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Sample records for deep space network

  1. The deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Presented is Deep Space Network (DSN) progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition (TDA) research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations.

  2. The deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Summaries are given of Deep Space Network progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations.

  3. The Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Deep Space Network progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition, research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations is cited. Topics covered include: tracking and ground based navigation; spacecraft/ground communication; station control and operations technology; ground communications; and deep space stations.

  4. The deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The progress is reported of Deep Space Network (DSN) research in the following areas: (1) flight project support, (2) spacecraft/ground communications, (3) station control and operations technology, (4) network control and processing, and (5) deep space stations. A description of the DSN functions and facilities is included.

  5. The deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The functions and facilities of the Deep Space Network are considered. Progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations is reported.

  6. The deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A report is given of the Deep Space Networks progress in (1) flight project support, (2) tracking and data acquisition research and technology, (3) network engineering, (4) hardware and software implementation, and (5) operations.

  7. The deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A Deep Space Network progress report is presented dealing with in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations.

  8. The deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Progress is reported in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations. The functions and facilities of the Deep Space Network are emphasized.

  9. The deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The facilities, programming system, and monitor and control system for the deep space network are described. Ongoing planetary and interplanetary flight projects are reviewed, along with tracking and ground-based navigation, communications, and network and facility engineering.

  10. The deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The objectives, functions, and organization of the Deep Space Network are summarized along with deep space station, ground communication, and network operations control capabilities. Mission support of ongoing planetary/interplanetary flight projects is discussed with emphasis on Viking orbiter radio frequency compatibility tests, the Pioneer Venus orbiter mission, and Helios-1 mission status and operations. Progress is also reported in tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations.

  11. The Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The objectives, functions, and organization, of the Deep Space Network are summarized. Deep Space stations, ground communications, and network operations control capabilities are described. The network is designed for two-way communications with unmanned spacecraft traveling approximately 1600 km from earth to the farthest planets in the solar system. It has provided tracking and data acquisition support for the following projects: Ranger, Surveyor, Mariner, Pioneer, Apollo, Helios, Viking, and the Lunar Orbiter.

  12. The Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Progress on the Deep Space Network (DSN) supporting research and technology, advanced development, engineering and implementation, and DSN operations is presented. The functions and facilities of the DSN are described.

  13. The Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The various systems and subsystems are discussed for the Deep Space Network (DSN). A description of the DSN is presented along with mission support, program planning, facility engineering, implementation and operations.

  14. The Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) is the largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation network in the world. Its principal responsibilities are to support unmanned interplanetary spacecraft missions and to support radio and radar astronomy observations in the exploration of the solar system and the universe. The DSN facilities and capabilities as of January 1988 are described.

  15. The Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Work accomplished on the Deep Space Network (DSN) was described, including the following topics: supporting research and technology, advanced development and engineering, system implementation, and DSN operations pertaining to mission-independent or multiple-mission development as well as to support of flight projects.

  16. Deep space network energy program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friesema, S. E.

    1980-01-01

    If the Deep Space Network is to exist in a cost effective and reliable manner in the next decade, the problems presented by international energy cost increases and energy availability must be addressed. The Deep Space Network Energy Program was established to implement solutions compatible with the ongoing development of the total network.

  17. The Deep Space Network, volume 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The objectives, functions, and organization of the Deep Space Network are summarized. The Deep Space Instrumentation Facility, the Ground Communications Facility, and the Network Control System are described.

  18. The Deep Space Network Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatti, Mark S.

    2006-01-01

    This document is a viewgraph presentation that reviews the costs, and technological processing required to replace the current network of Deep Space Antennas. The concept of using an array for space communications is much less of a concern than the cost of implementing and operating such an array. Within the cost question, the cost uncertainty of the front-end components (repeated n-times) is of most importance. The activities at JPL have focused on both these aspects of the cost. A breadboard array of three antennas at JPL has been the vehicle to perform many investigations into the development of the new DSN. Several pictures of the antennas at JPL are shown.

  19. Future Plans for NASA's Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, Leslie J.; Preston, Robert A.; Geldzahler, Barry J.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the importance of NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) to space exploration, and future planned improvements to the communication capabilities that the network allows, in terms of precision, and communication power.

  20. The deep space network, volume 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The objectives, functions, and organization of the Deep Space Network are summarized. The deep space instrumentation facility, the ground communications facility, and the network control system are described. Other areas reported include: Helios Mission support, DSN support of the Mariner Mars 1971 extended mission, Mariner Venus/Mercury 1973 mission support, Viking mission support, radio science, tracking and ground-based navigation, network control and data processing, and deep space stations.

  1. RFI receiver. [deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lay, R.

    1980-01-01

    An S-band radio frequency interference (RFI) receiver to analyze and identify sources of RFI problems in the Deep Space Network DSN tracking stations is described. The RFI receiver is a constant gain, double conversion, open loop receiver with dual sine/cosine channel outputs, providing a total of 20 MHZ monitoring capability. This receiver is computer controlled using a MODCOMP II miniprocessor. The RFI receiver has been designed to operate at a 150 Kelvin system noise temperature accomplished by cascading two low noise field effect transistor (FET) amplifiers for the receiver front-end. The first stage low noise FET amplifier is mounted at the feed horn to minimize any cable losses to achieve a lower system noise temperature. The receiver is tunable over the frequency range of 2150 to 2450 MHz in both sine/cosine output channels with a resolution of 100 kHz.

  2. Deep Space Network turbo decoder implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berner, J. B.; Andrews, K. S.

    2000-01-01

    A new decoder is being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Deep Space Network. This unit will decode the new turbo codes, which have recently been approved by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS).

  3. Deep Space Network turbo decoder implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berner, Jeff B.; Andrews, Kenneth S.; Bryant, Scott H.

    2001-01-01

    A new decoder is being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Deep Space Network. This unit will decode the new turbo codes, which have recently been approved by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS). Turbo codes provide up to 0.8 dB improvement in Eb/No over the current best codes used by deep space missions.

  4. The Deep Space Network. [tracking and communication functions and facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The objectives, functions, and organization of the Deep Space Network are summarized. The Deep Space Instrumentation Facility, the Ground Communications Facility, and the Network Control System are described.

  5. The deep space network, volume 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Progress on Deep Space Network (DSN) supporting research and technology is presented, together with advanced development and engineering, implementation, and DSN operations of flight projects. The DSN is described. Interplanetary and planetary flight projects and radio science experiments are discussed. Tracking and navigational accuracy analysis, communications systems and elements research, and supporting research are considered. Development of the ground communications and deep space instrumentation facilities is also presented. Network allocation schedules and angle tracking and test development are included.

  6. The deep space network, Volume 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Deep Space Network progress in flight project support, Tracking and Data Acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations are presented. Material is presented in each of the following categories: description of DSN; mission support; radio science; support research and technology; network engineering and implementation; and operations and facilities.

  7. NASA Deep Space Network Operations Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enari, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    The functioning of the Deep Space Network Operations Scheduling, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, CA is reviewed. The primary objectives of the Operations Scheduling are: to schedule the worldwide global allocation of ground communications, tracking facilities, and equipment; and to provide deep space telecommunications for command, tracking, telemetry, and control in support of flight mission operations and tests. Elements of the earth set are Deep Space Stations (DSS) which provide the telecommunications link between the earth and spacecraft; NASA Communications Network; Network Data Processing Area; Network Operations Control Area which provides operational direction to the DSS; Mission Control and Computing systems; and Mission Support areas which provide flight control of the spacecraft. Elements of the space set include mission priorities and requirements which determine the spacecraft queue for allocating network resources. Scheduling is discussed in terms of long-range (3 years), mid-range (8 weeks), and short-range (2 weeks).

  8. The deep space network, volume 18. [Deep Space Instrumentation Facility, Ground Communication Facility, and Network Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The objectives, functions, and organization of the Deep Space Network are summarized. The Deep Space Instrumentation Facility, the Ground Communications Facility, and the Network Control System are described.

  9. The deep space network, volume 12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Progress in the development of the DSN is reported along with TDA research and technology, network engineering, hardware, and software implementation. Included are descriptions of the DSN function and facilities, Helios mission support, Mariner Venus/Mercury 1973 mission support, Viking mission support, tracking and ground-based navigation, communications, network control and data processing, and deep space stations.

  10. The Deep Space Network, volume 39

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The functions, facilities, and capabilities of the Deep Space Network and its support of the Pioneer, Helios, and Viking missions are described. Progress in tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering and modifications, as well as hardware and software implementation and operations are reported.

  11. The deep space network, volume 15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The DSN progress is reported in flight project support, TDA research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations. Topics discussed include: DSN functions and facilities, planetary flight projects, tracking and ground-based navigation, communications, data processing, network control system, and deep space stations.

  12. Helios mission support. [Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, P. S.; Rockwell, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    Activities of the Deep Space Network Operations organization in support of the Helios Project from 15 October 1977 through 15 December 1977 are described. Topics covered include: (1) Mark 3 data subsystem testing at the conjoint Deep Space Stations (DSS) 42/43 (Canberra, Australia); (2) MDS implementation at DSS 61/63 (Madrid, Spain); (3) Radio Science update, and (4) other mission-related activities.

  13. The deep space network, volume 19

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The progress is reported in the DSN for Nov. and Dec. 1973. Research is described for the following areas: functions and facilities, mission support for flight projects, tracking and ground-based navigation, spacecraft/ground communication, network control and operations technology, and deep space stations.

  14. Evolutionary Scheduler for the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillaume, Alexandre; Lee, Seungwon; Wang, Yeou-Fang; Zheng, Hua; Chau, Savio; Tung, Yu-Wen; Terrile, Richard J.; Hovden, Robert

    2010-01-01

    A computer program assists human schedulers in satisfying, to the maximum extent possible, competing demands from multiple spacecraft missions for utilization of the transmitting/receiving Earth stations of NASA s Deep Space Network. The program embodies a concept of optimal scheduling to attain multiple objectives in the presence of multiple constraints.

  15. The deep space network, volume 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Progress on the Deep Space Network (DSN) supporting research and technology is reported. The objectives, functions and facilities of the DSN are described along with the mission support for the following: interplanetary flight projects, planetary flight projects, and manned space flight projects. Work in advanced engineering and communications systems is reported along with changes in hardware and software configurations in the DSN/MSFN tracking stations.

  16. Operability engineering in the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, Belinda

    1993-01-01

    Many operability problems exist at the three Deep Space Communications Complexes (DSCC's) of the Deep Space Network (DSN). Four years ago, the position of DSN Operability Engineer was created to provide the opportunity for someone to take a system-level approach to solving these problems. Since that time, a process has been developed for personnel and development engineers and for enforcing user interface standards in software designed for the DSCC's. Plans are for the participation of operations personnel in the product life-cycle to expand in the future.

  17. The Deep Space Network Advanced Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davarian, Faramaz

    2010-01-01

    The deep space network (DSN)--with its three complexes in Goldstone, California, Madrid, Spain, and Canberra, Australia--provides the resources to track and communicate with planetary and deep space missions. Each complex consists of an array of capabilities for tracking probes almost anywhere in the solar system. A number of innovative hardware, software and procedural tools are used for day-to-day operations at DSN complexes as well as at the network control at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Systems and technologies employed by the network include large-aperture antennas (34-m and 70-m), cryogenically cooled receivers, high-power transmitters, stable frequency and timing distribution assemblies, modulation and coding schemes, spacecraft transponders, radiometric tracking techniques, etc. The DSN operates at multiple frequencies, including the 2-GHz band, the 7/8-GHz band, and the 32/34-GHz band.

  18. Deep space network software cost estimation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    A parametric software cost estimation model prepared for Jet PRopulsion Laboratory (JPL) Deep Space Network (DSN) Data System implementation tasks is described. The resource estimation mdel modifies and combines a number of existing models. The model calibrates the task magnitude and difficulty, development environment, and software technology effects through prompted responses to a set of approximately 50 questions. Parameters in the model are adjusted to fit JPL software life-cycle statistics.

  19. A history of the deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corliss, W. R.

    1976-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) has been managed and operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) under NASA contract ever since NASA was formed in late 1958. The Tracking and data acquisition tasks of the DSN are markedly different from those of the other NASA network, STDN. STDN, which is an amalgamation of the satellite tracking network (STADAN) and the Manned Space Flight Network (MSFN), is primarily concerned with supporting manned and unmanned earth satellites. In contrast, the DSN deals with spacecraft that are thousands to hundreds of millions of miles away. The radio signals from these distant craft are many orders of magnitude weaker than those from nearby satellites. Distance also makes precise radio location more difficult; and accurate trajectory data are vital to deep space navigation in the vicinities of the other planets of the solar system. In addition to tracking spacecraft and acquiring data from them, the DSN is required to transmit many thousands of commands to control the sophisticated planetary probes and interplanetary monitoring stations. To meet these demanding requirements, the DSN has been compelled to be in the forefront of technology.

  20. Deep space network software cost estimation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    A parametric software cost estimation model prepared for Deep Space Network (DSN) Data Systems implementation tasks is presented. The resource estimation model incorporates principles and data from a number of existing models. The model calibrates task magnitude and difficulty, development environment, and software technology effects through prompted responses to a set of approximately 50 questions. Parameters in the model are adjusted to fit DSN software life cycle statistics. The estimation model output scales a standard DSN Work Breakdown Structure skeleton, which is then input into a PERT/CPM system, producing a detailed schedule and resource budget for the project being planned.

  1. The Deep Space Network. An instrument for radio navigation of deep space probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renzetti, N. A.; Jordan, J. F.; Berman, A. L.; Wackley, J. A.; Yunck, T. P.

    1982-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) network configurations used to generate the navigation observables and the basic process of deep space spacecraft navigation, from data generation through flight path determination and correction are described. Special emphasis is placed on the DSN Systems which generate the navigation data: the DSN Tracking and VLBI Systems. In addition, auxiliary navigational support functions are described.

  2. Deep Space Network information system architecture study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beswick, C. A.; Markley, R. W. (Editor); Atkinson, D. J.; Cooper, L. P.; Tausworthe, R. C.; Masline, R. C.; Jenkins, J. S.; Crowe, R. A.; Thomas, J. L.; Stoloff, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe an architecture for the Deep Space Network (DSN) information system in the years 2000-2010 and to provide guidelines for its evolution during the 1990s. The study scope is defined to be from the front-end areas at the antennas to the end users (spacecraft teams, principal investigators, archival storage systems, and non-NASA partners). The architectural vision provides guidance for major DSN implementation efforts during the next decade. A strong motivation for the study is an expected dramatic improvement in information-systems technologies, such as the following: computer processing, automation technology (including knowledge-based systems), networking and data transport, software and hardware engineering, and human-interface technology. The proposed Ground Information System has the following major features: unified architecture from the front-end area to the end user; open-systems standards to achieve interoperability; DSN production of level 0 data; delivery of level 0 data from the Deep Space Communications Complex, if desired; dedicated telemetry processors for each receiver; security against unauthorized access and errors; and highly automated monitor and control.

  3. Remote observing with NASA's Deep Space Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Majid, W. A.; Martinez, S.; Garcia-Miro, C.; Rizzo, J. R.

    2012-09-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) communicates with spacecraft as far away as the boundary between the Solar System and the interstellar medium. To make this possible, large sensitive antennas at Canberra, Australia, Goldstone, California, and Madrid, Spain, provide for constant communication with interplanetary missions. We describe the procedures for radioastronomical observations using this network. Remote access to science monitor and control computers by authorized observers is provided by two-factor authentication through a gateway at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena. To make such observations practical, we have devised schemes based on SSH tunnels and distributed computing. At the very minimum, one can use SSH tunnels and VNC (Virtual Network Computing, a remote desktop software suite) to control the science hosts within the DSN Flight Operations network. In this way we have controlled up to three telescopes simultaneously. However, X-window updates can be slow and there are issues involving incompatible screen sizes and multi-screen displays. Consequently, we are now developing SSH tunnel-based schemes in which instrument control and monitoring, and intense data processing, are done on-site by the remote DSN hosts while data manipulation and graphical display are done at the observer's host. We describe our approaches to various challenges, our experience with what worked well and lessons learned, and directions for future development.

  4. The Deep Space Network stability analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breidenthal, Julian C.; Greenhall, Charles A.; Hamell, Robert L.; Kuhnle, Paul F.

    1995-01-01

    A stability analyzer for testing NASA Deep Space Network installations during flight radio science experiments is described. The stability analyzer provides realtime measurements of signal properties of general experimental interest: power, phase, and amplitude spectra; Allan deviation; and time series of amplitude, phase shift, and differential phase shift. Input ports are provided for up to four 100 MHz frequency standards and eight baseband analog (greater than 100 kHz bandwidth) signals. Test results indicate the following upper bounds to noise floors when operating on 100 MHz signals: -145 dBc/Hz for phase noise spectrum further than 200 Hz from carrier, 2.5 x 10(exp -15) (tau =1 second) and 1.5 x 10(exp -17) (tau =1000 seconds) for Allan deviation, and 1 x 10(exp -4) degrees for 1-second averages of phase deviation. Four copies of the stability analyzer have been produced, plus one transportable unit for use at non-NASA observatories.

  5. Beam waveguides in the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauss, R. C.; Smith, J. G.

    1987-01-01

    A beam waveguide is a mechanism for guiding electromagnetic radiation from one part of an antenna to another through a series of reflectors. Appropriate placement of reflectors on an antenna allows a beam to be guided around the elevation axis and/or below the alidade. The beam waveguide permits placement of all electronics in a room on the alidade below the elevation axis, or below the alidade; feed horn covers to be protected from the weather; and feed electronics to be in spacious rooms rather than in crowded cones, and always level rather than tipping with change in elevation angle. These factors can lead to lower costs in implementation such as Ka-band, better antenna performance at X-band, more efficient and stable performance of transmitters and receivers, and lower maintenance and operating costs. Studies are underway to determine methods for converting the major antennas of the Deep Space Network (DSN) to beam waveguide operations by 1995.

  6. The Deep Space Network: A Radio Communications Instrument for Deep Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renzetti, N. A.; Stelzried, C. T.; Noreen, G. K.; Slobin, S. D.; Petty, S. M.; Trowbridge, D. L.; Donnelly, H.; Kinman, P. W.; Armstrong, J. W.; Burow, N. A.

    1983-01-01

    The primary purpose of the Deep Space Network (DSN) is to serve as a communications instrument for deep space exploration, providing communications between the spacecraft and the ground facilities. The uplink communications channel provides instructions or commands to the spacecraft. The downlink communications channel provides command verification and spacecraft engineering and science instrument payload data.

  7. Deep Space Network Radiometric Remote Sensing Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Steven J.

    1994-01-01

    Planetary spacecraft are viewed through a troposphere that absorbs and delays radio signals propagating through it. Tropospheric water, in the form of vapor, cloud liquid, and precipitation, emits radio noise which limits satellite telemetry communication link performance. Even at X-band, rain storms have severely affected several satellite experiments including a planetary encounter. The problem will worsen with DSN implementation of Ka-band because communication link budgets will be dominated by tropospheric conditions. Troposphere-induced propagation delays currently limit VLBI accuracy and are significant sources of error for Doppler tracking. Additionally, the success of radio science programs such as satellite gravity wave experiments and atmospheric occultation experiments depends on minimizing the effect of water vapor-induced propagation delays. In order to overcome limitations imposed by the troposphere, the Deep Space Network has supported a program of radiometric remote sensing. Currently, water vapor radiometers (WVRs) and microwave temperature profilers (MTPs) support many aspects of the Deep Space Network operations and research and development programs. Their capability to sense atmospheric water, microwave sky brightness, and atmospheric temperature is critical to development of Ka-band telemetry systems, communication link models, VLBI, satellite gravity wave experiments, and radio science missions. During 1993, WVRs provided data for propagation model development, supported planetary missions, and demonstrated advanced tracking capability. Collection of atmospheric statistics is necessary to model and predict performance of Ka-band telemetry links, antenna arrays, and radio science experiments. Since the spectrum of weather variations has power at very long time scales, atmospheric measurements have been requested for periods ranging from one year to a decade at each DSN site. The resulting database would provide reliable statistics on daily

  8. Deep Space Network information system architecture study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beswick, C. A.; Markley, R. W. (Editor); Atkinson, D. J.; Cooper, L. P.; Tausworthe, R. C.; Masline, R. C.; Jenkins, J. S.; Crowe, R. A.; Thomas, J. L.; Stoloff, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe an architecture for the DSN information system in the years 2000-2010 and to provide guidelines for its evolution during the 1990's. The study scope is defined to be from the front-end areas at the antennas to the end users (spacecraft teams, principal investigators, archival storage systems, and non-NASA partners). The architectural vision provides guidance for major DSN implementation efforts during the next decade. A strong motivation for the study is an expected dramatic improvement in information-systems technologies--i.e., computer processing, automation technology (including knowledge-based systems), networking and data transport, software and hardware engineering, and human-interface technology. The proposed Ground Information System has the following major features: unified architecture from the front-end area to the end user; open-systems standards to achieve interoperability; DSN production of level 0 data; delivery of level 0 data from the Deep Space Communications Complex, if desired; dedicated telemetry processors for each receiver; security against unauthorized access and errors; and highly automated monitor and control.

  9. Statistical porcess control in Deep Space Network operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodder, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes how the Deep Space Mission System (DSMS) Operations Program Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (EL) uses Statistical Process Control (SPC) to monitor performance and evaluate initiatives for improving processes on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Deep Space Network (DSN).

  10. Deep Space Network Antenna Logic Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahlstrom, Harlow; Morgan, Scott; Hames, Peter; Strain, Martha; Owen, Christopher; Shimizu, Kenneth; Wilson, Karen; Shaller, David; Doktomomtaz, Said; Leung, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    The Antenna Logic Controller (ALC) software controls and monitors the motion control equipment of the 4,000-metric-ton structure of the Deep Space Network 70-meter antenna. This program coordinates the control of 42 hydraulic pumps, while monitoring several interlocks for personnel and equipment safety. Remote operation of the ALC runs via the Antenna Monitor & Control (AMC) computer, which orchestrates the tracking functions of the entire antenna. This software provides a graphical user interface for local control, monitoring, and identification of faults as well as, at a high level, providing for the digital control of the axis brakes so that the servo of the AMC may control the motion of the antenna. Specific functions of the ALC also include routines for startup in cold weather, controlled shutdown for both normal and fault situations, and pump switching on failure. The increased monitoring, the ability to trend key performance characteristics, the improved fault detection and recovery, the centralization of all control at a single panel, and the simplification of the user interface have all reduced the required workforce to run 70-meter antennas. The ALC also increases the antenna availability by reducing the time required to start up the antenna, to diagnose faults, and by providing additional insight into the performance of key parameters that aid in preventive maintenance to avoid key element failure. The ALC User Display (AUD) is a graphical user interface with hierarchical display structure, which provides high-level status information to the operation of the ALC, as well as detailed information for virtually all aspects of the ALC via drill-down displays. The operational status of an item, be it a function or assembly, is shown in the higher-level display. By pressing the item on the display screen, a new screen opens to show more detail of the function/assembly. Navigation tools and the map button allow immediate access to all screens.

  11. Considerations on communications network protocols in deep space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clare, L. P.; Agre, J. R.; Yan, T.

    2001-01-01

    Communications supporting deep space missions impose numerous unique constraints that impact the architectural choices made for cost-effectiveness. We are entering the era where networks that exist in deep space are needed to support planetary exploration. Cost-effective performance will require a balanced integration of applicable widely used standard protocols with new and innovative designs.

  12. The Future of the Deep Space Network: Technology Development for K2-Band Deep Space Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhanji, Alaudin M.

    1999-01-01

    Projections indicate that in the future the number of NASA's robotic deep space missions is likely to increase significantly. A launch rate of up to 4-6 launches per year is projected with up to 25 simultaneous missions active [I]. Future high resolution mapping missions to other planetary bodies as well as other experiments are likely to require increased downlink capacity. These future deep space communications requirements will, according to baseline loading analysis, exceed the capacity of NASA's Deep Space Network in its present form. There are essentially two approaches for increasing the channel capacity of the Deep Space Network. Given the near-optimum performance of the network at the two deep space communications bands, S-Band (uplink 2.025-2.120 GHz, downlink 2.2-2.3 GHz), and X-Band (uplink 7.145-7.19 GHz, downlink 8.48.5 GHz), additional improvements bring only marginal return for the investment. Thus the only way to increase channel capacity is simply to construct more antennas, receivers, transmitters and other hardware. This approach is relatively low-risk but involves increasing both the number of assets in the network and operational costs.

  13. Deep Space Network, Cryogenic HEMT LNAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bautista, J. Javier

    2006-01-01

    Exploration of the Solar System with automated spacecraft that are more than ten astronomical units (1 AU = 149,597,870.691 km) from earth requires very large antennae employing extremely sensitive receivers. A key figure of merit in the specification of the spacecraft-to-earth telecommunications link is the ratio of the antenna gain to operatio nal noise temperature (G/Top) of the system. The Deep Space Network (DSN) receivers are cryogenic, low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) which addres s the need to maintain Top as low as technology permits. Historicall y, the extra-ordinarily sensitive receive systems operated by the DSN have required ctyogenically cooled, ruby masers, operating at a physi cal temperature near the boiling point of helium, as the LNA. Althoug h masers continue to be used today, they are hand crafted at JPL and expensive to manufacture and maintain. Recent advances in the developm ent of indium phosphide (InP) based high electron mobility transistor s (HEMTs) combined with cryogenic cooling near the boiling point of h ydrogen have made this alternate technology comparable with and a fraction of the cost of maser technology. InP HEMT LNA modules are demons trating noise temperatures less than ten times the quantum noise limi t (10hf/k) from 1 to 100 GHz. To date, the lowest noise LNA modules developed for the DSN have demonstrated noise temperatures of 3.5 K and 8.5 K at 8.5 K at 32 GHz, respectively. Front-end receiver packages employing these modules have demonstrated operating system noise temperatures of 17 K at 8.4 GHz (on a 70m antenna at zenith) and 39 K at 3 2 GHz (on a 34m antenna at zenith). The development and demonstration of cryogenic, InP HEMT based front-end amplifiers for the DSN requir es accurate component and module characterization, and modeling from 1 to 100 GHz at physical temperatures down to 12 K. The characterizati on and modeling begins with the HEMT chip, proceeds to the multi-stag e HEMT LNA module, and culminates with the

  14. Sub-microradian pointing for deep space optical telecommunications network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, G.; Lee, S.; Alexander, J.

    2001-01-01

    This presentation will cover innovative hardware, algorithms, architectures, techniques and recent laboratory results that are applicable to all deep space optical communication links, such as the Mars Telecommunication Network to future interstellar missions.

  15. Transforming the deep space network into the Interplanetary Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, William J.; Cesarone, Robert J.; Abraham, Douglas S.; Doms, Peter E.; Doyle, Richard J.; Edwards, Charles D.; Hooke, Adrian J.; Lesh, James R.; Miller, Richard B.

    2006-04-01

    Space exploration missions are undergoing a significant transformation as are the expectations of their scientific investigators and the public who participate in these great voyages of exploration. The early reconnaissance missions are giving way to a new data-intensive era of long duration observational outposts, landed vehicles, sample returns, and multi-spacecraft fleets and constellations. Mars exploration has already become a special case of the new operational mode; other destinations will follow. These changes will require orders of magnitude increases in data rates, highly automated and standardized data communications between the remote locations and Earth, more transparent and responsive mission operations procedures, and the ability to engage the public by giving them Internet-based visibility into the missions as they unfold. The new area will demand a new paradigm for the Deep Space Network, with increased emphasis on data networking and the data processing applications that allow users to become more intimately engaged with the conduct of the mission. We call this new paradigm the Interplanetary Network. Its vision is seamless connectivity between scientists and their instruments, new data analysis and visualization tools that will greatly enhance and enable new modes of space exploration, and the involvement of the public via web-based “telepresence.”

  16. The Deep Space Network: An instrument for radio science research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renzetti, N. A.

    1981-01-01

    Doppler and ranging data routinely generated at the Deep Space Stations of the California Institute of Technology-Jet Propulsion Laboratory Deep Space Network serve as an excellent source of radio science information. Important radio science experiments based on Deep Space Network generated radio metric data have included confirmation of Einstein's Theory of Relativity, measurement of the masses and gravitational harmonics of the planets out to Saturn, and measurement of electron density distribution and turbulence in the solar corona. In response to an increased level of radio science requirements, the Deep Space Network chose in 1976 to implement a new radio science system, which was completed in late 1978. Key features include (1) highly phase stable open loop receivers, (2) reduction of recorded data bandwidth through use of programmed local oscillators, and (3) real time digitization and recording on computer compatible tape.

  17. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report. [Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    In space communications, radio navigation, radio science, and ground based radio and radar astronomy, activities of the Deep Space Network and its associated Ground Communications Facility in planning, in supporting research and technology, in implementation, and in operations are reported. Also included is TDA funded activity at JPL on data and information systems and reimbursable DSN work performed for other space agencies through NASA.

  18. Radio frequency interference protection of communications between the Deep Space Network and deep space flight projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, D. W. H.

    1981-01-01

    The increasing density of electrical and electronic circuits in Deep Space Station systems for computation, control, and numerous related functions has combined with the extension of system performance requirements calling for higher speed circuitry along with broader bandwidths. This has progressively increased the number of potential sources of radio frequency interference inside the stations. Also, the extension of spectrum usage both in power and frequency as well as the greater density of usage at all frequencies for national and international satellite communications, space research, Earth resource operations and defense, and particularly the huge expansion of airborne electronic warfare and electronic countermeasures operations in the Mojave area have greatly increased the potential number and severity of radio frequency interference incidents. The various facets of this problem and the efforts to eliminate or minimize the impact of interference on Deep Space Network support of deep space flight projects are described.

  19. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report. [Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    This publication, one of a series formerly titled The Deep Space Network Progress Report, documents DSN progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations. In addition, developments in Earth-based radio technology as applied to geodynamics, astrophysics and the radio search for extraterrestrial intelligence are reported.

  20. Telecommunications technology development for the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, J. H.; Resch, G. M.; Stelzried, C. T.

    1989-01-01

    The telecommunications technology that is currently being developed for the Deep Space Network (DSN), a system providing communications and navigation support for NASA's deep space missions, is discussed. The major areas of development include Ka-band (32 GHz) technology, beam waveguide antennas, low-noise amplifiers, coding, navigation techniques, high-power transmitters, and optical technology. The expected payoffs of the new technology during the mid-1990's and later are examined.

  1. Telecommunications technology development for the Deep Space Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, J. H.; Resch, G. M.; Stelzried, C. T.

    1989-10-01

    The telecommunications technology that is currently being developed for the Deep Space Network (DSN), a system providing communications and navigation support for NASA's deep space missions, is discussed. The major areas of development include Ka-band (32 GHz) technology, beam waveguide antennas, low-noise amplifiers, coding, navigation techniques, high-power transmitters, and optical technology. The expected payoffs of the new technology during the mid-1990's and later are examined.

  2. An OSI architecture for the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heuser, W. R.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents an Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) architecture developed for the Deep Space Network. An historical review is provided to establish the context for current United States Government policy on interprocessor communication standards. An introduction to the OSI architecture, its seven-layer approach, and an overview of application service entities are furnished as a tutorial. Finally, the results of a prototype system developed for monitor and control of a Deep Space Station are also presented.

  3. The Deep Space Network: An instrument for radio astronomy research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renzetti, N. A.; Levy, G. S.; Kuiper, T. B. H.; Walken, P. R.; Chandlee, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Deep Space Network operates and maintains the Earth-based two-way communications link for unmanned spacecraft exploring the solar system. It is NASA's policy to also make the Network's facilities available for radio astronomy observations. The Network's microwave communication systems and facilities are being continually upgraded. This revised document, first published in 1982, describes the Network's current radio astronomy capabilities and future capabilities that will be made available by the ongoing Network upgrade. The Bibliography, which includes published papers and articles resulting from radio astronomy observations conducted with Network facilities, has been updated to include papers to May 1987.

  4. Summary of DSN (Deep Space Network) reimbursable launch support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanelli, N. A.; Wyatt, M. E.

    1988-01-01

    The Deep Space Network is providing ground support to space agencies of foreign governments as well as to NASA and other agencies of the Federal government which are involved in space activities. DSN funding for support of missions other than NASA are on either a cooperative or a reimbursable basis. Cooperative funding and support are accomplished in the same manner as NASA sponsored missions. Reimbursable launch funding and support methods are described.

  5. The deep space network, volume 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    DSN progress during Jan. and Feb. 1973 is reported. Areas of accomplishment include: flight project support, TDA research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations.

  6. The deep space network, volume 16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The objectives, functions, and organization of the DSN are summarized, and the instrumentation facility, ground communication facility, and the network control system are described. The requirements for supporting planetary flight projects are discussed along with the research and technology for tracking, navigation, network control, and data processing.

  7. Clocks and timing in the NASA Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauf, J.; Calhoun, M.; Diener, W.; Gonzalez, J.; Kirk, A.; Kuhnle, P.; Tucker, B.; Kirby, C.; Tjoelker, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    A new timing system has been developed for the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) and is currently in the final stages of integration, testing and implementation in all three DSN sites. The DSN is a distributed antenna network for deep space communication, whose facilities are continuously engaged in spacecraft tracking, Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) or Radio Astronomy activities. Its primary components consist of three Deep Space Communication Centers (DSCC) separated nearly equidistant around the Earth in California, USA; Spain; and Australia. Within each DSCC, synchronized, low jitter timing signals must be distributed to many users over distances of up to 30 kilometers. The design criteria for the timing system required state of the art stability and jitter performance, but also extremely high operability and reliability. This paper describes some of the key features and recent system performance data as measured both in the laboratory and the operational DSN.

  8. RFI prevention for colocated antennas. [deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, T. K.

    1980-01-01

    Potential radio frequency interference problems related to the colocation of antennas for the Mark 4-A Deep Space network are analyzed. Cases discussed include effects of S-band uplinks on X-band downlinks and S-band downlinks, planetary radar at Goldstone, future X-band uplink, radiometer measurements, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence instrument, and radio astronomy projects. Remedial actions are suggested.

  9. The Deep Space Network Tracking System, Mark 4-A, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wackley, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) Tracking System provides highly precise measurements of spacecraft Doppler and range. It was recently extensively modified as part of the Mark 4-A implementation. The DSN Tracking System as currently implemented, its performance in support of Voyager 2, and plans for new implementation are described.

  10. Neural network based satellite tracking for deep space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amoozegar, F.; Ruggier, C.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a survey of neural network trends as applied to the tracking of spacecrafts in deep space at Ka-band under various weather conditions and examine the trade-off between tracing accuracy and communication link performance.

  11. Automating Deep Space Network scheduling and conflict resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Clement, Bradley

    2005-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) is a central part of NASA's infrastructure for communicating with active space missions, from earth orbit to beyond the solar system. We describe our recent work in modeling the complexities of user requirements, and then scheduling and resolving conflicts on that basis. We emphasize our innovative use of background 'intelligent' assistants' that carry out search asynchrnously while the user is focusing on various aspects of the schedule.

  12. A Deep Space Network Portable Radio Science Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jongeling, Andre P.; Sigman, Elliott H.; Chandra, Kumar; Trinh, Joseph T.; Navarro, Robert; Rogstad, Stephen P.; Goodhart, Charles E.; Proctor, Robert C.; Finley, Susan G.; White, Leslie A.

    2009-01-01

    The Radio Science Receiver (RSR) is an open-loop receiver installed in NASA s Deep Space Network (DSN), which digitally filters and records intermediate-frequency (IF) analog signals. The RSR is an important tool for the Cassini Project, which uses it to measure perturbations of the radio-frequency wave as it travels between the spacecraft and the ground stations, allowing highly detailed study of the composition of the rings, atmosphere, and surface of Saturn and its satellites.

  13. The Deep Space Network information system in the year 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, R. W.; Beswick, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN), the largest, most sensitive scientific communications and radio navigation network in the world, is considered. Focus is made on the telemetry processing, monitor and control, and ground data transport architectures of the DSN ground information system envisioned for the year 2000. The telemetry architecture will be unified from the front-end area to the end user. It will provide highly automated monitor and control of the DSN, automated configuration of support activities, and a vastly improved human interface. Automated decision support systems will be in place for DSN resource management, performance analysis, fault diagnosis, and contingency management.

  14. Three-Dimensional Analysis of Deep Space Network Antenna Coverage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kegege, Obadiah; Fuentes, Michael; Meyer, Nicholas; Sil, Amy

    2012-01-01

    There is a need to understand NASA s Deep Space Network (DSN) coverage gaps and any limitations to provide redundant communication coverage for future deep space missions, especially for manned missions to Moon and Mars. The DSN antennas are required to provide continuous communication coverage for deep space flights, interplanetary missions, and deep space scientific observations. The DSN consists of ground antennas located at three sites: Goldstone in USA, Canberra in Australia, and Madrid in Spain. These locations are not separated by the exactly 120 degrees and some DSN antennas are located in the bowl-shaped mountainous terrain to shield against radiofrequency interference resulting in a coverage gap in the southern hemisphere for the current DSN architecture. To analyze the extent of this gap and other coverage limitations, simulations of the DSN architecture were performed. In addition to the physical properties of the DSN assets, the simulation incorporated communication forward link calculations and azimuth/elevation masks that constrain the effects of terrain for each DSN antenna. Analysis of the simulation data was performed to create coverage profiles with the receiver settings at a deep space altitudes ranging from 2 million to 10 million km and a spherical grid resolution of 0.25 degrees with respect to longitude and latitude. With the results of these simulations, two- and three-dimensional representations of the area without communication coverage and area with coverage were developed, showing the size and shape of the communication coverage gap projected in space. Also, the significance of this communication coverage gap is analyzed from the simulation data.

  15. Gravitational wave searches using the DSN (Deep Space Network)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, S. J.; Armstrong, J. W.

    1988-01-01

    The Deep Space Network Doppler spacecraft link is currently the only method available for broadband gravitational wave searches in the 0.01 to 0.001 Hz frequency range. The DSN's role in the worldwide search for gravitational waves is described by first summarizing from the literature current theoretical estimates of gravitational wave strengths and time scales from various astrophysical sources. Current and future detection schemes for ground based and space based detectors are then discussed. Past, present, and future planned or proposed gravitational wave experiments using DSN Doppler tracking are described. Lastly, some major technical challenges to improve gravitational wave sensitivities using the DSN are discussed.

  16. Precision Pulsar Timing with NASA's Deep Space Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majid, Walid; Lazio, Joseph; Teitelbaum, Lawrence

    2015-08-01

    Millisecond pulsars are a class of radio pulsars with extremely stable rotations. The excellent timing stability of millisecond pulsars can be used to study a wide variety of astrophysical phenomena. In particular, observations of a large sample of these pulsars can be used to detect the presence of low-frequency gravitational waves. We have developed a precision pulsar timing backend for the Deep Space Network (DSN), which will allow the use of short gaps in tracking schedules to observe and time pulses from an ensemble of millisecond pulsars. The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) operates clusters of large dish antennas (up to 70-m in diameter), located roughly equi-distant around the Earth, for communication and tracking of deep-space spacecraft. The backend system will be capable of removing entirely the dispersive effects of propagation of radio waves through the interstellar medium in real-time. We will describe our development work, initial results, and prospects for future observations over the next few years.

  17. A distributed data base management system. [for Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, A. I.

    1975-01-01

    Major system design features of a distributed data management system for the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) designed for continuous two-way deep space communications are described. The reasons for which the distributed data base utilizing third-generation minicomputers is selected as the optimum approach for the DSN are threefold: (1) with a distributed master data base, valid data is available in real-time to support DSN management activities at each location; (2) data base integrity is the responsibility of local management; and (3) the data acquisition/distribution and processing power of a third-generation computer enables the computer to function successfully as a data handler or as an on-line process controller. The concept of the distributed data base is discussed along with the software, data base integrity, and hardware used. The data analysis/update constraint is examined.

  18. Evolution of the large Deep Space Network antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imbriale, William A.

    1991-12-01

    The evolution of the largest antenna of the US NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) is described. The design, performance analysis, and measurement techniques, beginning with its initial 64-m operation at S-band (2295 MHz) in 1966 and continuing through the present ka-band (32-GHz) operation at 70 m, is described. Although their diameters and mountings differ, these parabolic antennas all employ a Cassegrainian feed system, and each antenna dish surface is constructed of precision-shaped perforated-aluminum panels that are secured to an open steel framework

  19. Relocation of the Deep Space Network Maintenance Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beutler, K. F.

    1981-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory maintains a Deep Space Network (DSN) maintenance center (DMC), whose task is to engineer and manage the repair and calibration program for the electronic and mechanical equipment used in the tracking stations located at Madrid, Spain, and Canberra, Australia. The DMC also manages the Goldstone complex maintenance facility (GCMF), whose task is to repair and calibrate the Goldstone electronic and mechanical equipment. The rationale for moving the facility to Barstow, California, and the benefits derived from the move are discussed.

  20. Deep space network resource scheduling approach and application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggemeyer, William C.; Bowling, Alan

    1987-01-01

    Deep Space Network (DSN) resource scheduling is the process of distributing ground-based facilities to track multiple spacecraft. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has carried out extensive research to find ways of automating this process in an effort to reduce time and manpower costs. This paper presents a resource-scheduling system entitled PLAN-IT with a description of its design philosophy. The PLAN-IT's current on-line usage and limitations in scheduling the resources of the DSN are discussed, along with potential enhancements for DSN application.

  1. Frequency Domain Beamforming for a Deep Space Network Downlink Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a frequency domain beamformer to array up to 8 antennas of NASA's Deep Space Network currently in development. The objective of this array is to replace and enhance the capability of the DSN 70m antennas with multiple 34m antennas for telemetry, navigation and radio science use. The array will coherently combine the entire 500 MHz of usable bandwidth available to DSN receivers. A frequency domain beamforming architecture was chosen over a time domain based architecture to handle the large signal bandwidth and efficiently perform delay and phase calibration. The antennas of the DSN are spaced far enough apart that random atmospheric and phase variations between antennas need to be calibrated out on an ongoing basis in real-time. The calibration is done using measurements obtained from a correlator. This DSN Downlink Array expands upon a proof of concept breadboard array built previously to develop the technology and will become an operational asset of the Deep Space Network. Design parameters for frequency channelization, array calibration and delay corrections will be presented as well a method to efficiently calibrate the array for both wide and narrow bandwidth telemetry.

  2. Telecommunications technology development for the Deep Space Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, J. H.; Resch, G. M.; Stelzried, C. T.

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) is sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Office of Space Operations, and provides, communications and navigation support for NASA's deep space missions, lunar and high Earth orbiters. It has continuously evolving facilities whose instruments are also used for planetary radar, radio science, and radio astronomy. Over the past 30 years, the communications and navigation performance has increased many orders of magnitude. The receiving sensitivity and radio metric data accuracy are near the present-day achievable limits and are upgraded as mission needs, technology developments, and resources direct. Despite the technological evolution that is continuously underway, operations are highly reliable and versatile for the various mission requirements. Advanced technologies are being aggressively developed to improve future DSN capabilities. These advanced technologies, will be implemented into the DSN and will provide greater freedom to trade-off communications and navigational capability against mass and power on a spacecraft. The major areas that are currently being developed include Ka-Band (32 GHz) technology, beam waveguide antennas, low noise amplifiers, coding, navigation techniques, high power transmitters, and optical technology. This paper discusses the technology that is currently being developed for the DSN and its expected dividends during the mid-1990s and later.

  3. Automated monitor and control for deep space network subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, P.

    1989-01-01

    The problem of automating monitor and control loops for Deep Space Network (DSN) subsystems is considered and an overview of currently available automation techniques is given. The use of standard numerical models, knowledge-based systems, and neural networks is considered. It is argued that none of these techniques alone possess sufficient generality to deal with the demands imposed by the DSN environment. However, it is shown that schemes that integrate the better aspects of each approach and are referenced to a formal system model show considerable promise, although such an integrated technology is not yet available for implementation. Frequent reference is made to the receiver subsystem since this work was largely motivated by experience in developing an automated monitor and control loop for the advanced receiver.

  4. Telemetry, tracking, and command consolidation in the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berner, Jeff B.; Odea, J. Andrew; Bryant, Scott H.; Guerreo, Ana Maria P.; Louie, John J.

    2001-01-01

    Currently, in NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN), telemetry, tracking, and command (TT&C) functions are distributed between multiple subsystem computers. Control design of these subsystems did not consider the interaction necessary between the functions, which create opportunities for loss of data. Also, the current controller design can force the use of equipment that is not needed for the task at hand, to the detriment of others. As part of the Network Simplification Project (NSP), the TTC implementation has been re-examined, New telemetry and commanding equipment is being built, and the control of the TT&C functions is being consolidated into two controllers, Uplink and Downlink. The new equipment uses commercial components, as opposed to the custom built equipment it is replacing, which improves reliability and simplifies maintenance.

  5. Optical subnet concepts for the deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaik, K.; Wonica, D.; Wilhelm, M.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes potential enhancements to the Deep Space Network, based on a subnet of receiving stations that will utilize optical communications technology in the post-2010 era. Two optical subnet concepts are presented that provide full line-of-sight coverage of the ecliptic, 24 hours a day, with high weather availability. The technical characteristics of the optical station and the user terminal are presented, as well as the effects of cloud cover, transmittance through the atmosphere, and background noise during daytime or nighttime operation on the communications link. In addition, this article identifies candidate geographic sites for the two network concepts and includes a link design for a hypothetical Pluto mission in 2015.

  6. The deep space network. [tracking and communication support for space probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The objectives, functions, and organization of the deep space network are summarized. Progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations is reported. Interface support for the Mariner Venus Mercury 1973 flight and Pioneer 10 and 11 missions is included.

  7. Deep Space Networking Experiments on the EPOXI Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Ross M.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Space Communications & Navigation Program within the Space Operations Directorate is operating a program to develop and deploy Disruption Tolerant Networking [DTN] technology for a wide variety of mission types by the end of 2011. DTN is an enabling element of the Interplanetary Internet where terrestrial networking protocols are generally unsuitable because they rely on timely and continuous end-to-end delivery of data and acknowledgments. In fall of 2008 and 2009 and 2011 the Jet Propulsion Laboratory installed and tested essential elements of DTN technology on the Deep Impact spacecraft. These experiments, called Deep Impact Network Experiment (DINET 1) were performed in close cooperation with the EPOXI project which has responsibility for the spacecraft. The DINET 1 software was installed on the backup software partition on the backup flight computer for DINET 1. For DINET 1, the spacecraft was at a distance of about 15 million miles (24 million kilometers) from Earth. During DINET 1 300 images were transmitted from the JPL nodes to the spacecraft. Then, they were automatically forwarded from the spacecraft back to the JPL nodes, exercising DTN's bundle origination, transmission, acquisition, dynamic route computation, congestion control, prioritization, custody transfer, and automatic retransmission procedures, both on the spacecraft and on the ground, over a period of 27 days. The first DINET 1 experiment successfully validated many of the essential elements of the DTN protocols. DINET 2 demonstrated: 1) additional DTN functionality, 2) automated certain tasks which were manually implemented in DINET 1 and 3) installed the ION SW on nodes outside of JPL. DINET 3 plans to: 1) upgrade the LTP convergence-layer adapter to conform to the international LTP CL specification, 2) add convergence-layer "stewardship" procedures and 3) add the BSP security elements [PIB & PCB]. This paper describes the planning and execution of the flight experiment and the

  8. Deep Space Network Revitalization: Operations for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statman, Joseph I.

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) supports unmanned space missions through a Deep Space Network (DSN) that is developed and operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL and its subcontractors. The DSN capabilities have been incrementally upgraded since its establishment in the late '50s and are delivered from three Deep Space Communications Complexes (DSCC's) near Goldstone, California, Madrid, Spain, and Canberra, Australia. At present each DSCC includes large antennas with diameters from 11 meters to 70 meters, that operate largely in S-band and X-band frequencies. In addition each DSCC includes all the associated electronics to receive and process the low-level telemetry signals, and radiate the necessary command with high-power transmitters. To accommodate support of the rapidly increasing number of missions by NASA and other space agencies, and to facilitate maintaining and increasing the level of service in a shrinking budget environment, JPL has initiated a bold road map with three key components: 1. A Network Simplification Project (NSP) to upgrade aging electronics, replacing them with modem commercially based components. NSP and related replacement tasks are projected to reduce the cost of operating the DSN by 50% relative to the 1997 levels. 2. Upgrade of all 34-m and 70-m antennas to provision of Ka-Band telemetry downlink capability, complemented by an existing X-band uplink capability. This will increase the effective telemetry downlink capacity by a factor of 4, without building any new antennas. 3. Establishment of an optical communications network to support for high data rate unmanned missions that cannot be accommodated with radiofrequency (RF) communications, as well as establish a path toward support of manned missions at Mars. In this paper we present the mission loading projected for 1998-2008 and the elements of the JPL road map that will enable supporting it with a reduced budget. Particular emphasis will be on

  9. Coherent Frequency Reference System for the NASA Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Blake C.; Lauf, John E.; Hamell, Robert L.; Gonzaler, Jorge, Jr.; Diener, William A.; Tjoelker, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) requires state-of-the-art frequency references that are derived and distributed from very stable atomic frequency standards. A new Frequency Reference System (FRS) and Frequency Reference Distribution System (FRD) have been developed, which together replace the previous Coherent Reference Generator System (CRG). The FRS and FRD each provide new capabilities that significantly improve operability and reliability. The FRS allows for selection and switching between frequency standards, a flywheel capability (to avoid interruptions when switching frequency standards), and a frequency synthesis system (to generate standardized 5-, 10-, and 100-MHz reference signals). The FRS is powered by redundant, specially filtered, and sustainable power systems and includes a monitor and control capability for station operations to interact and control the frequency-standard selection process. The FRD receives the standardized 5-, 10-, and 100-MHz reference signals and distributes signals to distribution amplifiers in a fan out fashion to dozens of DSN users that require the highly stable reference signals. The FRD is also powered by redundant, specially filtered, and sustainable power systems. The new DSN Frequency Distribution System, which consists of the FRS and FRD systems described here, is central to all operational activities of the NASA DSN. The frequency generation and distribution system provides ultra-stable, coherent, and very low phase-noise references at 5, l0, and 100 MHz to between 60 and 100 separate users at each Deep Space Communications Complex.

  10. Deep Space Network equipment performance, reliability, and operations management information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, T.; Lin, J.; Chatillon, M.

    2002-01-01

    The Deep Space Mission System (DSMS) Operations Program Office and the DeepSpace Network (DSN) facilities utilize the Discrepancy Reporting Management System (DRMS) to collect, process, communicate and manage data discrepancies, equipment resets, physical equipment status, and to maintain an internal Station Log. A collaborative effort development between JPL and the Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex delivered a system to support DSN Operations.

  11. Deep Space Network Capabilities for Receiving Weak Probe Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asmar, Sami; Johnston, Doug; Preston, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Planetary probes can encounter mission scenarios where communication is not favorable during critical maneuvers or emergencies. Launch, initial acquisition, landing, trajectory corrections, safing. Communication challenges due to sub-optimum antenna pointing or transmitted power, amplitude/frequency dynamics, etc. Prevent lock-up on signal and extraction of telemetry. Examples: loss of Mars Observer, nutation of Ulysses, Galileo antenna, Mars Pathfinder and Mars Exploration Rovers Entry, Descent, and Landing, and the Cassini Saturn Orbit Insertion. A Deep Space Network capability to handle such cases has been used successfully to receive signals to characterize the scenario. This paper will describe the capability and highlight the cases of the critical communications for the Mars rovers and Saturn Orbit Insertion and preparation radio tracking of the Huygens probe at (non-DSN) radio telescopes.

  12. Overview of arraying techniques in the deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mileant, A.; Hinedi, S.

