotoxic potential of ammonium-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) with four hydrogen bond donors, namely glycerine (Gl), ethylene glycol (EG), triethylene glycol (TEG) and urea (U) were investigated. The toxicity of DESs was examined using In Vitro cell lines and In Vivo animal model. IC50 and selectivity index were determined for the DESs, their individual components and their combinations as aqueous solutions for comparison purposes. The cytotoxicity effect of DESs varied depending on cell lines. The IC50 for the GlDES, EGDES, UDES and TEGDES followed the sequence of TEGDES< GlDES< EGDES< UDES for OKF6, MCF-7, A375, HT29 and H413, respectively. GlDES was selective against MCF-7 and A375, EGDES was selective against MCF-7, PC3, HepG2 and HT29, UDES was selective against MCF-7, PC3, HepG2 and HT29, and TEGDES was selective against MCF-7 and A375. However, acute toxicity studies using ICR mice showed that these DESs were relatively toxic in comparison to their individual components. DES did not cause DNA damage, but it could enhance ROS production and induce apoptosis in treated cancer cells as evidenced by marked LDH release. Furthermore, the examined DESs showed less cytotoxicity compared with ionic liquids. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that combined In Vitro and In Vivo toxicity profiles of DESs were being demonstrated, raising the toxicity issue of these neoteric mixtures and their potential applicability to be used for therapeutic purposes. PMID:25679975

  14. In Vitro and In Vivo Toxicity Profiling of Ammonium-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents

    PubMed Central

    Hayyan, Maan; Looi, Chung Yeng; Hayyan, Adeeb; Wong, Won Fen; Hashim, Mohd Ali

    2015-01-01

    The cytotoxic potential of ammonium-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) with four hydrogen bond donors, namely glycerine (Gl), ethylene glycol (EG), triethylene glycol (TEG) and urea (U) were investigated. The toxicity of DESs was examined using In Vitro cell lines and In Vivo animal model. IC50 and selectivity index were determined for the DESs, their individual components and their combinations as aqueous solutions for comparison purposes. The cytotoxicity effect of DESs varied depending on cell lines. The IC50 for the GlDES, EGDES, UDES and TEGDES followed the sequence of TEGDES< GlDES< EGDES< UDES for OKF6, MCF-7, A375, HT29 and H413, respectively. GlDES was selective against MCF-7 and A375, EGDES was selective against MCF-7, PC3, HepG2 and HT29, UDES was selective against MCF-7, PC3, HepG2 and HT29, and TEGDES was selective against MCF-7 and A375. However, acute toxicity studies using ICR mice showed that these DESs were relatively toxic in comparison to their individual components. DES did not cause DNA damage, but it could enhance ROS production and induce apoptosis in treated cancer cells as evidenced by marked LDH release. Furthermore, the examined DESs showed less cytotoxicity compared with ionic liquids. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that combined In Vitro and In Vivo toxicity profiles of DESs were being demonstrated, raising the toxicity issue of these neoteric mixtures and their potential applicability to be used for therapeutic purposes. PMID:25679975

  15. Seven hundred years of peat formation recorded throughout a deep floating mire profile from Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobianco, Daniela; D'Orazio, Valeria; Miano, Teodoro; Zaccone, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    3), an ash content ranging from 0.8 and 7.4%, an average gravimetric water content of 26.6±7.7 gwater gdrypeat‑1, and a pH generally increasing with depth (from 4.1 to 7.2). The C content along the profile ranged between 35 and 47% (avg., 41±4%), whereas the N between 0.3 and 1.1% (avg., 0.5±0.1%). Main atomic ratios (C/N, H/C and O/C) and FT-IR spectra seem to confirm what found during the visual inspection of the core, i.e., Sphagnum material so well preserved that it is hard to classify it as "peat". In fact, the 14C age dating suggests that the first 110 cm of Sphagnum material accumulated in ca. 55 yrs, thus resulting in an average growing rate of 2 cm yr‑1. The remaining 300 cm (from 100 to 400 cm of depth), i.e., the submerged part of the island, consist of peat showing completely different botanical composition (reed-fen peat and silty peat rich in reeds) and physical and chemical properties. In particular, both bulk density (avg., 0.09±0.05 g cm‑3) and ash content increase, reaching their maximum at 300-325 cm of depth (0.27 g cm‑3 and 17%, respectively), whereas the average gravimetric water content significantly decreases (17.4±9.0 gwater gdrypeat‑1). The pH ranges from 6.6 and 7.4. Both C and N along this section of the profile show higher average contents (44±3 and 1.3±0.6%, respectively) compared to those recorded in the upper 100 cm layer; furthermore, the decrease with depth of C/N, H/C and O/C atomic ratios, as well as main absorption bands of FT-IR spectra, clearly indicate the occurrence of an organic matter highly humified. The estimated accumulation rate for the bottom 300 cm of the island is 0.5 cm yr‑1. At the best of our knowledge, this work represents the first characterization of a (4 m) deep floating mire profile. At Posta Fibreno, the deep water layer below the base of the island (7 m) and the movement on the water surface probably avoided the transition from floating island to firm land, thus allowing this island to

  16. Seven hundred years of peat formation recorded throughout a deep floating mire profile from Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobianco, Daniela; D'Orazio, Valeria; Miano, Teodoro; Zaccone, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    3), an ash content ranging from 0.8 and 7.4%, an average gravimetric water content of 26.6±7.7 gwater gdrypeat‑1, and a pH generally increasing with depth (from 4.1 to 7.2). The C content along the profile ranged between 35 and 47% (avg., 41±4%), whereas the N between 0.3 and 1.1% (avg., 0.5±0.1%). Main atomic ratios (C/N, H/C and O/C) and FT-IR spectra seem to confirm what found during the visual inspection of the core, i.e., Sphagnum material so well preserved that it is hard to classify it as "peat". In fact, the 14C age dating suggests that the first 110 cm of Sphagnum material accumulated in ca. 55 yrs, thus resulting in an average growing rate of 2 cm yr‑1. The remaining 300 cm (from 100 to 400 cm of depth), i.e., the submerged part of the island, consist of peat showing completely different botanical composition (reed-fen peat and silty peat rich in reeds) and physical and chemical properties. In particular, both bulk density (avg., 0.09±0.05 g cm‑3) and ash content increase, reaching their maximum at 300-325 cm of depth (0.27 g cm‑3 and 17%, respectively), whereas the average gravimetric water content significantly decreases (17.4±9.0 gwater gdrypeat‑1). The pH ranges from 6.6 and 7.4. Both C and N along this section of the profile show higher average contents (44±3 and 1.3±0.6%, respectively) compared to those recorded in the upper 100 cm layer; furthermore, the decrease with depth of C/N, H/C and O/C atomic ratios, as well as main absorption bands of FT-IR spectra, clearly indicate the occurrence of an organic matter highly humified. The estimated accumulation rate for the bottom 300 cm of the island is 0.5 cm yr‑1. At the best of our knowledge, this work represents the first characterization of a (4 m) deep floating mire profile. At Posta Fibreno, the deep water layer below the base of the island (7 m) and the movement on the water surface probably avoided the transition from floating island to firm land, thus allowing this island to

  17. First Autonomous Bio-Optical Profiling Float in the Gulf of Mexico Reveals Dynamic Biogeochemistry in Deep Waters

    PubMed Central

    Green, Rebecca E.; Bower, Amy S.; Lugo-Fernández, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    Profiling floats equipped with bio-optical sensors well complement ship-based and satellite ocean color measurements by providing highly-resolved time-series data on the vertical structure of biogeochemical processes in oceanic waters. This is the first study to employ an autonomous profiling (APEX) float in the Gulf of Mexico for measuring spatiotemporal variability in bio-optics and hydrography. During the 17-month deployment (July 2011 to December 2012), the float mission collected profiles of temperature, salinity, chlorophyll fluorescence, particulate backscattering (bbp), and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence from the ocean surface to a depth of 1,500 m. Biogeochemical variability was characterized by distinct depth trends and local “hot spots”, including impacts from mesoscale processes associated with each of the water masses sampled, from ambient deep waters over the Florida Plain, into the Loop Current, up the Florida Canyon, and eventually into the Florida Straits. A deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) occurred between 30 and 120 m, with the DCM depth significantly related to the unique density layer ρ = 1023.6 (R2 = 0.62). Particulate backscattering, bbp, demonstrated multiple peaks throughout the water column, including from phytoplankton, deep scattering layers, and resuspension. The bio-optical relationship developed between bbp and chlorophyll (R2 = 0.49) was compared to a global relationship and could significantly improve regional ocean-color algorithms. Photooxidation and autochthonous production contributed to CDOM distributions in the upper water column, whereas in deep water, CDOM behaved as a semi-conservative tracer of water masses, demonstrating a tight relationship with density (R2 = 0.87). In the wake of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, this research lends support to the use of autonomous drifting profilers as a powerful tool for consideration in the design of an expanded and integrated observing network

  18. First autonomous bio-optical profiling float in the Gulf of Mexico reveals dynamic biogeochemistry in deep waters.

    PubMed

    Green, Rebecca E; Bower, Amy S; Lugo-Fernández, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    Profiling floats equipped with bio-optical sensors well complement ship-based and satellite ocean color measurements by providing highly-resolved time-series data on the vertical structure of biogeochemical processes in oceanic waters. This is the first study to employ an autonomous profiling (APEX) float in the Gulf of Mexico for measuring spatiotemporal variability in bio-optics and hydrography. During the 17-month deployment (July 2011 to December 2012), the float mission collected profiles of temperature, salinity, chlorophyll fluorescence, particulate backscattering (bbp), and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence from the ocean surface to a depth of 1,500 m. Biogeochemical variability was characterized by distinct depth trends and local "hot spots", including impacts from mesoscale processes associated with each of the water masses sampled, from ambient deep waters over the Florida Plain, into the Loop Current, up the Florida Canyon, and eventually into the Florida Straits. A deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) occurred between 30 and 120 m, with the DCM depth significantly related to the unique density layer ρ = 1023.6 (R2 = 0.62). Particulate backscattering, bbp, demonstrated multiple peaks throughout the water column, including from phytoplankton, deep scattering layers, and resuspension. The bio-optical relationship developed between bbp and chlorophyll (R2 = 0.49) was compared to a global relationship and could significantly improve regional ocean-color algorithms. Photooxidation and autochthonous production contributed to CDOM distributions in the upper water column, whereas in deep water, CDOM behaved as a semi-conservative tracer of water masses, demonstrating a tight relationship with density (R2 = 0.87). In the wake of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, this research lends support to the use of autonomous drifting profilers as a powerful tool for consideration in the design of an expanded and integrated observing network for

  19. Trace elements profiles, notably Hg, from a preliminary study of the Apollo 15 deep-drill core.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jovanovic, S.; Reed, G. W., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The possible thermal gradient near the surface during a lunation is considered together with the heat flow from the interior, the physical process of Hg migration, the results from core and trench samples from previous missions, and other temperature sensitive phenomena that may help understand the processes. U, Os, and Ru concentrations in the deep drill core samples are of potential interest and are summarized in a table. The Os tends to parallel the Hg profile with depth.

  20. High-resolution crustal structure of the Yinchuan basin revealed by deep seismic reflection profiling: implications for deep processes of basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xingfu; Feng, Shaoying; Gao, Rui; Li, Wenhui

    2016-04-01

    The Yinchuan basin, located on the western margin of the Ordos block, has the characteristics of an active continental rift. A NW-striking deep seismic reflection profile across the center of Yinchuan basin precisely revealed the fine structure of the crust. The images showed that the crust in the Yinchuan basin was characterized by vertical stratifications along a detachment located at a two-way travel time (TWT) of 8.0 s. The most outstanding feature of this seismic profile was the almost flat Mohorovičić discontinuity (Moho) and a high-reflection zone in the lower crust. This sub-horizontal Moho conflicts with the general assumption of an uplifted Moho under sedimentary basins and continental rifts, and may indicate the action of different processes at depth during the evolution of sedimentary basins or rifts. We present a possible interpretation of these deep processes and the sub-horizontal Moho. The high-reflection zone, which consists of sheets of high-density, mantle-derived materials, may have compensated for crustal thinning in the Yinchuan basin, leading to the formation of a sub-horizontal Moho. These high-density materials may have been emplaced by underplating with mantle-sourced magma.

  1. Development of Demand-Controlled Deep Brain Stimulation Techniques Based on Stochastic Phase Resetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tass, Peter A.

    2003-05-01

    Stimulation techniques are discussed here which make it possible to effectively desynchronize a synchronized cluster of globally coupled phase oscillators in the presence of noise. To this end composite stimuli are used which consist of a first, stronger stimulus followed by a second, weaker stimulus after a constant time delay. The first stimulus controls the dynamics of the cluster by resetting it, whereas the second stimulus desynchronizes the cluster by hitting it in a vulnerable state. The first, resetting stimulus can be a strong single pulse, a high-frequency pulse train or a low-frequency pulse train. The cluster's resynchronization can effectively be blocked by repeated administration of a composite stimulus. Demand controlled deep brain stimulation with these desynchronizing stimulation techniques is suggested for the therapy of patients suffering from tremor-dominant Parkinson's disease or essential tremor as a milder and more efficient therapy compared to the standard permanent high-frequency deep brain stimulation.

  2. Carbon-bearing iron phases and the carbon isotope composition of the deep Earth

    PubMed Central

    Horita, Juske; Polyakov, Veniamin B.

    2015-01-01

    The carbon budget and dynamics of the Earth’s interior, including the core, are currently very poorly understood. Diamond-bearing, mantle-derived rocks show a very well defined peak at δ13C ≈ −5 ± 3‰ with a very broad distribution to lower values (∼−40‰). The processes that have produced the wide δ13C distributions to the observed low δ13C values in the deep Earth have been extensively debated, but few viable models have been proposed. Here, we present a model for understanding carbon isotope distributions within the deep Earth, involving Fe−C phases (Fe carbides and C dissolved in Fe−Ni metal). Our theoretical calculations show that Fe and Si carbides can be significantly depleted in 13C relative to other C-bearing materials even at mantle temperatures. Thus, the redox freezing and melting cycles of lithosphere via subduction upwelling in the deep Earth that involve the Fe−C phases can readily produce diamond with the observed low δ13C values. The sharp contrast in the δ13C distributions of peridotitic and eclogitic diamonds may reflect differences in their carbon cycles, controlled by the evolution of geodynamical processes around 2.5–3 Ga. Our model also predicts that the core contains C with low δ13C values and that an average δ13C value of the bulk Earth could be much lower than ∼−5‰, consistent with those of chondrites and other planetary body. The heterogeneous and depleted δ13C values of the deep Earth have implications, not only for its accretion−differentiation history but also for carbon isotope biosignatures for early life on the Earth. PMID:25512520

  3. Carbon-bearing iron phases and the carbon isotope composition of the deep Earth.

    PubMed

    Horita, Juske; Polyakov, Veniamin B

    2015-01-01

    The carbon budget and dynamics of the Earth's interior, including the core, are currently very poorly understood. Diamond-bearing, mantle-derived rocks show a very well defined peak at δ(13)C ≈ -5 ± 3‰ with a very broad distribution to lower values (∼-40‰). The processes that have produced the wide δ(13)C distributions to the observed low δ(13)C values in the deep Earth have been extensively debated, but few viable models have been proposed. Here, we present a model for understanding carbon isotope distributions within the deep Earth, involving Fe-C phases (Fe carbides and C dissolved in Fe-Ni metal). Our theoretical calculations show that Fe and Si carbides can be significantly depleted in (13)C relative to other C-bearing materials even at mantle temperatures. Thus, the redox freezing and melting cycles of lithosphere via subduction upwelling in the deep Earth that involve the Fe-C phases can readily produce diamond with the observed low δ(13)C values. The sharp contrast in the δ(13)C distributions of peridotitic and eclogitic diamonds may reflect differences in their carbon cycles, controlled by the evolution of geodynamical processes around 2.5-3 Ga. Our model also predicts that the core contains C with low δ(13)C values and that an average δ(13)C value of the bulk Earth could be much lower than ∼-5‰, consistent with those of chondrites and other planetary body. The heterogeneous and depleted δ(13)C values of the deep Earth have implications, not only for its accretion-differentiation history but also for carbon isotope biosignatures for early life on the Earth. PMID:25512520

  4. 30 CFR 203.41 - If I have a qualified deep well or a qualified phase 1 ultra-deep well, what royalty relief would...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... phase 1 ultra-deep well that is: Then your lease earns an RSV on this volume of gas production: (1) An... production: (1) An original well or a sidetrack with a perforated interval the top of which is from 15,000 to... of water and production must begin on this well before May 3, 2009. If drilling of the second...

  5. 30 CFR 203.42 - What conditions and limitations apply to royalty relief for deep wells and phase 1 ultra-deep wells?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... production from the non-qualified well. (g) You qualify for an RSV under paragraphs (b) or (c) of § 203.41... royalty relief under § 203.41. If . . . Then . . . (a) Your lease has produced gas or oil from a well with...) You determine RSV under § 203.41 for the first qualified deep well or qualified phase 1...

  6. MMIC linear-phase and digital modulators for deep space spacecraft X-band transponder applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mysoor, Narayan R.; Ali, Fazal

    1991-01-01

    The design concepts, analyses, and development of GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) linear-phase and digital modulators for the next generation of space-borne communications systems are summarized. The design approach uses a compact lumped element quadrature hybrid and Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MESFET)-varactors to provide low loss and well-controlled phase performance for deep space transponder (DST) applications. The measured results of the MESFET-diode show a capacitance range of 2:1 under reverse bias, and a Q of 38 at 10 GHz. Three cascaded sections of hybrid-coupled reflection phase shifters were modeled and simulations performed to provide an X-band (8415 +/- 50 MHz) DST phase modulator with +/- 2.5 radians of peak phase deviation. The modulator will accommodate downlink signal modulation with composite telemetry and ranging data, with a deviation linearity tolerance of +/- 8 percent and insertion loss of less than 8 +/- 0.5 dB. The MMIC digital modulator is designed to provide greater than 10 Mb/s of bi-phase modulation at X-band.

  7. [Deep eutectic solvent: a new kind of mobile phase modifier for hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Tan, Ting; Qiao, Xin; Wan, Yiqun; Qiu, Hongdeng

    2015-09-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were used as a new kind of mobile phase modifier in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC). In our experiment, a SiO2 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 3 µm) was selected to separate several nucleobases and nucleosides by using the mixed solution of acetonitrile and DES (choline chloride-ethylene glycol (1:3, mol/mol) ) as mobile phase. Subsequently, the concentrations of DESs in acetonitrile and the column temperature on the effect of separation were investigated. According to the experimental results, better separation of nucleobases and nucleosides was obtained by using acetonitrile and DESs mixed solution as mobile phase than that using traditional water-based solution. For example, a baseline separation between cytosine and cytidine cannot be achieved by HILIC with water-based mobile phase, however, greater improvement was gained by HILIC with modified DES-acetonitrile mobile phase. Meanwhile, the retention times of nucleobases and nucleosides decreased as the proportion of DESs in acetonitrile increased, the most significant decrease of which was with cytidine. Similar retention behavior took place with the effect of column temperature. Decreased retention times of the analytes were observed as column temperature increased. The experimental results indicated that this new method may solve some separation difficulties in traditional water-based HILIC, which also successfully verify the feasibility of DESs as mobile phase modifiers. PMID:26753279

  8. Mesozoic(?) lithosphere-scale buckling of the East European Craton in southern Ukraine: DOBRE-4 deep seismic profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starostenko, Vitaly; Janik, Tomasz; Lysynchuk, Dmytro; Środa, Piotr; Czuba, Wojciech; Kolomiyets, Katherina; Aleksandrowski, Paweł; Gintov, Oleg; Omelchenko, Victor; Komminaho, Kari; Guterch, Aleksander; Tiira, Timo; Gryn, Dmytro; Legostaeva, Olga; Thybo, Hans; Tolkunov, Anatoliy

    2013-04-01

    In order to study the lithospheric structure in southern Ukraine, a seismic wide-angle reflection/refraction project DOBRE-4 was conducted. The 500 km-long profile starts in the SW from the Alpine/Variscan North Dobrudja fold-thrust belt, being part of the Trans-European Suture Zone. It runs to the NE, mostly along the NW Black Sea coastal plain, towards the center of the Precambrian Ukrainian Shield. The field acquisition in October 2009 included 13 chemical shot points with charge sizes 600-1000 kg every 35-50 km and 230 recording stations, every ~2.5 km. The high data quality allows modelling of the P- and S-wave velocity structure along the profile. Two methods were used for the modelling of the seismic data. At first, ray-tracing trial-and-error modelling was developed using arrivals of major refracted and reflected P- and S-wave phases. Next, the amplitudes of the recorded phases were analysed using finite-difference full waveform method. The resulting velocity model shows fairly homogeneous structure of the middle to lower crust both vertically and laterally. The situation is different in the upper crust, with Vp velocities decreasing upwards from c. 6.35 at 15-20 km to 5.9-5.8 km/s at the top of the crystalline basement and to c. 5.15 to 3.80 km/s in Neoproterozoic and Palaeozoic and to 2.70 to 2.30 km/s in Mesozoic strata. Below the upper crust the Vp smoothly increases downward, from c. 6.5 to 6.7-6.8 km/s near the crustal base, making it difficult to differentiate between the middle and lower crust. No Vp velocities exceeding 6.80 km/s have been recorded even in the lowermost part of the crust, unlike in similar profiles on the East European Craton. There is no clear change in the velocity field when moving laterally from the Precambrian platform into the younger tectonic units to the SW. Therefore, on purely seismic grounds it is not possible to distinguish major tectonic units known from the surface. The Moho is, however, clearly delineated by a

  9. Mesozoic(?) lithosphere-scale buckling of the East European Craton in southern Ukraine: DOBRE-4 deep seismic profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starostenko, V.; Janik, T.; Lysynchuk, D.; Środa, P.; Czuba, W.; Kolomiyets, K.; Aleksandrowski, P.; Gintov, O.; Omelchenko, V.; Komminaho, K.; Guterch, A.; Tiira, T.; Gryn, D.; Legostaeva, O.; Thybo, H.; Tolkunov, A.

    2013-11-01

    In order to study the lithospheric structure in southern Ukraine, a seismic wide-angle reflection/refraction project DOBRE-4 was conducted. The 500-km-long profile starts in the SW from the Alpine/Variscan North Dobrudja Fold-Thrust Belt, being part of the Trans-European Suture Zone. It runs to the NE, mostly along the NW Black Sea coastal plain, towards the centre of the Precambrian Ukrainian Shield. The field acquisition in October 2009 included 13 chemical shot points with charge sizes 600-1000 kg every 35-50 km and 230 recording stations, every ˜2.5 km. The high data quality allows modelling of the P- and S-wave velocity structure along the profile. Two methods were used for the modelling of the seismic data. At first, ray tracing trial-and-error modelling was developed using arrivals of major refracted and reflected P- and S-wave phases. Next, the amplitudes of the recorded phases were analysed using finite-difference full waveform method. The resulting velocity model shows fairly homogeneous structure of the middle to lower crust both vertically and laterally. The situation is different in the upper crust, with Vp velocities decreasing upwards from ca. 6.35 at 15-20 km to 5.9-5.8 km s-1 at the top of the crystalline basement and to ca. 5.15-3.80 km s-1 in Neoproterozoic and Palaeozoic and to 2.70-2.30 km s-1 in Mesozoic strata. Below the upper crust the Vp smoothly increases downward, from ca. 6.50 to 6.7-6.8 km s-1 near the crustal base, making it difficult to differentiate between the middle and lower crust. No Vp velocities exceeding 6.80 km s-1 have been recorded even in the lowermost part of the crust, unlike in similar profiles on the East European Craton. There is no clear change in the velocity field when moving laterally from the Precambrian platform into the younger tectonic units to the SW. Therefore, on purely seismic grounds it is not possible to distinguish major tectonic units known from the surface. The Moho is, however, clearly delineated by

  10. Evaluation of the Effects of Honey on Acute-Phase Deep Burn Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Yukari; Mukai, Kanae; Nasruddin; Komatsu, Emi; Iuchi, Terumi; Kitayama, Yukie; Sugama, Junko; Nakatani, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effects of honey on acute-phase deep burn wounds. Two deep burn wounds were created on mice which were divided into four groups: no treatment, silver sulfadiazine, manuka honey, and Japanese acacia honey. Wound sizes were calculated as expanded wound areas and sampled 30 minutes and 1–4 days after wounding for histological observation. The wound sections were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistological staining to detect necrotic cells, apoptotic cells, neutrophils, and macrophages. The no treatment group formed a scar. The redness around the wound edges in the silver sulfadiazine group was the most intense. All groups exhibited increased wound areas after wounding. The proportions of necrotic cells and the numbers of neutrophils in the manuka and acacia honey groups were lower than those in the no treatment and silver sulfadiazine groups until day 3; however, there were no significant differences between all groups on day 4. These results show that honey treatment on deep burn wounds cannot prevent wound progression. Moreover, comparing our observations with those of Jackson, there are some differences between humans and animals in this regard, and the zone of hyperemia and its surrounding area fall into necrosis, which contributes to burn wound progression. PMID:24348720

  11. Lithosphere structure of the west Qinling orogenic belt revealed by deep seismic reflection profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.

