Sample records for deep transcranial magnetic

  1. Neuromodulation for Neuropsychiatric Disorders: Novel Techniques Vagus Nerve Stimulation, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation, and Deep Brain Stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell J. Andrews

    \\u000a The last two decades have seen the development of several neuromodulation techniques that have been applied to the problem\\u000a of severe, medication-refractory depression – notably vagus nerve stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial\\u000a direct current stimulation, and deep brain stimulation. The four techniques are here reviewed from the standpoint of the hardware\\u000a involved, the techniques of application, the biological effects of

  2. Calculating the induced electromagnetic fields in real human head by deep transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mai; Ueno, Shoogo

    2013-01-01

    Stimulation of deeper brain structures by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) may be beneficial in the treatment of several neurological and psychiatric disorders. This paper presents numerical simulation of deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) by considering double cone, H-and Halo coils. Three-dimensional distributions of the induced fields i.e. magnetic flux density, current density and electric fields in realistic head model by dTMS coils were calculated by impedance method and the results were compared with that of figure-of-eight coil. It was found that double cone and H-coils have significantly deep field penetration at the expense of induced higher and wider spread electrical fields in superficial cortical regions. The Halo coil working with a circular coil carrying currents in opposite directions provides a flexible way to stimulate deep brain structures with much lower stimulation in superficial brain tissues. PMID:24109807

  3. Neuromodulation for depression: invasive and noninvasive (deep brain stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, trigeminal nerve stimulation).

    PubMed

    Cook, Ian A; Espinoza, Randall; Leuchter, Andrew F

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is among the most disabling illnesses and, despite best practices with medication and psychotherapy, many patients remain ill even after several treatment trials. For many of these patients with treatment-resistant or pharmacoresistant depression, treatment with neuromodulation offers an alternative. Options range from systems that are implanted to others that are entirely noninvasive. This review surveys recent literature to update readers on 3 particular interventions: deep brain stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and trigeminal nerve stimulation. Additional comparative research is needed to delineate the relative advantages of these treatments, and how best to match individual patients to neuromodulation intervention. PMID:24262903

  4. Neuroprotection trek--the next generation: neuromodulation I. Techniques--deep brain stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, and transcranial magnetic stimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Russell J.

    2003-01-01

    Neuromodulation denotes controlled electrical stimulation of the central or peripheral nervous system. The three forms of neuromodulation described in this paper-deep brain stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, and transcranial magnetic stimulation-were chosen primarily for their demonstrated or potential clinical usefulness. Deep brain stimulation is a completely implanted technique for improving movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, by very focal electrical stimulation of the brain-a technique that employs well-established hardware (electrode and pulse generator/battery). Vagus nerve stimulation is similar to deep brain stimulation in being well-established (for the treatment of refractory epilepsy), completely implanted, and having hardware that can be considered standard at the present time. Vagus nerve stimulation differs from deep brain stimulation, however, in that afferent stimulation of the vagus nerve results in diffuse effects on many regions throughout the brain. Although use of deep brain stimulation for applications beyond movement disorders will no doubt involve placing the stimulating electrode(s) in regions other than the thalamus, subthalamus, or globus pallidus, the use of vagus nerve stimulation for applications beyond epilepsy-for example, depression and eating disorders-is unlikely to require altering the hardware significantly (although stimulation protocols may differ). Transcranial magnetic stimulation is an example of an external or non-implanted, intermittent (at least given the current state of the hardware) stimulation technique, the clinical value of which for neuromodulation and neuroprotection remains to be determined.

  5. Maintenance Deep Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Sessions are Associated with Reduced Depressive Relapses in Patients with Unipolar or Bipolar Depression

    PubMed Central

    Rapinesi, Chiara; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Kotzalidis, Georgios D.; Imperatori, Claudio; Del Casale, Antonio; Di Pietro, Simone; Ferri, Vittoria R.; Serata, Daniele; Raccah, Ruggero N.; Zangen, Abraham; Angeletti, Gloria; Girardi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) is a new form of TMS allowing safe stimulation of deep brain regions. The objective of this preliminary study was to assess the role of dTMS maintenance sessions in protecting patients with bipolar disorder (BD) or recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) from developing depressive or manic relapses in a 12-month follow-up period. Methods: Twenty-four drug-resistant patients with a current depressive episode and a diagnosis of MDD or BD have been enrolled in the study. All the participants underwent daily dTMS sessions for 4?weeks. One group (maintenance – M group) received additional maintenance dTMS sessions weekly or twice a week. Results: After the first dTMS cycle, a significant reduction of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) scores was observed in all participants. Subsequently, the HDRS mean scores did not significantly change over time in the M group, while it significantly increased in the non-M-group after 6 and 12?months. Discussion: This study confirms previous evidence of a positive therapeutic effect of dTMS on depressive symptoms and suggests that, after recovery from acute episodes, maintenance dTMS sessions may be helpful in maintaining euthymia in a 12-month follow-up period. PMID:25709596

  6. Efficacy and safety of deep transcranial magnetic stimulation for major depression: a prospective multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Levkovitz, Yechiel; Isserles, Moshe; Padberg, Frank; Lisanby, Sarah H; Bystritsky, Alexander; Xia, Guohua; Tendler, Aron; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Winston, Jaron L; Dannon, Pinhas; Hafez, Hisham M; Reti, Irving M; Morales, Oscar G; Schlaepfer, Thomas E; Hollander, Eric; Berman, Joshua A; Husain, Mustafa M; Sofer, Uzi; Stein, Ahava; Adler, Shmulik; Deutsch, Lisa; Deutsch, Frederic; Roth, Yiftach; George, Mark S; Zangen, Abraham

    2015-02-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent and disabling condition, and many patients do not respond to available treatments. Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) is a new technology allowing non-surgical stimulation of relatively deep brain areas. This is the first double-blind randomized controlled multicenter study evaluating the efficacy and safety of dTMS in MDD. We recruited 212 MDD outpatients, aged 22-68 years, who had either failed one to four antidepressant trials or not tolerated at least two antidepressant treatments during the current episode. They were randomly assigned to monotherapy with active or sham dTMS. Twenty sessions of dTMS (18 Hz over the prefrontal cortex) were applied during 4 weeks acutely, and then biweekly for 12 weeks. Primary and secondary efficacy endpoints were the change in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-21) score and response/remission rates at week 5, respectively. dTMS induced a 6.39 point improvement in HDRS-21 scores, while a 3.28 point improvement was observed in the sham group (p=0.008), resulting in a 0.76 effect size. Response and remission rates were higher in the dTMS than in the sham group (response: 38.4 vs. 21.4%, p=0.013; remission: 32.6 vs. 14.6%, p=0.005). These differences between active and sham treatment were stable during the 12-week maintenance phase. dTMS was associated with few and minor side effects apart from one seizure in a patient where a protocol violation occurred. These results suggest that dTMS constitutes a novel intervention in MDD, which is efficacious and safe in patients not responding to antidepressant medications, and whose effect remains stable over 3 months of maintenance treatment. PMID:25655160

  7. Efficacy and safety of deep transcranial magnetic stimulation for major depression: a prospective multicenter randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Levkovitz, Yechiel; Isserles, Moshe; Padberg, Frank; Lisanby, Sarah H; Bystritsky, Alexander; Xia, Guohua; Tendler, Aron; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Winston, Jaron L; Dannon, Pinhas; Hafez, Hisham M; Reti, Irving M; Morales, Oscar G; Schlaepfer, Thomas E; Hollander, Eric; Berman, Joshua A; Husain, Mustafa M; Sofer, Uzi; Stein, Ahava; Adler, Shmulik; Deutsch, Lisa; Deutsch, Frederic; Roth, Yiftach; George, Mark S; Zangen, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent and disabling condition, and many patients do not respond to available treatments. Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) is a new technology allowing non-surgical stimulation of relatively deep brain areas. This is the first double-blind randomized controlled multicenter study evaluating the efficacy and safety of dTMS in MDD. We recruited 212 MDD outpatients, aged 22–68 years, who had either failed one to four antidepressant trials or not tolerated at least two antidepressant treatments during the current episode. They were randomly assigned to monotherapy with active or sham dTMS. Twenty sessions of dTMS (18 Hz over the prefrontal cortex) were applied during 4 weeks acutely, and then biweekly for 12 weeks. Primary and secondary efficacy endpoints were the change in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-21) score and response/remission rates at week 5, respectively. dTMS induced a 6.39 point improvement in HDRS-21 scores, while a 3.28 point improvement was observed in the sham group (p+0.008), resulting in a 0.76 effect size. Response and remission rates were higher in the dTMS than in the sham group (response: 38.4 vs. 21.4%, p+0.013; remission: 32.6 vs. 14.6%, p+0.005). These differences between active and sham treatment were stable during the 12-week maintenance phase. dTMS was associated with few and minor side effects apart from one seizure in a patient where a protocol violation occurred. These results suggest that dTMS constitutes a novel intervention in MDD, which is efficacious and safe in patients not responding to antidepressant medications, and whose effect remains stable over 3 months of maintenance treatment. PMID:25655160

  8. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marjorie A. Garvey; Volker Mall

    2008-01-01

    Developmental disabilities (e.g. attention deficit disorder; cerebral palsy) are frequently associated with deviations of the typical pattern of motor skill maturation. Neurophysiologic tools, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which probe motor cortex function, can potentially provide insights into both typical neuromotor maturation and the mechanisms underlying the motor skill deficits in children with developmental disabilities. These insights may set

  9. Original Research Cerebellar Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: The Role of Coil

    E-print Network

    Miall, Chris

    Keywords: Cerebellum TMS Cerebello brain inhibition Cerebellar brain inhibition TMS coil geometry Deep TMS magnetic stimulation (TMS) coil geometry has important effects on the evoked magnetic field, no study has cerebellar TMS studies. Ã? 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Introduction Transcranial magnetic

  10. Neural correlates of clinical improvement after deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (DTMS) for treatment-resistant depression: a case report using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Philippe-Olivier; Van den Eynde, Frederique; Zangen, Abraham; Berlim, Marcelo T

    2015-02-01

    We report the effects of a 4-week trial of deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (DTMS) on depressive and anxious symptoms and brain activity in a patient (Mrs A) with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). The protocol involved a pre- and a post-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan during which Mrs A had to perform a working memory task (i.e., n-back). Her baseline score on the 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D21) was 24, indicating severe depressive symptoms. Immediately after 4 weeks of daily DTMS treatment applied over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), her HAM-D21 score decreased to 13 (a 46% reduction), and 1 month later, it was 12 (a 50% reduction). Moreover, Mrs A's accuracy scores on the n-back task (i.e., 2-back condition) improved from 79% (baseline) to 96% (after DTMS treatment). At the neural level, Mrs A showed significantly increased brain activity in the working memory network (e.g., DLPFC, parietal cortex) during the execution of the 2-back condition after DTMS treatment compared to baseline. PMID:24313336