    1991-01-01

    Four different arraying schemes that can be used by the Deep Space Network are functionally discussed and compared. These include symbol stream combining (SSC), baseband combining (BC), carrier arraying (CA), and full spectrum combining (FSC). In addition, sibeband aiding (SA) is also included and compared even though it is not an arraying scheme, since it uses a single antenna. Moreover, combinations of these schemes are discussed, such as carrier arraying with sideband aiding and baseband combining (CA/SA/BC) or carrier arraying with symbol stream combining (CA/SSC). Complexity versus performance is traded off and the benefits to the reception of existing spacecraft signals are discussed. Recommendations are made as to the best techniques for particular configurations.

  13. An OSI architecture for the deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heuser, W. Randy; Cooper, Lynne P.

    1993-01-01

    The flexibility and robustness of a monitor and control system are a direct result of the underlying inter-processor communications architecture. A new architecture for monitor & Control at the Deep Space Network Communications Complexes has been developed based on the Open System Interconnection (OSI) standards. The suitability of OSI standards for DSN M&C has been proven in the laboratory. The laboratory success has resulted in choosing an OSI-based architecture for DSS-13 M&C. DSS-13 is the DSN experimental station and is not part of the 'operational' DSN; it's role is to provide an environment to test new communications concepts can be tested and conduct unique science experiments. Therefore, DSS-13 must be robust enough to support operational activities, while also being flexible enough to enable experimentation. This paper describes the M&C architecture developed for DSS-13 and the results from system and operational testing.

  14. New tracking implementation in the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berner, Jeff B.; Bryant, Scott H.

    2001-01-01

    As part of the Network Simplification Project, the tracking system of the Deep Space Network is being upgraded. This upgrade replaces the discrete logic sequential ranging system with a system that is based on commercial Digital Signal Processor boards. The new implementation allows both sequential and pseudo-noise types of ranging. The other major change is a modernization of the data formatting. Previously, there were several types of interfaces, delivering both intermediate data and processed data (called 'observables'). All of these interfaces were bit-packed blocks, which do not allow for easy expansion, and many of these interfaces required knowledge of the specific hardware implementations. The new interface supports four classes of data: raw (direct from the measuring equipment), derived (the observable data), interferometric (multiple antenna measurements), and filtered (data whose values depend on multiple measurements). All of the measurements are reported at the sky frequency or phase level, so that no knowledge of the actual hardware is required. The data is formatted into Standard Formatted Data Units, as defined by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems, so that expansion and cross-center usage is greatly enhanced.

  15. Enhancing the Radio Astronomy Capabilities at NASA's Deep Space Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazio, Joseph; Teitelbaum, Lawrence; Franco, Manuel M.; Garcia-Miro, Cristina; Horiuchi, Shinji; Jacobs, Christopher; Kuiper, Thomas; Majid, Walid

    2015-08-01

    NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) is well known for its role in commanding and communicating with spacecraft across the solar system that produce a steady stream of new discoveries in Astrophysics, Heliophysics, and Planetary Science. Equipped with a number of large antennas distributed across the world, the DSN also has a history of contributing to a number of leading radio astronomical projects. This paper summarizes a number of enhancements that are being implemented currently and that are aimed at increasing its capabilities to engage in a wide range of science observations. These enhancements include* A dual-beam system operating between 18 and 27 GHz (~ 1 cm) capable of conducting a variety of molecular line observations, searches for pulsars in the Galactic center, and continuum flux density (photometry) of objects such as nearby protoplanetary disks* Enhanced spectroscopy and pulsar processing backends for use at 1.4--1.9 GHz (20 cm), 18--27 GHz (1 cm), and 38--50 GHz (0.7 cm)* The DSN Transient Observatory (DTN), an automated, non-invasive backend for transient searching* Larger bandwidths (>= 0.5 GHz) for pulsar searching and timing; and* Improved data rates (2048 Mbps) and better instrumental response for very long baseline interferometric (VLBI) observations with the new DSN VLBI processor (DVP), which is providing unprecedented sensitivity for maintenance of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) and development of future versions.One of the results of these improvements is that the 70~m Deep Space Station 43 (DSS-43, Tidbinbilla antenna) is now the most sensitive radio antenna in the southern hemisphere. Proposals to use these systems are accepted from the international community.Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics & Space Administration.

  16. The Network Information Management System (NIMS) in the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wales, K. J.

    1983-01-01

    In an effort to better manage enormous amounts of administrative, engineering, and management data that is distributed worldwide, a study was conducted which identified the need for a network support system. The Network Information Management System (NIMS) will provide the Deep Space Network with the tools to provide an easily accessible source of valid information to support management activities and provide a more cost-effective method of acquiring, maintaining, and retrieval data.

  17. Software for Allocating Resources in the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Borden, Chester; Zendejas, Silvino; Baldwin, John

    2003-01-01

    TIGRAS 2.0 is a computer program designed to satisfy a need for improved means for analyzing the tracking demands of interplanetary space-flight missions upon the set of ground antenna resources of the Deep Space Network (DSN) and for allocating those resources. Written in Microsoft Visual C++, TIGRAS 2.0 provides a single rich graphical analysis environment for use by diverse DSN personnel, by connecting to various data sources (relational databases or files) based on the stages of the analyses being performed. Notable among the algorithms implemented by TIGRAS 2.0 are a DSN antenna-load-forecasting algorithm and a conflict-aware DSN schedule-generating algorithm. Computers running TIGRAS 2.0 can also be connected using SOAP/XML to a Web services server that provides analysis services via the World Wide Web. TIGRAS 2.0 supports multiple windows and multiple panes in each window for users to view and use information, all in the same environment, to eliminate repeated switching among various application programs and Web pages. TIGRAS 2.0 enables the use of multiple windows for various requirements, trajectory-based time intervals during which spacecraft are viewable, ground resources, forecasts, and schedules. Each window includes a time navigation pane, a selection pane, a graphical display pane, a list pane, and a statistics pane.

  18. (abstract) Deep Space Network Radiometric Remote Sensing Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Steven J.

    1994-01-01

    Planetary spacecraft are viewed through a troposphere that absorbs and delays radio signals propagating through it. Tropospheric water, in the form of vapor, cloud liquid,and precipitation , emits radio noise which limits satellite telemetry communication link performance. Even at X-band, rain storms have severely affected several satellite experiments including a planetary encounter. The problem will worsen with DSN implementation of Ka-band becausecommunication link budgets will be dominated by tropospheric conditions. Troposphere-induced propagation delays currently limit VLBI accuracy and are significant sources of error for Doppler tracking. Additionally, the success of radio science programs such as satellite gravity wave experiments and atmospheric occultation experiments depends on minimizing the effect of watervapor-induced prop agation delays. In order to overcome limitations imposed by the troposphere, the Deep Space Network has supported a program of radiometric remote sensing. Currently, water vapor radiometers (WVRs) and microwave temperature profilers (MTPs) support many aspects of the Deep Space Network operations and research and development programs. Their capability to sense atmospheric water, microwave sky brightness, and atmospheric temperature is critical to development of Ka-band telemetry systems, communication link models, VLBI, satellite gravity waveexperiments, and r adio science missions. During 1993, WVRs provided data for propagation mode development, supp orted planetary missions, and demonstrated advanced tracking capability. Collection of atmospheric statistics is necessary to model and predict performance of Ka-band telemetry links, antenna arrays, and radio science experiments. Since the spectrum of weather variations has power at very long time scales, atmospheric measurements have been requested for periods ranging from one year to a decade at each DSN site. The resulting database would provide reliable statistics on daily

  19. Deep Space Telecommunications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Resch, G. M.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing load on NASA's deep Space Network, the new capabilities for deep space missions inherent in a next-generation radio telescope, and the potential of new telescope technology for reducing construction and operation costs suggest a natural marriage between radio astronomy and deep space telecommunications in developing advanced radio telescope concepts.

  20. Toward an embedded training tool for Deep Space Network operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Randall W., Jr.; Sturdevant, Kathryn F.; Johnson, W. L.

    1993-01-01

    There are three issues to consider when building an embedded training system for a task domain involving the operation of complex equipment: (1) how skill is acquired in the task domain; (2) how the training system should be designed to assist in the acquisition of the skill, and more specifically, how an intelligent tutor could aid in learning; and (3) whether it is feasible to incorporate the resulting training system into the operational environment. This paper describes how these issues have been addressed in a prototype training system that was developed for operations in NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN). The first two issues were addressed by building an executable cognitive model of problem solving and skill acquisition of the task domain and then using the model to design an intelligent tutor. The cognitive model was developed in Soar for the DSN's Link Monitor and Control (LMC) system; it led to several insights about learning in the task domain that were used to design an intelligent tutor called REACT that implements a method called 'impasse-driven tutoring'. REACT is one component of the LMC training system, which also includes a communications link simulator and a graphical user interface. A pilot study of the LMC training system indicates that REACT shows promise as an effective way for helping operators to quickly acquire expert skills.

  1. Identifying Trends in Deep Space Network Monitor Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A computer program has been developed that analyzes Deep Space Network monitor data, looking for changes of trends in critical parameters. This program represents a significant improvement over the previous practice of manually plotting data and visually inspecting the resulting graphs to identify trends. This program uses proven numerical techniques to identify trends. When a statistically significant trend is detected, then it is characterized by means of a symbol that can be used by pre-existing model-based reasoning software. The program can perform any of the following functions: Given an expectation that data in a given list should exhibit an upward, downward, constant, or unknown trend, it can determine whether the data do or do not follow such a trend. Given a list of data, it can identify which of the aforementioned trends the data follow. Given two lists of data, it can determine whether or not both follow the same trend. This program can be executed on a variety of computers. It can be distributed in either source code or binary code form. It must be run in conjunction with any one of a number of Lisp compilers that are available commercially or as shareware.

  2. Media Calibration in the Deep Space Network: A Status Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naudet, Charles J.; Keihm, Steve; Lanyi, Gabor; Linfield, Roger; Resch, George; Riley, Lance; Rosenberger, Hans; Tanner, Alan

    2002-01-01

    A new media calibration system (MCS) has been implemented at the Goldstone complex of the DSN (Deep Space Network). It is intended to calibrate the delay of radio signals imposed by the neutral atmosphere. The system provides periodic measurements of both the static dry and fluctuating wet components of this delay. In particular, the system will calibrate the fluctuations in line of sight path delay due to atmospheric water vapor that we believe will dominate the error budget for several radio science and radio astronomy experiments. We have compared two of these media calibration systems with a connected element interferometer on a 21 km baseline. In this report we describe a total of 30 observations in which a radio source was tracked for an hour or more and the delay residuals then calibrated using the MCS. The accuracy of the comparison appears to be limited by systematic errors in the interferometer, which are under investigation. However, our results do indicate that the MCS can meet or exceed the two-way Allan standard deviation specification of 1.5 x 10( exp -15) on time scales of 2,000 - 10,000 sec, as required by the Cassini GWE (Gravitational Wave Experiment) for two way Doppler tracking.

  3. The Deep Space Network: Noise temperature concepts, measurements, and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stelzried, C. T.

    1982-01-01

    The use of higher operational frequencies is being investigated for improved performance of the Deep Space Network. Noise temperature and noise figure concepts are used to describe the noise performance of these receiving systems. The ultimate sensitivity of a linear receiving system is limited by the thermal noise of the source and the quantum noise of the receiver amplifier. The atmosphere, antenna and receiver amplifier of an Earth station receiving system are analyzed separately and as a system. Performance evaluation and error analysis techniques are investigated. System noise temperature and antenna gain parameters are combined to give an overall system figure of merit G/T. Radiometers are used to perform radio ""star'' antenna and system sensitivity calibrations. These are analyzed and the performance of several types compared to an idealized total power radiometer. The theory of radiative transfer is applicable to the analysis of transmission medium loss. A power series solution in terms of the transmission medium loss is given for the solution of the noise temperature contribution.

  4. Forecasting of Weather Effects for the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendoza, Ricardo; Benjauthrit, Boonsieng

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a proposed approach for Ka-band link management for deep space applications using daily weather forecasts and discusses the tools that will be employed for operations. Performance metrics are also presented. The proposed approach will be tested in a two-year experiment campaign.

  5. Deep space antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Three 26-m tracking antennas operated by the NASA Deep Space Network at Goldstone, Calif.; Madrid, Spain; and near Canberra, Australia, will cease operations on Dec. 1, 1981. The stations will continue to operate 64-m and 34-m deep space tracking antennas. Ending operation of the 26-m antennas will cause a reduction of about 30%; of the Deep Space Network tracking and data acquisition capability. This means less support for NASA planetary spacecraft. Currently, the Deep Space Network is supporting Voyagers 1 and 2, Helios 1, the Mars Viking 1 Lander and Pioneers 6 through 12.

  6. Enabling Planetary Geodesy With the Deep Space Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, R. S.; Asmar, S. W.; Armstrong, J. W.; Buccino, D.; Folkner, W. M.; Iess, L.; Konopliv, A. S.; Lazio, J.

    2015-12-01

    For five decades of planetary exploration, missions have carried out Radio Science experiments that led to numerous discoveries in planetary geodesy. The interior structures of many planets, large moons, asteroids and comet nuclei have been modeled based on their gravitational fields and dynamical parameters derived from precision Doppler and range measurements, often called radio metrics. Advanced instrumentation has resulted in the high level of data quality that enabled scientific breakthroughs. This instrumentation scheme, however, is distributed between elements on the spacecraft and others at the stations of the Deep Space Network (DSN), making the DSN a world-class science instrument. The design and performance of the DSN stations directly determines the quality of the science observables and radio link-based planetary geodesy observations are established by methodologies and capabilities of the DSN. In this paper, we summarize major recent discoveries in planetary geodesy at the rocky planets and the Moon, Saturnian and Jovian satellites, Phobos, and Vesta; experiments and analysis in progress at Ceres and Pluto; upcoming experiments at Jupiter, Saturn and Mars (InSight), and the long-term outlook for approved future missions with geodesy objectives. The DSN's role will be described along the technical advancements in DSN transmitters, receivers, atomic clocks, and other specialized instrumentation, such as the Advanced Water Vapor Radiometer, Advanced Ranging Instrument, as well as relevant mechanical and electrical components. Advanced techniques for calibrations of known noise sources and Earth's troposphere, ionosphere, and interplanetary plasma are also presented. A typical error budget will be presented to aid future investigations in carrying out trade-off studies in the end-to-end system performance.

  7. Request-Driven Schedule Automation for the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Tran, Daniel; Arroyo, Belinda; Call, Jared; Mercado, Marisol

    2010-01-01

    The DSN Scheduling Engine (DSE) has been developed to increase the level of automated scheduling support available to users of NASA s Deep Space Network (DSN). We have adopted a request-driven approach to DSN scheduling, in contrast to the activity-oriented approach used up to now. Scheduling requests allow users to declaratively specify patterns and conditions on their DSN service allocations, including timing, resource requirements, gaps, overlaps, time linkages among services, repetition, priorities, and a wide range of additional factors and preferences. The DSE incorporates a model of the key constraints and preferences of the DSN scheduling domain, along with algorithms to expand scheduling requests into valid resource allocations, to resolve schedule conflicts, and to repair unsatisfied requests. We use time-bounded systematic search with constraint relaxation to return nearby solutions if exact ones cannot be found, where the relaxation options and order are under user control. To explore the usability aspects of our approach we have developed a graphical user interface incorporating some crucial features to make it easier to work with complex scheduling requests. Among these are: progressive revelation of relevant detail, immediate propagation and visual feedback from a user s decisions, and a meeting calendar metaphor for repeated patterns of requests. Even as a prototype, the DSE has been deployed and adopted as the initial step in building the operational DSN schedule, thus representing an important initial validation of our overall approach. The DSE is a core element of the DSN Service Scheduling Software (S(sup 3)), a web-based collaborative scheduling system now under development for deployment to all DSN users.

  8. Office of Tracking and Data Acquisition. [deep space network and spacecraft tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Office of Tracking and Data Acquisition (OTDA) and its two worldwide tracking network facilities, the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network and the Deep Space Network, are described. Other topics discussed include the NASA communications network, the tracking and data relay satellite system, other OTDA tracking activities, and OTDA milestones.

  9. Deep Space Network turbo decoder infusion: enhanced performance and lower decoder complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollara, F.; Andrews, K.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the effort to deploy turbo decoders in the Deep Space Network to service missions launching in 2003 and later, and the implications of these new capabilities for the design of future missions.

  10. NASA's Deep Space Network and ESA's Tracking Network Collaboration to Enable Solar System Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmar, Sami; Accomazzo, Andrea; Firre, Daniel; Ferri, Paolo; Liebrecht, Phil; Mann, Greg; Morse, Gary; Costrell, Jim; Kurtik, Susan; Hell, Wolfgang; Warhaut, Manfred

    2016-07-01

    Planetary missions travel vast distances in the solar system to explore and answer important scientific questions. To return the data containing their discoveries, communications challenges have to be overcome, namely the relatively low transmitter power, typically 20 Watts at X-band, and the one-over-the-square of the distance loss of the received power, among other factors. These missions were enabled only when leading space agencies developed very large communications antennas to communicate with them as well as provide radio-metric navigation tools. NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) and ESA's ESTRACK network are distributed geographically in order to provide global coverage and utilize stations ranging in size from 34 m to 70 m in diameter. With the increasing number of missions and significant loading on networks' capacity, unique requirements during critical events, and long-baseline interferometry navigation techniques, it became obvious that collaboration between the networks was necessary and in the interest of both agencies and the advancement of planetary and space sciences. NASA and ESA established methods for collaboration that include a generic cross-support agreement as well as mission-specific memoranda of understanding. This collaboration also led to the development of international inter-operability standards. As a result of its success, the DSN-ESTRACK cross support approach is serving as a model for other agencies with similar stations and an interest in collaboration. Over recent years, many critical events were supported and some scientific breakthroughs in planetary science were enabled. This paper will review selected examples of the science resulting from this work and the overall benefits for deep space exploration, including lessons learned, from inter-agency collaboration with communications networks.

  11. Major technological innovations introduced in the large antennas of the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imbriale, W. A.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) is the largest and most sensitive scientific, telecommunications and radio navigation network in the world. Its principal responsibilities are to provide communications, tracking, and science services to most of the world's spacecraft that travel beyond low Earth orbit. The network consists of three Deep Space Communications Complexes. Each of the three complexes consists of multiple large antennas equipped with ultra sensitive receiving systems. A centralized Signal Processing Center (SPC) remotely controls the antennas, generates and transmits spacecraft commands, and receives and processes the spacecraft telemetry.

  12. Propagation Effects of Importance to the NASA/JPL Deep Space Network (DSN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slobin, Steve

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents Propagation Effects of Importance To The NASA/JPL Deep Space Network (DSN). The topics include: 1) DSN Antennas; 2) Deep Space Telecom Link Basics; 3) DSN Propagation Region of Interest; 4) Ka-Band Weather Effects Models and Examples; 5) Existing Goldstone Ka-Band Atmosphere Attenuation Model; 6) Existing Goldstone Atmosphere Noise Temperature Model; and 7) Ka-Band delta (G/T) Relative to Vacuum Condition. This paper summarizes the topics above.

  13. Deep Space Network and Lunar Network Communication Coverage of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Charles H.; Cheung, Kar-Ming

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we describe the communication coverage analysis for the lunar network and the Earth ground stations. The first part of this article focuses on the direct communication coverage of the Moon from the Earth's ground stations. In particular, we assess the coverage performance of the Moon based on the existing Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas and the complimentary coverage of other potential stations at Hartebeesthoek, South Africa and at Santiago, Chile. We also address the coverage sensitivity based on different DSN antenna scenarios and their capability to provide single and redundant coverage of the Moon. The second part of this article focuses on the framework of the constrained optimization scheme to seek a stable constellation six relay satellites in two planes that not only can provide continuous communication coverage to any users on the Moon surface, but can also deliver data throughput in a highly efficient manner.

  14. NASA Near Earth Network (NEN), Deep Space Network (DSN) and Space Network (SN) Support of CubeSat Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaire, Scott H.; Altunc, Serhat; Bussey, George; Shaw, Harry; Horne, Bill; Schier, Jim

    2015-01-01

    There has been a historical trend to increase capability and drive down the Size, Weight and Power (SWAP) of satellites and that trend continues today. Small satellites, including systems conforming to the CubeSat specification, because of their low launch and development costs, are enabling new concepts and capabilities for science investigations across multiple fields of interest to NASA. NASA scientists and engineers across many of NASAs Mission Directorates and Centers are developing exciting CubeSat concepts and welcome potential partnerships for CubeSat endeavors. From a communications and tracking point of view, small satellites including CubeSats are a challenge to coordinate because of existing small spacecraft constraints, such as limited SWAP and attitude control, low power, and the potential for high numbers of operational spacecraft. The NASA Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Programs Near Earth Network (NEN), Deep Space Network (DSN) and the Space Network (SN) are customer driven organizations that provide comprehensive communications services for space assets including data transport between a missions orbiting satellite and its Mission Operations Center (MOC). The NASA NEN consists of multiple ground antennas. The SN consists of a constellation of geosynchronous (Earth orbiting) relay satellites, named the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The DSN currently makes available 13 antennas at its three tracking stations located around the world for interplanetary communication. The presentation will analyze how well these space communication networks are positioned to support the emerging small satellite and CubeSat market. Recognizing the potential support, the presentation will review the basic capabilities of the NEN, DSN and SN in the context of small satellites and will present information about NEN, DSN and SN-compatible flight radios and antenna development activities at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and across

  15. Microwave analog fiber-optic link for use in the deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, R. T., Jr.; Lutes, G. F.; Maleki, L.

    1990-01-01

    A novel fiber-optic system with dynamic range of up to 150 dB-Hz for transmission of microwave analog signals is described. The design, analysis, and laboratory evaluations of this system are reported, and potential applications in the NASA/JPL Deep Space Network are discussed.

  16. Temperature control simulation for a microwave transmitter cooling system. [deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yung, C. S.

    1980-01-01

    The thermal performance of a temperature control system for the antenna microwave transmitter (klystron tube) of the Deep Space Network antenna tracking system is discussed. In particular the mathematical model is presented along with the details of a computer program which is written for the system simulation and the performance parameterization. Analytical expressions are presented.

  17. The Deep Space Network as an instrument for radio science research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asmar, S. W.; Renzetti, N. A.

    1993-01-01

    Radio science experiments use radio links between spacecraft and sensor instrumentation that is implemented in the Deep Space Network. The deep space communication complexes along with the telecommunications subsystem on board the spacecraft constitute the major elements of the radio science instrumentation. Investigators examine small changes in the phase and/or amplitude of the radio signal propagating from a spacecraft to study the atmospheric and ionospheric structure of planets and satellites, planetary gravitational fields, shapes, masses, planetary rings, ephemerides of planets, solar corona, magnetic fields, cometary comae, and such aspects of the theory of general relativity as gravitational waves and gravitational redshift.

  18. Publications of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, January through December 1974. [deep space network, Apollo project, information theory, and space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Formalized technical reporting is described and indexed, which resulted from scientific and engineering work performed, or managed, by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The five classes of publications included are technical reports, technical memorandums, articles from the bimonthly Deep Space Network Progress Report, special publications, and articles published in the open literature. The publications are indexed by author, subject, and publication type and number.

  19. Estimating the Deep Space Network modification costs to prepare for future space missions by using major cost drivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, Donald S.; Sherif, Josef; Buchanan, Harry R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper develops a cost model to do long range planning cost estimates for Deep Space Network (DSN) support of future space missions. The paper focuses on the costs required to modify and/or enhance the DSN to prepare for future space missions. The model is a function of eight major mission cost drivers and estimates both the total cost and the annual costs of a similar future space mission. The model is derived from actual cost data from three space missions: Voyager (Uranus), Voyager (Neptune), and Magellan. Estimates derived from the model are tested against actual cost data for two independent missions, Viking and Mariner Jupiter/Saturn (MJS).

  20. Deep space network support of the manned space flight network for Apollo, volume 3. [support for Apollo 14, 15, 16, and 17 flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) activities in support of Project Apollo during the period of 1971 and 1972 are reported. Beginning with the Apollo 14 mission and concluding with the Apollo 17 mission, the narrative includes, (1) a mission description, (2) the NASA support requirements placed on the DSN, and, (3) a comprehensive account of the support activities provided by each committed DSN deep space communication station. Associated equipment and activities of the three elements of the DSN (the Deep Space Instrumentation Facility (DSIF), the Space Flight Operations Facility (SFOF), and the Ground Communications Facility (GCF)) used in meeting the radio-metric and telemetry demands of the missions are documented.

  1. Implementation of an Antenna Array Signal Processing Breadboard for the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The Deep Space Network Large Array will replace/augment 34 and 70 meter antenna assets. The array will mainly be used to support NASA's deep space telemetry, radio science, and navigation requirements. The array project will deploy three complexes in the western U.S., Australia, and European longitude each with 400 12m downlink antennas and a DSN central facility at JPL. THis facility will remotely conduct all real-time monitor and control for the network. Signal processing objectives include: provide a means to evaluate the performance of the Breadboard Array's antenna subsystem; design and build prototype hardware; demonstrate and evaluate proposed signal processing techniques; and gain experience with various technologies that may be used in the Large Array. Results are summarized..

  2. Application of the Deep Space Network (DSN) to the testing of general relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. D.; Levy, G. S.; Renzetti, N. A.

    1986-01-01

    The NASA Deep Space Network, a precision telecommunications and radio navigation facility, is described in detail. The first spacecraft relativity test with Mariner 6 and Mariner 7 at solar conjunction is discussed as well as more accurate tests using the Mariner 9 anchored to Mars. Consideration is also given to solar system tests of relativistic celestial mechanics and future prospects. It is noted that the NASA Mars Observer orbital mission is under development and is expected to reach Mars in 1991.

  3. Near Earth Architectural Options for a Future Deep Space Optical Communications Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, B. L.; Liebrecht, P. E.; Fitzgerald, R. J.

    2004-01-01

    In the near future the National Aeronautics and Space Administration anticipates a significant increase in demand for long-haul communications services from deep space to Earth. Distances will range from 0.1 to 40 AU, with data rate requirements in the 1's to 1000's of Mbits/second. The near term demand is driven by NASA's Space Science Enterprise which wishes to deploy more capable instruments onboard spacecraft and increase the number of deep space missions. The long term demand is driven by missions with extreme communications challenges such as very high data rates from the outer planets, supporting sub-surface exploration, or supporting NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space Enterprise beyond Earth orbit. Laser communications is a revolutionary communications technology that will dramatically increase NASA's ability to transmit information across the solar system. Lasercom sends information using beams of light and optical elements, such as telescopes and optical amplifiers, rather than RF signals, amplifiers, and antennas. This paper provides an overview of different network options at Earth to meet NASA's deep space lasercom requirements. It is based mainly on work done for the Mars Laser Communications Demonstration Project, a joint project between NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (JPL), and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL). It reports preliminary conclusions from the Mars Lasercom Study conducted at MIT/LL and on additional work done for the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System Continuation Study at GSFC. A lasercom flight terminal will be flown on the Mars Telesat Orbiter (MTO) to be launched by NASA in 2009, and will be the first high rate deep space demonstration of this revolutionary technology.

  4. Identification of Abnormal System Noise Temperature Patterns in Deep Space Network Antennas Using Neural Network Trained Fuzzy Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Thomas; Pham, Timothy; Liao, Jason

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a fuzzy logic function trained by an artificial neural network to classify the system noise temperature (SNT) of antennas in the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN). The SNT data were classified into normal, marginal, and abnormal classes. The irregular SNT pattern was further correlated with link margin and weather data. A reasonably good correlation is detected among high SNT, low link margin and the effect of bad weather; however we also saw some unexpected non-correlations which merit further study in the future.

  5. Deep Space Network-Wide Portal Development: Planning Service Pilot Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doneva, Silviya

    2011-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) is an international network of antennas that supports interplanetary spacecraft missions and radio and radar astronomy observations for the exploration of the solar system and the universe. DSN provides the vital two-way communications link that guides and controls planetary explorers, and brings back the images and new scientific information they collect. In an attempt to streamline operations and improve overall services provided by the Deep Space Network a DSN-wide portal is under development. The project is one step in a larger effort to centralize the data collected from current missions including user input parameters for spacecraft to be tracked. This information will be placed into a principal repository where all operations related to the DSN are stored. Furthermore, providing statistical characterization of data volumes will help identify technically feasible tracking opportunities and more precise mission planning by providing upfront scheduling proposals. Business intelligence tools are to be incorporated in the output to deliver data visualization.

  6. Cryogenic, low-noise high electron mobility transistor amplifiers for the Deep Space Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bautista, J. J.

    1993-11-01

    The rapid advances recently achieved by cryogenically cooled high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) low-noise amplifiers (LNA's) in the 1- to 10-GHz range are making them extremely competitive with maser amplifiers. In order to address future spacecraft navigation, telemetry, radar, and radio science needs, the Deep Space Network is investing both maser and HEMT amplifiers for its Ka-band (32-GHz) downlink capability. This article describes the current state cryogenic HEMT LNA development at Ka-band for the DSN. Noise performance results at S-band (2.3 GHz) and X-band (8.5 GHz) for HEMT's and masers are included for completeness.

  7. Cryogenic Design of the Deep Space Network Large Array Low-Noise Amplifier System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britcliffe, M. J.; Hanson, T. R.; Franco, M. M.

    2004-05-01

    This article describes the cryogenic design and performance of a prototype low-noise amplifier (LNA) system for the Deep Space Network (DSN) Large Array task. The system is used to cool a dual-frequency feed system equipped with high-electron mobility transistor (HEMT) low-noise amplifiers and the associated support electronics. The LNA/feed system operates at a temperature under 18 K. The system is designed to be manufactured at minimum cost. The design considerations, including the cryocooler to be used, vacuum system, microwave interconnects, mechanical components, and radiation shielding, are discussed.

  8. Cryogenic, low-noise high electron mobility transistor amplifiers for the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bautista, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    The rapid advances recently achieved by cryogenically cooled high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) low-noise amplifiers (LNA's) in the 1- to 10-GHz range are making them extremely competitive with maser amplifiers. In order to address future spacecraft navigation, telemetry, radar, and radio science needs, the Deep Space Network is investing both maser and HEMT amplifiers for its Ka-band (32-GHz) downlink capability. This article describes the current state cryogenic HEMT LNA development at Ka-band for the DSN. Noise performance results at S-band (2.3 GHz) and X-band (8.5 GHz) for HEMT's and masers are included for completeness.

  9. The 26-meter antenna s-x conversion project. [Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Programmatic and management aspects of converting an existing 26-meter S-band subnet to a 34-meter S- and X-band subnet of the Deep Space Network are described. The stations involved were DSS 12 near Barstow, DSS 44 in Australia, and DSS 62 in Spain. The main subsystems affected by the conversion were the antenna mechanical, antenna microwave, and receiver-exciter. Antenna mechanial modifications and electronic additions and changes are described. The design and analysis of critical areas are considered and antenna performance is discussed.

  10. A two-year history of atomic frequency standards syntonization in the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, S. C.

    1983-01-01

    The frequency and timing system (FTS) of the Deep Space Network (DSN) consists of a collection of three sets of clocks driven by independent atomic oscillators. The synchronization of the output frequencies (syntonization) of these oscillators (reference frequency standards) is reported. There is an implied specification of a + or - 5.5 X 10 to the 12th power related to the DSN time synchronization specification of a + or - 100 microseconds. Both the syntonization within the three sets and the syntonization of the sets to the international standard (International Atomic Time) are considered.

  11. Automating Mid- and Long-Range Scheduling for the NASA Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Tran, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    NASA has recently deployed a new mid-range scheduling system for the antennas of the Deep Space Network (DSN), called Service Scheduling Software, or S(sup 3). This system was designed and deployed as a modern web application containing a central scheduling database integrated with a collaborative environment, exploiting the same technologies as social web applications but applied to a space operations context. This is highly relevant to the DSN domain since the network schedule of operations is developed in a peer-to-peer negotiation process among all users of the DSN. These users represent not only NASA's deep space missions, but also international partners and ground-based science and calibration users. The initial implementation of S(sup 3) is complete and the system has been operational since July 2011. This paper describes some key aspects of the S(sup 3) system and on the challenges of modeling complex scheduling requirements and the ongoing extension of S(sup 3) to encompass long-range planning, downtime analysis, and forecasting, as the next step in developing a single integrated DSN scheduling tool suite to cover all time ranges.

  12. The Future of NASA's Deep Space Network and Applications to Planetary Probe Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, Leslie J.; Preston, Robert A.; Vrotsos, Peter

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) has been an invaluable tool in the world's exploration of space. It has served the space-faring community for more than 45 years. The DSN has provided a primary communication pathway for planetary probes, either through direct- to-Earth links or through intermediate radio relays. In addition, its radiometric systems are critical to probe navigation and delivery to target. Finally, the radio link can also be used for direct scientific measurement of the target body ('radio science'). This paper will examine the special challenges in supporting planetary probe missions, the future evolution of the DSN and related spacecraft technology, the advantages and disadvantages of radio relay spacecraft, and the use of the DSN radio links for navigation and scientific measurements.

  13. Experimental Evaluation of Optically Polished Aluminum Panels on the Deep Space Network's 34 Meter Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, V.

    2011-01-01

    The potential development of large aperture ground?based "photon bucket" optical receivers for deep space communications has received considerable attention recently. One approach currently under investigation is to polish the aluminum reflector panels of 34?meter microwave antennas to high reflectance, and accept the relatively large spotsize generated by state of?the?art polished aluminum panels. Theoretical analyses of receiving antenna pointing, temporal synchronization and data detection have been addressed in previous papers. Here we describe the experimental effort currently underway at the Deep Space Network (DSN) Goldstone Communications Complex in California, to test and verify these concepts in a realistic operational environment. Two polished aluminum panels (a standard DSN panel polished to high reflectance, and a custom designed aluminum panel with much better surface quality) have been mounted on the 34 meter research antenna at Deep?Space Station 13 (DSS?13), and a remotely controlled CCD camera with a large CCD sensor in a weather?proof container has been installed next to the subreflector, pointed directly at the custom polished panel. The point?spread function (PSF) generated by the Vertex polished panel has been determined to be smaller than the sensor of the CCD camera, hence a detailed picture of the PSF can be obtained every few seconds, and the sensor array data processed to determine the center of the intensity distribution. In addition to estimating the center coordinates, expected communications performance can also been evaluated with the recorded data. The results of preliminary pointing experiments with the Vertex polished panel receiver using the planet Jupiter to simulate the PSF generated by a deep?space optical transmitter are presented and discussed in this paper.

  14. The Deep Space Network in the Common Platform Era: A Prototype Implementation at DSS-13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davarian, F.

    2013-01-01

    To enhance NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN), an effort is underway to improve network performance and simplify its operation and maintenance. This endeavor, known as the "Common Platform," has both short- and long-term objectives. The long-term work has not begun yet; however, the activity to realize the short-term goals has started. There are three goals for the long-term objective: 1. Convert the DSN into a digital network where signals are digitized at the output of the down converters at the antennas and are distributed via a digital IF switch to the processing platforms. 2. Employ a set of common hardware for signal processing applications, e.g., telemetry, tracking, radio science and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). 3. Minimize in-house developments in favor of purchasing commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) equipment. The short-term goal is to develop a prototype of the above at NASA's experimental station known as DSS-13. This station consists of a 34m beam waveguide antenna with cryogenically cooled amplifiers capable of handling deep space research frequencies at S-, X-, and Ka-bands. Without the effort at DSS-13, the implementation of the long-term goal can potentially be risky because embarking on the modification of an operational network without prior preparations can, among other things, result in unwanted service interruptions. Not only are there technical challenges to address, full network implementation of the Common Platform concept includes significant cost uncertainties. Therefore, a limited implementation at DSS-13 will contribute to risk reduction. The benefits of employing common platforms for the DSN are lower cost and improved operations resulting from ease of maintenance and reduced number of spare parts. Increased flexibility for the user is another potential benefit. This paper will present the plans for DSS-13 implementation. It will discuss key issues such as the Common Platform architecture, choice of COTS equipment, and the

  15. The scheduling of tracking times for interplanetary spacecraft on the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, W. A.

    1978-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) is a network of tracking stations, located throughout the globe, used to track spacecraft for NASA's interplanetary missions. This paper describes a computer program, DSNTRAK, which provides an optimum daily tracking schedule for the DSN given the view periods at each station for a mission set of n spacecraft, where n is between 2 and 6. The objective function is specified in terms of relative total daily tracking time requirements between the n spacecraft. Linear programming is used to maximize the total daily tracking time and determine an optimal daily tracking schedule consistent with DSN station capabilities. DSNTRAK is used as part of a procedure to provide DSN load forecasting information for proposed future NASA mission sets.

  16. Uplink-Downlink: A History of the Deep Space Network, 1957-1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mudgway, Douglas J.; Launius, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In these pages, the informed reader will discover a simple description of what the Deep Space Network (DSN) is about, and how it works an aspect of NASA's spectacular planetary program that seldom found its way into the popular media coverage of those major events. Future historical researchers will find a complete record of the origin and birth of the DSN, its subsequent development and expansion over the ensuing four decades, and a description of the way in which the DSN was used to fulfill the purpose for which it was created. At the same time, the specialist reader is provided with an abundant source of technical references that address every aspect of the advanced telecommunications technology on which the success of the DSN depended. And finally, archivists, educators, outreach managers, and article writers will have ready recourse to the inner workings of the DSN and how they related to the more publicly visible events of the planetary space program.

  17. Long-range planning cost model for support of future space missions by the deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherif, J. S.; Remer, D. S.; Buchanan, H. R.

    1990-01-01

    A simple model is suggested to do long-range planning cost estimates for Deep Space Network (DSP) support of future space missions. The model estimates total DSN preparation costs and the annual distribution of these costs for long-range budgetary planning. The cost model is based on actual DSN preparation costs from four space missions: Galileo, Voyager (Uranus), Voyager (Neptune), and Magellan. The model was tested against the four projects and gave cost estimates that range from 18 percent above the actual total preparation costs of the projects to 25 percent below. The model was also compared to two other independent projects: Viking and Mariner Jupiter/Saturn (MJS later became Voyager). The model gave cost estimates that range from 2 percent (for Viking) to 10 percent (for MJS) below the actual total preparation costs of these missions.

  18. A federated information management system for the Deep Space Network. M.S. Thesis - Univ. of Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobinson, E.

    1982-01-01

    General requirements for an information management system for the deep space network (DSN) are examined. A concise review of available database management system technology is presented. It is recommended that a federation of logically decentralized databases be implemented for the Network Information Management System of the DSN. Overall characteristics of the federation are specified, as well as reasons for adopting this approach.

  19. Proposed upgrade of the Deep Space Network research and development station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Joel G.

    1987-01-01

    Continued exploration of the solar system will require continued evolution of capabilities to support deep space communication and navigation. That evolution will rely, as it has in the past, on the development, demonstration, and field testing of communication and navigation technologies. The existing Deep Space Network (DSN) research and development station, DSS 13, at the Venus site, Goldstone, California was instrumental in those prior developments. However, the present antenna is no longer able to provide the necessary support for technology. The 26 meter antenna has good performance at S-band, fair performance at X-band, but is unusable at the anticipated Ka-band. It is not suitable for conversion to beam waveguides, and is not usable as a test bed for demonstrating high efficiency because of structural pliancy. Additionally, its size and age are increasingly a liability in demonstrations. A 34 meter beam waveguide version of the existing DSN high efficiency (HEF) antennas was proposed for FY-88 Construction of Facilities budget. The antenna is to be built at the Venus site, adjacent to the old antenna, and serve as the DSN research and development antenna through the end of the century.

  20. Project Report: Design and Analysis for the Deep Space Network BWG Type 2 Antenna Feed Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The following report explains in detail the solid modeling design process and structural analysis of the LNA (Low Noise Amplifier) feed platform to be constructed and installed on the new BWG (Beam Wave Guide) Type-2 tracking antenna in Canberra, Australia, as well as all future similar BWG Type-2 antennas builds. The Deep Space Networks new BWG Type-2 antennas use beam waveguides to funnel and 'extract' the desired signals received from spacecraft, and the feed platform supports and houses the LNA(Low Noise Amplifier) feed-cone and cryogenic cooling equipment used in the signal transmission and receiving process. The mandated design and construction of this platform to be installed on the new tracking antenna will be used and incorporated on all future similar antenna builds.

  1. Antennas for the array-based Deep Space Network: current status and future designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imbriale, William A.; Gama, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Development of very large arrays1,2 of small antennas has been proposed as a way to increase the downlink capability of the NASA Deep Space Network DSN) by two or three orders of magnitude thereby enabling greatly increased science data from currently configured missions or enabling new mission concepts. The current concept is for an array of 400 x 12-m antennas at each of three longitudes. The DSN array will utilize radio astronomy sources for phase calibration and will have wide bandwidth correlation processing for this purpose. NASA has undertaken a technology program to prove the performance and cost of a very large DSN array. Central to that program is a 3-element interferometer to be completed in 2005. This paper describes current status of the low cost 6-meter breadboard antenna to be used as part of the interferometer and the RF design of the 12-meter antenna.

  2. An Analysis of Near Fields of 34m Antennas of JPL/NASA Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamnejad, Vahraz; Juan, Nuria Llombart

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of calculating near fields of the 34m Beam Waveguide (BWG) antennas of the NASA/JPL Deep Space Network (DSN). Calculating the near fields of DSN antennas are of interest in receive mode where the transmitting signals from nearby flying objects such as helicopters and airplanes could interfere with the operation of sensitive RF receiving system of DSN antennas, and in the transmit mode where fields from high-powered DSN antennas interfere with receivers on nearby flying objects, as well as safety considerations for the operators and visitors to the grounds surrounding the antenna sites. A complete and detailed analysis has been performed using PO/PTD techniques, including surface errors and support struts effects. Some results are presented, including comparisons with preliminary field tests.

  3. Block 4 receiver tracking loop performance in the presence of a CW RFI. [deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sue, M. K.

    1980-01-01

    A model that allows one to predict the tracking performance of the Block 4 receiver in the presence of a continuous wave radio frequency interference is discussed. Experimental and analytical results are provided for a typical Deep Space Network operational mode. Simulation and experimental results show good agreement with theoretical prediction for the static phase error and out-of-lock values. Predicted phase jitter is consistently lower than the experimental and simulated results by a factor of one-half for small interference to signal ratio (ISR) when the offset frequency is small. For large ISR, good agreement is observed. The analytical model assumes a noiseless condition, which is valid only when the loop is operated at strong signal levels. Experimental data indicate, however, that even at the minimum operating signal level of 10-dB carrier margin, reasonably good prediction can still be obtained. A curve of protection criteria that extends the current recommendation is also presented.

  4. Single- and dual-carrier microwave noise abatement in the deep space network. [microwave antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bathker, D. A.; Brown, D. W.; Petty, S. M.

    1975-01-01

    The NASA/JPL Deep Space Network (DSN) microwave ground antenna systems are presented which simultaneously uplink very high power S-band signals while receiving very low level S- and X-band downlinks. Tertiary mechanisms associated with elements give rise to self-interference in the forms of broadband noise burst and coherent intermodulation products. A long-term program to reduce or eliminate both forms of interference is described in detail. Two DSN antennas were subjected to extensive interference testing and practical cleanup program; the initial performance, modification details, and final performance achieved at several planned stages are discussed. Test equipment and field procedures found useful in locating interference sources are discussed. Practices deemed necessary for interference-free operations in the DSN are described. Much of the specific information given is expected to be easily generalized for application in a variety of similar installations. Recommendations for future investigations and individual element design are given.

  5. LS-44: An improved deep space network station location set for Viking navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koble, H. M.; Pease, G. E.; Yip, K. W.

    1976-01-01

    Improved estimates for the spin axis and longitude components of the Deep Space Network station locations were obtained from post-flight processing of radio metric data received from various Mariner planetary missions. The use of an upgraded set of ionospheric calibrations and the incorporation of near-Venus and near-Mercury radio metric data from the Mariner 10 spacecraft are the principal contributing effects to the improvement. These new estimates, designated Location Set (LS) 44, have supported Viking navigation activities in the vicinity of Mars. As such, the station locations were determined relative to the planetary positions inherent in JPL Development Ephemeris (DE) 84, which was used throughout the Viking mission. The article also presents and discusses a version of LS 44 based upon the latest planetary ephemeris, DE 96.

  6. Software cost/resource modeling: Deep space network software cost estimation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    A parametric software cost estimation model prepared for JPL deep space network (DSN) data systems implementation tasks is presented. The resource estimation model incorporates principles and data from a number of existing models, such as those of the General Research Corporation, Doty Associates, IBM (Walston-Felix), Rome Air Force Development Center, University of Maryland, and Rayleigh-Norden-Putnam. The model calibrates task magnitude and difficulty, development environment, and software technology effects through prompted responses to a set of approximately 50 questions. Parameters in the model are adjusted to fit JPL software lifecycle statistics. The estimation model output scales a standard DSN work breakdown structure skeleton, which is then input to a PERT/CPM system, producing a detailed schedule and resource budget for the project being planned.

  7. The Impact of Traffic Prioritization on Deep Space Network Mission Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Esther; Segui, John; Gao, Jay; Clare, Loren; Abraham, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    A select number of missions supported by NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) are demanding very high data rates. For example, the Kepler Mission was launched March 7, 2009 and at that time required the highest data rate of any NASA mission, with maximum rates of 4.33 Mb/s being provided via Ka band downlinks. The James Webb Space Telescope will require a maximum 28 Mb/s science downlink data rate also using Ka band links; as of this writing the launch is scheduled for a June 2014 launch. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, launched June 18, 2009, has demonstrated data rates at 100 Mb/s at lunar-Earth distances using NASA's Near Earth Network (NEN) and K-band. As further advances are made in high data rate space telecommunications, particularly with emerging optical systems, it is expected that large surges in demand on the supporting ground systems will ensue. A performance analysis of the impact of high variance in demand has been conducted using our Multi-mission Advanced Communications Hybrid Environment for Test and Evaluation (MACHETE) simulation tool. A comparison is made regarding the incorporation of Quality of Service (QoS) mechanisms and the resulting ground-to-ground Wide Area Network (WAN) bandwidth necessary to meet latency requirements across different user missions. It is shown that substantial reduction in WAN bandwidth may be realized through QoS techniques when low data rate users with low-latency needs are mixed with high data rate users having delay-tolerant traffic.

  8. Observing the Moon at Microwave Frequencies Using a Large-Diameter Deep Space Network Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morabito, David D.; Imbriale, William; Keihm, Stephen

    2008-03-01

    The Moon radiates energy at infrared and microwave wavelengths, in addition to reflecting sunlight at optical wavelengths. As a result, an antenna pointed at or near the Moon will result in an increase in system operating noise temperature, which needs to be accounted for in RF telecommunications, radio science or radiometric link calculations. The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) may use its large-diameter antennas in future lunar robotic or human missions, and thus it is important to understand the nature of this temperature incre ase as a function of observing frequency, lunar phase, and angular position of the antenna beam on the lunar disk. This paper reports on a comprehensive lunar noise temperature measurement campaign and associated theoretical treatment for a 34-m diameter Deep Space Network antenna observing an extended source such as the Moon. A set of measurements over a wide range of lunar phase angles was acquired at DSS-13, a 34-m diameter beam waveguide antenna (BWG) located at Goldstone, California at 2.3 GHz (S-band), 8.4 GHz (X-band) and 32 GHz (Ka-band). For validation purposes, independent predictions of noise temperature increase were derived using a physical optics characterization of the 34-m diameter antenna gain patterns and Apollo model-based brightness temperature maps of the Moon as input. The model-based predictions of noise temperature increase were compared with the measurements at all three frequencies. In addition, a methodology is presented that relates noise temperature increase due to the Moon to disk-centered or disk-averaged brightness temperature of the Moon at the microwave frequencies of interest. Comparisons were made between the measurements and models in the domain of lunar disk-centered and disk-averaged brightness temperatures. It is anticipated that the measurements and associated theoretical development will be useful in developing telecommunications strategies for future high-rate Ka-band communications where large

  9. An Analysis of Database Replication Technologies with Regard to Deep Space Network Application Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Andrea M.

    2011-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) has three communication facilities which handle telemetry, commands, and other data relating to spacecraft missions. The network requires these three sites to share data with each other and with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for processing and distribution. Many database management systems have replication capabilities built in, which means that data updates made at one location will be automatically propagated to other locations. This project examines multiple replication solutions, looking for stability, automation, flexibility, performance, and cost. After comparing these features, Oracle Streams is chosen for closer analysis. Two Streams environments are configured - one with a Master/Slave architecture, in which a single server is the source for all data updates, and the second with a Multi-Master architecture, in which updates originating from any of the servers will be propagated to all of the others. These environments are tested for data type support, conflict resolution, performance, changes to the data structure, and behavior during and after network or server outages. Through this experimentation, it is determined which requirements of the DSN can be met by Oracle Streams and which cannot.

  10. Goldstone Deep Space Communication Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Three 34m (110 ft.) diameter Beam Waveguide antennas located at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex, situated in the Mojave Desert in California. This is one of three complexes which comprise NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN). The DSN provides radio communications for all of NASA's interplanetary spacecraft and is also utilized for radio astronomy and radar observations of the solar system and the universe.

  11. The Status of the Deep Space Network for the Cassini Radio Science Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sydnor, R. L.

    1996-01-01

    ...The Frequency and Timing System (FTS) of the DSN as it existed before the Cassini program easily met the requirements for all of the NASA deep space missions. These requirements and the performance of the present DSN FTS are given.

  12. Using The Global Positioning System For Earth Orbiter and Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, Stephen M.; Haines, Bruce J.; Young, Lawrence E.; Dunn, Charles; Srinivasan, Jeff; Sweeney, Dennis; Nandi, Sumita; Spitzmesser, Don

    1994-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) can play a major role in supporting orbit and trajectory determination for spacecraft in a wide range of applications, including low-Earth, high-earth, and even deep space (interplanetary) tracking.

  13. The Evolution of Technology in the Deep Space Network: A History of the Advanced Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layland, J. W.; Rauch, L. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) of 1995 might be described as the evolutionary result of 45 years of deep space communication and navigation, together with the synergistic activities of radio science and radar and radio astronomy. But the evolution of the DSN did not just happen - it was carefully planned and created. The evolution of the DSN has been an ongoing engineering activity, and engineering is a process of problem solving under constraints, one of which is technology. In turn, technology is the knowledge base providing the capability and experience for practical application of various areas of science, when needed. The best engineering solutions result from optimization under the fewest constraints, and if technology needs are well anticipated (ready when needed), then the most effective engineering solution is possible. Throughout the history of the DSN it has been the goal and function of DSN advanced technology development (designated the DSN Advanced Systems Program from 1963 through 1994) to supply the technology needs of the DSN when needed, and thus to minimize this constraint on DSN engineering. Technology often takes considerable time to develop, and when that happens, it is important to have anticipated engineering needs; at times, this anticipation has been by as much as 15 years. Also, on a number of occasions, mission malfunctions or emergencies have resulted in unplanned needs for technology that has, in fact, been available from the reservoir of advanced technology provided by the DSN Advanced Systems Program. Sometimes, even DSN engineering personnel fail to realize that the organization of JPL permits an overlap of DSN advanced technology activities with subsequent engineering activities. This can result in the flow of advanced technology into DSN engineering in a natural and sometimes almost unnoticed way. In the following pages, we will explore some of the many contributions of the DSN Advanced Systems Program that were provided to DSN

  14. Ka-band (32-GHz) performance of 70-meter antennas in the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imbriale, W. A.; Bhanji, A. M.; Blank, S.; Lobb, V. B.; Levy, R.; Rocci, S. A.