    2009-12-01

    The west Qinling orogen located in the northeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, is transformation zone between the N-S-trending and E-W-trending tectonics in the Chinese continent. Further study of the fine crust structure of the west Qinling orogen and its relationships with surrounding basins have very important significance for understanding tectonic response of the northeastern margin of the plateau about collision convergence of the Indian block and Asian block and learning formation and evolution of the plateau. In 2009, we reprocessed the data of the Tangke-Hezuo deep seismic reflection profiles collected in 2004 across the west Qinling orogen and the northern Songpan block. The new results show the lithosphere fine structure of the west Qinling orogen. Reflection features indicate that an interface at 6.0-7.0s (TWT) divided the crust into the upper and lower crust, whose structural style and deformation are totally different. Integrating geological data, we deduce that the interface at 6.0-7.0s (depth with 18-21 km) was the basement detachment, which made deformation decoupled of the upper and lower crust. The multi-layered reflections in the upper crust reveal the sedimentary covers of the west Qinling orogen, disclose the thickness of the various structure layer and deformation degree, and provide a basis for the prospective evaluation of a multi-metallic mineral and energy exploration. The north dipping strong reflection characteristics of the lower crust in the west Qinling orogen constituted imbricate structure, such imbricate structural features provide seismology evidence for researching the west Qinling thrusting toward the northern Songpan block, and have great significance for studying formation and evolution of the Songpan-Garze structure. Moho reflections are observed around 17.0-17.2s, characterized by nearly horizontal reflections, which implies the west Qinling orogen underwent an intense extension post orogeny caused the lithosphere

  12. A novel explanation of a low-profile mechanism for unsaturated polyester resins using phase diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Suspene, L.; Fourquier, D.; Yang, Y.S. )

    1990-04-01

    A novel explanation for the mechanism of low profile additives in unsaturated polyester resins by using a concept of a phase diagram was proposed. According to the ternary phase diagrams for the systems of styrene-unsaturated polyester prepolymer-additives (e.g., polyvinyl acetate, polyurethane), the phenomenon of phase separation was explained. Furthermore, the final morphology of cured resins was correlated to the phase diagram. Microscopic observations showed the morphology was controlled by the phase separation. TEM results also clearly showed that the microvoids were formed in the low profile phase, separated from the resin phase, instead of being in the interfacial region as previously reported. It was concluded that a well controlled phase diagram can lead to a shrinkage-controlled low profile system.

  13. Local coexistence of VO2 phases revealed by deep data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strelcov, Evgheni; Ievlev, Anton; Belianinov, Alex; Tselev, Alexander; Kolmakov, Andrei; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2016-07-01

    We report a synergistic approach of micro-Raman spectroscopic mapping and deep data analysis to study the distribution of crystallographic phases and ferroelastic domains in a defected Al-doped VO2 microcrystal. Bayesian linear unmixing revealed an uneven distribution of the T phase, which is stabilized by the surface defects and uneven local doping that went undetectable by other classical analysis techniques such as PCA and SIMPLISMA. This work demonstrates the impact of information recovery via statistical analysis and full mapping in spectroscopic studies of vanadium dioxide systems, which is commonly substituted by averaging or single point-probing approaches, both of which suffer from information misinterpretation due to low resolving power.

  14. Local coexistence of VO2 phases revealed by deep data analysis

    PubMed Central

    Strelcov, Evgheni; Ievlev, Anton; Belianinov, Alex; Tselev, Alexander; Kolmakov, Andrei; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2016-01-01

    We report a synergistic approach of micro-Raman spectroscopic mapping and deep data analysis to study the distribution of crystallographic phases and ferroelastic domains in a defected Al-doped VO2 microcrystal. Bayesian linear unmixing revealed an uneven distribution of the T phase, which is stabilized by the surface defects and uneven local doping that went undetectable by other classical analysis techniques such as PCA and SIMPLISMA. This work demonstrates the impact of information recovery via statistical analysis and full mapping in spectroscopic studies of vanadium dioxide systems, which is commonly substituted by averaging or single point-probing approaches, both of which suffer from information misinterpretation due to low resolving power. PMID:27384473

  15. Local coexistence of VO2 phases revealed by deep data analysis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Strelcov, Evgheni; Ievlev, Anton; Tselev, Alexander; Kolmakov, Andrei; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2016-07-07

    We report a synergistic approach of micro-Raman spectroscopic mapping and deep data analysis to study the distribution of crystallographic phases and ferroelastic domains in a defected Al-doped VO2 microcrystal. Bayesian linear unmixing revealed an uneven distribution of the T phase, which is stabilized by the surface defects and uneven local doping that went undetectable by other classical analysis techniques such as PCA and SIMPLISMA. This work demonstrates the impact of information recovery via statistical analysis and full mapping in spectroscopic studies of vanadium dioxide systems, which is commonly substituted by averaging or single point-probing approaches, both of which suffer frommore » information misinterpretation due to low resolving power.« less

  16. Local coexistence of VO2 phases revealed by deep data analysis.

    PubMed

    Strelcov, Evgheni; Ievlev, Anton; Belianinov, Alex; Tselev, Alexander; Kolmakov, Andrei; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2016-01-01

    We report a synergistic approach of micro-Raman spectroscopic mapping and deep data analysis to study the distribution of crystallographic phases and ferroelastic domains in a defected Al-doped VO2 microcrystal. Bayesian linear unmixing revealed an uneven distribution of the T phase, which is stabilized by the surface defects and uneven local doping that went undetectable by other classical analysis techniques such as PCA and SIMPLISMA. This work demonstrates the impact of information recovery via statistical analysis and full mapping in spectroscopic studies of vanadium dioxide systems, which is commonly substituted by averaging or single point-probing approaches, both of which suffer from information misinterpretation due to low resolving power. PMID:27384473

  17. The ribosome profiling strategy for monitoring translation in vivo by deep sequencing of ribosome-protected mRNA fragments

    PubMed Central

    Ingolia, Nicholas T.; Brar, Gloria A.; Rouskin, Silvia; McGeachy, Anna M.; Weissman, Jonathan S.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies highlight the importance of translational control in determining protein abundance, underscoring the value of measuring gene expression at the level of translation. We present a protocol for genome-wide, quantitative analysis of in vivo translation by deep sequencing. This ribosome profiling approach maps the exact positions of ribosomes on transcripts by nuclease footprinting. The nuclease-protected mRNA fragments are converted into a DNA library suitable for deep sequencing using a strategy that minimizes bias. The abundance of different footprint fragments in deep sequencing data reports on the amount of translation of a gene. Additionally, footprints reveal the exact regions of the transcriptome that are translated. To better define translated reading frames, we describe an adaptation that reveals the sites of translation initiation by pre-treating cells with harringtonine to immobilize initiating ribosomes. The protocol we describe requires 5–7 days to generate a completed ribosome profiling sequencing library. Sequencing and data analysis requires a further 4 – 5 days. PMID:22836135

  18. Deep arid system hydrodynamics 2. Application to paleohydrologic reconstruction using vadose zone profiles from the northern Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walvoord, M.A.; Phillips, F.M.; Tyler, S.W.; Hartsough, P.C.

    2002-01-01

    Site-specific numerical modeling of four sites in two arid alluvial basins within the Nevada Test Site employs a conceptual model of deep arid system hydrodynamics that includes vapor transport, the role of xeric vegetation, and long-term surface boundary transients. Surface boundary sequences, spanning 110 kyr, that best reproduce measured chloride concentration and matric potential profiles from four deep (230-460 m) boreholes concur with independent paleohydrologic and paleoecological records from the region. Simulations constrain a pluvial period associated with infiltration of 2-5 mm yr-1 at 14-13 ka and denote a shift linked to the establishment of desert vegetation at 13-9.5 ka. Retrodicted moisture flux histories inferred from modeling results differ significantly from those determined using the conventional chloride mass balance approach that assumes only downward advection. The modeling approach developed here represents a significant advance in the use of deep vadose zone profile data from arid regions to recover detailed paleohydrologic and current hydrologic information.

  19. Deep geometry structure feature of Haiyuan Fault on the northeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau revealed by deep seismic reflection profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Gao, R.; Yin, A.; Kuang, Z.; Xiong, X.; Li, W.

    2012-12-01

    Because of incessant uplifting and pushing role of the active Qinghai-Tibet Plateau uplift and pushed role, Cenozoic tectonic deformation and seismic activity is intense, several large deep fault zones distribute in the northeastern margin of the Tibetan area. The Haiyuan fault is a left strike-slip fault zone with the strongest activities and the largest scale among the arc and active fault zones of the northeastern margin of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, which is an important tectonic zone boundary faults and also an active faults controling earthquake activity. The CAGS carried out the research of the deep seismic reflection profiling with 300 km long across the northern margin of the West Qinling orogen,Linxia basin,the north Qilian and the southern margin of the Alxa block in 2009, supported by Crust Probe Project of China(Sinoprobe-02) and the Natural Science Foundation of China(No.40830316). The migration section were obtained. According to the section showing the different reflection characteristics, the deep geometry of the Haiyuan fault zone and the fine structure of the crust and upper mantle on both sides of fault. The results discolsed that the Haiyuan fault is not a simple steep or moderate, but its geometric shape changes with depth. The continuous reflection characteristics of the Moho under the Haiyuan fault show that Haiyuan fault is not an ultra-crust fault broke up the Moho directly. The research results provide seismological basis for studying the lithosphere deformation mechanism of the northeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

  20. Two-phase convective mixing under a buoyant plume of CO2 in deep saline aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emami-Meybodi, Hamid; Hassanzadeh, Hassan

    2015-02-01

    The storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in deep saline aquifers has been suggested as a promising method for stabilizing the atmospheric concentration of CO2. An accurate evaluation of the CO2 trapping mechanisms, such as convective mixing, is crucial for estimates of storage capacity and security. We recently investigated the gravitational stability of the diffusive boundary layer underneath a capillary transition zone by performing a linear stability analysis, which provides a quantitative description of the onset of convection for the two-phase, buoyancy-driven flow in the presence of the capillary transition zone (Emami-Meybodi and Hassanzadeh, 2013). In this paper, we further examine the effect of the capillary transition zone on the onset of convection and subsequent convective mixing using direct numerical simulations. We describe key features of the two-phase convective mixing for systems with low Rayleigh numbers (Ra ≤ 1000) and the measurement of several global quantities, such as the total CO2 dissolution, Sherwood number, swelling factor, and interface velocity. We show that the commonly used assumption of a sharp CO2-brine interface with constant CO2 concentration at the top of an aquifer (i.e. single-phase system) may lead to erroneous estimates of not only the onset of convection, but also of the rate and magnitude of CO2 dissolution. The significant effect of the capillary transition zone on the dissolution of CO2 under a buoyant plume in saline aquifers is explained; and, the link between the capillary transition zone and the volume change, due to CO2 dissolution and the interface velocity over the mixing process, is demonstrated. Compared to the single-phase system, a crossflow through the interface of the diffusive boundary layer with the capillary transition zone, as well as the upward advance of the interface motion, may enhance the convective mixing early in the period of natural convection. The decrease in the onset time and stronger mass flux

  1. 30 CFR 203.33 - To which production do I apply the RSV earned by qualified phase 2 and phase 3 ultra-deep wells...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... produces 18 BCF, and the qualified well on lease B produces 37 BCF, then the production volume from and... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false To which production do I apply the RSV earned... To which production do I apply the RSV earned by qualified phase 2 and phase 3 ultra-deep wells on...

  2. 30 CFR 203.31 - If I have a qualified phase 2 or qualified phase 3 ultra-deep well, what royalty relief would...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false If I have a qualified phase 2 or qualified phase 3 ultra-deep well, what royalty relief would that well earn for my lease? 203.31 Section 203.31 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT RELIEF OR REDUCTION IN...

  3. 30 CFR 203.34 - To which production may an RSV earned by qualified phase 2 and phase 3 ultra-deep wells on my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false To which production may an RSV earned by qualified phase 2 and phase 3 ultra-deep wells on my lease not be applied? 203.34 Section 203.34 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT RELIEF OR REDUCTION IN ROYALTY...

  4. Digital image profilers for detecting faint sources which have bright companions, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Elena; Flint, Graham

    1991-01-01

    A breadboard image profiling system developed for the first phase of this project demonstrated the potential for detecting extremely faint optical sources in the presence of light companions. Experimental data derived from laboratory testing of the device supports the theory that image profilers of this type may approach the theoretical limit imposed by photon statistics. The objective of Phase 2 of this program is the development of a ground-based multichannel image profiling system capable of detecting faint stellar objects slightly displaced from brighter stars. We have finalized the multichannel image profiling system and attempted three field tests.

  5. The pyrolytic profile of lyophilized and deep-frozen compact part of the human bone.

    PubMed

    Lodowska, Jolanta; Wolny, Daniel; Kurkiewicz, Sławomir; Węglarz, Ludmiła

    2012-01-01

    Background. Bone grafts are used in the treatment of nonunion of fractures, bone tumors and in arthroplasty. Tissues preserved by lyophilization or deep freezing are used as implants nowadays. Lyophilized grafts are utilized in the therapy of birth defects and bone benign tumors, while deep-frozen ones are applied in orthopedics. The aim of the study was to compare the pyrolytic pattern, as an indirect means of the analysis of organic composition of deep-frozen and lyophilized compact part of the human bone. Methods. Samples of preserved bone tissue were subjected to thermolysis and tetrahydroammonium-hydroxide- (TMAH-) associated thermochemolysis coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). Results. Derivatives of benzene, pyridine, pyrrole, phenol, sulfur compounds, nitriles, saturated and unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons, and fatty acids (C12-C20) were identified in the pyrolytic pattern. The pyrolyzates were the most abundant in derivatives of pyrrole and nitriles originated from proteins. The predominant product in pyrolytic pattern of the investigated bone was pyrrolo[1,2-α]piperazine-3,6-dione derived from collagen. The content of this compound significantly differentiated the lyophilized graft from the deep-frozen one. Oleic and palmitic acid were predominant among fatty acids of the investigated samples. The deep-frozen implants were characterized by higher percentage of long-chain fatty acids than lyophilized grafts. PMID:22619606

  6. The Pyrolytic Profile of Lyophilized and Deep-Frozen Compact Part of the Human Bone

    PubMed Central

    Lodowska, Jolanta; Wolny, Daniel; Kurkiewicz, Sławomir; Węglarz, Ludmiła

    2012-01-01

    Background. Bone grafts are used in the treatment of nonunion of fractures, bone tumors and in arthroplasty. Tissues preserved by lyophilization or deep freezing are used as implants nowadays. Lyophilized grafts are utilized in the therapy of birth defects and bone benign tumors, while deep-frozen ones are applied in orthopedics. The aim of the study was to compare the pyrolytic pattern, as an indirect means of the analysis of organic composition of deep-frozen and lyophilized compact part of the human bone. Methods. Samples of preserved bone tissue were subjected to thermolysis and tetrahydroammonium-hydroxide- (TMAH-) associated thermochemolysis coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). Results. Derivatives of benzene, pyridine, pyrrole, phenol, sulfur compounds, nitriles, saturated and unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons, and fatty acids (C12–C20) were identified in the pyrolytic pattern. The pyrolyzates were the most abundant in derivatives of pyrrole and nitriles originated from proteins. The predominant product in pyrolytic pattern of the investigated bone was pyrrolo[1,2-α]piperazine-3,6-dione derived from collagen. The content of this compound significantly differentiated the lyophilized graft from the deep-frozen one. Oleic and palmitic acid were predominant among fatty acids of the investigated samples. The deep-frozen implants were characterized by higher percentage of long-chain fatty acids than lyophilized grafts. PMID:22619606

  7. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE IN DEEP AQUIFER MEDIA - PHASE II

    SciTech Connect

    Neeraj Gupta; Bruce Sass; Jennifer Ickes

    2000-11-28

    In 1998 Battelle was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under a Novel Concepts project grant to continue Phase II research on the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in deep saline formations. The focus of this investigation is to conduct detailed laboratory experiments to examine factors that may affect chemical sequestration of CO{sub 2} in deep saline formations. Reactions between sandstone and other geologic media from potential host reservoirs, brine solutions, and CO{sub 2} are being investigated under high-pressure conditions. Some experiments also include sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) gases to evaluate the potential for co-injection of CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} related gases in the deep formations. In addition, an assessment of engineering and economic aspects is being conducted. This current Technical Progress Report describes the status of the project as of September 2000. The major activities undertaken during the quarter included several experiments conducted to investigate the effects of pressure, temperature, time, and brine composition on rock samples from potential host reservoirs. Samples (both powder and slab) were taken from the Mt. Simon Sandstone, a potential CO{sub 2} host formation in the Ohio, the Eau Claire Shale, and Rome Dolomite samples that form the caprock for Mt. Simon Sandstone. Also, a sample with high calcium plagioclase content from Frio Formation in Texas was used. In addition, mineral samples for relatively pure Anorthite and glauconite were experimented on with and without the presence of additional clay minerals such as kaolinite and montmorillonite. The experiments were run for one to two months at pressures similar to deep reservoirs and temperatures set at 50 C or 150 C. Several enhancements were made to the experimental equipment to allow for mixing of reactants and to improve sample collection methods. The resulting fluids (gases and liquids) as

  8. Low-flow characteristics and profiles for the Deep River in the Cape Fear River basin, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    An understanding of the magnitude and frequency of low-flow discharges is an important part of protecting surface-water resources and planning for municipal and industrial economic expansion. Low-flow characteristics are summarized for 7 continuous-record gaging stations and 23 partial-record measuring sites in the Deep River Basin in North Carolina. Records of discharge collected through the 1995 water year are used. Flow characteristics included in the summary are (1) average annual unit flow; (2) 7Q10 low-flow discharge, the minimum average discharge for a 7-consecutive-day period occurring, on average, once in 10 years; (3) 30Q2 low-flow discharge; (4) W7Q10 low-flow discharge, similar to 7Q10 discharge except only flow during the months of November through March is considered; and (5) 7Q2 low-flow discharge. The potential for sustained base flows in the upper half of the basin is higher than that for streams in the lower half of the basin. Much of the decrease in base-flow potential in the lower part of the basin is attributed to the underlying rock types of the Triassic basin. Soils in the lower part of the basin consist of clays which limit the infiltration of water into surficial aquifers for later release to streams during drought conditions. Correspondingly, many streams in the lower part of the basin have minimal (defined as less than 0.1 cubic foot per second) or zero 7Q10 discharges. Drainage area and low-flow discharge profiles are presented for the Deep River. The drainage-area profile shows downstream increases in basin size. At the mouth, the drainage area for the Deep River is 1,441 square miles. Low-flow discharge profiles for the Deep River include 7Q10, 30Q2, W7Q10, and 7Q2 discharges in a continuous profile with contributions from major tributaries included.

  9. Elasticity and rheology of phase D and implications for seismic anisotropy in deep subducted slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, A. D.; Sanchez-Valle, C.; Ghosh, S.; Merkel, S.

    2011-12-01

    Dense hydrous magnesium silicate (DHMS) Phase D, MgSi2H2O6 (10-18 wt% H2O), may be the most important water carrier along cold slab geotherms and thus may play a critical role in the recycling of water into the deep mantle. Recent petrological studies have shown that Fe and Al substitutions extends the stability field of phase D toward higher slab temperatures [Ghosh, unpublished], and that phase D can account for more than 40 vol% in very hydrous peridotites between 700 and 1300 km depth [Iwamori 2004]. The stability and large volume fractions of phase D in subducted slabs, together with the highly anisotropic behavior under compression [Hushur et al. 2011] and ability to align in non-hydrostatic stress fields due to its layered structure [Rosa et al. 2010] suggest that phase D may strongly influence the seismic properties of down going slabs [Chen and Brudzinki, 2003; Laurence and Wysession, 2006]. In this contribution we combine elasticity measurements and plastic deformation experiments to evaluate the contribution of phase D to the seismic anisotropy and velocity anomalies of hydrous subducted slabs at lower mantle pressures. The elastic properties were determined by Brillouin scattering spectroscopy on Mg-bearing and Al-Fe-bearing Phase D single-crystals, synthesized at 24 GPa and 1200 °C in a multianvil apparatus at ETH Zurich. The results resolve discrepancies between previous experimental and computational studies [Liu et al 2004; Mainprice at al. 2007] and assess the effect of compositional variations on the seismic velocities of phase D. The end-member Mg-Phase D displays higher acoustic velocities than the Al-Fe-bearing Phase D. Synchrotron X-ray radial diffraction experiments were also performed to investigate the rheological properties (texturing and preferred orientations) of Mg-bearing, Fe-bearing and Al-Fe-bearing samples at pressures up to 45 GPa. Experiments were conducted in panoramic diamond anvil cells at the ESRF ID09 beamline. The uniaxial

  10. 30 CFR 203.40 - Which leases are eligible for royalty relief as a result of drilling a deep well or a phase 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... a result of drilling a deep well or a phase 1 ultra-deep well? 203.40 Section 203.40 Mineral... eligible for royalty relief as a result of drilling a deep well or a phase 1 ultra-deep well? Your lease... lease has not produced gas or oil from a well with a perforated interval the top of which is 18,000...

  11. 30 CFR 203.40 - Which leases are eligible for royalty relief as a result of drilling a deep well or a phase 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... a result of drilling a deep well or a phase 1 ultra-deep well? 203.40 Section 203.40 Mineral... a result of drilling a deep well or a phase 1 ultra-deep well? Your lease may receive an RSV under... a well with a perforated interval the top of which is 18,000 feet TVD SS or deeper that...

  12. 30 CFR 203.40 - Which leases are eligible for royalty relief as a result of drilling a deep well or a phase 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... a result of drilling a deep well or a phase 1 ultra-deep well? 203.40 Section 203.40 Mineral... leases are eligible for royalty relief as a result of drilling a deep well or a phase 1 ultra-deep well.... (b) The lease has not produced gas or oil from a well with a perforated interval the top of which...

  13. 30 CFR 203.40 - Which leases are eligible for royalty relief as a result of drilling a deep well or a phase 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... a result of drilling a deep well or a phase 1 ultra-deep well? 203.40 Section 203.40 Mineral... eligible for royalty relief as a result of drilling a deep well or a phase 1 ultra-deep well? Your lease... lease has not produced gas or oil from a well with a perforated interval the top of which is 18,000...

  14. An Evaluation of the Carbon Sequestration Potential of the Cambro-Ordovician Strata of the Illinois and Michigan Basins. Part 1. Evaluation of Phase 2 CO2 Injection Testing in the Deep Saline Gunter Sandstone Reservoir (Cambro-Ordovician Knox Group), Marvin Blan No. 1 Hancock County, Kentucky Part 2. Time-lapse Three-Dimensional Vertical Seismic Profile (3D-VSP) of Sequestration Target Interval with Injected Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Bowersox, Richard; Hickman, John; Leetaru, Hannes

    2012-12-20

    Part 1 of this report focuses on results of the western Kentucky carbon storage test, and provides a basis for evaluating injection and storage of supercritical CO2 in Cambro-Ordovician carbonate reservoirs throughout the U.S. Midcontinent. This test demonstrated that the Cambro- Ordovician Knox Group, including the Beekmantown Dolomite, Gunter Sandstone, and Copper Ridge Dolomite in stratigraphic succession from shallowest to deepest, had reservoir properties suitable for supercritical CO2 storage in a deep saline reservoir hosted in carbonate rocks, and that strata with properties sufficient for long-term confinement of supercritical CO2 were present in the deep subsurface. Injection testing with brine and CO2 was completed in two phases. The first phase, a joint project by the Kentucky Geological Survey and the Western Kentucky Carbon Storage Foundation, drilled the Marvin Blan No. 1 carbon storage research well and tested the entire Knox Group section in the open borehole – including the Beekmantown Dolomite, Gunter Sandstone, and Copper Ridge Dolomite – at 1152–2255 m, below casing cemented at 1116 m. During Phase 1 injection testing, most of the 297 tonnes of supercritical CO2 was displaced into porous and permeable sections of the lowermost Beekmantown below 1463 m and Gunter. The wellbore was then temporarily abandoned with a retrievable bridge plug in casing at 1105 m and two downhole pressure-temperature monitoring gauges below the bridge plug pending subsequent testing. Pressure and temperature data were recorded every minute for slightly more than a year, providing a unique record of subsurface reservoir conditions in the Knox. In contrast, Phase 2 testing, this study, tested a mechanically-isolated dolomitic-sandstone interval in the Gunter.

  15. Proterozoic basin in the southern Midcontinent of the United States revealed by COCORP deep seismic reflection profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, J. A.; Brown, L. D.; Steiner, D.; Oliver, J. E.; Kaufman, S.; Denison, R. E.

    1981-12-01

    COCORP deep crustal seismic profiles in southwestern Oklahoma show strong, persistent, continuous, and undeformed layering in the basement over an area probably very much greater than 2,500 km2. Such layering is very unusual, judging by COCORP experience with basement rocks elsewhere in the United States. The data can be interpreted as representing a Proterozoic basin filled with clastic sedimentary and felsic volcanic rocks 7 to 10 km thick, whose base lies 10 to 13 km deep. These rocks are believed, on the basis of sparse evidence from regional geology, to have been deposited or extruded about 1,200 to 1,400 m.y. ago, and some of them may now be metamorphosed. This basin lies on the south side of the Wichita Mountains, under the Paleozoic Hardeman Basin, and is similar in depth to the Paleozoic Anadarko Basin north of the mountains. The deep basement layering is truncated on the south side of the Wichita Mountains, probably by Precambrian faults in conjunction with granitic intrusions. Pennsylvanian compression probably reactivated these Precambrian trends. Extensive Precambrian basin deposits in this area were unexpected, on the basis of evidence from sparse well control, and reports of other layered basement reflections elsewhere in the southern Midcontinent suggest that Precambrian basins may be an important feature of this region. Simple models for the evolution of southwestern Oklahoma as an aulacogen must be reformulated in the light of these new data.

  16. Origin of deep crystal reflections: seismic profiling across high-grade metamorphic terranes in Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, A.; Milkereit, B.; Percival, J.; Davidson, A.; Parrish, R.; Cook, F.; Geis, W.; Cannon, W.; Hutchinson, D.; West, G.; Clowes, R.

    1990-01-01

    In an attempt to better understand the origin of deep crustal reflections LITHOPROBE has sponsored or co-sponsored Seismic reflection surveys across tracts of high-grade metamorphic rock in the Archean Superior craton, the Proterozoic Grenville orogen and the Phanerozoic Cordilleran orogen. Common to these three diverse terranes are near-surface zones of prominent Seismic reflectivity that are typically associated with velocity discontinuities at highly strained contacts between gneissic rocks of varying lithology. At some locations the reflective layering resulted from transposition and rearrangement of previously layered rocks (stratified assemblages, sills, etc.), whereas in other regions it was generated by extreme attenuation, stretching and ductile flow of weakly layered or irregularly organized rocks. It seems likely that compositionally layered gneissic rock is a common source of reflections in the deep crust, with reflections originating at lithological boundaries and zones of mylonite. ?? 1990.