  11. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and cognitive neuroscience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent Walsh; Alan Cowey

    2000-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation has been used to investigate almost all areas of cognitive neuroscience. This article discusses the most important (and least understood) considerations regarding the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation for cognitive neuroscience and outlines advances in the use of this technique for the replication and extension of findings from neuropsychology. We also take a more speculative look forward

  12. Optimization of multiple coils immersed in a conducting liquid for half-hemisphere or whole-brain deep transcranial magnetic stimulation: A simulation study.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Sonia C P; Almeida, Jorge; Cavaleiro Miranda, Pedro; Salvador, Ricardo; Silvestre, Joao; Simoes, Hugo; Crespo, Paulo

    2014-08-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was proposed in 1985. Nevertheless, its wider use in the treatment of several neurologic diseases has been hindered by its inability to stimulate deep-brain regions. This is mainly due to the physical limiting effect arising from the presence of surface discontinuities, particularly between the scalp and air. Here, we present the optimization of a system of large multiple coils for whole-brain and half-hemisphere deep TMS, termed orthogonal configuration. COMSOL(®)-based simulations show that the system is capable of reaching the very center of a spherical brain phantom with 58% induction relative to surface maximum. Such penetration capability surpasses to the best of our knowledge that of existing state of the art TMS systems. This induction capability strongly relies on the immersion of the stimulating coils and part of the head of the patient in a conducting liquid (e.g. simple saline solution). We show the impact of the presence of this surrounding conducting liquid by comparing the performance of our system with and without such liquid. In addition, we also compare the performance of the proposed coil with that of a circular coil, a figure-eight coil, and the H-coil. Finally, in addition to its whole-brain stimulation capability (e.g. potentially useful for prophylaxis of epileptic patients) the system is also able to stimulate mainly one brain hemisphere, which may be useful in stroke rehabilitation, among other applications. PMID:25570015

  13. Outcomes in spasticity after repetitive transcranial magnetic and transcranial direct current stimulations

    PubMed Central

    Gunduz, Aysegul; Kumru, Hatice; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulations mainly consist of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation exhibits satisfactory outcomes in improving multiple sclerosis, stroke, spinal cord injury and cerebral palsy-induced spasticity. By contrast, transcranial direct current stimulation has only been studied in post-stroke spasticity. To better validate the efficacy of non-invasive brain stimulations in improving the spasticity post-stroke, more prospective cohort studies involving large sample sizes are needed. PMID:25206878

  14. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Children

    PubMed Central

    Garvey, Marjorie A.; Mall, Volker

    2008-01-01

    Developmental disabilities (e.g. attention deficit disorder; cerebral palsy) are frequently associated with deviations of the typical pattern of motor skill maturation. Neurophysiologic tools, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which probe motor cortex function, can potentially provide insights into both typical neuromotor maturation and the mechanisms underlying the motor skill deficits in children with developmental disabilities. These insights may set the stage for finding effective interventions for these disorders. We review the literature pertaining to the use of TMS in pediatrics. Most TMS-evoked parameters show age-related changes in typically developing children and some of these are abnormal in a number of childhood-onset neurological disorders. Although no TMS-evoked parameters are diagnostic for any disorder, changes in certain parameters appear to reflect disease burden or may provide a measure of treatment-related improvement. Furthermore, TMS may be especially useful when combined with other neurophysiologic modalities (e.g. fMRI). However, much work remains to be done to determine if TMS-evoked parameters can be used as valid and reliable biomarkers for disease-burden, the natural history of neurological injury and repair, and the efficacy of pharmacological and rehabilitation interventions. PMID:18221913

  15. Transcranial magnetic stimulation studies of visuospatial attentional control

    E-print Network

    Kastner, Sabine

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation studies of visuospatial attentional control Sara M Szczepanski. Introduction and context Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive technique that involves is generated, inducing current flow in the brain region directly underneath the coil. The magnetic pulse

  16. [Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in clinical neurology].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2010-11-01

    To date, various kinds of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) methods have been widely used in clinical neurology. For the clinical examination, single-pulse TMS is generally used, whereas, for the future therapy, repetitive TMS (rTMS) is widely researched. To evaluate the function of corticospinal tract, central motor conduction time (CMCT) is measured using single-pulse TMS. For precise analyses, single-pulse and double-pulse magnetic brainstem stimulation are performed to measure the cortical-brainstem conduction time and brainstem-spinal conduction time. To evaluate corticospinal tract function for leg muscles, cortico-conus motor conduction time (CCCT) is considered to be more accurate than CMCT. Magnetic cerebellar stimulation is effective to distinguish the cerebellar afferent pathway dysfunction from cerebellar efferent or cerebellar cortical dysfunctions. In animal research, rTMS releases the dopamine in monkey's brain and induces functional changes lasting over one week. In fact, as compared to sham-rTMS, high-frequency rTMS (5Hz) over the supplementary motor area has been shown to be significantly effective in the patients with Parkinson's disease. A new patterned rTMS protocol, quadripulse stimulation (QPS), can produce a bidirectional motor cortical plasticity depending on the interval of the pulses within a burst. rTMS including QPS might relieve symptoms in patients with neurological and psychiatric disorders. PMID:21921446

  17. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to SMA worsens complex movements in Parkinson's disease

    E-print Network

    Pullman, Seth L.

    the therapeutic potential of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for Parkinson's disease (PD analysis, timed motor performance tests, United Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), patient self Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Parkinson's disease; Transcranial magnetic

  18. Sham Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Using Electrical Stimulation of the Scalp

    E-print Network

    Chatterjee, Anjan

    Sham Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Using Electrical Stimulation of the Scalp M Mennemeier, PhD1 of electrical stimulation necessary to match 1-Hz rTMS was developed in one sample of normal subjects. The sham of stimulation was active or sham or which was electrical or magnetic. Naïve subjects incorrectly picked sham

  19. Handedness, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and bulimic disorders.

    PubMed

    Van den Eynde, F; Broadbent, H; Guillaume, S; Claudino, A; Campbell, I C; Schmidt, U

    2012-05-01

    Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) research in psychiatry mostly excludes left-handed participants. We recruited left-handed people with a bulimic disorder and found that stimulation of the left prefrontal cortex may result in different effects in left- and right-handed people. This highlights the importance of handedness and cortex lateralisation for rTMS. PMID:21067901

  20. Use of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberman, Lindsay M.; Rotenberg, Alexander; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    The clinical, social and financial burden of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is staggering. We urgently need valid and reliable biomarkers for diagnosis and effective treatments targeting the often debilitating symptoms. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is beginning to be used by a number of centers worldwide and may represent a novel…

  1. Functional neuroimaging and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Wu, Allan D

    2007-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging provides insights into the pathogenesis of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) and improves our understanding of both established neuromodulatory therapies such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) and potential ones such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Functional imaging studies can reveal the consequences of the dopaminergic lesion in PD among a widespread network of subcortical-cortical regions. Characteristic patterns of normal cortical brain activation for motor tasks are systematically altered in PD. Recent work has emphasized the task dependence of these changes and their gradual evolution over the course of the disease. Clinically relevant PD treatment with medications or DBS tends to normalize these patterns. In this context, rTMS is discussed as a potential noninvasive alternative for neuromodulation of cortical function. Although rTMS is not a current treatment, we review recent rTMS studies in PD that suggest its promise, illustrate how functional imaging can guide application of rTMS, and suggest that subcortical dopamine release could be an rTMS mechanism of action. The combination of rTMS and functional neuroimaging broadens our knowledge of functional cortical networks in PD, which can eventually provide physicians with pathophysiologic information about different PD treatment options and rationales for neuromodulatory interventions. PMID:17514152

  2. Use of transcranial magnetic stimulation to influence behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benzi M. Kluger; William J. Triggs

    2007-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive technique that allows researchers to induce electrical currents in\\u000a focal areas of the cerebral cortex. These currents can transiently activate or inhibit focal cortical areas and thus influence\\u000a behavior. In the 20 years since its introduction, TMS has been applied to the study and treatment of a wide variety of neurologic\\u000a and psychiatric

  3. Comparison of descending volleys evoked by transcranial magnetic and electric stimulation in conscious humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V Di Lazzaro; A Oliviero; P Profice; E Saturno; F Pilato; A Insola; P Mazzone; P Tonali; J. C Rothwell

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: The present experiments were designed to compare the understanding of the transcranial electric and magnetic stimulation of the human motorcortex.Methods: The spinal volleys evoked by single transcranial magnetic or electric stimulation over the cerebral motor cortex were recorded from a bipolar electrode inserted into the cervical epidural space of two conscious human subjects. These volleys were termed D- and

  4. [Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Abo, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    NEURO (NovEl intervention Using Repetitive TMS and intensive Occupational therapy) have been recently reported to be clinically beneficial for post-stroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis. We confirmed the safety and feasibility of the protocol in 1,008 post-stroke patients from different institutions, and identify predictors of the clinical response to the treatment. And in our randomized controlled study of NEURO and constraint-induced movement therapy, NEURO showed the superiority of NEURO relative to constraint-induced movement therapy; NEURO improved the motion of the whole upper limb and resulted. We have investigated the recovery mechanism using electrophysiological examination and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Low-frequency rTMS applied to the non-lesional hemisphere in post-stroke patients significantly decreased the F-wave frequency and amplitude in the affected upper limb, suggesting that this modality has an anti-spastic effect in post-stroke patients. Serial functional magnetic resonance imaging indicated that our proposed treatment can induce functional cortical reorganization, leading to motor functional recovery of the affected upper limb. Especially, it seems that neural activation in the lesional hemisphere plays an important role in such recovery in poststroke hemiparetic patients. PMID:24291951

  5. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Child Neurology: Current and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Richard E.; Rotenberg, Alexander; Ousley, Molliann; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2008-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a method for focal brain stimulation based on the principle of electromagnetic induction, where small intracranial electric currents are generated by a powerful, rapidly changing extracranial magnetic field. Over the past 2 decades TMS has shown promise in the diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment of neurological and psychiatric disease in adults, but has been used on a more limited basis in children. We reviewed the literature to identify potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications of TMS in child neurology and also its safety in pediatrics. Although TMS has not been associated with any serious side effects in children and appears to be well tolerated, general safety guidelines should be established. The potential for applications of TMS in child neurology and psychiatry is significant. Given its excellent safety profile and possible therapeutic effect, this technique should develop as an important tool in pediatric neurology over the next decade. PMID:18056688