    1987-01-01

    Two models are provided of the Deep Space Network (DSN) 70 m antenna performance at Ka-band (32 GHz) and, for comparison purposes, one at X-band (8.4 GHz). The baseline 70 m model represents expected X-band and Ka-band performance at the end of the currently ongoing 64 m to 70 m mechanical upgrade. The improved 70 m model represents two sets of Ka-band performance estimates (the X-band performance will not change) based on two separately developed improvement schemes: the first scheme, a mechanical approach, reduces tolerances of the panels and their settings, the reflector structure and subreflector, and the pointing and tracking system. The second, an electronic/mechanical approach, uses an array feed scheme to compensate fo lack of antenna stiffness, and improves panel settings using microwave holographic measuring techniques. Results are preliminary, due to remaining technical and cost uncertainties. However, there do not appear to be any serious difficulties in upgrading the baseline DSN 70 m antenna network to operate efficiently in an improved configuration at 32 GHz (Ka-band). This upgrade can be achieved by a conventional mechanical upgrade or by a mechanical/electronic combination. An electronically compensated array feed system is technically feasible, although it needs to be modeled and demonstrated. Similarly, the mechanical upgrade requires the development and demonstration of panel actuators, sensors, and an optical surveying system.

  15. An Automation Language for Managing Operations (ALMO) in the Deep Space Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, P. F.; Pechkam, P.

    1999-04-01

    Configuring a set of devices for pre- and post-track activities in NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) involves hundreds of keyboard entries, manual operations, and parameter extractions and confirmations, making it tedious and error prone. This article presents a language called Automation Language for Managing Operations (ALMO), which automates operations of communications links in the DSN. ALMO was developed in response to a number of deficiencies that were identified with the previous languages and techniques used to manage DSN link operations. These included a need to (1) provide visibility to the information that resides in the different link devices in order to recognize an anomaly and alert the operator when it occurs, (2) provide an intuitive and simple language capable of representing the full spectrum of operations procedures, (3) mitigate the variations in operating procedures experienced between different tracking complexes and supports, and (4) automate overall operation, reducing cost by minimizing work hours required to configure devices and perform activities. With ALMO, for the first time in DSN operations, operators are able to capture sequences of activities into simple instructions that can be easily interpreted by both human and machine. Additionally, the device information, which used to be viewable only via screen displays, is now accessible for operator use in automating their tasks, thus reducing the time it takes to perform such tasks while minimizing the chance of error. ALMO currently is being used operationally at the Deep Space Communications Complex in Canberra, Australia. Link operators at the Madrid, Spain, and Goldstone, California, communications complexes also have received training in the use of ALMO.

  16. Ka-Band High-Rate Telemetry System Upgrade for the NASA Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBelle, Remi; Bernardo, Abner; Bowen, James; Britcliffe, Michael; Bucknam, Neil; Link, Christopher; Long, Ezra; Manalo, Leslie; O'Dea, James A.; Rochblatt, David; Sosnowski, John; Veruttipong, Watt

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) has a new requirement to support high-data-rate Category A (Cat A) missions (within 2 million kilometers of Earth) with simultaneous S-band uplink, S-band downlink and Ka-band downlink. The S-band links are required for traditional TT&C (Telemetry, Tracking, and Command) support to the spacecraft, while the Ka-band link is intended for high-data-rate science returns. The new Ka-band system combines the use of proven DSN cryogenic designs, for low system temperature, and high data rate capability using commercial telemetry receivers. The initial Cat A support is required for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) in 2013 and possibly other missions. The upgrade has been implemented into 3 different 34-meter Beam Waveguide (BWG) antennas in the DSN, one at each of the complexes in Canberra (Australia), Goldstone (California) and Madrid (Spain). System test data is presented to show that the requirements were met and the DSN is ready for Cat A Ka-band operational support.

  17. Ka-band high-rate telemetry system upgrade for the NASA deep space network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaBelle, R.; Rochblatt, D.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) has a new requirement to support high-data-rate Category A (Cat A) missions (within 2 million kilometers of the Earth) with simultaneous S-band uplink, S-band downlink and Ka-band downlink. The S-band links are required for traditional telemetry, tracking & command (TT&C) support to the spacecraft, while the Ka-band link is intended for high-data-rate science returns. The new Ka-band system combines the use of proven DSN cryogenic designs, for low system temperature, and high-data-rate capability using commercial telemetry receivers. The initial Cat A support is required for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) in 2014 and possibly other missions. The upgrade has been implemented into 3 different 34-meter Beam Waveguide (BWG) antennas in the DSN, one at each of the complexes in Canberra (Australia), Goldstone (California) and Madrid (Spain). System test data are presented to show that the requirements were met and the DSN is ready for Cat A Ka-band operational support.

  18. Automating Mid- and Long-Range Scheduling for NASA's Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Tran, Daniel; Arroyo, Belinda; Sorensen, Sugi; Tay, Peter; Carruth, Butch; Coffman, Adam; Wallace, Mike

    2012-01-01

    NASA has recently deployed a new mid-range scheduling system for the antennas of the Deep Space Network (DSN), called Service Scheduling Software, or S(sup 3). This system is architected as a modern web application containing a central scheduling database integrated with a collaborative environment, exploiting the same technologies as social web applications but applied to a space operations context. This is highly relevant to the DSN domain since the network schedule of operations is developed in a peer-to-peer negotiation process among all users who utilize the DSN (representing 37 projects including international partners and ground-based science and calibration users). The initial implementation of S(sup 3) is complete and the system has been operational since July 2011. S(sup 3) has been used for negotiating schedules since April 2011, including the baseline schedules for three launching missions in late 2011. S(sup 3) supports a distributed scheduling model, in which changes can potentially be made by multiple users based on multiple schedule "workspaces" or versions of the schedule. This has led to several challenges in the design of the scheduling database, and of a change proposal workflow that allows users to concur with or to reject proposed schedule changes, and then counter-propose with alternative or additional suggested changes. This paper describes some key aspects of the S(sup 3) system and lessons learned from its operational deployment to date, focusing on the challenges of multi-user collaborative scheduling in a practical and mission-critical setting. We will also describe the ongoing project to extend S(sup 3) to encompass long-range planning, downtime analysis, and forecasting, as the next step in developing a single integrated DSN scheduling tool suite to cover all time ranges.

  19. Time Analyzer for Time Synchronization and Monitor of the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Steven; Gonzalez, Jorge, Jr.; Calhoun, Malcolm; Tjoelker, Robert

    2003-01-01

    A software package has been developed to measure, monitor, and archive the performance of timing signals distributed in the NASA Deep Space Network. Timing signals are generated from a central master clock and distributed to over 100 users at distances up to 30 kilometers. The time offset due to internal distribution delays and time jitter with respect to the central master clock are critical for successful spacecraft navigation, radio science, and very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) applications. The instrument controller and operator interface software is written in LabView and runs on the Linux operating system. The software controls a commercial multiplexer to switch 120 separate timing signals to measure offset and jitter with a time-interval counter referenced to the master clock. The offset of each channel is displayed in histogram form, and "out of specification" alarms are sent to a central complex monitor and control system. At any time, the measurement cycle of 120 signals can be interrupted for diagnostic tests on an individual channel. The instrument also routinely monitors and archives the long-term stability of all frequency standards or any other 1-pps source compared against the master clock. All data is stored and made available for

  20. Service Quality Assessment for NASA's Deep Space Network: No Longer a Luxury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkley, Erik; Wolgast, Paul; Zendejas, Silvino

    2010-01-01

    When NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) was established almost a half century ago, the concept of computer-based service delivery was impractical or infeasible due to the state of information technology As a result, the interface the DSN exposes to its customers tends to be equipment-centric, lacking a clear demarcation between the DSN and the mission operation systems (MOS) of its customers. As the number of customers has continued to increase, the need to improve efficiency and minimize costs has grown. This growth has been the impetus for a DSN transformation from an equipment-forrent provider to a provider of standard services. Service orientation naturally leads to requirements for service management, including proactive measurement of service quality and service levels as well as the efficiency of internal processes and the performance of service provisioning systems. DSN System Engineering has surveyed industry offerings to determine if commercial successes in decision support and Business Intelligence (BI) solutions can be applied to the DSN. A pilot project was initiated, and subsequently executed to determine the feasibility of repurposing a commercial Business Intelligence platform for engineering analysis in conjunction with the platform's intended business reporting and analysis functions.

  1. A Statistical Comparison of Meteorological Data Types Derived from Deep Space Network Water Vapor Radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morabito, D. D.; Keihm, S.; Slobin, S.

    2015-11-01

    Water vapor radiometers measure the sky brightness along a path through the atmosphere. This sky brightness is a combination of the atmospheric "noise" temperature and the cosmic background. By removing the cosmic contribution, the remaining atmospheric noise temperature contribution can be used to infer atmospheric attenuation and atmospheric noise temperature used in telecommunications link budgets. Water vapor radiometer (WVR) data also have been used to calibrate or experimentally characterize atmospheric error sources in phase data gathered from radio science and very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) experiments. A previous article reported on the comparison of atmospheric attenuation derived from WVR data with that estimated from International Telecommunication Union (ITU) models for the three Deep Space Network (DSN) sites. The focus of this current article is to examine and cross-compare the statistics of the meteorological data types (integrated precipitable water vapor, integrated liquid water content, and wet path delay) extracted from the WVR measurements for all three DSN sites. In this article, we will also compare some of the statistical estimates against those available using ITU models and prediction methods.

  2. New Algorithms for Estimating Spacecraft Position Using Scanning Techniques for Deep Space Network Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Lingli; Fathpour, Nanaz; Mehra, Raman K.

    2005-01-01

    As more and more nonlinear estimation techniques become available, our interest is in finding out what performance improvement, if any, they can provide for practical nonlinear problems that have been traditionally solved using linear methods. In this paper we examine the problem of estimating spacecraft position using conical scan (conscan) for NASA's Deep Space Network antennas. We show that for additive disturbances on antenna power measurement, the problem can be transformed into a linear one, and we present a general solution to this problem, with the least square solution reported in literature as a special case. We also show that for additive disturbances on antenna position, the problem is a truly nonlinear one, and we present two approximate solutions based on linearization and Unscented Transformation respectively, and one 'exact' solution based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. Simulations show that, with the amount of data collected in practice, linear methods perform almost the same as MCMC methods. It is only when we artificially reduce the amount of collected data and increase the level of noise that nonlinear methods show significantly better accuracy than that achieved by linear methods, at the expense of more computation.

  3. Table-driven configuration and formatting of telemetry data in the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Evan

    1994-01-01

    With a restructured software architecture for telemetry system control and data processing, the NASA/Deep Space Network (DSN) has substantially improved its ability to accommodate a wide variety of spacecraft in an era of 'better, faster, cheaper'. In the new architecture, the permanent software implements all capabilities needed by any system user, and text tables specify how these capabilities are to be used for each spacecraft. Most changes can now be made rapidly, outside of the traditional software development cycle. The system can be updated to support a new spacecraft through table changes rather than software changes, reducing the implementation, test, and delivery cycle for such a change from three months to three weeks. The mechanical separation of the text table files from the program software, with tables only loaded into memory when that mission is being supported, dramatically reduces the level of regression testing required. The format of each table is a different compromise between ease of human interpretation, efficiency of computer interpretation, and flexibility.

  4. Forecasting of loading on the Deep Space Network for proposed future NASA mission sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, W. A.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes a computer program, DSNLOAD, which provides the Deep Space Network (DSN) loading information given a proposed future NASA mission set. The DSNLOAD model includes required pre- and post-calibration periods, and station 'overhead' such as maintenance or 'down' time. The analysis is presented which transforms station view period data for the mission set into loading matrices used to assess loading requirement. Assessment of future loading on the DSN for a set of NASA missions by estimating the tracking situation and presenting the DSN loading data, and a flowchart for selecting a possible future mission, determining a heliocentric orbit for the mission, generating view period schedules, and converting these schedules into basic loading data for each mission for each station are given. The tracking schedule model which considers the tracking schedule to be represented by passes of maximum required length and centered within the view period of available tracking time for each mission is described, and, finally, an example of typical loading study is provided.

  5. Planetary Radar Imaging with the Deep-Space Network's 34 Meter Uplink Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, Victor; Tsao, P.; Lee, D.; Cornish, T.; Jao, J.; Slade, M.

    2011-01-01

    A coherent Uplink Array consisting of two or three 34-meter antennas of NASA's Deep Space Network has been developed for the primary purpose of increasing EIRP at the spacecraft. Greater EIRP ensures greater reach, higher uplink data rates for command and configuration control, as well as improved search and recovery capabilities during spacecraft emergencies. It has been conjectured that Doppler-delay radar imaging of lunar targets can be extended to planetary imaging, where the long baseline of the uplink array can provide greater resolution than a single antenna, as well as potentially higher EIRP. However, due to the well known R4 loss in radar links, imaging of distant planets is a very challenging endeavor, requiring accurate phasing of the Uplink Array antennas, cryogenically cooled low-noise receiver amplifiers, and sophisticated processing of the received data to extract the weak echoes characteristic of planetary radar. This article describes experiments currently under way to image the planets Mercury and Venus, highlights improvements in equipment and techniques, and presents planetary images obtained to date with two 34 meter antennas configured as a coherently phased Uplink Array.

  6. Planetary Radar Imaging with the Deep-Space Network's 34 Meter Uplink Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, V.; Tsao, P.; Lee, D.; Cornish, T.; Jao, J.; Slade, M.

    2011-01-01

    A coherent uplink array consisting of up to three 34-meter antennas of NASA's Deep Space Network has been developed for the primary purpose of increasing EIRP at the spacecraft. Greater EIRP ensures greater reach, higher uplink data rates for command and configuration control, as well as improved search and recovery capabilities during spacecraft emergencies. It has been conjectured that Doppler-delay radar imaging of lunar targets can be extended to planetary imaging, where the long baseline of the uplink array can provide greater resolution than a single antenna, as well as potentially higher EIRP. However, due to the well known R-4 loss in radar links, imaging of distant planets is a very challenging endeavor, requiring accurate phasing of the Uplink Array antennas, cryogenically cooled low-noise receiver amplifiers, and sophisticated processing of the received data to extract the weak echoes characteristic of planetary radar. This article describes experiments currently under way to image the planets Mercury and Venus, highlights improvements in equipment and techniques, and presents planetary images obtained to date with two 34 meter antennas configured as a coherently phased Uplink Array.

  7. Amplitude Scintillation due to Atmospheric Turbulence for the Deep Space Network Ka-Band Downlink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, C.; Wheelon, A.

    2004-01-01

    Fast amplitude variations due to atmospheric scintillation are the main concerns for the Deep Space Network (DSN) Ka-band downlink under clear weather conditions. A theoretical study of the amplitude scintillation variances for a finite aperture antenna is presented. Amplitude variances for weak scattering scenarios are examined using turbulence theory to describe atmospheric irregularities. We first apply the Kolmogorov turbulent spectrum to a point receiver for three different turbulent profile models, especially for an exponential model varying with altitude. These analytic solutions then are extended to a receiver with a finite aperture antenna for the three profile models. Smoothing effects of antenna aperture are expressed by gain factors. A group of scaling factor relations is derived to show the dependences of amplitude variances on signal wavelength, antenna size, and elevation angle. Finally, we use these analytic solutions to estimate the scintillation intensity for a DSN Goldstone 34-m receiving station. We find that the (rms) amplitude fluctuation is 0.13 dB at 20-deg elevation angle for an exponential model, while the fluctuation is 0.05 dB at 90 deg. These results will aid us in telecommunication system design and signal-fading prediction. They also provide a theoretical basis for further comparison with other measurements at Ka-band.

  8. Study of Electrical Activity in Martian Dust Storms with the Deep Space Network antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, S.; Kuiper, T. B. H.; Majid, W. A.; Garcia-Miro, C.; Tamppari, L. K.; Renno, N. O.; Ruf, C.; Trinh, J. T.

    2012-09-01

    Evidence for non-thermal emission produced by electrostatic discharges in a deep Martian dust storm has been reported by Ruf et al. 2009 [1]. Such discharges had been detected with an innovative kurtosis detector installed in a 34m radio telescope of the Deep Space Network (DSN) in June of 2006. The kurtosis (the fourth central moment of the signal normalized by the square of the second central moment) is extremely sensitive to the presence of non-thermal radiation, but is insensitive to variations in the intensity of the thermal radiation and instrument gain. The non-thermal radiation was detected while a 35 Km deep Martian dust storm was within the field of view of the radio telescope and presented signatures of modulation by the Martian Schumann Resonance. Encouraged by this discovery, several attempts have been made within the DSN to confirm the detection using the R&D antenna (DSS-13) and other antennas in the Madrid and Goldstone complexes, but using a very limited receiver, in terms of recorded data rates, the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Science Receiver (VSR). We are planning to initiate an extensive monitoring of Mars emission in a noninterfering basis while our antennas are tracking various Mars probes, using the Wideband Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Science Receiver (WVSR). The WVSR is a very flexible open-loop digital backend that is used for radio science and spacecraft navigation support in the DSN. This instrument allows us to sample a larger bandwidth than with previously used detectors. The processing to look for the kurtosis signature will be performed in software, limited only by the computer capacity. Additionally there are plans to develop an even more powerful custom-built detector based in CASPER technology and Graphic Processing Units for enhance computational power. This contribution will describe how we plan to select the target Mars tracking passes from the DSN schedule. An automated process will generate

  9. Interference Effects of Deep Space Network Transmitters on IMT-2000/UMTS Receivers at S-Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, C.; Sue, M.; Peng, T.; Kinman, P.; Tan, H.

    2000-04-01

    International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT)-2000 and its European member, Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), are planning to deploy mobile radio services in the S-band (around 2 GHz) in the next few years. NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) has been operating powerful S-band transmitters at three worldwide sites. The DSN's uplink frequency (2110 to 2120 MHz) is part of the spectrum to be used by the UMTS terrestrial system for the forward links (2110 to 2170 MHz). It is necessary to determine if the DSN transmitters would interfere with nearby IMT-2000/UMTS receivers through transhorizontal propagation. Under normal conditions, interference causes three types of losses that will reduce the power level as received by a victim receiver: free-space loss, diffraction loss over the spherical Earth, and diffraction loss over mountain peaks. In this article, simplified topographic mountain-peak profiles along the radial direction are used to calculate the losses for all three DSN sites. In addition, there are unusual propagation modes under which the interference can have favorable propagation channels to reach areas beyond the line of sight. They are, respectively, the ducting mode (one-dimensional loss) and rain scattering (rain as a reflector). These two modes are strongly time-percent dependent. The propagation loss for these special modes also is calculated. All losses are combined to estimate the minimum "coordination distance" beyond which the interference will be attenuated below the threshold level of the IMT-2000/UMTS receiver. We find that for 85 percent of the time this distance is about 70 km from the DSN site. The radial distance can be reduced to as small as 30 km in the direction of a large mountain shadow. For 15 percent of the time, ducting and rain scattering can greatly increase the distance to several hundreds of kilometers.

  10. Deep Space Network (DSN), Network Operations Control Center (NOCC) computer-human interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellman, Alvin; Carlton, Magdi

    1993-01-01

    The Network Operations Control Center (NOCC) of the DSN is responsible for scheduling the resources of DSN, and monitoring all multi-mission spacecraft tracking activities in real-time. Operations performs this job with computer systems at JPL connected to over 100 computers at Goldstone, Australia and Spain. The old computer system became obsolete, and the first version of the new system was installed in 1991. Significant improvements for the computer-human interfaces became the dominant theme for the replacement project. Major issues required innovating problem solving. Among these issues were: How to present several thousand data elements on displays without overloading the operator? What is the best graphical representation of DSN end-to-end data flow? How to operate the system without memorizing mnemonics of hundreds of operator directives? Which computing environment will meet the competing performance requirements? This paper presents the technical challenges, engineering solutions, and results of the NOCC computer-human interface design.

  11. Current Applications of Analog Fiber Optics in the NASA/JPL Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutes, G.

    1993-01-01

    Analog fiber optic technology. Enables a fully integrated Deep Space Communications complex. Enables sharing of expensive subsystems. Enables RF carrier arraying of antennas separated by tens of kilometers. Provides improved complex reliability and flexibility. Enables improved performance. Provides significant cost reductions.

  12. Field demonstration of X-band photonic antenna remoting in the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, X. S.; Lutes, G.; Logan, R. T., Jr.; Maleki, L.

    1994-01-01

    We designed a photonic link for antenna remoting based on our integrated system analysis. With this 12-km link, we successfully demonstrated photonic antenna-remoting capability at X-band (8.4 GHz) at one of NASA's Deep Space Stations while tracking the Magellan spacecraft.

  13. Evaluation of current tropospheric mapping functions by Deep Space Network very long baseline interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovers, O. J.; Lanyi, G. E.

    1994-01-01

    To compare the validity of current algorithms that map zenith tropospheric delay to arbitrary elevation angles, 10 different tropospheric mapping functions are used to analyze the current data base of Deep Space Network Mark 3 intercontinental very long baseline interferometric (VLBI) data. This analysis serves as a stringent test because of the high proportion of low-elevation observations necessitated by the extremely long baselines. Postfit delay and delay-rate residuals are examined, as well as the scatter of baseline lengths about the time-linear model that characterizes tectonic motion. Among the functions that utilize surface meteorological data as input parameters, the Lanyi 1984 mapping shows the best performance both for residuals and baselines, through the 1985 Davis function is statistically nearly identical. The next best performance is shown by the recent function of Niell, which is based on an examination of global atmospheric characteristics as a function of season and uses no weather data at the time of the measurements. The Niell function shows a slight improvement in residuals relative to Lanyi, but also an increase in baseline scatter that is significant for the California-Spain baseline. Two variants of the Chao mapping function, as well as the Chao tables used with the interpolation algorithm employed in the Orbit Determination Program software, show substandard behavior for both VLBI residuals and baseline scatter. The length of the California-Australia baseline (10,600 km) in the VLBI solution can vary by as much as 5 to 10 cm for the 10 mapping functions.

  14. Evaluation of current tropospheric mapping functions by Deep Space Network very long baseline interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sovers, O. J.; Lanyi, G. E.

    1994-11-01

    To compare the validity of current algorithms that map zenith tropospheric delay to arbitrary elevation angles, 10 different tropospheric mapping functions are used to analyze the current data base of Deep Space Network Mark 3 intercontinental very long baseline interferometric (VLBI) data. This analysis serves as a stringent test because of the high proportion of low-elevation observations necessitated by the extremely long baselines. Postfit delay and delay-rate residuals are examined, as well as the scatter of baseline lengths about the time-linear model that characterizes tectonic motion. Among the functions that utilize surface meteorological data as input parameters, the Lanyi 1984 mapping shows the best performance both for residuals and baselines, through the 1985 Davis function is statistically nearly identical. The next best performance is shown by the recent function of Niell, which is based on an examination of global atmospheric characteristics as a function of season and uses no weather data at the time of the measurements. The Niell function shows a slight improvement in residuals relative to Lanyi, but also an increase in baseline scatter that is significant for the California-Spain baseline. Two variants of the Chao mapping function, as well as the Chao tables used with the interpolation algorithm employed in the Orbit Determination Program software, show substandard behavior for both VLBI residuals and baseline scatter. The length of the California-Australia baseline (10,600 km) in the VLBI solution can vary by as much as 5 to 10 cm for the 10 mapping functions.

  15. RL-34 ring laser gyro laboratory evaluation for the Deep Space Network antenna application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The overall results of this laboratory evaluation are quite encouraging. The gyro data is in good agreement with the system's overall pointing performance, which is quite close to the technical objectives for the Deep Space Network (DSN) application. The system can be calibrated to the levels required for millidegree levels of pointing performance, and initialization performance is within the required 0.001 degree objective. The blind target acquisition performance is within a factor of two of the 0.0001 degree objective, limited only by a combination of the slow rate (0.5 deg/sec) and the existing production quantization logic (0.38 arc-sec/pulse). Logic circuitry exists to better this performance such that it will better the objective by 50 percent. Representative data with this circuitry has been provided for illustration. Target tracking performance is about twice the one millidegree objective, with several factors contributing. The first factor is the bias stability of the gyros, which is exceptional, but will limit performance to the 0.001 and 0.002 degree range for long tracking periods. The second contributing factor is the accelerometer contributions when the system is elevated. These degrade performance into the 0.003 to 0.004 degree range, which could be improved upon with some additional changes. Finally, we have provided a set of recommendations to improve performance closer to the technical objectives. These recommendations include gyro, electronics, and system configurational changes that form the basis for additional work to achieve the desired performance. In conclusion, we believe that the RL-34 ring laser gyro-based advanced navigation system demonstrated performance consistent with expectations and technical objectives, and it has the potential for even further enhancement for the DSN application.

  16. A small satellite design for deep space network testing and training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcwilliams, Dennis; Slatton, Clint; Norman, Cassidy; Araiza, Joe; Jones, Jason; Tedesco, Mark; Wortman, Michael; Opiela, John; Lett, Pat; Clavenna, Michael

    1993-01-01

    With the continuing exploration of the Solar System and the reemphasis on Earth focused missions, the need for faster data transmission rates has grown. Ka-band could allow a higher data delivery rate over the current X-band, however the adverse effects of the Earth's atmosphere on Ka are as yet unknown. The Deep Space Network and Jet Propulsion Lab have proposed to launch a small satellite that would simultaneously transmit X and Ka signals to test the viability of switching to Ka-band. The Mockingbird Design Team at the University of Texas at Austin applied small satellite design principles to achieve this objective. The Mockingbird design, named BATSAT, incorporates simple, low-cost systems designed for university production and testing. The BATSAT satellite is a 0.64 m diameter, spherical panel led satellite, mounted with solar cells and omni-directional antennae. The antennae configuration negates the need for active attitude control or spin stabilization. The space-frame truss structure was designed for 11 g launch loads while allowing for easy construction and solar-panel mounting. The communication system transmits at 1 mW by carrying the required Ka and X-band transmitters, as well as an S band transmitter used for DSN training. The power system provides the 8.6 W maximum power requirements via silicon solar arrays and nickel-cadmium batteries. The BATSAT satellite will be lofted into an 1163 km, 70 deg orbit by the Pegasus launch system. This orbit fulfills DSN dish slew rate requirements while keeping the satellite out of the heaviest regions of the Van Allen radiation belts. Each of the three DSN stations capable of receiving Ka-band (Goldstone, Canberra, and Madrid) will have an average of 85 minutes of view-time per day over the satellites ten year design life. Mockingbird Designs hopes that its small satellite design will not only be applicable to this specific mission scenario, but that it could easily be modified for instrument capability for

  17. A small satellite design for deep space network testing and training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWilliams, Dennis; Slatton, Clint; Norman, Cassidy; Araiza, Joe; Jones, Jason; Tedesco, Mark; Wortman, Michael; Opiela, John; Lett, Pat; Clavenna, Michael

    1993-05-01

    With the continuing exploration of the Solar System and the reemphasis on Earth focused missions, the need for faster data transmission rates has grown. Ka-band could allow a higher data delivery rate over the current X-band, however the adverse effects of the Earth's atmosphere on Ka are as yet unknown. The Deep Space Network and Jet Propulsion Lab have proposed to launch a small satellite that would simultaneously transmit X and Ka signals to test the viability of switching to Ka-band. The Mockingbird Design Team at the University of Texas at Austin applied small satellite design principles to achieve this objective. The Mockingbird design, named BATSAT, incorporates simple, low-cost systems designed for university production and testing. The BATSAT satellite is a 0.64 m diameter, spherical panel led satellite, mounted with solar cells and omni-directional antennae. The antennae configuration negates the need for active attitude control or spin stabilization. The space-frame truss structure was designed for 11 g launch loads while allowing for easy construction and solar-panel mounting. The communication system transmits at 1 mW by carrying the required Ka and X-band transmitters, as well as an S band transmitter used for DSN training. The power system provides the 8.6 W maximum power requirements via silicon solar arrays and nickel-cadmium batteries. The BATSAT satellite will be lofted into an 1163 km, 70 deg orbit by the Pegasus launch system. This orbit fulfills DSN dish slew rate requirements while keeping the satellite out of the heaviest regions of the Van Allen radiation belts. Each of the three DSN stations capable of receiving Ka-band (Goldstone, Canberra, and Madrid) will have an average of 85 minutes of view-time per day over the satellites ten year design life. Mockingbird Designs hopes that its small satellite design will not only be applicable to this specific mission scenario, but that it could easily be modified for instrument capability for

  18. High-Resolution Bistatic Radar Imaging With The Deep-Space Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, M.; Benner, L.; Slade, M. A.; Teitelbaum, L.; Brozovic, M.; Nolan, M. C.; Taylor, P. A.; Ghigo, F. D.; Ford, J.

    2014-12-01

    Recent upgrades to the Deep Space Network's Goldstone Solar System Radar allow the transmitted waveform to be modulated at up to 40 MHz, providing resolution as fine as 3.75 m in line-of-sight distance for near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and the Moon. Bistatic observations, transmitting with an antenna at Goldstone and receiving with either another Goldstone antenna or a larger antenna such as the Arecibo Observatory or the Green Bank Telescope, give the highest possible sensitivity combined with high resolution. High-resolution bistatic radar projects have revealed spin state changes and the presence of boulders on many NEAs. Examples include radar imaging campaigns on the NEAs 2005 YU55, Toutatis, 2012 DA14, and 2014 HQ124. In the near future, a new high-resolution transmitter on Goldstone's DSS-13 antenna will be able to transmit a signal modulated at 80 MHz, improving line-of-sight resolution by a factor of two to 1.875 m. This will allow many new projects: seeing previously-invisible surface details; measuring the size distributions of boulders and possibly craters on small NEAs; obtaining better estimates of the masses and densities of asteroids from radiation pressure perturbations to their trajectories; improved trajectory predictions for small spacecraft targets and potential Earth impactors; and possibly imaging the reconfiguration of asteroids' surfaces due to tides during extremely close Earth flybys. Somewhat further into the future, a 1.875-m-resolution transmitter may be installed on a 34-m antenna at the DSN's Canberra complex. This would allow radar imaging of objects in the far southern sky, which current radars cannot see. It would also facilitate rapid follow-up of newly discovered radar targets and before-and-after observations of NEAs making flybys close enough to cause tidal reconfiguration, which move very quickly across the sky at closest approach. As with the current 3.75-m-resolution system, these future high-resolution transmitters will

  19. Power Spectrum of Atmospheric Scintillation for the Deep Space Network Goldstone Ka-Band Downlink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, C.; Wheelon, A.

    2004-01-01

    Dynamic signal fluctuations due to atmospheric scintillations may impair the Ka-band (around 32-GHz) link sensitivities for a low-margin Deep Space Network (DSN) receiving system. The ranges of frequency and power of the fast fluctuating signals (time scale less than 1 min) are theoretically investigated using the spatial covariance and turbulence theory. Scintillation power spectrum solutions are derived for both a point receiver and a finite-aperture receiver. The aperture-smoothing frequency ((omega(sub s)), corner frequency ((omega(sub c)), and damping rate are introduced to define the shape of the spectrum for a finite-aperture antenna. The emphasis is put on quantitatively describing the aperture-smoothing effects and graphically estimating the corner frequency for a large aperture receiver. Power spectral shapes are analyzed parametrically in detail through both low- and high-frequency approximations. It is found that aperture-averaging effects become significant when the transverse correlation length of the scintillation is smaller than the antenna radius. The upper frequency or corner frequency for a finite-aperture receiver is controlled by both the Fresnel frequency and aperture-smoothing frequency. Above the aperture-smoothing frequency, the spectrum rolls off at a much faster rate of exp (-omega(sup 2)/omega(sup 2, sub s), rather than omega(sup -8/3), which is customary for a point receiver. However, a relatively higher receiver noise level can mask the fast falling-off shape and make it hard to be identified. We also predict that when the effective antenna radius a(sub r) less than or = 6 m, the corner frequency of its power spectrum becomes the same as that for a point receiver. The aperture-smoothing effects are not obvious. We have applied these solutions to the scenario of a DSN Goldstone 34-m-diameter antenna and predicted the power spectrum shape for the receiving station. The maximum corner frequency for the receiver (with omega(sub s) = 0

  20. Bistatic radar observations of the moon using the Clementine spacecraft and Deep Space Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenberg, Christopher L.

    2000-09-01

    The author prepared, executed, and analyzed the data from a series of spotlight-mode bistatic radar (BSR) observations of the Moon's North and South Poles. The Ballistic Missile Defense Organization Clementine spacecraft served as an S-band transmitter, and 70-m antennas of the NASA/Deep Space Network received the reflections. An average value of circular polarization ratio (CPR) for both poles of 0.344 (<0.031 standard deviation) was found, but varied between 0.20 to 0.6 over small regions. The North Pole average CPR was 0.359 (<0.0308 standard deviation). The South Pole average CPR was 0.333 (<0.0238 standard deviation). By analyzing the CPR response versus bistatic angle, the author discovered a slight CPR enhancement approaching 1 dB (0.11 dB standard deviation) for Orbit 234 of the South Pole. This CPR enhancement could result from the coherent backscatter opposition effect (CBOE). Radar observable CBOE would be consistent with radar scattering from theoretically predicted, but never observed, ice accumulations. The beta-zero BSR track and CPR enhancement correlate with areas of permanent shadow within the South Pole-Aitken Basin and with high hydrogen accumulations reported by Lunar Prospector. The author found that BSR beta-zero radar tracks through periodically solar illuminated areas yielded no enhancements in his data. The effect of angle of incidence on CPR for the South Pole was considered, and Orbit 234 was found to have a slightly elevated CPR compared to the other orbits. Previous radar observations of the Moon employed earth- based monostatic radars or rudimentary orbiting bistatic techniques. These methods only used the quasi-specular (QS) reflection component of scattering. This work is the first successful experiment to (a)collect data from lunar bistatic radar scattering using other than the dominant QS component, (b)use spotlight-mode bistatic radar technique outside of earth, and (c)return useful S-band bistatic scattering data from lunar

  1. Deep space laser communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Abhijit; Kovalik, Joseph M.; Srinivasan, Meera; Shaw, Matthew; Piazzolla, Sabino; Wright, Malcolm W.; Farr, William H.

    2016-03-01

    A number of laser communication link demonstrations from near Earth distances extending out to lunar ranges have been remarkably successful, demonstrating the augmented channel capacity that is accessible with the use of lasers for communications. The next hurdle on the path to extending laser communication and its benefits throughout the solar system and beyond is to demonstrate deep-space laser communication links. In this paper, concepts and technology development being advanced at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in order to enable deep-space link demonstrations to ranges of approximately 3 AU in the next decade, will be discussed.

  2. Maintenance of time and frequency in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Deep Space Network using the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, P. A.; Borutzki, S. E.; Kirk, A.

    1984-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN), managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA, must maintain time and frequency within specified limits in order to accurately track the spacecraft engaged in deep space exploration. Various methods are used to coordinate the clocks among the three tracking complexes. These methods include Loran-C, TV Line 10, Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), and the Global Positioning System (GPS). Calculations are made to obtain frequency offsets and Allan variances. These data are analyzed and used to monitor the performance of the hydrogen masers that provide the reference frequencies for the DSN Frequency and Timing System (DFT). Areas of discussion are: (1) a brief history of the GPS timing receivers in the DSN, (2) a description of the data and information flow, (3) data on the performance of the DSN master clocks and GPS measurement system, and (4) a description of hydrogen maser frequency steering using these data.

  3. Experimental Evaluation of the "Polished Panel Optical Receiver" Concept on the Deep Space Network's 34 Meter Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, Victor A.

    2012-01-01

    The potential development of large aperture ground-based "photon bucket" optical receivers for deep space communications has received considerable attention recently. One approach currently under investigation proposes to polish the aluminum reflector panels of 34-meter microwave antennas to high reflectance, and accept the relatively large spotsize generated by even state-of-the-art polished aluminum panels. Here we describe the experimental effort currently underway at the Deep Space Network (DSN) Goldstone Communications Complex in California, to test and verify these concepts in a realistic operational environment. A custom designed aluminum panel has been mounted on the 34 meter research antenna at Deep-Space Station 13 (DSS-13), and a remotely controlled CCD camera with a large CCD sensor in a weather-proof container has been installed next to the subreflector, pointed directly at the custom polished panel. Using the planet Jupiter as the optical point-source, the point-spread function (PSF) generated by the polished panel has been characterized, the array data processed to determine the center of the intensity distribution, and expected communications performance of the proposed polished panel optical receiver has been evaluated.

  4. Pros and Cons of Using Arrays of Small Antennas Versus Large Single Dish Antennas for the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagri, Durgadas S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper briefly describes pros and cons of using arrays of small antennas instead of large single dish antennas for spacecraft telemetry, command, and tracking (TT and C) - communications and navigation (C and N) - and science support that the Deep Space Network (DSN) normally provides. It considers functionality and performance aspects, mainly for TT and C, though it also considers science. It only briefly comments on the cost aspects that seem to favor arrays of small antennas over large single antennas, at least for receiving (downlinks).

  5. Generalized probability model for calculation of interference to the Deep Space Network due to circularly Earth-orbiting satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruggier, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    The probability of exceeding interference power levels and the duration of interference at the Deep Space Network (DSN) antenna is calculated parametrically when the state vector of an Earth-orbiting satellite over the DSN station view area is not known. A conditional probability distribution function is derived, transformed, and then convolved with the interference signal uncertainties to yield the probability distribution of interference at any given instant during the orbiter's mission period. The analysis is applicable to orbiting satellites having circular orbits with known altitude and inclination angle.

  6. Radio interferometric determination of intercontinental baselines and earth orientation utilizing deep space network antennas - 1971 to 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovers, O. J.; Thomas, J. B.; Fanselow, J. L.; Cohen, E. J.; Purcell, G. H., Jr.; Rogstad, D. H.; Skjerve, L. J.; Spitzmesser, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    Progress has been made toward the realization of the potential of radio interferometry for measuring crustal motions and global rotations of the earth with accuracies at the centimeter level. In this connection, a series of experiments, primarily with NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas, has been conducted to develop two generations of very long baseline interferometric (VLBI) systems. A description is presented of the employed techniques, an analysis of the experiments, and the results of geophysical significance. Attention is given to the interferometry technique, the geometric delay model, propagation media calibrations, and the observing strategy.

  7. Deep Space Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, Andrew T. (Inventor); Riedel, Joseph E. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A single, compact, lower power deep space positioning system (DPS) configured to determine a location of a spacecraft anywhere in the solar system, and provide state information relative to Earth, Sun, or any remote object. For example, the DPS includes a first camera and, possibly, a second camera configured to capture a plurality of navigation images to determine a state of a spacecraft in a solar system. The second camera is located behind, or adjacent to, a secondary reflector of a first camera in a body of a telescope.

  8. Detection Performance of Upgraded "Polished Panel" Optical Receiver Concept on the Deep-Space Network's 34 Meter Research Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, Victor A.

    2012-01-01

    The development and demonstration of a "polished panel" optical receiver concept on the 34 meter research antenna of the Deep Space Network (DSN) has been the subject of recent papers. This concept would enable simultaneous reception of optical and microwave signals by retaining the original shape of the main reflector for microwave reception, but with the aluminum panels polished to high reflectivity to enable focusing of optical signal energy as well. A test setup has been installed on the DSN's 34 meter research antenna at Deep Space Station 13 (DSS-13) of NASA's Goldstone Communications Complex in California, and preliminary experimental results have been obtained. This paper describes the results of our latest efforts to improve the point-spread function (PSF) generated by a custom polished panel, in an attempt to reduce the dimensions of the PSF, thus enabling more precise tracking and improved detection performance. The design of the new mechanical support structure and its operation are described, and the results quantified in terms of improvements in collected signal energy and optical communications performance, based on data obtained while tracking the planet Jupiter with the 34 meter research antenna at DSS-13.

  9. The Deep Space Network's X/X/Ka Feed: Modifications for 100 kW CW Uplink Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppe, Daniel J.; Khayatian, Behrouz; Sosnowski, John B.

    2010-01-01

    The Deep Space Network, which provides communication services for NASA's robotic missions, consists of a number of 34m beam waveguide antennas and conventional 70m dual-reflector antennas located around the globe, [1]. The 34m beam waveguide antennas employ a three-band feed covering the deep space uplink band near 7.2 GHz, and downlink bands at 8.45 and 32 GHz. Simultaneous uplink commanding at 25 kW CW and ultra low noise reception in both bands is supported along with monopulse tracking at 32 GHz, [2]. An existing uplink capability of 25 kW is also available on the 70m antennas using a more conventional X/X diplexing feed. In order to provide an equivalent uplink capability with the 34m antennas the X/X/Ka feed is currently being modified for 100 kW CW operation, [3]. Here we will discuss both the existing feed and the 100 kW modifications which are underway.

  10. Understanding deep convolutional networks.

    PubMed

    Mallat, Stéphane

    2016-04-13

    Deep convolutional networks provide state-of-the-art classifications and regressions results over many high-dimensional problems. We review their architecture, which scatters data with a cascade of linear filter weights and nonlinearities. A mathematical framework is introduced to analyse their properties. Computations of invariants involve multiscale contractions with wavelets, the linearization of hierarchical symmetries and sparse separations. Applications are discussed. PMID:26953183

  11. The Deep Space Atomic Clock Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Todd A.; Koch, Timothy; Kuang, Da; Lee, Karen; Murphy, David; Prestage, John; Tjoelker, Robert; Seubert, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The Deep Space Atomic Clock (DSAC) mission will demonstrate the space flight performance of a small, low-mass, high-stability mercury-ion atomic clock with long term stability and accuracy on par with that of the Deep Space Network. The timing stability introduced by DSAC allows for a 1-Way radiometric tracking paradigm for deep space navigation, with benefits including increased tracking via utilization of the DSN's Multiple Spacecraft Per Aperture (MSPA) capability and full ground station-spacecraft view periods, more accurate radio occultation signals, decreased single-frequency measurement noise, and the possibility for fully autonomous on-board navigation. Specific examples of navigation and radio science benefits to deep space missions are highlighted through simulations of Mars orbiter and Europa flyby missions. Additionally, this paper provides an overview of the mercury-ion trap technology behind DSAC, details of and options for the upcoming 2015/2016 space demonstration, and expected on-orbit clock performance.

  12. Availability analysis of the traveling-wave maser amplifiers in the deep space network. Part 1: The 70-meter antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Issa, T. N.

    1992-01-01

    The results of the reliability and availability analyses of the individual S- and X-band traveling-wave maser (TWM) assemblies and their operational configurations in the 70-meter antennas of NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) are described. For the period 1990 through 1991, the TWM availability parameters for the Telemetry Data System are: mean time between failures (MTBF), 930 hr; mean time to restore services (MTTRS), 1.4 hr; and the average availability, 99.85 percent. In previously published articles, the performance analysis of the TWM assemblies was confined to the determination of the parameters specified above. However, as the mean down time (MDT) for the repair of TWM's increases, the levels of the TWM operational availabilities and MTTRS are adversely affected. A more comprehensive TWM availability analysis is presented to permit evaluation of both MTBF and MDT effects. Performance analysis of the TWM assemblies, based on their station monthly failure reports, indicates that the TWM's required MTBF and MDT levels of 3000 hr and 36 to 48 hr, respectively, have been achieved by the TWM's only at the Canberra Deep Space Station (DSS 43). The Markov Process technique is employed to develop suitable availability measures for the S- and X-band TWM configurations when each is operated in a two-assembly standby mode. The derived stochastic expressions allow for the evaluation of those configurations' simultaneous availability for the Antenna Microwave Subsystem. The application of these expressions to demonstrate the impact of various levels of TWM maintainability (or MDT) on their configurations' operational availabilities is presented for each of the 70-m antenna stations.

  13. Availability analysis of the traveling-wave maser amplifiers in the deep space network. Part 1: The 70-meter antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issa, T. N.

    1992-08-01

    The results of the reliability and availability analyses of the individual S- and X-band traveling-wave maser (TWM) assemblies and their operational configurations in the 70-meter antennas of NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) are described. For the period 1990 through 1991, the TWM availability parameters for the Telemetry Data System are: mean time between failures (MTBF), 930 hr; mean time to restore services (MTTRS), 1.4 hr; and the average availability, 99.85 percent. In previously published articles, the performance analysis of the TWM assemblies was confined to the determination of the parameters specified above. However, as the mean down time (MDT) for the repair of TWM's increases, the levels of the TWM operational availabilities and MTTRS are adversely affected. A more comprehensive TWM availability analysis is presented to permit evaluation of both MTBF and MDT effects. Performance analysis of the TWM assemblies, based on their station monthly failure reports, indicates that the TWM's required MTBF and MDT levels of 3000 hr and 36 to 48 hr, respectively, have been achieved by the TWM's only at the Canberra Deep Space Station (DSS 43). The Markov Process technique is employed to develop suitable availability measures for the S- and X-band TWM configurations when each is operated in a two-assembly standby mode. The derived stochastic expressions allow for the evaluation of those configurations' simultaneous availability for the Antenna Microwave Subsystem. The application of these expressions to demonstrate the impact of various levels of TWM maintainability (or MDT) on their configurations' operational availabilities is presented for each of the 70-m antenna stations.

  14. Monitor and Control of the Deep-Space network via Secure Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamarra, N.

    1997-01-01

    (view graph) NASA lead center for robotic space exploration. Operating division of Caltech/Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Current missions, Voyagers, Galileo, Pathfinder, Global Surveyor. Upcoming missions, Cassini, Mars and New Millennium.

  15. Sequence-of-events-driven automation of the deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, R., Jr.; Fayyad, K.; Smyth, C.; Santos, T.; Chen, R.; Chien, S.; Bevan, R.

    1996-01-01

    In February 1995, sequence-of-events (SOE)-driven automation technology was demonstrated for a Voyager telemetry downlink track at DSS 13. This demonstration entailed automated generation of an operations procedure (in the form of a temporal dependency network) from project SOE information using artificial intelligence planning technology and automated execution of the temporal dependency network using the link monitor and control operator assistant system. This article describes the overall approach to SOE-driven automation that was demonstrated, identifies gaps in SOE definitions and project profiles that hamper automation, and provides detailed measurements of the knowledge engineering effort required for automation.

  16. Deep space network radio science system for Voyager Uranus and Galileo missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, T. K.; Donivan, F. F.

    1986-01-01

    An overview is presented of major new requirements, challenges and conceptual designs for the DSN Radio Science System in the 1985 to 1988 period. The Voyager Uranus encounter is being supported with larger combined aperture, higher sample rate, and a centrally controlled network. The Galileo mission will be provided with a high resolution S-Band Faraday rotation detection capability and a high-stability Doppler system with X-Band uplink for gravitational wave search.

  17. Development of Cooperative Communication Techniques for a Network of Small Satellites and Cubesats in Deep Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babuscia, Alessandra; Cheung, Kar-Ming; Divsalar, Dariush; Lee, Charles

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to address this problem by proposing cooperative communication approaches in which multiple CubeSats communicate cooperatively together to improve the link performance with respect to the case of a single satellite transmitting. Three approaches are proposed: a beam-forming approach, a coding approach, and a network approach. The approaches are applied to the specific case of a proposed constellation of CubeSats at the Lunar Lagrangian point L1 which aims to perform radio astronomy at very low frequencies (30 KHz -3 MHz). The paper describes the development of the approaches, the simulation and a graphical user interface developed in Matlab which allows to perform trade-offs across multiple constellation's configurations.

  18. Terrestrial Propagation of 2-Gigahertz Emissions Transmitted from the Deep Space Network 70-Meter Antenna at Robledo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, C. M.; Sue, M. K.; Peng, T. K.; Smith, E. K.

    2002-10-01

    This article presents a case study of potential interference from a 2-GHz transmitter in the Deep Space Network (DSN) station in Robledo, Spain, to the International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT)-2000 mobile receivers in the city of Madrid about 50 km away. This study has included the effect of terrain between Robledo and Madrid in evaluating the propagation modes, which include diffraction over the terrain, ducting through the atmosphere, and scattering by rain. It is a complete revision of a previous study wherein preliminary analysis of these phenomena was presented without taking the specific terra in into account. The predicted results concerning diffraction are consistent with measurements and with predictions of the Longley-Rice model. Because of attenuation by the hills, the expected power received through diffraction by a mobile receiver on ground level in Madrid is lower than the interference thresholds (-109 dBm) when the DSN antenna transmits at the normal power of 20 kW. The hills near the DSN antenna also provide much attenuation to the emissions propagated through atmospheric ducting. Considering the low duty cycle (12 percent or less) of about 2 GHz (S-band) transmissions at Robledo, the expected power of emissions propagated through atmospheric ducting does not exceed the receiver interference thresholds more than 0.1 percent of the time. The corresponding effect of rain scattering is estimated to be 0.01 percent of the time. These percentages decrease at larger distances.

  19. Conceptual Design of a Communication-Based Deep Space Navigation Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anzalone, Evan J.; Chuang, C. H.

    2012-01-01

    As the need grows for increased autonomy and position knowledge accuracy to support missions beyond Earth orbit, engineers must push and develop more advanced navigation sensors and systems that operate independent of Earth-based analysis and processing. Several spacecraft are approaching this problem using inter-spacecraft radiometric tracking and onboard autonomous optical navigation methods. This paper proposes an alternative implementation to aid in spacecraft position fixing. The proposed method Network-Based Navigation technique takes advantage of the communication data being sent between spacecraft and between spacecraft and ground control to embed navigation information. The navigation system uses these packets to provide navigation estimates to an onboard navigation filter to augment traditional ground-based radiometric tracking techniques. As opposed to using digital signal measurements to capture inherent information of the transmitted signal itself, this method relies on the embedded navigation packet headers to calculate a navigation estimate. This method is heavily dependent on clock accuracy and the initial results show the promising performance of a notional system.

  20. Deep Space Network Scheduling Using Multi-Objective Optimization with Uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a novel technique to incorporate uncertainty modeling within an evolutionary algorithm approach to multi-objective scheduling, with the goal of identifying a Pareto frontier (tradeoff curve) that recognizes the likelihood of events that can impact the schedule outcome. Our approach is particularly applicable to the generation of multiobjective optimized robust schedules, where objectives are assigned a service level, for example that we require an objective value to be greater than or equal to X with Y% confidence. We have demonstrated that such an approach can, for example, minimize scheduling on less reliable resources, based solely on a resource reliability model and not on any ad hoc heuristics. We have also investigated an alternative method of optimizing for robustness, in which we add to the set of objectives a failure risk objective to minimize. We compare the advantages and disadvantages of these two approaches. Future plans for further developing this technology include its application to space-based observatory scheduling problems.

  1. Deep Space 1 (fact sheet)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, D. K.

    1998-01-01

    Exerting less force than does a single sheet of paper resting in your hand, Deep Space 1's ion propulsion system will slowly, yet continuously accelerate the spacecraft well beyond speeds attainable by conventional chemical propulsion.

  2. Deep Space Telecommunications Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, J. H. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Descriptive and analytical information useful for the optimal design, specification, and performance evaluation of deep space telecommunications systems is presented. Telemetry, tracking, and command systems, receiver design, spacecraft antennas, frequency selection, interference, and modulation techniques are addressed.

  3. Iris Transponder-Communications and Navigation for Deep Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, Courtney B.; Smith, Amy E.; Aguirre, Fernando H.

    2014-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has developed the Iris CubeSat compatible deep space transponder for INSPIRE, the first CubeSat to deep space. Iris is 0.4 U, 0.4 kg, consumes 12.8 W, and interoperates with NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) on X-Band frequencies (7.2 GHz uplink, 8.4 GHz downlink) for command, telemetry, and navigation. This talk discusses the Iris for INSPIRE, it's features and requirements; future developments and improvements underway; deep space and proximity operations applications for Iris; high rate earth orbit variants; and ground requirements, such as are implemented in the DSN, for deep space operations.