  17. Deep structure of the Algerian margin offshore Great Kabylie: Preliminary results of an offshore-onshore seismic profile (SPIRAL campaign)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chafik, Aidi; Abd el Karim, Yelles; Marie-Odile, Beslier; Frauke, Klingelhoefer; Philippe, Schnurle; Rabah, Bracene; Hamou, Djellit; Audrey, Galve; Laure, Schenini; Françoise, Sage; Abdallah, Bounif Mohand ou; Philippe, Charvis

    2013-04-01

    In October-November 2009 the Algerian-French SPIRAL research program (Sismique Profonde et Investigation Régionale du Nord de l'ALgérie) was conducted onboard the R/V Atalante in order to understand the deep structure and tectonic history of the Algerian Margin using multichannel and wide-angle seismic data. An extensive dataset was acquired along five regional transects off Algeria, from Arzew Bay to the west, to Annaba to the east. The profiles range from 80 to 180 km long and around 40 ocean-bottom seismometers were deployed on each profile. All profiles were extended on land up to 125 km by land-stations to better constrain the structure of the margin and the nature of the ocean-continent transition zone. We present the preliminary results from modeling of deep and superficial structures in the central Algerian margin, more precisely in the region of the Great Kabylie where a N-S transect of combined wide-angle data using a set of 40 OBS (ocean bottom seismometer) and 24 on-land seismological stations and reflection seismic data was acquired. The profile with a total length of about 260 km (140 km offshore and approximately 124 km onshore), crosses from the north to south the Algeria-Provence Basin, the central Algerian Margin and onshore the geological unit of the Great Kabylie that represents the Kabylides block and the transitional zone between the internal zone (Kabylides) and the external zone in the central Algeria. The network (OBS and seismological stations), recorded 1031 low frequency air gun shots in order to ensure good penetration in the crust. Travel time tomography of first arrivals time of OBS data has yielded a preliminary model of P wave velocities along the profile. In the oceanic domain, a relatively thin crust of about 5 km thickness was imaged overlying a mantle characterized by seismic velocities of about 8 km/s, and covered by a thin sedimentary layer of about 2 km thickness. For the study of the sedimentary cover near the margin

  18. Electron bunch profile reconstruction based on phase-constrained iterative algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakkali Taheri, F.; Konoplev, I. V.; Doucas, G.; Baddoo, P.; Bartolini, R.; Cowley, J.; Hooker, S. M.

    2016-03-01

    The phase retrieval problem occurs in a number of areas in physics and is the subject of continuing investigation. The one-dimensional case, e.g., the reconstruction of the temporal profile of a charged particle bunch, is particularly challenging and important for particle accelerators. Accurate knowledge of the longitudinal (time) profile of the bunch is important in the context of linear colliders, wakefield accelerators and for the next generation of light sources, including x-ray SASE FELs. Frequently applied methods, e.g., minimal phase retrieval or other iterative algorithms, are reliable if the Blaschke phase contribution is negligible. This, however, is neither known a priori nor can it be assumed to apply to an arbitrary bunch profile. We present a novel approach which gives reproducible, most-probable and stable reconstructions for bunch profiles (both artificial and experimental) that would otherwise remain unresolved by the existing techniques.

  19. Synthesis of fully continuous phase screens for tailoring the focal plane irradiance profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Dixit, S.; Feit, M.

    1996-04-26

    We present an iterative procedure for constructing fully continuous phase screens for tailoring the focal plane intensity distributions. This algorithm alleviates the stagnations experienced in the application of the Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm with a random initial phase screen and leads to efficient distribution of the incident energy into the desired focal plane profile.

  20. Shearing instabilities accompanying high-pressure phase transformations and the mechanics of deep earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Green, Harry W.

    2007-01-01

    Deep earthquakes have been a paradox since their discovery in the 1920s. The combined increase of pressure and temperature with depth precludes brittle failure or frictional sliding beyond a few tens of kilometers, yet earthquakes occur continually in subduction zones to ≈700 km. The expected healing effects of pressure and temperature and growing amounts of seismic and experimental data suggest that earthquakes at depth probably represent self-organized failure analogous to, but different from, brittle failure. The only high-pressure shearing instabilities identified by experiment require generation in situ of a small fraction of very weak material differing significantly in density from the parent material. This “fluid” spontaneously forms mode I microcracks or microanticracks that self-organize via the elastic strain fields at their tips, leading to shear failure. Growing evidence suggests that the great majority of subduction zone earthquakes shallower than 400 km are initiated by breakdown of hydrous phases and that deeper ones probably initiate as a shearing instability associated with breakdown of metastable olivine to its higher-pressure polymorphs. In either case, fault propagation could be enhanced by shear heating, just as is sometimes the case with frictional sliding in the crust. Extensive seismological interrogation of the region of the Tonga subduction zone in the southwest Pacific Ocean provides evidence suggesting significant metastable olivine, with implication for its presence in other regions of deep seismicity. If metastable olivine is confirmed, either current thermal models of subducting slabs are too warm or published kinetics of olivine breakdown reactions are too fast. PMID:17468397

  1. Measurement of surface profile in vibrating environment with instantaneous phase shifting interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, N. R.; Tan, B.; Venkatakrishnan, K.

    2006-01-01

    In-process measurement has been the requirement of the precision industries, but due to vibrations while manufacturing, in-process measurement has been difficult to achieve. There is little work on in-process measurement using phase shifting interferometry, as phase shifting is extremely sensitive to vibrations. In this work, the advantage of the developed non-mechanical and instantaneous phase shifting interferometry is felt while measuring surface profile of large flat surfaces under vibrating conditions which can be extended for in-process measurement of surface profile. A near common path optical configuration is achieved and the effect of the environment is reduced. Moreover, the measurement of phase is instantaneous which increases the versatility of this technique for measuring vibrating objects. Profile measurements were carried out on a smooth mirror surface excited with vibrations of different frequencies and the technique was found to be immune to vibrations of up to 1000 Hz.

  2. 30 CFR 203.33 - To which production do I apply the RSV earned by qualified phase 2 and phase 3 ultra-deep wells...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false To which production do I apply the RSV earned by qualified phase 2 and phase 3 ultra-deep wells on my lease or in my unit? 203.33 Section 203.33 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT RELIEF OR REDUCTION IN...

  3. 30 CFR 203.33 - To which production do I apply the RSV earned by qualified phase 2 and phase 3 ultra-deep wells...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... phase 3 ultra-deep well that earns your lease the RSV begins production (other than test production). (2... well on lease B produces 37 BCF, then the production volume from and allocated to lease A to which the... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false To which production do I apply the RSV...

  4. MiRNA Expression Profile for the Human Gastric Antrum Region Using Ultra-Deep Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Hamoy, Igor G.; Darnet, Sylvain; Burbano, Rommel; Khayat, André; Gonçalves, André Nicolau; Alencar, Dayse O.; Cruz, Aline; Magalhães, Leandro; Araújo Jr., Wilson; Silva, Artur; Santos, Sidney; Demachki, Samia; Assumpção, Paulo; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ândrea

    2014-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs are small non-coding nucleotide sequences that regulate gene expression. These structures are fundamental to several biological processes, including cell proliferation, development, differentiation and apoptosis. Identifying the expression profile of microRNAs in healthy human gastric antrum mucosa may help elucidate the miRNA regulatory mechanisms of the human stomach. Methodology/Principal Findings A small RNA library of stomach antrum tissue was sequenced using high-throughput SOLiD sequencing technology. The total read count for the gastric mucosa antrum region was greater than 618,000. After filtering and aligning using with MirBase, 148 mature miRNAs were identified in the gastric antrum tissue, totaling 3,181 quality reads; 63.5% (2,021) of the reads were concentrated in the eight most highly expressed miRNAs (hsa-mir-145, hsa-mir-29a, hsa-mir-29c, hsa-mir-21, hsa-mir-451a, hsa-mir-192, hsa-mir-191 and hsa-mir-148a). RT-PCR validated the expression profiles of seven of these highly expressed miRNAs and confirmed the sequencing results obtained using the SOLiD platform. Conclusions/Significance In comparison with other tissues, the antrum’s expression profile was unique with respect to the most highly expressed miRNAs, suggesting that this expression profile is specific to stomach antrum tissue. The current study provides a starting point for a more comprehensive understanding of the role of miRNAs in the regulation of the molecular processes of the human stomach. PMID:24647245

  5. Identification of an inflammatory bowel disease patient with a deep vein thrombosis and an altered clot lysis profile.

    PubMed

    Bollen, Lize; Wuyts, Joke; Vermeire, Séverine; Gils, Ann

    2016-03-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by flares and remission, are prone to develop thrombosis. The mechanism behind this prothrombotic state is not completely understood but is definitely multifactorial and linked with excessive inflammation observed in these patients. So far, no biomarker exists to select among IBD patients those with and increased risk for thrombosis. Corticosteroid therapy, given as rescue IBD treatment, is known to increase the thrombotic risk, whereas for antitumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha therapy such as infliximab, given to induce and maintain remission in IBD, the results are inconclusive. Here, we describe a 31-year-old IBD patient who developed a deep vein thrombosis. We determined the clot lysis profiles before and after developing thrombosis. We showed that a global functional clot lysis assay can be used as a tool to identify IBD patients who may benefit from thromboprophylactic therapy. PMID:26378816

  6. Improved beam profile of a 266 nm deep ultraviolet laser employing a multi-mirror-reflected cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Houwen; Cheng, Wenyong; Wang, Junhua; Zhang, Yaguang; Wang, Xiaoqian; Zhang, Lijie

    2016-04-01

    A 266 nm deep ultraviolet (DUV) laser with a good Gaussian profile is reported employing a multi-mirror-reflected cavity. A type-I LiB3O5 (LBO) crystal is used to double the fundamental-light (1064 nm) wavelength generated by an actively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser with an intra-cavity configuration. A fourth harmonic generation (FHG) wavelength is obtained by a type-I β-BaB2O4 (BBO) crystal. The output power as high as 440 mW at 266 nm is generated under an incident power of 2.26 W at 532 nm, corresponding to the conversion efficiency of 532 nm-266 nm up to 19.5% with a repetition rate of 15 kHz and the pulse duration of 266 nm is 10.7 ns.

  7. SinoProbe-02: Deep Seismic Reflection Profiling of the Bangong Suture and Qiangtang terrane in central Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.; Chen, C.; Gao, R.; Brown, L.; Xiong, X.; Li, W.; Deng, G.

    2010-12-01

    The Bangong Suture represents the tectonic junction between the two primary terranes of the Tibetan Plateau- the Lhasa block and the Qiangtang terrane.This suture was originally formed during a Jurassic collision of these two terranes,but has retained considerably significance as the suspect surface position of the buried mantle suture between Indian and Asian lithosphere that formed during Himalayan collision.As a corollary,these terranes have been associated with very different styles of mantle tectonics,perhaps as a result of mantle delamination beneath the Qiangtang.There have been a number of attempts to probe the deep structure of both the suture and its flanking terranes with refraction and teleseismic methods.Here we report the results of the first multichannel seismic reflection profile across this critical region.Deep seismic reflection method is internationally recognized as a pioneering technology for imaging crustal details,and it has been successfully applied in Southern Tibetan plateau in early 1990s.From October 2009 to May 2010,SinoProbe collected 310 km of a deep seismic reflection profile crossing BNS,successfully revealing structural details down to the Moho and possible deeper.The profile starts west of Silin Co in the northern Lhasa block,crosses the Bangong-Nujiang suture west of Lunpola,skirts the eastern extension of the central Qiantang anticline and ends at Dogai Coring just of south of Jinsha suture.The survey used explosive sources with variable shot size to insure adequate imaging of both the upper and lower crust.In the southern part of the profile,small shots of 50kg explosive were placed at 30m depth at 250m spacing,augmented by larger shots of 200kg t 50m depth spaced every 1km.In addition,large shots of 1000kg were placed every 50km.In the middle and north part,only 200 kg shots at 500m spacing along with the big shots.A linear array of receivers was used with a group interval of 50 m.The data was acquired by Sercel 408 XL using

  8. Gene expression profiling of Sinapis alba leaves under drought stress and rewatering growth conditions with Illumina deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Dong, Cai-Hua; Li, Chen; Yan, Xiao-Hong; Huang, Shun-Mou; Huang, Jin-Yong; Wang, Li-Jun; Guo, Rui-Xing; Lu, Guang-Yuan; Zhang, Xue-Kun; Fang, Xiao-Ping; Wei, Wen-Hui

    2012-05-01

    Sinapis alba has many desirable agronomic traits including tolerance to drought. In this investigation, we performed the genome-wide transcriptional profiling of S. alba leaves under drought stress and rewatering growth conditions in an attempt to identify candidate genes involved in drought tolerance, using the Illumina deep sequencing technology. The comparative analysis revealed numerous changes in gene expression level attributable to the drought stress, which resulted in the down-regulation of 309 genes and the up-regulation of 248 genes. Gene ontology analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in cell division and catalytic and metabolic processes. Our results provide useful information for further analyses of the drought stress tolerance in Sinapis, and will facilitate molecular breeding for Brassica crop plants. PMID:22207172

  9. Resistivity profile of mountain slopes after deep catastrophic landslides caused by earthquake in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isshiki, Hiromitsu; Takahara, Teruyoshi; Kinoshita, Atsuhiro; Ishiduka, Tadanori

    2014-05-01

    An airborne electromagnetic (AEM) survey can be used to estimate the resistivity structure underground by measuring the electromagnetic induction. An AEM survey can quickly obtain the resistivity in the depth direction for a wide area. The resistivity varies with the type of rock, water saturation, porosity, and clay mineral content. This study targeted the deep catastrophic landslide (DCL) triggered by the Iwate-Miyagi Inland Earthquake in 2008 on the slopes of Mt. Kurikoma, which is an active volcano in northeastern Japan. Fluidized material slid down the slope and struck a small spa, resulting in the loss of human life. When considering mitigation measures, it is important to predict those slopes where DCLs might occur. This study estimated the scale of the slopes at risk of DCLs. First, we conducted a field survey and confirmed the distribution of geological conditions and collapse. Soft altered tuff breccia was spread over the entire slope, while andesite covered a head cliff on the upper slope. It was thought that the DCL occurred at the andesite cap rock, at the slip plane boundary of the andesite and altered tuff breccia. Next, we conducted an AEM survey over a wide area, including the landslide. While the specific resistance of the uncollapsed zone was ≥ 400 Ω-m, that of the collapsed zone was ≤ 100-200 Ω-m. Finally, comparing the results of the field and AEM surveys, the spatial distribution of the specific resistivity roughly corresponded to the underground geological setting, such as andesite cap rock. Based on the distribution of the high-resistivity zone, the slopes at risk of deep-seated landslides and the collapsed soil layer thickness could be estimated. In conclusion, in order to evaluate the risk of a DCL, it is necessary consider underground information. An AEM survey is a practical method for evaluating the risk of a DCL.

  10. Early origins of the Caribbean plate from deep seismic profiles across the Nicaraguan Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, B.; Mann, W. P.

    2012-12-01

    The offshore Nicaraguan Rise in the maritime zones of Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua and Colombia covers a combined area of 500,000 km2, and is one of the least known equatorial Cretaceous-Cenozoic carbonate regions remaining on Earth. The purpose of this study is to describe the Cretaceous to Recent tectonic and stratigraphic history of the deep water Nicaraguan Rise, and to better understand how various types of crustal blocks underlying the Eocene to Recent carbonate cover fused into a single, larger Caribbean plate known today from GPS studies. We interpreted 8700 km of modern, deep-penetration 2D seismic data kindly provided by the oil industry, tied to five wells that penetrated Cretaceous igneous basement. Based on these data, and integration with gravity, magnetic and existing crustal refraction data, we define four crustal provinces for the offshore Nicaraguan Rise: 1) Thicker (15-18 km) Late Cretaceous Caribbean ocean plateau (COP) with rough, top basement surface; 2) normal (6-8 km) Late Cretaceous COP with smooth top basement surface (B") and correlative outcrops in southern Haiti and Jamaica; 3) Precambrian-Paleozoic continental crust (20-22 km thick) with correlative outcrops in northern Central America; and 4) Cretaceous arc crust (>18 km thick) with correlative outcrops in Jamaica. These strongly contrasting basement belts strike northeastward to eastward, and were juxtaposed by latest Cretaceous-Paleogene northward and northwestward thrusting of Caribbean arc over continental crust in Central America, and the western Nicaraguan Rise (84 to 85 degrees west). A large Paleogene to recent, CCW rotation of the Caribbean plate along the Cayman trough faults and into its present day location explains why terranes in Central America and beneath the Nicaraguan Rise have their present, anomalous north-east strike. Continuing, present-day activity on some of these crustal block boundaries is a likely result of intraplate stresses imposed by the surrounding

  11. Wrapping-free phase retrieval with applications to interferometry, 3D-shape profiling, and deflectometry.

    PubMed

    Perciante, César D; Strojnik, Marija; Paez, Gonzalo; Di Martino, J Matias; Ayubi, Gastón A; Flores, Jorge L; Ferrari, José A

    2015-04-01

    Phase unwrapping is probably the most challenging step in the phase retrieval process in phase-shifting and spatial-carrier interferometry. Likewise, phase unwrapping is required in 3D-shape profiling and deflectometry. In this paper, we present a novel phase retrieval method that completely sidesteps the phase unwrapping process, significantly eliminating the guessing in phase reconstruction and thus decreasing the time data processing. The proposed wrapping-free method is based on the direct integration of the spatial derivatives of the interference patterns under the single assumption that the phase is continuous. This assumption is valid in most physical applications. Validation experiments are presented confirming the robustness of the proposed method. PMID:25967217

  12. T2 distribution mapping profiles with phase-encode MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Oleg V.; Ersland, Geir; Balcom, Bruce J.

    2011-03-01

    Two 1-D phase-encode sequences for T2 mapping, namely CPMG-prepared SPRITE and spin-echo SPI, are presented and compared in terms of image quality, accuracy of T2 measurements and the measurement time. The sequences implement two different approaches to acquiring T2-weighted images: in the CPMG-prepared SPRITE, the T2-weighting of magnetization precedes the spatial encoding, while in the spin-echo SPI, the T2-weighting follows the spatial encoding. The sequences are intended primarily for T2 mapping of fluids in porous solids, where using frequency encode techniques may be problematic either due to local gradient distortions or too short T2. Their possible applications include monitoring fluid-flow processes in rocks, cement paste hydration, curing of rubber, filtering paramagnetic impurities and other processes accomplished by changing site-specific T2.

  13. A green deep eutectic solvent-based aqueous two-phase system for protein extracting.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kaijia; Wang, Yuzhi; Huang, Yanhua; Li, Na; Wen, Qian

    2015-03-15

    As a new type of green solvent, deep eutectic solvent (DES) has been applied for the extraction of proteins with an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) in this work. Four kinds of choline chloride (ChCl)-based DESs were synthesized to extract bovine serum albumin (BSA), and ChCl-glycerol was selected as the suitable extraction solvent. Single factor experiments have been done to investigate the effects of the extraction process, including the amount of DES, the concentration of salt, the mass of protein, the shaking time, the temperature and PH value. Experimental results show 98.16% of the BSA could be extracted into the DES-rich phase in a single-step extraction under the optimized conditions. A high extraction efficiency of 94.36% was achieved, while the conditions were applied to the extraction of trypsin (Try). Precision, repeatability and stability experiments were studied and the relative standard deviations (RSD) of the extraction efficiency were 0.4246% (n=3), 1.6057% (n=3) and 1.6132% (n=3), respectively. Conformation of BSA was not changed during the extraction process according to the investigation of UV-vis spectra, FT-IR spectra and CD spectra of BSA. The conductivity, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to explore the mechanism of the extraction. It turned out that the formation of DES-protein aggregates play a significant role in the separation process. All the results suggest that ChCl-based DES-ATPS are supposed to have the potential to provide new possibilities in the separation of proteins. PMID:25732422

  14. Phases and Interfaces from Real Space Atomically Resolved Data: Physics-Based Deep Data Image Analysis.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Rama K; Ziatdinov, Maxim; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2016-09-14

    Advances in electron and scanning probe microscopies have led to a wealth of atomically resolved structural and electronic data, often with ∼1-10 pm precision. However, knowledge generation from such data requires the development of a physics-based robust framework to link the observed structures to macroscopic chemical and physical descriptors, including single phase regions, order parameter fields, interfaces, and structural and topological defects. Here, we develop an approach based on a synergy of sliding window Fourier transform to capture the local analog of traditional structure factors combined with blind linear unmixing of the resultant 4D data set. This deep data analysis is ideally matched to the underlying physics of the problem and allows reconstruction of the a priori unknown structure factors of individual components and their spatial localization. We demonstrate the principles of this approach using a synthetic data set and further apply it for extracting chemical and physically relevant information from electron and scanning tunneling microscopy data. This method promises to dramatically speed up crystallographic analysis in atomically resolved data, paving the road toward automatic local structure-property determinations in crystalline and quasi-ordered systems, as well as systems with competing structural and electronic order parameters. PMID:27517608

  15. Deep-blue supercontinnum sources with optimum taper profiles--verification of GAM.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, S T; Møller, U; Larsen, C; Moselund, P M; Jakobsen, C; Johansen, J; Andersen, T V; Thomsen, C L; Bang, O

    2012-05-01

    We use an asymmetric 2 m draw-tower photonic crystal fiber taper to demonstrate that the taper profile needs careful optimisation if you want to develop a supercontinuum light source with as much power as possible in the blue edge of the spectrum. In particular we show, that for a given taper length, the downtapering should be as long as possible. We argue how this may be explained by the concept of group-acceleration mismatch (GAM) and we confirm the results using conventional symmetrical short tapers made on a taper station, which have varying downtapering lengths. PMID:22565689

  16. Transcurrent nature of the Teisseyre-Tornquist Zone in Central Europe: results of the POLCRUST-01 deep reflection seismic profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narkiewicz, M.; Maksym, A.; Malinowski, M.; Grad, M.; Guterch, A.; Petecki, Z.; Probulski, J.; Janik, T.; Majdański, M.; Środa, P.; Czuba, W.; Gaczyński, E.; Jankowski, L.

    2015-04-01

    Teisseyre-Tornquist Zone (TTZ) corresponds to a crustal boundary between the Precambrian East European Platform (EEP) and the Palaeozoic West European Platform. Although the zone has been controlling Phanerozoic evolution of large parts of Central Europe, its course, geometry and origin are still poorly constrained. Deep reflection seismic profile POLCRUST-01, recently acquired in SE Poland, for the first time allowed a precise comparison of the Ediacaran and later tectonic patterns to the deep crustal features of the TTZ and adjacent areas. The TTZ corresponds to the subvertical Tomaszów Fault separating the Radom-Kraśnik Elevation, composed of the typical EEP crust, from the Biłgoraj-Narol Block (BNB) in the SW, with a thinned crystalline basement showing affinities to the EEP crust. The BNB is a part of the larger Caledonian Łysogóry Terrane as evidenced by its Lower Palaeozoic stratigraphy and gravity data. Thus, for the first time, the proximal Baltican affinity of this unit has been documented unambiguously. The Łysogóry Terrane is delimited from the SW by the subvertical Cieszanów Fault Zone, corresponding to the Holy Cross Suture. The adjacent Małopolska Terrane is characterized by a distinct Early Palaeozoic stratigraphy, and lower-middle crust exhibiting SW-dipping reflective packages interpreted as NE-verging thrust and shear zones of a Neoproterozoic orogen. The observations from the POLCRUST-01 profile and regional comparisons indicate that the TTZ is a major Caledonian transcurrent zone between Poland and East Romania. In central Poland, the TTZ likely forms a narrow subvertical contact between the EEP and a proximal Kuiavia Terrane, as constrained by the deep refraction seismic data. To the NW, the zone extends towards the Pomeranian part of the Caledonide fold-and-thrust belt related to the Avalonia-Baltica collision zone (Thor Suture). South-east of Poland the TTZ corresponds to the Rava Ruska Fault Zone established as a Caledonian suture

  17. Reconstructing conjugate margins of the Canada-Amerasian basin: New tectonic constraints from deep seismic data and gravity profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helwig, J.; Ady, B.; Kumar, N.; Granath, J. W.; Dinkelman, M. G.; Bird, D. E.; Emmet, P. A.

    2010-12-01

    Over the past 5 years, decreasing sea ice and increasing scientific and economic interest in the Arctic have prompted new geological and geophysical studies that advance knowledge of the northern continental margins of North America. We report here on ArcticSPAN™ 40-km deep, PSDM (Pre-Stack Depth Migrated) marine seismic reflection profiles and gravity data from the Beaufort Sea of Canada and the US Chukchi Sea that constrain the position of the continent-ocean boundary and the relict spreading center of the Canada Basin, displaying significant variations in the orientation, geometry and deep crustal structure of the passive margin facing the Arctic Ocean. In the Canadian Beaufort Sea three distinct segments of the margin correspond to contrasts of pre-rift foundations: 1. the rifted, rotated Arctic Alaska Terrane west of the Mackenzie Delta (Beaufort segment); 2. the transform-faulted Laurentian crust of the Tuktoyaktuk margin (Tuk segment); and, 3. the rifted Laurentian crust of the Banks Island segment. The thick late Mesozoic-Cenozoic clastic prism of the continental margin was centered in the Mackenzie delta area by Mesozoic rifting of the Canada Basin. The northerly Paleocene-Miocene sweep of Cordilleran deformation modified the passive margin, overprinting the offshore Mackenzie Delta. The interpreted tectonic architecture of the three segments of the Beaufort passive margin demonstrates their distinct roles in opening of the Canada Basin. Two conjugate rifted margin segments (Beaufort and Banks Island) and a linking transform fault margin (Tuk) formed during the separation of the Arctic Alaska Terrane from northwestern Laurentia, in accord with a Jurassic-Aptian rotational model of Canada Basin opening. But the orientation of the Tuk transform segment indicates that a single pole of rotation cannot describe the opening of the basin. Additional seismic profiles from investigations of the Chukchi Sea margin display passive margin structures and rift to pre

  18. Doppler Radar Profiler for Launch Winds at the Kennedy Space Center (Phase 1a)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Daniel G.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) received a request from the, NASA Technical Fellow for Flight Mechanics at Langley Research Center (LaRC), to develop a database from multiple Doppler radar wind profiler (DRWP) sources and develop data processing algorithms to construct high temporal resolution DRWP wind profiles for day-of-launch (DOL) vehicle assessment. This document contains the outcome of Phase 1a of the assessment including Findings, Observations, NESC Recommendations, and Lessons Learned.