  6. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in anorexia nervosa: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Van den Eynde, F; Guillaume, S; Broadbent, H; Campbell, I C; Schmidt, U

    2013-02-01

    The search for new treatments to improve outcome in people with anorexia nervosa continues. This pilot study investigated whether one session of high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) delivered to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex reduces eating disorder related symptoms following exposure to visual and real food stimuli. Safety and tolerability were also assessed. Ten right-handed people with anorexia nervosa underwent one session of rTMS. Subjective experiences related to the eating disorder (e.g. urge to restrict, feeling full etc.) were assessed before and after rTMS. Non-parametric repeated measures tests were used. rTMS was safe and well-tolerated, and resulted in reduced levels of feeling full, feeling fat and feeling anxious. Thus, rTMS may reduce core symptoms of anorexia nervosa. Future research should establish the therapeutic potential of rTMS in anorexia nervosa. PMID:21880470

  7. Use of transcranial magnetic stimulation in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Oberman, Lindsay M; Rotenberg, Alexander; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2015-02-01

    The clinical, social and financial burden of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is staggering. We urgently need valid and reliable biomarkers for diagnosis and effective treatments targeting the often debilitating symptoms. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is beginning to be used by a number of centers worldwide and may represent a novel technique with both diagnostic and therapeutic potential. Here we critically review the current scientific evidence for the use of TMS in ASD. Though preliminary data suggests promise, there is simply not enough evidence yet to conclusively support the clinical widespread use of TMS in ASD, neither diagnostically nor therapeutically. Carefully designed and properly controlled clinical trials are warranted to evaluate the true potential of TMS in ASD. PMID:24127165

  8. Effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation on force of finger pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odagaki, Masato; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Hiwaki, Osamu

    2009-04-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is used to explore many aspects of brain function, and to treat neurological disorders. Cortical motor neuronal activation by TMS over the primary motor cortex (M1) produces efferent signals that pass through the corticospinal tracts. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) are observed in muscles innervated by the stimulated motor cortex. TMS can cause a silent period (SP) following MEP in voluntary electromyography (EMG). The present study examined the effects of TMS eliciting MEP and SP on the force of pinching using two fingers. Subjects pinched a wooden block with the thumb and index finger. TMS was applied to M1 during the pinch task. EMG of first dorsal interosseous muscles and pinch forces were measured. Force output increased after the TMS, and then oscillated. The results indicated that the motor control system to keep isotonic forces of the muscles participated in the finger pinch was disrupted by the TMS.

  9. Effect of Prefrontal Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Preliminary Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin D. Greenberg; Mark S. George; Juliet D. Martin; Jonathan Benjamin; Thomas E. Schlaepfer; Margaret Altemus; Eric M. Wassermann; Robert M. Post; Dennis L. Murphy

    1997-01-01

    Objective: Prefrontal mechanisms are implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder. The authors investigated whether prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation influenced obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms. Method: Twelve patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder were given repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (80% motor threshold, 20 Hz\\/2 seconds per minute for 20 minutes) to a right lateral prefrontal, a left lateral prefrontal, and a midoccipital (control) site on separate

  10. Medical devices; neurological devices; classification of the transcranial magnetic stimulator for headache. Final order.

    PubMed

    2014-07-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the transcranial magnetic stimulator for headache into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order, and will be part of the codified language for the transcranial magnetic stimulator for headache classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. PMID:25016622

  11. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in schizophrenia: the contribution of neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhong-de; Wang, R; Prakash, Ravi; Chaudhury, S; Dayananda, G

    2012-01-01

    At the most basic level, the Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation(TMS) is a neuro-scientific tool that exerts its action by influencing the neo-cortical functions. However, in-spite of so many well-evidenced roles of TMS in neuropsychiatric conditions, its exact mechanism of action remains to be known. More intriguing are its therapeutic effects in Schizophrenia at the Cerebral-level. In this review, we adopt a neuro-imaging approach for this exploration. We review the present literature for the studies in Schizophrenia which have used a combination of rTMS with 1) Electroenchephalogram (EEG) 2)The functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and the 3) Positron Emission Tomography (PET)/ Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography. The TMS-EEG combination provides direct effects of TMS on the electro- magnetic field (EMF) of brain. The TMS-fMRI/PET/SPECT combinations are very effective in exploring the functional connectivity in brains of Schizophrenia patients as well as in performing rTMS guided neuro-navigation. Our review suggests that TMS combined with other neuroimaging modalities are needed for a better clarification of its neural actions. PMID:23409741

  12. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Activates Specific Regions in Rat Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Ru-Rong; Schlaepfer, Thomas E.; Aizenman, Carlos D.; Epstein, Charles M.; Qiu, Dike; Huang, Justin C.; Rupp, Fabio

    1998-12-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive technique to induce electric currents in the brain. Although rTMS is being evaluated as a possible alternative to electroconvulsive therapy for the treatment of refractory depression, little is known about the pattern of activation induced in the brain by rTMS. We have compared immediate early gene expression in rat brain after rTMS and electroconvulsive stimulation, a well-established animal model for electroconvulsive therapy. Our result shows that rTMS applied in conditions effective in animal models of depression induces different patterns of immediate-early gene expression than does electroconvulsive stimulation. In particular, rTMS evokes strong neural responses in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) and in other regions involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms. The response in PVT is independent of the orientation of the stimulation probe relative to the head. Part of this response is likely because of direct activation, as repetitive magnetic stimulation also activates PVT neurons in brain slices.

  13. Modulating functional and dysfunctional mentalizing by transcranial magnetic stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Schuwerk, Tobias; Langguth, Berthold; Sommer, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Mentalizing, the ability to attribute mental states to others and oneself, is a cognitive function with high relevance for social interactions. Recent neuroscientific research has increasingly contributed to attempts to decompose this complex social cognitive function into constituting neurocognitive building blocks. Additionally, clinical research that focuses on social cognition to find links between impaired social functioning and neurophysiological deviations has accumulated evidence that mentalizing is affected in most psychiatric disorders. Recently, both lines of research have started to employ transcranial magnetic stimulation: the first to modulate mentalizing in order to specify its neurocognitive components, the latter to treat impaired mentalizing in clinical conditions. This review integrates findings of these two different approaches to draw a more detailed picture of the neurocognitive basis of mentalizing and its deviations in psychiatric disorders. Moreover, we evaluate the effectiveness of hitherto employed stimulation techniques and protocols, paradigms and outcome measures. Based on this overview we highlight new directions for future research on the neurocognitive basis of functional and dysfunctional social cognition. PMID:25477838

  14. Physiology of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Hoogendam, Janna Marie; Ramakers, Geert M J; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2010-04-01

    During the last two decades, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has rapidly become a valuable method to investigate noninvasively the human brain. In addition, repetitive TMS (rTMS) is able to induce changes in brain activity that last after stimulation. Therefore, rTMS has therapeutic potential in patients with neurologic and psychiatric disorders. It is, however, unclear by which mechanism rTMS induces these lasting effects on the brain. The effects of rTMS are often described as LTD- or LTP-like, because the duration of these alterations seems to implicate changes in synaptic plasticity. In this review we therefore discuss, based on rTMS experiments and knowledge about synaptic plasticity, whether the physiologic basis of rTMS-effects relates to changes in synaptic plasticity. We present seven lines of evidence that strongly suggest a link between the aftereffects induced by rTMS and the induction of synaptic plasticity. It is, nevertheless, important to realize that at present it is impossible to demonstrate a direct link between rTMS on the one hand and synaptic plasticity on the other. Therefore, we provide suggestions for future, innovating research, aiming to investigate both the local effects of rTMS on the synapse and the effects of rTMS on other, more global levels of brain organization. Only in that way can the aftereffects of rTMS on the brain be completely understood. PMID:20633438

  15. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for major depressive disorder: a review.

    PubMed

    Daskalakis, Z Jeff; Levinson, Andrea J; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2008-09-01

    Several studies demonstrated that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an efficacious treatment for treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (TRD). Recent metaanalyses and more recent large multicentre studies provided evidence suggesting that rTMS is indeed a promising treatment; however, its efficacy has often been shown to be modest, compared with sham stimulation. We review these lines of evidence and discuss several reasons that may explain the modest therapeutic efficacy in most of these studies, including: most involved left-sided treatment alone to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) only, which may be less optimal than applying bilateral stimulation; suboptimal methods were used to target the DLPFC (that is, the 5-cm anterior method), limiting the treatment potential of inherently a targeted form of treatment; some treatment durations were short (that is, 2 to 4 weeks); and stimulation intensity might have been insufficient by not considering coil-to-cortex distance, which has been linked to rTMS-induced antidepressant response. Future studies attempting to address the above-mentioned limitations are necessary to potentially optimize the efficacy of this already promising treatment option in TRD. Finally, it is also essential that research investigate the mechanisms of therapeutic efficacy, thus increases in understanding can be translated into enhanced treatment. For several reasons that will be reviewed, cortical excitability may represent an important mechanism, linked to the therapeutic efficacy of this disorder. PMID:18801218

  16. Effect of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Neuronal Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unsal, Ahmet; Hadimani, Ravi; Jiles, David

    2013-03-01

    The human brain contains around 100 billion nerve cells controlling our day to day activities. Consequently, brain disorders often result in impairments such as paralysis, loss of coordination and seizure. It has been said that 1 in 5 Americans suffer some diagnosable mental disorder. There is an urgent need to understand the disorders, prevent them and if possible, develop permanent cure for them. As a result, a significant amount of research activities is being directed towards brain research. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a promising tool for diagnosing and treating brain disorders. It is a non-invasive treatment method that produces a current flow in the brain which excites the neurons. Even though TMS has been verified to have advantageous effects on various brain related disorders, there have not been enough studies on the impact of TMS on cells. In this study, we are investigating the electrophysiological effects of TMS on one dimensional neuronal culture grown in a circular pathway. Electrical currents are produced on the neuronal networks depending on the directionality of the applied field. This aids in understanding how neuronal networks react under TMS treatment.