  4. The Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The primary objectives during this portion of the extended mission were to assure survival of the spacecraft for a third Mercury encounter through conservation of attitude control gas and to conduct trajectory correction maneuvers (TCMs) as necessary to target the spacecraft for a solar occultation zone pass. Special support activities included TCMs 6 and 7 conducted on October 30, 1974 and on February 12-13, 1975, respectively. This period also saw the DSN interface organization involved in (1) the allocation of sufficient coverage to assure accurate orbit determination solutions, (2) monitoring of DSN implementation for Viking to assure maintenance of compatible interfaces and capabilities required for Mariner 10, and (3) the development of encounter coverage, sequences, and readiness test plans.

  5. Deep space optical communications experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinman, P.; Katz, J.; Gagliardi, R.

    1983-01-01

    An optical communications experiment between a deep space vehicle and an earth terminal is under consideration for later in this decade. The experimental link would be incoherent (direct detection) and would employ two-way cooperative pointing. The deep space optical transceiver would ride piggyback on a spacecraft with an independent scientific objective. Thus, this optical transceiver is being designed for minimum spacecraft impact - specifically, low mass and low power. The choices of laser transmitter, coding/modulation scheme, and pointing mechanization are discussed. A representative telemetry link budget is presented.

  6. Floating into Deep Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Frenais, R.; Saraceno, T.; Powell, J.

    2014-04-01

    Is it possible for spaceflight to become more sustainable? Artist and architect Tomas Saraceno proposes a long-term artscience research project based on his initial work with solar balloons to join with the efforts of engineers such as John Powell, working on the Airship to Orbit experiments, which describe a three stage process of using airships to fly to a large suborbital "Dark Sky Station' then literally floating into orbit with additional electrical and chemical propulsion. (See: http://www.jpaerospace.com) In his artworks Tomás Saraceno proposes cell-like flying cities as possible architectonic living spaces in direct reference to Buckminster Fuller's Cloud Nine (circa 1960). The fantastic architectural utopia Cloud Nine consists of a freely floating sphere measuring one mile in diameter that offers living space to several autonomous communities encompassing thousands of inhabitants each. The notion of the cloud is essential to the artist's work. The cloud as metaphor stands for artistic intention, for the meaning of territory and border in today's (urban) society, and for exploring possibilities for the sustainable development of the human living environment. In Saraceno's work this environment is not limited to the earth, but is explicitly conceived to reach into outer space. (Biomimetic Constructions- On the works of Tomás Saraceno By Katharina Schlüter) Saraceno is also interested in human factors experiments using his existing constructions as analogue environments for living on Mars and is proposing carry out a series of workshops, experiments and solar balloon launces in White Sands desert in early 2016 in collaboration with the curator Dr Rob La Frenais, the Rubin Center at The University of Texas at El Paso and various scientific partners.

  7. Creating food for deep space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-07-01

    Explorers and scientists have to eat, whether they're on top of a mountain, deep in the sea, or in space. NASA scientists are working to develop a viable food program by 2030 that could feed six crew members for a 3-year mission to Mars.

  8. The Deep Impact Network Experiment Operations Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torgerson, J. Leigh; Clare, Loren; Wang, Shin-Ywan

    2009-01-01

    Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) promises solutions in solving space communications challenges arising from disconnections as orbiters lose line-of-sight with landers, long propagation delays over interplanetary links, and other phenomena. DTN has been identified as the basis for the future NASA space communications network backbone, and international standardization is progressing through both the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) and the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). JPL has developed an implementation of the DTN architecture, called the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION). ION is specifically implemented for space use, including design for use in a real-time operating system environment and high processing efficiency. In order to raise the Technology Readiness Level of ION, the first deep space flight demonstration of DTN is underway, using the Deep Impact (DI) spacecraft. Called the Deep Impact Network (DINET), operations are planned for Fall 2008. An essential component of the DINET project is the Experiment Operations Center (EOC), which will generate and receive the test communications traffic as well as "out-of-DTN band" command and control of the DTN experiment, store DTN flight test information in a database, provide display systems for monitoring DTN operations status and statistics (e.g., bundle throughput), and support query and analyses of the data collected. This paper describes the DINET EOC and its value in the DTN flight experiment and potential for further DTN testing.

  9. Deep Space 1 in Cleanroom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Deep Space 1 was launched in October 1998 as part of NASA's New Millennium Program, which is managed by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. The California Institute of Technology in Pasadena manages JPL for NASA. Deep Space 1 used a unique ion drive propulsion system. Unlike the fireworks of most chemical rockets using solid or liquid fuels, the ion drive emits only an eerie blue glow as ionized (electrically charged) atoms of xenon are pushed out of the engine. Xenon is the same gas found in photo flash tubes and many lighthouse bulbs. The almost imperceptible thrust from the system is equivalent to the pressure exerted by a sheet of paper held in the palm of your hand. The ion engine is very slow to pick up speed, but over the long haul it can deliver 10 times as much thrust per pound of fuel as more traditional rockets. Previous ion propulsion systems, like those found on some communications satellites, were not used as the main engines, but only to keep the satellites on track. Deep Space 1 is the first spacecraft to use this important technology as its primary means of propulsion. The importance of ion propulsion is its great efficiency,' says Dr. Marc Rayman, project manager for Deep Space 1. 'It uses very little propellant, and that means it weighs less so it can use a less expensive launch vehicle and ultimately go much faster than other spacecraft. This opens the solar system to many future exciting missions which otherwise would have been unaffordable or even impossible,' added Dr. Rayman. The ion particles travel out at about 68,000 miles per hour. However, Deep Space 1 doesn't move that fast in the other direction, because it is much heavier than the ion particles. By the end of the mission, the ion engine will have changed the spacecraft's speed by about 6,800 mph (over 11,000 kph). The technology is so efficient that it only consumes about 3.5 ounces (100 g) of xenon per day, taking about four days to expend just one pound (0.4 kg

  10. Potential Interference to the Deep Space Network Stations in Spain from NPOESS in the 25.5- to 27.0-GHz Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsou, H.

    2008-08-01

    A new Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial (INTA) station, located about 70 km east of the Deep Space Network (DSN) Madrid complex (Robledo), is planned to support National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) satellites. The 26.7-GHz NPOESS Ka-band downlink to this proposed station can potentially interfere with the DSN Madrid station that may support the future lunar and Sun-Earth Lagrange point missions operating in the 25.5- to 27.0-GHz band. A preliminary compatibility analysis has been conducted to assess the potential impact to the DSN Madrid complex from the NPOESS Ka-band downlink to the planned INTA station.

  11. The operational performance of hydrogen masers in the deep space network: The performance of laboratory reference frequency standards in an operational environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogen masers used as aids in meeting the routine frequency and time operational requirements within the 64 m antenna Deep Space Network. Both the operational syntonation (frequency synchronization) and the the clock (epoch) synchronization requirements were established through the use of specifically calibrated H-P E215061A flying clock. The sync/synt to UTC was maintained using LORAN and TV in simultaneous reception mode. The sync/synt within the 64 m net was maintained through the use of very long base interferometry. Results indicate that the hydrogen masers perform well within the required specifications.

  12. Deep Space C3: High Power Uplinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodis, Mary Anne; Abraham, Douglas S.; Morabito, David D.

    2003-12-01

    The uplink transmitters of the Deep Space Network (DSN) perform three key functions in support of space missions: navigation, command uplink, and emergency recovery. The transmitters range in frequency from S-band to Ka-band, and range in RF transmit power from 200W to 400kW. Future improvements to the uplink transmitters will focus on higher frequency transmitters for high data rate communications, high power X-band uplinks for emergency recovery, and/or in-phase uplink arraying for either application.

  13. PTTI applications to deep space navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curkendall, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    Radio metric deep space navigation relies nearly exclusively upon coherent, two way, Doppler and ranging for all precise applications. These data types and the navigational accuracies they can produce are reviewed. The deployment of hydrogen maser frequency standards and the development of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) systems within the Deep Space Network are used in the development of non-coherent, one way data forms that promise much greater inherent navigational accuracy. The underlying structure between each data class and clock performance is charted. VLBI observations of the natural radio sources are the planned instrument for the synchronization task. This method and a navigational scheme using differential measurements between the spacecraft and nearby quasars are described.

  14. NASA Integrated Space Communications Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Wallace; Wright, Nate; Prior, Mike; Bhasin, Kul

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Integrated Network for Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) has been in the definition phase since 2010. It is intended to integrate NASA s three existing network elements, i.e., the Space Network, Near Earth Network, and Deep Space Network, into a single network. In addition to the technical merits, the primary purpose of the Integrated Network is to achieve a level of operating cost efficiency significantly higher than it is today. Salient features of the Integrated Network include (a) a central system element that performs service management functions and user mission interfaces for service requests; (b) a set of common service execution equipment deployed at the all stations that provides return, forward, and radiometric data processing and delivery capabilities; (c) the network monitor and control operations for the entire integrated network are conducted remotely and centrally at a prime-shift site and rotating among three sites globally (a follow-the-sun approach); (d) the common network monitor and control software deployed at all three network elements that supports the follow-the-sun operations.

  15. A common-aperture X- and S-band four-function feedcone. [hornfeed design for antennas of Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withington, J. R.; Williams, W. F.

    1982-01-01

    Williams and Withington (1979) have considered a prototype X-S-band feedhorn which enabled simultaneous X- and S-band reception from a Cassegrain antenna. This feedhorn has quite successfully demonstrated an alternate method to the standard Deep Space Network (DSN) system of multiple subreflectors and dichroic plate for dual-band reception. In connection with a Network Consolidation Program, involving centralized control of existing antennas and construction of new reflector antennas, a second-generation feedhorn/combiner was conceived to show that this common-aperture feedhorn system was capable of performing all necessary functions the DSN would be called upon to perform with existing and future X-S-band spacecraft. Attention is given to the feedhorn concept, the combiner concept, the first and the second generation of the horn, Sand X-band tuning, and planned capabilities. The feedhorn greatly extends the state of the art in DSN performance and will enhance DSN capabilities in the future.

  16. Deep Space 1 Technology Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The completely assembled Deep Space 1 (DS-1) technology demonstrator spacecraft. The DS-1 spacecraft incorporates a number of advanced technology concepts in its mission, but none so 'high profile' as its Ion propulsion system. The name itself evokes visions of Star Trek and science fiction fantasy, although the idea actually dates from the 1950s. However, unlike the 'Warp Drive' propulsion system that zings the fictional starship Enterprise across the cosmos in minutes, the almost imperceptible thrust from the ion propulsion system is equivalent to the pressure exerted by a sheet of paper held in the palm of your hand. The ion engine is very slow to pick up speed, but over the long haul it can deliver 10 times as much thrust per pound of fuel as more traditional rockets. Unlike the fireworks of most chemical rockets using solid or liquid fuels, the ion drive emits only an eerie blue glow as ionized (electrically charged) atoms of xenon are pushed out of the engine. Xenon is the same gas found in photo flash tubes and many lighthouse bulbs. Deep Space 1 was launched in October 1998 as part of NASA's New Millennium Program, which is managed by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. The California Institute of Technology in Pasadena manages JPL for NASA.

  17. Science and Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon-Miller, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Have you ever wondered about the science goals of various deep space missions? Or why scientists want such seemingly complicated spacecraft and operations scenarios? With a focus on outer planets) this talk will cover the scientific goals and results of several recent and future missions) how scientists approach a requirements flow down) and how the disparate needs of mission engineers and scientists can come together for mission success. It will also touch on several up and coming technologies and how they will change mission architectures in the future.

  18. COTS-Based Fault Tolerance in Deep Space: Qualitative and Quantitative Analyses of a Bus Network Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Ann T.; Chau, Savio N.; Alkalai, Leon

    2000-01-01

    Using COTS products, standards and intellectual properties (IPs) for all the system and component interfaces is a crucial step toward significant reduction of both system cost and development cost as the COTS interfaces enable other COTS products and IPs to be readily accommodated by the target system architecture. With respect to the long-term survivable systems for deep-space missions, the major challenge for us is, under stringent power and mass constraints, to achieve ultra-high reliability of the system comprising COTS products and standards that are not developed for mission-critical applications. The spirit of our solution is to exploit the pertinent standard features of a COTS product to circumvent its shortcomings, though these standard features may not be originally designed for highly reliable systems. In this paper, we discuss our experiences and findings on the design of an IEEE 1394 compliant fault-tolerant COTS-based bus architecture. We first derive and qualitatively analyze a -'stacktree topology" that not only complies with IEEE 1394 but also enables the implementation of a fault-tolerant bus architecture without node redundancy. We then present a quantitative evaluation that demonstrates significant reliability improvement from the COTS-based fault tolerance.

  19. Emergency Communications for NASA's Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shambayati, Shervin; Lee, Charles H.; Morabito, David D.; Cesarone, Robert J.; Abraham, Douglas S.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to communicate with spacecraft during emergencies is a vital service that NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) provides to all deep space missions. Emergency communications is characterized by low data rates(typically is approximately10 bps) with the spacecraft using either a low-gain antenna (LGA, including omnidirectional antennas) or,in some cases, a medium-gain antenna (MGA). Because of the use of LGAs/MGAs for emergency communications, the transmitted power requirements both on the spacecraft andon the ground are substantially greater than those required for normal operations on the high-gain antenna (HGA) despite the lower data rates. In this paper, we look at currentand future emergency communications capabilities available to NASA's deep-space missions and discuss their limitations in the context of emergency mode operations requirements.These discussions include the use of the DSN 70-m diameter antennas, the use of the 34-m diameter antennas either alone or arrayed both for the uplink (Earth-to-spacecraft) and the downlink (spacecraft-to-Earth), upgrades to the ground transmitters, and spacecraft power requirements both with unitygain (0 dB) LGAs and with antennas with directivity (>0 dB gain, either LGA or MGA, depending on the gain). Also discussed are the requirements for forward-error-correctingcodes for both the uplink and the downlink. In additional, we introduce a methodology for proper selection of a directionalLGA/MGA for emergency communications.

  20. DSS-13 - Using an OSI process control standard for monitor and control. [Deep Space Network experimental station applying Open System interconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heuser, W. R.; Chen, Richard L.; Stockett, Michael H.

    1993-01-01

    The flexibility and robustness of a monitor and control (M&C) system are a direct result of the underlying inter-processor communications architecture. A new architecture for M&C at the Deep Space Communications Complexes has been developed based on the manufacturing message specification (MMS) process control standard of the open system interconnection (OSI) suite of protocols. This architecture has been tested both in a laboratory environment and under operational conditions at the Deep Space Network experimental station (DSS-13). The DSS-13 experience in the application of OSI standards to support M&C has been extremely successful. MMS meets the functional needs of the station and provides a level of flexibility and responsiveness previously unknown in that environment. The architecture is robust enough to meet current operational needs and flexible enough to provide a migration path for new subsystems. This paper describes the architecture of the DSS-13 M&C system, discuss how MMS was used and the requirements this imposed on other parts of the system, and provides results from systems and operational testing at DSS-13.

  1. VOIP over Space Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okino, C.; Kwong, W.; Pang, Jackson; Gao, Jerry; Clare, L.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP) over a space networking environment. The topics include: 1) Drivers for VOIP in Space; 2) Challenges in the Space Networking Environment: Long Latencies, Path errors, Simplex paths, Asymmetric paths, QoS requirements, Team-based operations, and Overhead concerns; 3) Possible VOIPOSN approaches; 4) Study of BER, code type and voice frame length on PESQ-MOS; 5) Codec Latency Trade Space; and 6) Testbed.

  2. Ka-band (32 GHz) allocations for deep space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degroot, N. F.

    1987-01-01

    At the 1979 World Administrative Conference, two new bands were allocated for deep space telecommunications: 31.8 to 32.3 GHz, space-to-Earth, and 34.2 to 34.7 GHz, Earth-to-space. These bands provide opportunity for further development of the Deep Space Network and its support of deep space research. The history of the process by which JPL/NASA developed the rationale, technical background, and statement of requirement for the bands are discussed. Based on this work, United States proposals to the conference included the bands, and subsequent U.S. and NASA participation in the conference led to successful allocations for deep space telecommunications in the 30 GHz region of the spectrum. A detailed description of the allocations is included.

  3. Recycling used lubricating oil at the deep space stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koh, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    A comparison is made of the lubricating oil recycling methods used in the Deep Space Station 43 test and the basic requirements which could favor recycling of oil for continuous reuse. The basic conditions for successful recycling are compared to the conditions that exist in the Deep Space Network (DSN). This comparison shows that to recycle used oil in the DSN would not only be expensive but also nonproductive.

  4. Deep networks for motor control functions

    PubMed Central

    Berniker, Max; Kording, Konrad P.

    2015-01-01

    The motor system generates time-varying commands to move our limbs and body. Conventional descriptions of motor control and learning rely on dynamical representations of our body's state (forward and inverse models), and control policies that must be integrated forward to generate feedforward time-varying commands; thus these are representations across space, but not time. Here we examine a new approach that directly represents both time-varying commands and the resulting state trajectories with a function; a representation across space and time. Since the output of this function includes time, it necessarily requires more parameters than a typical dynamical model. To avoid the problems of local minima these extra parameters introduce, we exploit recent advances in machine learning to build our function using a stacked autoencoder, or deep network. With initial and target states as inputs, this deep network can be trained to output an accurate temporal profile of the optimal command and state trajectory for a point-to-point reach of a non-linear limb model, even when influenced by varying force fields. In a manner that mirrors motor babble, the network can also teach itself to learn through trial and error. Lastly, we demonstrate how this network can learn to optimize a cost objective. This functional approach to motor control is a sharp departure from the standard dynamical approach, and may offer new insights into the neural implementation of motor control. PMID:25852530

  5. Deep networks for motor control functions.

    PubMed

    Berniker, Max; Kording, Konrad P

    2015-01-01

    The motor system generates time-varying commands to move our limbs and body. Conventional descriptions of motor control and learning rely on dynamical representations of our body's state (forward and inverse models), and control policies that must be integrated forward to generate feedforward time-varying commands; thus these are representations across space, but not time. Here we examine a new approach that directly represents both time-varying commands and the resulting state trajectories with a function; a representation across space and time. Since the output of this function includes time, it necessarily requires more parameters than a typical dynamical model. To avoid the problems of local minima these extra parameters introduce, we exploit recent advances in machine learning to build our function using a stacked autoencoder, or deep network. With initial and target states as inputs, this deep network can be trained to output an accurate temporal profile of the optimal command and state trajectory for a point-to-point reach of a non-linear limb model, even when influenced by varying force fields. In a manner that mirrors motor babble, the network can also teach itself to learn through trial and error. Lastly, we demonstrate how this network can learn to optimize a cost objective. This functional approach to motor control is a sharp departure from the standard dynamical approach, and may offer new insights into the neural implementation of motor control. PMID:25852530

  6. Simulator of Space Communication Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clare, Loren; Jennings, Esther; Gao, Jay; Segui, John; Kwong, Winston

    2005-01-01

    Multimission Advanced Communications Hybrid Environment for Test and Evaluation (MACHETE) is a suite of software tools that simulates the behaviors of communication networks to be used in space exploration, and predict the performance of established and emerging space communication protocols and services. MACHETE consists of four general software systems: (1) a system for kinematic modeling of planetary and spacecraft motions; (2) a system for characterizing the engineering impact on the bandwidth and reliability of deep-space and in-situ communication links; (3) a system for generating traffic loads and modeling of protocol behaviors and state machines; and (4) a system of user-interface for performance metric visualizations. The kinematic-modeling system makes it possible to characterize space link connectivity effects, including occultations and signal losses arising from dynamic slant-range changes and antenna radiation patterns. The link-engineering system also accounts for antenna radiation patterns and other phenomena, including modulations, data rates, coding, noise, and multipath fading. The protocol system utilizes information from the kinematic-modeling and link-engineering systems to simulate operational scenarios of space missions and evaluate overall network performance. In addition, a Communications Effect Server (CES) interface for MACHETE has been developed to facilitate hybrid simulation of space communication networks with actual flight/ground software/hardware embedded in the overall system.

  7. The JPL roadmap for Deep Space navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin-Mur, Tomas J.; Abraham, Douglas S.; Berry, David; Bhaskaran, Shyam; Cesarone, Robert J.; Wood, Lincoln

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the tentative set of deep space missions that will be supported by NASA's Deep Space Mission System in the next twenty-five years, and extracts the driving set of navigation capabilities that these missions will require. There will be many challenges including the support of new mission navigation approaches such as formation flying and rendezvous in deep space, low-energy and low-thrust orbit transfers, precise landing and ascent vehicles, and autonomous navigation. Innovative strategies and approaches will be needed to develop and field advanced navigation capabilities.

  8. Deep Space Network Support for the Galileo Mission to Jupiter: Jupiter Orbital Operations From Post-Jupiter Orbit Insertion Through the End of the Prime Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, P. E.; Yetter, B. G.; Torres, R. G.; Mudgway, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Deep Space Network (DSN) support for the Galileo mission to Jupiter began at launch in October 1989 and continued through the end of the prime mission in December 1997. The tracking and data acquisition support that was provided by the DSN up to the time that the spacecraft arrived at Jupiter (December 1995) is described in earlier issues of this publication [1,2,3]. This article, the final one of the series, covers the period from January 1996 through December 1997 and describes DSN support for the Galileo orbital operations at Jupiter, which included 10 satellite encounters over a period of 17 months. For a substantial portion of this period, the DSN was operated in the fully arrayed configuration for Galileo passes. This involved real-time combining of spacecraft signals from the DSN 70-m and 34-m antennas at Canberra with those from the 70-m antenna at Goldstone. The combined signals were enhanced further by the addition of the signal from the Australian 64-m radio astronomy antenna at Parkes, located 260-km northwest of Canberra. This article describes the implementation and remarkable performance of this very complex arrangement under real-time operational conditions.

  9. Life Support for Deep Space and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Hodgson, Edward W.; Kliss, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    How should life support for deep space be developed? The International Space Station (ISS) life support system is the operational result of many decades of research and development. Long duration deep space missions such as Mars have been expected to use matured and upgraded versions of ISS life support. Deep space life support must use the knowledge base incorporated in ISS but it must also meet much more difficult requirements. The primary new requirement is that life support in deep space must be considerably more reliable than on ISS or anywhere in the Earth-Moon system, where emergency resupply and a quick return are possible. Due to the great distance from Earth and the long duration of deep space missions, if life support systems fail, the traditional approaches for emergency supply of oxygen and water, emergency supply of parts, and crew return to Earth or escape to a safe haven are likely infeasible. The Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) maintenance approach used by ISS is unsuitable for deep space with ORU's as large and complex as those originally provided in ISS designs because it minimizes opportunities for commonality of spares, requires replacement of many functional parts with each failure, and results in substantial launch mass and volume penalties. It has become impractical even for ISS after the shuttle era, resulting in the need for ad hoc repair activity at lower assembly levels with consequent crew time penalties and extended repair timelines. Less complex, more robust technical approaches may be needed to meet the difficult deep space requirements for reliability, maintainability, and reparability. Developing an entirely new life support system would neglect what has been achieved. The suggested approach is use the ISS life support technologies as a platform to build on and to continue to improve ISS subsystems while also developing new subsystems where needed to meet deep space requirements.

  10. Spaceport operations for deep space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Alan C.

    1990-01-01

    Space Station Freedom is designed with the capability to cost-effectively evolve into a transportation node which can support manned lunar and Mars missions. To extend a permanent human presence to the outer planets (moon outposts) and to nearby star systems, additional orbiting space infrastructure and great advances in propulsion system and other technologies will be required. To identify primary operations and management requirements for these deep space missions, an interstellar design concept was developed and analyzed. The assembly, test, servicing, logistics resupply, and increment management techniques anticipated for lunar and Mars missions appear to provide a pattern which can be extended in an analogous manner to deep space missions. A long range, space infrastructure development plan (encompassing deep space missions) coupled with energetic, breakthrough level propulsion research should be initiated now to assist in making the best budget and schedule decisions.

  11. Deep Space Atomic Clock Ticks Toward Success

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. Todd Ely, principal investigator for NASA's Deep Space Atomic Clock at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., spotlights the paradigm-busting innovations now in development to revol...

  12. Habitat Demonstration Unit - Deep Space Habitat Configuration

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animated video shows the process of transporting, assembling and testing the Habitat Demonstration Unit - Deep Space Habitat (HDU DSH) configuration, which will be deployed during the 2011 Des...

  13. Antenna arraying performance for deep space telecommunications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stelzried, C. T.; Berman, A. L.; Noreen, G. K.

    1983-01-01

    Antenna arraying is a crucial Deep Space Network technique in maximizing the science return of planetary and comet encounters. The equations which describe the total figure of merit for a multiple system of arrayed antennas are developed. An example is given for three Canberra DSN antennas and the Parkes 64-m antenna to be arrayed for the Voyager 2 Uranus flyby.

  14. Antenna arraying performance for deep space telecommunications systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelzried, C. T.; Berman, A. L.; Noreen, G. K.

    1983-02-01

    Antenna arraying is a crucial Deep Space Network technique in maximizing the science return of planetary and comet encounters. The equations which describe the total figure of merit for a multiple system of arrayed antennas are developed. An example is given for three Canberra DSN antennas and the Parkes 64-m antenna to be arrayed for the Voyager 2 Uranus flyby.

  15. A Study of Near to Far Fields of JPL Deep Space Network (DSN) Antennas for RFI Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamnejad, Vahraz

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of calculating the gain and power distribution of DSN antennas in the Fresnel (middle zone) and Fraunhofer (far zone) as a function of the distance from the DSN antenna and the off-boresight angle. Calculating the near and mid fields of DSN antennas are of interest in the receive mode where the transmitting signals from nearby flying objects such as helicopters and airplanes transmitting in the DSN frequency range, interfere with the operation of sensitive RF receiving system of the DSN antennas, and in the transmit mode where fields from high-powered DSN antennas interfere with receivers on nearby flying objects such as helicopters or other systems. Computing the exact fields of a large DSN antenna is, in general, a very complicated and arduous task. Even far-field calculations, which are less complicated compared to near and mid zone fields, take considerable computer time. These calculations become even more involved and time-consuming in very near field and back field regions. We provide two approaches for addressing the radio frequency interference (RFI) issue. In this paper, actual fields in mid and far zones are calculated using a relatively simple formulation that is accurate enough for the purposes of RFI analysis. In a future paper, we study and develop simple reference models that provide upper limit bounds or envelopes of the far field patterns as a function of the antenna diameter and frequency, which can be used for obtaining the field at any given point in space.

  16. Usuda Deep Space Center support for ICE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, J. P.

    1986-01-01

    The planning, implementation and operations that took place to enable the Usuda, Japan, Deep Space Center to support the International Cometary Explorer (ICE) mission are summarized. The results show that even on very short notification our two countries can provide mutual support to help ensure mission success. The data recovery at the Usuda Deep Space Center contributed significantly to providing the required continuity of the experimental data stream at the encounter of the Comet Giacobini-Zinner.

  17. Low Gravity Issues of Deep Space Refueling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the technologies required to develop deep space refueling of cryogenic propellants and low cost flight experiments to develop them. Key technologies include long term storage, pressure control, mass gauging, liquid acquisition, and fluid transfer. Prior flight experiments used to mature technologies are discussed. A plan is presented to systematically study the deep space refueling problem and devise low-cost experiments to further mature technologies and prepare for full scale flight demonstrations.

  18. Space Network Devices Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center through a contract with Spectrum Astro, Inc., has been developing space network hardware as an enabling technology using open systems interconnect (OSI) standards for space-based communications applications. The OSI standard is a well-recognized layered reference model that specifies how data should be sent node to node in a communications network. Because of this research and technology development, a space-qualifiable Ethernet-based network interface card (similar to the type found in a networked personal computer) and the associated four-port hub were designed and developed to flight specifications. During this research and development, there also have been many lessons learned for determining approaches for migrating existing spacecraft architectures to an OSI-network-based platform. Industry has recognized the benefits of targeting hardware developed around OSI standards such as Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) or similar protocols for use in future generations of space communication systems. Some of these tangible benefits include overall reductions in mission schedule and cost and in system complexity. This development also brings us a step closer to the realization of a principal investigator on a terrestrial Internet site being able to interact with space platform assets in near real time. To develop this hardware, Spectrum Astro first conducted a technology analysis of alternatives study. For this analysis, they looked at the features of three protocol specifications: Ethernet (IEEE 802.3), Firewire (IEEE 1394), and Spacewire (IEEE 1355). A thorough analysis was performed on the basis of criteria such as current protocol performance and suitability for future space applications. Spectrum Astro also projected future influences such as cost, hardware and software availability, throughput performance, and integration procedures for current and transitive space architectures. After a thorough analysis

  19. Space Station-based deep-space optical communication experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Chien-Chung; Schwartz, Jon A.

    1988-01-01

    A series of three experiments proposed for advanced optical deep-space communications is described. These proposed experiments would be carried out aboard the Space Station to test and evaluate the capability of optical instruments to conduct data communication and spacecraft navigation for deep-space missions. Techniques for effective data communication, precision spacecraft ranging, and accurate angular measurements will be developed and evaluated in a spaceborne environment.

  20. Deep learning in neural networks: an overview.

    PubMed

    Schmidhuber, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, deep artificial neural networks (including recurrent ones) have won numerous contests in pattern recognition and machine learning. This historical survey compactly summarizes relevant work, much of it from the previous millennium. Shallow and Deep Learners are distinguished by the depth of their credit assignment paths, which are chains of possibly learnable, causal links between actions and effects. I review deep supervised learning (also recapitulating the history of backpropagation), unsupervised learning, reinforcement learning & evolutionary computation, and indirect search for short programs encoding deep and large networks. PMID:25462637

  1. Deep Space 1 is prepared for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Workers in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility test equipment on Deep Space 1 to prepare it for launch aboard a Boeing Delta 7326 rocket in October. The first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, Deep Space 1 is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. Onboard experiments include an ion propulsion engine and software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. Most of its mission objectives will be completed within the first two months. A near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, has also been selected for a possible flyby.

  2. Deep Space 1 is prepared for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Workers in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility remove a solar panel from Deep Space 1 as part of the preparations for launch aboard a Boeing Delta 7326 rocket in October. The first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, Deep Space 1 is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. Onboard experiments include an ion propulsion engine and software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. Most of its mission objectives will be completed within the first two months. A near- Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, has also been selected for a possible flyby.

  3. Deep Space 1 is prepared for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Workers in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility check out Deep Space 1 to prepare it for launch aboard a Boeing Delta 7326 rocket in October. The first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, Deep Space 1 is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. Onboard experiments include an ion propulsion engine and software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. Most of its mission objectives will be completed within the first two months. A near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, has also been selected for a possible flyby.

  4. Deep Space 1 is prepared for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Workers in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility check equipment on Deep Space 1 to prepare it for launch aboard a Boeing Delta 7326 rocket in October. The first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, Deep Space 1 is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. Onboard experiments include an ion propulsion engine and software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. Most of its mission objectives will be completed within the first two months. A near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, has also been selected for a possible flyby.

  5. Deep Space 1 is prepared for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Workers in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility prepare Deep Space 1 for launch aboard a Boeing Delta 7326 rocket in October. The first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, Deep Space 1 is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. Onboard experiments include an ion propulsion engine and software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. Most of its mission objectives will be completed within the first two months. A near- Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, has also been selected for a possible flyby.

  6. Strategic Technologies for Deep Space Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ronald J.

    2016-01-01

    Deep space transportation capability for science and exploration is fundamentally limited by available propulsion technologies. Traditional chemical systems are performance plateaued and require enormous Initial Mass in Low Earth Orbit (IMLEO) whereas solar electric propulsion systems are power limited and unable to execute rapid transits. Nuclear based propulsion and alternative energetic methods, on the other hand, represent potential avenues, perhaps the only viable avenues, to high specific power space transport evincing reduced trip time, reduced IMLEO, and expanded deep space reach. Here, key deep space transport mission capability objectives are reviewed in relation to STMD technology portfolio needs, and the advanced propulsion technology solution landscape is examined including open questions, technical challenges, and developmental prospects. Options for potential future investment across the full compliment of STMD programs are presented based on an informed awareness of complimentary activities in industry, academia, OGAs, and NASA mission directorates.

  7. Analysis of Near-field of Circular Aperture Antennas with Application to Study of High Intensity Radio Frequency (HIRF) Hazards to Aviation from JPL/NASA Deep Space Network Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamnejad, Vahraz; Statman, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    This work includes a simplified analysis of the radiated near to mid-field from JPL/NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) reflector antennas and uses an averaging technique over the main beam region and beyond for complying with FAA regulations in specific aviation environments. The work identifies areas that require special attention, including the implications of the very narrow beam of the DSN transmitters. The paper derives the maximum averaged power densities allowed and identifies zones where mitigation measures are required.

  8. Management of space networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, R. W.; Williams, B. F.

    1993-01-01

    NASA has proposed missions to the Moon and Mars that reflect three areas of emphasis: human presence, exploration, and space resource development for the benefit of Earth. A major requirement for such missions is a robust and reliable communications architecture. Network management--the ability to maintain some degree of human and automatic control over the span of the network from the space elements to the end users on Earth--is required to realize such robust and reliable communications. This article addresses several of the architectural issues associated with space network management. Round-trip delays, such as the 5- to 40-min delays in the Mars case, introduce a host of problems that must be solved by delegating significant control authority to remote nodes. Therefore, management hierarchy is one of the important architectural issues. The following article addresses these concerns, and proposes a network management approach based on emerging standards that covers the needs for fault, configuration, and performance management, delegated control authority, and hierarchical reporting of events. A relatively simple approach based on standards was demonstrated in the DSN 2000 Information Systems Laboratory, and the results are described.

  9. Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958-2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siddiqi, Asif A.; Launius, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This monograph contains brief descriptions of all robotic deep space missions attempted since the opening of the space age in 1957. The missions are listed strictly chronologically in order of launch date (not by planetary encounter).

  10. Deep Space 1's ion engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center, Florida. - Deep Space 1 is lifted from its work platform, giving a closeup view of the experimental solar-powered ion propulsion engine. The ion propulsion engine is the first non-chemical propulsion to be used as the primary means of propelling a spacecraft. The first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, Deep Space 1 is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. Another onboard experiment includes software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but may also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999. Deep Space 1 will be launched aboard a Boeing Delta 7326 rocket from Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, in October. Delta II rockets are medium capacity expendable launch vehicles derived from the Delta family of rockets built and launched since 1960. Since then there have been more than 245 Delta launches.

  11. Microbial survival in deep space environment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverman, G. J.

    1971-01-01

    Review of the knowledge available on the extent to which microorganisms (mainly microbial spores, vegetative cells, and fungi) are capable of surviving the environment of deep space, based on recent simulation experiments of deep space. A description of the experimental procedures used is followed by a discussion of deep space ecology, the behavior of microorganisms in ultrahigh vacuum, and factors influencing microbial survival. It is concluded that, so far, simulation experiments have proved far less lethal to microorganisms than to other forms of life. There are, however, wide gaps in the knowledge available, and no accurate predictions can as yet be made on the degree of lethality that might be incurred by a microbial population on a given mission. Therefore, sterilization of spacecraft surfaces is deemed necessary if induced panspermia (i.e., interplanetary life propagation) is to be avoided.

  12. Compact Deep-Space Optical Communications Transceiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, W. Thomas; Charles, Jeffrey R.

    2009-01-01

    Deep space optical communication transceivers must be very efficient receivers and transmitters of optical communication signals. For deep space missions, communication systems require high performance well beyond the scope of mere power efficiency, demanding maximum performance in relation to the precious and limited mass, volume, and power allocated. This paper describes the opto-mechanical design of a compact, efficient, functional brassboard deep space transceiver that is capable of achieving megabyte-per-second rates at Mars ranges. The special features embodied to enhance the system operability and functionality, and to reduce the mass and volume of the system are detailed. System tests and performance characteristics are described in detail. Finally, lessons learned in the implementation of the brassboard design and suggestions for improvements appropriate for a flight prototype are covered.

  13. Analysis of space network loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Mark; Larrson, Gus

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Space Network (SN) consists of several geosynchronous communications satellites, in addition to ground support facilities. Space Network management must predict years in advance what network resources are necessary to adequately satisfy all SN users. Similarly, users of the Space Network must know throughout all stages of mission planning and operations to what extent their communication support requirements can be met. NASA, at the Goddard Space Flight Center, performs Space Network and Mission Modeling using The Network Planning and Analysis System (NPAS), to determine the answers to these questions.

  14. Space Science Network Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, J.

    2002-12-01

    Space Science Network Northwest (S2N2) is a new NASA Office of Space Science Education Broker/Facilitator that serves the states of Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington and Wyoming. The headquarters of S2N2 is at the University of Washington in Seattle and the Director is Julie Lutz (206-543-0214; nasaerc@u.washington.edu). Each state has an S2N2 representative. Their contact information can be found on the Web site (www.s2n2.org) or by contacting Julie Lutz. The purpose of S2N2 is to form and nurture partnerships between space scientists and others (K-12 teachers, schools and districts, museums, planetariums, libraries, organizations such as Girl Scouts, amateur astronomy clubs, etc.). S2N2 can help space scientists come up with appropriate activities and partners for education and public outreach proposals and projects. S2N2 also provides information and advice about education materials and programs that are available from all of the Office of Space Science missions and scientific forums (Solar System Exploration, Structure and Evolution of the Universe, Sun-Earth Connection, Astronomical Search for Origins).

  15. Advanced transponders for deep space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Tien M.; Kayalar, Selahattin; Yeh, Hen-Geul; Kyriacou, Charles

    1993-01-01

    Three architectures for advanced deep space transponders are proposed. The architectures possess various digital techniques such as fast Fourier transform (FFT), digital phase-locked loop (PLL), and digital sideband aided carrier detection with analog or digital turn-around ranging. Preliminary results on the design and conceptual implementation are presented. Modifications to the command detector unit (CDU) are also presented.

  16. Electronics for Deep Space Cryogenic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, R. L.; Hammond, A.; Dickman, J. E.; Gerber, S. S.; Elbuluk, M. E.; Overton, E.

    2002-01-01

    Deep space probes and planetary exploration missions require electrical power management and control systems that are capable of efficient and reliable operation in very cold temperature environments. Typically, in deep space probes, heating elements are used to keep the spacecraft electronics near room temperature. The utilization of power electronics designed for and operated at low temperature will contribute to increasing efficiency and improving reliability of space power systems. At NASA Glenn Research Center, commercial-off-the-shelf devices as well as developed components are being investigated for potential use at low temperatures. These devices include semiconductor switching devices, magnetics, and capacitors. Integrated circuits such as digital-to-analog and analog-to-digital converters, DC/DC converters, operational amplifiers, and oscillators are also being evaluated. In this paper, results will be presented for selected analog-to-digital converters, oscillators, DC/DC converters, and pulse width modulation (PWM) controllers.

  17. Clementine, Deep Space Program Science Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Clementine, also called the Deep Space Program Science Experiment, is a joint Department of Defense (DoD)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission with the dual goal of testing small spacecraft, subsystems, and sensors in the deep space environment and also providing a nominal science return. The Clementine mission will provide technical demonstrations of innovative lightweight spacecraft components and sensors, will be launced on a spacecraft developed within 2 years of program start, and will point a way for new planetary mission options under consideration by NASA. This booklet gives the background of the Clementine mission (including the agencies involved), the mission objectives, the mission scenario, the instruments that the mission will carry, and how the data will be analyzed and made accessible.

  18. Deep Space Test Bed for Radiation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H.; Adcock, Leonard; Apple, Jeffery; Christl, Mark; Cleveand, William; Cox, Mark; Dietz, Kurt; Ferguson, Cynthia; Fountain, Walt; Ghita, Bogdan

    2006-01-01

    The Deep Space Test-Bed (DSTB) Facility is designed to investigate the effects of galactic cosmic rays on crews and systems during missions to the Moon or Mars. To gain access to the interplanetary ionizing radiation environment the DSTB uses high-altitude polar balloon flights. The DSTB provides a platform for measurements to validate the radiation transport codes that are used by NASA to calculate the radiation environment within crewed space systems. It is also designed to support other Exploration related investigations such as measuring the shielding effectiveness of candidate spacecraft and habitat materials, testing new radiation monitoring instrumentation and flight avionics and investigating the biological effects of deep space radiation. We describe the work completed thus far in the development of the DSTB and its current status.

  19. Telerobotics Workstation (TRWS) for Deep Space Habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittman, David S.; Howe, Alan S.; Tores, Recaredo J.; Rochlis, Jennifer L.; Hambuchen, Kimberly A.; Demel, Matthew; Chapman, Christopher C.

    2012-01-01

    On medium- to long-duration human spaceflight missions, latency in communications from Earth could reduce efficiency or hinder local operations, control, and monitoring of the various mission vehicles and other elements. Regardless of the degree of autonomy of any one particular element, a means of monitoring and controlling the elements in real time based on mission needs would increase efficiency and response times for their operation. Since human crews would be present locally, a local means for monitoring and controlling all the various mission elements is needed, particularly for robotic elements where response to interesting scientific features in the environment might need near- instantaneous manipulation and control. One of the elements proposed for medium- and long-duration human spaceflight missions, the Deep Space Habitat (DSH), is intended to be used as a remote residence and working volume for human crews. The proposed solution for local monitoring and control would be to provide a workstation within the DSH where local crews can operate local vehicles and robotic elements with little to no latency. The Telerobotics Workstation (TRWS) is a multi-display computer workstation mounted in a dedicated location within the DSH that can be adjusted for a variety of configurations as required. From an Intra-Vehicular Activity (IVA) location, the TRWS uses the Robot Application Programming Interface Delegate (RAPID) control environment through the local network to remotely monitor and control vehicles and robotic assets located outside the pressurized volume in the immediate vicinity or at low-latency distances from the habitat. The multiple display area of the TRWS allows the crew to have numerous windows open with live video feeds, control windows, and data browsers, as well as local monitoring and control of the DSH and associated systems.

  20. Space Station technology testbed: 2010 deep space transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Alan C.

    1993-12-01

    A space station in a crew-tended or permanently crewed configuration will provide major R&D opportunities for innovative, technology and materials development and advanced space systems testing. A space station should be designed with the basic infrastructure elements required to grow into a major systems technology testbed. This space-based technology testbed can and should be used to support the development of technologies required to expand our utilization of near-Earth space, the Moon and the Earth-to-Jupiter region of the Solar System. Space station support of advanced technology and materials development will result in new techniques for high priority scientific research and the knowledge and R&D base needed for the development of major, new commercial product thrusts. To illustrate the technology testbed potential of a space station and to point the way to a bold, innovative approach to advanced space systems' development, a hypothetical deep space transport development and test plan is described. Key deep space transport R&D activities are described would lead to the readiness certification of an advanced, reusable interplanetary transport capable of supporting eight crewmembers or more. With the support of a focused and highly motivated, multi-agency ground R&D program, a deep space transport of this type could be assembled and tested by 2010. Key R&D activities on a space station would include: (1) experimental research investigating the microgravity assisted, restructuring of micro-engineered, materials (to develop and verify the in-space and in-situ 'tuning' of materials for use in debris and radiation shielding and other protective systems), (2) exposure of microengineered materials to the space environment for passive and operational performance tests (to develop in-situ maintenance and repair techniques and to support the development, enhancement, and implementation of protective systems, data and bio-processing systems, and virtual reality and

  1. Space Station technology testbed: 2010 deep space transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Alan C.

    1993-01-01

    A space station in a crew-tended or permanently crewed configuration will provide major R&D opportunities for innovative, technology and materials development and advanced space systems testing. A space station should be designed with the basic infrastructure elements required to grow into a major systems technology testbed. This space-based technology testbed can and should be used to support the development of technologies required to expand our utilization of near-Earth space, the Moon and the Earth-to-Jupiter region of the Solar System. Space station support of advanced technology and materials development will result in new techniques for high priority scientific research and the knowledge and R&D base needed for the development of major, new commercial product thrusts. To illustrate the technology testbed potential of a space station and to point the way to a bold, innovative approach to advanced space systems' development, a hypothetical deep space transport development and test plan is described. Key deep space transport R&D activities are described would lead to the readiness certification of an advanced, reusable interplanetary transport capable of supporting eight crewmembers or more. With the support of a focused and highly motivated, multi-agency ground R&D program, a deep space transport of this type could be assembled and tested by 2010. Key R&D activities on a space station would include: (1) experimental research investigating the microgravity assisted, restructuring of micro-engineered, materials (to develop and verify the in-space and in-situ 'tuning' of materials for use in debris and radiation shielding and other protective systems), (2) exposure of microengineered materials to the space environment for passive and operational performance tests (to develop in-situ maintenance and repair techniques and to support the development, enhancement, and implementation of protective systems, data and bio-processing systems, and virtual reality and

  2. Optical deep space communication via relay satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliardi, R. M.; Vilnrotter, V. A.; Dolinar, S. J., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The possible use of an optical for high rate data transmission from a deep space vehicle to an Earth-orbiting relay satellite while RF links are envisioned for the relay to Earth link was studied. A preliminary link analysis is presented for initial sizing of optical components and power levels, in terms of achievable data rates and feasible range distances. Modulation formats are restricted to pulsed laser operation, involving bot coded and uncoded schemes. The advantage of an optical link over present RF deep space link capabilities is shown. The problems of acquisition, pointing and tracking with narrow optical beams are presented and discussed. Mathematical models of beam trackers are derived, aiding in the design of such systems for minimizing beam pointing errors. The expected orbital geometry between spacecraft and relay satellite, and its impact on beam pointing dynamics are discussed.

  3. Deep Space Station (DSS-13) automation demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, D. S.; Lorden, G.

    1980-01-01

    The data base collected during a six month demonstration of an automated Deep Space Station (DSS 13) run unattended and remotely controlled is summarized. During this period, DSS 13 received spacecraft telemetry data from Voyager, Pioneers 10 and 11, and Helios projects. Corrective and preventive maintenance are reported by subsystem including the traditional subsystems and those subsystems added for the automation demonstration. Operations and maintenance data for a comparable manned Deep Space Station (DSS 11) are also presented for comparison. The data suggests that unattended operations may reduce maintenance manhours in addition to reducing operator manhours. Corrective maintenance for the unmanned station was about one third of the manned station, and preventive maintenance was about one half.

  4. Towards testing quantum physics in deep space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaltenbaek, Rainer

    2016-07-01

    MAQRO is a proposal for a medium-sized space mission to use the unique environment of deep space in combination with novel developments in space technology and quantum technology to test the foundations of physics. The goal is to perform matter-wave interferometry with dielectric particles of up to 10^{11} atomic mass units and testing for deviations from the predictions of quantum theory. Novel techniques from quantum optomechanics with optically trapped particles are to be used for preparing the test particles for these experiments. The core elements of the instrument are placed outside the spacecraft and insulated from the hot spacecraft via multiple thermal shields allowing to achieve cryogenic temperatures via passive cooling and ultra-high vacuum levels by venting to deep space. In combination with low force-noise microthrusters and inertial sensors, this allows realizing an environment well suited for long coherence times of macroscopic quantum superpositions and long integration times. Since the original proposal in 2010, significant progress has been made in terms of technology development and in refining the instrument design. Based on these new developments, we submitted/will submit updated versions of the MAQRO proposal in 2015 and 2016 in response to Cosmic-Vision calls of ESA for a medium-sized mission. A central goal has been to address and overcome potentially critical issues regarding the readiness of core technologies and to provide realistic concepts for further technology development. We present the progress on the road towards realizing this ground-breaking mission harnessing deep space in novel ways for testing the foundations of physics, a technology pathfinder for macroscopic quantum technology and quantum optomechanics in space.

  5. NASA ultra low noise X-band microwave feeds for deep space communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manshadi, Farzin

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the configuration, detail design, and final performance of a new ultra low noise diplexed X-band microwave feed system, called X/X diplexing feed, for the Deep Space Network (DSN) 70-m antennas.

  6. Issues in deep space radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J W; Shinn, J L; Tripathi, R K; Singleterry, R C; Clowdsley, M S; Thibeault, S A; Cheatwood, F M; Schimmerling, W; Cucinotta, F A; Badhwar, G D; Noor, A K; Kim, M Y; Badavi, F F; Heinbockel, J H; Miller, J; Zeitlin, C; Heilbronn, L

    2001-01-01

    The exposures in deep space are largely from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) for which there is as yet little biological experience. Mounting evidence indicates that conventional linear energy transfer (LET) defined protection quantities (quality factors) may not be appropriate for GCR ions. The available biological data indicates that aluminum alloy structures may generate inherently unhealthy internal spacecraft environments in the thickness range for space applications. Methods for optimization of spacecraft shielding and the associated role of materials selection are discussed. One material which may prove to be an important radiation protection material is hydrogenated carbon nanofibers. PMID:11669118

  7. Issues in deep space radiation protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Tripathi, R. K.; Singleterry, R. C.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Thibeault, S. A.; Cheatwood, F. M.; Schimmerling, W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Badhwar, G. D.; Noor, A. K.; Kim, M. Y.; Badavi, F. F.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Miller, J.; Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L.

    2001-01-01

    The exposures in deep space are largely from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) for which there is as yet little biological experience. Mounting evidence indicates that conventional linear energy transfer (LET) defined protection quantities (quality factors) may not be appropriate for GCR ions. The available biological data indicates that aluminum alloy structures may generate inherently unhealthy internal spacecraft environments in the thickness range for space applications. Methods for optimization of spacecraft shielding and the associated role of materials selection are discussed. One material which may prove to be an important radiation protection material is hydrogenated carbon nanofibers. c 2001. Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Deep Space Habitat Wireless Smart Plug

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Joseph A.; Porter, Jay; Rojdev, Kristina; Carrejo, Daniel B.; Colozza, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA has been interested in technology development for deep space exploration, and one avenue of developing these technologies is via the eXploration Habitat (X-Hab) Academic Innovation Challenge. In 2013, NASA's Deep Space Habitat (DSH) project was in need of sensors that could monitor the power consumption of various devices in the habitat with added capability to control the power to these devices for load shedding in emergency situations. Texas A&M University's Electronic Systems Engineering Technology Program (ESET) in conjunction with their Mobile Integrated Solutions Laboratory (MISL) accepted this challenge, and over the course of 2013, several undergraduate students in a Capstone design course developed five wireless DC Smart Plugs for NASA. The wireless DC Smart Plugs developed by Texas A&M in conjunction with NASA's Deep Space Habitat team is a first step in developing wireless instrumentation for future flight hardware. This paper will further discuss the X-Hab challenge and requirements set out by NASA, the detailed design and testing performed by Texas A&M, challenges faced by the team and lessons learned, and potential future work on this design.

  9. Nuclear Electric Propulsion for Deep Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, G.

    Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) holds considerable promise for deep space exploration in the future. Research and development of this technology is a key element of NASA's Nuclear Systems Initiative (NSI), which is a top priority in the President's FY03 NASA budget. The goal is to develop the subsystem technologies that will enable application of NEP for missions to the outer planets and beyond by the beginning of next decade. The high-performance offered by nuclear-powered electric thrusters will benefit future missions by (1) reducing or eliminating the launch window constraints associated with complex planetary swingbys, (2) providing the capability to perform large spacecraft velocity changes in deep space, (3) increasing the fraction of vehicle mass allocated to payload and other spacecraft systems, and, (3) in some cases, reducing trip times over other propulsion alternatives. Furthermore, the nuclear energy source will provide a power-rich environment that can support more sophisticated science experiments and higher- speed broadband data transmission than current deep space missions. This paper addresses NASA's plans for NEP, and discusses the subsystem technologies (i.e., nuclear reactors, power conversion and electric thrusters) and system concepts being considered for the first generation of NEP vehicles.

  10. The NASA Space Communications Data Networking Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israel, David J.; Hooke, Adrian J.; Freeman, Kenneth; Rush, John J.