  19. Metabolomic profiling reveals deep chemical divergence between two morphotypes of the zoanthid Parazoanthus axinellae

    PubMed Central

    Cachet, Nadja; Genta-Jouve, Grégory; Ivanisevic, Julijana; Chevaldonné, Pierre; Sinniger, Frédéric; Culioli, Gérald; Pérez, Thierry; Thomas, Olivier P.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolomics has recently proven its usefulness as complementary tool to traditional morphological and genetic analyses for the classification of marine invertebrates. Among the metabolite-rich cnidarian order Zoantharia, Parazoanthus is a polyphyletic genus whose systematics and phylogeny remain controversial. Within this genus, one of the most studied species, Parazoanthus axinellae is prominent in rocky shallow waters of the Mediterranean Sea and the NE Atlantic Ocean. Although different morphotypes can easily be distinguished, only one species is recognized to date. Here, a metabolomic profiling approach has been used to assess the chemical diversity of two main Mediterranean morphotypes, the “slender” and “stocky” forms of P. axinellae. Targeted profiling of their major secondary metabolites revealed a significant chemical divergence between the morphotypes. While zoanthoxanthin alkaloids and ecdysteroids are abundant in both morphs, the “slender” morphotype is characterized by the presence of additional and bioactive 3,5-disubstituted hydantoin derivatives named parazoanthines. The absence of these specific compounds in the “stocky” morphotype was confirmed by spatial and temporal monitoring over an annual cycle. Moreover, specimens of the “slender” morphotype are also the only ones found as epibionts of several sponge species, particularly Cymbaxinella damicornis thus suggesting a putative ecological link. PMID:25655432

  20. Metabolomic profiling reveals deep chemical divergence between two morphotypes of the zoanthid Parazoanthus axinellae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cachet, Nadja; Genta-Jouve, Grégory; Ivanisevic, Julijana; Chevaldonné, Pierre; Sinniger, Frédéric; Culioli, Gérald; Pérez, Thierry; Thomas, Olivier P.

    2015-02-01

    Metabolomics has recently proven its usefulness as complementary tool to traditional morphological and genetic analyses for the classification of marine invertebrates. Among the metabolite-rich cnidarian order Zoantharia, Parazoanthus is a polyphyletic genus whose systematics and phylogeny remain controversial. Within this genus, one of the most studied species, Parazoanthus axinellae is prominent in rocky shallow waters of the Mediterranean Sea and the NE Atlantic Ocean. Although different morphotypes can easily be distinguished, only one species is recognized to date. Here, a metabolomic profiling approach has been used to assess the chemical diversity of two main Mediterranean morphotypes, the ``slender'' and ``stocky'' forms of P. axinellae. Targeted profiling of their major secondary metabolites revealed a significant chemical divergence between the morphotypes. While zoanthoxanthin alkaloids and ecdysteroids are abundant in both morphs, the ``slender'' morphotype is characterized by the presence of additional and bioactive 3,5-disubstituted hydantoin derivatives named parazoanthines. The absence of these specific compounds in the ``stocky'' morphotype was confirmed by spatial and temporal monitoring over an annual cycle. Moreover, specimens of the ``slender'' morphotype are also the only ones found as epibionts of several sponge species, particularly Cymbaxinella damicornis thus suggesting a putative ecological link.

  1. Detection of Alzheimer’s disease amyloid-beta plaque deposition by deep brain impedance profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béduer, Amélie; Joris, Pierre; Mosser, Sébastien; Fraering, Patrick C.; Renaud, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Objective. Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common form of neurodegenerative disease in elderly people. Toxic brain amyloid-beta (Aß) aggregates and ensuing cell death are believed to play a central role in the pathogenesis of the disease. In this study, we investigated if we could monitor the presence of these aggregates by performing in situ electrical impedance spectroscopy measurements in AD model mice brains. Approach. In this study, electrical impedance spectroscopy measurements were performed post-mortem in APPPS1 transgenic mice brains. This transgenic model is commonly used to study amyloidogenesis, a pathological hallmark of AD. We used flexible probes with embedded micrometric electrodes array to demonstrate the feasibility of detecting senile plaques composed of Aß peptides by localized impedance measurements. Main results. We particularly focused on deep brain structures, such as the hippocampus. Ex vivo experiments using brains from young and old APPPS1 mice lead us to show that impedance measurements clearly correlate with the percentage of Aβ plaque load in the brain tissues. We could monitor the effects of aging in the AD APPPS1 mice model. Significance. We demonstrated that a localized electrical impedance measurement constitutes a valuable technique to monitor the presence of Aβ-plaques, which is complementary with existing imaging techniques. This method does not require prior Aβ staining, precluding the risk of variations in tissue uptake of dyes or tracers, and consequently ensuring reproducible data collection.

  2. Speedup properties of phases in the execution profile of distributed parallel programs

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, B.M.; Wagner, T.D.; Dowdy, L.W.; Worley, P.H.

    1992-08-01

    The execution profile of a distributed-memory parallel program specifies the number of busy processors as a function of time. Periods of homogeneous processor utilization are manifested in many execution profiles. These periods can usually be correlated with the algorithms implemented in the underlying parallel code. Three families of methods for smoothing execution profile data are presented. These approaches simplify the problem of detecting end points of periods of homogeneous utilization. These periods, called phases, are then examined in isolation, and their speedup characteristics are explored. A specific workload executed on an Intel iPSC/860 is used for validation of the techniques described.

  3. A gravity model of the deep structure of South Caspian Basin along submeridional profile Alborz-Absheron Sill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadirov, F. A.; Gadirov, A. H.

    2014-03-01

    The South-Caspian Basin (SCB) underlies the southern part of the Caspian Sea, between the ranges of the eastern Greater Caucasus, Talysh, Alborz, and Kopet Dagh. A 2-D regional gravity model along a profile from the Alborz Mountains to the Absheron Ridge has been constructed, constrained by deep (20 s TWT) seismic reflection data. The deep structure model has been evaluated in terms of earthquake focal mechanisms and GPS velocity data to elucidate active tectonic processes and the geodynamic evolution of the SCB. We believe that the rapid increase in the thickness of Mesozoic sediments along the profile from ~ 8 km in the middle part of the profile up to ~ 15 km in the area of the Absheron-Ridge can be explained by inherent basin geometry created by thermal subsidence followed by sediment loading as well as additional effect of tectonic related shortening of sedimentary succession. Near the boundary of oceanic and continental crust in the northern SCB, flexure of oceanic crust is inferred from the observed seismic data and gravity modeling, most probably connected to ongoing subduction of lithosphere of the South Caspian underneath the Scythian Plate of the Mid-Caspian. Subduction beneath the Absheron Ridge is accompanied by the delamination of sediments from the oceanic crust (“basaltic” layer) and creation of accretionary wedge in the overlaying sedimentary succession. The focal mechanisms of the larger earthquakes (M > 6) occurring along the northern boundary of the SCB show steep normal-type faulting above the bend of the downgoing slab while, along the southern boundary, thrust faults are inferred. Some thrust-type earthquakes near the northern boundary occur in the lower crust or uppermost mantle and may be associated with compression in the lower part of the brittle lithosphere due to plate flexure. Displacements measured along the coastline of the Caspian Sea by GPS are consistent with the direction of potential oblique subduction of oceanic crust of

  4. Phase compensation with fiber optic surface profile acquisition and reconstruction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, En; Duan, Fajie; Feng, Fan; Lv, Changrong; Xiao, Fu; Huang, Tingting

    2015-02-01

    A fiber-optic sinusoidal phase modulating (SPM) interferometer was proposed for the acquisition and reconstruction of three-dimensional (3-D) surface profile. Sinusoidal phase modulation was induced by controlling the injection current of light source. The surface profile was constructed on the basis of fringe projection. Fringe patterns are vulnerable to external disturbances such as mechanical vibration and temperature fluctuation, which cause phase drift in the interference signal and decrease measuring accuracy. A closed-loop feedback phase compensation system was built. In the subsystem, the initial phase of the interference signal, which was caused by the initial optical path difference between interference arms, could be demodulated using phase generated carrier (PGC) method and counted out using coordinated rotation digital computer (CORDIC) , then a compensation voltage was generated for the PZT driver. The bias value of external disturbances superimposed on fringe patterns could be reduced to about 50 mrad, and the phase stability for interference fringes was less than 6 mrad. The feasibility for real-time profile measurement has been verified.

  5. Improved optical profiling using the spectral phase in spectrally resolved white-light interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Debnath, Sanjit Kumar; Kothiyal, Mahendra Prasad

    2006-09-20

    In spectrally resolved white-light interferometry (SRWLI), the white-light interferogram is decomposed into its monochromatic constituent. The phase of the monochromatic constituents can be determined using a phase-shifting technique over a range of wavelengths. These phase value shave fringe order ambiguity. However, the variation of the phase with respect to the wavenumber is linear and its slope gives the absolute value of the optical-path difference. Since the path difference is related to the height of the test object at a point, a line profile can be determined without ambiguity. The slope value, though less precise helps us determine the fringe order. The fringe order combined with the monochromatic phase value gives the absolute profile, which has the precision of phase-shifting interferometry. The presence of noise in the phase may lead to the misidentification of fringe order, which in turn gives unnecessary jumps in the precise profile. The experimental details of measurement on standard samples with SRWLI are discussed in this paper.

  6. Expression profiling of Drosophila mitochondrial genes via deep mRNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Tatiana Teixeira; Dolezal, Marlies; Schlötterer, Christian; Ottenwälder, Birgit

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondria play an essential role in several cellular processes. Nevertheless, very little is known about patterns of gene expression of genes encoded by the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). In this study, we used next-generation sequencing (NGS) for transcription profiling of genes encoded in the mitochondrial genome of Drosophila melanogaster and D. pseudoobscura. The analysis of males and females in both species indicated that the expression pattern was conserved between the two species, but differed significantly between both sexes. Interestingly, mRNA levels were not only different among genes encoded by separate transcription units, but also showed significant differences among genes located in the same transcription unit. Hence, mRNA abundance of genes encoded by mtDNA seems to be heavily modulated by post-transcriptional regulation. Finally, we also identified several transcripts with a noncanonical structure, suggesting that processing of mitochondrial transcripts may be more complex than previously assumed. PMID:19843606

  7. Deep seismic studies of conjugate profiles from the Nova Scotia - Moroccan and the Liguro-Provencal margin pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingelhoefer, F.; Biari, Y.; Sahabi, M.; Aslanian, D.; Philippe, S.; Schnabel, M.; Moulin, M.; Louden, K. E.; Funck, T.; Reichert, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    The structure of conjugate passive margins provides information about rifting styles, opening of an ocean and formation of it's associated sedimentary basins. In order to distinguish between tectonic inheritance and structures directly related to rifting of passive margins conjugate profiles have to be acquired on margins on diverse locations and different ages. In this study we use new and existing reflection and wide-angle seismic data from two margin pairs, the 200 Ma year old Nova-Scotia - Morocco margin pair and the only 20 Ma Gulf of Lions - Sardinia margin pair. On both margin pairs wide-angle seismic data combined with reflection seismic data were acquired on conjugate profiles on sea and extended on land. Forward modelling of the deep crustal structure along the four transects indicates that a high velocity zone (HVZ) (> 7.2 km/s) is present at the base of the lower crust on all four margins along the ocean-continental transition zone (OCT). This may represent either exhumed upper mantle material or injection of upper mantle material into proto-oceanic crust at the onset of sea-floor spreading. However the width of the HVZ might strongly differ between conjugates, which may be the result of tectonic inheritance, for example the presence of ancient subduction zones or orogens. Both margin pairs show a similar unthinned continental crustal thickness. Crustal thinning and upper-to-lower crustal thickness vary between margin pairs, but remain nearly symmetric on conjugate profiles and might therefore depend on the structure and mechanical properties of the original continental crust. For the Mediterranean margin pair, the oceanic crust is similar on both sides, with a thickness of only 4-5 km. For the Atlantic margin pair, oceanic crustal thickness is higher on the Moroccan Margin, a fact that can be explained by either asymmetric spreading or by the volcanic underplating, possibly originating from the Canary Hot Spot.

  8. SHARAKU: an algorithm for aligning and clustering read mapping profiles of deep sequencing in non-coding RNA processing

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Mariko; Amano, Kojiro; Abe, Masaya; Seki, Misato; Hase, Sumitaka; Sato, Kengo; Sakakibara, Yasubumi

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Deep sequencing of the transcripts of regulatory non-coding RNA generates footprints of post-transcriptional processes. After obtaining sequence reads, the short reads are mapped to a reference genome, and specific mapping patterns can be detected called read mapping profiles, which are distinct from random non-functional degradation patterns. These patterns reflect the maturation processes that lead to the production of shorter RNA sequences. Recent next-generation sequencing studies have revealed not only the typical maturation process of miRNAs but also the various processing mechanisms of small RNAs derived from tRNAs and snoRNAs. Results: We developed an algorithm termed SHARAKU to align two read mapping profiles of next-generation sequencing outputs for non-coding RNAs. In contrast with previous work, SHARAKU incorporates the primary and secondary sequence structures into an alignment of read mapping profiles to allow for the detection of common processing patterns. Using a benchmark simulated dataset, SHARAKU exhibited superior performance to previous methods for correctly clustering the read mapping profiles with respect to 5′-end processing and 3′-end processing from degradation patterns and in detecting similar processing patterns in deriving the shorter RNAs. Further, using experimental data of small RNA sequencing for the common marmoset brain, SHARAKU succeeded in identifying the significant clusters of read mapping profiles for similar processing patterns of small derived RNA families expressed in the brain. Availability and Implementation: The source code of our program SHARAKU is available at http://www.dna.bio.keio.ac.jp/sharaku/, and the simulated dataset used in this work is available at the same link. Accession code: The sequence data from the whole RNA transcripts in the hippocampus of the left brain used in this work is available from the DNA DataBank of Japan (DDBJ) Sequence Read Archive (DRA) under the accession number DRA

  9. Reproducibility of trace element profiles in a specimen of the deep-water bamboo coral Keratoisis sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, Daniel J.; Williams, B.; Allard, G.; Ghaleb, B.; Fallon, S.; Ross, S. W.; Risk, M.

    2011-09-01

    Bamboo corals (Order Gorgonacea, Family Isididae) are attractive prospects for deep-sea paleoceanographic reconstruction, capturing trace elements in their calcitic skeletons that may serve as environmental proxies with subdecadal resolution over multi-century timescales. We study the reproducibility and fidelity of trace-element profiles (Ba, Mg, Sr, Mn, U, Pb) in a 420-year-old specimen of the bamboo coral Keratoisis sp. from the SE USA. Using laser-ablation ICP-MS to obtain multiple replicate profiles, we use spectral techniques to distinguish noise and irreproducible variations from fully reproducible geochemical fluctuations that are candidates for environmental signals. By quantifying variability between profiles, we assess the fidelity with which the corals potentially record environmental information. Barium is the most reproducible element in the skeleton, with large fluctuations along different growth radii reproducing to within 4%. Both Mg and Sr have very uniform levels within the coral, but display low-amplitude irreproducible variations that might represent an internal biological process. In the case of Mg, which has been proposed as a paleotemperature proxy, this irreproducibility would represent an intrinsic uncertainty of ˜±0.1 to 0.4 °C. Both Mn and Pb contain some irreproducibility superimposed upon broad reproducible profiles that may be environmental signals. Some of the irreproducible Pb fluctuations correlate with cracks and dark bands in the sample suggesting detrital or surface contamination. Uranium displays large amplitude variations which are not reproducible along different radii. This suggests that uranium cannot be used for paleoenvironmental reconstruction, and may show signs of early diagenesis - a possibility that could complicate attempts to date young Keratoisis sp. samples by U-series geochemistry. The highly reproducible Ba signal allows precise alignment of profiles and thus we can show that growth rate along one radius can

  10. Magnetic solid-phase extraction of protein with deep eutectic solvent immobilized magnetic graphene oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kaijia; Wang, Yuzhi; Ding, Xueqin; Huang, Yanhua; Li, Na; Wen, Qian

    2016-02-01

    As a new type of green solvent, four kinds of choline chloride (ChCl)-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been synthesized, and then a core-shell structure magnetic graphene oxide (Fe3O4-NH2@GO) nanoparticles have been prepared and coated with the ChCl-based DESs. Magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) based Fe3O4-NH2@GO@DES was studied for the first time for the extraction of proteins. The characteristic results of vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) indicated the successful preparation of Fe3O4-NH2@GO@DES. The concentrations of proteins in studies were determined by a UV-vis spectrophotometer. The advantages of Fe3O4-NH2@GO@DES in protein extraction were compared with Fe3O4-NH2@GO and Fe3O4-NH2, and Fe3O4-NH2@GO@ChCl-glycerol was selected as the suitable extraction solvent. The influence factors of the extraction process such as the pH value, the temperature, the extraction time, the concentration of protein and the amount of Fe3O4-NH2@GO@ChCl-glycerol were evaluated. Desorption experimental result showed 98.73% of BSA could be eluted from the solid extractant with 0.1 mol/L Na2HPO4 solution contained 1 mol/L NaCl. Besides, the conformation of BSA was not changed during the elution by the investigation of circular dichromism (CD) spectra. Furthermore, the analysis of real sample demonstrated that the prepared magnetic nanoparticles did have extraction ability on proteins in bovine whole blood. PMID:26653436

  11. Deep-sequence profiling of miRNAs and their target prediction in Monotropa hypopitys.

    PubMed

    Shchennikova, Anna V; Beletsky, Alexey V; Shulga, Olga A; Mazur, Alexander M; Prokhortchouk, Egor B; Kochieva, Elena Z; Ravin, Nikolay V; Skryabin, Konstantin G

    2016-07-01

    Myco-heterotroph Monotropa hypopitys is a widely spread perennial herb used to study symbiotic interactions and physiological mechanisms underlying the development of non-photosynthetic plant. Here, we performed, for the first time, transcriptome-wide characterization of M. hypopitys miRNA profile using high throughput Illumina sequencing. As a result of small RNA library sequencing and bioinformatic analysis, we identified 55 members belonging to 40 families of known miRNAs and 17 putative novel miRNAs unique for M. hypopitys. Computational screening revealed 206 potential mRNA targets for known miRNAs and 31 potential mRNA targets for novel miRNAs. The predicted target genes were described in Gene Ontology terms and were found to be involved in a broad range of metabolic and regulatory pathways. The identification of novel M. hypopitys-specific miRNAs, some with few target genes and low abundances, suggests their recent evolutionary origin and participation in highly specialized regulatory mechanisms fundamental for non-photosynthetic biology of M. hypopitys. This global analysis of miRNAs and their potential targets in M. hypopitys provides a framework for further investigation of miRNA role in the evolution and establishment of non-photosynthetic myco-heterotrophs. PMID:27097902

  12. Initiation and evolution of the Oligo-Miocene rift basins of southwestern Europe: Contribution of deep seismic reflection profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bois, C.

    1993-11-01

    Southwestern European Oligo-Miocene rift basins have recently been investigated by deep seismic reflection profiling. The study of these data, together with other geophysical and geological data, shows that the rifts, which run from the Rhinegraben to the western Mediterranean, do not form a single clearcut system. The N-trending rifts (Rhinegraben, Bresse and Limagne) were developed on a cold and rigid lithosphere affected by the Alpine collision. The NE-trending rifts (southeastern France, Gulf of Lions and Valencia Trough) were formed slightly later in a backarc basin associated with an active segment of the European-Iberian plate that was heated, affected by widespread calcalkaline volcanism and probably weakened. All the southwestern European rifts and basins together may, however, be related to a common heritage represented by the boundary between the European-Iberian and African-Apulian plates that was created in the Jurassic with the initiation of the Tethys Ocean. The present features of the southwestern European Oligo-Miocène rift basins may be explained by a combination of three geodynamic mechanisms: mechanical stretching of the lithosphere, active mantle uplifting, and subordinate lithospheric flexuring. All the rifts were probably initiated by passive stretching. A systematic discrepancy between stretching derived from fault analysis and attenuation of the crust has been observed in all the rifts. This suggests that these rifts were subsequently reworked by one or several active mantle upwelling events associated with late shoulder uplift, asthenosphere upwelling and anomalous P-wave velocities in the lowermost crust and the uppermost mantle. Crustal attenuation may have been achieved by mantle intrusion, metamorphism of the deep crust and/or its delamination. Some of the rifts were affected by lithospheric flexuring. Combinations, in various proportions, of a small number of geodynamic mechanisms probably controlled many basins in the world. This

  13. Surface energy from order parameter profile: At the QCD phase transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frei, Z.; Patkos, A.

    1989-01-01

    The order parameter profile between coexisting confined and plasma regions at the quantum chromodynamic (QCD) phase transition is constructed. The dimensionless combination of the surface energy (Sigma) and the correlation length (Zeta) is estimated to be Sigma Zeta 3 approximately equals 0.8.

  14. SPSP Phase III Recruiting, Selecting, and Developing Secure Power Systems Professionals. Job Profiles

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neil, Lori Ross; Conway, T. J.; Tobey, D. H.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Dalton, Angela C.; Pusey, Portia K.

    2015-03-01

    The Secure Power Systems Professional Phase III final report was released last year which an appendix of Job Profiles. This new report is that appendix broken out as a standalone document to assist utilities in recruiting and developing Secure Power Systems Professionals at their site.

  15. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment, Phase II, Post-Secondary Education Profile: Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    The material presented in this booklet represents a condensation of materials developed under the Post-Secondary Education Profile phase of the National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment. The final report of the study consisted of 16 volumes which are summarized. The following topics are covered: air, energy, noise, pesticides, potable…

  16. Non-power law behavior of the radial profile of phase-space density of halos

    SciTech Connect

    Popolo, A. Del

    2011-07-01

    We study the pseudo phase-space density, ρ(r)/σ{sup 3}(r), of ΛCDM dark matter halos with and without baryons (baryons+DM, and pure DM), by using the model introduced in Del Popolo (2009), which takes into account the effect of dynamical friction, ordered and random angular momentum, baryons adiabatic contraction and dark matter baryons interplay. We examine the radial dependence of ρ(r)/σ{sup 3}(r) over 9 orders of magnitude in radius for structures on galactic and cluster of galaxies scales. We find that ρ(r)/σ{sup 3}(r) is approximately a power-law only in the range of halo radius resolved by current simulations (down to 0.1% of the virial radius) while it has a non-power law behavior below the quoted scale, with inner profiles changing with mass. The non-power-law behavior is more evident for halos constituted both of dark matter and baryons while halos constituted just of dark matter and with angular momentum chosen to reproduce a Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) density profile, are characterized by an approximately power-law behavior. The results of the present paper lead to conclude that density profiles of the NFW type are compatible with a power-law behavior of ρ(r)/σ{sup 3}(r), while those flattening to the halo center, like those found in Del Popolo (2009) or the Einasto profile, or the Burkert profile, cannot produce radial profile of the pseudo-phase-space density that are power-laws at all radii. The results argue against universality of the pseudo phase-space density and as a consequence argue against universality of density profiles constituted by dark matter and baryons as also discussed in Del Popolo (2009)

  17. Scattering in the atmosphere of Venus. III - Line profiles and phase curves for Rayleigh scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. D. G.; Kattawar, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    Spectral line profiles, curves of growth, and curves for the equivalent width of a line as a function of Venus phase angle have been computed for a Rayleigh scattering cloud and compared with those for a cloud of isotropic scatterers. The results are very similar for the two kinds of scattering, with the exception of the curves of equivalent width as a function of Venus phase angle. These latter curves exhibit the 'inverse phase effect' and rule out a scale height of the clouds much less than half the scale height of the gas. The optical depth of the clouds is approximately 100.

  18. Scattering in the atmosphere of Venus. Line profiles and phase curves for Rayleigh scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. D. G.; Kattawar, G. W.

    1976-01-01

    Spectral line profiles, curves of growth, and curves for the equivalent width of a line as a function of Venus phase angle are computed for a Rayleigh scattering cloud and compared with those for a cloud of isotropic scatterers. The results are similar for the two kinds of scattering, with the exception for the curves of equivalent width as a function of Venus phase angle. These latter curves exhibit the inverse phase effect and rule out the possibility that the scale height of the clouds can be much less than half the scale height of the gas.

  19. Shaping the beam profile of an elliptical Gaussian beam by an elliptical phase aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Wei; Wu, Gaofeng; Song, Kehui; Dong, Yiming

    2013-03-01

    Based on the generalized Collins integral formula, an analytical paraxial propagation formula for an elliptical Gaussian beam (EGB) passing through an astigmatic ABCD optical system with an elliptical phase aperture is derived by use of a tensor method. As an application example, we study the propagation properties of an EGB passing through an elliptical aperture in free space. It is found that the elliptical phase aperture can be used for shaping the beam profile of an EGB, which is useful in many applications, such as free space optical communication and material thermal processing. The elliptical phase aperture induced changes of the propagation factors of an EGB are also analyzed.

  20. Uncovering a Salt Giant. Deep-Sea Record of Mediterranean Messinian Events (DREAM) multi-phase drilling project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camerlenghi, Angelo; Aoisi, Vanni; Lofi, Johanna; Hübscher, Christian; deLange, Gert; Flecker, Rachel; Garcia-Castellanos, Daniel; Gorini, Christian; Gvirtzman, Zohar; Krijgsman, Wout; Lugli, Stefano; Makowsky, Yizhaq; Manzi, Vinicio; McGenity, Terry; Panieri, Giuliana; Rabineau, Marina; Roveri, Marco; Sierro, Francisco Javier; Waldmann, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    In May 2013, the DREAM MagellanPlus Workshop was held in Brisighella (Italy). The initiative builds from recent activities by various research groups to identify potential sites to perform deep-sea scientific drilling in the Mediterranean Sea across the deep Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) sedimentary record. In this workshop three generations of scientists were gathered: those who participated in formulation of the deep desiccated model, through DSDP Leg 13 drilling in 1973; those who are actively involved in present-day MSC research; and the next generation (PhD students and young post-docs). The purpose of the workshop was to identify locations for multiple-site drilling (including riser-drilling) in the Mediterranean Sea that would contribute to solve the several open questions still existing about the causes, processes, timing and consequences at local and planetary scale of an outstanding case of natural environmental change in the recent Earth history: the Messinian Salinity Crisis in the Mediterranean Sea. The product of the workshop is the identification of the structure of an experimental design of site characterization, riser-less and riser drilling, sampling, measurements, and down-hole analyses that will be the core for at least one compelling and feasible multiple phase drilling proposal. Particular focus has been given to reviewing seismic site survey data available from different research groups at pan-Mediterranean basin scale, to the assessment of additional site survey activity including 3D seismics, and to ways of establishing firm links with oil and gas industry. The scientific community behind the DREAM initiative is willing to proceed with the submission to IODP of a Multi-phase Drilling Project including several drilling proposals addressing specific drilling objectives, all linked to the driving objectives of the MSC drilling and understanding . A series of critical drilling targets were identified to address the still open questions

  1. Phase diagram of a thin film of 3He confined within a 1.08 μm deep cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhelev, Nikolay; Sebastian, Abhilash; Smith, Eric; Parpia, Jeevak

    We describe measurements of superfluid 3He confined to a high-aspect ratio cavity within the head of a high quality factor torsion pendulum. Superfluid phase diagram for the confined thin film of fluid is predicted to be radically different compared to that of the bulk. In particular, at low pressures at the onset of the A-B transition, a ``stripe phase'' of alternating degenerate domains of B phase is predicted to occur. By tracking the torsion pendulum frequency and quality factor, we identify a well-defined superfluid transition for the fluid within the pendulum head. At lower temperatures, sharp transitions from the A phase to the B phase on cooling and a gradual transition from the B phase to the A phase on warming are observed. The values for the ratio of the cavity depth and the coherence length (D / ξ (T , P)) at the transitions match well the values of the transitions seen in the NMR measurements of 3He confined to a 700 nm deep cavity. At present, we do not see any evidence in our measurements that the ``stripe phase'' is realized at the A-B phase boundary. We acknowledge support from NSF grant: DMR 1202991.