  17. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: pathophysiological insights

    PubMed Central

    Vucic, Steve; Ziemann, Ulf; Eisen, Andrew; Hallett, Mark; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the motor neurons in the motor cortex, brainstem and spinal cord. A combination of upper and lower motor neuron dysfunction comprises the clinical ALS phenotype. Although the ALS phenotype was first observed by Charcot over 100?years ago, the site of ALS onset and the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the development of motor neuron degeneration remain to be elucidated. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) enables non-invasive assessment of the functional integrity of the motor cortex and its corticomotoneuronal projections. To date, TMS studies have established motor cortical and corticospinal dysfunction in ALS, with cortical hyperexcitability being an early feature in sporadic forms of ALS and preceding the clinical onset of familial ALS. Taken together, a central origin of ALS is supported by TMS studies, with an anterograde transsynaptic mechanism implicated in ALS pathogenesis. Of further relevance, TMS techniques reliably distinguish ALS from mimic disorders, despite a compatible peripheral disease burden, thereby suggesting a potential diagnostic utility of TMS in ALS. This review will focus on the mechanisms underlying the generation of TMS measures used in assessment of cortical excitability, the contribution of TMS in enhancing the understanding of ALS pathophysiology and the potential diagnostic utility of TMS techniques in ALS. PMID:23264687

  18. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of substance addiction.

    PubMed

    Gorelick, David A; Zangen, Abraham; George, Mark S

    2014-10-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive method of brain stimulation used to treat a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, but is still in the early stages of study as addiction treatment. We identified 19 human studies using repetitive TMS (rTMS) to manipulate drug craving or use, which exposed a total of 316 adults to active rTMS. Nine studies involved tobacco, six alcohol, three cocaine, and one methamphetamine. The majority of studies targeted high-frequency (5-20 Hz; expected to stimulate neuronal activity) rTMS pulses to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Only five studies were controlled clinical trials: two of four nicotine trials found decreased cigarette smoking; the cocaine trial found decreased cocaine use. Many aspects of optimal treatment remain unknown, including rTMS parameters, duration of treatment, relationship to cue-induced craving, and concomitant treatment. The mechanisms of rTMS potential therapeutic action in treating addictions are poorly understood, but may involve increased dopamine and glutamate function in corticomesolimbic brain circuits and modulation of neural activity in brain circuits that mediate cognitive processes relevant to addiction, such as response inhibition, selective attention, and reactivity to drug-associated cues. rTMS treatment of addiction must be considered experimental at this time, but appears to have a promising future. PMID:25069523

  19. Modeling the effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation on cortical circuits.

    PubMed

    Esser, Steve K; Hill, Sean L; Tononi, Giulio

    2005-07-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is commonly used to activate or inactivate specific cortical areas in a noninvasive manner. Because of technical constraints, the precise effects of TMS on cortical circuits are difficult to assess experimentally. Here, this issue is investigated by constructing a detailed model of a portion of the thalamocortical system and examining the effects of the simulated delivery of a TMS pulse. The model, which incorporates a large number of physiological and anatomical constraints, includes 33,000 spiking neurons arranged in a 3-layered motor cortex and over 5 million intra- and interlayer synaptic connections. The model was validated by reproducing several results from the experimental literature. These include the frequency, timing, dose response, and pharmacological modulation of epidurally recorded responses to TMS (the so-called I-waves), as well as paired-pulse response curves consistent with data from several experimental studies. The modeled responses to simulated TMS pulses in different experimental paradigms provide a detailed, self-consistent account of the neural and synaptic activities evoked by TMS within prototypical cortical circuits. PMID:15788519

  20. Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic simulation prevents chronic epileptic seizure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yinxu; Wang, Xiaoming; Ke, Sha; Tan, Juan; Hu, Litian; Zhang, Yaodan; Cui, Wenjuan

    2013-09-25

    Although low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic simulation can potentially treat epilepsy, its underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated the influence of low-frequency re-petitive transcranial magnetic simulation on changes in several nonlinear dynamic electroence-phalographic parameters in rats with chronic epilepsy and explored the mechanism underlying petitive transcranial magnetic simulation-induced antiepileptic effects. An epilepsy model was es-tablished using lithium-pilocarpine intraperitoneal injection into adult Sprague-Dawley rats, which were then treated with repetitive transcranial magnetic simulation for 7 consecutive days. Nonlinear electroencephalographic parameters were obtained from the rats at 7, 14, and 28 days post-stimulation. Results showed significantly lower mean correlation-dimension and Kolmogo-rov-entropy values for stimulated rats than for non-stimulated rats. At 28 days, the complexity and point-wise correlation dimensional values were lower in stimulated rats. Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic simulation has suppressive effects on electrical activity in epileptic rats, thus explaining its effectiveness in treating epilepsy. PMID:25206567

  1. 3-dimensional modeling of transcranial magnetic stimulation: Design and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas, Felipe Santiago

    Over the past three decades, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has emerged as an effective tool for many research, diagnostic and therapeutic applications in humans. TMS delivers highly localized brain stimulations via non-invasive externally applied magnetic fields. This non-invasive, painless technique provides researchers and clinicians a unique tool capable of stimulating both the central and peripheral nervous systems. However, a complete analysis of the macroscopic electric fields produced by TMS has not yet been performed. In this dissertation, we present a thorough examination of the total electric field induced by TMS in air and a realistic head model with clinically relevant coil poses. In the first chapter, a detailed account of TMS coil wiring geometry was shown to provide significant improvements in the accuracy of primary E-field calculations. Three-dimensional models which accounted for the TMS coil's wire width, height, shape and number of turns clearly improved the fit of calculated-to-measured E-fields near the coil body. Detailed primary E-field models were accurate up to the surface of the coil body (within 0.5% of measured values) whereas simple models were often inadequate (up to 32% different from measured). In the second chapter, we addressed the importance of the secondary E-field created by surface charge accumulation during TMS using the boundary element method (BEM). 3-D models were developed using simple head geometries in order to test the model and compare it with measured values. The effects of tissue geometry, size and conductivity were also investigated. Finally, a realistic head model was used to assess the effect of multiple surfaces on the total E-field. We found that secondary E-fields have the greatest impact at areas in close proximity to each tissue layer. Throughout the head, the secondary E-field magnitudes were predominantly between 25% and 45% of the primary E-fields magnitude. The direction of the secondary E-field was primarily in opposition to the primary E-field, however there are some locations (i.e. going from high to low conductivity) where the secondary E-field adds to the primary E-field. Thus the total E-field vector may change in magnitude and direction. These findings show that realistic head geometries should be used when modeling the total E-field. In the third chapter, we addressed the importance of the secondary electric field (E-field) in a realistic head model using the boundary element method at clinically relevant coil positions and orientations (ex. primary motor cortex) during transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). The effective E-fields produced at each clinical orientation were then correlated with electromyographic (EMG) recordings using the total E-field with the cortical column cosine model. Some TMS coil orientations led to total E-fields as much as 40% lower than the primary E-fields at sites located on the TMS coil's main axis of stimulation. Effective E-field values at the cortical level, were highly correlated (r = 0.9644, P < 0.01) with EMG responses indicating that both local biological characteristics (such as tissue geometry and electrical conductivity) and the total E-field induced by the TMS coil may provide a means for predicting the optimum coil position/orientation to consistently produce neuronal activations.

  2. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in cognitive neuroscience – virtual lesion, chronometry, and functional connectivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alvaro Pascual-Leone; Vincent Walsh; John Rothwell

    2000-01-01

    Fifteen years after its introduction by Anthony Barker, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) appears to be ‘coming of age’ in cognitive neuroscience and promises to reshape the way we investigate brain–behavior relations. Among the many methods now available for imaging the activity of the human brain, magnetic stimulation is the only technique that allows us to interfere actively with brain function.

  3. ESTIMULACIÓN MAGNETICA TRANSCRANEAL: APLICACIONES EN NEUROCIENCIA COGNITIVA TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION: AN APPROACH FROM COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beatriz Calvo Merino; Patrick Haggard

    Objective: In this review we trace some of the mayor developments in the use of Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) as a technique for the investigation of cognitive neuroscience and its application as an assessment and rehabilitation tool in some psychiatric and neurological disorders. Technical aspects and safety studies in animal and humans of the magnetic stimulation are also reviewed. Development:

  4. Analysis of the effect of repeated-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation at the Guangming point on electroencephalograms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin; Fu, Lingdi; Geng, Yuehua; Zhai, Xiang; Liu, Yanhua

    2014-01-01

    Here, we administered repeated-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to healthy people at the left Guangming (GB37) and a mock point, and calculated the sample entropy of electroencephalo-gram signals using nonlinear dynamics. Additionally, we compared electroencephalogram sample entropy of signals in response to visual stimulation before, during, and after repeated-pulse tran-scranial magnetic stimulation at the Guangming. Results showed that electroencephalogram sample entropy at left (F3) and right (FP2) frontal electrodes were significantly different depending on where the magnetic stimulation was administered. Additionally, compared with the mock point, electroencephalogram sample entropy was higher after stimulating the Guangming point. When visual stimulation at Guangming was given before repeated-pulse transcranial magnetic stimula-tion, significant differences in sample entropy were found at five electrodes (C3, Cz, C4, P3, T8) in parietal cortex, the central gyrus, and the right temporal region compared with when it was given after repeated-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation, indicating that repeated-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation at Guangming can affect visual function. Analysis of electroencephalogram revealed that when visual stimulation preceded repeated pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation, sample entropy values were higher at the C3, C4, and P3 electrodes and lower at the Cz and T8 electrodes than visual stimulation followed preceded repeated pulse transcranial magnetic stimula-tion. The findings indicate that repeated-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation at the Guangming evokes different patterns of electroencephalogram signals than repeated-pulse transcranial mag-netic stimulation at other nearby points on the body surface, and that repeated-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation at the Guangming is associated with changes in the complexity of visually evoked electroencephalogram signals in parietal regions, central gyrus, and temporal regions. PMID:25206853