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Space Communications Architecture Working Group (SCAWG) has recently been developing an integrated agency-wide space communications architecture in order to provide the necessary communication and navigation capabilities to support NASA's new Exploration and Science Programs. A critical element of the space communications architecture is the end-to-end Data Networking Architecture, which must provide a wide range of services required for missions ranging from planetary rovers to human spaceflight, and from sub-orbital space to deep space. Requirements for a higher degree of user autonomy and interoperability between a variety of elements must be accommodated within an architecture that necessarily features minimum operational complexity. The architecture must also be scalable and evolvable to meet mission needs for the next 25 years. This paper will describe the recommended NASA Data Networking Architecture, present some of the rationale for the recommendations, and will illustrate an application of the architecture to example NASA missions.

  11. Simulating Autonomous Telecommunication Networks for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segui, John S.; Jennings, Esther H.

    2008-01-01

    Currently, most interplanetary telecommunication systems require human intervention for command and control. However, considering the range from near Earth to deep space missions, combined with the increase in the number of nodes and advancements in processing capabilities, the benefits from communication autonomy will be immense. Likewise, greater mission science autonomy brings the need for unscheduled, unpredictable communication and network routing. While the terrestrial Internet protocols are highly developed their suitability for space exploration has been questioned. JPL has developed the Multi-mission Advanced Communications Hybrid Environment for Test and Evaluation (MACHETE) tool to help characterize network designs and protocols. The results will allow future mission planners to better understand the trade offs of communication protocols. This paper discusses various issues with interplanetary network and simulation results of interplanetary networking protocols.

  12. Deep Space Systems Technology Program Future Deliveries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salvo, Christopher G.; Keuneke, Matthew S.

    2000-01-01

    NASA is in a period of frequent launches of low cost deep space missions with challenging performance needs. The modest budgets of these missions make it impossible for each to develop its own technology, therefore, efficient and effective development and insertion of technology for these missions must be approached at a higher level than has been done in the past. The Deep Space Systems Technology Program (DSST), often referred to as X2000, has been formed to address this need. The program is divided into a series of "Deliveries" that develop and demonstrate a set of spacecraft system capabilities with broad applicability for use by multiple missions. The First Delivery Project, to be completed in 2001, will provide a one MRAD-tolerant flight computer, power switching electronics, efficient radioisotope power source, and a transponder with services at 8.4 GHz and 32 GHz bands. Plans call for a Second Delivery in late 2003 to enable complete deep space systems in the 10 to 50 kg class, and a Third Delivery built around Systems on a Chip (extreme levels of electronic and microsystems integration) around 2006. Formulation of Future Deliveries (past the First Delivery) is ongoing and includes plans for such developments as highly miniaturized digital/analog/power electronics, optical communications, multifunctional structures, miniature lightweight propulsion, advanced thermal control techniques, highly efficient radioisotope power sources, and a unified flight ground software architecture to support the needs of future highly intelligent space systems. All developments are targeted at broad applicability and reuse, and will be commercialized within the US.

  13. Decoder synchronization for deep space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statman, J. I.; Cheung, K.-M.; Chauvin, T. H.; Rabkin, J.; Belongie, M. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Standards (CCSDS) recommends that space communication links employ a concatenated, error-correcting, channel-coding system in which the inner code is a convolutional (7,1/2) code and the outer code is a (255,223) Reed-Solomon code. The traditional implementation is to perform the node synchronization for the Viterbi decoder and the frame synchronization for the Reed-Solomon decoder as separate, sequential operations. This article discusses a unified synchronization technique that is required for deep space missions that have data rates and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR's) that are extremely low. This technique combines frame synchronization in the bit and symbol domains and traditional accumulated-metric growth techniques to establish a joint frame and node synchronization. A variation on this technique is used for the Galileo spacecraft on its Jupiter-bound mission.

  14. Decoder synchronization for deep space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Statman, J. I.; Cheung, K.-M.; Chauvin, T. H.; Rabkin, J.; Belongie, M. L.

    1994-02-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Standards (CCSDS) recommends that space communication links employ a concatenated, error-correcting, channel-coding system in which the inner code is a convolutional (7,1/2) code and the outer code is a (255,223) Reed-Solomon code. The traditional implementation is to perform the node synchronization for the Viterbi decoder and the frame synchronization for the Reed-Solomon decoder as separate, sequential operations. This article discusses a unified synchronization technique that is required for deep space missions that have data rates and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR's) that are extremely low. This technique combines frame synchronization in the bit and symbol domains and traditional accumulated-metric growth techniques to establish a joint frame and node synchronization. A variation on this technique is used for the Galileo spacecraft on its Jupiter-bound mission.

  15. Decoder Synchronization for Deep Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Statman, J. I.; Cheung, K.-M.; Chauvin, T. H.; Rabkin, J.; Belongie, M. L.

    1993-10-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Standards (CCSDS) recommends that space communication links employ a concatenated, error-correcting, channel-coding system in which the inner code is a convolutional (7,1/2) code and the outer code is a (255,223) Reed-Solomon code. The traditional implementation is to perform the node synchronization for the Viterbi decoder and the frame synchronization for the Reed-Solomon decoder as separate, sequential operations. This article discusses a unified synchronization technique that is required for deep space missions that have data. rates and signal -to-noise ratios (SNRs) that are extremely low. This technique combines frame synchronization in the bit and symbol domains and traditional accumulated-metric growth techniques to establish a joint frame and node synchronization. A variation on this technique is used for the Galileo spacecraft on its Jupiter-bound mission.

  16. Space-Time Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villarreal, James A.; Shelton, Robert O.

    1992-01-01

    Concept of space-time neural network affords distributed temporal memory enabling such network to model complicated dynamical systems mathematically and to recognize temporally varying spatial patterns. Digital filters replace synaptic-connection weights of conventional back-error-propagation neural network.

  17. Interference from the Deep Space Network's 70-m High Power Transmitter in Goldstone, CA to 3G Mobile Users Operating in the Surrounding Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) has allocated 2110-2200 MHz for the third generation (3G) mobile services. Part of the spectrum (2110-2120 MHz) is allocated for space research service and has been used by the DSN for years for sending command uplinks to deep space missions. Due to the extremely high power transmitted, potential interference to 3G users in areas surrounding DSN Goldstone exists. To address this issue, a preliminary analytical study has been performed and computer models have been developed. The goal is to provide theoretical foundation and tools to estimate the strength of interference as a function of distance from the transmitter for various interference mechanisms, (or propagation modes), and then determine the size of the area in which 3G users are susceptible to interference from the 400-kW transmitter in Goldstone. The focus is non-line-of-sight interference, taking into account of terrain shielding, anomalous propagation mechanisms, and technical and operational characteristics of the DSN and the 3G services.

  18. Miniature detector measures deep space radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-08-01

    The 1972 journey of Apollo 17 marked not only the last time a human walked on the Moon but also the most recent manned venture beyond the outer reaches of the Earth's atmosphere. With preparations being made for humans to once again explore deep space, important steps are under way to quantify the hazards of leaving low-Earth orbit. One significant risk for long-distance missions is the increased exposure to ionizing radiation—energetic particles that can strip electrons off of otherwise neutral materials, affecting human health and the functioning of spacecraft equipment. The deep space probes that are being sent to measure the risks from ionizing radiation and other hazards can be costly, so maximizing the scientific value of each launch is important. With this goal in mind, Mazur et al. designed and developed a miniature dosimeter that was sent into lunar orbit aboard NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in 2009. Weighing only 20 grams, the detector is able to measure fluctuations in ionizing radiation as low as 1 microrad (equivalent to 1.0 × 10-8 joules of energy deposited into 1 kilogram) while requiring minimal power and computer processing. The postage stamp-sized detector tracked radiation dosages for the first year of LRO's mission, with the results being confirmed by other onboard and near-Earth detectors. (Space Weather, doi:10.1029/2010SW000641, 2011)

  19. Unified Simulation and Analysis Framework for Deep Space Navigation Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anzalone, Evan; Chuang, Jason; Olsen, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    As the technology that enables advanced deep space autonomous navigation continues to develop and the requirements for such capability continues to grow, there is a clear need for a modular expandable simulation framework. This tool's purpose is to address multiple measurement and information sources in order to capture system capability. This is needed to analyze the capability of competing navigation systems as well as to develop system requirements, in order to determine its effect on the sizing of the integrated vehicle. The development for such a framework is built upon Model-Based Systems Engineering techniques to capture the architecture of the navigation system and possible state measurements and observations to feed into the simulation implementation structure. These models also allow a common environment for the capture of an increasingly complex operational architecture, involving multiple spacecraft, ground stations, and communication networks. In order to address these architectural developments, a framework of agent-based modules is implemented to capture the independent operations of individual spacecraft as well as the network interactions amongst spacecraft. This paper describes the development of this framework, and the modeling processes used to capture a deep space navigation system. Additionally, a sample implementation describing a concept of network-based navigation utilizing digitally transmitted data packets is described in detail. This developed package shows the capability of the modeling framework, including its modularity, analysis capabilities, and its unification back to the overall system requirements and definition.

  20. HDU Deep Space Habitat (DSH) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) led multi-center Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) project Deep Space Habitat (DSH) analog that will be field-tested during the 2011 Desert Research and Technologies Studies (D-RATS) field tests. The HDU project is a technology pull project that integrates technologies and innovations from multiple NASA centers. This project will repurpose the HDU Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) that was field tested in the 2010 D-RATS, adding habitation functionality to the prototype unit. The 2010 configuration of the HDU-PEM consisted of a lunar surface laboratory module that was used to bring over 20 habitation-related technologies together in a single platform that could be tested as an advanced habitation analog in the context of mission architectures and surface operations. The 2011 HDU-DSH configuration will build upon the PEM work, and emphasize validity of crew operations (habitation and living, etc), EVA operations, mission operations, logistics operations, and science operations that might be required in a deep space context for Near Earth Object (NEO) exploration mission architectures. The HDU project consists of a multi-center team brought together in a skunkworks approach to quickly build and validate hardware in analog environments. The HDU project is part of the strategic plan from the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) Directorate Integration Office (DIO) and the Exploration Mission Systems Office (EMSO) to test destination elements in analog environments. The 2011 analog field test will include Multi Mission Space Exploration Vehicles (MMSEV) and the DSH among other demonstration elements to be brought together in a mission architecture context. This paper will describe overall objectives, various habitat configurations, strategic plan, and technology integration as it pertains to the 2011 field tests.

  1. Optical communications systems and technology for deep-space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesh, James R.

    1989-01-01

    An account is given of architectural and implementational strategies for the creation of planetary and other deep-space optical communications networks, with a view to the developmental requirements of both planetary spacecraft subsystems and an earth-vicinity reception system. Attention is given to prospective technology-development challenges. An open-loop spatial acquisition process is defined, in conjunction with a terrestrial, large-aperture/low-cost 'photon bucket' optical reception telescopic system having an integral, axially-aligned tube-bundle sunshield. An efficient diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser is envisioned as the transmitter.

  2. Deep Space Habitat ECLS Design Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curley, Su; Stambaugh, Imelda; Swickrath, Mike; Anderson, Molly; Rotter, Hank

    2011-01-01

    Life support is vital to human spaceflight, and most current life support systems employ single-use hardware or regenerable technologies that throw away the waste products, relying on resupply to make up the consumables lost in the process. Because the long-term goal of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is to expand human presence beyond low-earth orbit, life support systems must become self-sustaining for missions where resupply is not practical. From May through October 2011, the life support team at the Johnson Space Center was challenged to define requirements, develop a system concept, and create a preliminary life support system design for a non-planetary Deep Space Habitat that could sustain a crew of four in near earth orbit for a duration of 388 days. Some of the preferred technology choices to support this architecture were passed over as the mission definition also has an unmanned portion lasting 825 days. The main portion of the architecture was derived from technologies currently integrated on the International Space Station as well as upcoming technologies with moderate Technology Readiness Levels. The final architecture concept contains only partially-closed air and water systems, as the breakeven point for some of the closure technologies was not achieved with the mission duration.

  3. Deep Space Habitat ECLSS Design Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curley, Su; Stambaugh, Imelda; Swickrath, Michael; Anderson, Molly S.; Rotter, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Life support is vital to human spaceflight, and most current life support systems employ single-use hardware or regenerable technologies that throw away the waste products, relying on resupply to make up the consumables lost in the process. Because the long-term goal of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is to expand human presence beyond low-earth orbit, life support systems must become self-sustaining for missions where resupply is not practical. From May through October 2011, the life support team at the Johnson Space Center was challenged to define requirements, develop a system concept, and create a preliminary life support system design for a non-planetary Deep Space Habitat that could sustain a crew of four in near earth orbit for a duration of 388 days. Some of the preferred technology choices to support this architecture were passed over because the mission definition has an unmanned portion lasting 825 days. The main portion of the architecture was derived from technologies currently integrated on the International Space Station as well as upcoming technologies with moderate Technology Readiness Levels. The final architecture concept contains only partially-closed air and water systems, as the breakeven point for some of the closure technologies was not achieved with the mission duration.

  4. Challenges of Integrating NASAs Space Communication Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinert, Jessica M.; Barnes, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The transition to new technology, innovative ideas, and resistance to change is something that every industry experiences. Recent examples of this shift are changing to using robots in the assembly line construction of automobiles or the increasing use of robotics for medical procedures. Most often this is done with cost-reduction in mind, though ease of use for the customer is also a driver. All industries experience the push to increase efficiency of their systems; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the commercial space industry are no different. NASA space communication services are provided by three separately designed, developed, maintained, and operated communications networks known as the Deep Space Network (DSN), Near Earth Network (NEN) and Space Network (SN). The Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Program is pursuing integration of these networks and has performed a variety of architecture trade studies to determine what integration options would be the most effective in achieving a unified user mission support organization, and increase the use of common operational equipment and processes. The integration of multiple, legacy organizations and existing systems has challenges ranging from technical to cultural. The existing networks are the progeny of the very first communication and tracking capabilities implemented by NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) more than 50 years ago and have been customized to the needs of their respective user mission base. The technical challenges to integrating the networks are many, though not impossible to overcome. The three distinct networks provide the same types of services, with customizable data rates, bandwidth, frequencies, and so forth. The differences across the networks have occurred in effort to satisfy their user missions' needs. Each new requirement has made the networks more unique and harder to integrate. The cultural challenges, however, have proven to be a

  5. Challenges of Integrating NASA's Space Communications Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinert, Jessica; Barnes, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The transition to new technology, innovative ideas, and resistance to change is something that every industry experiences. Recent examples of this shift are changing to using robots in the assembly line construction of automobiles or the increasing use of robotics for medical procedures. Most often this is done with cost-reduction in mind, though ease of use for the customer is also a driver. All industries experience the push to increase efficiency of their systems; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the commercial space industry are no different. NASA space communication services are provided by three separately designed, developed, maintained, and operated communications networks known as the Deep Space Network (DSN), Near Earth Network (NEN) and Space Network (SN). The Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Program is pursuing integration of these networks and has performed a variety of architecture trade studies to determine what integration options would be the most effective in achieving a unified user mission support organization, and increase the use of common operational equipment and processes. The integration of multiple, legacy organizations and existing systems has challenges ranging from technical to cultural. The existing networks are the progeny of the very first communication and tracking capabilities implemented by NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) more than 50 years ago and have been customized to the needs of their respective user mission base. The technical challenges to integrating the networks are many, though not impossible to overcome. The three distinct networks provide the same types of services, with customizable data rates, bandwidth, frequencies, and so forth. The differences across the networks have occurred in effort to satisfy their user missions' needs. Each new requirement has made the networks more unique and harder to integrate. The cultural challenges, however, have proven to be a

  6. Space Communications Networks Support MMS

    NASA Video Gallery

    All three of NASA’s Space Communications Networks are excited to support the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission in its journey to study the microphysics of magnetic reconnection. The Near Eart...

  7. GMSK Modulation for Deep Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shambayati, Shervin; Lee, Dennis K.

    2012-01-01

    Due to scarcity of spectrum at 8.42 GHz deep space Xband allocation, many deep space missions are now considering the use of higher order modulation schemes instead of the traditional binary phase shift keying (BPSK). One such scheme is pre-coded Gaussian minimum shift keying (GMSK). GMSK is an excellent candidate for deep space missions. GMSK is a constant envelope, bandwidth efficien modulation whose frame error rate (FER) performance with perfect carrier tracking and proper receiver structure is nearly identical to that of BPSK. There are several issues that need to be addressed with GMSK however. Specificall, we are interested in the combined effects of spectrum limitations and receiver structure on the coded performance of the X-band link using GMSK. The receivers that are typically used for GMSK demodulations are variations on offset quadrature phase shift keying (OQPSK) receivers. In this paper we consider three receivers: the standard DSN OQPSK receiver, DSN OQPSK receiver with filte ed input, and an optimum OQPSK receiver with filte ed input. For the DSN OQPSK receiver we show experimental results with (8920, 1/2), (8920, 1/3) and (8920, 1/6) turbo codes in terms of their error rate performance. We also consider the tracking performance of this receiver as a function of data rate, channel code and the carrier loop signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). For the other two receivers we derive theoretical results that will show that for a given loop bandwidth, a receiver structure, and a channel code, there is a lower data rate limit on the GMSK below which a higher SNR than what is required to achieve the required FER on the link is needed. These limits stem from the minimum loop signal-to-noise ratio requirements on the receivers for achieving lock. As a result of this, for a given channel code and a given FER, there could be a gap between the maximum data rate that BPSK can support without violating the spectrum limits and the minimum data rate that GMSK can support

  8. Science Observations of Deep Space One

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Robert M.; Baganal, Fran; Boice, Daniel C.; Britt, Daniel T.; Brown, Robert H.; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Creary, Frank; Ip, Wing-Huan; Meier, Roland; Oberst, Juergen

    1999-01-01

    During the Deep Space One (DS1) primary mission, the spacecraft will fly by asteroid 1992 KD and possibly comet Borrelly. There are two technologies being validated on DS1 that will provide science observations of these targets, the Miniature Integrated Camera Spectrometer (MICAS) and the Plasma Experiment for Planetary Exploration (PEPE). MICAS encompasses a camera, an ultraviolet imaging spectrometer and an infrared imaging spectrometer. PEPE combines an ion and electron analyzer designed to determine the three-dimensional distribution of plasma over its field of view. MICAS includes two visible wavelength imaging channels, an ultraviolet imaging spectrometer, and an infrared imaging spectrometer all of which share a single 10-cm diameter telescope. Two types of visible wavelength detectors, both operating between about 500 and 1000 nm are used: a CCD with 13-microrad pixels and an 18-microrad-per-pixel, metal-on-silicon active pixel sensor (APS). Unlike the CCD the APS includes the timing and control electronics on the chip along with the detector. The UV spectrometer spans 80 to 185 nm with 0.64-nm spectral resolution and 316-microrad pixels. The IR spectrometer covers the range from 1200 to 2400 nm with 6.6-nm resolution and 54-microrad pixels PEPE includes a very low-power, low-mass micro-calorimeter to help understand plasma-surface interactions and a plasma analyzer to identify de individual molecules and atoms in the immediate vicinity of the spacecraft that have been eroded off the surface of asteroid 1992 KD. It employs common apertures with separate electrostatic energy analyzers. It measures electron and ion energies spanning a range of 3 eV to 30 keV, with a resolution of five percent. and measures ion mass from one to 135 atomic mass units with 5 percent resolution. It electrostatically sweeps its field of view both in elevation and azimuth. Both MICAS and PEPE represent a new direction for the evolution of science instruments for interplanetary

  9. The space physics analysis network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, James L.

    1988-04-01

    The Space Physics Analysis Network, or SPAN, is emerging as a viable method for solving an immediate communication problem for space and Earth scientists and has been operational for nearly 7 years. SPAN and its extension into Europe, utilizes computer-to-computer communications allowing mail, binary and text file transfer, and remote logon capability to over 1000 space science computer systems. The network has been used to successfully transfer real-time data to remote researchers for rapid data analysis but its primary function is for non-real-time applications. One of the major advantages for using SPAN is its spacecraft mission independence. Space science researchers using SPAN are located in universities, industries and government institutions all across the United States and Europe. These researchers are in such fields as magnetospheric physics, astrophysics, ionosperic physics, atmospheric physics, climatology, meteorology, oceanography, planetary physics and solar physics. SPAN users have access to space and Earth science data bases, mission planning and information systems, and computational facilities for the purposes of facilitating correlative space data exchange, data analysis and space research. For example, the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), which manages the network, is providing facilities on SPAN such as the Network Information Center (SPAN NIC). SPAN has interconnections with several national and international networks such as HEPNET and TEXNET forming a transparent DECnet network. The combined total number of computers now reachable over these combined networks is about 2000. In addition, SPAN supports full function capabilities over the international public packet switched networks (e.g. TELENET) and has mail gateways to ARPANET, BITNET and JANET.

  10. Habitat Concepts for Deep Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David; Griffin, Brand N.

    2014-01-01

    Future missions under consideration requiring human habitation beyond the International Space Station (ISS) include deep space habitats in the lunar vicinity to support asteroid retrieval missions, human and robotic lunar missions, satellite servicing, and Mars vehicle servicing missions. Habitat designs are also under consideration for missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, including transfers to near-Earth asteroids and Mars orbital destinations. A variety of habitat layouts have been considered, including those derived from the existing ISS designs and those that could be fabricated from the Space Launch System (SLS) propellant tanks. This paper presents a comparison showing several options for asteroid, lunar, and Mars mission habitats using ISS derived and SLS derived modules and identifies some of the advantages and disadvantages inherent in each. Key findings indicate that the larger SLS diameter modules offer built-in compatibility with the launch vehicle, single launch capability without on-orbit assembly, improved radiation protection, lighter structures per unit volume, and sufficient volume to accommodate consumables for long duration missions without resupply. The information provided with the findings includes mass and volume comparison data that should be helpful to future exploration mission planning efforts.

  11. Optical ground station site diversity for Deep Space Optical Communications the Mars Telecom Orbiter optical link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, K.; Parvin, B.; Fugate, R.; Kervin, P.; Zingales, S.

    2003-01-01

    Future NASA deep space missions will fly advanced high resolution imaging instruments that will require high bandwidth links to return the huge data volumes generated by these instruments. Optical communications is a key technology for returning these large data volumes from deep space probes. Yet to cost effectively realize the high bandwidth potential of the optical link will require deployment of ground receivers in diverse locations to provide high link availability. A recent analysis of GOES weather satellite data showed that a network of ground stations located in Hawaii and the Southwest continental US can provide an average of 90% availability for the deep space optical link. JPL and AFRL are exploring the use of large telescopes in Hawaii, California, and Albuquerque to support the Mars Telesat laser communications demonstration. Designed to demonstrate multi-Mbps communications from Mars, the mission will investigate key operational strategies of future deep space optical communications network.

  12. Deep space experiment to measure G

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Michael R.; Anderson, John D.; Schubert, Gerald; Trimble, Virginia; Kopeikin, Sergei M.; Lämmerzahl, Claus

    2016-06-01

    Responding to calls from the National Science Foundation for new proposals to measure the gravitational constant G, we offer an interesting experiment in deep space employing the classic gravity train mechanism. Our setup requires three bodies: a larger layered solid sphere with a cylindrical hole through its center, a much smaller retroreflector which will undergo harmonic motion within the hole and a host spacecraft with laser ranging capabilities to measure round trip light-times to the retroreflector but ultimately separated a significant distance away from the sphere-retroreflector apparatus. Measurements of the period of oscillation of the retroreflector in terms of host spacecraft clock time using existing technology could give determinations of G nearly three orders of magnitude more accurate than current measurements here on Earth. However, significant engineering advances in the release mechanism of the apparatus from the host spacecraft will likely be necessary. Issues with regard to the stability of the system are briefly addressed.

  13. Deep Space Design Environments for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Tripathi, R. K.; Nealy, J. E.; DeAngelis, G.

    2002-01-01

    Mission scenarios outside the Earth's protective magnetic shield are being studied. Included are high usage assets in the near-Earth environment for casual trips, for research, and for commercial/operational platforms, in which career exposures will be multi-mission determined over the astronaut's lifetime. The operational platforms will serve as launching points for deep space exploration missions, characterized by a single long-duration mission during the astronaut's career. The exploration beyond these operational platforms will include missions to planets, asteroids, and planetary satellites. The interplanetary environment is evaluated using convective diffusion theory. Local environments for each celestial body are modeled by using results from the most recent targeted spacecraft, and integrated into the design environments. Design scenarios are then evaluated for these missions. The underlying assumptions in arriving at the model environments and their impact on mission exposures within various shield materials will be discussed.

  14. Deep space environments for human exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Tripathi, R. K.; Nealy, J. E.; De Angelis, G.

    2004-01-01

    Mission scenarios outside the Earth's protective magnetic shield are being studied. Included are high usage assets in the near-Earth environment for casual trips, for research, and for commercial/operational platforms, in which career exposures will be multi-mission determined over the astronaut's lifetime. The operational platforms will serve as launching points for deep space exploration missions, characterized by a single long-duration mission during the astronaut's career. The exploration beyond these operational platforms will include missions to planets, asteroids, and planetary satellites. The interplanetary environment is evaluated using convective diffusion theory. Local environments for each celestial body are modeled by using results from the most recent targeted spacecraft, and integrated into the design environments. Design scenarios are then evaluated for these missions. The underlying assumptions in arriving at the model environments and their impact on mission exposures within various shield materials will be discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  15. Deep-Space Optical Terminals (DOT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, H.; Farr, W. H.; Biswas, A.; Birnbaum, K. M.; Roberts, W. T.; Quirk, K.; Townes, S.

    2011-01-01

    A conceptual design study titled Deep-Space Optical Terminals was recently completed for an optical communication technology demonstration from Mars in the 2018 time frame. We report on engineering trades for the entire system, and for individual subsystems including the flight terminal, the ground receiver and the ground transmitter. A point design is described to meet the requirement for greater than 0.25 Gb/s downlink from the nearest distance to Mars of 0.42 AU with a maximum mass and power allocation of 40 kg and 110 W. Furthermore, the concept design addresses link closure at the farthest Mars range of 2.7 AU. Maximum uplink data-rate of 0.3 Mb/s and ranging with 30 cm precision are also addressed.

  16. Solar Stirling for Deep Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.

    1999-01-01

    A study was performed to quantify the performance of solar thermal power systems for deep space planetary missions. The study incorporated projected advances in solar concentrator and energy conversion technologies. These technologies included inflatable structures, lightweight primary concentrators, high efficiency secondary concentrators, and high efficiency Stirling convertors. Analyses were performed to determine the mass and deployed area of multi-hundred watt solar thermal power systems for missions out to 40 astronomical units. Emphasis was given to system optimization, parametric sensitivity analyses, and concentrator configuration comparisons. The results indicated that solar thermal power systems are a competitive alternative to radioisotope systems out to 10 astronomical units without the cost or safety implications associated with nuclear sources.

  17. Turbo codes for deep-space communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, D.; Pollara, F.

    1995-01-01

    Turbo codes were recently proposed by Berrou, Glavieux, and Thitimajshima, and it has been claimed these codes achieve near-Shannon-limit error correction performance with relatively simple component codes and large interleavers. A required E(b)/N(o) of 0.7 dB was reported for a bit error rate of 10(exp -5), using a rate 1/2 turbo code. However, some important details that are necessary to reproduce these results were omitted. This article confirms the accuracy of these claims, and presents a complete description of an encoder/decoder pair that could be suitable for deep-space applications, where lower rate codes can be used. We describe a new simple method for trellis termination, analyze the effect of interleaver choice on the weight distribution of the code, and introduce the use of unequal rate component codes, which yield better performance.

  18. Deep space environments for human exploration.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J W; Clowdsley, M S; Cucinotta, F A; Tripathi, R K; Nealy, J E; De Angelis, G

    2004-01-01

    Mission scenarios outside the Earth's protective magnetic shield are being studied. Included are high usage assets in the near-Earth environment for casual trips, for research, and for commercial/operational platforms, in which career exposures will be multi-mission determined over the astronaut's lifetime. The operational platforms will serve as launching points for deep space exploration missions, characterized by a single long-duration mission during the astronaut's career. The exploration beyond these operational platforms will include missions to planets, asteroids, and planetary satellites. The interplanetary environment is evaluated using convective diffusion theory. Local environments for each celestial body are modeled by using results from the most recent targeted spacecraft, and integrated into the design environments. Design scenarios are then evaluated for these missions. The underlying assumptions in arriving at the model environments and their impact on mission exposures within various shield materials will be discussed. PMID:15880915

  19. Autonomous Deep-Space Optical Navigation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Souza, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This project will advance the Autonomous Deep-space navigation capability applied to Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) system by testing it on hardware, particularly in a flight processor, with a goal of limited testing in the Integrated Power, Avionics and Software (IPAS) with the ARCM (Asteroid Retrieval Crewed Mission) DRO (Distant Retrograde Orbit) Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) scenario. The technology, which will be harnessed, is called 'optical flow', also known as 'visual odometry'. It is being matured in the automotive and SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) applications but has yet to be applied to spacecraft navigation. In light of the tremendous potential of this technique, we believe that NASA needs to design a optical navigation architecture that will use this technique. It is flexible enough to be applicable to navigating around planetary bodies, such as asteroids.

  20. Development of a prototype real-time automated filter for operational deep space navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, W. C.; Pollmeier, V. M.

    1994-01-01

    Operational deep space navigation has been in the past, and is currently, performed using systems whose architecture requires constant human supervision and intervention. A prototype for a system which allows relatively automated processing of radio metric data received in near real-time from NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) without any redesign of the existing operational data flow has been developed. This system can allow for more rapid response as well as much reduced staffing to support mission navigation operations.

  1. ISS Update: Communication Delays During Deep Space Missions

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean talks with Jeremy Frank, Autonomous Mission Operations Test Principal Investigator, about how communication delays will affect future deep space missions and...

  2. Advancing Autonomous Operations for Deep Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddock, Angie T.; Stetson, Howard K.

    2014-01-01

    Starting in Jan 2012, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) Project began to investigate the ability to create and execute "single button" crew initiated autonomous activities [1]. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) designed and built a fluid transfer hardware test-bed to use as a sub-system target for the investigations of intelligent procedures that would command and control a fluid transfer test-bed, would perform self-monitoring during fluid transfers, detect anomalies and faults, isolate the fault and recover the procedures function that was being executed, all without operator intervention. In addition to the development of intelligent procedures, the team is also exploring various methods for autonomous activity execution where a planned timeline of activities are executed autonomously and also the initial analysis of crew procedure development. This paper will detail the development of intelligent procedures for the NASA MSFC Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) as well as the autonomous plan execution capabilities being investigated. Manned deep space missions, with extreme communication delays with Earth based assets, presents significant challenges for what the on-board procedure content will encompass as well as the planned execution of the procedures.

  3. Tensor networks from kinematic space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czech, Bartlomiej; Lamprou, Lampros; McCandlish, Samuel; Sully, James

    2016-07-01

    We point out that the MERA network for the ground state of a 1+1-dimensional conformal field theory has the same structural features as kinematic space — the geometry of CFT intervals. In holographic theories kinematic space becomes identified with the space of bulk geodesics studied in integral geometry. We argue that in these settings MERA is best viewed as a discretization of the space of bulk geodesics rather than of the bulk geometry itself. As a test of this kinematic proposal, we compare the MERA representation of the thermofield-double state with the space of geodesics in the two-sided BTZ geometry, obtaining a detailed agreement which includes the entwinement sector. We discuss how the kinematic proposal can be extended to excited states by generalizing MERA to a broader class of compression networks.

  4. Tensor networks from kinematic space

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Czech, Bartlomiej; Lamprou, Lampros; McCandlish, Samuel; Sully, James

    2016-07-20

    We point out that the MERA network for the ground state of a 1+1-dimensional conformal field theory has the same structural features as kinematic space — the geometry of CFT intervals. In holographic theories kinematic space becomes identified with the space of bulk geodesics studied in integral geometry. We argue that in these settings MERA is best viewed as a discretization of the space of bulk geodesics rather than of the bulk geometry itself. As a test of this kinematic proposal, we compare the MERA representation of the thermofield-double state with the space of geodesics in the two-sided BTZ geometry,more » obtaining a detailed agreement which includes the entwinement sector. In conclusion, we discuss how the kinematic proposal can be extended to excited states by generalizing MERA to a broader class of compression networks.« less

  5. Deep belief networks learn context dependent behavior.

    PubMed

    Raudies, Florian; Zilli, Eric A; Hasselmo, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    With the goal of understanding behavioral mechanisms of generalization, we analyzed the ability of neural networks to generalize across context. We modeled a behavioral task where the correct responses to a set of specific sensory stimuli varied systematically across different contexts. The correct response depended on the stimulus (A,B,C,D) and context quadrant (1,2,3,4). The possible 16 stimulus-context combinations were associated with one of two responses (X,Y), one of which was correct for half of the combinations. The correct responses varied symmetrically across contexts. This allowed responses to previously unseen stimuli (probe stimuli) to be generalized from stimuli that had been presented previously. By testing the simulation on two or more stimuli that the network had never seen in a particular context, we could test whether the correct response on the novel stimuli could be generated based on knowledge of the correct responses in other contexts. We tested this generalization capability with a Deep Belief Network (DBN), Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) network, and the combination of a DBN with a linear perceptron (LP). Overall, the combination of the DBN and LP had the highest success rate for generalization. PMID:24671178

  6. Monitor and Control of Deep Space Communications Through AI Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, F.; Knight, R.; Engelhardt, B.; Chien, S.; Alejandre, N.

    2000-01-01

    In recent years with the large increase in the number of space missions at NASA, the demand for deep space communications services to command and collect data from these missions has become more difficult to manage.

  7. Workstation Designs for a Cis-Lunar Deep Space Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, A. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Using the International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR) system, a suite of workstations required for deep space missions have been proposed to fill out habitation functions in an International Space Station (ISS) derived Cis-lunar Deep Space Habitat. This paper introduces the functional layout of the Cis-lunar habitat design, and describes conceptual designs for modular deployable work surfaces, General Maintenance Workstation (GMWS), In-Space Manufacturing Workstation (ISMW), Intra-Vehicular Activity Telerobotics Work Station (IVA-TRWS), and Galley / Wardroom.

  8. Autonomous Navigation for Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaskaran, Shyam

    2012-01-01

    Navigation (determining where the spacecraft is at any given time, controlling its path to achieve desired targets), performed using ground-in- the-loop techniques: (1) Data includes 2-way radiometric (Doppler, range), interferometric (Delta- Differential One-way Range), and optical (images of natural bodies taken by onboard camera) (2) Data received on the ground, processed to determine orbit, commands sent to execute maneuvers to control orbit. A self-contained, onboard, autonomous navigation system can: (1) Eliminate delays due to round-trip light time (2) Eliminate the human factors in ground-based processing (3) Reduce turnaround time from navigation update to minutes, down to seconds (4) React to late-breaking data. At JPL, we have developed the framework and computational elements of an autonomous navigation system, called AutoNav. It was originally developed as one of the technologies for the Deep Space 1 mission, launched in 1998; subsequently used on three other spacecraft, for four different missions. The primary use has been on comet missions to track comets during flybys, and impact one comet.

  9. Flight Software Implementation of the Beacon Monitor Expreiment On the NASA New Millennium Deep Space 1 (DS-1) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, R.; Schlutsmeyer, A.

    1997-01-01

    A new technology that can lower the cost of mission operations on future spacecraft will be tested on the NASA New Millennium Deep Space 1 (DS-1) Mission. This technology, the Beacon Monitor Experiment (BMOX), can be used to reduce the Deep Space Network (DSN) tracking time and its associated costs on future missions.

  10. The Deep Space 1 and Space Technology 4/Champollion Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, Paul R.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is designed to develop, test, and flight validate new, advanced technologies for planetary and Earth exploration missions, using a series of low cost spacecraft. Two of NMP's current missions include encounters with comets and asteroids. The Deep Space 1 mission was launched on October 24, 1998 and will fly by asteroid 1992 KD on July 29, 1999, and possibly Comet Wilson-Harrington and/or Comet Borrelly in 2001. The Space Technology 4/Champollion mission will be launched in April, 2003 and will rendezvous with, orbit and land on periodic Comet Tempel 1 in 2006. ST-4/Champollion is a joint project with CNES, the French space agency. The DS-1 mission is going well since launch and has already validated several major technologies, including solar electric propulsion (SEP), solar concentrator arrays, a small deep space transponder, and autonomous navigation. The spacecraft carries two scientific instruments: MICAS, a combined visible camera and UV and IR spectrometers, and PEPE, an ion and electron spectrometer. Testing of the science instruments is ongoing. Following the asteroid encounter in July, 1999, DS-1 will go on to encounters with one or both comets if NASA approves funding for an extended mission. The ST-4/Champollion mission will use an advanced, multi-engine SEP system to effect a rendezvous with Comet P/Tempel 1 in February, 2006, after a flight time of 2.8 years. After orbiting the comet for several months in order to map its surface and determine its gravity field, ST-4/Champollion will descend to the comet's surface and will anchor itself with a 3-meter long harpoon. Scientific experiments include narrow and wide angle cameras for orbital mapping, panoramic and near-field cameras for landing site mapping, a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer, a combined microscope and infrared spectrometer, and physical properties probes. Cometary samples will be obtained from depths up to 1.4 meters. The spacecraft is solar powered

  11. Ka-Band Transponder for Deep-Space Radio Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Matthew S.; Mysoor, Narayan R.; Folkner, William M.; Mendoza, Ricardo; Venkatesan, Jaikrishna

    2008-01-01

    A one-page document describes a Ka-band transponder being developed for use in deep-space radio science. The transponder receives in the Deep Space Network (DSN) uplink frequency band of 34.2 to 34.7 GHz, transmits in the 31.8- to 32.3 GHz DSN downlink band, and performs regenerative ranging on a DSN standard 4-MHz ranging tone subcarrier phase-modulated onto the uplink carrier signal. A primary consideration in this development is reduction in size, relative to other such transponders. The transponder design is all-analog, chosen to minimize not only the size but also the number of parts and the design time and, thus, the cost. The receiver features two stages of frequency down-conversion. The receiver locks onto the uplink carrier signal. The exciter signal for the transmitter is derived from the same source as that used to generate the first-stage local-oscillator signal. The ranging-tone subcarrier is down-converted along with the carrier to the second intermediate frequency, where the 4-MHz tone is demodulated from the composite signal and fed into a ranging-tone-tracking loop, which regenerates the tone. The regenerated tone is linearly phase-modulated onto the downlink carrier.

  12. Deep Neural Networks with Multistate Activation Functions

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Chenghao; Xu, Yanyan; Ke, Dengfeng; Su, Kaile

    2015-01-01

    We propose multistate activation functions (MSAFs) for deep neural networks (DNNs). These MSAFs are new kinds of activation functions which are capable of representing more than two states, including the N-order MSAFs and the symmetrical MSAF. DNNs with these MSAFs can be trained via conventional Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) as well as mean-normalised SGD. We also discuss how these MSAFs perform when used to resolve classification problems. Experimental results on the TIMIT corpus reveal that, on speech recognition tasks, DNNs with MSAFs perform better than the conventional DNNs, getting a relative improvement of 5.60% on phoneme error rates. Further experiments also reveal that mean-normalised SGD facilitates the training processes of DNNs with MSAFs, especially when being with large training sets. The models can also be directly trained without pretraining when the training set is sufficiently large, which results in a considerable relative improvement of 5.82% on word error rates. PMID:26448739

  13. Causal Phenotype Discovery via Deep Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kale, David C.; Che, Zhengping; Bahadori, Mohammad Taha; Li, Wenzhe; Liu, Yan; Wetzel, Randall

    2015-01-01

    The rapid growth of digital health databases has attracted many researchers interested in using modern computational methods to discover and model patterns of health and illness in a research program known as computational phenotyping. Much of the work in this area has focused on traditional statistical learning paradigms, such as classification, prediction, clustering, pattern mining. In this paper, we propose a related but different paradigm called causal phenotype discovery, which aims to discover latent representations of illness that are causally predictive. We illustrate this idea with a two-stage framework that combines the latent representation learning power of deep neural networks with state-of-the-art tools from causal inference. We apply this framework to two large ICU time series data sets and show that it can learn features that are predictively useful, that capture complex physiologic patterns associated with critical illnesses, and that are potentially more clinically meaningful than manually designed features. PMID:26958203

  14. The DEEP-South: Network Construction and Test Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Hong-Kyu; Kim, Myung-Jin; Yim, Hong-Suh; Choi, Young-Jun; Bae, Youngho; Roh, Dong-Goo; the DEEP-South Team

    2015-08-01

    Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute achieved completion of a network of optical telescopes called the KMTNet (Korea Micro-lensing Telescope Network) in the end of 2014. The KMTNet is comprised of three 1.6-m prime focus wide-field optics and 18K×18K mosaic CCDs, each providing 2×2 degrees field of view. This network facilities located at CTIO (Chile), SAAO (South Africa), and SSO (Australia) are expected to be on line in mid-2015 with their CCDs fully functional. While its primary objective is discovery and characterization of extrasolar planets, it is also being used for “Deep Ecliptic Patrol of the Southern Sky (DEEP-South)” aiming at asteroid and comet studies as one of its secondary science projects. The KMTNet telescopes are almost equally separated in longitude, and hence enable a 24-hour uninterrupted monitoring of the southern sky. The DEEP-South will thus provide a prompt solution to a demand from the scientific community to bridge the gaps in global sky coverage with a coordinated use of a network of ground-based telescopes in the southern hemisphere. Thanks to round-the-clock capability orbits, spin states and three dimensional shape of an object will be systematically investigated and archived for the first time. Based on SDSS and BVRI colors, we will also constrain their surface mineralogy, with an emphasis on targeted photometry of km-sized Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) in the first stage (2015-2019). In the end of 2015, we plan to complete implementing dedicated software subsystem made of an automated observation scheduler and data pipeline for the sake of an increased discovery rate, rapid follow-up, timely phase coverage, and more efficient data reduction and analysis. We will give a brief introduction to a series of test operations conducted at the KMTNet-CTIO in February, March and April in 2015 with experimental data processing. Preliminary scientific results will also be presented.

  15. Deep Space Habitat Configurations Based On International Space Station Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David; Russell, Tiffany; Baysinger, Mike; Capizzo, Pete; Fabisinski, Leo; Griffin, Brand; Hornsby, Linda; Maples,Dauphne; Miernik, Janie

    2012-01-01

    A Deep Space Habitat (DSH) is the crew habitation module designed for long duration missions. Although humans have lived in space for many years, there has never been a habitat beyond low-Earth-orbit. As part of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Habitation Project, a study was conducted to develop weightless habitat configurations using systems based on International Space Station (ISS) designs. Two mission sizes are described for a 4-crew 60-day mission, and a 4-crew 500-day mission using standard Node, Lab, and Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) sized elements, and ISS derived habitation systems. These durations were selected to explore the lower and upper bound for the exploration missions under consideration including a range of excursions within the Earth-Moon vicinity, near earth asteroids, and Mars orbit. Current methods for sizing the mass and volume for habitats are based on mathematical models that assume the construction of a new single volume habitat. In contrast to that approach, this study explored the use of ISS designs based on existing hardware where available and construction of new hardware based on ISS designs where appropriate. Findings included a very robust design that could be reused if the DSH were assembled and based at the ISS and a transportation system were provided for its return after each mission. Mass estimates were found to be higher than mathematical models due primarily to the use of multiple ISS modules instead of one new large module, but the maturity of the designs using flight qualified systems have potential for improved cost, schedule, and risk benefits.

  16. Deep Space Habitat Configurations Based on International Space Station Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David; Russell, Tiffany; Baysinger, Mike; Capizzo, Pete; Fabisinski, Leo; Griffin, Brand; Hornsby, Linda; Maples, Dauphne; Miernik, Janie

    2012-01-01

    A Deep Space Habitat (DSH) is the crew habitation module designed for long duration missions. Although humans have lived in space for many years, there has never been a habitat beyond low-Earth-orbit. As part of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Habitation Project, a study was conducted to develop weightless habitat configurations using systems based on International Space Station (ISS) designs. Two mission sizes are described for a 4-crew 60-day mission, and a 4-crew 500-day mission using standard Node, Lab, and Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) sized elements, and ISS derived habitation systems. These durations were selected to explore the lower and upper bound for the exploration missions under consideration including a range of excursions within the Earth-Moon vicinity, near earth asteroids, and Mars orbit. Current methods for sizing the mass and volume for habitats are based on mathematical models that assume the construction of a new single volume habitat. In contrast to that approach, this study explored the use of ISS designs based on existing hardware where available and construction of new hardware based on ISS designs where appropriate. Findings included a very robust design that could be reused if the DSH were assembled and based at the ISS and a transportation system were provided for its return after each mission. Mass estimates were found to be higher than mathematical models due primarily to the use of multiple ISS modules instead of one new large module, but the maturity of the designs using flight qualified systems have potential for improved cost, schedule, and risk benefits.

  17. Network effects of deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Alhourani, Ahmad; McDowell, Michael M; Randazzo, Michael J; Wozny, Thomas A; Kondylis, Efstathios D; Lipski, Witold J; Beck, Sarah; Karp, Jordan F; Ghuman, Avniel S; Richardson, R Mark

    2015-10-01

    The ability to differentially alter specific brain functions via deep brain stimulation (DBS) represents a monumental advance in clinical neuroscience, as well as within medicine as a whole. Despite the efficacy of DBS in the treatment of movement disorders, for which it is often the gold-standard therapy when medical management becomes inadequate, the mechanisms through which DBS in various brain targets produces therapeutic effects is still not well understood. This limited knowledge is a barrier to improving efficacy and reducing side effects in clinical brain stimulation. A field of study related to assessing the network effects of DBS is gradually emerging that promises to reveal aspects of the underlying pathophysiology of various brain disorders and their response to DBS that will be critical to advancing the field. This review summarizes the nascent literature related to network effects of DBS measured by cerebral blood flow and metabolic imaging, functional imaging, and electrophysiology (scalp and intracranial electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography) in order to establish a framework for future studies. PMID:26269552

  18. The determination of maximum deep space station slew rates for a high Earth orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estefan, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    As developing national and international space ventures, which seek to employ NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) for tracking and data acquisition, evolve, it is essential for navigation and tracking system analysts to evaluate the operational capability of Deep Space Station antennas. To commission the DSN for use in tracking a highly eccentric Earth orbiter could quite possibly yield the greatest challenges in terms of slewing capability; certainly more so than with a deep-space probe. The focus here is on the determination of the maximum slew rates needed to track a specific high Earth orbiter, namely the Japanese MUSES-B spacecraft of the Very Long Baseline Interferometry Space Observatory Program. The results suggest that DSN 34-m antennas are capable of meeting the slew rate requirements for the nominal MUSES-B orbital geometries currently being considered.

  19. Space Shuttle RTOS Bayesian Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, A. Terry; Beling, Peter A.

    2001-01-01

    With shrinking budgets and the requirements to increase reliability and operational life of the existing orbiter fleet, NASA has proposed various upgrades for the Space Shuttle that are consistent with national space policy. The cockpit avionics upgrade (CAU), a high priority item, has been selected as the next major upgrade. The primary functions of cockpit avionics include flight control, guidance and navigation, communication, and orbiter landing support. Secondary functions include the provision of operational services for non-avionics systems such as data handling for the payloads and caution and warning alerts to the crew. Recently, a process to selection the optimal commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) real-time operating system (RTOS) for the CAU was conducted by United Space Alliance (USA) Corporation, which is a joint venture between Boeing and Lockheed Martin, the prime contractor for space shuttle operations. In order to independently assess the RTOS selection, NASA has used the Bayesian network-based scoring methodology described in this paper. Our two-stage methodology addresses the issue of RTOS acceptability by incorporating functional, performance and non-functional software measures related to reliability, interoperability, certifiability, efficiency, correctness, business, legal, product history, cost and life cycle. The first stage of the methodology involves obtaining scores for the various measures using a Bayesian network. The Bayesian network incorporates the causal relationships between the various and often competing measures of interest while also assisting the inherently complex decision analysis process with its ability to reason under uncertainty. The structure and selection of prior probabilities for the network is extracted from experts in the field of real-time operating systems. Scores for the various measures are computed using Bayesian probability. In the second stage, multi-criteria trade-off analyses are performed between the scores

  20. Control Architecture for the Deep Space Mission System (DSMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, W.; Shames, P.; Schell, R.

    2000-01-01

    As NASA moves int an era of flying more missions at much lower cost and shorter development duration, the Deep Space Mission System (DSMS) has been redesigned to provide services to approximately 50 missions during the next 10 years.

  1. Orbiting deep space relay station. Volume 3: Implementation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    An implementation plan for the Orbiting Deep Space Relay Station (ODSRS) is described. A comparison of ODSRS life cycle costs to other configuration options meeting future communication requirements is presented.

  2. Extending the X/Ka Celestial Reference Frame over the South Polar Cap: Results from combined NASA-ESA Deep Space Network baselines to Malargüe, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.; de Vicente, J.; Dugast, M.; García-Miró, C.; Goodhart, C. E.; Horiuchi, S.; Lowe, S. T.; Maddè, R.; Mercolino, M.; Naudet, C. J.; Snedeker, L. G.; Sotuela, I.; White, L. A.

    2013-03-01

    In order to extend the X/Ka-band (8.4/32 GHz) Celestial Reference Frame coverage over the south polar cap region of declinations -45 to -90 deg, we developed a collaboration between the NASA and ESA Deep Space Networks. In particular ESA's new 35-meter X/Ka-band antenna in Malargüe, Argentina which became operational in January 2013 is now available for X/Ka VLBI baselines to NASA's antennas in Tidbinbilla, Australia; Goldstone, California; and Robledo, Spain. We report first fringes on baselines from Malargüe to Tidbinbilla, Goldstone, and Robledo using a semi-portable digital backend recording at 256 Mbps. To the best of our knowledge the Giga-lambda Malargüe-Tidbinbilla baseline is producing the highest resolution interferometry ever achieved over the south polar cap. We will present the distribution of Ka-band sources detected on this all-southern baseline. Lastly, we will discuss the prospects for using these new baselines to improve the astrometric accuracy of the X/Ka frame in the southern hemisphere.

  3. Modeling Physiological Data with Deep Belief Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dan; Shang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Feature extraction is key in understanding and modeling of physiological data. Traditionally hand-crafted features are chosen based on expert knowledge and then used for classification or regression. To determine important features and pick the effective ones to handle a new task may be labor-intensive and time-consuming. Moreover, the manual process does not scale well with new or large-size tasks. In this work, we present a system based on Deep Belief Networks (DBNs) that can automatically extract features from raw physiological data of 4 channels in an unsupervised fashion and then build 3 classifiers to predict the levels of arousal, valance, and liking based on the learned features. The classification accuracies are 60.9%, 51.2%, and 68.4%, respectively, which are comparable with the results obtained by Gaussian Naïve Bayes classifier on the state-of-the-art expert designed features. These results suggest that DBNs can be applied to raw physiological data to effectively learn relevant features and predict emotions. PMID:25165501

  4. An Array of Optical Receivers for Deep-Space Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, Chi-Wung; Srinivasan, Meera; Andrews, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    An array of small optical receivers is proposed as an alternative to a single large optical receiver for high-data-rate communications in NASA s Deep Space Network (DSN). Because the telescope for a single receiver capable of satisfying DSN requirements must be greater than 10 m in diameter, the design, building, and testing of the telescope would be very difficult and expensive. The proposed array would utilize commercially available telescopes of 1-m or smaller diameter and, therefore, could be developed and verified with considerably less difficulty and expense. The essential difference between a single-aperture optical-communications receiver and an optical-array receiver is that a single-aperture receiver focuses all of the light energy it collects onto the surface of an optical detector, whereas an array receiver focuses portions of the total collected energy onto separate detectors, optically detects each fractional energy component, then combines the electrical signal from the array of detector outputs to form the observable, or "decision statistic," used to decode the transmitted data. A conceptual block diagram identifying the key components of the optical-array receiver suitable for deep-space telemetry reception is shown in the figure. The most conspicuous feature of the receiver is the large number of small- to medium-size telescopes, with individual apertures and number of telescopes selected to make up the desired total collecting area. This array of telescopes is envisioned to be fully computer- controlled via the user interface and prediction-driven to achieve rough pointing and tracking of the desired spacecraft. Fine-pointing and tracking functions then take over to keep each telescope pointed toward the source, despite imperfect pointing predictions, telescope-drive errors, and vibration caused by wind.