  2. Vertical profiles of aerosol radiative forcing - a comparison of AEROCOM phase 2 model submissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samset, B. H.; Myhre, G.

    2012-04-01

    Aerosols in the earth's atmosphere affect the radiation balance of the planet. The radiative forcing (RF) induced by a given aerosol burden is however sensitive to its vertical density profile, in addition to aerosol optical properties, cloud distributions and surface albedo. Differences in vertical profiles are thought to be among the causes for the large intermodel differences in RF of the aerosol direct effect. As part of the AEROCOM phase 2 direct radiative forcing experiment, this study compares 3D concentration fields of black carbon from fossil fuel burning (BC) and sulphate (SO4) from a set of major global climate models. The participating models were run using a prescribed set of emissions of aerosol and aerosol precursors and the same meteorological year. We assume that model differences due to the aerosol vertical profile can be factored out from other differences such as aerosol physics, radiative transfer or ground albedo. We consequently analyse model RF variability using profiles of normalized RF (radiative forcing per unit mass, NDRF) calculated from a single model. This tool allows us to quantify the fraction of the intermodel variability due to differences in aerosol vertical profiles. We show that there are still significant differences between both modelled vertical density profiles, treatment of aerosol physics and other factors influencing the RF profiles.

  3. Refining transcriptional programs in kidney development by integration of deep RNA-sequencing and array-based spatial profiling

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The developing mouse kidney is currently the best-characterized model of organogenesis at a transcriptional level. Detailed spatial maps have been generated for gene expression profiling combined with systematic in situ screening. These studies, however, fall short of capturing the transcriptional complexity arising from each locus due to the limited scope of microarray-based technology, which is largely based on "gene-centric" models. Results To address this, the polyadenylated RNA and microRNA transcriptomes of the 15.5 dpc mouse kidney were profiled using strand-specific RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) to a depth sufficient to complement spatial maps from pre-existing microarray datasets. The transcriptional complexity of RNAs arising from mouse RefSeq loci was catalogued; including 3568 alternatively spliced transcripts and 532 uncharacterized alternate 3' UTRs. Antisense expressions for 60% of RefSeq genes was also detected including uncharacterized non-coding transcripts overlapping kidney progenitor markers, Six2 and Sall1, and were validated by section in situ hybridization. Analysis of genes known to be involved in kidney development, particularly during mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition, showed an enrichment of non-coding antisense transcripts extended along protein-coding RNAs. Conclusion The resulting resource further refines the transcriptomic cartography of kidney organogenesis by integrating deep RNA sequencing data with locus-based information from previously published expression atlases. The added resolution of RNA-Seq has provided the basis for a transition from classical gene-centric models of kidney development towards more accurate and detailed "transcript-centric" representations, which highlights the extent of transcriptional complexity of genes that direct complex development events. PMID:21888672

  4. Method development for impurity profiling in SFC: The selection of a dissimilar set of stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Galea, Charlene; Mangelings, Debby; Heyden, Yvan Vander

    2015-01-01

    Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is drawing considerable interest as separation technique in the pharmaceutical industry. The technique is already well established in chiral separations both analytically and on a preparative scale. The use of SFC as a technique for drug impurity profiling is examined here. To define starting conditions in method development for drug impurity profiling, a set of dissimilar stationary phases is screened in parallel. The possibility to select a set of dissimilar columns using the retention factors (k-values) for a set of 64 drugs measured on 27 columns in SFC was examined. Experiments were carried out at a back-pressure of 150 bar and 25 °C with a mobile phase consisting of CO2 and methanol with 0.1% isopropylamine (5-40% over 10 min) at a flow rate of 3 mL/min. These k-values were then used to calculate correlation coefficients on the one hand and to perform a principal component analysis on the other. The Kennard and Stone algorithm, besides dendrograms and correlation-coefficient colour maps were used to select a set of 6 dissimilar stationary phases. The stationary phase characterization results from this study were compared to those from previous studies found in the literature. Retention mechanisms for compounds possessing different properties were also evaluated. The dissimilarity of the selected subset of 6 stationary phases was validated using mixtures of compounds with similar properties and structures, as one can expect in a drug impurity profile. PMID:25630237

  5. Experimental phase determination of the structure factor from Kossel line profile

    PubMed Central

    Faigel, G.; Bortel, G.; Tegze, M.

    2016-01-01

    Kossel lines are formed when radiation from point x-ray sources inside a single crystal are diffracted by the crystal itself. In principle, Kossel line patterns contain full information on the crystalline structure: phase and magnitude of the structure factors. The phase is coded into the profile of the lines. Although this was known for a long time, experimental realization has not been presented. In this work we demonstrate experimentally that phases can be directly determined from the profile of the Kossel lines. These measurements are interesting not only theoretically, but they would facilitate structure solution of samples within extreme conditions, such as high pressure, high and low temperatures, high magnetic fields and extremely short times. The parallel measurement of many diffraction lines on a stationary sample will allow a more efficient use of the new generation of x-ray sources the X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs). PMID:26965321

  6. Experimental phase determination of the structure factor from Kossel line profile.

    PubMed

    Faigel, G; Bortel, G; Tegze, M

    2016-01-01

    Kossel lines are formed when radiation from point x-ray sources inside a single crystal are diffracted by the crystal itself. In principle, Kossel line patterns contain full information on the crystalline structure: phase and magnitude of the structure factors. The phase is coded into the profile of the lines. Although this was known for a long time, experimental realization has not been presented. In this work we demonstrate experimentally that phases can be directly determined from the profile of the Kossel lines. These measurements are interesting not only theoretically, but they would facilitate structure solution of samples within extreme conditions, such as high pressure, high and low temperatures, high magnetic fields and extremely short times. The parallel measurement of many diffraction lines on a stationary sample will allow a more efficient use of the new generation of x-ray sources the X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs). PMID:26965321

  7. Frozen subduction in the Yangtze block: insights from the deep seismic profiling and gravity anomaly in east Sichuan fold belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xiaosong; Gao, Rui; Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Jisheng; Guo, Lianghui

    2016-04-01

    The Sichuan basin is the main part of the middle-upper Yangtze block, which has been experienced a long-term tectonic evolution since Archean. The Yangtze block was regarded as a stable block until the collision with the Cathaysia block in late Neoproterozoic. A new deep seismic reflection profile conducted in the eastern Sichuan fold belt (ESFB) discovered a serials of south-dipping reflectors shown from lower crust to the mantle imply a frozen subduction zone within the Yangtze block. In order to prove the speculation, we also obtain the middle-lower crustal gravity anomalies by removing the gravity anomalies induced by the sedimentary rocks and the mantle beneath the Moho, which shows the mid-lower crustal structure of the Sichuan basin can be divided into eastern and western parts. Combined with the geochronology and Aeromagnetic anomalies, we speculated the Yangtze block was amalgamated by the West Sichuan and East Sichuan blocks separated by the Huayin-Chongqing line. The frozen subduction zone subsequently shifted to a shear zone accommodated the lower crustal shortening when the decollement at the base of the Nanhua system functioned in the upper plate.

  8. Extraction of seawater-derived neodymium from different phases of deep sea sediments by selective leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaser, P.; Lippold, J. A.; Frank, N.; Gutjahr, M.; Böhm, E.

    2014-12-01

    In order to deduce reliable information about the interaction of the oceans with the climate system as a whole in the past, the reconstruction of water mass circulation is crucial. The analysis of seawater-derived neodymium isotopes (143Nd/144Nd, expressed as ɛNd) in marine sediments provides a unique proxy for deep water provenance in particular in the Atlantic [1]. The ɛNd signature and thus the mixing proportion of the local bottom water masses is archived in authigenic phases in the sediment. Obtaining seawater ɛNd from authigenic accretions bound to foraminiferal tests has lately become the preferred since most reliable method [2]. Attempts have also been made to extract the Nd-rich authigenic metal fraction by leaching it off the bulk sediment and thereby use this proxy with less effort, in the highest possible resolution and in sediments where foraminifera are not sufficiently present. However, often other sedimentary components are also leached in the process and contaminate the extracted Nd [3,4]. In this project several core-top and older sediments across the Atlantic have been leached in ten consecutive steps with either dilute buffered acetic acid or an acid-reductive solution. The leachates were analysed on their elemental and Nd isotope compositions, as well as rare earth element (REE) distributions. By graduating the total leaching procedure into smaller stages the results display which processes take place in the course of sediment leaching in the laboratory and which components of the sediment are most reactive. Thus, they help to better evaluate the quality of sediment leaches for ɛNd analysis. Clearly, organic calcite acts as a fast reacting buffer and at the point where its amount is sufficiently reduced the leaching of other components commences and the Nd concentration peaks. Corruption of the extracted ɛNd signal by non-authigenic sources in many cases occured early in the leaching sequence, indicating that only very cautious leaching

  9. Phase behavior of elastin-like synthetic recombinamers in deep eutectic solvents.

    PubMed

    Nardecchia, Stefania; Gutiérrez, María C; Ferrer, M Luisa; Alonso, Matilde; López, Isabel M; Rodríguez-Cabello, J Carlos; del Monte, Francisco

    2012-07-01

    Deep eutectic solvents promoted the stabilization of the collapsed state of elastin-like recombinamers - and the subsequent formation of aggregates - upon the loss of the structural water molecules involved in hydrophobic hydration. Cryo-etch scanning electron microscopy allowed the observation of these aggregates in neat deep eutectic solvents. The suppression of the lower critical solution temperature transition, observed by differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic light scattering, confirmed the presence of the elastin-like recombinamers in their collapsed state. Actually, the transition from the collapsed to the expanded state was suppressed even after moderate aqueous dilution - for water contents ranging from nil to ca. 45 wt % - and it was only recovered upon further addition of water - above 50 wt %. These features revealed the preferred stabilization of the collapsed state in not only neat deep eutectic solvents but also partially hydrated deep eutectic solvents. We consider that the capability to trigger the lower critical solution temperature transition by partial hydration of deep eutectic solvent may open interesting perspectives for nano(bio)technological applications of elastin-like recombinamers. PMID:22632070

  10. Pressure Profiles in Two-Phase Geothermal Wells: Comparison of Field Data and Model Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Ambastha, A.K.; Gudmundsson, J.S.

    1986-01-21

    Increased confidence in the predictive power of two-phase correlations is a vital part of wellbore deliverability and deposition studies for geothermal wells. Previously, the Orkiszewski (1967) set of correlations has been recommended by many investigators to analyze geothermal wellbore performance. In this study, we use measured flowing pressure profile data from ten geothermal wells around the world, covering a wide range of flowrate, fluid enthalpy, wellhead pressure and well depth. We compare measured and calculated pressure profiles using the Orkiszewski (1967) correlations.

  11. Profile analysis of ventricle specimen based on a new phase measuring method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yiping; Su, Xianyu; Chen, Wenjing; Xiang, Liqun; Zhang, Qichan; Liu, Yuankun

    2009-08-01

    The size and shape of ventricle are very important to analyze and diagnose pathology of human heart. So it is very necessary to measure the profile of ventricle. It is very difficult to measure the ventricle by vivisectional method for its unique function of heart, so the ventricle specimen is adopted to be measured. Three-dimensional (3D) automatic measurement methods are widely used in many fields. In Biology and Medicine society, it can be applicable for surgery, orthopedics, viscera disease analysis and diagnosis etc. Here a new method to measure the 3D surface of ventricle specimen is proposed. Although the traditional 3D measuing method with equal or stated phase-shifting step length possess excellent accuracy, they are much dependent on the consistency of these phase-shifting step lengths. In fact, this condition is very difficult to guarantee. which may lead to the incorrect wrapped phase and incorrect phase unwrapping in some regions, even the reconstructed object may be misshapen or anamorphic. In the proposed method, a novel improved three undecided step lengths phase-shifting algorithm with three unequal phase-shifting steps has been presented detailed and is applied to measure the profile of ventricle sucssesfully. Experiments show that the improved algorithm can not only effectively improve the measuring accuracy, but also branch out its application.

  12. The Application of Silicon Rich Nitride Films for Use as Deep-Ultraviolet Lithography Phase-Shifting Masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhong-Tao; Yamaguchi, Tomuo; Ohshimo, Kentaro; Aoyama, Mitsuru; Asinovsky, Leo

    1998-02-01

    Silicon rich nitride (SiRN) film prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) for use as the phase-shifting mask for Deep-ultraviolet (UV) lithography has been developed. Optical properties and compositional characterizations of the SiRN films using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) combined with an empirical dielectric function (EDF), as well as phase-shifting mask simulation show that the SiRN is feasible for use in the application of single layer halftone phase-shifting mask (SLHTPSM) in the Deep-UV range. Optical constants of n ≈ 2.5 and k < 0.6 at 193 nm were realized by approaching the N/Si composition to the stoichiometric ratio of Si3N4. The deposition conditions for the films having the transmittance of 5 - 10% with a 180° phase shift at 193 nm (ArF) have been determined. Short wavelength extrapolation by EDF best-fit parameters based on a proper film-stack model provides a potential method to characterize the optical properties of amorphous SiRN down to about 190 nm, which is outside the range of most commercial SE's.

  13. Directivity of a Sparse Array in the Presence of Atmospheric-Induced Phase Fluctuations for Deep Space Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nessel, James A.; Acosta, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Widely distributed (sparse) ground-based arrays have been utilized for decades in the radio science community for imaging celestial objects, but have only recently become an option for deep space communications applications with the advent of the proposed Next Generation Deep Space Network (DSN) array. But whereas in astronomical imaging, observations (receive-mode only) are made on the order of minutes to hours and atmospheric-induced aberrations can be mostly corrected for in post-processing, communications applications require transmit capabilities and real-time corrections over time scales as short as fractions of a second. This presents an unavoidable problem with the use of sparse arrays for deep space communications at Ka-band which has yet to be successfully resolved, particularly for uplink arraying. In this paper, an analysis of the performance of a sparse antenna array, in terms of its directivity, is performed to derive a closed form solution to the expected array loss in the presence of atmospheric-induced phase fluctuations. The theoretical derivation for array directivity degradation is validated with interferometric measurements for a two-element array taken at Goldstone, California. With the validity of the model established, an arbitrary 27-element array geometry is defined at Goldstone, California, to ascertain its performance in the presence of phase fluctuations. It is concluded that a combination of compact array geometry and atmospheric compensation is necessary to ensure high levels of availability.

  14. 30 CFR 203.43 - To which production do I apply the RSV earned from qualified deep wells or qualified phase 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false To which production do I apply the RSV earned from qualified deep wells or qualified phase 1 ultra-deep wells on my lease? 203.43 Section 203.43 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT RELIEF OR REDUCTION IN...

  15. 30 CFR 203.40 - Which leases are eligible for royalty relief as a result of drilling a deep well or a phase 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Which leases are eligible for royalty relief as a result of drilling a deep well or a phase 1 ultra-deep well? 203.40 Section 203.40 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT RELIEF OR REDUCTION IN ROYALTY RATES...

  16. Deformation mechanisms in Phase D to 45 GPa and implications for the seismic anisotropy in deep subducted slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, A. D.; Sanchez-Valle, C.; Nisr, C.; Bollinger, C.; Evans, S.; Merkel, S.

    2010-12-01

    Petrologic investigations have shown that phase D, MgSi2H2O6, may be the dominant hydrous phase along a cold slab geotherm, accounting for more than 40 vol.% of very hydrous subducted peridotites between 700 to 1300 km depth [Iwamori, 2004]. Such large volume fractions of phase D are likely to have an important impact on seismic properties in subduction zones and has been appealed to explain a number of seismic observation in subducted plates including velocity heterogeneity and high shear-wave splitting (VSH > VSV) [Chen and Brudzinki, 2003; Mainprice et al. 2007, Laurence & Wysession, 2006]. The layered structure of Phase D behaves highly anisotropic under compression and is likely to align in a non-hydrostatic stress field, being a strong candidate to contribute to the seismic shear wave splitting observed in deep subducted slabs. In order to interpret these seismic observations in terms of mineralogy, deformation state and degree of hydration, precisely determined rheology and elasticity data of candidate phases at relevant pressure and temperature conditions are needed. In this contribution we present results of the plastic deformation behavior of Phase D up to 45 GPa. Experiments were conducted using synchrotron radial x-ray diffraction at ESRF ID09A and a panoramic diamond anvil cell as deformation apparatus. Phase D samples with three different compositions, including pure Mg-Phase D, Fe-bearing and Fe-Al-bearing Phase D, were investigated to constrain the effect of cation substitution on the deformation mechanism. The samples were synthesized at 19 GPa and about 1100 °C in a multi-anvil press at ETH Zurich and confirmed to be Phase D by single-crystal x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Recovered crystals were reduced to fine-grained powders and loaded in x-ray transparent boron gaskets for the experiments. Upon compression, the development of strong textures in the samples was observed from the intensity variations of Debye rings. The observed slip

  17. Effect of osmotic pressure in the solvent extraction phase on BSA release profile from PLGA microspheres.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ge; Thanoo, B C; DeLuca, Patrick P

    2002-11-01

    This study investigated the influence of osmotic pressure in the organic solvent extraction phase on release profile of bovine serum albumin (BSA) from poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres. BSA-loaded PLGA microspheres with a target load of 10% were prepared by a double emulsion phase separation method. All the microsphere batches were fabricated in the same conditions except that in the organic solvent (CH2Cl2) evaporation step. Different concentrations of NaCl (0, 1.8, and 3.6%) or sucrose (20%) were used to generate a range of osmotic pressures in the extraction aqueous phase. These microspheres were characterized for incorporation efficiency, surface and internal morphology, particle size, protein stability, and in vitro release. The microspheres were spherical with particle size ranging from 16.8 to 27.8 microns. Higher osmotic pressure resulted in a denser internal structure although similar nonporous surface morphology was observed with all batches. No significant difference in encapsulation efficiency existed from batch to batch (87-94%). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyamide gel electrophoresis showed that BSA integrity was well retained. The release profile of the batch prepared with only water as the continuous (solvent extraction) phase exhibited a 79% burst release in the first 24 hr followed by a plateau and then a little release after 21 days. In the presence of NaCl or sucrose, the burst effect significantly decreased with increase in osmotic pressure in the extraction aqueous phase, which was then followed by sustained release for 35 days. A mass balance was made when the release terminated. Therefore, in the organic solvent extraction and evaporation step, increasing the osmotic pressure in the aqueous phase both reduced the burst release from the microspheres and improved the subsequent sustained release profile. PMID:12503521

  18. Pulse-combustion deep fat fryer, Phase 2. Final report, December 1983-December 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Farnsworth, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    A pulse-combustion burner system was developed that met both efficiency and cooking-performance goals. Work involved modifications to the pulse-combustion deep fat fryer to reduce the sound level, eliminate vibrations, and ensure reliable ignition. Field testing in a major fast-food restaurant chain was initiated, demonstrating that the pulse fryer is reliable and acceptable.

  19. Phase II monitoring of auto-correlated linear profiles using linear mixed model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narvand, A.; Soleimani, P.; Raissi, Sadigh

    2013-05-01

    In many circumstances, the quality of a process or product is best characterized by a given mathematical function between a response variable and one or more explanatory variables that is typically referred to as profile. There are some investigations to monitor auto-correlated linear and nonlinear profiles in recent years. In the present paper, we use the linear mixed models to account autocorrelation within observations which is gathered on phase II of the monitoring process. We undertake that the structure of correlated linear profiles simultaneously has both random and fixed effects. The work enhanced a Hotelling's T 2 statistic, a multivariate exponential weighted moving average (MEWMA), and a multivariate cumulative sum (MCUSUM) control charts to monitor process. We also compared their performances, in terms of average run length criterion, and designated that the proposed control charts schemes could effectively act in detecting shifts in process parameters. Finally, the results are applied on a real case study in an agricultural field.

  20. Basin formation and inversion of the back-arc, Niigata basin, central Japan: New insight from deep seismic profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Abe, Susumu; Kawai, Nobuo; Saito, Hideo; Kato, Naoko; Shiraishi, Kazuya; Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Fukasawa, Hikaru; Inaba, Mitsuru

    2010-05-01

    Associated with the opening of the Japan Sea, rift-basins have been developed along the Japan Sea coast of northern Honshu. The Niigata basin, central Japan, is one of the such basins and filled by thick (< 8 km) Neogene sediments. By subsequent convergence since the Pliocene, an arc-parallel fold-and-thrust-belt has been developed along the Miocene rift-basins. In this belt devastative earthquakes, such as 1964 Niigata (M7.4), 2004 Chuetsu (M6.8) and 2007 Chuetsu-oki (M6.8) earthquakes, occurred by reverse faulting. Due to thick Neogene sediments, relationship between active faults/folds at near the surface and deep-sited seismogenic source faults is poorly understood. To reveal the crustal structure, in particular geometry of source faults, onshore-offshore integrated deep seismic profiling was undertaken along the two seismic lines in 2008 and 2009. The 2009 Aizu-Sado seismic line is a 135-km-long, onshore-offshore seismic line across Niigata basin and Sado island, which is located in the eastern part of Japan Sea. The 2008 Sanjo-Yahiko seismic line (Sato et al., 2009) is located 20 km south of the seismic line and trending parallel to it. The seismic source was air-gun (3020 cu. inch), four vibroseis trucks and explosives (< 200kg). Along the Sado strait, seismic data was acquired using two-ships to make large offset shot gather. Seismic signals were recorded by ocean bottom cables, cable-connected-recording system and offline recorders, forming a maximum 2400 channels receiver array. The basin fill consists of early to middle Miocene volcaniclastic rocks and overlying Neogene sedimentary rocks showing upward coarsening facies deposited under bathyal to fluvial environment. Main features of basin development, such as early Miocene normal faulting, associated with the formation of Japan Sea, and shortening deformation since Pliocene, are well demonstrated on the seismic sections. Particularly, boundary between pre-Tertiary meta-sedimentary rocks and Miocene

  1. Development of a High Performance, Low Profile Translation Table with Wire Feedthrough for a Deep Space CubeSat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Few, Alex

    2016-01-01

    NEAScout, a 6U cubesat and secondary payload on NASA's EM-1, will use an 85 sq m solar sail to travel to a near-earth asteroid at about 1 Astronomical Unit (about 1.5 x 10(exp 8) km) for observation and reconnaissance1. A combination of reaction wheels, reaction control system, and a slow rotisserie roll about the solar sail's normal axis were expected to handle attitude control and adjust for imperfections in the deployed sail during the 2.5-year mission. As the design for NEAScout matured, one of the critical design parameters, the offset in the center of mass and center of pressure (CP/CM offset), proved to be sub-optimal. After significant mission and control analysis, the CP/CM offset was accommodated by the addition of a new subsystem to NEAScout. This system, called the Active Mass Translator (AMT), would reside near the geometric center of NEAScout and adjust the CM by moving one portion of the flight system relative to the other. The AMT was given limited design space - 17 mm of the vehicle's assembly height-and was required to generate +/-8 cm by +/-2 cm translation to sub-millimeter accuracy. Furthermore, the design must accommodate a large wire bundle of small gage, single strand wire and coax cables fed through the center of the mechanism. The bend radius, bend resistance, and the exposure to deep space environment complicates the AMT design and operation and necessitated a unique design to mitigate risks of wire bundle damage, binding, and cold-welding during operation. This paper will outline the design constraints for the AMT, discuss the methods and reasoning for design, and identify the lessons learned through the designing, breadboarding and testing for the low-profile translation stages with wire feedthrough capability.

  2. Sensory, psychological, and metabolic dysfunction in HIV-associated peripheral neuropathy: A cross-sectional deep profiling study

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Tudor J.C.; Brown, Matthew; Ramirez, Juan D.; Perkins, James; Woldeamanuel, Yohannes W.; Williams, Amanda C. de C.; Orengo, Christine; Bennett, David L.H.; Bodi, Istvan; Cox, Sarah; Maier, Christoph; Krumova, Elena K.; Rice, Andrew S.C.