  5. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for Mal de Debarquement Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Yoon-Hee; Cui, Yongyan; Baloh, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Mal de debarquement syndrome (MdDS) is a chronic disorder of imbalance characterized by a feeling of rocking and swaying. The disorder starts after prolonged exposure to passive motion such as from a boat or plane. All medical treatment is palliative and symptoms that persist beyond six months show low likelihood of remission. This pilot study explored the feasibility and tolerability of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as potential treatment for MdDS. Patients/Intervention Ten subjects (8 women) with persistent MdDS lasting from 10 to 91 months were given one session each of four counterbalanced protocols: left 10Hz (high frequency), left 1Hz (low frequency), right 10Hz, and right 1Hz rTMS over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Main Outcome Measure Reduction of rocking sensation reported on a visual analogue scale. Results 1) Right-handers improved most with 10Hz stimulation over the left DLPFC while left-handers improved most with 10Hz stimulation over the right DLPFC; 2) Low frequency DLPFC stimulation was associated with symptom worsening in some subjects; 3) Duration of symptoms was negatively correlated with treatment response; 4) rTMS was well-tolerated in MdDS subjects, showing similar rates of headache (10 of 40 sessions) as for other studies; 5) Fatigue occurred after six sessions usually with low frequency stimulation. Conclusion rTMS was well-tolerated in subjects with MdDS with promising short-term symptom improvement. Future studies of rTMS in MdDS may consider sequential days of stimulation, longer post-rTMS observation periods, formal measurement of post-TMS fatigue, and randomization with a sham condition. PMID:23202153

  6. [Therapeutic application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for major depression].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Motoaki

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported that approximately one third of patients with major depression are medication-resistant. In spite of partial responsiveness to antidepressants, most of the medication-resistant patients remain incompletely remitted without successful social reintegration. Symptom severity could be mild to moderate for many of them due to the incomplete remission, and, thus, electroconvulsive therapy is not applicable for them. However, they usually feel some difficulty performing cognitive behavioral therapy or social rehabilitation training due to residual symptoms such as thought inhibition and hypobulia. Under such conditions, those patients are longing for treatment options complementary to antidepressants, for less painful social reintegration. In October 2008, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the United States finally approved repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) for medication-resistant patients with major depression. The main reason for the FDA approval was that rTMS had shown similar effectiveness (effect size around 0.39 in a recent meta-analysis) to antidepressants for medication-resistant patients without serious adverse effects. TMS is a brain stimulation methodology employing magnetic energy which can penetrate the skull bone without energy decay, and, thus, eddy currents induced by TMS can stimulate cerebral cortices effectively and locally. When TMS is repetitively delivered over several hundreds of pulses within a session, stimulation effects can be observed beyond the stimulation period as aftereffects. Moreover, when a daily rTMS session is repeated over several weeks, rTMS could have antidepressant effects. Clinical trials of rTMS for depression have employed two kinds of rTMS protocol of high-frequency (facilitatory) rTMS over the left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex (DLPFC) and low-frequency (inhibitory) rTMS over the right DLPFC. Although the antidepressant action of rTMS over DLPFC has not been fully elucidated, the neuronal level hypothesis includes the induction of neuroplasticity and activation of the dopamine system, and the neuronal circuitry level hypothesis includes the activation of the left DLPFC and inhibition of the right DLPFC and (para) limbic system such as the subgenual cingulate cortex and amygdala. On the therapeutic application of rTMS in clinical psychiatry, neuroethics and low invasiveness should be fully considered along with a negative history of punitive electroconvulsive therapy and prefrontal lobotomy. It is important to investigate the neurobiological mechanism of rTMS treatment and to place rTMS in a suitable position within comprehensive treatment algorithms of major depression. PMID:23367835

  7. Spatial neglect in near and far space investigated by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Otto Bjoertomt; Alan Cowey; Vincent Walsh

    2002-01-01

    Summary Localized repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to disrupt visuospatial perception in the near and far space of six healthy volunteer subjects. In addi- tion to the baseline condition, they were stimulated over the right posterior parietal cortex, the right or left dorsal occipital cortex or the right ventral occipital cortex, during the brief presentation of a transected horizontal

  8. A new method for reproducible coil positioning in transcranial magnetic stimulation mapping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro Cavaleiro Miranda; Mamede de Carvalho; Isabel Conceição; M. L. Sales Luis; Eduardo Ducla-Soares

    1997-01-01

    A new method is presented for mapping the motor cortex by transcranial magnetic stimulation in which the position of the stimulation coil on the scalp is measured using a 3D digitizer. The reproducibility of the method was tested by mapping 3 times the left abductor digiti minimi of 6 right-handed subjects and calculating the position of the centre of gravity

  9. MRI-free neuronavigation for transcranial magnetic stimulation in severe depression

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    MRI-free neuronavigation for transcranial magnetic stimulation in severe depression Beno^it Comb that this neuronavigation method is reproducible and acceptable for routine application of rTMS in severe depression. 1 neuronavigation without MRI in the context of rTMS for severe, drug-resistant depression. It is generally admitted

  10. Low and High Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for the Treatment of Spasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Angela C.; Dionisio, Karen; Pitskel, Naomi Bass; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Orsati, Fernanda; Ferreira, Merari J. L.; Boggio, Paulo S.; Lima, Moises C.; Rigonatti, Sergio P.; Fregni, Felipe

    2007-01-01

    The development of non-invasive techniques of cortical stimulation, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), has opened new potential avenues for the treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases. We hypothesized that an increase in the activity in the motor cortex by cortical stimulation would increase its inhibitory influence on spinal…

  11. Functional neuroimaging of the baboon during concurrent image-guided transcranial magnetic stimulation

    E-print Network

    Duong, Timothy Q.

    Functional neuroimaging of the baboon during concurrent image-guided transcranial magnetic different TMS variables, therefore we developed a baboon model to facilitate testing of some of the current healthy, adult baboons. Published by Elsevier Inc. Introduction Over the past three decades, researchers

  12. Functional Connectivity of Human Premotor and Motor Cortex Explored with Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Munchau; B. R. Bloem; K. Irlbacher; M. R. Trimble; J. C. Rothwell

    2002-01-01

    Connections between the premotor cortex and the primary motor cortex are dense and are important in the visual guidance of arm movements. We have shown previously that it is possi- ble to engage these connections in humans and to measure the net amount of inhibition\\/facilitation from premotor to motor cortex using single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). The aim of this

  13. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and the motor learning-associated cortical plasticity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milos Ljubisavljevic

    2006-01-01

    It has been well established that repetitive motor performance and skill learning alter the functional organization of human corticomotoneuronal system. Over the past decade, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has helped to demonstrate motor practice and learning-related changes in corticomotoneuronal excitability and representational plasticity. It has also provided some insights into the mechanisms underlying such plasticity. TMS-derived indices show that motor

  14. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in the visual system. II. Characterization of induced phosphenes and scotomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Kammer; Klaas Puls; Michael Erb; Wolfgang Grodd

    2005-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) induces phosphenes and disrupts visual perception when applied over the occipital pole. Both the underlying mechanisms and the brain structures involved are still unclear. In the first part of this study we show that the masking effect of TMS differs to masking by light in terms of the psychometric function. Here we investigate the emergence of

  15. The Role of the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex in Bimodal Divided Attention: Two Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Adrienne Johnson; Antonio P. Strafella; Robert J. Zatorre

    2007-01-01

    The neural processes underlying the ability to divide attention between multiple sensory modalities remain poorly understood. To investigate the role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in bimodal divided attention, we completed two repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) studies. We tested the hypothesis that the DLPFC is necessary in the ability to divide attention across modalities. This hypothesis originated as

  16. Release of premotor activity after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of prefrontal cortex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Massimo Gangitano; Felix M. Mottaghy; Alvaro Pascual-Leone

    2008-01-01

    In the present study we aimed to explore by means of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) the reciprocal influences between prefrontal cortex (PFC) and premotor cortex (PMC). Subjects were asked to observe on a computer monitor different pictures representing manipulations of different kind of tools. They had to produce a movement (go condition) or to keep the resting position (no-go

  17. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in controlled treatment studies: are some “sham” forms active?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colleen K. Loo; Janet L. Taylor; Simon C. Gandevia; Benjamin N. McDarmont; Philip B. Mitchell; Perminder S. Sachdev

    2000-01-01

    Background: Carefully designed controlled studies are essential in further evaluating the therapeutic efficacy of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in psychiatric disorders. A major methodological concern is the design of the “sham” control for TMS. An ideal sham would produce negligible cortical stimulation in conjunction with a scalp sensation akin to real treatment. Strategies employed so far include alterations in the

  18. Noninvasive techniques for probing neurocircuitry and treating illness: vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark S George; Gary Aston-Jones

    2010-01-01

    Although the preceding chapters discuss much of the new knowledge of neurocircuitry of neuropsychiatric diseases, and an invasive approach to treatment, this chapter describes and reviews the noninvasive methods of testing circuit-based theories and treating neuropsychiatric diseases that do not involve implanting electrodes into the brain or on its surface. These techniques are transcranial magnetic stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, and

  19. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation: treatments for cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms in the neurodegenerative dementias?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Two methods of non-invasive brain stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), have demonstrable positive effects on cognition and can ameliorate neuropsychiatric symptoms such as depression. Less is known about the efficacy of these approaches in common neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we evaluate the effects of TMS and tDCS upon cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms in the major dementias, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Parkinson’s disease with dementia (PDD), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), as well as the potential pre-dementia states of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Methods PubMed (until 7 February 2014) and PsycINFO (from 1967 to January Week 3 2014) databases were searched in a semi-systematic manner in order to identify relevant treatment studies. A total of 762 studies were identified and 32 studies (18 in the dementias and 14 in PD populations) were included. Results No studies were identified in patients with PDD, FTD or VaD. Of the dementias, 13 studies were conducted in patients with AD, one in DLB, and four in MCI. A total of 16 of the 18 studies showed improvements in at least one cognitive or neuropsychiatric outcome measure. Cognitive or neuropsychiatric improvements were observed in 12 of the 14 studies conducted in patients with PD. Conclusions Both TMS and tDCS may have potential as interventions for the treatment of symptoms associated with dementia and PD. These results are promising; however, available data were limited, particularly within VaD, PDD and FTD, and major challenges exist in order to maximise the efficacy and clinical utility of both techniques. In particular, stimulation parameters vary considerably between studies and are likely to subsequently impact upon treatment efficacy. PMID:25478032

  20. Pressure Pain Thresholds Increase after Preconditioning 1 Hz Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Moloney, Tonya M.; Witney, Alice G.