  5. Low Cost Missions Operations on NASA Deep Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, R. J.; Kusnierkiewicz, D. J.; Bowman, A.; Harvey, R.; Ossing, D.; Eichstedt, J.

    2014-12-01

    The ability to lower mission operations costs on any long duration mission depends on a number of factors; the opportunities for science, the flight trajectory, and the cruise phase environment, among others. Many deep space missions employ long cruises to their final destination with minimal science activities along the way; others may perform science observations on a near-continuous basis. This paper discusses approaches employed by two NASA missions implemented by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) to minimize mission operations costs without compromising mission success: the New Horizons mission to Pluto, and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatories (STEREO). The New Horizons spacecraft launched in January 2006 for an encounter with the Pluto system.The spacecraft trajectory required no deterministic on-board delta-V, and so the mission ops team then settled in for the rest of its 9.5-year cruise. The spacecraft has spent much of its cruise phase in a "hibernation" mode, which has enabled the spacecraft to be maintained with a small operations team, and minimized the contact time required from the NASA Deep Space Network. The STEREO mission is comprised of two three-axis stabilized sun-staring spacecraft in heliocentric orbit at a distance of 1 AU from the sun. The spacecraft were launched in October 2006. The STEREO instruments operate in a "decoupled" mode from the spacecraft, and from each other. Since STEREO operations are largely routine, unattended ground station contact operations were implemented early in the mission. Commands flow from the MOC to be uplinked, and the data recorded on-board is downlinked and relayed back to the MOC. Tools run in the MOC to assess the health and performance of ground system components. Alerts are generated and personnel are notified of any problems. Spacecraft telemetry is similarly monitored and alarmed, thus ensuring safe, reliable, low cost operations.

  6. Deep Space 1 is prepared for transport to launch pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Defense Satellite Communications Systems Processing Facility (DPF), Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS), after covering the lower portion of Deep Space 1, workers adjust the anti-static blanket covering the upper portion. The blanket will protect the spacecraft during transport to the launch pad. Deep Space 1 is the first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, and is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century, including the engine. Propelled by the gas xenon, the engine is being flight-tested for future deep space and Earth-orbiting missions. Deceptively powerful, the ion drive emits only an eerie blue glow as ionized atoms of xenon are pushed out of the engine. While slow to pick up speed, over the long haul it can deliver 10 times as much thrust per pound of fuel as liquid or solid fuel rockets. Other onboard experiments include software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but will also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999. Deep Space 1 will be launched aboard a Boeing Delta 7326 rocket from Launch Pad 17A, CCAS.

  7. Deep Space 1 is prepared for transport to launch pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Defense Satellite Communications Systems Processing Facility (DPF), Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS), workers place an anti-static blanket over the lower portion of Deep Space 1, to protect the spacecraft during transport to the launch pad. The first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, Deep Space 1 is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century, including the engine. Propelled by the gas xenon, the engine is being flight-tested for future deep space and Earth-orbiting missions. Deceptively powerful, the ion drive emits only an eerie blue glow as ionized atoms of xenon are pushed out of the engine. While slow to pick up speed, over the long haul it can deliver 10 times as much thrust per pound of fuel as liquid or solid fuel rockets. Other onboard experiments include software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but will also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999. Deep Space 1 will be launched aboard a Boeing Delta 7326 rocket from Launch Pad 17A, CCAS.

  8. Deep Space 1 moves to CCAS for testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    After covering the bulk of Deep Space 1 in thermal insulating blankets, workers in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility lift it from its work platform before moving it onto its transporter (behind workers at left). Deep Space 1 is being moved to the Defense Satellite Communications System Processing Facility (DPF), Cape Canaveral Air Station, for testing. At either side of the spacecraft are its solar wings, folded for launch. When fully extended, the winds measure 38.6 feet from tip to tip. The first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, Deep Space 1 is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. Onboard experiments include a solar-powered ion propulsion engine and software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. The ion propulsion engine is the first non-chemical propulsion to be used as the primary means of propelling a spacecraft. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but may also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999. Deep Space 1 will be launched aboard a Boeing Delta 7326 rocket from Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, in October. Delta II rockets are medium capacity expendable launch vehicles derived from the Delta family of rockets built and launched since 1960. Since then there have been more than 245 Delta launches.

  9. Image Super-Resolution Using Deep Convolutional Networks.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chao; Loy, Chen Change; He, Kaiming; Tang, Xiaoou

    2016-02-01

    We propose a deep learning method for single image super-resolution (SR). Our method directly learns an end-to-end mapping between the low/high-resolution images. The mapping is represented as a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) that takes the low-resolution image as the input and outputs the high-resolution one. We further show that traditional sparse-coding-based SR methods can also be viewed as a deep convolutional network. But unlike traditional methods that handle each component separately, our method jointly optimizes all layers. Our deep CNN has a lightweight structure, yet demonstrates state-of-the-art restoration quality, and achieves fast speed for practical on-line usage. We explore different network structures and parameter settings to achieve trade-offs between performance and speed. Moreover, we extend our network to cope with three color channels simultaneously, and show better overall reconstruction quality. PMID:26761735

  10. Experiences in riding a technology roller coaster to deep space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varghese, P.; Lehman, D.; Livesay, L.; Rayman, M.

    2001-01-01

    Deep Space 1(DS1) was the first mission of NASA's New Millennium program and was chartered to flight test twelve high-risk, enabling technologies important for future space and Earth science programs on both a fast schedule and a low budget.

  11. Space-based radio telescopes and an orbiting deep-space relay station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, R. V.

    1979-01-01

    Foremost among the candidates for early utilization of the Shuttle-launched self-deployable structures are the space-based radio telescopes. Several space-based telescopes are examined including an orbiting VLBI terminal, an orbiting submillimeter telescope, and a large ambient deployable IR telescope. Particular consideration is given to the high-gain Orbiting Deep-Space Relay Station for communication with deep-space probes. Details of deployable antenna technology are discussed.

  12. Small Reactor for Deep Space Exploration

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-11-29

    This is the first demonstration of a space nuclear reactor system to produce electricity in the United States since 1965, and an experiment demonstrated the first use of a heat pipe to cool a small nuclear reactor and then harvest the heat to power a Stirling engine at the Nevada National Security Site's Device Assembly Facility confirms basic nuclear reactor physics and heat transfer for a simple, reliable space power system.

  13. Small Reactor for Deep Space Exploration

    ScienceCinema

    none,

    2014-05-30

    This is the first demonstration of a space nuclear reactor system to produce electricity in the United States since 1965, and an experiment demonstrated the first use of a heat pipe to cool a small nuclear reactor and then harvest the heat to power a Stirling engine at the Nevada National Security Site's Device Assembly Facility confirms basic nuclear reactor physics and heat transfer for a simple, reliable space power system.

  14. Future capabilities for the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berner, J. B.; Bryant, S. H.; Andrews, K. S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper will look at three new capabilities that are in different stages of development. First, turbo decoding, which provides improved telemetry performance for data rates up to about 1 Mbps, will be discussed. Next, pseudo-noise ranging will be presented. Pseudo-noise ranging has several advantages over the current sequential ranging, anmely easier operations, improved performance, and the capability to be used in a regenerative implementation on a spacecraft. Finally, Low Density Parity Check decoding will be discussed. LDPC codes can provide performance that matches or slightly exceed turbo codes, but are designed for use in the 10 Mbps range.

  15. The Deep Space Network Large Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatti, M. S.

    2004-05-01

    In recent years it has become evident that, if future science needs are to be met, the capacity of the telecommunications link between planetary spacecraft and the Earth must be increased by orders of magnitude. Both the number of spacecraft and higher data rates demand the increased capacity. Technologies to support the increased capacity include even larger antennas, optical receiving systems, or arrays of antennas. This article describes a large array of small antennas that would be implemented for a fraction of the cost of an equivalent 70-m aperture. Adding additional antennas can increase the sensitivity many fold over current capabilities. The array will consist of 400 parabolic reflector antennas, each of which will be 12 m in diameter. Each antenna will operate simultaneously at both X-band (8 to 8.8 GHz) and Ka-band (31 to 38 GHz) and will be configured with radio frequency (RF) electronics, including the feeds, low-noise amplifiers, and frequency converters, as well as the appropriate servo controls and drives. The array also includes the signal transmission and signal processing to enable the system to track from between 1 and 16 different signals. A significant feature of this system is that it will be done for relatively very low cost compared to the current antenna paradigms. This is made possible by the use of low-cost antenna reflector technology, the extensive use of monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs), and, finally, by using commercially available equipment to the maximum extent possible. Cost can be further reduced by the acceptance of lower antenna element reliability. High system availability will be maintained by a design paradigm that provides for a marginal set of excess antenna elements for any particular tracking period. Thus, the same total system availability is achieved for lower element availability. The "plug-and-play" aspects of the assemblies will enhance maintainability and operability. The project plans include a modest start of 12 antennas at the U.S. longitude.

  16. The deep space network, volume 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Progress is reported on DSN supporting research and technology, advanced development and engineering, implementation, and operations which pertain to mission-independent or multiple-mission development as well as to support of flight projects.

  17. Deep space network: Mission support requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose is to provide NASA and Jet Propulsion Laboratory management with a concise summary of information concerning the forecasting of the necessary support and requirements for missions described here, including the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment, the Cosmic Background Explorer, the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby, the Cassini, and the Dynamics Explorer-1. A brief description of various missions along with specific support requirements for each are given.

  18. SOFTCOST - DEEP SPACE NETWORK SOFTWARE COST MODEL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    The early-on estimation of required resources and a schedule for the development and maintenance of software is usually the least precise aspect of the software life cycle. However, it is desirable to make some sort of an orderly and rational attempt at estimation in order to plan and organize an implementation effort. The Software Cost Estimation Model program, SOFTCOST, was developed to provide a consistent automated resource and schedule model which is more formalized than the often used guesswork model based on experience, intuition, and luck. SOFTCOST was developed after the evaluation of a number of existing cost estimation programs indicated that there was a need for a cost estimation program with a wide range of application and adaptability to diverse kinds of software. SOFTCOST combines several software cost models found in the open literature into one comprehensive set of algorithms that compensate for nearly fifty implementation factors relative to size of the task, inherited baseline, organizational and system environment, and difficulty of the task. SOFTCOST produces mean and variance estimates of software size, implementation productivity, recommended staff level, probable duration, amount of computer resources required, and amount and cost of software documentation. Since the confidence level for a project using mean estimates is small, the user is given the opportunity to enter risk-biased values for effort, duration, and staffing, to achieve higher confidence levels. SOFTCOST then produces a PERT/CPM file with subtask efforts, durations, and precedences defined so as to produce the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) and schedule having the asked-for overall effort and duration. The SOFTCOST program operates in an interactive environment prompting the user for all of the required input. The program builds the supporting PERT data base in a file for later report generation or revision. The PERT schedule and the WBS schedule may be printed and stored in a file for later use. The SOFTCOST program is written in Microsoft BASIC for interactive execution and has been implemented on an IBM PC-XT/AT operating MS-DOS 2.1 or higher with 256K bytes of memory. SOFTCOST was originally developed for the Zylog Z80 system running under CP/M in 1981. It was converted to run on the IBM PC XT/AT in 1986. SOFTCOST is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA.

  19. Goldstone radio spectrum protection. [deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaudian, B. A.; Cushman, R. B.

    1980-01-01

    Potential electromagnetic interference to the Goldstone tracking receivers due to neighboring military installations is discussed. Coordination of the military and NASA Goldstone activities in the Mojave Desert area is seen to be an effective method to protect the Goldstone radio spectrum while maintaining compatible operations for the military and Goldstone.

  20. Radiation Shielding for Manned Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The arrival of the Expedition 1 Crew at the International Space Station represents the beginning of the continuous presence of man in space. Already we are deploying astronauts and cosmonauts for missions of approx. 6 months onboard the ISS. In the future we can anticipate that more people will be in space and they will be there for longer periods. Even with 6-months deployments to the ISS, the radiation exposure that crew members receive is approaching the exposure limits imposed by the governments of the space- faring nations. In the future we can expect radiation protection to be a dominant consideration for long manned missions. Recognizing this, NASA has expanded their research program on radiation health. This program has three components, bioastronautics, fundamental biology and radiation shielding materials. Bioastronautics is concerned with the investigating the effects of radiation on humans. Fundamental biology investigates the basic mechanisms of radiation damage to tissue. Radiation shielding materials research focuses on developing accurate computational tools to predict the radiation shielding effectiveness of materials. It also investigates new materials that can be used for spacecraft. The radiation shielding materials program will be described and examples of results from the ongoing research will be shown.

  1. PEPE is installed on Deep Space 1 in the PHSF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Plasma Experiment for Planetary Exploration (PEPE), one of two advanced science experiments flying on the Deep Space l mission, is being installed on the spacecraft in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility. PEPE combines several instruments that study space plasma in one compact 13-pound (6-kilogram) package. Space plasma is composed of charged particles, most of which flow outward from the Sun. The first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, Deep Space 1 is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. The spacecraft is scheduled to launch during a period opening Oct. 15 and closing Nov. 10, 1998. Most of its mission objectives will be completed within the first two months. A near-earth asteroid, 1992 KD, has also been selected for a possible flyby.

  2. PEPE is installed on Deep Space 1 in the PHSF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Plasma Experiment for Planetary Exploration (PEPE), one of two advanced science experiments flying on the Deep Space l mission, is prepared for installation on the spacecraft in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility. PEPE combines several instruments that study space plasma in one compact 13-pound (6- kilogram) package. Space plasma is composed of charged particles, most of which flow outward from the Sun. The first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, Deep Space 1 is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. The spacecraft is scheduled to launch during a period opening Oct. 15 and closing Nov. 10, 1998. Most of its mission objectives will be completed within the first two months. A near-earth asteroid, 1992 KD, has also been selected for a possible flyby.

  3. Networking at NASA. Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garman, John R.

    1991-01-01

    A series of viewgraphs on computer networks at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) are given. Topics covered include information resource management (IRM) at JSC, the IRM budget by NASA center, networks evolution, networking as a strategic tool, the Information Services Directorate charter, and SSC network requirements, challenges, and status.

  4. Enabling Space Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, William J.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation on enabling space science and exploration covers the following topics: 1) Today s Deep Space Network; 2) Next Generation Deep Space Network; 3) Needed technologies; 4) Mission IT and networking; and 5) Multi-mission operations.

  5. The Space Environment from LEO to Deep Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet L.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews several space environments, and the hazards they pose to spacecraft operations. The presentation covers solar activity effects, galactic cosmic rays, near Earth environments including the magnetosphere, thermosphere, ionsophere, and plasmasphere, single event upsets, micrometeoroids, space debris, and an overview of conditions on other planets, especially Jupiter.

  6. A note on deep space optical communication link parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolinar, S. J.; Yuen, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    Topical communication in the context of a deep space communication link. Communication link analysis at the optical frequencies differs significantly from that at microwave frequencies such as the traditional S and X-bands used in deep space applications, due to the different technology of transmitter, antenna, modulators, and receivers. In addition, the important role of quantum noise in limiting system performance is quite different than that of thermal noise. The optical link design is put in a design control table format similar to a microwave telecom link design. Key considerations unique to the optical link are discussed.

  7. Issues and Design Drivers for Deep Space Habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle A.; Anderson, Molly

    2012-01-01

    A cross-disciplinary team of scientists and engineers applied expertise gained in Lunar Lander development to the conceptual design of a long-duration, deep space habitat for Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) missions. The design reference mission involved two launches to assemble 5-modules for a 380-day round trip mission carrying 4 crew members. The conceptual design process yielded a number of interesting debates, some of which could be significant design drivers in a detailed Deep Space Habitat (DSH) design. These issues included: Design to minimize crew radiation exposure, launch loads, communications challenges, docking system and hatch commonality, pointing and visibility, consumables, and design for contingency operations.

  8. Deep Space 2: The Mars Microprobe Project and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smrekar, S. E.; Gavit, S. A.

    1998-01-01

    The Mars Microprobe Project, or Deep Space 2 (DS2), is the second of the New Millennium Program planetary missions and is designed to enable future space science network missions through flight validation of new technologies. A secondary goal is the collection of meaningful science data. Two micropenetrators will be deployed to carry out surface and subsurface science. The penetrators are being carried as a piggyback payload on the Mars Polar Lander cruise ring and will be launched in January 1999. The microprobe has no active control, attitude determination, or propulsive systems. It is a single stage from separation until landing and will passively orient itself due to its aerodynamic design. The aeroshell will be made of a nonerosive heat shield material, Silicon impregnated Reusable Ceramic Ablator(SIRCA), developed at Ames Research Center. The aeroshell shatters on impact, at which time the probe separates into an aftbody that remains at the surface and a forebody that penetrates into the subsurface. Each probe has a total mass of up to 3 kg, including the aeroshell. The impact velocity will be about 180 meters per second. The forebody will experience up to 30,000 g's and penetrate between 0.3 and 2 meters, depending on the ice content of the soil. The aftbody deceleration will be up to 80,000 g. The penetrators arrive in December 1999. The landing ellipse latitude range is 73 deg-77 deg S. The longitude will be selected by the Mars Surveyor Project to place the lander on the polar layered deposits in the range of 180 deg -230 deg W. The two micropenetrators are likely to land within 100 km of the Mars Surveyor Lander, on the polar deposits. The likely arrival date is L(sub s) = 256, late southern spring. The nominal mission lasts 2 days. A science team was selected in April 1998.

  9. Deep Space 2: The Mars Microprobe Project and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smrekar, S. E.; Gavit, S. A.

    1998-01-01

    The Mars Microprobe Project, or Deep Space 2 (DS2), is the second of the New Millennium Program planetary missions and is designed to enable future space science network missions through flight validation of new technologies. A secondary goal is the collection of meaningful science data. Two micropenetrators will be deployed to carry out surface and subsurface science. The penetrators are being carried as a piggyback payload on the Mars Polar Lander cruise ring and will be launched in January 1999. The microprobe has no active control, attitude determination, or propulsive systems. It is a single stage from separation until landing and will passively orient itself due to its aerodynamic design. The aeroshell will be made of a nonerosive heat shield material, Silicon impregnated Reusable Ceramic Ablator(SIRCA), developed at Ames Research Center. The aeroshell shatters on impact, at which time the probe separates into an aftbody that remains at the surface and a forebody that penetrates into the subsurface. Each probe has a total mass of up to 3 kg, including the aeroshell. The impact velocity will be about 180 meters per second. The forebody will experience up to 30,000 g's and penetrate between 0.3 and 2 meters, depending on the ice content of the soil. The aftbody deceleration will be up to 80,000 g. The penetrators arrive in December 1999. The landing ellipse latitude range is 73 deg-77 deg S. The longitude will be selected by the Mars Surveyor Project to place the lander on the polar layered deposits in the range of 180 deg -230 deg W. The two micropenetrators are likely to land within 100 km of the Mars Surveyor Lander, on the polar deposits. The likely arrival date is Ls = 256, late southern spring. The nominal mission lasts 2 days. A science team was selected in April 1998.

  10. Toward Content Based Image Retrieval with Deep Convolutional Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Sklan, Judah E.S.; Plassard, Andrew J.; Fabbri, Daniel; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-01-01

    Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) offers the potential to identify similar case histories, understand rare disorders, and eventually, improve patient care. Recent advances in database capacity, algorithm efficiency, and deep Convolutional Neural Networks (dCNN), a machine learning technique, have enabled great CBIR success for general photographic images. Here, we investigate applying the leading ImageNet CBIR technique to clinically acquired medical images captured by the Vanderbilt Medical Center. Briefly, we (1) constructed a dCNN with four hidden layers, reducing dimensionality of an input scaled to 128×128 to an output encoded layer of 4×384, (2) trained the network using back-propagation 1 million random magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) images, (3) labeled an independent set of 2100 images, and (4) evaluated classifiers on the projection of the labeled images into manifold space. Quantitative results were disappointing (averaging a true positive rate of only 20%); however, the data suggest that improvements would be possible with more evenly distributed sampling across labels and potential re-grouping of label structures. This prelimainry effort at automated classification of medical images with ImageNet is promising, but shows that more work is needed beyond direct adaptation of existing techniques. PMID:25914507

  11. Deep Space 1 moves to CCAS for testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Deep Space 1 is lifted from its work platform, giving a closeup view of the experimental solar-powered ion propulsion engine. The ion propulsion engine is the first non-chemical propulsion to be used as the primary means of propelling a spacecraft. The first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, Deep Space 1 is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. Another onboard experiment includes software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but may also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999. Deep Space 1 will be launched aboard a Boeing Delta 7326 rocket from Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, in October. Delta II rockets are medium capacity expendable launch vehicles derived from the Delta family of rockets built and launched since 1960. Since then there have been more than 245 Delta launches.

  12. Deep Space 1 moves to CCAS for testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Deep Space 1 rests on its work platform after being fitted with thermal insulation. The reflective insulation is designed to protect the spacecraft as this side faces the sun. At either side of the spacecraft are its solar wings, folded for launch. When fully extended, the wings measure 38.6 feet from tip to tip. The first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, Deep Space 1 is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. Onboard experiments include a solar-powered ion propulsion engine and software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. The ion propulsion engine is the first non-chemical propulsion to be used as the primary means of propelling a spacecraft. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but may also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999. Deep Space 1 will be launched aboard a Boeing Delta 7326 rocket from Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, in October. Delta II rockets are medium capacity expendable launch vehicles derived from the Delta family of rockets built and launched since 1960. Since then there have been more than 245 Delta launches.

  13. Deep Space 1 moves to CCAS for testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Workers at this clean room facility, Cape Canaveral Air Station, maneuver the protective can that covered Deep Space 1 during transportation from KSC away from the spacecraft. Deep Space 1 will undergo spin testing at the site. The first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, Deep Space 1 is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. Onboard experiments include a solar-powered ion propulsion engine and software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. The ion propulsion engine is the first non-chemical propulsion to be used as the primary means of propelling a spacecraft. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but may also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999. The spacecraft will be launched aboard a Boeing Delta 7326 rocket from Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, in October. Delta II rockets are medium capacity expendable launch vehicles derived from the Delta family of rockets built and launched since 1960. Since then there have been more than 245 Delta launches.

  14. Deep Space 1 moves to CCAS for testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Workers in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility lower Deep Space 1 onto its transporter, for movement to the Defense Satellite Communications System Processing Facility (DPF), Cape Canaveral Air Station, where it will undergo testing. At either side of the spacecraft are its solar wings, folded for launch. When fully extended, the wings measure 38.6 feet from tip to tip. The first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, Deep Space 1 is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. Onboard experiments include a solar-powered ion propulsion engine and software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. The ion propulsion engine is the first non-chemical propulsion to be used as the primary means of propelling a spacecraft. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but may also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999. Deep Space 1 will be launched aboard a Boeing Delta 7326 rocket from Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, in October. Delta II rockets are medium capacity expendable launch vehicles derived from the Delta family of rockets built and launched since 1960. Since then there have been more than 245 Delta launches.

  15. Deep Space 1 moves to CCAS for testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Deep Space 1 rests on its work platform after being fitted with thermal insulation. The dark insulation is designed to protect the side of the spacecraft that faces away from the sun. At either side of the spacecraft are its solar wings, folded for launch. When fully extended, the wings measure 38.6 feet from tip to tip. The first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, Deep Space 1 is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. Onboard experiments include a solar-powered ion propulsion engine and software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. The ion propulsion engine is the first non-chemical propulsion to be used as the primary means of propelling a spacecraft. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but may also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999. Deep Space 1 will be launched aboard a Boeing Delta 7326 rocket from Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, in October. Delta II rockets are medium capacity expendable launch vehicles derived from the Delta family of rockets built and launched since 1960. Since then there have been more than 245 Delta launches.

  16. Deep Space 1 moves to CCAS for testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Deep Space 1 is lifted from its work platform, giving a closer view of the experimental solar-powered ion propulsion engine. The ion propulsion engine is the first non-chemical propulsion to be used as the primary means of propelling a spacecraft. Above the engine is one of the two solar wings, folded for launch, that will provide the power for it. When fully extended, the wings measure 38.6 feet from tip to tip. The first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, Deep Space 1 is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. Another onboard experiment includes software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but may also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999. Deep Space 1 will be launched aboard a Boeing Delta 7326 rocket from Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, in October. Delta II rockets are medium capacity expendable launch vehicles derived from the Delta family of rockets built and launched since 1960. Since then there have been more than 245 Delta launches.

  17. The Hematopoietic Stem Cell Therapy for Exploration of Deep Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohi, Seigo; Roach, Allana-Nicole; Fitzgerald, Wendy; Riley, Danny A.; Gonda, Steven R.

    2003-01-01

    It is hypothesized that the hematopoietic stem cell therapy (HSCT) might countermeasure various space-caused disorders so as to maintain astronauts' homeostasis. If this were achievable, the HSCT could promote human exploration of deep space. Using animal models of disorders (hindlimb suspension unloading system and beta-thalassemia), the HSCT was tested for muscle loss, immunodeficiency and space anemia. The results indicate feasibility of HSCT for these disorders. To facilitate the HSCT in space, growth of HSCs were optimized in the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) culture systems, including Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor (HFB).

  18. Deep Space Storm Shelter Simulation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, Kathryn; Phojanamongkolkij, Nipa; Cerro, Jeffrey; Simon, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Missions outside of Earth's magnetic field are impeded by the presence of radiation from galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events. To overcome this issue, NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Radiation Works Storm Shelter (RadWorks) has been studying different radiation protective habitats to shield against the onset of solar particle event radiation. These habitats have the capability of protecting occupants by utilizing available materials such as food, water, brine, human waste, trash, and non-consumables to build short-term shelters. Protection comes from building a barrier with the materials that dampens the impact of the radiation on astronauts. The goal of this study is to develop a discrete event simulation, modeling a solar particle event and the building of a protective shelter. The main hallway location within a larger habitat similar to the International Space Station (ISS) is analyzed. The outputs from this model are: 1) the total area covered on the shelter by the different materials, 2) the amount of radiation the crew members receive, and 3) the amount of time for setting up the habitat during specific points in a mission given an event occurs.

  19. Using DSP technology to simplify deep space ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, S.

    2000-01-01

    Commercially available Digital Signal Processing (DSP) technology has enabled a new spacecraft ranging design. The new design reduces overall size, parts count, and complexity. The design implementation will also meet the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) requirements for both near-Earth and deep space ranging.

  20. Visualization experiences and issues in Deep Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, John; Burleigh, Scott; Maruya, Makoto; Maxwell, Scott; Pischel, Rene

    2003-01-01

    The panelists will discuss their experiences in collecting data in deep space, transmitting it to Earth, processing and visualizing it here, and using the visualization to drive the continued mission. This closes the loop, making missions more responsive to their environment, particularly in-situ operations on planetary surfaces and within planetary atmospheres.

  1. Low-Rate Turbo Codes for Deep-Space Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, D.; Pollara, F.

    1995-01-01

    It is shown how turbo codes and decoders can be used to improve the coding gain for deep-space communications, while decreasing the decoding complexity with respect to the large constraint length convolutional codes currently in use. Similar code constructions were used to build multiple-encoder turbo codes. This generalizes the turbo decoding concept to a truly distributed decoding system.

  2. Adaptive optics for daytime deep space laser communications to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Keith E.; Wright, Malcolm; Lee, Shinkhak; Troy, Mitchell

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes JPL research in adaptive optics (AO) to reduce the daytime background noise on a Mars-to-Earth optical communications link. AO can reduce atmosphere-induced wavefront aberrations, and enable single mode receiver operation thereby buying back margin in the deep space optical communications link.

  3. Deep Space 1 Using its Ion Engine (Artist's Concept)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    NASA's New Millennium Deep Space 1 spacecraft approaching the comet 19P/Borrelly. With its primary mission to serve as a technology demonstrator--testing ion propulsion and 11 other advanced technologies--successfully completed in September 1999, Deep Space 1 is now headed for a risky, exciting rendezvous with Comet Borrelly. NASA extended the mission, taking advantage of the ion propulsion and other systems to target the daring encounter with the comet in September 2001. Once a sci-fi dream, the ion propulsion engine has powered the spacecraft for over 12,000 hours. Another onboard experiment includes software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. The first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, Deep Space 1 was launched October 24, 1998 aboard a Boeing Delta 7326 rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Station, FL. Deep Space 1 successfully completed and exceeded its mission objectives in July 1999 and flew by a near-Earth asteroid, Braille (1992 KD), in September 1999.

  4. CCIR papers on telecommunications for deep space research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degroot, N. F.

    1977-01-01

    A brief description is given of United States participation in the process of developing the technical basis for international allocation and regulation of the radio frequency spectrum. The telecommunication requirements for deep space research are considered. Topics include functional requirements, methods and techniques, and equipment characteristics.

  5. Pioneers 10 and 11 deep space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyal, Palmer

    1990-01-01

    Pioneers 10 and 11 were launched from Earth, 2 March 1972, and 5 April 1973, respectively. The Pioneers were the first spacecraft to explore the asteroid belt and the first to encounter the giant planets, Jupiter and Saturn. The Pioneer 10 spacecraft is now the most distant man-made object in our solar system and is farther from the Sun than all nine planets. It is 47 AU from the Sun and is moving in a direction opposite to that of the Sun's motion through the galaxy. Pioneer 11 is 28 AU from the Sun and is traveling in the direction opposite of Pioneer 10, in the same direction as the Sun moves in the galaxy. These two Pioneer spacecraft provided the first large-scale, in-situ measurements of the gas and dust surrounding a star, the Sun. Since launch, the Pioneers have measured large-scale properties of the heliosphere during more than one complete 11-year solar sunspot cycle, and have measured the properties of the expanding solar atmosphere, the transport of cosmic rays into the heliosphere, and the high-energy trapped radiation belts and magnetic fields associated with the planets Jupiter and Saturn. Accurate Doppler tracking of these spin-stabilized spacecraft was used to search for differential gravitational forces from a possible trans-Neptunian planet and to search for gravitational radiation. Future objectives of the Pioneer 10 and 11 missions are to continue measuring the large-scale properties of the heliosphere and to search for its boundary with interstellar space.

  6. Amateur Radio Communications with a Deep Space Probe (Yes, It's Possible)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cudnik, Brian; Rahman, Mahmudur; Saganti, Seth; Erickson, Gary M.; Saganti, Premkumar

    2015-05-01

    Prairie View A&M University through the collaboration with NASA-Johnson Space Center has partnered with the Kyushu Institute of Technology (KIT), Japan and developed a payload for the Shinen-2 spacecraft that was launched from Japan on December 3, 2014 as part of the Hayabusa2 mission. The main purpose of the Shinen-2 spacecraft is deep space communication experiment to test the feasibility of deep-space radio communications from the spacecraft to Earth without the need of the Deep Space Network (DSN) of NASA. This presents an opportunity to the wider community of amateur astronomers, ham radio operators, and other research personnel in that they will have the opportunity to work with deep space communication such as Shinen-2 spacecraft. It should be possible to detect a signal as an increased strength from Shinen-2 spacecraft at a rest frequency of 437.385 MHz, using commercially available equipment procured at low-cost, when the spacecraft approaches to within 3,000,000 km of the Earth during December 2015.

  7. Evaluation of Concrete Consolidation: DSS-35 Antenna Reinforced Concrete Pedestal, Canberra Deep Space Communications Complex, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saldua, B. P.; Dodge, E. C.; Kolf, P. R.; Olson, C. A.

    2016-02-01

    Antenna structures for the Deep Space Network track spacecraft that are millions of miles away. Therefore, these structures have tight specifications for translation, rotation, and differential settlement. This article presents several nondestructive test methods that were used to evaluate, locate, and repair imperfections in the reinforced concrete pedestal that supports the DSS-35 antenna structure. These methods include: (1) impulse response (IR), (2) ultrasonic shear-wave tomography (MIRA), and (3) ground-penetrating radar (GPR).

  8. Advanced stellar compass deep space navigation, ground testing results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betto, M.; Jørgensen, J. L.; Jørgensen, P. S.; Denver, T.

    2006-10-01

    Deep space exploration is in the agenda of the major space agencies worldwide and at least the European Space Agency (SMART & Aurora Programs) and the American NASA (New Millennium Program) have set up programs to allow the development and the demonstration of technologies that can reduce the risks and the costs of the deep space missions. Navigation is the Achilles’ heel of deep space. Being performed on ground, it imposes considerable constraints on the system and the operations, it is very expensive to execute, especially when the mission lasts several years and, above all, it is not failure tolerant. Nevertheless, up to now, ground navigation has been the only possible solution. The technological breakthrough of advanced star trackers, like the micro-advanced stellar compass (μASC) might change this situation. Indeed, exploiting the capabilities of this instrument, the authors have devised a method to determine the orbit of a spacecraft autonomously, on-board and without any a priori knowledge of any kind. The solution is robust, elegant and fast. This paper presents the preliminary performances obtained during the ground tests. The results are very positive and encouraging.

  9. Asynchronous Message Service for Deep Space Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2006-01-01

    While the CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) provides internationally standardized file transfer functionality that can offer significant benefits for deep space mission operations, not all spacecraft communication requirements are necessarily best met by file transfer. In particular, continuous event-driven asynchronous message exchange may also be useful for communications with, among, and aboard spacecraft. CCSDS has therefore undertaken the development of a new Asynchronous Message Service (AMS) standard, designed to provide common functionality over a wide variety of underlying transport services, ranging from shared memory message queues to CCSDS telemetry systems. The present paper discusses the design concepts of AMS, their applicability to deep space mission operations problems, and the results of preliminary performance testing obtained from exercise of a prototype implementation.

  10. Deep space mission integration with the space transportation system. [Galileo mission using Space Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, W. B.

    1979-01-01

    The Galileo mission is the first interplanetary mission scheduled to use the Space Transportation System (STS). Therefore, Galileo is the trailblazer for mission integration of a deep space mission with the STS. A short overview of the Galileo mission is presented as background for the discussion of the mission integration effort. The components of the STS and the mission integration system are defined, documentation requirements explained, the work of the Flight Design Working Group described, and several examples of the types of problems dealt with are given. The steps of mission integration are shown from introducing requirements into the system to resolving conflicts that arise between the payload project and the STS operator. Conclusions are drawn from the Galileo mission integration effort to aid future payload projects in working with the STS.

  11. Natural Language Processing Neural Network Considering Deep Cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagara, Tsukasa; Hagiwara, Masafumi

    In this paper, we propose a novel neural network considering deep cases. It can learn knowledge from natural language documents and can perform recall and inference. Various techniques of natural language processing using Neural Network have been proposed. However, natural language sentences used in these techniques consist of about a few words, and they cannot handle complicated sentences. In order to solve these problems, the proposed network divides natural language sentences into a sentence layer, a knowledge layer, ten kinds of deep case layers and a dictionary layer. It can learn the relations among sentences and among words by dividing sentences. The advantages of the method are as follows: (1) ability to handle complicated sentences; (2) ability to restructure sentences; (3) usage of the conceptual dictionary, Goi-Taikei, as the long term memory in a brain. Two kinds of experiments were carried out by using goo dictionary and Wikipedia as knowledge sources. Superior performance of the proposed neural network has been confirmed.

  12. Space Data Network: Concept and rationale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Klaus-Juergen

    1991-10-01

    An introduction to the concept and rationale of the Space Data Network (SDN) is given. SDN is a conceptual network, which extends from ground via relay satellites to spacecraft. Due to the heterogeneity of the employed network technologies and the needs of spacecraft operation, it provides a serious technological challenge in the fields of interconnection of transmission systems, networks and service management, and uplink data control.

  13. Delta II rocket prepared for launch of Deep Space 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    - A solid rocket booster is maneuvered into place for installation on the Boeing Delta 7326 rocket that will launch Deep Space 1 at Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station. Delta II rockets are medium capacity expendable launch vehicles derived from the Delta family of rockets built and launched since 1960. Since then there have been more than 245 Delta launches. Delta's origins go back to the Thor intermediate-range ballistic missile, which was developed in the mid-1950s for the U.S. Air Force. The Thor -- a single-stage, liquid-fueled rocket -- later was modified to become the Delta launch vehicle. The Delta 7236 has three solid rocket boosters and a Star 37 upper stage. Delta IIs are manufactured in Huntington Beach, Calif. Rocketdyne, a division of The Boeing Company, builds Delta II's main engine in Canoga Park, Calif. Final assembly takes place at the Boeing facility in Pueblo, Colo. Deep Space 1, the first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. Onboard experiments include an ion propulsion engine and software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but may also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999.

  14. Delta II rocket prepared for launch of Deep Space 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    (Left) A solid rocket booster is lifted for installation onto the Boeing Delta 7326 rocket that will launch Deep Space 1 at Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station. Delta II rockets are medium capacity expendable launch vehicles derived from the Delta family of rockets built and launched since 1960. Since then there have been more than 245 Delta launches. Delta's origins go back to the Thor intermediate-range ballistic missile, which was developed in the mid-1950s for the U.S. Air Force. The Thor -- a single-stage, liquid-fueled rocket -- later was modified to become the Delta launch vehicle. The Delta 7236 has three solid rocket boosters and a Star 37 upper stage. Delta IIs are manufactured in Huntington Beach, Calif. Rocketdyne, a division of The Boeing Company, builds Delta II's main engine in Canoga Park, Calif. Final assembly takes place at the Boeing facility in Pueblo, Colo. Deep Space 1, the first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. Onboard experiments include an ion propulsion engine and software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but may also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999.

  15. Delta II rocket prepared for launch of Deep Space 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A solid rocket booster (left) is raised for installation onto the Boeing Delta 7326 rocket that will launch Deep Space 1 at Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station. Delta II rockets are medium capacity expendable launch vehicles derived from the Delta family of rockets built and launched since 1960. Since then there have been more than 245 Delta launches. Delta's origins go back to the Thor intermediate-range ballistic missile, which was developed in the mid-1950s for the U.S. Air Force. The Thor -- a single-stage, liquid-fueled rocket -- later was modified to become the Delta launch vehicle. The Delta 7236 has three solid rocket boosters and a Star 37 upper stage. Delta IIs are manufactured in Huntington Beach, Calif. Rocketdyne, a division of The Boeing Company, builds Delta II's main engine in Canoga Park, Calif. Final assembly takes place at the Boeing facility in Pueblo, Colo. Deep Space 1, the first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. Onboard experiments include an ion propulsion engine and software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but may also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999.

  16. Deep Space 1 moves to CCAS for testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Workers at this clean room facility, Cape Canaveral Air Station, prepare to lift the protective can that covered Deep Space 1 during transportation from KSC. The spacecraft will undergo spin testing at the site. Deep Space 1, the first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. Onboard experiments include a solar-powered ion propulsion engine and software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. The ion propulsion engine is the first non-chemical propulsion to be used as the primary means of propelling a spacecraft. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but may also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999. The spacecraft will be launched aboard a Boeing Delta 7326 rocket from Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, in October. Delta II rockets are medium capacity expendable launch vehicles derived from the Delta family of rockets built and launched since 1960. Since then there have been more than 245 Delta launches.

  17. Deep Space 1 is prepared for spin test at CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    KSC workers give a final check to Deep Space 1 before starting a spin test on the spacecraft at the Defense Satellite Communications System Processing Facility (DPF), Cape Canaveral Air Station. The first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, Deep Space 1 is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. Onboard experiments include a solar-powered ion propulsion engine and software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. The ion propulsion engine is the first non-chemical propulsion to be used as the primary means of propelling a spacecraft. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but may also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999. The spacecraft will be launched aboard a Boeing Delta 7326 rocket from Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, in October. Delta II rockets are medium capacity expendable launch vehicles derived from the Delta family of rockets built and launched since 1960. Since then there have been more than 245 Delta launches.

  18. Deep Space 1 is prepared for spin test at CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    KSC workers prepare Deep Space 1 for a spin test on the E6R Spin Balance Machine at the Defense Satellite Communications System Processing Facility (DPF), Cape Canaveral Air Station. The first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, Deep Space 1 is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. Onboard experiments include a solar-powered ion propulsion engine and software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. The ion propulsion engine is the first non-chemical propulsion to be used as the primary means of propelling a spacecraft. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but may also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999. The spacecraft will be launched aboard a Boeing Delta 7326 rocket from Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, in October. Delta II rockets are medium capacity expendable launch vehicles derived from the Delta family of rockets built and launched since 1960. Since then there have been more than 245 Delta launches.

  19. Deep Space 1 moves to CCAS for testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    KSC workers lower the 'can' over Deep Space 1. The can will protect the spacecraft during transport to the Defense Satellite Communications System Processing Facility (DPF), Cape Canaveral Air Station, for testing. The first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, Deep Space 1 is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. Onboard experiments include a solar-powered ion propulsion engine and software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. The ion propulsion engine is the first non- chemical propulsion to be used as the primary means of propelling a spacecraft. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but may also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999. The spacecraft will be launched aboard a Boeing Delta 7326 rocket from Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, in October. Delta II rockets are medium capacity expendable launch vehicles derived from the Delta family of rockets built and launched since 1960. Since then there have been more than 245 Delta launches.

  20. Delta II rocket prepared for launch of Deep Space 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A booster is lifted for installation onto the Boeing Delta 7326 rocket that will launch Deep Space 1 at Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station. Delta II rockets are medium capacity expendable launch vehicles derived from the Delta family of rockets built and launched since 1960. Since then there have been more than 245 Delta launches. The Delta 7236 has three solid rocket boosters and a Star 37 upper stage. Delta IIs are manufactured in Huntington Beach, Calif. Rocketdyne, a division of The Boeing Company, builds Delta II's main engine in Canoga Park, Calif. Deep Space 1, the first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. Onboard experiments include an ion propulsion engine and software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but may also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999.

  1. Delta II rocket prepared for launch of Deep Space 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A booster is raised off a truck bed and prepared for lifting to the Boeing Delta 7326 rocket that will launch Deep Space 1 at Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station. Delta II rockets are medium capacity expendable launch vehicles derived from the Delta family of rockets built and launched since 1960. Since then there have been more than 245 Delta launches. The Delta 7236 has three solid rocket boosters and a Star 37 upper stage. Delta IIs are manufactured in Huntington Beach, Calif. Rocketdyne, a division of The Boeing Company, builds Delta II's main engine in Canoga Park, Calif. Deep Space 1, the first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. Onboard experiments include an ion propulsion engine and software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but may also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999.

  2. Delta II rocket prepared for launch of Deep Space 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A booster is lifted off a truck for installation onto the Boeing Delta 7326 rocket that will launch Deep Space 1 at Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station. Delta II rockets are medium capacity expendable launch vehicles derived from the Delta family of rockets built and launched since 1960. Since then there have been more than 245 Delta launches. The Delta 7236 has three solid rocket boosters and a Star 37 upper stage. Delta IIs are manufactured in Huntington Beach, Calif. Rocketdyne, a division of The Boeing Company, builds Delta II's main engine in Canoga Park, Calif. Deep Space 1, the first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. Onboard experiments include an ion propulsion engine and software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but may also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999.

  3. Deep Space Habitat Concept of Operations for Transit Mission Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has begun evaluating various mission and system components of possible implementations of what the U.S. Human Spaceflight Plans Committee (also known as the Augustine Committee) has named the flexible path (Anon., 2009). As human spaceflight missions expand further into deep space, the duration of these missions increases to the point where a dedicated crew habitat element appears necessary. There are several destinations included in this flexible path a near Earth asteroid (NEA) mission, a Phobos/Deimos (Ph/D) mission, and a Mars surface exploration mission that all include at least a portion of the total mission in which the crew spends significant periods of time (measured in months) in the deep space environment and are thus candidates for a dedicated habitat element. As one facet of a number of studies being conducted by the Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) a workshop was conducted to consider how best to define and quantify habitable volume for these future deep space missions. One conclusion reached during this workshop was the need for a description of the scope and scale of these missions and the intended uses of a habitat element. A group was set up to prepare a concept of operations document to address this need. This document describes a concept of operations for a habitat element used for these deep space missions. Although it may eventually be determined that there is significant overlap with this concept of operations and that of a habitat destined for use on planetary surfaces, such as the Moon and Mars, no such presumption is made in this document.

  4. Planning for Crew Exercise for Future Deep Space Mission Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Cherice; Ryder, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Providing the necessary exercise capability to protect crew health for deep space missions will bring new sets of engineering and research challenges. Exercise has been found to be a necessary mitigation for maintaining crew health on-orbit and preparing the crew for return to earth's gravity. Health and exercise data from Apollo, Space Lab, Shuttle, and International Space Station missions have provided insight into crew deconditioning and the types of activities that can minimize the impacts of microgravity on the physiological systems. The hardware systems required to implement exercise can be challenging to incorporate into spaceflight vehicles. Exercise system design requires encompassing the hardware required to provide mission specific anthropometrical movement ranges, desired loads, and frequencies of desired movements as well as the supporting control and monitoring systems, crew and vehicle interfaces, and vibration isolation and stabilization subsystems. The number of crew and operational constraints also contribute to defining the what exercise systems will be needed. All of these features require flight vehicle mass and volume integrated with multiple vehicle systems. The International Space Station exercise hardware requires over 1,800 kg of equipment and over 24 m3 of volume for hardware and crew operational space. Improvements towards providing equivalent or better capabilities with a smaller vehicle impact will facilitate future deep space missions. Deep space missions will require more understanding of the physiological responses to microgravity, understanding appropriate mitigations, designing the exercise systems to provide needed mitigations, and integrating effectively into vehicle design with a focus to support planned mission scenarios. Recognizing and addressing the constraints and challenges can facilitate improved vehicle design and exercise system incorporation.

  5. Learning document semantic representation with hybrid deep belief network.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yan; Yin, Xu-Cheng; Li, Sujian; Yang, Mingyuan; Hao, Hong-Wei

    2015-01-01

    High-level abstraction, for example, semantic representation, is vital for document classification and retrieval. However, how to learn document semantic representation is still a topic open for discussion in information retrieval and natural language processing. In this paper, we propose a new Hybrid Deep Belief Network (HDBN) which uses Deep Boltzmann Machine (DBM) on the lower layers together with Deep Belief Network (DBN) on the upper layers. The advantage of DBM is that it employs undirected connection when training weight parameters which can be used to sample the states of nodes on each layer more successfully and it is also an effective way to remove noise from the different document representation type; the DBN can enhance extract abstract of the document in depth, making the model learn sufficient semantic representation. At the same time, we explore different input strategies for semantic distributed representation. Experimental results show that our model using the word embedding instead of single word has better performance. PMID:25878657

  6. Learning Document Semantic Representation with Hybrid Deep Belief Network

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yan; Yin, Xu-Cheng; Li, Sujian; Yang, Mingyuan; Hao, Hong-Wei

    2015-01-01

    High-level abstraction, for example, semantic representation, is vital for document classification and retrieval. However, how to learn document semantic representation is still a topic open for discussion in information retrieval and natural language processing. In this paper, we propose a new Hybrid Deep Belief Network (HDBN) which uses Deep Boltzmann Machine (DBM) on the lower layers together with Deep Belief Network (DBN) on the upper layers. The advantage of DBM is that it employs undirected connection when training weight parameters which can be used to sample the states of nodes on each layer more successfully and it is also an effective way to remove noise from the different document representation type; the DBN can enhance extract abstract of the document in depth, making the model learn sufficient semantic representation. At the same time, we explore different input strategies for semantic distributed representation. Experimental results show that our model using the word embedding instead of single word has better performance. PMID:25878657

  7. Exploring many-body physics with deep networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torlai, Giacomo; Carrasquilla, Juan; Schwab, David; Melko, Roger

    The introduction of neural networks with deep architecture has led to a revolution, giving rise to a new wave of technologies empowering our modern society. Although data science has been the main focus, the idea of generic algorithms which automatically extract features and representations from raw data is quite general and applicable in multiple scenarios. Motivated by the effectiveness of deep learning algorithms in revealing complex patterns and structures underlying data, we are interested in exploiting such tool in the context of many-body physics. In this talk we will focus on how to extract information about the physics of a many-body system from the generative training of a deep network, and ultimately consider discriminative tasks, such as phase diagrams estimation and critical points detection. We will discuss results for different classical spin systems, including models with quenched disorder.

  8. Deep Dynamic Neural Networks for Multimodal Gesture Segmentation and Recognition.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Pigou, Lionel; Kindermans, Pieter-Jan; Le, Nam Do-Hoang; Shao, Ling; Dambre, Joni; Odobez, Jean-Marc

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes a novel method called Deep Dynamic Neural Networks (DDNN) for multimodal gesture recognition. A semi-supervised hierarchical dynamic framework based on a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is proposed for simultaneous gesture segmentation and recognition where skeleton joint information, depth and RGB images, are the multimodal input observations. Unlike most traditional approaches that rely on the construction of complex handcrafted features, our approach learns high-level spatio-temporal representations using deep neural networks suited to the input modality: a Gaussian-Bernouilli Deep Belief Network (DBN) to handle skeletal dynamics, and a 3D Convolutional Neural Network (3DCNN) to manage and fuse batches of depth and RGB images. This is achieved through the modeling and learning of the emission probabilities of the HMM required to infer the gesture sequence. This purely data driven approach achieves a Jaccard index score of 0.81 in the ChaLearn LAP gesture spotting challenge. The performance is on par with a variety of state-of-the-art hand-tuned feature-based approaches and other learning-based methods, therefore opening the door to the use of deep learning techniques in order to further explore multimodal time series data. PMID:26955020

  9. Potential Uses of Deep Space Cooling for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joseph; Sweterlitsch, Jeff; Swickrath, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all exploration missions envisioned by NASA provide the capability to view deep space and thus to reject heat to a very low temperature environment. Environmental sink temperatures approach as low as 4 Kelvin providing a natural capability to support separation and heat rejection processes that would otherwise be power and hardware intensive in terrestrial applications. For example, radiative heat transfer can be harnessed to cryogenically remove atmospheric contaminants such as carbon dioxide (CO2). Long duration differential temperatures on sunlit versus shadowed sides of the vehicle could be used to drive thermoelectric power generation. Rejection of heat from cryogenic propellant could avoid temperature increase thus avoiding the need to vent propellants. These potential uses of deep space cooling will be addressed in this paper with the benefits and practical considerations of such approaches.

  10. Orbiting Deep Space Relay Station (ODSRS). Volume 1: Requirement determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    The deep space communications requirements of the post-1985 time frame are described and the orbiting deep space relay station (ODSRS) is presented as an option for meeting these requirements. Under current conditions, the ODSRS is not yet cost competitive with Earth based stations to increase DSN telemetry performance, but has significant advantages over a ground station, and these are sufficient to maintain it as a future option. These advantages include: the ability to track a spacecraft 24 hours per day with ground stations located only in the USA; the ability to operate at higher frequencies that would be attenuated by Earth's atmosphere; and the potential for building very large structures without the constraints of Earth's gravity.

  11. Potential Uses of Deep Space Cooling for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe; Sweterlitsch, Jeff; Swickrath, Micahel J.

    2012-01-01

    Nearly all exploration missions envisioned by NASA provide the capability to view deep space and thus to reject heat to a very low temperature environment. Environmental sink temperatures approach as low as 4 Kelvin providing a natural capability to support separation and heat rejection processes that would otherwise be power and hardware intensive in terrestrial applications. For example, radiative heat transfer can be harnessed to cryogenically remove atmospheric contaminants such as carbon dioxide (CO2). Long duration differential temperatures on sunlit versus shadowed sides of the vehicle could be used to drive thermoelectric power generation. Rejection of heat from cryogenic propellant could counter temperature increases thus avoiding the need to vent propellants. These potential uses of deep space cooling will be addressed in this paper with the benefits and practical considerations of such approaches.