    2014-01-01

    HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is a frequent complication of HIV infection and a major source of morbidity. A cross-sectional deep profiling study examining HIV-SN was conducted in people living with HIV in a high resource setting using a battery of measures which included the following: parameters of pain and sensory symptoms (7 day pain diary, Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory [NPSI] and Brief Pain Inventory [BPI]), sensory innervation (structured neurological examination, quantitative sensory testing [QST] and intraepidermal nerve fibre density [IENFD]), psychological state (Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20 [PASS-20], Depression Anxiety and Positive Outlook Scale [DAPOS], and Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS], insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index [ISI]), and quality of life (Short Form (36) Health Survey [SF-36]). The diagnostic utility of the Brief Peripheral Neuropathy Screen (BPNS), Utah Early Neuropathy Scale (UENS), and Toronto Clinical Scoring System (TCSS) were evaluated. Thirty-six healthy volunteers and 66 HIV infected participants were recruited. A novel triumvirate case definition for HIV-SN was used that required 2 out of 3 of the following: 2 or more abnormal QST findings, reduced IENFD, and signs of a peripheral neuropathy on a structured neurological examination. Of those with HIV, 42% fulfilled the case definition for HIV-SN (n = 28), of whom 75% (n = 21) reported pain. The most frequent QST abnormalities in HIV-SN were loss of function in mechanical and vibration detection. Structured clinical examination was superior to QST or IENFD in HIV-SN diagnosis. HIV-SN participants had higher plasma triglyceride, concentrations depression, anxiety and catastrophizing scores, and prevalence of insomnia than HIV participants without HIV-SN. PMID:24973717

  3. Online, efficient and precision laser profiling of bronze-bonded diamond grinding wheels based on a single-layer deep-cutting intermittent feeding method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Hui; Chen, Genyu; He, Jie; Zhou, Cong; Du, Han; Wang, Yanyi

    2016-06-01

    In this study, an online, efficient and precision laser profiling approach that is based on a single-layer deep-cutting intermittent feeding method is described. The effects of the laser cutting depth and the track-overlap ratio of the laser cutting on the efficiency, precision and quality of laser profiling were investigated. Experiments on the online profiling of bronze-bonded diamond grinding wheels were performed using a pulsed fiber laser. The results demonstrate that an increase in the laser cutting depth caused an increase in the material removal efficiency during the laser profiling process. However, the maximum laser profiling efficiency was only achieved when the laser cutting depth was equivalent to the initial surface contour error of the grinding wheel. In addition, the selection of relatively high track-overlap ratios of laser cutting for the profiling of grinding wheels was beneficial with respect to the increase in the precision of laser profiling, whereas the efficiency and quality of the laser profiling were not affected by the change in the track-overlap ratio. After optimized process parameters were employed for online laser profiling, the circular run-out error and the parallelism error of the grinding wheel surface decreased from 83.1 μm and 324.6 μm to 11.3 μm and 3.5 μm, respectively. The surface contour precision of the grinding wheel significantly improved. The highest surface contour precision for grinding wheels of the same type that can be theoretically achieved after laser profiling is completely dependent on the peak power density of the laser. The higher the laser peak power density is, the higher the surface contour precision of the grinding wheel after profiling.

  4. CosmoTransitions: Computing cosmological phase transition temperatures and bubble profiles with multiple fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainwright, Carroll L.

    2012-09-01

    I present a numerical package (CosmoTransitions) for analyzing finite-temperature cosmological phase transitions driven by single or multiple scalar fields. The package analyzes the different vacua of a theory to determine their critical temperatures (where the vacuum energy levels are degenerate), their supercooling temperatures, and the bubble wall profiles which separate the phases and describe their tunneling dynamics. I introduce a new method of path deformation to find the profiles of both thin- and thick-walled bubbles. CosmoTransitions is freely available for public use.Program summaryProgram Title: CosmoTransitionsCatalogue identifier: AEML_v1_0Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEML_v1_0.htmlProgram obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. IrelandLicensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.htmlNo. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 8775No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 621096Distribution format: tar.gzProgramming language: Python.Computer: Developed on a 2009 MacBook Pro. No computer-specific optimization was performed.Operating system: Designed and tested on Mac OS X 10.6.8. Compatible with any OS with Python installed.RAM: Approximately 50 MB, mostly for loading plotting packages.Classification: 1.9, 11.1.External routines: SciPy, NumPy, matplotLibNature of problem: I describe a program to analyze early-Universe finite-temperature phase transitions with multiple scalar fields. The goal is to analyze the phase structure of an input theory, determine the amount of supercooling at each phase transition, and find the bubble-wall profiles of the nucleated bubbles that drive the transitions.Solution method: To find the bubble-wall profile, the program assumes that tunneling happens along a fixed path in field space. This reduces the equations of motion to one dimension, which can then be solved using the overshoot

  5. Internal friction measurements of phase transformations during the process of deep cryogenic treatment of a tool steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shaohong; Min, Na; Li, Junwan; Wu, Xiaochun

    2013-10-01

    This paper reports internal friction measurements in die steel with the aim of clarifying phase transformation mechanisms during deep cryogenic treatment (DCT). Internal friction peaks appeared in the quenched sample and the DCT treated material during the process of cooling down to -160 °C from room temperature (20 °C) and then heating up to room temperature for multiple cycles in high vacuum. However, internal friction peaks do not appear in annealed material. It is concluded that the internal friction peaks are attributed to stress-induced martensite formation based on thermal hysteresis phenomena. That is, retained austenite is mostly transformed into martensite during the DCT.

  6. Utilization of deep eutectic solvents as novel mobile phase additives for improving the separation of bioactive quaternary alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ting; Zhang, Mingliang; Wan, Yiqun; Qiu, Hongdeng

    2016-03-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were used as novel mobile phase additives to improve chromatographic separation of four quaternary alkaloids including coptisine chloride, sanguinarine, berberine chloride and chelerythrine on a C18 column. DESs as a new class of ionic liquids are renewably sourced, environmentally benign, low cost and easy to prepare. Seven DESs were obtained by mixing different hydrogen acceptors and hydrogen-bond donors. The effects of organic solvents, the concentration of DESs, the types of DESs and the pH values of the buffer solution on the separation of the analytes were investigated. The composition of acetonitrile and 1.0% deep eutectic solvents aqueous solution (pH 3.3, adjusted with hydrochloric acid) in a 32:68 (v/v) ratio was used as optimized mobile phase, with which four quaternary alkaloids were well separated. When a small amount of DESs was added in the mobile phase for the separation of alkaloids on the C18 column, noticeable improvements were distinctly observed such as decreasing peak tailing and improving resolution. The separation mechanism mediated by DESs as mobile phase additives can be attributed to combined effect of both hydrogen acceptors and hydrogen-bond donors. For example, choline chloride can effectively cover the residual silanols on silica surface and ethylene glycol can reduce the retention time of analytes. The proposed method has been applied to determine BerbC in Lanqin Chinese herbal oral solution and BerbC tablet. Utilization of DESs in mobile phase can efficiently improve separation and selectivity of analytes from complex samples. PMID:26717817

  7. Saturation Profiles from Lab-scale Permittivity Measurements and 2-Phase Flow Models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorriti, A. G.

    2005-05-01

    sample, we obtain the permittivity profile. The permittivity is mainly determined by the saturation, then, the permittivity profile within the sample is equivalent to the saturation profile. One can be obtained from the other using the Complex Refractive Index Model (CRIM). The saturation profile can also be obtained with traditional 2-phase flow modelling. Preliminary results show that the saturation profile obtained from the permittivity is more close to reality than the one inferred from 2-phase flow modelling.

  8. Origin and annealing of deep-level defects in GaNAs grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelczuk, Ł.; Stokowski, H.; Dąbrowska-Szata, M.; Kudrawiec, R.

    2016-05-01

    Deep-level defects were investigated by deep level transient spectroscopy on the as-grown and annealed GaNAs layers of various nitrogen (N) contents. The unintentionally doped (uid) GaNAs layers were grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy with N = 1.4%, 2.0%, 2.2%, and 2.4% on GaAs substrate. The possible origin and evolution of the deep-level defects upon annealing were analyzed with the use of the GaNAs band gap diagram concept [Kudrawiec et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 082109 (2012)], which assumes that the activation energy of donor traps decreases with N-related downward shift of the conduction band. On the basis of this diagram and in comparison with previous results, the N-related traps were associated with (N-As)As or (N-N)As split interstitials. It was also proposed that one of the electron traps and the hole trap, lying at the same level position in the bandgap of the annealed uid-GaNAs layers, can both act as one generation-recombination center partially responsible for poor optical properties of this alloy.

  9. Altered Circadian Rhythm and Metabolic Gene Profile in Rats Subjected to Advanced Light Phase Shifts

    PubMed Central

    Herrero, Laura; Valcarcel, Lorea; da Silva, Crhistiane Andressa; Albert, Nerea; Diez-Noguera, Antoni; Cambras, Trinitat; Serra, Dolors

    2015-01-01

    The circadian clock regulates metabolic homeostasis and its disruption predisposes to obesity and other metabolic diseases. However, the effect of phase shifts on metabolism is not completely understood. We examined whether alterations in the circadian rhythm caused by phase shifts induce metabolic changes in crucial genes that would predispose to obesity. Three-month-old rats were maintained on a standard diet under lighting conditions with chronic phase shifts consisting of advances, delays or advances plus delays. Serum leptin, insulin and glucose levels decreased only in rats subjected to advances. The expression of the clock gene Bmal 1 increased in the hypothalamus, white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT) and liver of the advanced group compared to control rats. The advanced group showed an increase in hypothalamic AgRP and NPY mRNA, and their lipid metabolism gene profile was altered in liver, WAT and BAT. WAT showed an increase in inflammation and ER stress and brown adipocytes suffered a brown-to-white transformation and decreased UCP-1 expression. Our results indicate that chronic phase advances lead to significant changes in neuropeptides, lipid metabolism, inflammation and ER stress gene profile in metabolically relevant tissues such as the hypothalamus, liver, WAT and BAT. This highlights a link between alteration of the circadian rhythm and metabolism at the transcriptional level. PMID:25837425

  10. A surface profile reconstruction system using sinusoidal phase-modulating interferometry and fiber-optic fringe projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    En, Bo; Fa-jie, Duan; Chang-rong, Lv; Fan, Feng; Xiao, Fu

    2014-06-01

    A fiber-optic sinusoidal phase modulating (SPM) interferometer for surface profile reconstruction is presented. Sinusoidal phase modulation is created by modulating the drive voltage of the piezoelectric transducer. The surface profile is constructed basing on fringe projection. Fringe patterns are vulnerable to external disturbances such as temperature fluctuation and mechanical vibration, which cause phase drift and decrease measuring accuracy. We build a closed-loop feedback phase compensation system, the bias value of external disturbances superimposed on fringe patterns can be reduced to about 50 mrad, and the phase stability for interference fringes is less than 5.76 mrad. By measuring the surface profile of a paper plate for two times, the repeatability is estimated to be about 11 nm, and is equivalent to be about λ/69. For a plane with 100 × 100 points, a single measurement takes less than 140 ms, and the feasibility for real-time profile measurement with high accuracy has been verified.

  11. Advances in Scanning Reflectarray Antennas Based on Ferroelectric Thin Film Phase Shifters for Deep Space Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    Though there are a few examples of scanning phased array antennas that have flown successfully in space, the quest for low-cost, high-efficiency, large aperture microwave phased arrays continues. Fixed and mobile applications that may be part of a heterogeneous exploration communication architecture will benefit from the agile (rapid) beam steering and graceful degradation afforded by phased array antennas. The reflectarray promises greater efficiency and economy compared to directly-radiating varieties. Implementing a practical scanning version has proven elusive. The ferroelectric reflectarray, under development and described herein, involves phase shifters based on coupled microstrip patterned on Ba(x)Sr(1-x)TiO3 films, that were laser ablated onto LaAlO3 substrates. These devices outperform their semiconductor counterparts from X- through and K-band frequencies. There are special issues associated with the implementation of a scanning reflectarray antenna, especially one realized with thin film ferroelectric phase shifters. This paper will discuss these issues which include: relevance of phase shifter loss; modulo 2(pi) effects and phase shifter transient effects on bit error rate; scattering from the ground plane; presentation of a novel hybrid ferroelectric-semiconductor phase shifter; and the effect of mild radiation exposure on phase shifter performance.

  12. Automated surface profile measurement of diamond grid disk by phase-shifted shadow Moiré

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Terry Yuan-Fang; Lin, Jie

    2014-06-01

    Diamond grid disk dresser is frequently employed to remove the accumulated debris lest the polishing surface glazes. The surface warpage of diamond grid disk must be small enough to assure the flatness of polished wafers during chemical mechanical planarization process. In this study, phase-shifted shadow moiré method was employed to measure the surface profile of diamond grid disk. To eliminate erroneous bright or black spots caused by the diamond grids, a new approach is proposed by automatically selecting a proper threshold value from the differentiated image resulting from the addition of four phase-shifted images. According to the largest size of erroneous spot, the size of a structuring element is determined for morphology filtering. Thereafter the phase can be calculated and unwrapped correctly. Test of the method on a diamond grid disk is demonstrated and discussed.

  13. Kinetics of AlGaN metal–organic vapor phase epitaxy for deep-UV applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobanova, Anna; Yakovlev, Eugene; Jeschke, Joerg; Knauer, Arne; Weyers, Markus

    2016-05-01

    Al x Ga1‑ x N layers with high aluminum content of x ∼ 0.68–0.73 were grown in an 11 × 2-in. AIX 2400 G3 HT planetary reactor by metal–organic vapor phase epitaxy. Growth trends are analyzed by reaction-transport modeling in a wide range of growth conditions. Gas-phase nucleation resulting in both Al and Ga consumption into nanoparticles is a major mechanism affecting the growth efficiencies of AlN and GaN. Process windows suitable to grow multiple quantum wells (MQWs) for deep UV applications are found for a range of pressures, temperatures, and V/III ratios.

  14. Thermodynamic phase profiles of optically thin midlatitude cloud and their relation to temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Naud, C. M.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Haeffelin, M.; Morille, Y.; Noel, V.; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Turner, David D.; Lo, Chaomei; Comstock, Jennifer M.

    2010-06-03

    Winter cloud phase and temperature profiles derived from ground-based lidar depolarization and radiosonde measurements are analyzed for two midlatitude locations: the United States Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site and the Site Instrumental de Recherche par Télédétection Atmosphérique (SIRTA) in France. Because lidars are attenuated in optically thick clouds, the dataset only includes optically thin clouds (optical thickness < 3). At SGP, 57% of the clouds observed with the lidar in the temperature range 233-273 K are either completely liquid or completely glaciated, while at SIRTA only 42% of the observed clouds are single phase, based on a depolarization ratio threshold of 11% for differentiating liquid from ice. Most optically thin mixed phase clouds show an ice layer at cloud top, and clouds with liquid at cloud top are less frequent. The relationship between ice phase occurrence and temperature only slightly changes between cloud base and top. At both sites liquid is more prevalent at colder temperatures than has been found previously in aircraft flights through frontal clouds of greater optical thicknesses. Liquid in clouds persists to colder temperatures at SGP than SIRTA. This information on the average temperatures of mixed phase clouds at both locations complements earlier passive satellite remote sensing measurements that sample cloud phase near cloud top and for a wider range of cloud optical thicknesses.

  15. Common complications of deep lamellar keratoplasty in the early phase of the learning curve

    PubMed Central

    Hosny, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate and record the common complications that face surgeons when they perform their first few series of deep lamellar keratoplasty and measures to avoid these. Setting: Dar El Oyoun Hospital, Cairo, Egypt. Methods: Retrospective study of the first 40 eyes of 40 patients carried out by two corneal surgeons working in the same center. All patients were planned to undergo a deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty using the big bubble technique. Twelve patients suffered from keratoconus while 28 patients had anterior corneal pathologies. Recorded complications were classified as either intraoperative or postoperative. Results: Perforation of Descemet’s membrane was the most common intraoperative complication. It occurred in nine eyes (22.5%): five eyes (12.5%) had microperforations while four eyes (10%) had macroperforations, three eyes (7.5%) had central perforations, and six eyes (15%) had peripheral perforations. Other complications included incomplete separation of Descemet’s membrane and remnants of peripheral stromal tissue. Postoperative complications included double anterior chamber which occurred in four eyes (10%) and Descemet’s membrane corrugations. Postoperative astigmatism ranged from 1.25 to 4.5 diopters with a mean of 2.86 diopters in the whole series, but in the six cases with identified residual stroma in the periphery of the host bed, the astigmatism ranged from 2.75 to 4.5 diopters with a mean of 3.62 diopters. Conclusion: Deep lamellar keratoplasty is sensitive to procedural details. Learning the common complications and how to avoid them helps novice surgeons to learn the procedure faster. PMID:21750612

  16. Experimental confirmation of calculated phases and electron density profile for wet native collagen.

    PubMed Central

    Stinson, R H; Bartlett, M W; Kurg, T; Sweeny, P R; Hendricks, R W

    1979-01-01

    An experimental procedure is developed to phase the reflections obtained in x-ray diffraction investigations of collagen in native wet tendons. Phosphotungstic acid was used for isomorphous addition in phase determination and was located by electron microscopy. Structure factors (with phases) were obtained from the electron microscopy data for the heavy metal. Structure-factor magnitudes for collagen with and without the heavy metal were obtained from the x-ray diffraction data. The first 10 orders were investigated. Standard Argand diagrams provided two solutions for each of these, except the weak sixth order. In each case, one of the two possible solutions agrees well with the phases proposed on theoretical grounds by Hulmes et al. The present results suggest that their other proposed phases are probably correct. An electron density profile along the unit cell of the fibril is presented that shows a distinct step, as expected on the basis of the hole-overlap model. The overlap region is 48% of the length of the unit cell. Images FIGURE 2 PMID:262416

  17. Metabolic profiles of prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities in deep-sea sponge Lamellomorpha sp. indicated by metagenomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Yue-Zhu; He, Li-Ming; Zheng, Hua-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The whole metabolism of a sponge holobiont and the respective contributions of prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts and their associations with the sponge host remain largely unclear. Meanwhile, compared with shallow water sponges, deep-sea sponges are rarely understood. Here we report the metagenomic exploration of deep-sea sponge Lamellomorpha sp. at the whole community level. Metagenomic data showed phylogenetically diverse prokaryotes and eukaryotes in Lamellomorpha sp.. MEGAN and gene enrichment analyses indicated different metabolic potentials of prokaryotic symbionts from eukaryotic symbionts, especially in nitrogen and carbon metabolisms, and their molecular interactions with the sponge host. These results supported the hypothesis that prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts have different ecological roles and relationships with sponge host. Moreover, vigorous denitrification, and CO2 fixation by chemoautotrophic prokaryotes were suggested for this deep-sea sponge. The study provided novel insights into the respective potentials of prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts and their associations with deep-sea sponge Lamellomorpha sp..

  18. Deep soil carbon dynamics are driven more by soil type than by climate: a worldwide meta-analysis of radiocarbon profiles.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Jordane A; Hatté, Christine; Balesdent, Jérôme; Parent, Éric

    2015-11-01

    The response of soil carbon dynamics to climate and land-use change will affect both the future climate and the quality of ecosystems. Deep soil carbon (>20 cm) is the primary component of the soil carbon pool, but the dynamics of deep soil carbon remain poorly understood. Therefore, radiocarbon activity (Δ14C), which is a function of the age of carbon, may help to understand the rates of soil carbon biodegradation and stabilization. We analyzed the published 14C contents in 122 profiles of mineral soil that were well distributed in most of the large world biomes, except for the boreal zone. With a multivariate extension of a linear mixed-effects model whose inference was based on the parallel combination of two algorithms, the expectation-maximization (EM) and the Metropolis-Hasting algorithms, we expressed soil Δ14C profiles as a four-parameter function of depth. The four-parameter model produced insightful predictions of soil Δ14C as dependent on depth, soil type, climate, vegetation, land-use and date of sampling (R2=0.68). Further analysis with the model showed that the age of topsoil carbon was primarily affected by climate and cultivation. By contrast, the age of deep soil carbon was affected more by soil taxa than by climate and thus illustrated the strong dependence of soil carbon dynamics on other pedologic traits such as clay content and mineralogy. PMID:26119088

  19. Measuring two-phase particle flux with a multi-frequency acoustic Doppler profiler.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Gregory W; Hay, Alex E

    2015-12-01

    A methodology is developed and tested for simultaneously extracting time-resolved one-dimensional profiles of the mass-concentration and velocity of two different particle types in a mixed suspension, using a multi-frequency pulse-to-pulse coherent Doppler instrument. The technique involves inversion of a model for frequency-dependent acoustic backscatter amplitude and phase. Results are presented from a laboratory settling column experiment, measuring a mixture of polystyrene beads (slowly-settling, strongly-scattering) and glass beads (quickly-settling, weakly-scattering) in a vertical pipe section. PMID:26723335

  20. Viscous singular shock profiles for a system of conservation laws modeling two-phase flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Ting-Hao

    2016-08-01

    This paper is concerned with singular shocks for a system of conservation laws via the Dafermos regularization ut + f(u)x = ɛtuxx. For a system modeling incompressible two-phase fluid flow, the existence of viscous profiles is proved using Geometric Singular Perturbation Theory. The weak convergence and the growth rate of the viscous solution are also derived; the weak limit is the sum of a piecewise constant function and a δ-measure supported on a shock line, and the maximum value of the viscous solution is of order exp ⁡ (1 / ɛ).

  1. A Study of Phased Array Antennas for NASA's Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamnejad, Vahraz; Huang, John; Cesarone, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we briefly discuss various options but focus on the feasibility of the phased arrays as a viable option for this application. Of particular concern and consideration will be the cost, reliability, and performance compared to the present 70-meter antenna system, particularly the gain/noise temperature levels in the receive mode. Many alternative phased arrays including planar horizontal arrays, hybrid mechanically/electronically steered arrays, phased array of mechanically steered reflectors, multi-faceted planar arrays, phased array-fed lens antennas, and planar reflect-arrays are compared and their viability is assessed. Although they have many advantages including higher reliability, near-instantaneous beam switching or steering capability, the cost of such arrays is presently prohibitive and it is concluded that the only viable array options at the present are the arrays of a few or many small reflectors. The active planar phased arrays, however, may become feasible options in the next decade and can be considered for deployment in smaller configurations as supplementary options.

  2. Thermally induced phase changes, lateral heterogeneity of the mantle, continental roots, and deep slab anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Don L.

    1987-01-01

    Factors which influence the lateral heterogeneity in density and seismic velocity with depth in the upper earth mantle are discussed. It is emphasized that most of the increases in density and seismic velocity with depth are caused by pressure-induced solid-solid phase changes in the high-density high-velocity phases of mineral assemblage, due to variations in temperature. In particular, the ilmenite form of MgSiO3 and the gamma-spinel form of Mg2SiO4 have broad stability fields in cold mantle and are not stable in hotter mantle. It is emphasized that the density and velocity anomalies associated with temperature-induced phase changes in mineral assemblage must be taken into account in the thermal models of the slabs; when these effects are accounted for, the geoid and seismic anomalies associated with subducted slabs are consistent with slab confinement to the upper mantle and with layered models of mantle convection.

  3. Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Profiles seven Black, Native American, and Chicano artists and art teachers: Hale A. Woodruff, Allan Houser, Luis Jimenez, Betrand D. Phillips, James E. Pate, I, and Fernando Navarro. This article is part of a theme issue on multicultural art. (SJL)

  4. Odor Profile of Different Varieties of Extra-Virgin Olive Oil During Deep Frying Using an Electronic Nose and SPME-GC-FID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, Valeria; Biolatto, Andrea; Sancho, Ana; Descalzo, Adriana; Grigioni, Gabriela; de Reca, Noemí Walsöe

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the performed work was to evaluate with an electronic nose changes in odor profile of Arauco and Arbequina varieties of extra-virgin olive oil during deep-frying. Changes in odor were analyzed using an electronic nose composed of 16 sensors. Volatile compounds were analyzed by SPME-GC-FID. Principal Component Analysis was applied for electronic results. Arauco variety showed the highest response for sensors. Statistical analysis for volatile compounds indicated a significant (P<0.001) interaction between variety and time of frying processes. Arauco variety showed the highest production of volatile compounds at 60 min of deep frying. The two varieties presented distinct patterns of volatile products, being clearly identified with the electronic nose.

  5. 30 CFR 203.34 - To which production may an RSV earned by qualified phase 2 and phase 3 ultra-deep wells on my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... perforated deeper than 15,000 feet TVD SS; (b) To production from a deep well or ultra-deep well on any other... condensate) volumes; or (d) To production from a deep well or ultra-deep well that commenced drilling before... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false To which production may an RSV earned...

  6. 30 CFR 203.34 - To which production may an RSV earned by qualified phase 2 and phase 3 ultra-deep wells on my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... perforated deeper than 15,000 feet TVD SS; (b) To production from a deep well or ultra-deep well on any other... condensate) volumes; or (d) To production from a deep well or ultra-deep well that commenced drilling before... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false To which production may an RSV earned...

  7. 30 CFR 203.34 - To which production may an RSV earned by qualified phase 2 and phase 3 ultra-deep wells on my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... feet TVD SS; (b) To production from a deep well or ultra-deep well on any other lease, except as...) To production from a deep well or ultra-deep well that commenced drilling before: (1) March 26, 2003... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false To which production may an RSV earned...

  8. 30 CFR 203.34 - To which production may an RSV earned by qualified phase 2 and phase 3 ultra-deep wells on my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... perforated deeper than 15,000 feet TVD SS; (b) To production from a deep well or ultra-deep well on any other... condensate) volumes; or (d) To production from a deep well or ultra-deep well that commenced drilling before... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false To which production may an RSV earned...

  9. Variation of Clonal, Mesquite-Associated Rhizobial and Bradyrhizobial Populations from Surface and Deep Soils by Symbiotic Gene Region Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and Plasmid Profile Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, P. M.; Golly, K. F.; Zyskind, J. W.; Virginia, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    Genetic characteristics of 14 Rhizobium and 9 Bradyrhizobium mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa)-nodulating strains isolated from surface (0- to 0.5-m) and deep (4- to 6-m) rooting zones were determined in order to examine the hypothesis that surface- and deep-soil symbiont populations were related but had become genetically distinct during adaptation to contrasting soil conditions. To examine genetic diversity, Southern blots of PstI-digested genomic DNA were sequentially hybridized with the nodDABC region of Rhizobium meliloti, the Klebsiella pneumoniae nifHDK region encoding nitrogenase structural genes, and the chromosome-localized ndvB region of R. meliloti. Plasmid profile and host plant nodulation assays were also made. Isolates from mesquite nodulated beans and cowpeas but not alfalfa, clover, or soybeans. Mesquite was nodulated by diverse species of symbionts (R. meliloti, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. phaseoli, and Parasponia bradyrhizobia). There were no differences within the groups of mesquite-associated rhizobia or bradyrhizobia in cross-inoculation response. The ndvB hybridization results showed the greatest genetic diversity among rhizobial strains. The pattern of ndvB-hybridizing fragments suggested that surface and deep strains were clonally related, but groups of related strains from each soil depth could be distinguished. Less variation was found with nifHDK and nodDABC probes. Large plasmids (>1,500 kb) were observed in all rhizobia and some bradyrhizobia. Profiles of plasmids of less than 1,000 kb were related to the soil depth and the genus of the symbiont. We suggest that interacting selection pressures for symbiotic competence and free-living survival, coupled with soil conditions that restrict genetic exchange between surface and deep-soil populations, led to the observed patterns of genetic diversity. Images PMID:16349226

  10. Variation of clonal, mesquite-associated rhizobial and bradyrhizobial populations from surface and deep soils by symbiotic gene region restriction fragment length polymorphism and plasmid profile analysis.