    2014-01-01

    Background The primary motor cortex (M1) is an effective target of non-invasive cortical stimulation (NICS) for pain threshold modulation. It has been suggested that the initial level of cortical excitability of M1 plays a key role in the plastic effects of NICS. Objective Here we investigate whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) primed 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) modulates experimental pressure pain thresholds and if this is related to observed alterations in cortical excitability. Method 15 healthy, male participants received 10 min 1 mA anodal, cathodal and sham tDCS to the left M1 before 15 min 1 Hz rTMS in separate sessions over a period of 3 weeks. Motor cortical excitability was recorded at baseline, post-tDCS priming and post-rTMS through recording motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from right FDI muscle. Pressure pain thresholds were determined by quantitative sensory testing (QST) through a computerized algometer, on the palmar thenar of the right hand pre- and post-stimulation. Results Cathodal tDCS-primed 1 Hz-rTMS was found to reverse the expected suppressive effect of 1 Hz rTMS on cortical excitability; leading to an overall increase in activity (p<0.001) with a parallel increase in pressure pain thresholds (p<0.01). In contrast, anodal tDCS-primed 1 Hz-rTMS resulted in a corresponding decrease in cortical excitability (p<0.05), with no significant effect on pressure pain. Conclusion This study demonstrates that priming the M1 before stimulation of 1 Hz-rTMS modulates experimental pressure pain thresholds in a safe and controlled manner, producing a form of analgesia. PMID:24658333

  1. Focal transcranial magnetic stimulation and response bias in a forced-choice task

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Brasil-neto; A Pascual-Leone; J Valls-Solé; L G Cohen; M Hallett

    1992-01-01

    The effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation were studied on the performance of a warned, forced-choice response time task by normal adults. The task consisted of extension of the index finger in response to the click produced by the discharge of the magnetic coil (go-signal). The subjects were asked to choose the right or left finger only after the go-signal was

  2. Direct and indirect activation of human corticospinal neurons by transcranial magnetic and electrical stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Nakamura; Hideki Kitagawa; Yoshiharu Kawaguchi; Haruo Tsuji

    1996-01-01

    Corticospinal volleys and surface electromyographic (EMG) responses evoked by magnetic and electrical transcranial stimulation were recorded simultaneously in three conscious human subjects. For magnetic stimulation, the figure-of-eight coil was held on the hand motor area either with the induced current through the brain flowing in a postero-anterior direction (P-A stimulation) or in a latero-medial direction (L-M stimulation). For electrical stimulation,

  3. Diagnostic relevance of transcranial magnetic and electric stimulation of the facial nerve in the management of facial palsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis A. Nowak; Stefan Linder; Helge Topka

    2005-01-01

    ObjectiveEarlier investigations have suggested that isolated conduction block of the facial nerve to transcranial magnetic stimulation early in the disorder represents a very sensitive and potentially specific finding in Bell's palsy differentiating the disease from other etiologies.

  4. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and cortical excitability in patients with major depressive disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malek Bajbouj; Eva-Lotta Brakemeier; Florian Schubert; Undine E. Lang; Peter Neu; Christina Schindowski; Heidi Danker-Hopfe

    2005-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is a relatively non-invasive technique with putative therapeutic effects in major depression. However, the exact neurophysiological basis of these effects needs further clarification. Therefore, we studied the impact of ten daily sessions of left, dorsolateral prefrontal rTMS on motor cortical excitability, as revealed by transcranial magnetic stimulation-elicited motor-evoked potentials in

  5. Cognitive effects of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Birgit Guse; Peter Falkai; Thomas Wobrock

    2010-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was introduced as a non-invasive tool for the investigation of the motor cortex. The\\u000a repetitive application (rTMS), causing longer lasting effects, was used to study the influence on a variety of cerebral functions.\\u000a High-frequency (>1 Hz) rTMS is known to depolarize neurons under the stimulating coil and to indirectly affect areas being\\u000a connected and related to emotion

  6. Perioperative lesions of the facial nerve: follow-up investigations using transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Kotterba; M. Tegenthoff; J.-P. Malin

    1997-01-01

    Peripheral facial palsy can occur after aural surgery and neurosurgery. Routine neurophysiological investigation (utilizing\\u000a electrical stimulation and the blink reflex) does not allow the direct assessment of the site of a lesion. In the present\\u000a study transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied in order to evaluate the usefulness of this method for prognosis.\\u000a Twenty-three patients with postoperative facial pareses (after

  7. Transcranial magnetic stimulation: studying the brain-behaviour relationship by induction of 'virtual lesions'.

    PubMed Central

    Pascual-Leone, A; Bartres-Faz, D; Keenan, J P

    1999-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) provides a non-invasive method of induction of a focal current in the brain and transient modulation of the function of the targeted cortex. Despite limited understanding about focality and mechanisms of action, TMS provides a unique opportunity of studying brain-behaviour relations in normal humans. TMS can enhance the results of other neuroimaging techniques by establishing the causal link between brain activity and task performance, and by exploring functional brain connectivity. PMID:10466148

  8. Studying the Effects of Transcranial Direct-Current Stimulation in Stroke Recovery Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Stagg, Charlotte J.; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) is showing increasing promise as an adjunct therapy in stroke rehabilitation. However questions still remain concerning its mechanisms of action, which currently limit its potential. Magnetic resonance (MR) techniques are increasingly being applied to understand the neural effects of tDCS. Here, we review the MR evidence supporting the use of tDCS to aid recovery after stroke and discuss the important open questions that remain. PMID:24376413

  9. Modulatory effects of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on the ipsilateral silent period

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Cincotta; F. Giovannelli; A. Borgheresi; F. Balestrieri; G. Zaccara; M. Inghilleri; A. Berardelli

    2006-01-01

    In healthy subjects, suprathreshold repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) at frequencies >2 Hz prolongs the cortical silent period (CSP) over the course of the train. This progressive lengthening probably reflects temporal summation of the inhibitory interneurons in the stimulated primary motor cortex (M1). In this study, we tested whether high-frequency rTMS also modulates the ipsilateral silent period (ISP). In nine normal

  10. Navigated and Robotized Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation based on 3D Laser Scans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars Richter; Ralf Bruder; Peter Trillenberg; Achim Schweikard

    \\u000a Navigated and robotized Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is advancing forward in research and treatment. MRI-scans\\u000a or other medical image data are typically used as navigation source. Unfortunately, scanning time is always short and expensive.\\u000a For many TMSapplications the underlying brain topology is not necessarily needed. Therefore, we generate the subject’s head\\u000a contour for a precise stimulation from 3D laser scans.

  11. Non-invasive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) of the Motor Cortex for Neuropathic Pain—At the Tipping Point?

    PubMed Central

    Treister, Roi; Lang, Magdalena; Klein, Max M.; Oaklander, Anne Louise

    2013-01-01

    The term “neuropathic pain” (NP) refers to chronic pain caused by illnesses or injuries that damage peripheral or central pain-sensing neural pathways to cause them to fire inappropriately and signal pain without cause. Neuropathic pain is common, complicating diabetes, shingles, HIV, and cancer. Medications are often ineffective or cause various adverse effects, so better approaches are needed. Half a century ago, electrical stimulation of specific brain regions (neuromodulation) was demonstrated to relieve refractory NP without distant effects, but the need for surgical electrode implantation limited use of deep brain stimulation. Next, electrodes applied to the dura outside the brain’s surface to stimulate the motor cortex were shown to relieve NP less invasively. Now, electromagnetic induction permits cortical neurons to be stimulated entirely non-invasively using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Repeated sessions of many TMS pulses (rTMS) can trigger neuronal plasticity to produce long-lasting therapeutic benefit. Repeated TMS already has US and European regulatory approval for treating refractory depression, and multiple small studies report efficacy for neuropathic pain. Recent improvements include “frameless stereotactic” neuronavigation systems, in which patients’ head MRIs allow TMS to be applied to precise underlying cortical targets, minimizing variability between sessions and patients, which may enhance efficacy. Transcranial magnetic stimulation appears poised for the larger trials necessary for regulatory approval of a NP indication. Since few clinicians are familiar with TMS, we review its theoretical basis and historical development, summarize the neuropathic pain trial results, and identify issues to resolve before large-scale clinical trials. PMID:24228166

  12. Responses of human single motor units to transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Garland, S J; Miles, T S

    1997-04-01

    Transcranial electromagnetic brain stimuli elicit a complex response in the electromyogram of active human hand muscles. Relatively weak stimuli evoke a short-latency primary response via a presumably monosynaptic corticospinal path. This is followed by a silent period that is terminated by a second peak at a latency of 50-80 ms. The responses evoked in single motor units in flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) were recorded. Responses were elicited at the second-peak latency only in trials in which no primary response was elicited in that unit, and only when the stimulus was given during the first half of the interspike interval (ISI). When given during the second half of the ISI, the same stimulus evoked a primary response but no second peak response. Stronger stimuli suppressed the second peak by evoking a primary response in more trials. Having discharged at about 20 ms latency, the parent motoneurone was unable to discharge again at second-peak latency, 30-60 ms later. The response at second-peak latency was not modified by disengaging both FDP and the extensors of the distal interphalangeal joint. Hence, this response is not secondary to a stretch reflex provoked by activation of the finger extensors, nor is it the result of a cutaneous signal resulting from movement of the finger. The latencies suggest that the corticospinal volley evokes a beta-motoneurone-mediated twitch in FDP muscle spindles, which elicits an afferent volley that activates the motoneurone reflexly. The first 100 ms or so of the silent period is due to the realignment of the first post-stimulus spike in most trials to corticospinal latency; i.e. this is not necessarily the result of an inhibitory or disfacilitatory process. Still stronger stimuli increase the duration of the ISI in which the stimulus is given, indicating the presence of an inhibitory/disfacilitatory process. PMID:9152201

  13. Co-registration of magnetic resonance spectroscopy and transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Hone-Blanchet, Antoine; Salas, Rachel E; Celnik, Pablo; Kalloo, Aadi; Schar, Michael; Puts, Nicolaas A J; Harris, Ashley D; Barker, Peter B; Fecteau, Shirley; Earley, Christopher J; Allen, Richard P; Edden, Richard A

    2015-03-15

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a widely used tool for noninvasive modulation of brain activity, that is thought to interact primarily with excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitters such as glutamate and GABA can be measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). An important prerequisite for studying the relationship between MRS neurotransmitter levels and responses to TMS is that both modalities should examine the same regions of brain tissue. However, co-registration of TMS and MRS has been little studied to date. This study reports on a procedure for the co-registration and co-visualization of MRS and TMS, successfully localizing the hand motor cortex, as subsequently determined by its functional identification using TMS. Sixteen healthy subjects took part in the study; in 14 of 16 subjects, the TMS determined location of motor activity intersected the (2.5cm)(3) voxel selected for MRS, centered on the so called 'hand knob' of the precentral gyrus. It is concluded that MRS voxels placed according to established anatomical landmarks in most cases agree well with functional determination of the motor cortex by TMS. Reasons for discrepancies are discussed. PMID:25561395