  12. Photon counting detector array algorithms for deep space optical communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Meera; Andrews, Kenneth S.; Farr, William H.; Wong, Andre

    2016-03-01

    For deep-space optical communications systems utilizing an uplink optical beacon, a single-photon-counting detector array on the flight terminal can be used to simultaneously perform uplink tracking and communications as well as accurate downlink pointing at photon-starved (pW=m2) power levels. In this paper, we discuss concepts and algorithms for uplink signal acquisition, tracking, and parameter estimation using a photon-counting camera. Statistical models of detector output data and signal processing algorithms are presented, incorporating realistic effects such as Earth background and detector/readout blocking. Analysis and simulation results are validated against measured laboratory data using state-of-the-art commercial photon-counting detector arrays, demonstrating sub-microradian tracking errors under channel conditions representative of deep space optical links.

  13. Space-Based Voice over IP Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Sam P.; Okino, Clayton; Walsh, William; Clare, Loren

    2007-01-01

    In human space exploration missions (e.g. a return to the Moon and for future missions to Mars), there will be a need to provide voice communications services. In this work we focus on the performance of Voice over IP (VoIP) techniques applied to space networks, where long range latencies, simplex links, and significant bit error rates occur. Link layer and network layer overhead issues are examined. Finally, we provide some discussion on issues related to voice conferencing in the space network environment.

  14. Neurobiological problems in long-term deep space flights.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, M E

    1998-01-01

    Future missions in space may involve long-term travel beyond the magnetic field of the Earth, subjecting astronauts to radiation hazards posed by solar flares and galactic cosmic rays, altered gravitation fields and physiological stress. Thus, it is critical to determine if there will be any reversible or irreversible, detrimental neurological effects from this prolonged exposure to space. A question of particular importance focuses on the long-term effects of the space environment on the central nervous system (CNS) neuroplasticity, with the potential acute and/or delayed effects that such perturbations might entail. Although the short-term effects of microgravity on neural control were studied on previous low earth orbit missions, the late consequences of stress in space, microgravity and space radiation have not been addressed sufficiently at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels. The possibility that space flight factors can interact influencing the neuroplastic response in the CNS looms critical issue not only to understand the ontogeny of the CNS and its functional integrity, but also, ultimately the performance of astronauts in extended space forays. The purpose of this paper is to review the neurobiological modifications that occur in the CNS exposed to the space environment, and its potential consequences for extended deep space flight. PMID:11541395

  15. Advanced Solid State Lighting for AES Deep Space Hab Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holbert, Eirik

    2015-01-01

    The advanced Solid State Lighting (SSL) assemblies augmented 2nd generation modules under development for the Advanced Exploration Systems Deep Space Habitat in using color therapy to synchronize crew circadian rhythms. Current RGB LED technology does not produce sufficient brightness to adequately address general lighting in addition to color therapy. The intent is to address both through a mix of white and RGB LEDs designing for fully addressable alertness/relaxation levels as well as more dramatic circadian shifts.

  16. Energy consumption analysis for the Mars deep space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, N. V.

    1982-01-01

    Results for the energy consumption analysis at the Mars deep space station are presented. It is shown that the major energy consumers are the 64-Meter antenna building and the operations support building. Verification of the antenna's energy consumption is highly dependent on an accurate knowlege of the tracking operations. The importance of a regular maintenance schedule for the watt hour meters installed at the station is indicated.

  17. Planning for Crew Exercise for Deep Space Mission Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, E. Cherice; Ryder, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Exercise which is necessary for maintaining crew health on-orbit and preparing the crew for return to 1G can be challenging to incorporate into spaceflight vehicles. Deep space missions will require further understanding of the physiological response to microgravity, understanding appropriate mitigations, and designing the exercise systems to effectively provide mitigations, and integrating effectively into vehicle design with a focus to support planned mission scenarios. Recognizing and addressing the constraints and challenges can facilitate improved vehicle design and exercise system incorporation.

  18. Intrusion Detection System Using Deep Neural Network for In-Vehicle Network Security.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Joo; Kang, Je-Won

    2016-01-01

    A novel intrusion detection system (IDS) using a deep neural network (DNN) is proposed to enhance the security of in-vehicular network. The parameters building the DNN structure are trained with probability-based feature vectors that are extracted from the in-vehicular network packets. For a given packet, the DNN provides the probability of each class discriminating normal and attack packets, and, thus the sensor can identify any malicious attack to the vehicle. As compared to the traditional artificial neural network applied to the IDS, the proposed technique adopts recent advances in deep learning studies such as initializing the parameters through the unsupervised pre-training of deep belief networks (DBN), therefore improving the detection accuracy. It is demonstrated with experimental results that the proposed technique can provide a real-time response to the attack with a significantly improved detection ratio in controller area network (CAN) bus. PMID:27271802

  19. Intrusion Detection System Using Deep Neural Network for In-Vehicle Network Security

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min-Joo

    2016-01-01

    A novel intrusion detection system (IDS) using a deep neural network (DNN) is proposed to enhance the security of in-vehicular network. The parameters building the DNN structure are trained with probability-based feature vectors that are extracted from the in-vehicular network packets. For a given packet, the DNN provides the probability of each class discriminating normal and attack packets, and, thus the sensor can identify any malicious attack to the vehicle. As compared to the traditional artificial neural network applied to the IDS, the proposed technique adopts recent advances in deep learning studies such as initializing the parameters through the unsupervised pre-training of deep belief networks (DBN), therefore improving the detection accuracy. It is demonstrated with experimental results that the proposed technique can provide a real-time response to the attack with a significantly improved detection ratio in controller area network (CAN) bus. PMID:27271802

  20. The UK Space & Planetary Robotics Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellery, A.; Barnes, D.; Buckland, R.; Welch, C.; Garry, J.; Zarnecki, J.; Gebbie, J.; Green, A.; Smith, M.; Hall, D.; McInnes, C.; Winfield, A.; Nehmzhow, U.; Ball, A.

    A number of academic engineering research groups around the UK have become increasingly interested in the applications of robotics or robotics techniques to solving problems in space engineering. Although these groups have sprung up independently and have worked in essentially independent areas, they are seeking to form themselves into a network offering a diverse range of expertise within the UK with the capability of developing complete space robotic systems. Space robotics is an area in which the UK has dabbled in the past, but for the first time, the UK offers a solid base of expertise in mobile robotics and associated space engineering which would enable the UK to contribute to European space robotics projects funded by ESA and/ or national agencies. To that end, following the inaugural meeting of the Space & Planetary Robotics Network, an extended group of interested parties will be putting forward an application to EPSRC for Network funding.

  1. Space Suit Technologies Protect Deep-Sea Divers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Working on NASA missions allows engineers and scientists to hone their skills. Creating devices for the high-stress rigors of space travel pushes designers to their limits, and the results often far exceed the original concepts. The technologies developed for the extreme environment of space are often applicable here on Earth. Some of these NASA technologies, for example, have been applied to the breathing apparatuses worn by firefighters, the fire-resistant suits worn by racecar crews, and, most recently, the deep-sea gear worn by U.S. Navy divers.

  2. Constrained Coding for the Deep-Space Optical Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moision, B.; Hamkins, J.

    2002-01-01

    We investigate methods of coding for a channel subject to a large dead-time constraint, i.e., a constraint on the minimum spacing between transmitted pulses, with the deep-space optical channel as the motivating example. Several constrained codes designed to satisfy the dead-time constraint are considered and compared on the basis of throughput, complexity, and decoded error rate. The performance of an iteratively decoded serial concatenation of a constrained code with an outer code is evaluated and shown to provide significant gains over a Reed-Solomon code concatenated with pulse-position modulation.

  3. Constrained coding for the deep-space optical channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon

    2002-04-01

    We investigate methods of coding for a channel subject to a large dead-time constraint, i.e., a constraint on the minimum spacing between transmitted pulses, with the deep-space optical channel as the motivating example. Several constrained codes designed to satisfy the dead-time constraint are considered and compared on the basis of throughput, complexity, and decoded error-rate. The performance of an iteratively decoded serial concatenation of a modulation code with an outer code is evaluated and shown to provide significant gains over Reed-Solomon concatenated with Pulse Position Modulation.

  4. Pointing and Tracking Concepts for Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, J. W.; Lee, S.; Chen, C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes part of a FY1998 effort on the design and development of an optical communications (Opcomm) subsystem for the Advanced Deep Space System Development (ADSSD) Project. This study was funded by the JPL X2000 program to develop an optical communications (Opcomm) subsystem for use in future planetary missions. The goal of this development effort was aimed at providing prototype hardware with the capability of performing uplink, downlink, and ranging functions from deep space distances. Such a system was envisioned to support future deep space missions in the Outer Planets/Solar Probe (OPSP) mission set such as the Pluto express and Europa orbiter by providing a significant enhancement of data return capability. A study effort was initiated to develop a flyable engineering model optical terminal to support the proposed Europa Orbiter mission - as either the prime telecom subsystem or for mission augmentation. The design concept was to extend the prototype lasercom terminal development effort currently conducted by JPL's Optical Communications Group. The subsystem would track the sun illuminated Earth at Europa and farther distances for pointing reference. During the course of the study, a number of challenging issues were found. These included thermo-mechanical distortion, straylight control, and pointing. This paper focuses on the pointing aspects required to locate and direct a laser beam from a spacecraft (S/C) near Jupiter to a receiving station on Earth.

  5. NASA light emitting diode medical applications from deep space to deep sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelan, Harry T.; Buchmann, Ellen V.; Whelan, Noel T.; Turner, Scott G.; Cevenini, Vita; Stinson, Helen; Ignatius, Ron; Martin, Todd; Cwiklinski, Joan; Meyer, Glenn A.; Hodgson, Brian; Gould, Lisa; Kane, Mary; Chen, Gina; Caviness, James

    2001-02-01

    This work is supported and managed through the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center-SBIR Program. LED-technology developed for NASA plant growth experiments in space shows promise for delivering light deep into tissues of the body to promote wound healing and human tissue growth. We present the results of LED-treatment of cells grown in culture and the effects of LEDs on patients' chronic and acute wounds. LED-technology is also biologically optimal for photodynamic therapy of cancer and we discuss our successes using LEDs in conjunction with light-activated chemotherapeutic drugs. .

  6. Small Satellite Access of the Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horan, Stephen; Minnix, Timothy O.; Vigil, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    Small satellites have been perceived as having limited access to NASA's Space Network (SN). The potential for satellite access of the space network when the design utilizes a fixed antenna configuration and low-power, coded transmission is analyzed. From the analysis, satellites using this configuration in high-inclination orbits are shown to have a daily data throughput in the 100 to 1000 Mbit range using the multiple access communications service.

  7. Canberra Deep Dish Communications Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    View of Canberra 70m (230 ft.) antenna with flags from the three Deep Space Network sites. The Canberra Deep Space Communications Complex, located outside Canberra, Australia, is one of the three complexes which comprise NASA's Deep Space Network. The other complexes are located in Goldstone, California, and Madrid, Spain.

  8. Supercomputer networking for space science applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, B. I.

    1992-01-01

    The initial design of a supercomputer network topology including the design of the communications nodes along with the communications interface hardware and software is covered. Several space science applications that are proposed experiments by GSFC and JPL for a supercomputer network using the NASA ACTS satellite are also reported.

  9. Kennedy Space Center network documentation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohne, William E.; Schuerger, Charles L.

    1995-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center Network Documentation System (KSC NDS) is being designed and implemented by NASA and the KSC contractor organizations to provide a means of network tracking, configuration, and control. Currently, a variety of host and client platforms are in use as a result of each organization having established its own network documentation system. The solution is to incorporate as many existing 'systems' as possible in the effort to consolidate and standardize KSC-wide documentation.

  10. Deep Learning and Developmental Learning: Emergence of Fine-to-Coarse Conceptual Categories at Layers of Deep Belief Network.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Zahra

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, I investigate conceptual categories derived from developmental processing in a deep neural network. The similarity matrices of deep representation at each layer of neural network are computed and compared with their raw representation. While the clusters generated by raw representation stand at the basic level of abstraction, conceptual categories obtained from deep representation shows a bottom-up transition procedure. Results demonstrate a developmental course of learning from specific to general level of abstraction through learned layers of representations in a deep belief network. PMID:27251165

  11. Mixed Integer Programming and Heuristic Scheduling for Space Communication Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Kar-Ming; Lee, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    We developed framework and the mathematical formulation for optimizing communication network using mixed integer programming. The design yields a system that is much smaller, in search space size, when compared to the earlier approach. Our constrained network optimization takes into account the dynamics of link performance within the network along with mission and operation requirements. A unique penalty function is introduced to transform the mixed integer programming into the more manageable problem of searching in a continuous space. The constrained optimization problem was proposed to solve in two stages: first using the heuristic Particle Swarming Optimization algorithm to get a good initial starting point, and then feeding the result into the Sequential Quadratic Programming algorithm to achieve the final optimal schedule. We demonstrate the above planning and scheduling methodology with a scenario of 20 spacecraft and 3 ground stations of a Deep Space Network site. Our approach and framework have been simple and flexible so that problems with larger number of constraints and network can be easily adapted and solved.

  12. DEEP-South: Network Construction, Test Runs and Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Hong-Kyu; Kim, Myung-Jin; Yim, Hong-Suh; Choi, Young-Jun; Bae, Young-Ho; Roh, Dong-Goo; Park, Jintae; Moon, Bora

    2016-01-01

    Korea Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet) which consists of three identical 1.6 m wide-field telescopes with 18k × 18k CCDs, is the first optical survey system of its kind. The combination of fast optics and the mosaic CCD delivers seeing limited images over a 4 square degrees field of view. The main science goal of KMTNet is the discovery and characterization of exoplanets, yet it also offers various other science applications including DEep Ecliptic Patrol of SOUTHern sky (DEEP-South). The aim of DEEP-South is to discover and characterize asteroids and comets, including Near Earth Objects (NEOs). We started test runs last February after commissioning, and will return to normal operations in October 2015. A summary of early results from the test runs will be presented.

  13. A vehicle detection algorithm based on deep belief network.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai; Cai, Yingfeng; Chen, Long

    2014-01-01

    Vision based vehicle detection is a critical technology that plays an important role in not only vehicle active safety but also road video surveillance application. Traditional shallow model based vehicle detection algorithm still cannot meet the requirement of accurate vehicle detection in these applications. In this work, a novel deep learning based vehicle detection algorithm with 2D deep belief network (2D-DBN) is proposed. In the algorithm, the proposed 2D-DBN architecture uses second-order planes instead of first-order vector as input and uses bilinear projection for retaining discriminative information so as to determine the size of the deep architecture which enhances the success rate of vehicle detection. On-road experimental results demonstrate that the algorithm performs better than state-of-the-art vehicle detection algorithm in testing data sets. PMID:24959617

  14. Positioning Reduction of Deep Space Probes Based on VLBI Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, S. B.

    2011-11-01

    ) Investigate the application of Kalman filter to the positioning reduction of deep space probes and develop related software systems. In summary, the progress in this dissertation is made in the positioning reduction of deep space probes tracked by VLBI concerning the algorithm study, software development, real observation processing and so on, while a further study is still urgent and arduous.

  15. Measuring photometric redshifts using galaxy images and Deep Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, B.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a new method to estimate the photometric redshift of galaxies by using the full galaxy image in each measured band. This method draws from the latest techniques and advances in machine learning, in particular Deep Neural Networks. We pass the entire multi-band galaxy image into the machine learning architecture to obtain a redshift estimate that is competitive, in terms of the measured point prediction metrics, with the best existing standard machine learning techniques. The standard techniques estimate redshifts using post-processed features, such as magnitudes and colours, which are extracted from the galaxy images and are deemed to be salient by the user. This new method removes the user from the photometric redshift estimation pipeline. However we do note that Deep Neural Networks require many orders of magnitude more computing resources than standard machine learning architectures, and as such are only tractable for making predictions on datasets of size ≤50k before implementing parallelisation techniques.

  16. A Multiobjective Sparse Feature Learning Model for Deep Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Gong, Maoguo; Liu, Jia; Li, Hao; Cai, Qing; Su, Linzhi

    2015-12-01

    Hierarchical deep neural networks are currently popular learning models for imitating the hierarchical architecture of human brain. Single-layer feature extractors are the bricks to build deep networks. Sparse feature learning models are popular models that can learn useful representations. But most of those models need a user-defined constant to control the sparsity of representations. In this paper, we propose a multiobjective sparse feature learning model based on the autoencoder. The parameters of the model are learnt by optimizing two objectives, reconstruction error and the sparsity of hidden units simultaneously to find a reasonable compromise between them automatically. We design a multiobjective induced learning procedure for this model based on a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm. In the experiments, we demonstrate that the learning procedure is effective, and the proposed multiobjective model can learn useful sparse features. PMID:26340790

  17. Delta II rocket prepared for launch of Deep Space 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A Boeing Delta 7326 rocket with two solid rocket boosters attached sits on Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station. Delta II rockets are medium capacity expendable launch vehicles derived from the Delta family of rockets built and launched since 1960. Since then there have been more than 245 Delta launches. Delta's origins go back to the Thor intermediate-range ballistic missile, which was developed in the mid-1950s for the U.S. Air Force. The Thor -- a single-stage, liquid-fueled rocket -- later was modified to become the Delta launch vehicle. Delta IIs are manufactured in Huntington Beach, Calif. Rocketdyne, a division of The Boeing Company, builds Delta II's main engine in Canoga Park, Calif. Final assembly takes place at the Boeing facility in Pueblo, Colo. The Delta 7236, which has three solid rocket boosters and a Star 37 upper stage, will launch Deep Space 1, the first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program. It is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. Onboard experiments include an ion propulsion engine and software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but may also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999.

  18. Implementation of the 64-meter-diameter Antennas at the Deep Space Stations in Australia and Spain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartos, K. P.; Bell, H. B.; Phillips, H. P.; Sweetser, B. M.; Rotach, O. A.

    1975-01-01

    The management and construction aspects of the Overseas 64-m Antenna Project in which two 64-m antennas were constructed at the Tidbinbilla Deep Space Communications Complex in Australia, and at the Madrid Deep Space Communications Complex in Spain are described. With the completion of these antennas the Deep Space Network is equipped with three 64-m antennas spaced around the world to maintain continuous coverage of spacecraft operations. These antennas provide approximately a 7-db gain over the capabilities of the existing 26-m antenna nets. The report outlines the project organization and management, resource utilization, fabrication, quality assurance, and construction methods by which the project was successfully completed. Major problems and their solutions are described as well as recommendations for future projects.

  19. Site-directed deep electronic tunneling through a molecular network

    SciTech Connect

    Caspary, Maytal; Peskin, Uri

    2005-10-15

    Electronic tunneling in a complex molecular network of N(>2) donor/acceptor sites, connected by molecular bridges, is analyzed. The 'deep' tunneling dynamics is formulated using a recursive perturbation expansion, yielding a McConnell-type reduced N-level model Hamiltonian. Applications to models of molecular junctions demonstrate that the donor-bridge contact parameters can be tuned in order to control the tunneling dynamics and particularly to direct the tunneling pathway to either one of the various acceptors.

  20. Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Data Using Deep Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Y.; Gao, X.; Sorooshian, S.

    2014-12-01

    This research develops a precipitation estimation system from remotely-sensed observations using state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms. Compared to ground-based precipitation measurements, satellite-based precipitation estimation products have advantages of temporal resolution and spatial coverage. Also, the massive amount of satellite data contains various measures related to precipitation formation and development. On the other hand, deep learning algorithms were newly developed in the area of machine learning, which was a breakthrough to deal with large and complex dataset, especially to image data. Here, we attempts to engage deep learning techniques to provide hourly precipitation estimation from long wave infrared data from operational geostationary weather satellites. The brightness temperature data from infrared data is considered to contain cloud information. Radar stage IV dataset is used as ground measurement for parameter calibration. Denoising stacked auto-encoders (DSAE) is applied here to build a 4-layer neural network with 1000 hidden nodes for each layer. DSAE involves two major steps: (1) greedily pre-training each layer as an auto-encoder using the outputs of previous trained hidden layer output starting from visible layer to initialize parameters; (2) fine-tuning the whole deep neural network with supervised criteria. Rain/No-rain classification is dealt as the first step of precipitation estimation in this research. Our experiments show that deep neural networks outperform the classic approach originally used in developing the PERSIANN-CCS (Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks Cloud Classification System). In an experiment over a 3-month summer period focusing on the central U.S with hourly data, the proposed approach's Probability of Detection (POD) increased to 0.433 as compared to PERSIANN-CCS value of 0.403 and decreased the False Alarm Ratio (FAR) to 0.606 as compared to 0

  1. Deep space communications, weather effects, and error control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, Edward C.

    1989-01-01

    Deep space telemetry is and will remain signal-to-noise limited and vulnerable to interference. A need exists to increase received signal power and decrease noise. This includes going to Ka-band in the mid-1990's to increase directivity. The effects of a wet atmosphere can increase the noise temperature by a factor of 5 or more, even at X-band, but the order of magnitude increase in average data rate obtainable at Ka-band relative to X-band makes the increased uncertainty a good trade. Lowbit error probabilities required by data compression are available both theoretically and practically with coding, at an infinitesimal power penalty rather than the 10 to 15 dB more power required to reduce error probabilities without coding. Advances are coming rapidly in coding, as with the new constraint-length 15 rate 1/4 convolutional code concatenated with the already existing Reed-Solomon code to be demonstrated on Galileo. In addition, high density spacecraft data storage will allow selective retransmissions, even from the edge of the Solar System, to overcome weather effects. In general, deep space communication was able to operate, and will continue to operate, closer to theoretical limits than any other form of communication. These include limits in antenna area and directivity, system noise temperature, coding efficiency, and everything else. The deep space communication links of the mid-90's and beyond will be compatible with new instruments and compression algorithms and represent a sensible investment in an overall end-to-end information system design.

  2. Cough event classification by pretrained deep neural network

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Cough is an essential symptom in respiratory diseases. In the measurement of cough severity, an accurate and objective cough monitor is expected by respiratory disease society. This paper aims to introduce a better performed algorithm, pretrained deep neural network (DNN), to the cough classification problem, which is a key step in the cough monitor. Method The deep neural network models are built from two steps, pretrain and fine-tuning, followed by a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) decoder to capture tamporal information of the audio signals. By unsupervised pretraining a deep belief network, a good initialization for a deep neural network is learned. Then the fine-tuning step is a back propogation tuning the neural network so that it can predict the observation probability associated with each HMM states, where the HMM states are originally achieved by force-alignment with a Gaussian Mixture Model Hidden Markov Model (GMM-HMM) on the training samples. Three cough HMMs and one noncough HMM are employed to model coughs and noncoughs respectively. The final decision is made based on viterbi decoding algorihtm that generates the most likely HMM sequence for each sample. A sample is labeled as cough if a cough HMM is found in the sequence. Results The experiments were conducted on a dataset that was collected from 22 patients with respiratory diseases. Patient dependent (PD) and patient independent (PI) experimental settings were used to evaluate the models. Five criteria, sensitivity, specificity, F1, macro average and micro average are shown to depict different aspects of the models. From overall evaluation criteria, the DNN based methods are superior to traditional GMM-HMM based method on F1 and micro average with maximal 14% and 11% error reduction in PD and 7% and 10% in PI, meanwhile keep similar performances on macro average. They also surpass GMM-HMM model on specificity with maximal 14% error reduction on both PD and PI. Conclusions In this paper, we

  3. Estimation and tracking for deep-space optical communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Win, Moe Zaw

    1989-01-01

    The importance of pointing and tracking is demonstrated with current deep-space optical communications system concepts. Maximum-likelihood (ML), minimum square counting-error (MSCE), and maximum product (MP) estimation algorithms (or decision rules) are derived to estimate the location of the receiving station to subpixel resolution. Comparisons of the above algorithms are made, via Monte Carlo computer simulation, in terms of estimator's bias and variance. Optical communication link analyses are made for a typical earth-Mars scenario, to gain engineering insights. It is observed that both the ML rule and the MSCE rule perform better than the MP rule.

  4. Design and application of electromechanical actuators for deep space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskew, Tim A.; Wander, John

    1995-01-01

    This third semi-annual progress report covers the reporting period from August 16, 1994 through February 15, 1995 on NASA Grant NAG8-240, 'Design and Application of Electromechanical Actuators for Deep Space Missions'. There are two major report sections: Motor Control Status/Electrical Experiment Planning and Experiment Planning and Initial Results. The primary emphasis of our efforts during the reporting period has been final construction and testing of the laboratory facilities. As a result, this report is dedicated to that topic.

  5. Multiple deep convolutional neural networks averaging for face alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shaohua; Yang, Hua; Yin, Zhouping

    2015-05-01

    Face alignment is critical for face recognition, and the deep learning-based method shows promise for solving such issues, given that competitive results are achieved on benchmarks with additional benefits, such as dispensing with handcrafted features and initial shape. However, most existing deep learning-based approaches are complicated and quite time-consuming during training. We propose a compact face alignment method for fast training without decreasing its accuracy. Rectified linear unit is employed, which allows all networks approximately five times faster convergence than a tanh neuron. An eight learnable layer deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) based on local response normalization and a padding convolutional layer (PCL) is designed to provide reliable initial values during prediction. A model combination scheme is presented to further reduce errors, while showing that only two network architectures and hyperparameter selection procedures are required in our approach. A three-level cascaded system is ultimately built based on the DCNNs and model combination mode. Extensive experiments validate the effectiveness of our method and demonstrate comparable accuracy with state-of-the-art methods on BioID, labeled face parts in the wild, and Helen datasets.

  6. The Deep Impact Network Experiment Operations Center Monitor and Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Shin-Ywan (Cindy); Torgerson, J. Leigh; Schoolcraft, Joshua; Brenman, Yan

    2009-01-01

    The Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) software at JPL is an implementation of Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) which has been proposed as an interplanetary protocol to support space communication. The JPL Deep Impact Network (DINET) is a technology development experiment intended to increase the technical readiness of the JPL implemented ION suite. The DINET Experiment Operations Center (EOC) developed by JPL's Protocol Technology Lab (PTL) was critical in accomplishing the experiment. EOC, containing all end nodes of simulated spaces and one administrative node, exercised publish and subscribe functions for payload data among all end nodes to verify the effectiveness of data exchange over ION protocol stacks. A Monitor and Control System was created and installed on the administrative node as a multi-tiered internet-based Web application to support the Deep Impact Network Experiment by allowing monitoring and analysis of the data delivery and statistics from ION. This Monitor and Control System includes the capability of receiving protocol status messages, classifying and storing status messages into a database from the ION simulation network, and providing web interfaces for viewing the live results in addition to interactive database queries.

  7. A Situation Awareness Assistant for Human Deep Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boy, Guy A.; Platt, Donald

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the development and testing of a Virtual Camera (VC) system to improve astronaut and mission operations situation awareness while exploring other planetary bodies. In this embodiment, the VC is implemented using a tablet-based computer system to navigate through inter active database application. It is claimed that the advanced interaction media capability of the VC can improve situation awareness as the distribution of hu man space exploration roles change in deep space exploration. The VC is being developed and tested for usability and capability to improve situation awareness. Work completed thus far as well as what is needed to complete the project will be described. Planned testing will also be described.

  8. Link Characterization for Deep-Space Optical Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, H.; Heckman, D.; Breidenthal, J.

    2016-05-01

    We report the performance of candidate deep-space optical communication systems that would use a single optical ground station in conjunction with various space terminals. We considered three potential diameters of ground receive terminals (4μm, 8μm, and 12μm) and three potential ground transmit powers (1 kW, 5 kW, and 10 kW). Combinations of ground receive terminals, ground transmit terminals, and spacecraft terminals were assessed for data rate and data volume return, both uplink and downlink, and for uplink irradiance needed to enable downlink pointing. System performance was evaluated in the context of a set of 12 design reference missions described in a companion article in this volume. Link performance was evaluated using the Strategic Optical Link Tool, assuming clear weather conditions with conservative desert daytime turbulence. We compared the link performance achievable under our assumptions to the anticipated requirements associated with the design reference missions.

  9. Designing for Virtual Windows in a Deep Space Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, A. Scott; Howard, Robert L.; Moore, Nathan; Amoroso, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses configurations and test analogs toward the design of a virtual window capability in a Deep Space Habitat. Long-duration space missions will require crews to remain in the confines of a spacecraft for extended periods of time, with possible harmful effects if a crewmember cannot cope with the small habitable volume. Virtual windows expand perceived volume using a minimal amount of image projection equipment and computing resources, and allow a limited immersion in remote environments. Uses for the virtual window include: live or augmented reality views of the external environment; flight deck, piloting, observation, or other participation in remote missions through live transmission of cameras mounted to remote vehicles; pre-recorded background views of nature areas, seasonal occurrences, or cultural events; and pre-recorded events such as birthdays, anniversaries, and other meaningful events prepared by ground support and families of the crewmembers.

  10. Launch and Commissioning of the Deep Space Climate Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Nicholas P.; Davis, Edward P.

    2016-01-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), formerly known as Triana, successfully launched on February 11th, 2015. To date, each of the five space-craft attitude control system (ACS) modes have been operating as expected and meeting all guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) requirements, although since launch, several anomalies were encountered. While unplanned, these anomalies have proven to be invaluable in developing a deeper understanding of the ACS, and drove the design of three alterations to the ACS task of the flight software (FSW). An overview of the GN&C subsystem hardware, including re-furbishment, and ACS architecture are introduced, followed by a chronological discussion of key events, flight performance, as well as anomalies encountered by the GN&C team.

  11. Nuclear electric ion propulsion for three deep space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiravalle, Vincent P.

    2008-03-01

    Nuclear electric ion propulsion is considered for three sample deep space missions starting from a 500 km low Earth orbit encompassing the transfer of a 100 MT payload into a 1500 km orbit around Mars, the rendezvous of a 10 MT payload with the Jovian moon Europa and the rendezvous of a similar payload with Saturn's moon Titan. Near term ion engine and space nuclear reactor technology are assumed. It is shown that nuclear electric ion propulsion offers more than twice the payload for the Mars mission relative to the case when a nuclear thermal rocket is used for the trans-Mars injection maneuver at Earth, and about the same payload advantage relative to the case when solar electric propulsion is used for the Mars heliocentric transfer. For missions to the outer planets nuclear electric ion propulsion increases the payload mass fraction by a factor of two or more compared with high thrust systems that utilize gravity assist trajectories.

  12. Deep Space One: Preparing for Space Exploration in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, R. M.

    1998-01-01

    This October, NASA will take a revolutionary step with the launch of the New Millennium program's Deep Space One (DS1) mission. DS1 will fly by asteroid 1992KD in July of 1999 and will then be on a trajectory toward comet 19P/Borrelly.

  13. A Ten-Meter Ground-Station Telescope for Deep-Space Optical Communications: A Preliminary Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcliffe, M.; Hoppe, D.; Roberts, W.; Page, N.

    2001-01-01

    This article describes a telescope design for a 10-m optical ground station for deep-space communications. The design for a direct-detection optical communications telescope differs dramatically from a telescope for imaging applications. In general, the requirements for optical manufacturing and tracking performance are much less stringent for direct detection of optical signals. The technical challenge is providing a design that will operate in the daytime/nighttime conditions required for a Deep Space Network tracking application. The design presented addresses these requirements. The design will provide higher performance at lower cost than existing designs.

  14. Enhanced Image of Asteroid Braille from Deep Space 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This image was created from a composite of two images which were taken 914 seconds and 932 seconds after the recent Deep Space 1 (DS1) encounter with the asteroid 9969 Braille by the Miniature Integrated Camera Spectrometer (MICAS). Interpolated values were then computed for each pixel in the final image based on the neighboring pixels of the composite. The interpolation minimizes the spatial frequency artifacts of the final image. The Sun is illuminating Braille from below.

    Braille (also known as 1992 KD) was discovered on May 27, 1992 by astronomers Eleanor Helin and Kenneth Lawrence using the 46 centimeter (18 inch) Shmidt telescope at Palomar Observatory, while scanning the skies as part of the Palomar Planet-Crossing Asteroid Survey.

    Deep Space 1 was launched into orbit around the Sun on October 24, 1998 at 5:08 a.m. Pacific Daylight Time from Cape Canaveral Air Station, Florida on a Delta 7326, a variant of the Delta II rocket. An ion engine, operating for more than 1800 hours, was used to maneuver the spacecraft for an encounter with Braille. The closest approach of DS1 to the asteroid, at an approximate distance of 15 kilometers, occurred on July 29,1999 at 04:45 Universal Time, July 28 at 9:46 p.m. Pacific Daylight Time.

  15. Composite View of Asteroid Braille from Deep Space 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The two images on the left hand side of this composite image frame were taken 914 seconds and 932 seconds after the recent Deep Space 1 (DS1)encounter with the asteroid 9969 Braille by the Miniature Integrated Camera Spectrometer (MICAS). The image on the right was created by combining the two images on the left. The Sun is illuminating Braille from below , as is indicated by the arrow.

    Braille (also known as 1992 KD) was discovered on May 27, 1992 by astronomers Eleanor Helin and Kenneth Lawrence using the 46 centimeter (18 inch) Shmidt telescope at Palomar Observatory, while scanning the skies as part of the Palomar Planet-Crossing Asteroid Survey.

    Deep Space 1 was launched into orbit around the Sun on October 24, 1998 at 5:08 a.m. Pacific Daylight Time from Cape Canaveral Air Station, Florida on a Delta 7326, a variant of the Delta II rocket. An ion engine, operating for more than 1800 hours, was used to maneuver the spacecraft for an encounter with Braille. The closest approach of DS1 to the asteroid, at an approximate distance of 15 kilometers, occurred on July 29,1999 at 04:45 Universal Time, July 28 at 9:46 p.m. Pacific Daylight Time.

  16. Modulation and coding technology for deep space and satellite applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, J. H.; Rafferty, W.

    1992-02-01

    Modulation and coding research and development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) currently emphasize Deep Space Communications Systems and advanced near earth Commercial Satellite Communications Systems. The Deep Space Communication channel is extremely signal to noise ratio limited and has long transmission delay. The near earth satellite channel is bandwidth limited with fading and multipath. Recent code search efforts at JPL have found a long constraint, low rate convolutional code (15, 1/6) which, when concatenated with a ten bit Reed-Solomon (RS) code, provides a 2.1 dB gain over that of the Voyager spacecraft - the current standard. The new code is only 2 dB from the theoretical Shannon limit. A flight qualified version of the (15, 1/6) convolutional encoder was implemented on the Galileo Spacecraft to be launched later this year. An L-band mobile link, use of the Ka-band for personal communications, and the development of subsystem technology for the interconnection of satellite resources by using high rate optical inter-satellite links are noted.

  17. Nano-Satellite Secondary Spacecraft on Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klesh, Andrew T.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.

    2012-01-01

    NanoSat technology has opened Earth orbit to extremely low-cost science missions through a common interface that provides greater launch accessibility. They have also been used on interplanetary missions, but these missions have used one-off components and architectures so that the return on investment has been limited. A natural question is the role that CubeSat-derived NanoSats could play to increase the science return of deep space missions. We do not consider single instrument nano-satellites as likely to complete entire Discovery-class missions alone,but believe that nano-satellites could augment larger missions to significantly increase science return. The key advantages offered by these mini-spacecrafts over previous planetary probes is the common availability of advanced subsystems that open the door to a large variety of science experiments, including new guidance, navigation and control capabilities. In this paper, multiple NanoSat science applications are investigated, primarily for high risk/high return science areas. We also address the significant challenges and questions that remain as obstacles to the use of nano-satellites in deep space missions. Finally, we provide some thoughts on a development roadmap toward interplanetary usage of NanoSpacecraft.

  18. Power Electronics Being Developed for Deep Space Cryogenic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2003-01-01

    Electronic circuits and systems designed for deep space missions need to operate reliably and efficiently in harsh environments that include very low temperatures. Spacecraft that operate in such cold environments carry a large number of heaters so that the ambient temperature for the onboard electronics remains near 20 C. Electronics that can operate at cryogenic temperatures will simplify system design and reduce system size and weight by eliminating the heaters and their associated structures. As a result, system development and launch cost will be reduced. At the NASA Glenn Research Center, an ongoing program is focusing on the development of power electronics geared for deep space low-temperature environments. The research and development efforts include electrical components design, circuit design and construction, and system integration and demonstration at cryogenic temperatures. Investigations are being carried out on circuits and systems that are targeted for use in NASA missions where low temperatures will be encountered: devices such as ceramic and tantalum capacitors, metal film resistors, semiconductor switches, magnetics, and integrated circuits including dc/dc converters, operational amplifiers, voltage references, and motor controllers. Test activities cover a wide range of device and circuit performance under simple as well as complex test conditions, such as multistress and thermal cycling. The effect of low-temperature conditions on the switching characteristics of an advanced silicon-on-insulator field effect transistor is shown. For gate voltages (VGS) below 2.6 V, drain currents at -190 C are lower than drain currents at room temperature (20 C).

  19. An ATP System for Deep-Space Optical Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Shinhak; Irtuzm Gerardi; Alexander, James

    2008-01-01

    An acquisition, tracking, and pointing (ATP) system is proposed for aiming an optical-communications downlink laser beam from deep space. In providing for a direction reference, the concept exploits the mature technology of star trackers to eliminate the need for a costly and potentially hazardous laser beacon. The system would include one optical and two inertial sensors, each contributing primarily to a different portion of the frequency spectrum of the pointing signal: a star tracker (<10 Hz), a gyroscope (<50 Hz), and a precise fluid-rotor inertial angular-displacement sensor (sometimes called, simply, "angle sensor") for the frequency range >50 Hz. The outputs of these sensors would be combined in an iterative averaging process to obtain high-bandwidth, high-accuracy pointing knowledge. The accuracy of pointing knowledge obtainable by use of the system was estimated on the basis of an 8-cm-diameter telescope and known parameters of commercially available star trackers and inertial sensors: The single-axis pointing-knowledge error was found to be characterized by a standard deviation of 150 nanoradians - below the maximum value (between 200 and 300 nanoradians) likely to be tolerable in deep-space optical communications.

  20. Daytime adaptive optics for deep space optical communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Keith; Troy, M.; Srinivasan, M.; Platt, B.; Vilnrotter, V.; Wright, M.; Garkanian, V.; Hemmati, H.

    2003-01-01

    The deep space optical communications subsystem offers a higher bandwidth communications link in smaller size, lower mass, and lower power consumption subsystem than does RF. To demonstrate the benefit of this technology to deep space communications NASA plans to launch an optical telecommunications package on the 2009 Mars Telecommunications orbiter spacecraft. Current performance goals are 30-Mbps from opposition, and 1-Mbps near conjunction (-3 degrees Sun-Earth-Probe angle). Yet, near conjunction the background noise from the day sky will degrade the performance of the optical link. Spectral and spatial filtering and higher modulation formats can mitigate the effects of background sky. Narrowband spectral filters can result in loss of link margin, and higher modulation formats require higher transmitted peak powers. In contrast, spatial filtering at the receiver has the potential of being lossless while providing the required sky background rejection. Adaptive optics techniques can correct wave front aberrations caused by atmospheric turbulence and enable near-diffraction-limited performance of the receiving telescope. Such performance facilitates spatial filtering, and allows the receiver field-of-view and hence the noise from the sky background to be reduced.

  1. Modulation and coding technology for deep space and satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, J. H.; Rafferty, W.

    1992-01-01

    Modulation and coding research and development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) currently emphasize Deep Space Communications Systems and advanced near earth Commercial Satellite Communications Systems. The Deep Space Communication channel is extremely signal to noise ratio limited and has long transmission delay. The near earth satellite channel is bandwidth limited with fading and multipath. Recent code search efforts at JPL have found a long constraint, low rate convolutional code (15, 1/6) which, when concatenated with a ten bit Reed-Solomon (RS) code, provides a 2.1 dB gain over that of the Voyager spacecraft - the current standard. The new code is only 2 dB from the theoretical Shannon limit. A flight qualified version of the (15, 1/6) convolutional encoder was implemented on the Galileo Spacecraft to be launched later this year. An L-band mobile link, use of the Ka-band for personal communications, and the development of subsystem technology for the interconnection of satellite resources by using high rate optical inter-satellite links are noted.

  2. Mixed Integer Programming and Heuristic Scheduling for Space Communication Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Charles H.; Cheung, Kar-Ming

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose to solve the constrained optimization problem in two phases. The first phase uses heuristic methods such as the ant colony method, particle swarming optimization, and genetic algorithm to seek a near optimal solution among a list of feasible initial populations. The final optimal solution can be found by using the solution of the first phase as the initial condition to the SQP algorithm. We demonstrate the above problem formulation and optimization schemes with a large-scale network that includes the DSN ground stations and a number of spacecraft of deep space missions.

  3. Environmental projects. Volume 13: Underground storage tanks, removal and replacement. Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bengelsdorf, Irv

    1991-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC), located in the Mojave Desert about 40 miles north of Barstow, California, and about 160 miles northeast of Pasadena, is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Deep Space Network, one of the world's largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation networks. Activities at the GDSCC are carried out in support of six large parabolic dish antennas. As a large-scale facility located in a remote, isolated desert region, the GDSCC operations require numerous on-site storage facilities for gasoline, diesel oil, hydraulic oil, and waste oil. These fluids are stored in underground storage tanks (USTs). This present volume describes what happened to the 26 USTs that remained at the GDSCC. Twenty-four of these USTs were constructed of carbon steel without any coating for corrosion protection, and without secondary containment or leak detection. Two remaining USTs were constructed of fiberglass-coated carbon steel but without secondary containment or leak protection. Of the 26 USTs that remained at the GDSCC, 23 were cleaned, removed from the ground, cut up, and hauled away from the GDSCC for environmentally acceptable disposal. Three USTs were permanently closed (abandoned in place).

  4. On Applications of Disruption Tolerant Networking to Optical Networking in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hylton, Alan Guy; Raible, Daniel E.; Juergens, Jeffrey; Iannicca, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    The integration of optical communication links into space networks via Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) is a largely unexplored area of research. Building on successful foundational work accomplished at JPL, we discuss a multi-hop multi-path network featuring optical links. The experimental test bed is constructed at the NASA Glenn Research Center featuring multiple Ethernet-to-fiber converters coupled with free space optical (FSO) communication channels. The test bed architecture models communication paths from deployed Mars assets to the deep space network (DSN) and finally to the mission operations center (MOC). Reliable versus unreliable communication methods are investigated and discussed; including reliable transport protocols, custody transfer, and fragmentation. Potential commercial applications may include an optical communications infrastructure deployment to support developing nations and remote areas, which are unburdened with supporting an existing heritage means of telecommunications. Narrow laser beam widths and control of polarization states offer inherent physical layer security benefits with optical communications over RF solutions. This paper explores whether or not DTN is appropriate for space-based optical networks, optimal payload sizes, reliability, and a discussion on security.

  5. Transforming phylogenetic networks: Moving beyond tree space.

    PubMed

    Huber, Katharina T; Moulton, Vincent; Wu, Taoyang

    2016-09-01

    Phylogenetic networks are a generalization of phylogenetic trees that are used to represent reticulate evolution. Unrooted phylogenetic networks form a special class of such networks, which naturally generalize unrooted phylogenetic trees. In this paper we define two operations on unrooted phylogenetic networks, one of which is a generalization of the well-known nearest-neighbor interchange (NNI) operation on phylogenetic trees. We show that any unrooted phylogenetic network can be transformed into any other such network using only these operations. This generalizes the well-known fact that any phylogenetic tree can be transformed into any other such tree using only NNI operations. It also allows us to define a generalization of tree space and to define some new metrics on unrooted phylogenetic networks. To prove our main results, we employ some fascinating new connections between phylogenetic networks and cubic graphs that we have recently discovered. Our results should be useful in developing new strategies to search for optimal phylogenetic networks, a topic that has recently generated some interest in the literature, as well as for providing new ways to compare networks. PMID:27224010

  6. Why Deep Space Habitats Should Be Different from the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Brand; Brown, MacAulay

    2016-01-01

    It is tempting to view the International Space Station (ISS) as a model for deep space habitats. This is not a good idea for many reasons. The ISS does not have a habitation module; instead the individual crew quarters are dispersed across several modules, the galley is in the US Laboratory and the waste hygiene compartment is in a Node. This distributed arrangement may be inconvenient but more important differences distinguish a deep space habitat from the ISS. First, the Space Shuttle launch system that shaped, sized, and delivered most ISS elements has been retired. Its replacement, the Space Launch System (SLS), is specifically designed for human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit and is capable of transporting more efficient, large diameter, heavy-lift payloads. Next, because of the Earth's protective geomagnetic field, ISS crews are naturally shielded from lethal radiation. Deep space habitat designs must include either a storm shelter or strategically positioned equipment and stowage for radiation protection. Another important difference is the increased transit time with no opportunity for an ISS-type emergency return. It takes 7 to 10 days to go between Earth and cis-lunar locations and 1000 days for the Mars habitat transit. This long commute calls for greater crew autonomy with habitats designed for the crew to fix their own problems. The ISS rack-enclosed, densely packaged subsystems are a product of the Shuttle era and not maintenance friendly. A solution better suited for deep space habitats spreads systems out allowing direct access to single-layer packaging and providing crew access to each component without having to remove another. Operational readiness is another important discriminator. The ISS required over 100 flights to build, resupply, and transport the crew, whereas SLS offers the capability to launch a fully provisioned habitat that is operational without additional outfitting or resupply flights.

  7. NASA's Next Generation Space Geodesy Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, S. D.; Gross, R. S.; Hilliard, L.; Lemoine, F. G.; Long, J. L.; Ma, C.; McGarry, J. F.; Merkowitz, S. M.; Murphy, D.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Pearlman, M. R.; Stowers, D. A.; Webb, F. H.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Space Geodesy Project (SGP) is developing a prototype core site for a next generation Space Geodetic Network (SGN). Each of the sites in this planned network co-locate current state-of-the-art stations from all four space geodetic observing systems, GNSS, SLR, VLBI, and DORIS, with the goal of achieving modern requirements for the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). In particular, the driving ITRF requirements for this network are 1.0 mm in accuracy and 0.1 mm/yr in stability, a factor of 10-20 beyond current capabilities. Development of the prototype core site, located at NASA's Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory at the Goddard Space Flight Center, started in 2011 and will be completed by the end of 2013. In January 2012, two operational GNSS stations, GODS and GOON, were established at the prototype site within 100 m of each other. Both stations are being proposed for inclusion into the IGS network. In addition, work is underway for the inclusion of next generation SLR and VLBI stations along with a modern DORIS station. An automated survey system is being developed to measure inter-technique vectorties, and network design studies are being performed to define the appropriate number and distribution of these next generation space geodetic core sites that are required to achieve the driving ITRF requirements. We present the status of this prototype next generation space geodetic core site, results from the analysis of data from the established geodetic stations, and results from the ongoing network design studies.

  8. Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Data Using Deep Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Y.; Gao, X.; Hsu, K. L.; Sorooshian, S.; Ihler, A.

    2015-12-01

    This research develops a precipitation estimation system from remote sensed data using state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms. Compared to ground-based precipitation measurements, satellite-based precipitation estimation products have advantages of temporal resolution and spatial coverage. Also, the massive amount of satellite data contains various measures related to precipitation formation and development. On the other hand, deep learning algorithms were newly developed in the area of machine learning, which was a breakthrough to deal with large and complex dataset, especially to image data. Here, we attempt to engage deep learning techniques to provide hourly precipitation estimation from satellite information, such as long wave infrared data. The brightness temperature data from infrared data is considered to contain cloud information. Radar stage IV dataset is used as ground measurement for parameter calibration. Stacked denoising auto-encoders (SDAE) is applied here to build a 4-layer neural network with 1000 hidden nodes for each hidden layer. SDAE involves two major steps: (1) greedily pre-training each layer as a denoising auto-encoder using the outputs of previous trained hidden layer output starting from visible layer to initialize parameters; (2) fine-tuning the whole deep neural network with supervised criteria. The results are compared with satellite precipitation product PERSIANN-CCS (Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Imagery using an Artificial Neural Network Cloud Classification System). Based on the results, we have several valuable conclusions: By properly training the neural network, it is able to extract useful information for precipitation estimation. For example, it can reduce the mean squared error of the precipitation by 58% for the summer season in the central United States of the validation period. The SDAE method captures the shape of the precipitation from the cloud shape better compared to the CCS product. Design of

  9. Global-Address Space Networking (GASNet) Library

    SciTech Connect

    Welcome, Michael L.; Bell, Christian S.

    2011-04-06

    GASNet (Global-Address Space Networking) is a language-independent, low-level networking layer that provides network-independent, high-performance communication primitives tailored for implementing parallel global address space SPMD languages such as UPC and Titanium. The interface is primarily intended as a compilation target and for use by runtime library writers (as opposed to end users), and the primary goals are high performance, interface portability, and expressiveness. GASNet is designed specifically to support high-performance, portable implementations of global address space languages on modern high-end communication networks. The interface provides the flexibility and extensibility required to express a wide variety of communication patterns without sacrificing performance by imposing large computational overheads in the interface. The design of the GASNet interface is partitioned into two layers to maximize porting ease without sacrificing performance: the lower level is a narrow but very general interface called the GASNet core API - the design is basedheavily on Active Messages, and is implemented directly on top of each individual network architecture. The upper level is a wider and more expressive interface called GASNet extended API, which provides high-level operations such as remote memory access and various collective operations. This release implements GASNet over MPI, the Quadrics "elan" API, the Myrinet "GM" API and the "LAPI" interface to the IBM SP switch. A template is provided for adding support for additional network interfaces.

  10. Navigation Architecture for a Space Mobile Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdez, Jennifer E.; Ashman, Benjamin; Gramling, Cheryl; Heckler, Gregory W.; Carpenter, Russell

    2016-01-01

    The Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Augmentation Service for Satellites (TASS) is a proposed beacon service to provide a global, space based GPS augmentation service based on the NASA Global Differential GPS (GDGPS) System. The TASS signal will be tied to the GPS time system and usable as an additional ranging and Doppler radiometric source. Additionally, it will provide data vital to autonomous navigation in the near Earth regime, including space weather information, TDRS ephemerides, Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP), and forward commanding capability. TASS benefits include enhancing situational awareness, enabling increased autonomy, and providing near real-time command access for user platforms. As NASA Headquarters' Space Communication and Navigation Office (SCaN) begins to move away from a centralized network architecture and towards a Space Mobile Network (SMN) that allows for user initiated services, autonomous navigation will be a key part of such a system. This paper explores how a TASS beacon service enables the Space Mobile Networking paradigm, what a typical user platform would require, and provides an in-depth analysis of several navigation scenarios and operations concepts. This paper provides an overview of the TASS beacon and its role within the SMN and user community. Supporting navigation analysis is presented for two user mission scenarios: an Earth observing spacecraft in low earth orbit (LEO), and a highly elliptical spacecraft in a lunar resonance orbit. These diverse flight scenarios indicate the breadth of applicability of the TASS beacon for upcoming users within the current network architecture and in the SMN.