    PubMed

    Thomas, P M; Golly, K F; Zyskind, J W; Virginia, R A

    1994-04-01

    Genetic characteristics of 14 Rhizobium and 9 Bradyrhizobium mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa)-nodulating strains isolated from surface (0- to 0.5-m) and deep (4- to 6-m) rooting zones were determined in order to examine the hypothesis that surface- and deep-soil symbiont populations were related but had become genetically distinct during adaptation to contrasting soil conditions. To examine genetic diversity, Southern blots of PstI-digested genomic DNA were sequentially hybridized with the nodDABC region of Rhizobium meliloti, the Klebsiella pneumoniae nifHDK region encoding nitrogenase structural genes, and the chromosome-localized ndvB region of R. meliloti. Plasmid profile and host plant nodulation assays were also made. Isolates from mesquite nodulated beans and cowpeas but not alfalfa, clover, or soybeans. Mesquite was nodulated by diverse species of symbionts (R. meliloti, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. phaseoli, and Parasponia bradyrhizobia). There were no differences within the groups of mesquite-associated rhizobia or bradyrhizobia in cross-inoculation response. The ndvB hybridization results showed the greatest genetic diversity among rhizobial strains. The pattern of ndvB-hybridizing fragments suggested that surface and deep strains were clonally related, but groups of related strains from each soil depth could be distinguished. Less variation was found with nifHDK and nodDABC probes. Large plasmids (>1,500 kb) were observed in all rhizobia and some bradyrhizobia. Profiles of plasmids of less than 1,000 kb were related to the soil depth and the genus of the symbiont. We suggest that interacting selection pressures for symbiotic competence and free-living survival, coupled with soil conditions that restrict genetic exchange between surface and deep-soil populations, led to the observed patterns of genetic diversity. PMID:16349226

  11. Development of green betaine-based deep eutectic solvent aqueous two-phase system for the extraction of protein.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Wang, Yuzhi; Xu, Kaijia; Huang, Yanhua; Wen, Qian; Ding, Xueqin

    2016-05-15

    Six kinds of new type of green betaine-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been synthesized. Deep eutectic solvent aqueous two-phase systems (DES-ATPS) were established and successfully applied in the extraction of protein. Betaine-urea (Be-U) was selected as the suitable extractant. Single factor experiments were carried out to determine the optimum conditions of the extraction process, such as the salt concentration, the mass of DES, the separation time, the amount of protein, the temperature and the pH value. The extraction efficiency could achieve to 99.82% under the optimum conditions. Mixed sample and practical sample analysis were discussed. The back extraction experiment was implemented and the back extraction efficiency could reach to 32.66%. The precision experiment, repeatability experiment and stability experiment were investigated. UV-vis, FT-IR and circular dichroism (CD) spectra confirmed that the conformation of protein was not changed during the process of extraction. The mechanisms of extraction were researched by dynamic light scattering (DLS), the measurement of the conductivity and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). DES-protein aggregates and embraces phenomenon play considerable roles in the separation process. All of these results indicated that betaine-based DES-ATPS may provide a potential substitute new method for the separation of proteins. PMID:26992491

  12. GANSEKI: JAMSTEC Deep Seafloor Rock Sample Database Emerging to the New Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiyama, T.; Ichiyama, Y.; Horikawa, H.; Sato, Y.; Soma, S.; Hanafusa, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) collects a lot of substantial samples as well as various geophysical data using its research vessels and submersibles. These samples and data, which are obtained by spending large amounts of human and physical resources, are precious wealth of the world scientific community. For the better use of these samples and data, it is important that they are utilized not only for initial purpose of each cruse but also for other general scientific and educational purposes of second-hand users. Based on the JAMSTEC data and sample handling policies [1], JAMSTEC has systematically stored samples and data obtained during research cruises, and provided them to domestic/foreign activities on research, education, and public relation. Being highly valued for second-hand usability, deep seafloor rock samples are one of the most important types of samples obtained by JAMSTEC, as oceanic biological samples and sediment core samples are. Rock samples can be utilized for natural history sciences and other various purposes; some of these purposes are connected to socially important issues such as earthquake mechanisms and mineral resource developments. Researchers and educators can access to JAMSTEC rock samples and associated data through 'GANSEKI [2]', the JAMSTEC Deep Seafloor Rock Sample Database. GANSEKI was established on the Internet in 2006 and its contents and functions have been continuously enriched and upgraded since then. GANSEKI currently provides 19 thousands of sample metadata, 9 thousands of collection inventory data and 18 thousands of geochemical data. Most of these samples are recovered from the North-western Pacific Ocean, although samples from other area are also included. The major update of GANSEKI held in May 2013 involved a replacement of database core system and a redesign of user interface. In the new GANSEKI, users can select samples easily and precisely using multi-index search, numerical

  13. Serum Profiling of Rat Dermal Exposure to JP-8 Fuel Reveals an Acute-Phase Response.

    PubMed

    Larabee, Jason L; Hocker, James R; Cheung, John Y; Gallucci, Randle M; Hanas, Jay S

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dermal exposure to JP-8 petroleum jet fuel leads to toxicological responses in humans and rodents. Serum profiling is a molecular analysis of changes in the levels of serum proteins and other molecules in response to changes in physiology. This present study utilizes serum profiling approaches to examine biomolecular changes in the sera of rats exposed to dermal applications of JP-8 (jet propulsion fuel-8). Using gel electrophoresis and electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS), levels of serum proteins as well as low-mass constituents were found to change after dermal exposures to JP-8. The serum protein levels altered included the acute-phase response proteins haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, alpha(1)-inhibitor III, and apolipoprotein A-IV. Haptoglobin levels increased after a 1-day JP-8 dermal exposure and continued to increase through 7 days of exposure. Ceruloplasmin levels increased after 5 days of exposure. Serum alpha(1)-inhibitor III was reduced after a 1-day exposure and the depletion continued after 7 days of exposure. Apolipoprotein A-IV increased after a 1-day exposure and then returned to basal levels after 3- and 5-day exposures of JP-8. Levels of the acute-phase protein alpha(2)-macroglobulin were found to not vary over these time course studies. Using ESI-MS analysis directly on the sera from rats exposed to dermal JP-8, low-mass sera constituents were found to correlate with control (acetone) or JP-8 exposure. PMID:20020890

  14. Berry phases and profiles of line wings and rainbow satellites induced by optical collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciuryło, R.; Szudy, J.; Baylis, W. E.

    2015-09-01

    The concept of Berry phase is included in an analysis of the intensity distribution in far wings of pressure-broadened spectral lines emitted or absorbed by atoms placed in an external cone-rotating electric field. Particular attention is focused on frequency regions where rainbow satellite bands appear. A classical-path treatment that employs the time-dependent Schrödinger equation is used to derive an expression for the line shape, and it uses a dipole transition moment calculated with quasimolecular wave functions given by the Berry version of the adiabatic approximation. It is found that in the presence of an external rotating electric field, the intensity distribution in far wings can be expressed in terms of the universal line shape function of the unified Franck-Condon theory once energy shifts due to Stark and Berry effects are taken into account. We show that the influence of Berry phase in the profiles of the far wings can be manifested either in the form of deviations of observed profiles from the quasistatic distribution or the appearance of additional features in the vicinity of the maximum of the rainbow satellite band. As an example, the modification of the rainbow satellite at 162.3 nm in the red wing of the self-broadened Lyman-α line of hydrogen, caused by an external rotating electric field, is considered.

  15. A two-moment cloud microphysics parameterization for mixed-phase clouds. Part 2: Maritime vs. continental deep convective storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, A.; Beheng, K. D.

    2006-02-01

    A systematic modeling study investigates the effects of cloud condensation nuclei (CCNs) on the evolution of mixed-phase deep convective storms. Following previous studies the environmental conditions like buoyancy and vertical wind shear are varied to simulate different storm types like ordinary single cells, multicells and supercells. In addition, the CCN characteristics are changed from maritime to continental conditions. The results reveal very different effects of continentality on the cloud microphysics and dynamics of the different storms. While a negative feedback on total precipitation and maximum updraft velocity is found for ordinary single cells and supercell storms, a positive feedback exists for multicell cloud systems. The most important link between CCN properties, microphysics and dynamics is the release of latent heat of freezing.

  16. Crustal structure and geodynamic of the Middle and Lower reaches of Yangtze metallogenic belt and neighboring areas: insights from deep seismic reflection profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Q.; Shi, D.; Liu, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, J.

    2014-12-01

    A 300 km deep seismic reflection profile across the middle and lower Yangtze River metallogenic belt (YRMB) and its adjacent areas established the architecture and geodynamic framework of the region. Results based on the interpretation of the deep seismic data include the deep complicated geometry of the Tan-Lu fault and Zhangbaling uplift, appears as a subvertical thrust fault with its deep portion dip toward the southeast, and along which the Zhangbaling uplift is squeezed out; complex upper crust deformation structure beneath Chuquan depression, within which there are both kink bands, thrusts, imbrication and fold structures reflecting contraction deformation, and detachment fault and normal-fault structures reflecting extensional deformation; the "crocodile" reflection structure emerging beneath the Tan-Lu fault and Ningwu-Lishui volcanic basin, i.e., the upper crust reflection thrust upward, and the lower crust reflection thrust downward and offsetting the Moho discontinuity, which reflects the decoupled deformation process of the upper and lower crust, and is interpreted as an intracontinental subduction. Further to the southeast, the upper crust deformation shows a large-scale "wave-form" pattern, making crustal scale syncline and anticline. The entire section of the reflection Moho is clearly discernible at depth of 30.0-34.5 km, and the Moho beneath the YRMB is shallowest, while the Moho beneath the North China block is deeper than that beneath the Yangtze block. Moho offsets could be seen beneath the Ningwu volcanic basin. Overall, the seismic data show evidence for an intracontinental orogeny and imposes constraints on the deep geodynamic model applied to study region. Our interpretation of seismic profile supports the view that the Yanshanian orogeny, due to the northwest subduction of the paleo-Pacific plate during the Middle-Late Jurassic, is the major event that shaped the tectonic framework of the region. A geodynamic model is proposed for the

  17. Periparturient cortisol, acute phase cytokine, and acute phase protein profiles of gilts housed in groups or stalls during gestation.

    PubMed

    Sorrells, A D; Eicher, S D; Harris, M J; Pajor, E A; Richert, B T

    2007-07-01

    Use of gestation stalls in pork production remains a controversial topic in animal welfare. Immune status and measures are frequently used to assess stress levels and thus well-being of confined animals. The important welfare issue of close confinement among gestating gilts was tested by quantifying cortisol, acute phase cytokine, and acute phase protein pro-files before and after farrowing of gilts housed in 2 systems. Landrace x Yorkshire crossbred gilts housed in groups of 4 (group, n = 8) in pens (3.9 x 2.4 m with 4 individual feeding spaces, 9.36 m(2) total or 2.34 m(2)/gilt) were compared with gilts housed in standard industry stalls (stall, n = 16; 2.2 x 0.6 m, 1.32 m(2)/gilt). Floors were fully slatted, and a substrate was not provided for either system. Cortisol was determined from saliva on d 105 of gestation, 1 h after moving the gilts into farrowing stalls (d 111), and 24 h and 7 d after farrowing. Cortisol was greater (P = 0.04) for group gilts compared with stall gilts 1 h after moving them into farrowing stalls and 24 h after farrowing. Cortisol concentrations decreased (P = 0.001) over time. Leukocyte mRNA expression of IL-1, IL-1 receptor antagonist, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha was determined by quantitative, reverse transcription PCR on d 35, 63, and 91 of gestation and 72 h after farrowing. Cytokine mRNA expression of peripheral blood mononuclear cells did not differ between housing systems for IL-1, its receptor antagonist, or for tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Acute phase proteins, including fibrinogen, haptoglobin, and alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein were determined for plasma samples taken at d 35, 63, and 91 of gestation and 72 h and 14 d after farrowing. In contrast to cortisol, plasma fibrinogen concentrations increased (P < 0.005) over time. Haptoglobin did not differ between treatments (P > 0.10). Stall gilts tended to have greater (P = 0.07) plasma alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein concentrations than group animals at d 35 of gestation and d 14

  18. Comparison of Vibroseis and explosive source methods for deep crustal seismic reflection profiling in the Basin and Range province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brocher, T.M.; Hart, P.E.

    1991-01-01

    Direct comparison of low-fold, high-energy explosive and high-fold, lower-energy Vibroseis methods for acquiring deep crustal seismic reflection data in the Basin and Range Province suggests that the high-fold common midpoint (CMP) method there does not provide the best possible image of lower crustal structure. -from Authors

  19. Phase and Size Control of Core-Shell Upconversion Nanocrystals Light up Deep Dual Luminescence Imaging and CT In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ning; Liu, Yu; Zhou, Yaming; Wang, Dong; Chen, Chuan; Ye, Shefang; Nie, Liming; Ren, Lei

    2016-06-01

    Upconversion nanocrystals (UCNCs) have recently been explored as optical imaging nanoprobes. However, conventional β-NaLuF4 (-) based UCNCs often suffer from large particle size and weak upconversion luminescence (UCL) intensity, leading to poor biocompatibility and low detection sensitivity. Here, a novel strategy for controlling the crystalline phase and size of UCNCs has been developed by doping of yttrium ions, resulting in particle size reduction and phase transition. The total UCL intensity of prepared core-shell UCNCs is significantly enhanced up to ≈4.9 and ≈17.4 times after Tm(3+) and Er(3+) doping than that of core UCNCs, offering deeper tissue UCL imaging with a depth of 8 mm in vivo. Moreover, the CT signal of core-shell UCNCs is ≈1.5 and ≈3.5 times brighter than that of core UCNCs and commercial ioversol agent because of increasing contents of Lu(3+) doped in UCNCs. The synthesized core-shell UCNCs hold a great promise in deep UCL and CT dual-modality imaging in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26990395

  20. An ultrasound cylindrical phased array for deep heating in the breast: theoretical design using heterogeneous models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, J. F.; Paulides, M. M.; Obdeijn, I. M.; van Rhoon, G. C.; van Dongen, K. W. A.

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this theoretical study is to design an ultrasound (US) cylindrical phased array that can be used for hyperthermia (40-44 °C) treatment of tumours in the intact breast. Simultaneously, we characterize the influence of acoustic and thermal heterogeneities on the specific absorption rate (SAR) and temperature patterns to determine the necessity of using heterogeneous models for a US applicator design and treatment planning. Cylindrical configurations of monopole transducers are studied on their ability to generate interference patterns that can be steered electronically to the location of the target region. Hereto, design parameters such as frequency, number of transducers per ring, ring distance and number of rings are optimized to obtain a small primary focus, while suppressing secondary foci. The models account for local heterogeneities in both acoustic (wave velocity and absorption) and thermal (blood perfusion rate, heat capacity and conductivity) tissue properties. We used breast models with a central tumour (30 × 20 × 38 mm3) and an artificial thorax tumour (sphere with a radius of 25 mm) to test the design. Simulations predict that a US cylindrical phased array, consisting of six rings with 32 transducers per ring, a radius of 75 mm and 66 mm distance between the first and sixth transducer ring, operating at a frequency of 100 kHz, can be used to obtain 44 °C in the centre of tumours located anywhere in the intact breast. The dimensions of the volumes enclosed by the 41 °C iso-temperature are 19 × 19 × 21 mm3 and 21 × 21 × 32 mm3 for the central and the thorax tumours, respectively. It is demonstrated that acoustic and thermal heterogeneities do not disturb the SAR and temperature patterns.

  1. SinoProbe-02:Deep Seismic Reflection Profile (480km) experiment in North China:Acquisition and the Preliminary Processing result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, H.; Gao, R.; Li, Q.; Li, W.; Kuang, Z.; Liu, J.; Zhang, J.; Guan, Y.; Keller, G.; Liu, M.; Cox, C. M.; Holloway, S.; Chang, J. C.; Kaip, G. M.; Zhang, S.

    2010-12-01

    An active-source deep seismic reflection experiment was recorded across the Central Asian and Trans-North China orogens (see Figure) last winter as part of the SinoProbe-02 program. This profile extended southeastward from Erenhot and ended in the Huailai basin near Beijing. The shot depth was 25m; the shot size was 30-50kg; and the nominal shot interval was 250 km. Additional 200-kg charges were set off every 1 km and 1 ton shots were placed at intervals of 50 km. A Sercel 408 XL recording system and 2000 strings of SM-24 geophones were deployed at a spacing of 50m. Recording was at a 2ms sample interval for a total of 30s.The typical processing stream included crooked-line binning, refraction statics, true amplitude recovery, deconvolution, detailed velocity analyses, residual statics corrections and NMO stack (see Table). To the south, a transparent granite body is indicated in the middle crust with a series of north dipping reflections structures in the lower crust. The complex structures near Sonid Youqi suggest a transparent crust due to the Solonker suture zone. Map showing deep seismic reflection profile (solid black line) across North China. Processing Parameters

  2. Improvements in the vapor-time profile analysis of explosive odorants using solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Young, Mimy; Schantz, Michele; MacCrehan, William

    2016-07-15

    A modified approach for characterization of the vapor-time profile of the headspace odors of explosives was developed using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) incorporating introduction of an externally-sampled internal standard (ESIS) followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. With this new method, reproducibility of the measurements of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and cyclohexanone were improved compared to previous work (Hoffman et al., 2009; Arthur and Pawliszyn, 1990) through the use of stable-isotope-labeled internal standards. Exposing the SPME fiber to the ESIS after sampling the target analyte proved to be advantageous, while still correcting for fiber variability and detector drift. For the analysis of high volatility compounds, incorporation of the ESIS using the SPME fiber in the retracted position minimized the subsequent competitive loss of the target analyte, allowing for much longer sampling times. PMID:27286650

  3. Nocturnal Melatonin Profiles in Patients with Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder and Control Sleepers.

    PubMed

    Micic, Gorica; Lovato, Nicole; Gradisar, Michael; Burgess, Helen J; Ferguson, Sally A; Kennaway, David J; Lack, Leon

    2015-10-01

    A significant delay in the timing of endogenous circadian rhythms has been associated with delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD). More recently, other mechanisms have also been proposed to account for this disorder. To further explore the etiology of DSPD, the present study compared nocturnal melatonin profiles of 26 DSPD patients (18 males, 8 females; age, 21.73 ± 4.98 years) and 17 normally timed good sleepers (10 males, 7 females; age, 23.82 ± 5.23 years) in a time-free, dim-light (<10 lux) laboratory environment. A 30-h modified constant routine with alternating 20-min sleep opportunities and 40 min of enforced wakefulness was used to measure the endogenous melatonin circadian rhythm. Salivary melatonin was sampled half-hourly from 1820 h to 0020 h and then hourly from 0120 h to 1620 h. DSPD patients had significantly later timed melatonin profiles that were delayed by approximately 3 h compared to normal sleepers, and there were no notable differences in the relative duration of secretion between groups. However, melatonin secretion between dim-light melatonin onset (DLMO) and acrophase was less prominent in DSPD patients compared to good sleepers, who showed a more acute initial surge of melatonin following the DLMO. Although the regulatory role of melatonin is unknown, abnormal melatonin profiles have been linked to psychiatric and neurological disorders (e.g., major depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, Parkinson disease). These results therefore suggest that in addition to a delayed endogenous circadian rhythm, a diminished initial surge of melatonin secretion following DLMO may contribute to the etiology of DSPD. PMID:26149168

  4. Measurement of a fiber-end surface profile by use of phase-shifting laser interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shihua; Quan, Chenggen; Tay, Cho Jui; Reading, Ivan; Fang, Zhongping

    2004-01-01

    We describe a laser interferometric system in which two objectives are used to measure surface profile on a connectorized fiber-end surface. By the use of the proposed illumination design a He-Ne laser as a point light source is transformed to an extended light source, which is beneficial to localize interference fringe pattern near the test surface. To obtain an optimal contrast of the interference fringe pattern, the flat mirror with an adjustable reflection ratio is used to suit different test surfaces. A piezoelectric transducer attached on the reference mirror can move precisely along the optical axis of the objective and permits implementation of four-step phase-shifting interferometry without changing the relative position between the CCD sensor and the test surface. Therefore, an absolutely constant optical magnification can be accurately kept to capture the interference fringe patterns resulting from a combination of light reflected from both the reference flat mirror and the test surface. The experimental result shows that surface profile on a fiber-end with surface features such as a small fiber diameter of 125 μm and a low reflection ratio of less than 4% are measurable. Measurements on a standard calibration ball show that the accuracy of the proposed setup is comparable with that of existing white-light interferometers and stylus profilometers.

  5. Phase retrieval from a single interferometric pattern to determine the profile caused by laser ablation on spherical surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, M. I.; López-Olazagasti, E.; Rosales, M. A.; Ibarra, Jorge; Tepichín, E.

    2009-08-01

    We have been working in the interferometric analysis of the ablation profile obtained with different techniques of refractive surgery, applied directly on hard contact lenses. We have demonstrated qualitatively that different ablations produce different fringe patterns; implying different focal shifts1. These results were obtained by means of a Mach- Zehnder type interferometer, where we used a similar unablated contact lens as a reference. Due to the size of each sample, it is difficult to get different fringe patterns with different phase factors. Therefore, the typical phase shifting methods are not suitable in our case. To determine the corresponding profile caused by the different ablation techniques we applied in this work the interpolation method that provide an analysis of static fringe patterns. This method of phase retrieval allows us to obtain the PSF and MTF related to each profile. The advantage of this procedure is that we can obtain a time invariant performance of the resulting ablated surface.

  6. High-accuracy inspection of defects and profile of wafers by phase measuring deflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Huimin; Wu, Yuxiang; Zhao, Biyu; Ou, Zhonghua; Liu, Yong

    2014-09-01

    The demands of the less-defective and high-flatness wafers are urgent in many wafer based technologies ranging from micro-electronics to the current photovoltaic industry. As the wafer becomes thinner and larger to cope with the advances in those industries, there is an increasing possibility of the emerging of crack and warp on the wafer surface. High-accuracy inspection of defects and profile are thus necessary to ensure the reliability of device. Phase measuring deflectometry(PMD) is a fast, cost-effective and high accuracy measurement technology which has been developed in recent years. As a slope measurement technology, PMD possesses a high sensitivity. Very small slope variation will lead to a large variation of the phase. PMD is very possible to have a good performance in the wafer inspection. In this paper, the requirements of the wafer inspection in the industries are discussed, and compatibility of PMD and those requirements is analyzed. In the experimental work, PMD gets the slope information of the wafer surface directly. The curvature or height information can be acquired simply by the derivation or integral of the slope. PMD is proved to make a superior result in high-precision defect detecting and shape measurement of wafer by the analysis of experiment results.

  7. Solid phase extraction and metabolic profiling of exudates from living copepods

    PubMed Central

    Heuschele, Jan; Nylund, Göran M.; Pohnert, Georg; Pavia, Henrik; Bjærke, Oda; Pender-Healy, Larisa A.; Tiselius, Peter; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Copepods are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats. They exude bioactive compounds that mediate mate finding or induce defensive traits in prey organisms. However, little is known about the chemical nature of the copepod exometabolome that contributes to the chemical landscape in pelagic habitats. Here we describe the development of a closed loop solid phase extraction setup that allows for extraction of exuded metabolites from live copepods. We captured exudates from male and female Temora longicornis and analyzed the content with high resolution LC-MS. Chemometric methods revealed 87 compounds that constitute a specific chemical pattern either qualitatively or quantitatively indicating copepod presence. The majority of the compounds were present in both female and male exudates, but nine compounds were mainly or exclusively present in female exudates and hence potential pheromone candidates. Copepodamide G, known to induce defensive responses in phytoplankton, was among the ten compounds of highest relative abundance in both male and female extracts. The presence of copepodamide G shows that the method can be used to capture and analyze chemical signals from living source organisms. We conclude that solid phase extraction in combination with metabolic profiling of exudates is a useful tool to develop our understanding of the chemical interplay between pelagic organisms. PMID:26788422

  8. New long trace profiler based on phase plate diffraction for optical metrology of SSRF

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng Danhua; Xiao Tiqiao; Du Guohao; Wen Li; Luo Hongxin; Xia Shaojian; Xu Hongjie

    2006-09-15

    A long trace profiler LTP-1200, with a novel f-{theta} system based on phase plate diffraction and a scanning range up to 1200 mm, has been developed at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The central dark line in the diffraction pattern generated by a {pi} phase plate is taken as the positioning benchmark. A magnet levitated linear rail with very high accuracy is used. A granite bench is employed to reduce deformation due to self-gravity of the rail. The focused diffraction pattern is recorded with an area charge-coupled device. The generalized regression neural network algorithm is adopted to improve the beam positioning precision. The static stability of LTP-1200 in 5 h is 0.14 {mu}rad, and the repeatability reaches 0.05 {mu}rad in a common laboratory without any special control of temperature, air turbulence, etc. Calibration tests were carried out with a high precision autocollimator and a standard spherical mirror, respectively. Results show the high performance and reliability of the LTP-1200.

  9. The role of TiO 2 phases during melting of subduction-modified crust: Implications for deep mantle melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromiley, Geoffrey D.; Redfern, Simon A. T.