  14. Electromagnetic Field Modeling of Transcranial Electric and Magnetic Stimulation: Targeting, Individualization, and Safety of Convulsive and Subconvulsive Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zhi-De

    The proliferation of noninvasive transcranial electric and magnetic brain stimulation techniques and applications in recent years has led to important insights into brain function and pathophysiology of brain-based disorders. Transcranial electric and magnetic stimulation encompasses a wide spectrum of methods that have developed into therapeutic interventions for a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Although these methods are at different stages of development, the physical principle underlying these techniques is the similar. Namely, an electromagnetic field is induced in the brain either via current injection through scalp electrodes or via electromagnetic induction. The induced electric field modulates the neuronal transmembrane potentials and, thereby, neuronal excitability or activity. Therefore, knowledge of the induced electric field distribution is key in the design and interpretation of basic research and clinical studies. This work aims to delineate the fundamental physical limitations, tradeoffs, and technological feasibility constraints associated with transcranial electric and magnetic stimulation, in order to inform the development of technologies that deliver safer, and more spatially, temporally, and patient specific stimulation. Part I of this dissertation expounds on the issue of spatial targeting of the electric field. Contrasting electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and magnetic seizure therapy (MST) configurations that differ markedly in efficacy, side effects, and seizure induction efficiency could advance our understanding of the principles linking treatment parameters and therapeutic outcome and could provide a means of testing hypotheses of the mechanisms of therapeutic action. Using the finite element method, we systematically compare the electric field characteristics of existing forms of ECT and MST. We introduce a method of incorporating a modality-specific neural activation threshold in the electric field models that can inform dosage requirements in convulsive therapies. Our results indicate that the MST electric field is more focal and more confined to the superficial cortex compared to ECT. Further, the conventional ECT current amplitude is much higher than necessary for seizure induction. One of the factors important to clinical outcome is seizure expression. However, it is unknown how the induced electric field is related to seizure onset and propagation. In this work, we explore the effect of the electric field distribution on the quantitative ictal electroencephalography and current source density in ECT and MST. We further demonstrate how the ECT electrode shape, size, spacing, and current can be manipulated to yield more precise control of the induced electric field. If desirable, ECT can be made as focal as MST while using simpler stimulation equipment. Next, we demonstrate how the electric field induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be controlled. We present the most comprehensive comparison of TMS coil electric field penetration and focality to date. The electric field distributions of more than 50 TMS coils were simulated. We show that TMS coils differ markedly in their electric field characteristics, but they all are subject to a consistent depth-focality tradeoff. Specifically, the ability to directly stimulate deeper brain structures is obtained at the expense of inducing wider electric field spread. Figure-8 type coils are fundamentally more focal compared to circular type coils. Understanding the depth-focality tradeoff can help researchers and clinicians to appropriately select coils and interpret TMS studies. This work also enables the development of novel TMS coils with electronically switchable active and sham modes as well as for deep TMS. Design considerations of these coils are extensively discussed. Part II of the dissertation aims to quantify the effect of individual, sex, and age differences in head geometry and conductivity on the induced neural stimulation strength and focality of ECT and MST. Across and within ECT studies, there is

  15. Effects of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Performing Eye-Hand Integration Tasks: Four Preliminary Studies with Children Showing Low-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panerai, Simonetta; Tasca, Domenica; Lanuzza, Bartolo; Trubia, Grazia; Ferri, Raffaele; Musso, Sabrina; Alagona, Giovanna; Di Guardo, Giuseppe; Barone, Concetta; Gaglione, Maria P.; Elia, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    This report, based on four studies with children with low-functioning autism, aimed at evaluating the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation delivered on the left and right premotor cortices on eye-hand integration tasks; defining the long-lasting effects of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; and…

  16. Two phases of intracortical inhibition revealed by transcranial magnetic threshold tracking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Fisher; Y. Nakamura; S. Bestmann; J. C. Rothwell; H. Bostock

    2002-01-01

    Intracortical inhibition was investigated in normal human volunteers by paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation, using\\u000a a new, computer-assisted threshold-tracking method. Motor threshold was defined as the stimulus amplitude required to evoke\\u000a a motor evoked potential of 0.2 mV (peak-to-peak) in abductor pollicis brevis, and inhibition was measured as the percentage\\u000a increase in threshold, when the test stimulus was preceded by a subthreshold

  17. Cortical inhibition in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new insights from the electroencephalographic response to transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Bruckmann, Sarah; Hauk, Daniela; Roessner, Veit; Resch, Franz; Freitag, Christine M; Kammer, Thomas; Ziemann, Ulf; Rothenberger, Aribert; Weisbrod, Matthias; Bender, Stephan

    2012-07-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is one of the most frequent neuropsychiatric disorders in childhood. Transcranial magnetic stimulation studies based on muscle responses (motor-evoked potentials) suggested that reduced motor inhibition contributes to hyperactivity, a core symptom of the disease. Here we employed the N100 component of the electroencephalographic response to transcranial magnetic stimulation as a novel marker for a direct assessment of cortical inhibitory processes, which has not been examined in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder so far. We further investigated to what extent affected children were able to regulate motor cortical inhibition, and whether effects of age on the electroencephalographic response to transcranial magnetic stimulation were compatible with either a delay in brain maturation or a qualitatively different development. N100 amplitude evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation and its age-dependent development were assessed in 20 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and 19 healthy control children (8-14 years) by 64-channel electroencephalography. Amplitude and latency of the N100 component were compared at rest, during response preparation in a forewarned motor reaction time task and during movement execution. The amplitude of the N100 component at rest was significantly lower and its latency tended to be shorter in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Only in controls, N100 amplitude to transcranial magnetic stimulation was reduced by response preparation. During movement execution, N100 amplitude decreased while motor evoked potential amplitudes showed facilitation, indicating that the electroencephalographic response to transcranial magnetic stimulation provides further information on cortical excitability independent of motor evoked potential amplitudes and spinal influences. Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder showed a smaller N100 amplitude reduction during movement execution compared with control children. The N100 amplitude evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation decreased with increasing age in both groups. The N100 reduction in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder at all ages suggests a qualitative difference rather than delayed development of cortical inhibition in this disease. Findings further suggest that top-down control of motor cortical inhibition is reduced in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. We conclude that evoked potentials in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation are a promising new marker of cortical inhibition in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during childhood. PMID:22492560

  18. Evaluation of proximal facial nerve conduction by transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T N Schriefer; K R Mills; N M Murray; C W Hess

    1988-01-01

    A magnetic stimulator was used for direct transcutaneous stimulation of the intracranial portion of the facial nerve in 15 normal subjects and in patients with Bell's palsy, demyelinating neuropathy, traumatic facial palsy and pontine glioma. Compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) thus elicited in the orbicularis oris muscle of controls were of similar amplitude but longer latency (1.3 SD 0.15 ms)

  19. Eccentric figure-eight coils for transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Sekino, Masaki; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Takiyama, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Keita; Matsuzaki, Taiga; Yasumuro, Yoshihiro; Nishikawa, Atsushi; Maruo, Tomoyuki; Hosomi, Koichi; Saitoh, Youichi

    2015-01-01

    Previously we proposed an eccentric figure-eight coil that can cause threshold stimulation in the brain at lower driving currents. In this study, we performed numerical simulations and magnetic stimulations to healthy subjects for evaluating the advantages of the eccentric coil. The simulations were performed using a simplified spherical brain model and a realistic human brain model. We found that the eccentric coil required a driving current intensity of approximately 18% less than that required by the concentric coil to cause comparable eddy current densities within the brain. The eddy current localization of the eccentric coil was slightly higher than that of the concentric coil. A prototype eccentric coil was designed and fabricated. Instead of winding a wire around a bobbin, we cut eccentric-spiral slits on the insulator cases, and a wire was woven through the slits. The coils were used to deliver magnetic stimulation to healthy subjects; among our results, we found that the current slew rate corresponding to motor threshold values for the concentric and eccentric coils were 86 and 78 A/µs, respectively. The results indicate that the eccentric coil consistently requires a lower driving current to reach the motor threshold than the concentric coil. Future development of compact magnetic stimulators will enable the treatment of some intractable neurological diseases at home. PMID:25399864

  20. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the visual cortex induces somatotopically organized qualia in blind subjects.

    PubMed

    Kupers, Ron; Fumal, Arnaud; de Noordhout, Alain Maertens; Gjedde, Albert; Schoenen, Jean; Ptito, Maurice

    2006-08-29

    After loss of a particular sensory channel, the deprived cortex can be activated by inputs from other sensory modalities. It is not known whether activation of the rewired cortex evokes subjective experiences characteristic of that cortex or consistent with the rerouted sensory information. In a previous study, blind subjects were trained to perform visual tasks with a tongue display unit, a sensory substitution device that translates visual displays into electrotactile tongue stimulation. This cross-modal sensory stimulation activated their visual cortices. We now extend this finding by using transcranial magnetic stimulation to examine the perceptual correlates of training-induced plastic responses. We find that blind subjects proficient with the use of the tongue display unit report somatopically organized tactile sensations that are referred to the tongue when transcranial magnetic stimulation is applied over the occipital cortex. No such sensations were evoked in trained, blindfolded, seeing control subjects who performed the sensory substitution task equally well. These data show that the perceptual correlate of activity in a given cortical area reflects the characteristics of its novel sensory input source. PMID:16916936

  1. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the visual cortex induces somatotopically organized qualia in blind subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kupers, Ron; Fumal, Arnaud; de Noordhout, Alain Maertens; Gjedde, Albert; Schoenen, Jean; Ptito, Maurice

    2006-01-01

    After loss of a particular sensory channel, the deprived cortex can be activated by inputs from other sensory modalities. It is not known whether activation of the rewired cortex evokes subjective experiences characteristic of that cortex or consistent with the rerouted sensory information. In a previous study, blind subjects were trained to perform visual tasks with a tongue display unit, a sensory substitution device that translates visual displays into electrotactile tongue stimulation. This cross-modal sensory stimulation activated their visual cortices. We now extend this finding by using transcranial magnetic stimulation to examine the perceptual correlates of training-induced plastic responses. We find that blind subjects proficient with the use of the tongue display unit report somatopically organized tactile sensations that are referred to the tongue when transcranial magnetic stimulation is applied over the occipital cortex. No such sensations were evoked in trained, blindfolded, seeing control subjects who performed the sensory substitution task equally well. These data show that the perceptual correlate of activity in a given cortical area reflects the characteristics of its novel sensory input source. PMID:16916936