  11. a Diversified Deep Belief Network for Hyperspectral Image Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, P.; Gong, Z. Q.; Schönlieb, C.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, researches in remote sensing demonstrated that deep architectures with multiple layers can potentially extract abstract and invariant features for better hyperspectral image classification. Since the usual real-world hyperspectral image classification task cannot provide enough training samples for a supervised deep model, such as convolutional neural networks (CNNs), this work turns to investigate the deep belief networks (DBNs), which allow unsupervised training. The DBN trained over limited training samples usually has many "dead" (never responding) or "potential over-tolerant" (always responding) latent factors (neurons), which decrease the DBN's description ability and thus finally decrease the hyperspectral image classification performance. This work proposes a new diversified DBN through introducing a diversity promoting prior over the latent factors during the DBN pre-training and fine-tuning procedures. The diversity promoting prior in the training procedures will encourage the latent factors to be uncorrelated, such that each latent factor focuses on modelling unique information, and all factors will be summed up to capture a large proportion of information and thus increase description ability and classification performance of the diversified DBNs. The proposed method was evaluated over the well-known real-world hyperspectral image dataset. The experiments demonstrate that the diversified DBNs can obtain much better results than original DBNs and comparable or even better performances compared with other recent hyperspectral image classification methods.

  12. Multi-modal vertebrae recognition using Transformed Deep Convolution Network.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yunliang; Landis, Mark; Laidley, David T; Kornecki, Anat; Lum, Andrea; Li, Shuo

    2016-07-01

    Automatic vertebra recognition, including the identification of vertebra locations and naming in multiple image modalities, are highly demanded in spinal clinical diagnoses where large amount of imaging data from various of modalities are frequently and interchangeably used. However, the recognition is challenging due to the variations of MR/CT appearances or shape/pose of the vertebrae. In this paper, we propose a method for multi-modal vertebra recognition using a novel deep learning architecture called Transformed Deep Convolution Network (TDCN). This new architecture can unsupervisely fuse image features from different modalities and automatically rectify the pose of vertebra. The fusion of MR and CT image features improves the discriminativity of feature representation and enhances the invariance of the vertebra pattern, which allows us to automatically process images from different contrast, resolution, protocols, even with different sizes and orientations. The feature fusion and pose rectification are naturally incorporated in a multi-layer deep learning network. Experiment results show that our method outperforms existing detection methods and provides a fully automatic location+naming+pose recognition for routine clinical practice. PMID:27104497

  13. Deep Space Control Challenges of the New Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.; Burdick, Garry M.

    1999-01-01

    The exploration of deep space presents a variety of significant control challenges. Long communication delays coupled with challenging new science objectives require high levels of system autonomy and increasingly demanding pointing and control capabilities. Historically, missions based on the use of a large single spacecraft have been successful and popular since the early days of NASA. However, these large spacecraft missions are currently being displaced by more frequent and more focused missions based on the use of smaller and less expensive spacecraft designs. This trend drives the need to design smart software and good algorithms which together with the miniaturization of control components will improve performance while replacing the heavier and more expensive hardware used in the past. NASA's future space exploration will also include mission types that have never been attempted before, posing significant challenges to the underlying control system. This includes controlled landing on small bodies (e.g., asteroids and comets), sample return missions (where samples are brought back from other planets), robotic exploration of planetary surfaces (e.g., intelligent rovers), high precision formation flying, and deep space optical interferometry, While the control of planetary spacecraft for traditional flyby and orbiter missions are based on well-understood methodologies, control approaches for many future missions will be fundamentally different. This paradigm shift will require completely new control system development approaches, system architectures, and much greater levels of system autonomy to meet expected performance in the presence of significant environmental disturbances, and plant uncertainties. This paper will trace the motivation for these changes and will layout the approach taken to meet the new challenges. Emerging missions will be used to explain and illustrate the need for these changes.

  14. NASA's Contribution to Global Space Geodesy Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosworth, John M.

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Space Geodesy program continues to be a major provider of space geodetic data for the international earth science community. NASA operates high performance Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and Global Positioning System (GPS) ground receivers at well over 30 locations around the world and works in close cooperation with space geodetic observatories around the world. NASA has also always been at the forefront in the quest for technical improvement and innovation in the space geodesy technologies to make them even more productive, accurate and economical. This presentation will highlight the current status of NASA's networks; the plans for partnerships with international groups in the southern hemisphere to improve the geographic distribution of space geodesy sites and the status of the technological improvements in SLR and VLBI that will support the new scientific thrusts proposed by interdisciplinary earth scientists. In addition, the expanding role of the NASA Space geodesy data archive, the CDDIS will be described.

  15. Modelling dendritic ecological networks in space: anintegrated network perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Erin E.; Ver Hoef, Jay M.; Isaak, Dan J.; Falke, Jeffrey A.; Fortin, Marie-Josée; Jordon, Chris E.; McNyset, Kristina; Monestiez, Pascal; Ruesch, Aaron S.; Sengupta, Aritra; Som, Nicholas; Steel, E. Ashley; Theobald, David M.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Wenger, Seth J.

    2013-01-01

    the context of stream ecology. Within this context, we summarise the key innovations of a new family of spatial statistical models that describe spatial relationships in DENs. Finally, we discuss how different network analyses may be combined to address more complex and novel research questions. While our main focus is streams, the taxonomy of network analyses is also relevant anywhere spatial patterns in both network and 2-D space can be used to explore the influence of multi-scale processes on biota and their habitat (e.g. plant morphology and pest infestation, or preferential migration along stream or road corridors).

  16. Deep convolutional neural networks for ATR from SAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, David A. E.

    2015-05-01

    Deep architectures for classification and representation learning have recently attracted significant attention within academia and industry, with many impressive results across a diverse collection of problem sets. In this work we consider the specific application of Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data from the MSTAR public release data set. The classification performance achieved using a Deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) on this data set was found to be competitive with existing methods considered to be state-of-the-art. Unlike most existing algorithms, this approach can learn discriminative feature sets directly from training data instead of requiring pre-specification or pre-selection by a human designer. We show how this property can be exploited to efficiently adapt an existing classifier to recognise a previously unseen target and discuss potential practical applications.

  17. Advanced radioisotope power sources for future deep space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, Erik N.

    2001-02-01

    The use of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) has been well established for deep space mission applications. The success of the Voyager, Galileo, Cassini and numerous other missions proved the efficacy of these technologies in deep space. Future deep space missions may also require Advanced Radioisotope Power System (ARPS) technologies to accomplish their goals. In the Exploration of the Solar System (ESS) theme, several missions are in the planning stages or under study that would be enabled by ARPS technology. Two ESS missions in the planning stage may employ ARPS. Currently planned for launch in 2006, the Europa Orbiter mission (EO) will perform a detailed orbital exploration of Jupiter's moon Europa to determine the presence of liquid water under the icy surface. An ARPS based upon Stirling engine technology is currently baselined for this mission. The Pluto Kuiper Express mission (PKE), planned for launch in 2004 to study Pluto, its moon Charon, and the Kuiper belt, is baselined to use a new RTG (F-8) assembled from parts remaining from the Cassini spare RTG. However, if this unit is unavailable, the Cassini spare RTG (F-5) or ARPS technologies would be required. Future missions under study may also require ARPS technologies. Mission studies are now underway for a detailed exploration program for Europa, with multiple mission concepts for landers and future surface and subsurface explorers. For the orbital phase of these missions, ARPS technologies may provide the necessary power for the spacecraft and orbital telecommunications relay capability for landed assets. For extended surface and subsurface operations, ARPS may provide the power for lander operations and for drilling. Saturn Ring Observer (SRO) will perform a detailed study of Saturn's rings and ring dynamics. The Neptune Orbiter (NO) mission will perform a detailed multi disciplinary study of Neptune. Titan Explorer (TE) will perform in-situ exploration of Saturn's moon Titan, with both

  18. Deep convolutional neural networks for classifying GPR B-scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besaw, Lance E.; Stimac, Philip J.

    2015-05-01

    Symmetric and asymmetric buried explosive hazards (BEHs) present real, persistent, deadly threats on the modern battlefield. Current approaches to mitigate these threats rely on highly trained operatives to reliably detect BEHs with reasonable false alarm rates using handheld Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and metal detectors. As computers become smaller, faster and more efficient, there exists greater potential for automated threat detection based on state-of-the-art machine learning approaches, reducing the burden on the field operatives. Recent advancements in machine learning, specifically deep learning artificial neural networks, have led to significantly improved performance in pattern recognition tasks, such as object classification in digital images. Deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are used in this work to extract meaningful signatures from 2-dimensional (2-D) GPR B-scans and classify threats. The CNNs skip the traditional "feature engineering" step often associated with machine learning, and instead learn the feature representations directly from the 2-D data. A multi-antennae, handheld GPR with centimeter-accurate positioning data was used to collect shallow subsurface data over prepared lanes containing a wide range of BEHs. Several heuristics were used to prevent over-training, including cross validation, network weight regularization, and "dropout." Our results show that CNNs can extract meaningful features and accurately classify complex signatures contained in GPR B-scans, complementing existing GPR feature extraction and classification techniques.

  19. The Hematopoietic Stem Cell Therapy for Exploration of Deep Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohi, Seigo; Roach, Allana-Nicole; Ramsahai, Shweta; Kim, Bak C.; Fitzgerald, Wendy; Riley, Danny A.; Gonda, Steven R.

    2004-02-01

    Astronauts experience severe/invasive disorders caused by space environments. These include hematological and cardiac abnormalities, bone and muscle losses, immunodeficiency, neurological disorders and cancer. Exploiting the extraordinary plasticity of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which differentiate not only to all types of blood cells, but also to various tissues, including muscle, bone, skin, liver, and neuronal cells, we advanced a hypothesis that some of the space-caused disorders might be amenable to hematopoietic stem cell therapy (HSCT) so as to maintain astronauts' homeostasis. If this were achievable, the HSCT could promote human exploration of deep space. Using mouse models of human anemia (β-thalassemia) and spaceflight (hindlimb suspension unloading system), we have obtained feasibility results of HSCT for space anemia, muscle loss, and immunodeficiency. For example, the β-thalassemic mice were successfully transplanted with isologous HSCs, resulting in chimerism of hemoglobin species and alleviation of the hemoglobinopathy. In the case of HSCT for muscle loss, β-galactosidase-marked HSCs, which were prepared from β-galactosidase-transgenic mice, were detected by the X-gal wholemount staining procedure in the hindlimbs of unloaded mice following transplantation. Histochemical and physical analyses indicated structural contribution of HSCs to the muscle. To investigate HSCT for immunodeficiency, β-galactosidase-transformed Escherichia coli was used as the reporter bacteria, and infected to control and the hindlimb suspended mice. Results of the X-gal stained tissues indicated that the HSCT could help eliminate the E. coli infection. In an effort to facilitate the HSCT in space, growth of HSCs has been optimized in the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) culture systems, including Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor (HFB).

  20. Developing a Habitat for Long Duration, Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle A.; Thompson, Shelby

    2012-01-01

    One possible next leap in human space exploration for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is a mission to a near Earth asteroid (NEA). In order to achieve such an ambitious goal, a space habitat will need to accommodate a crew of four for the 380-day round trip. The Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) developed a conceptual design for such a habitat. The team identified activities that would be performed inside a long-duration, deep space habitat, and the capabilities needed to support such a mission. A list of seven functional activities/capabilities was developed: individual and group crew care, spacecraft and mission operations, subsystem equipment, logistics and resupply, and contingency operations. The volume for each activity was determined using NASA STD-3001 and the companion Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH). Although, the sum of these volumes produced an over-sized spacecraft, the team evaluated activity frequency and duration to identify functions that could share a common volume without conflict, reducing the total volume by 24%. After adding 10% for growth, the resulting functional pressurized volume was calculated to be a minimum of 268 cu m (9,464 cu ft) distributed over the functions. The work was validated through comparison to Mir, Skylab, the International Space Station (ISS), Bigelow Aerospace s proposed habitat module, and NASA s Trans-Hab concept. Using HIDH guidelines, the team developed an internal layout that (a) minimized the transit time between related crew stations, (b) accommodated expected levels of activity at each station, (c) isolated stations when necessary for health, safety, performance, and privacy, and (d) provided a safe, efficient, and comfortable work and living environment.

  1. Advanced Deuterium Fusion Rocket Propulsion for Manned Deep Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterberg, F.

    Excluding speculations about future breakthrough discoveries in physics, it is shown that with what is at present known, and also what is technically feasible, manned space flight to the limits of the solar system and beyond deep into the Oort cloud is quite possible. Using deuterium as the rocket fuel of choice, abundantly available on the comets of the Oort cloud, rockets driven by deuterium fusion can there be refuelled. To obtain a high thrust with high specific impulse favours the propulsion by deuterium micro-bombs, and it is shown that the ignition of deuterium micro-bombs is possible by intense GeV proton beams, generated in space by using the entire spacecraft as a magnetically insulated billion volt capacitor. The cost to develop this kind of a propulsion system in space would be very high, but it can also be developed on Earth by a magnetically insulated Super Marx Generator. Since the ignition of deuterium is theoretically possible with the Super Marx Generator, making obsolete the ignition of deuterium-tritium with a laser, where 80% of the energy goes into neutrons, this would also mean a breakthrough in fusion research, and therefore would justify the large development costs.

  2. Digital Video Over Space Systems and Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grubbs, Rodney

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of digital video with space systems and networks. The earliest use of video was the use of film precluding live viewing, which gave way to live television from space. This has given way to digital video using internet protocol for transmission. This has provided for many improvements with new challenges. Some of these ehallenges are reviewed. The change to digital video transmitted over space systems can provide incredible imagery, however the process must be viewed as an entire system, rather than piece-meal.

  3. Investigation of Secondary Neutron Production in Large Space Vehicles for Deep Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rojdev, Kristina; Koontz, Steve; Reddell, Brandon; Atwell, William; Boeder, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Future NASA missions will focus on deep space and Mars surface operations with large structures necessary for transportation of crew and cargo. In addition to the challenges of manufacturing these large structures, there are added challenges from the space radiation environment and its impacts on the crew, electronics, and vehicle materials. Primary radiation from the sun (solar particle events) and from outside the solar system (galactic cosmic rays) interact with materials of the vehicle and the elements inside the vehicle. These interactions lead to the primary radiation being absorbed or producing secondary radiation (primarily neutrons). With all vehicles, the high-energy primary radiation is of most concern. However, with larger vehicles, there is more opportunity for secondary radiation production, which can be significant enough to cause concern. In a previous paper, we embarked upon our first steps toward studying neutron production from large vehicles by validating our radiation transport codes for neutron environments against flight data. The following paper will extend the previous work to focus on the deep space environment and the resulting neutron flux from large vehicles in this deep space environment.

  4. Network Perspectives on the Mechanisms of Deep Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Cameron C.; Hahn, Philip J.

    2009-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established medical therapy for the treatment of movement disorders and shows great promise for several other neurological disorders. However, after decades of clinical utility the underlying therapeutic mechanisms remain undefined. Early attempts to explain the mechanisms of DBS focused on hypotheses that mimicked an ablative lesion to the stimulated brain region. More recent scientific efforts have explored the wide-spread changes in neural activity generated throughout the stimulated brain network. In turn, new theories on the mechanisms of DBS have taken a systems-level approach to begin to decipher the network activity. This review provides an introduction to some of the network based theories on the function and pathophysiology of the cortico-basal-ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops commonly targeted by DBS. We then analyze some recent results on the effects of DBS on these networks, with a focus on subthalamic DBS for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Finally we attempt to summarize how DBS could be achieving its therapeutic effects by overriding pathological network activity. PMID:19804831

  5. Operations Concepts for Deep-Space Missions: Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCann, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    Historically, manned spacecraft missions have relied heavily on real-time communication links between crewmembers and ground control for generating crew activity schedules and working time-critical off-nominal situations. On crewed missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, speed-of-light limitations will render this ground-centered concept of operations obsolete. A new, more distributed concept of operations will have to be developed in which the crew takes on more responsibility for real-time anomaly diagnosis and resolution, activity planning and replanning, and flight operations. I will discuss the innovative information technologies, human-machine interfaces, and simulation capabilities that must be developed in order to develop, test, and validate deep-space mission operations

  6. Design and application of electromechanical actuators for deep space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskew, Tim A.; Wander, John

    1994-01-01

    This progress report documents research and development efforts performed from August 16, 1993 through August 15, 1994 on NASA Grant NAG8-240, 'Design and Application of Electromechanical Actuators for Deep Space Missions.' Since the submission of our last progress report in February 1994, our efforts have been almost entirely focused on final construction of the test stand and experiment design. Hence, this report is dedicated solely to these topics. However, updates on our research personnel and our health monitoring and fault management efforts are provided in this summary. Following this executive summary are two report sections. The first is devoted to the motor drive being constructed for the test stand. The thrust of the next section is the mechanical and hydraulic design and construction based on the planned experimental requirements. Following both major sections are three appendices.

  7. Galactic and Solar Cosmic Ray Shielding in Deep Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Tai, H.; Simonsen, Lisa C.; Shinn, Judy L.; Thibeault, Shelia; Kim, M. Y.

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of the radiation hazards in support of NASA deep space exploration activities is presented. The emphasis is on materials required for radiation protection shielding. Aluminum has been found to be a poor shield material when dose equivalent is used with exposure limits for low Earth orbit (LEO) as a guide for shield requirements. Because the radiation issues are cost related-the parasitic shield mass has high launch costs, the use of aluminum as a basic construction material is clearly not cost-effective and alternate materials need to be developed. In this context, polyethylene is examined as a potentially useful material and demonstrates important advantages as an alternative to aluminum construction. Although polyethylene is useful as a shield material, it may not meet other design criteria (strength, stability, thermal); other polymer materials must be examined.

  8. Deep Space Mission Applications for NEXT: NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, David; Benson, Scott; Witzberger, Kevin; Cupples, Michael

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) is designed to address a need for advanced ion propulsion systems on certain future NASA deep space missions. This paper surveys seven potential missions that have been identified as being able to take advantage of the unique capabilities of NEXT. Two conceptual missions to Titan and Neptune are analyzed, and it is shown that ion thrusters could decrease launch mass and shorten trip time, to Titan compared to chemical propulsion. A potential Mars Sample return mission is described, and compassion made between a chemical mission and a NEXT based mission. Four possible near term applications to New Frontiers and Discovery class missions are described, and comparisons are made to chemical systems or existing NSTAR ion propulsion system performance. The results show that NEXT has potential performance and cost benefits for missions in the Discovery, New Frontiers, and larger mission classes.

  9. Research and development optical deep space antenna sizing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wonica, D.

    1994-01-01

    Results from this study provide a basis for the selection of an aperture size appropriate for a research and development ground-based receiver for deep space optical communications. Currently achievable or near-term realizable hardware performance capabilities for both a spacecraft optical terminal and a ground terminal were used as input parameters to the analysis. Links were analyzed using OPTI, our optical link analysis program. Near-term planned and current missions were surveyed and categorized by data rate and telecommunications-subsystems prime power consumption. The spacecraft optical-terminal transmitter power was selected by matching these (RF) data rates and prime power requirements and by applying power efficiencies suitable to an optical communications subsystem. The study was baselined on a Mars mission. Results are displayed as required ground aperture size for given spacecraft transmitter aperture size, parametrized by data rate, transmit optical power, and wavelength.

  10. The Evolution of Deep Space Navigation: 1989-1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Lincoln J.

    2008-01-01

    The exploration of the planets of the solar system using robotic vehicles has been underway since the early 1960s. During this time the navigational capabilities employed have increased greatly in accuracy, as required by the scientific objectives of the missions and as enabled by improvements in technology. This paper is the second in a chronological sequence dealing with the evolution of deep space navigation. The time interval covered extends from the 1989 launch of the Magellan spacecraft to Venus through a multiplicity of planetary exploration activities in 1999. The paper focuses on the observational techniques that have been used to obtain navigational information, propellant-efficient means for modifying spacecraft trajectories, and the computational methods that have been employed, tracing their evolution through a dozen planetary missions.

  11. The Case for Deep Space Telecommunications Relay Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Charles W.; Miranda, Felix A. (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    Each future mission to Jupiter and beyond must carry the traditional suite of telecommunications systems for command and control and for mission data transmission to earth. The telecommunications hardware includes the large antenna and the high-power transmitters that enable the communications link. Yet future spacecraft will be scaled down from the hallmark missions of Galileo and Cassini to Jupiter and Saturn, respectively. This implies that a higher percentage of the spacecraft weight and power must be dedicated to telecommunications system. The following analysis quantifies this impact to future missions and then explores the merits of an alternative approach using deep space relay stations for the link back to earth. It will be demonstrated that a telecommunications relay satellite would reduce S/C telecommunications weight and power sufficiently to add one to two more instruments.

  12. NASA Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Deep Space Habitat Analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, A. Scott; Kennedy, Kriss J.; Gill, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) vertical cylinder habitat was established as a exploration habitat testbed platform for integration and testing of a variety of technologies and subsystems that will be required in a human-occupied planetary surface outpost or Deep Space Habitat (DSH). The HDU functioned as a medium-fidelity habitat prototype from 2010-2012 and allowed teams from all over NASA to collaborate on field analog missions, mission operations tests, and system integration tests to help shake out equipment and provide feedback for technology development cycles and crew training. This paper documents the final 2012 configuration of the HDU, and discusses some of the testing that took place. Though much of the higher-fidelity functionality has 'graduated' into other NASA programs, as of this writing the HDU, renamed Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA), will continue to be available as a volumetric and operational mockup for NASA Human Research Program (HRP) research from 2013 onward.

  13. Automated Planning for a Deep Space Communications Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estlin, Tara; Fisher, Forest; Mutz, Darren; Chien, Steve

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the application of Artificial Intelligence planning techniques to the problem of antenna track plan generation for a NASA Deep Space Communications Station. Me described system enables an antenna communications station to automatically respond to a set of tracking goals by correctly configuring the appropriate hardware and software to provide the requested communication services. To perform this task, the Automated Scheduling and Planning Environment (ASPEN) has been applied to automatically produce antenna trucking plans that are tailored to support a set of input goals. In this paper, we describe the antenna automation problem, the ASPEN planning and scheduling system, how ASPEN is used to generate antenna track plans, the results of several technology demonstrations, and future work utilizing dynamic planning technology.

  14. Deep-Space Optical Communications Downlink Budget: Modulation and Coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moision, B.; Hamkins, J.

    2003-08-01

    A link budget for a deep-space optical channel depends in part on the choice of modulation format and error-control coding scheme. This article describes several properties of the channel capacity that lead to an appropriate selection of modulation format, pulse-position modulation (PPM) order, and error-control code rate. It also describes performance limits when additional constraints -- such as bounds on average power, peak power, and uncoded symbol-error rate -- are imposed. We compare these limits to the performance of Reed-Solomon codes and convolutional codes concatenated with PPM, and show that, when iteratively decoded, the concatenated convolutional codes operate approximately 0.5 dB from capacity over a wide range of signal levels, about 2.5 dB better than Reed-Solomon codes.

  15. Radiation shielding requirements for manned deep space missions

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, R.T.; Ingersoll, D.T.

    1991-04-01

    Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and, particularly, solar flares (SF) constitute the major radiation hazards in deep space. The dose to astronauts from these radiation sources and the shielding required to mitigate its effect during a 480 day Mars mission is estimated here for a simplistic spacecraft geometry. The intent is to ball park'' the magnitude of the doses for the constant GCR background and for SF's that occur randomly during the mission. The spacecraft shielding and dose data are given only for primary GCR and SF radiation, recognizing that secondary particles produced by primary particle reactions in the spacecraft and High Z-High Energy particles will also contribute to the dose suffered by the astronauts. 22 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Global-Address Space Networking (GASNet) Library

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2011-04-06

    GASNet (Global-Address Space Networking) is a language-independent, low-level networking layer that provides network-independent, high-performance communication primitives tailored for implementing parallel global address space SPMD languages such as UPC and Titanium. The interface is primarily intended as a compilation target and for use by runtime library writers (as opposed to end users), and the primary goals are high performance, interface portability, and expressiveness. GASNet is designed specifically to support high-performance, portable implementations of global address spacemore » languages on modern high-end communication networks. The interface provides the flexibility and extensibility required to express a wide variety of communication patterns without sacrificing performance by imposing large computational overheads in the interface. The design of the GASNet interface is partitioned into two layers to maximize porting ease without sacrificing performance: the lower level is a narrow but very general interface called the GASNet core API - the design is basedheavily on Active Messages, and is implemented directly on top of each individual network architecture. The upper level is a wider and more expressive interface called GASNet extended API, which provides high-level operations such as remote memory access and various collective operations. This release implements GASNet over MPI, the Quadrics "elan" API, the Myrinet "GM" API and the "LAPI" interface to the IBM SP switch. A template is provided for adding support for additional network interfaces.« less

  17. Designing spaces for the networked learning landscape.

    PubMed

    Nordquist, Jonas; Laing, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The concept of the learning landscape is used to explore the range of learning environments needed at multiple scales to better align with changes in the medical education curriculum. Four key scales that correspond to important types of learning spaces are identified: the classroom, the building, the campus and the city. "In-between" spaces are identified as growing in importance given changing patterns of learning and the use of information technology. Technology is altering how learning takes place in a wider variety of types of spaces as it is interwoven into every aspect of learning. An approach to planning learning environments which recognizes the need to think of networks of learning spaces connected across multiple scales is proposed. The focus is shifted from singular spaces to networks of inter-connected virtual and digital environments. A schematic model comprising the networked learning landscape, intended as a guide to planning that emphasizes relationships between the changing curriculum and its alignment with learning environments at multiple scales is proposed in this work. The need for higher levels of engagement of faculty, administrators and students in defining the briefs for the design of new kinds of medical education environments is highlighted. PMID:25655659

  18. Navigation Architecture For A Space Mobile Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdez, Jennifer E.; Ashman, Benjamin; Gramling, Cheryl; Heckler, Gregory W.; Carpenter, Russell

    2016-01-01

    The Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Augmentation Service for Satellites (TASS) is a proposed beacon service to provide a global, space-based GPS augmentation service based on the NASA Global Differential GPS (GDGPS) System. The TASS signal will be tied to the GPS time system and usable as an additional ranging and Doppler radiometric source. Additionally, it will provide data vital to autonomous navigation in the near Earth regime, including space weather information, TDRS ephemerides, Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP), and forward commanding capability. TASS benefits include enhancing situational awareness, enabling increased autonomy, and providing near real-time command access for user platforms. As NASA Headquarters Space Communication and Navigation Office (SCaN) begins to move away from a centralized network architecture and towards a Space Mobile Network (SMN) that allows for user initiated services, autonomous navigation will be a key part of such a system. This paper explores how a TASS beacon service enables the Space Mobile Networking paradigm, what a typical user platform would require, and provides an in-depth analysis of several navigation scenarios and operations concepts.

  19. Urban Sustainability and Open Space Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozdemir, Aydin

    This study presents a method for planning the assessment and implementation of an open space system for urban landscapes based on key landscape ecological principles which recognize the importance of spatial configuration and the role of connectivity. The open space network is proposed as a key component of a sustainable urban landscape. The study aims to investigate possible benefits of urban green space networks for more socially integrated urban communities. The research method consists of the site inventory, analysis and synthesis through site documents that include pictures, maps and aerial images. Golbasi Natural Conservation Area in Ankara is the basic material of the study. The proposed strategy is used to develop relationships between the importance of community life and quality as well as the quantity of urban open space networks. Although the proposal is case specific, its aim is to provide an integrated approach to the ecological planning, design and management of urban open spaces to improve the quality of life in contemporary cities.

  20. Planetary and Deep Space Requirements for Photovoltaic Solar Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankston, C. P.; Bennett, R. B.; Stella, P. M.

    1995-01-01

    In the past 25 years, the majority of interplanetary spacecraft have been powered by nuclear sources. However, as the emphasis on smaller, low cost missions gains momentum, more deep space missions now being planned have baselined photovoltaic solar arrays due to the low power requirements (usually significantly less than 100 W) needed for engineering and science payloads. This will present challenges to the solar array builders, inasmuch as planetary requirements usually differ from earth orbital requirements. In addition, these requirements often differ greatly, depending on the specific mission; for example, inner planets vs. outer planets, orbiters vs. flybys, spacecraft vs. landers, and so on. Also, the likelihood of electric propulsion missions will influence the requirements placed on solar array developers. This paper will discuss representative requirements for a range of planetary and deep space science missions now in the planning stages. We have divided the requirements into three categories: Inner planets and the sun; outer planets (greater than 3 AU); and Mars, cometary, and asteroid landers and probes. Requirements for Mercury and Ganymede landers will be covered in the Inner and Outer Planets sections with their respective orbiters. We will also discuss special requirements associated with solar electric propulsion (SEP). New technology developments will be needed to meet the demanding environments presented by these future applications as many of the technologies envisioned have not yet been demonstrated. In addition, new technologies that will be needed reside not only in the photovoltaic solar array, but also in other spacecraft systems that are key to operating the spacecraft reliably with the photovoltaics.

  1. Issues and Design Drivers for Deep Space Habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly S.; Rucker, Michelle A.

    2011-01-01

    A cross-disciplinary team of scientists and engineers applied expertise gained in Lunar Lander development to the conceptual design of a long-duration, deep space habitat for Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) missions. The design reference mission involved two launches to assemble a 5-module vehicle for a 380-day round trip mission carrying 4 crew members. The conceptual design process yielded a number of interesting debates, some of which could be significant design drivers in a detailed Deep Space Habitat (DSH) design. These issues include: a) Launch loads: Potentially drives layout of equipment mounted to module floors or walls, and whether temporary internal structure is required to distribute launch loads to minimize shell mass; b) Unmanned loiter time: When added to an already lengthy mission, loiter time further drives risk and reliability, and poses issues for equipment shelf life such as material degradation or cryogenic fluids boil-off; c) Pointing and Visibility: A habitat embedded in a 5-module stack may drive Communications, Tracking, Guidance, and Navigation equipment out onto long booms to maintain line-of-sight visibility with targets. However, long booms will be more susceptible to disruption from exercise-induced vibration, potential damage during docking/undocking operations, and increased power distribution mass; d) Water: although it is assumed that a water processor will collect and recycle water, several interesting question were posed, such as: How much water to start with? Should potable water serve double-duty as radiation protection? And if so, should it be stowed in a single large tank, or smaller, portable containers? e) Design for repairability: one of the worst-case scenarios identified was a cabin depressurization that required suited repair from inside the module, potentially driving the need for long umbilical hoses or special equipment to allow smaller, mated modules to be used as safe havens for up to 180 days;

  2. Architecting Communication Network of Networks for Space System of Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Hayden, Jeffrey L.

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) are planning Space System of Systems (SoS) to address the new challenges of space exploration, defense, communications, navigation, Earth observation, and science. In addition, these complex systems must provide interoperability, enhanced reliability, common interfaces, dynamic operations, and autonomy in system management. Both NASA and the DoD have chosen to meet the new demands with high data rate communication systems and space Internet technologies that bring Internet Protocols (IP), routers, servers, software, and interfaces to space networks to enable as much autonomous operation of those networks as possible. These technologies reduce the cost of operations and, with higher bandwidths, support the expected voice, video, and data needed to coordinate activities at each stage of an exploration mission. In this paper, we discuss, in a generic fashion, how the architectural approaches and processes are being developed and used for defining a hypothetical communication and navigation networks infrastructure to support lunar exploration. Examples are given of the products generated by the architecture development process.

  3. Developing a Habitat for Long Duration, Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle A.; Thompson, Shelby

    2011-01-01

    One possible next leap in human space exploration is a mission to a near Earth asteroid (NEA). In order to achieve such an ambitious goal, a space habitat will need to be designed to accommodate a crew of four for the 380-day round trip. The Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) developed a conceptual design for such a habitat. The team identified activities that would be performed inside a long-duration, deep space habitat, and the capabilities needed to support such a mission. A list of seven functional activities/capabilities was developed: individual and group crew care, spacecraft and mission operations, subsystem equipment, logistics and resupply, and contingency operations. The volume for each activity was determined using NASA STD-3001 and the companion Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH). Although, the sum of these volumes produced an over-sized spacecraft, the team evaluated activity frequency and duration to identify functions that could share a common volume without conflict, reducing the total volume by 24%. After adding 10% for growth, the resulting functional pressurized volume was calculated to be 268 m3 distributed over the functions. The work was validated through comparison with the International Space Station (ISS), Bigelow Aerospace s proposed habitat module, and NASA s Trans-Hab concepts. In the end, the team developed an internal layout that (a) minimized the transit time between related crew stations, (b) accommodated expected levels of activity at each station, (c) isolated stations when necessary for health, safety, performance, and privacy, and (d) provided a safe, efficient, and comfortable work and living environment.

  4. Modern Ground Space Geodetic Network for Space Geodesy Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, M. R.; Pavlis, E. C.; Altamimi, Z.; Noll, C. E.

    2010-12-01

    Ground-based networks of co-located space geodetic techniques (VLBI, SLR, GNSS, DORIS) are the basis for the development and maintenance of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF), which is our metric of reference for measurements of global change. The Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) has established a task to develop a strategy to design, integrate and maintain the fundamental geodetic network and supporting infrastructure in a sustainable way to satisfy the long-term requirements for the reference frame. The GGOS goal is an origin definition at 1 mm or better and a temporal stability on the order of 0.1 mm/y, with similar numbers for the scale and orientation components. These goals are based on scientific requirements to address sea level rise with confidence. As a first step, simulations focused on establishing the optimal global SLR and VLBI network, since these two techniques alone are sufficient to define the reference frame. The GNSS constellations will then distribute the reference frame to users anywhere on Earth. Using simulated data to be collected by the future networks, we investigated various designs and the resulting accuracy in the origin, scale and orientation of the resulting ITRF. We present here the results of simulation studies aimed at designing optimal global geodetic networks to support GGOS science products. Current estimates indicate that the network will require 24 - 32 globally distributed co-location sites. Stations in the new global network will require geologically stable sites with good weather, established infrastructure, and local support and personnel. GGOS will seek groups that are interested in participation. GGOS intends to issues a Call for Participation of groups that would like to contribute in the network implementation and operation. Some examples of integrated stations currently in operation or under development will be presented. We will examine

  5. Concepts for a Shroud or Propellant Tank Derived Deep Space Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Long duration human spaceflight missions beyond Low Earth Orbit will require much larger spacecraft than capsules such as the Russian Soyuz or American Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle. A concept spacecraft under development is the Deep Space Habitat, with volumes approaching that of space stations such as Skylab, Mir, and the International Space Station. This paper explores several concepts for Deep Space Habitats constructed from a launch vehicle shroud or propellant tank. It also recommends future research using mockups and prototypes to validate the size and crew station capabilities of such a habitat. Keywords: Exploration, space station, lunar outpost, NEA, habitat, long duration, deep space habitat, shroud, propellant tank.

  6. SKYLAB II - Making a Deep Space Habitat from a Space Launch System Propellant Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Brand N.; Smitherman, David; Kennedy, Kriss J.; Toups, Larry; Gill, Tracy; Howe, A. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Called a "House in Space," Skylab was an innovative program that used a converted Saturn V launch vehicle propellant tank as a space station habitat. It was launched in 1973 fully equipped with provisions for three separate missions of three astronauts each. The size and lift capability of the Saturn V enabled a large diameter habitat, solar telescope, multiple docking adaptor, and airlock to be placed on-orbit with a single launch. Today, the envisioned Space Launch System (SLS) offers similar size and lift capabilities that are ideally suited for a Skylab type mission. An envisioned Skylab II mission would employ the same propellant tank concept; however serve a different mission. In this case, the SLS upper stage hydrogen tank is used as a Deep Space Habitat (DSH) for NASA s planned missions to asteroids, Earth-Moon Lagrangian point and Mars.

  7. DeepFruits: A Fruit Detection System Using Deep Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Sa, Inkyu; Ge, Zongyuan; Dayoub, Feras; Upcroft, Ben; Perez, Tristan; McCool, Chris

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to fruit detection using deep convolutional neural networks. The aim is to build an accurate, fast and reliable fruit detection system, which is a vital element of an autonomous agricultural robotic platform; it is a key element for fruit yield estimation and automated harvesting. Recent work in deep neural networks has led to the development of a state-of-the-art object detector termed Faster Region-based CNN (Faster R-CNN). We adapt this model, through transfer learning, for the task of fruit detection using imagery obtained from two modalities: colour (RGB) and Near-Infrared (NIR). Early and late fusion methods are explored for combining the multi-modal (RGB and NIR) information. This leads to a novel multi-modal Faster R-CNN model, which achieves state-of-the-art results compared to prior work with the F1 score, which takes into account both precision and recall performances improving from 0 . 807 to 0 . 838 for the detection of sweet pepper. In addition to improved accuracy, this approach is also much quicker to deploy for new fruits, as it requires bounding box annotation rather than pixel-level annotation (annotating bounding boxes is approximately an order of magnitude quicker to perform). The model is retrained to perform the detection of seven fruits, with the entire process taking four hours to annotate and train the new model per fruit. PMID:27527168

  8. Recognition of geochemical anomalies using a deep autoencoder network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yihui; Zuo, Renguang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we train an autoencoder network to encode and reconstruct a geochemical sample population with unknown complex multivariate probability distributions. During the training, small probability samples contribute little to the autoencoder network. These samples can be recognized by the trained model as anomalous samples due to their comparatively higher reconstructed errors. The southwestern Fujian district (China) is chosen as a case study area. A variety of learning rates, iterations, and the size of each hidden layer are constructing and training the deep autoencoder networks on all the geochemical samples. The reconstruction error (or, anomaly score) of each training sample is used to recognize multivariate geochemical anomalies associated with Fe polymetallic mineralization. By comparing the results obtained with a continuous restricted Boltzmann machine, we conclude that the autoencoder network can be trained to recognize multivariate geochemical anomalies. Most of the known skarn-type Fe deposits are located in areas with high reconstruction errors or anomaly scores in the anomaly map, indicating that these anomalies may be related to Fe mineralization.

  9. Segmentation of the foveal microvasculature using deep learning networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prentašić, Pavle; Heisler, Morgan; Mammo, Zaid; Lee, Sieun; Merkur, Andrew; Navajas, Eduardo; Beg, Mirza Faisal; Šarunić, Marinko; Lončarić, Sven

    2016-07-01

    Accurate segmentation of the retinal microvasculature is a critical step in the quantitative analysis of the retinal circulation, which can be an important marker in evaluating the severity of retinal diseases. As manual segmentation remains the gold standard for segmentation of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) images, we present a method for automating the segmentation of OCT-A images using deep neural networks (DNNs). Eighty OCT-A images of the foveal region in 12 eyes from 6 healthy volunteers were acquired using a prototype OCT-A system and subsequently manually segmented. The automated segmentation of the blood vessels in the OCT-A images was then performed by classifying each pixel into vessel or nonvessel class using deep convolutional neural networks. When the automated results were compared against the manual segmentation results, a maximum mean accuracy of 0.83 was obtained. When the automated results were compared with inter and intrarater accuracies, the automated results were shown to be comparable to the human raters suggesting that segmentation using DNNs is comparable to a second manual rater. As manually segmenting the retinal microvasculature is a tedious task, having a reliable automated output such as automated segmentation by DNNs, is an important step in creating an automated output.

  10. Experimentation for the Maturation of Deep Space Cryogenic Refueling Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the results of the "Experimentation for the Maturation of Deep Space Cryogenic Refueling Technology" study. This study identifies cryogenic fluid management technologies that require low-gravity flight experiments bring technology readiness levels to 5 to 6; examines many possible flight experiment options; and develops near-term low-cost flight experiment concepts to mature the core technologies. A total of 25 white papers were prepared by members of the project team in the course of this study. The full text of each white paper is included and 89 relevant references are cited. The team reviewed the white papers that provided information on new or active concepts of experiments to pursue and assessed them on the basis of technical need, cost, return on investment, and flight platform. Based on on this assessment the "Centaur Test Bed for Cryogenic Fluid Management" was rated the highest. "Computational Opportunities for Cryogenics for Cryogenic and Low-g Fluid Systems" was ranked second, based on its high scores in state of the art and return on investment, even though scores in cost and time were second to last. "Flight Development Test Objective Approach for In-space Propulsion Elements" was ranked third.

  11. Deep Space Habitat Team: HEFT Phase 2 Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toups, Larry D.; Smitherman, David; Shyface, Hilary; Simon, Matt; Bobkill, Marianne; Komar, D. R.; Guirgis, Peggy; Bagdigian, Bob; Spexarth, Gary

    2011-01-01

    HEFT was a NASA-wide team that performed analyses of architectures for human exploration beyond LEO, evaluating technical, programmatic, and budgetary issues to support decisions at the highest level of the agency in HSF planning. HEFT Phase I (April - September, 2010) and Phase II (September - December, 2010) examined a broad set of Human Exploration of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) Design Reference Missions (DRMs), evaluating such factors as elements, performance, technologies, schedule, and cost. At end of HEFT Phase 1, an architecture concept known as DRM 4a represented the best available option for a full capability NEO mission. Within DRM4a, the habitation system was provided by Deep Space Habitat (DSH), Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV), and Crew Transfer Vehicle (CTV) pressurized elements. HEFT Phase 2 extended DRM4a, resulting in DRM4b. Scrubbed element-level functionality assumptions and mission Concepts of Operations. Habitation Team developed more detailed concepts of the DSH and the DSH/MMSEV/CTV Conops, including functionality and accommodations, mass & volume estimates, technology requirements, and DDT&E costs. DRM 5 represented an effort to reduce cost by scaling back on technologies and eliminating the need for the development of an MMSEV.

  12. Deep-Space Optical Communications: Visions, Trends, and Prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cesarone, R. J.; Abraham, D. S.; Shambayati, S.; Rush, J.

    2011-01-01

    Current key initiatives in deep-space optical communications are treated in terms of historical context, contemporary trends, and prospects for the future. An architectural perspective focusing on high-level drivers, systems, and related operations concepts is provided. Detailed subsystem and component topics are not addressed. A brief overview of past ideas and architectural concepts sets the stage for current developments. Current requirements that might drive a transition from radio frequencies to optical communications are examined. These drivers include mission demand for data rates and/or data volumes; spectrum to accommodate such data rates; and desired power, mass, and cost benefits. As is typical, benefits come with associated challenges. For optical communications, these include atmospheric effects, link availability, pointing, and background light. The paper describes how NASA's Space Communication and Navigation Office will respond to the drivers, achieve the benefits, and mitigate the challenges, as documented in its Optical Communications Roadmap. Some nontraditional architectures and operations concepts are advanced in an effort to realize benefits and mitigate challenges as quickly as possible. Radio frequency communications is considered as both a competitor to and a partner with optical communications. The paper concludes with some suggestions for two affordable first steps that can yet evolve into capable architectures that will fulfill the vision inherent in optical communications.

  13. The Global Space Geodesy Network: Activities Underway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, Michael R.; Ipatov, Alexander; Long, James; Ma, Chopo; Merkowitz, Stephen; Neilan, Ruth; Noll, Carey; Pavlis, Erricos; Shargorodsky, Victor; Stowers, David; Wetzel, Scott

    2014-05-01

    Several initiatives are underway that should make substantial improvement over the next decade to the international space geodesy network as the international community works toward the GGOS 2020 goal of 32 globally distributed Core Sites with co-located VLBI, SLR, GNSS and DORIS. The Russian Space Agency and the Russian Academy of Sciences are moving forward with an implementation of six additional SLR systems and a number of GNSS receivers to sites outside Russia to expand GNSS tracking and support GGOS. The NASA Space Geodesy program has completed its prototype development phase and is now embarking on an implementation phase that is planning for deployment of 6 - 10 core sites in key geographic locations to support the global network. Additional sites are in the process of implementation in Europe and Asia. Site evaluation studies are in progress, looking at some new potential sites and there are ongoing discussions for partnership arrangements with interested agencies for new sites in South America and Africa. Work continues on the site layout design to avoid RF interference issues among co-located instruments and with external communications and media system. The placement of new and upgraded sites is guided by appropriate Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) conducted under the support of the interested international agencies. The results will help optimize the global distribution of core geodetic observatories and they will lead to the improvement of the data products from the future network. During this effort it is also recognized that co-located sites with less than the full core complement will continue to play an important and critical role in filling out the global network and strengthening the connection among the techniques. This talk will give an update on the current state of expansion of the global network and the projection for the network configuration that we forecast over the next 10 years.

  14. Space time neural networks for tether operations in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lea, Robert N.; Villarreal, James A.; Jani, Yashvant; Copeland, Charles

    1993-01-01

    A space shuttle flight scheduled for 1992 will attempt to prove the feasibility of operating tethered payloads in earth orbit. due to the interaction between the Earth's magnetic field and current pulsing through the tether, the tethered system may exhibit a circular transverse oscillation referred to as the 'skiprope' phenomenon. Effective damping of skiprope motion depends on rapid and accurate detection of skiprope magnitude and phase. Because of non-linear dynamic coupling, the satellite attitude behavior has characteristic oscillations during the skiprope motion. Since the satellite attitude motion has many other perturbations, the relationship between the skiprope parameters and attitude time history is very involved and non-linear. We propose a Space-Time Neural Network implementation for filtering satellite rate gyro data to rapidly detect and predict skiprope magnitude and phase. Training and testing of the skiprope detection system will be performed using a validated Orbital Operations Simulator and Space-Time Neural Network software developed in the Software Technology Branch at NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center.

  15. A space-time neural network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villarreal, James A.; Shelton, Robert O.

    1991-01-01

    Introduced here is a novel technique which adds the dimension of time to the well known back propagation neural network algorithm. Cited here are several reasons why the inclusion of automated spatial and temporal associations are crucial to effective systems modeling. An overview of other works which also model spatiotemporal dynamics is furnished. A detailed description is given of the processes necessary to implement the space-time network algorithm. Several demonstrations that illustrate the capabilities and performance of this new architecture are given.

  16. Exercise Equipment Usability Assessment for a Deep Space Concept Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Brooke M.; Reynolds, David W.

    2015-01-01

    With international aspirations to send astronauts to deep space, the world is now faced with the complex problem of keeping astronauts healthy in unexplored hostile environments for durations of time never before attempted by humans. The great physical demands imparted by space exploration compound the problem of astronaut health, as the astronauts must not only be healthy, but physically fit upon destination arrival in order to perform the scientific tasks required of them. Additionally, future deep space exploration necessitates the development of environments conducive to long-duration habitation that would supplement propulsive vehicles. Space Launch System (SLS) core stage barrel sections present large volumes of robust structure that can be recycled and used for long duration habitation. This assessment will focus on one such conceptual craft, referred to as the SLS Derived Habitat (SLS-DH). Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) has formulated a high-level layout of this SLS-DH with parameters such as floor number and orientation, floor designations, grid dimensions, wall placement, etc. Yet to be determined, however, is the layout of the exercise area. Currently the SLS-DH features three floors laid out longitudinally, leaving 2m of height between the floor and ceilings. This short distance between levels introduces challenges for proper placement of exercise equipment such as treadmills and stationary bicycles, as the dynamic envelope for the 95th percentile male astronauts is greater than 2m. This study aims to assess the optimal equipment layout and sizing for the exercise area of this habitat. Figure 1 illustrates the layout of the DSH concept demonstrator located at MSFC. The exercise area is located on the lower level, seen here as the front half of the level occupied by a crew member. This small volume does not allow for numerous or bulky exercise machines, so the conceptual equipment has been limited to a treadmill and

  17. Space Network Interoperability Panel (SNIP) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Thomas; Lenhart, Klaus; Hara, Hideo

    1991-01-01

    The Space Network Interoperability Panel (SNIP) study is a tripartite study that involves the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the European Space Agency (ESA), and the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan. SNIP involves an ongoing interoperability study of the Data Relay Satellite (DRS) Systems of the three organizations. The study is broken down into two parts; Phase one deals with S-band (2 GHz) interoperability and Phase two deals with Ka-band (20/30 GHz) interoperability (in addition to S-band). In 1987 the SNIP formed a Working Group to define and study operations concepts and technical subjects to assure compatibility of the international data relay systems. Since that time a number of Panel and Working Group meetings have been held to continue the study. Interoperability is of interest to the three agencies because it offers a number of potential operation and economic benefits. This paper presents the history and status of the SNIP study.

  18. Space-Data Routers: Enhancing Deep Space communications for scientific data transmission and exploitation from Mars through Space Internetworking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykioti, Olga; Daglis, Ioannis; Rontogiannis, Athanasios; Tsaoussidis, Vassilis; Diamantopoulos, Sotirios

    2014-05-01

    Dissemination and exploitation of data from Deep Space missions, such as planetary missions, face two major impediments: limited access capabilities due to narrow connectivity window via satellites (thus, resulting to confined scientific capacity) and lack of sufficient communication and dissemination mechanisms between deep space missions such the current missions to Mars, space data receiving centers, space-data collection centers and the end-user community. Although large quantities of data have to be transferred from deep space to the operation centers and then to the academic foundations and research centers, due to the aforementioned impediments more and more stored space data volumes remain unexploited, until they become obsolete or useless and are consequently removed. In the near future, these constraints on space and ground segment resources will rapidly increase due to the launch of new missions. The Space-Data Routers (SDR) project aims into boosting collaboration and competitiveness between the European Space Agency, the European Space Industry and the European Academic Institutions towards meeting these new challenges through Space Internetworking. Space internetworking gradually replaces or assists traditional telecommunication protocols. Future deep space operations, such as those to Mars, are scheduled to be more dynamic and flexible; many of the procedures, which are now human-operated, will become automated, interoperable and collaborative. As a consequence, space internetworking will bring a revolution in space communications. For this purpose, one of the main scientific objectives of the project is, through the examination of a specific scenario, the enhanced transmission and dissemination of Deep Space data from Mars, through unified communication channels. Specifically, the scenario involves enhanced data transmission acquired by the OMEGA sensor on-board ESA's Mars Express satellite. We consider two separate issues considering the

  19. Space Network Time Distribution and Synchronization Protocol Development for Mars Proximity Link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Simon S.; Gao, Jay L.; Mills, David

    2010-01-01

    Time distribution and synchronization in deep space network are challenging due to long propagation delays, spacecraft movements, and relativistic effects. Further, the Network Time Protocol (NTP) designed for terrestrial networks may not work properly in space. In this work, we consider the time distribution protocol based on time message exchanges similar to Network Time Protocol (NTP). We present the Proximity-1 Space Link Interleaved Time Synchronization (PITS) algorithm that can work with the CCSDS Proximity-1 Space Data Link Protocol. The PITS algorithm provides faster time synchronization via two-way time transfer over proximity links, improves scalability as the number of spacecraft increase, lowers storage space requirement for collecting time samples, and is robust against packet loss and duplication which underlying protocol mechanisms provide.

  20. Science-Driven NanoSats Design for Deep Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klesh, A. T.; Castillo, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    CubeSat-based exploration of Earth has driven the development of miniaturized systems and research-grade instruments. The current performance of CubeSats raises the question of their potential contribution to planetary exploration. Two possible applications can be foreseen. One would take advantage of the readily availability of the CubeSat deployer Poly Picosatellite Orbital Deployer (P-POD) for planetary-related observations around Earth (e.g., O/OREOS mission, ExoPlanetSat), and, when propulsion systems develop, for interplanetary exploration. However, the CubeSat formfactor restricts payloads to be in an undeployed volume of 10x10x10 (1U) to 10x20x30 (6U) cm, based on the qualified and accepted P-POD. As a possible alternative, one may leverage the CubeSat-tailored subsystems to operate that platform as a secondary payload on a deep space mission. Whether the CubeSat formfactor constraint might be adjusted to accommodate a broader range of science applications or specific tailoring is required remains to be quantified. Through consultation with a wide range of scientists and engineers, we have examined the possible applications of secondary deep space NanoSats, and what derived requirements stem from these missions. Applications and requirements, together with existing technology, inform on common formfactors that could be useful for future planetary missions. By examining these formfactors, we have identified different categories of NanoSat explorer (additionally imposing discrete requirements on the mothership) that directly support scientific endeavors. In this paper, we outline some of the scientific applications that would drive the NanoSat formfactor design, as well as describe how the requirements affect programmatic issues. Several mission types are considered: passive deployment, active propulsion, targeted landing, and sample return. Each scenario changes the risk posture, and can impose additional considerations. Our goal has been to identify