    2008-03-01

    Partitioning of Nb, Ta, Hf and Zr between rutile, its high-pressure polymorph TiO2(II) and silicate melt has been experimentally determined at 2 GPa/1200 °C, 6 GPa/1600 °C, 8 GPa/1800 °C and 10 GPa/1900 °C. Results show that characteristic depletion of Nb and Ta in partial melts due to the presence of rutile in solid residues (for example during melting of subducting oceanic crust) is strongly dependent on depth of partial melting. With increasing pressure, changes in melt structure result in marked reduction in Dmin/melt for Nb (14.8, 5.4, 2.5, and 2.4 with increasing P/T) and Ta (28.0, 17.0, 6.9, and 5.5). A strong pressure effect is also noted in Dmin/melt for Zr (2.1, 0.6, 0.9, and 1.2) and Hf (4.1, 0.9, 1.3, and 1.3), although for these elements the rutile to TiO2(II) transition also influences partitioning behaviour. Results have important implications for melting of oceanic crust in Earth's deep mantle. Ancient subduction-modified crust cannot be a direct source for ocean-island basalts (OIB) unless depth of melting is greater than 300 km, or degree of partial melting is much higher than suggested on the basis of previous trace element modeling work (and sufficient to remove TiO2 phases from solid residues). Likewise, the absence of strong depletion of Nb and Ta in OIB also provides constraints on degree of partial melting vs depth of partial melting for models where melting of ancient crust acts as an indirect source for OIB by metasomatic interaction with the mantle. The controlling influence of melt structure on partitioning behaviour of high-field strength elements (HFSE) implies that relative enrichment of Nb and Ta and reduction in Zr/Nb in high-pressure partial melts should occur even when TiO2 phases are not present in solid residues. As such, depth of partial melting may be as important a factor as mineral and melt chemistry and degree of partial melting in constraining the composition of partial melts from Earth's deep interior.

  10. Evaluation of an Extended Autocorrelation Phase Estimator for Ultrasonic Velocity Profiles Using Nondestructive Testing Systems.

    PubMed

    Ofuchi, César Yutaka; Coutinho, Fabio Rizental; Neves, Flávio; de Arruda, Lucia Valéria Ramos; Morales, Rigoberto Eleazar Melgarejo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the extended autocorrelation velocity estimator is evaluated and compared using a nondestructive ultrasonic device. For this purpose, three velocity estimators are evaluated and compared. The autocorrelation method (ACM) is the most used and well established in current ultrasonic velocity profiler technology, however, the technique suffers with phase aliasing (also known as the Nyquist limit) at higher velocities. The cross-correlation method (CCM) is also well known and does not suffer with phase aliasing as it relies on time shift measurements between emissions. The problem of this method is the large computational burden due to several required mathematical operations. Recently, an extended autocorrelation method (EAM) which combines both ACM and CCM was developed. The technique is not well known within the fluid engineering community, but it can measure velocities beyond the Nyquist limit without the ACM phase aliasing issues and with a lower computational cost than CCM. In this work, all three velocity estimation methods are used to measure a uniform flow of the liquid inside a controlled rotating cylinder. The root-mean-square deviation variation coefficient (CVRMSD) of the velocity estimate and the reference cylinder velocity was used to evaluate the three different methods. Results show that EAM correctly measures velocities below the Nyquist limit with less than 2% CVRMSD. Velocities beyond the Nyquist limit are only measured well by EAM and CCM, with the advantage of the former of being computationally 15 times faster. Furthermore, the maximum value of measurable velocity is also investigated considering the number of times the velocity surpasses the Nyquist limit. The combination of number of pulses and number of samples, which highly affects the results, are also studied in this work. Velocities up to six times the Nyquist limit could be measurable with CCM and EAM using a set of parameters as suggested in this work. The results validate

  11. HPV Population Profiling in Healthy Men by Next-Generation Deep Sequencing Coupled with HPV-QUEST.

    PubMed

    Yin, Li; Yao, Jin; Chang, Kaifen; Gardner, Brent P; Yu, Fahong; Giuliano, Anna R; Goodenow, Maureen M

    2016-02-01

    Multiple-type human papillomaviruses (HPV) infection presents a greater risk for persistence in asymptomatic individuals and may accelerate cancer development. To extend the scope of HPV types defined by probe-based assays, multiplexing deep sequencing of HPV L1, coupled with an HPV-QUEST genotyping server and a bioinformatic pipeline, was established and applied to survey the diversity of HPV genotypes among a subset of healthy men from the HPV in Men (HIM) Multinational Study. Twenty-one HPV genotypes (12 high-risk and 9 low-risk) were detected in the genital area from 18 asymptomatic individuals. A single HPV type, either HPV16, HPV6b or HPV83, was detected in 7 individuals, while coinfection by 2 to 5 high-risk and/or low-risk genotypes was identified in the other 11 participants. In two individuals studied for over one year, HPV16 persisted, while fluctuations of coinfecting genotypes occurred. HPV L1 regions were generally identical between query and reference sequences, although nonsynonymous and synonymous nucleotide polymorphisms of HPV16, 18, 31, 35h, 59, 70, 73, cand85, 6b, 62, 81, 83, cand89 or JEB2 L1 genotypes, mostly unidentified by linear array, were evident. Deep sequencing coupled with HPV-QUEST provides efficient and unambiguous classification of HPV genotypes in multiple-type HPV infection in host ecosystems. PMID:26821041

  12. HPV Population Profiling in Healthy Men by Next-Generation Deep Sequencing Coupled with HPV-QUEST

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Li; Yao, Jin; Chang, Kaifen; Gardner, Brent P.; Yu, Fahong; Giuliano, Anna R.; Goodenow, Maureen M.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple-type human papillomaviruses (HPV) infection presents a greater risk for persistence in asymptomatic individuals and may accelerate cancer development. To extend the scope of HPV types defined by probe-based assays, multiplexing deep sequencing of HPV L1, coupled with an HPV-QUEST genotyping server and a bioinformatic pipeline, was established and applied to survey the diversity of HPV genotypes among a subset of healthy men from the HPV in Men (HIM) Multinational Study. Twenty-one HPV genotypes (12 high-risk and 9 low-risk) were detected in the genital area from 18 asymptomatic individuals. A single HPV type, either HPV16, HPV6b or HPV83, was detected in 7 individuals, while coinfection by 2 to 5 high-risk and/or low-risk genotypes was identified in the other 11 participants. In two individuals studied for over one year, HPV16 persisted, while fluctuations of coinfecting genotypes occurred. HPV L1 regions were generally identical between query and reference sequences, although nonsynonymous and synonymous nucleotide polymorphisms of HPV16, 18, 31, 35h, 59, 70, 73, cand85, 6b, 62, 81, 83, cand89 or JEB2 L1 genotypes, mostly unidentified by linear array, were evident. Deep sequencing coupled with HPV-QUEST provides efficient and unambiguous classification of HPV genotypes in multiple-type HPV infection in host ecosystems. PMID:26821041

  13. Molecularly imprinted polymers combination with deep eutectic solvents for solid-phase extraction of caffeic acid from hawthorn.

    PubMed

    Li, Guizhen; Tang, Weiyang; Cao, Weimin; Wang, Qian; Zhu, Tao

    2015-08-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with caffeic acid as template and non-imprinted polymers (NIPs) materials were prepared in the same procedure. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and adsorption capacity test were used to evaluate characteristic of the new materials. MIPs, NIPs and C18 were used for rapid purification of caffeic acid from hawthorn with solid-phase extraction ( SPE) , and extract yields of caffeic acid with the proposed materials were 3.46 µg/g, 1.01 µg/g and 1.17 µg/g, respectively. To optimize the MIPs-SPE procedures, different kinds of elution solutions were studied. Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were prepared by choline chloride (ChCl)-glycerol (1/2, n/n) and choline chloride-urea (1/ 2, n/n). Methanol was mixed with the two kinds of DESs (glycerol-based DESs, urea-based DESs) in different ratios (0.5:1, 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 4:1, 5:1, v/v), and they were used to investigated as elution solutions in the above MIPs-SPE procedures. The results showed that MIPs were potential SPE materials, and methanol/ glycerol-based DESs (3 :1, v/v) had the best elution capability with the recovery of 82.32%. PMID:26749853

  14. Study of cosmic-ray modulation during the recent deep solar minimum, mini maximum and intervening ascending phase of solar cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badruddin, B.; Aslam, O. P. M.

    After a prolonged and deep solar minimum at the end of cycle 23, current solar cycle 24 is one of the very low active cycles, weakest cycle in more than 50 years. These two periods of deep minima and mini maxima are separated by a period of increasing solar activity as measured by sunspot numbers. We study the cosmic ray relationship with the solar activity, heliospheric plasma and field parameters including the heliospheric current sheet (HCS), during these three periods (phases) of different level and nature of solar activity; (a) a deep minimum, (b) an increasing period and (c) a ‘mini’ maximum. We utilize the neutron monitor data from stations located around the globe to study the rigidity dependence of modulation during the two extremes, i.e., minima and maxima. We also study the time lag between the GCR intensity and various solar/interplanetary parameters separately during the three activity phases. Using the cosmic ray data of neutron monitors with different cutoff rigidities, we study the rigidity dependence of time lag during individual phases. The role/effectiveness of various parameters, including the HCS tilt, in modulating the GCR intensity during the three different phases has also been studied by correlation analysis. The relative importance of various physical processes during different phases and the implication of these results for modulation models are also discussed.

  15. Design and analysis of low-loss linear analog phase modulator for deep space spacecraft X-band transponder (DST) application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mysoor, Narayan R.; Mueller, Robert O.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes the design concepts, analyses, and the development of an X-band transponder low-loss linear phase modulator for deep space spacecraft applications. A single section breadboard circulator-coupled reflection phase modulator has been analyzed, fabricated, and evaluated. Two- and three-cascaded sections have been modeled and simulations performed to provide an X-band DST phase modulator with +/- 2.5 radians of peak phase deviation to accommodate down-link signal modulation with composite telemetry data and ranging with a deviation linearity tolerance +/- 8 percent and insertion loss of less than 10 +/- 0.5 dB. A two-section phase modulator using constant gamma hyperabrupt varactors and an efficient modulator driver circuit was breadboarded. The measured results satisfy the DST phase modulator requirements, and excellent agreement with the predicted results.

  16. Into the Deep: Variability in Soil Microbial Communities and Carbon Turnover Along a Tropical Forest Soil Depth Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pett-Ridge, J.; McFarlane, K. J.; Heckman, K. A.; Reed, S.; Wood, T. E.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical forest soils store more carbon (C) than any other terrestrial ecosystem and exchange vast amounts of CO2, water, and energy with the atmosphere. Much of this C is leached and stored within deeper soil layers, but we know exceedingly little about the fate of this C or the microbial communities that drive deep soil biogeochemistry. From the data that do exist, most organic matter (OM) in tropical soils appears associated with mineral particles, suggesting deep soils may provide greater C stabilization due to organo-metal co-precipitation and mineral-surface interactions. However, few studies have evaluated sub-surface soils in tropical ecosystems, the turnover times of deep soil C, and sensitivity of this C to global environmental change. To address this critical research need, we quantified C pools, microbial communities and soil radiocarbon turnover times in bulk soils and soil fractions [free light (unprotected), dense (mineral-associated)] from 0-140 cm in replicate soil pits in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. Unsurprisingly, we found soil C, nitrogen, and root and microbial biomass all declined exponentially with depth; total C stocks dropped from 5.5 % at the surface to <0.5% at 140cm depth. Soil OM 14C and mean turnover times were variable across replicate horizons, ranging from 3-1500 years at the surface (0-20 cm), to 5000-40,000 years at 140 cm depth. Soil C in the mineral associated fraction was much older than the free light fraction C, which reflected modern 14C at all depths. In comparison to temperate deciduous forests, these 14C values reflect far older soil C, and OM decomposition that highly favors free light C pools, even at depth. While previous work suggests these low C tropical subsoils contain small but metabolically active microbial communities at depths of ~100cm, these organisms appear highly OM limited, and preferentially degrade recent inputs. In the coming half century, tropical forests are predicted to see a 2 - 5

  17. Cytokine Profile of Children Hospitalized with Virologically-Confirmed Dengue during Two Phase III Vaccine Efficacy Trials

    PubMed Central

    Harenberg, Anke; de Montfort, Aymeric; Jantet-Blaudez, Frédérique; Bonaparte, Matthew; Boudet, Florence; Saville, Melanie; Jackson, Nicholas; Guy, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Background Two large-scale efficacy studies with the recombinant yellow fever-17D–dengue virus, live-attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) candidate undertaken in Asia (NCT01373281) and Latin America (NCT01374516) demonstrated significant protection against dengue disease during two years’ active surveillance (active phase). Long-term follow up of participants for breakthrough disease leading to hospitalization is currently ongoing (hospital phase). Methodology/Principal findings We assessed the cytokine profile in acute sera from selected participants hospitalized (including during the active phase) up to the beginning of the second year of long-term follow up for both studies. The serum concentrations of 38 cytokines were measured in duplicate using the Milliplex Human Cytokine MAGNETIC BEAD Premixed 38 Plex commercial kit (Millipore, Billerica, MA, USA). Partial least squares discriminant analyses did not reveal any difference in the overall cytokine profile of CYD-TDV and placebo recipients hospitalized for breakthrough dengue regardless of stratification used. In addition, there was no difference in the cytokine profile for breakthrough dengue among those aged <9 years versus those aged ≥ 9 years. Conclusions/Significance These exploratory findings show that CYD-TDV does not induce a particular immune profile versus placebo, corroborating the clinical profile observed. PMID:27459266

  18. Chemical profile of the secondary metabolites produced by a deep-sea sediment-derived fungus Penicillium commune SD-118

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Zhuo; Li, Xiaoming; Meng, Li; Li, Chunshun; Gao, Shushan; Huang, Caiguo; Wang, Bingui

    2012-03-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extract from Penicillium commune SD-118, a fungus obtained from a deep-sea sediment sample, resulted in the isolation of a known antibacterial compound, xanthocillin X ( 1), and 14 other known compounds comprising three steroids ( 2-4), two ceramides ( 5 and 6), six aromatic compounds ( 7-12), and three alkaloids ( 13-15). Xanthocillin X ( 1) was isolated for the first time from a marine fungus. In the bioassay, xanthocillin X ( 1) displayed remarkable antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and significant cytotoxicity against MCF-7, HepG2, H460, Hela, Du145, and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. Meleagrin ( 15) exhibited cytotoxicity against HepG2, Hela, Du145, and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. This is the first report of the cytotoxicity of xanthocillin X ( 1).

  19. Crustal structure and geodynamics of the Middle and Lower reaches of Yangtze metallogenic belt and neighboring areas: Insights from deep seismic reflection profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Qingtian; Shi, Danian; Liu, Zhendong; Zhang, Yongqian; Dong, Shuwen; Zhao, Jinhua

    2015-12-01

    A 300 km long seismic reflection profile was acquired across the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River (MLY) metallogenic belt and its adjacent areas. The objective of the survey was to establish the deep architecture and geodynamic framework of the region. Results based on the interpretation of the deep seismic data include (1) Tan-Lu fault appears as a subvertical thrust fault or transpression fault with its deep portion dipping toward the southeast; (2) the Zhangbaling uplift is squeezed out along this fault; (3) complex upper crustal deformation structures beneath the Chuquan depression include both kink bands, thrusts, imbrication and fold structures reflecting contraction deformation, and detachment fault and normal-fault structures reflecting extensional deformation; (4) the "crocodile" reflection structure emerging beneath the Tan-Lu fault and Ningwu-Lishui volcanic basin, which represents the decoupled deformation process of the upper and lower crust associated with intra-continental subduction; (5) further to the southeast, the upper crust deformation shows a large-scale "wave-form" pattern, making crustal scale syncline and anticline; (6) the entire section of the reflection Moho is clearly discernible at depth of 30.0-34.5 km, and the Moho beneath the Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River metallogenic belt is shallowest, while the Moho beneath the North China block is deeper than that beneath the Yangtze block. The Moho offsets could be seen beneath the Ningwu volcanic basin. The seismic reflection data suggest that lithosphere delamination and asthenosphere upwelling that may result from the Mesozoic intra-continental orogenesis is responsible for the formation of large scale magmatism and mineralization in the MLY metallogenic belt.

  20. Theoretical Analysis of Effects of Deep Level, Back Contact, and Absorber Thickness on Capacitance-Voltage Profiling of CdTe Thin-Film Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J. V.; Halverson, A. F.; Sulima, O. V.; Bansal, S.; Burst, J. M.; Barnes, T. M.; Gessert, T. A.; Levi, D. H.

    2012-05-01

    The apparent carrier density profile measured by the capacitance-voltage technique in CdTe thin-film solar cells frequently displays a distinctive U-shape. We show that, even assuming a uniform carrier density, such a U-shape may arise from deep levels, a non-ohmic back-contact, and a thin absorber, which are commonly present in practical CdTe thin-film solar cells. A thin CdTe absorber contributes to the right branch of the U-shape due to a punch-through effect at reverse or zero biases, when the CdTe absorber is nearly fully depleted. A rectifying back-contact contributes to both branches of the U-shape due to voltage sharing with the front junction under a forward bias and early punch-through under a reverse bias. Deep levels contribute to the right branch, but also raise the bottom of the U-shape, leading to an overestimate of carrier density.

  1. MiRGator v3.0: a microRNA portal for deep sequencing, expression profiling and mRNA targeting.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sooyoung; Jang, Insu; Jun, Yukyung; Yoon, Suhyeon; Ko, Minjeong; Kwon, Yeajee; Choi, Ikjung; Chang, Hyeshik; Ryu, Daeun; Lee, Byungwook; Kim, V Narry; Kim, Wankyu; Lee, Sanghyuk

    2013-01-01

    Biogenesis and molecular function are two key subjects in the field of microRNA (miRNA) research. Deep sequencing has become the principal technique in cataloging of miRNA repertoire and generating expression profiles in an unbiased manner. Here, we describe the miRGator v3.0 update (http://mirgator.kobic.re.kr) that compiled the deep sequencing miRNA data available in public and implemented several novel tools to facilitate exploration of massive data. The miR-seq browser supports users to examine short read alignment with the secondary structure and read count information available in concurrent windows. Features such as sequence editing, sorting, ordering, import and export of user data would be of great utility for studying iso-miRs, miRNA editing and modifications. miRNA-target relation is essential for understanding miRNA function. Coexpression analysis of miRNA and target mRNAs, based on miRNA-seq and RNA-seq data from the same sample, is visualized in the heat-map and network views where users can investigate the inverse correlation of gene expression and target relations, compiled from various databases of predicted and validated targets. By keeping datasets and analytic tools up-to-date, miRGator should continue to serve as an integrated resource for biogenesis and functional investigation of miRNAs. PMID:23193297

  2. Remote Sensing the Vertical Profile of Cloud Droplet Effective Radius, Thermodynamic Phase, and Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martins, J. V.; Marshak, A.; Remer, L. A.; Rosenfeld, D.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Fernandez-Borda, R.; Koren, I.; Correia, A. L.; Zubko, V.; Artaxo, P.

    2011-01-01

    Cloud-aerosol interaction is a key issue in the climate system, affecting the water cycle, the weather, and the total energy balance including the spatial and temporal distribution of latent heat release. Information on the vertical distribution of cloud droplet microphysics and thermodynamic phase as a function of temperature or height, can be correlated with details of the aerosol field to provide insight on how these particles are affecting cloud properties and their consequences to cloud lifetime, precipitation, water cycle, and general energy balance. Unfortunately, today's experimental methods still lack the observational tools that can characterize the true evolution of the cloud microphysical, spatial and temporal structure in the cloud droplet scale, and then link these characteristics to environmental factors and properties of the cloud condensation nuclei. Here we propose and demonstrate a new experimental approach (the cloud scanner instrument) that provides the microphysical information missed in current experiments and remote sensing options. Cloud scanner measurements can be performed from aircraft, ground, or satellite by scanning the side of the clouds from the base to the top, providing us with the unique opportunity of obtaining snapshots of the cloud droplet microphysical and thermodynamic states as a function of height and brightness temperature in clouds at several development stages. The brightness temperature profile of the cloud side can be directly associated with the thermodynamic phase of the droplets to provide information on the glaciation temperature as a function of different ambient conditions, aerosol concentration, and type. An aircraft prototype of the cloud scanner was built and flew in a field campaign in Brazil.

  3. Physics of Phase Space Matching for Staging Plasma and Traditional Accelerator Components Using Longitudinally Tailored Plasma Profiles.

    PubMed

    Xu, X L; Hua, J F; Wu, Y P; Zhang, C J; Li, F; Wan, Y; Pai, C-H; Lu, W; An, W; Yu, P; Hogan, M J; Joshi, C; Mori, W B

    2016-03-25

    Phase space matching between two plasma-based accelerator (PBA) stages and between a PBA and a traditional accelerator component is a critical issue for emittance preservation. The drastic differences of the transverse focusing strengths as the beam propagates between stages and components may lead to a catastrophic emittance growth even when there is a small energy spread. We propose using the linear focusing forces from nonlinear wakes in longitudinally tailored plasma density profiles to control phase space matching between sections with negligible emittance growth. Several profiles are considered and theoretical analysis and particle-in-cell simulations show how these structures may work in four different scenarios. Good agreement between theory and simulation is obtained, and it is found that the adiabatic approximation misses important physics even for long profiles. PMID:27058082

  4. Physics of Phase Space Matching for Staging Plasma and Traditional Accelerator Components Using Longitudinally Tailored Plasma Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X. L.; Hua, J. F.; Wu, Y. P.; Zhang, C. J.; Li, F.; Wan, Y.; Pai, C.-H.; Lu, W.; An, W.; Yu, P.; Hogan, M. J.; Joshi, C.; Mori, W. B.

    2016-03-01

    Phase space matching between two plasma-based accelerator (PBA) stages and between a PBA and a traditional accelerator component is a critical issue for emittance preservation. The drastic differences of the transverse focusing strengths as the beam propagates between stages and components may lead to a catastrophic emittance growth even when there is a small energy spread. We propose using the linear focusing forces from nonlinear wakes in longitudinally tailored plasma density profiles to control phase space matching between sections with negligible emittance growth. Several profiles are considered and theoretical analysis and particle-in-cell simulations show how these structures may work in four different scenarios. Good agreement between theory and simulation is obtained, and it is found that the adiabatic approximation misses important physics even for long profiles.

  5. Design and analysis of a low-loss linear analog phase modulator for deep space spacecraft X-band transponder applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mysoor, N. R.; Mueller, R. O.

    1991-01-01

    This article summarizes the design concepts, analyses, and development of an X-band (8145 MHz) transponder low-loss linear phase modulator for deep space spacecraft applications. A single-section breadboard circulator-coupled reflection phase modulator has been analyzed, fabricated, and evaluated. A linear phase deviation of 92 deg with a linearity tolerance of +/- 8 percent was measured for this modulator from 8257 MHz to 8634 MHz over the temperature range -20 to 75 C. The measured insertion loss and the static delay variation with temperature were 2 +/- 0.3 dB and 0.16 psec/ C, respectively. Based on this design, cascaded sections have been modeled, and simulations were performed to provide an X-band deep space transponder (DST) phase modulator with +/- 2.5 radians (+/- 143 deg) of peak phase deviation to accommodate downlink signal modulation with composite telemetry data and ranging, with a deviation linearity tolerance of +/- 8 percent and insertion loss of less than 10 +/- 0.5 dB. A two-section phase modulator using constant gamma hyperabrupt varactors and an efficient modulator driver circuit was breadboarded. The measured results satisfy the DST phase-modulator requirements and show excellent agreement with the predicted results.

  6. 30 CFR 203.31 - If I have a qualified phase 2 or qualified phase 3 ultra-deep well, what royalty relief would...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... production: (1) An original well, 35 BCF. (2) A sidetrack with a sidetrack measured depth of at least 20,000... . . . Then your lease earns an RSV on this volume of gas production: (i) An original well or a sidetrack with... which is 25,000 feet TVD SS, and your lease has had no prior production from a deep or ultra-deep...

  7. 30 CFR 203.31 - If I have a qualified phase 2 or qualified phase 3 ultra-deep well, what royalty relief would...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... that is: Then your lease earns an RSV on this volume of gas production: (1) An original well, 35 BCF... RSV on this volume of gas production: (i) An original well or a sidetrack with a sidetrack measured... your lease has had no prior production from a deep or ultra-deep well. Assuming your lease has...

  8. 30 CFR 203.31 - If I have a qualified phase 2 or qualified phase 3 ultra-deep well, what royalty relief would...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of gas production: (1) An original well, 35 BCF. (2) A sidetrack with a sidetrack measured depth of... ultra-deep well that is . . Then your lease earns an RSV on this volume of gas production: (i) An... meets the condition in § 203.30(b)) of no production from a deep well. However, any remaining RSV...

  9. 30 CFR 203.31 - If I have a qualified phase 2 or qualified phase 3 ultra-deep well, what royalty relief would...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... production: (1) An original well, 35 BCF. (2) A sidetrack with a sidetrack measured depth of at least 20,000... . . . Then your lease earns an RSV on this volume of gas production: (i) An original well or a sidetrack with... which is 25,000 feet TVD SS, and your lease has had no prior production from a deep or ultra-deep...

  10. Structure of northeastern New Mexico from deep seismic reflection profiles: Implications for the Proterozoic tectonic evolution of southwestern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshete, Tefera Gashu

    2001-09-01

    Previous geologic, geochronologic, structural, isotope, and xenolith studies have shown that the Precambrian rocks of northern New Mexico belong to the Yavapai and Mazatzal provinces. The boundary between the provinces is a wide zone defined on its northern edge by the northern extent of 1.65 Ga deformation and southern edge by the southern most extent of Yavapai crust (pre-1.7 Ga). However, the nature of the Precambrian province boundary at depth, its evolution through time, and the tectonic processes that affected the interior of these provinces, are not well understood. In order to obtain new information concerning these problems, processing and interpretation of reflection seismic data was conducted on data collected during the 1999 Continental Dynamics-Rocky Mountain (CD-ROM) project and data obtained from industry. In this study I present new information on the crustal structure of northern New Mexico provided by processing and interpretation of three seismic reflection profiles (NM-1, TB-1 and TB-2).The seismic data present evidence for Precambrian crustal growth and amalgamation, followed by subsequent reactivation of Precambrian structures. A seismic profile and gravity modeling across the NM-1 show a strongly reflective high-density (2850 kg-m-3) dome-shaped body in the middle to lower crust. On the basis of the absence of a hanging-wall antiform, the occurrence of normal sense of deflection of reflectors in the footwall, possibly Moho pullup, and geological information such as an exposed Proterozoic extensional shear zone in the Sandia Mountains, this feature is interpreted to represent a 1.4 Ga? extensional shear zone which resulted in rotation of ˜1.65 Ga imbricate thrust zones. Layered reflectivity directly below the top of Precambrian basement on profiles TB-1 and the eastern part of TB-2, based on geophysical and geological information from nearby areas is interpreted as a sequence of ˜1.4 Ga volcanic and sedimentary rocks within the Proterozoic