  2. Noninvasive brain stimulation with transcranial magnetic or direct current stimulation (TMS\\/tDCS)—From insights into human memory to therapy of its dysfunction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland Sparing; Felix M. Mottaghy

    2008-01-01

    Noninvasive stimulation of the brain by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has driven important discoveries in the field of human memory functions. Stand-alone or in combination with other brain mapping techniques noninvasive brain stimulation can assess issues such as location and timing of brain activity, connectivity and plasticity of neural circuits and functional

  3. BRAIN initiative: Transcranial magnetic stimulation automation and calibration.

    PubMed

    Todd, Garth D; Abdellatif, Ahmed; Sabouni, Abas

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we introduced an automated TMS system with robot control and optical sensor combined with neuronavigation software. By using the robot, the TMS coil can be accurately positioned over any preselected brain region. The neuronavigation system provides an accurate positioning of a magnetic coil in order to induce a specific cortical excitation. An infrared optical measurement device is also used in order to detect and compensate for head movements of the patient. This procedure was simulated using a PC based robotic simulation program. The proposed automated robot system is integrated with TMS numerical solver and allows users to actually see the depth, location, and shape of the induced eddy current on the computer monitor. PMID:25570006

  4. Post-exercise facilitation and depression of motor evoked potentials to transcranial magnetic stimulation: a study in multiple sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Perretti; P Balbi; G Orefice; L Trojano; L Marcantonio; V Brescia-Morra; S Ascione; F Manganelli; G Conte; L Santoro

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate motor cortex excitability changes by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) following repetitive muscle contractions in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS); to state whether a typical pattern of post-exercise motor evoked potentials (MEPs) is related to clinical fatigue in MS.Methods: In 41 patients with definite MS (32 with fatigue and 9 without fatigue according to Fatigue Severity Scale) and

  5. Enhancing the quality of studies using transcranial magnetic and electrical stimulation with a new computer-controlled system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Kaelin-Lang; L. G Cohen

    2000-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic (TMS) and electrical (TES) stimulation of the human brain have become useful tools in neurophysiological and neuropsychological research. Here we describe an integrated system that allows experimental control, data recording and analysis of neurophysiological and neuropsychological TMS and TES procedures (including motor thresholds, recruitment curves, intracortical inhibition and facilitation with paired pulses). The system uses a multifunction input\\/output

  6. Contralateral and ipsilateral EMG responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation during recovery of arm and hand function after stroke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Turton; S. Wroe; N. Trepte; C. Fraser; R. N. Lemon

    1996-01-01

    We examined the relationship between the recovery of hand and arm function in a group of hemiplegic stroke patients and the presence of short-latency EMG responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in 4 different upper limb muscles (deltoid, biceps, extensor digitorum communis and the first dorsal interosseous). Twenty-one patients were examined within 5 weeks of stroke (median 2 weeks), and

  7. Interhemispheric asymmetries in the perception of unimanual and bimanual cutaneous stimuli: A study using transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Oliveri; P. M. Rossini; P. Pasqualetti; R. Traversa; P. Cicinelli; M. G. Palmieri; F. Tomaiuolo; C. Caltagirone

    1999-01-01

    Summary Previous studies have shown that transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the sensorimotor cortex can induce a suppression of cutaneous perception from the fingers of the contralateral hand. In this work, 17 normal subjects were submitted to focal TMS of frontal and parietal scalp sites of each hemisphere. TMS was delivered at two interstimulus intervals (20 and 40 ms) following

  8. Comparison of motor effects following subcortical electrical stimulation through electrodes in the globus pallidus internus and cortical transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea A. Kühn; Stephan A. Brandt; Andreas Kupsch; Thomas Trottenberg; Jan Brocke; Kerstin Irlbacher; Gerd H. Schneider; Bernd-Ulrich Meyer

    2004-01-01

    Current concepts of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the primary motor cortex are still under debate as to whether inhibitory motor effects are exclusively of cortical origin. To further elucidate a potential subcortical influence on motor effects, we combined TMS and unilateral subcortical electrical stimulation (SES) of the corticospinal tract. SES was performed through implanted depth electrodes in eight patients

  9. The silent period induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation in muscles supplied by cranial nerves: normal data and changes in patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K J Werhahn; J Classen; R Benecke

    1995-01-01

    The silent period induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation of the sensorimotor cortex (Magstim 200, figure of eight coil, loop diameter 7 cm) in active muscles supplied by cranial nerves (mentalis, sternocleidomastoid, and genioglossus) was studied in 14 control subjects and nine patients with localised lesions of the sensorimotor cortex. In the patients, measurements of the silent period were also made

  10. Impaired cortico-bulbar tract function in dysarthria due to hemispheric stroke. Functional testing using transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. P. Urban; H. C. Hopf; S. Fleischer; P. G. Zorowka; W. Muller-Forell

    1997-01-01

    Summary We investigated cortico-lingual and cortico-orofacial tract contralateral orofacial responses were either absent (13 patients) or delayed (one patient). According to the function utilizing transcranial magnetic stimulation in 18 consecutive patients with dysarthria due to hemispheric electrophysiological findings, all lesions revealed by CT or MRI, were located within the pyramidal tract at the lower stroke. Delayed responses (conduction time .

  11. Modulation of N400 in Chronic Non-Fluent Aphasia Using Low Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barwood, Caroline H. S.; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Whelan, Brooke-Mai; Lloyd, David; Riek, Stephan; O'Sullivan, John D.; Coulthard, Alan; Wong, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Low frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) has previously been applied to language homologues in non-fluent populations of persons with aphasia yielding significant improvements in behavioral language function up to 43 months post stimulation. The present study aimed to investigate the electrophysiological correlates…

  12. Stimulating Conversation: Enhancement of Elicited Propositional Speech in a Patient with Chronic Non-Fluent Aphasia following Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Roy H.; Sanders, Linda; Benson, Jennifer; Faseyitan, Olufunsho; Norise, Catherine; Naeser, Margaret; Martin, Paula; Coslett, H. Branch

    2010-01-01

    Although evidence suggests that patients with left hemisphere strokes and non-fluent aphasia who receive 1Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the intact right inferior frontal gyrus experience persistent benefits in naming, it remains unclear whether the effects of rTMS in these patients generalize to other language…

  13. Cortical Inhibition in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: New Insights from the Electroencephalographic Response to Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruckmann, Sarah; Hauk, Daniela; Roessner, Veit; Resch, Franz; Freitag, Christine M.; Kammer, Thomas; Ziemann, Ulf; Rothenberger, Aribert; Weisbrod, Matthias; Bender, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is one of the most frequent neuropsychiatric disorders in childhood. Transcranial magnetic stimulation studies based on muscle responses (motor-evoked potentials) suggested that reduced motor inhibition contributes to hyperactivity, a core symptom of the disease. Here we employed the N100 component of the…

  14. A Preliminary Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study of Cortical Inhibition and Excitability in High-Functioning Autism and Asperger Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enticott, Peter G.; Rinehart, Nicole J.; Tonge, Bruce J.; Bradshaw, John L.; Fitzgerald, Paul B.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Controversy surrounds the distinction between high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger disorder, but motor abnormalities are associated features of both conditions. This study examined motor cortical inhibition and excitability in HFA and Asperger disorder using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Method: Participants were diagnosed by…

  15. The Observation of Manual Grasp Actions Affects the Control of Speech: A Combined Behavioral and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentilucci, Maurizio; Campione, Giovanna Cristina; Volta, Riccardo Dalla; Bernardis, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Does the mirror system affect the control of speech? This issue was addressed in behavioral and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) experiments. In behavioral experiment 1, participants pronounced the syllable /da/ while observing (1) a hand grasping large and small objects with power and precision grasps, respectively, (2) a foot interacting…

  16. Effect of the different winding methods of coil on electromagnetic field during transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuo; Xu, Guizhi; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Xiu

    2008-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a powerful, non-invasive tool for investigating functions in the brain. The target inside the head is stimulated with eddy currents induced in the tissues by the time-varying magnetic field. TMS has been used in several applications in medical and clinical research which include brain mapping, treatment of mood disorder and schizophrenia, treatment of epilepsy, treatment of chronic pain and so on. The stimulation effect can be affected by the stimulation intensity. For coils with the same shape, different winding methods make the coil have different stimulation intensity. In this paper, three different methods for winding circular coils are discussed. The electromagnetic fields induced by the three different circular coils were analyzed. The results show that the circular coil with the pancake coil winding has the strongest stimulation intensity. PMID:19163656

  17. FDTD-based Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation model applied to specific neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Fanjul-Vélez, Félix; Salas-García, Irene; Ortega-Quijano, Noé; Arce-Diego, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive treatment of neurodegenerative diseases is particularly challenging in Western countries, where the population age is increasing. In this work, magnetic propagation in human head is modelled by Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method, taking into account specific characteristics of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) in neurodegenerative diseases. It uses a realistic high-resolution three-dimensional human head mesh. The numerical method is applied to the analysis of magnetic radiation distribution in the brain using two realistic magnetic source models: a circular coil and a figure-8 coil commonly employed in TMS. The complete model was applied to the study of magnetic stimulation in Alzheimer and Parkinson Diseases (AD, PD). The results show the electrical field distribution when magnetic stimulation is supplied to those brain areas of specific interest for each particular disease. Thereby the current approach entails a high potential for the establishment of the current underdeveloped TMS dosimetry in its emerging application to AD and PD. PMID:25453382

  18. How do high- and low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulations modulate the temporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Nathou, Clement; Etard, Olivier; Simon, Gregory; Dollfus, Sonia

    2015-02-01

    Few studies have examined the impact of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on the cortical excitability of nonmotor cortices; current treatments often target the temporal or prefrontal cortex. We used auditory evoked potentials recorded in 24 healthy subjects to evaluate the neuromodulatory effects of low- and high-frequency rTMS in the temporal lobe. Both auditory evoked potential P50 amplitude, a marker of cortical excitability, and P50 ratio, a marker of sensory gating known to be impaired in patients with auditory verbal hallucinations, were compared before and after rTMS. We observed a similar effect after both stimulation frequencies, with a decrease in P50 amplitude and no significant effect on P50 ratio. Low- and high-frequency rTMS applied to the temporal lobe seemed to exert the same cortical neuromodulation effect, while auditory sensory gating may not be modulated by temporal rTMS. PMID:25223883

  19. A Novel Transcranial Magnetic Stimulator Inducing Near Rectangular Pulses with Controllable Pulse Width (cTMS)

    PubMed Central

    Jalinous, Reza; Lisanby, Sarah H.

    2013-01-01

    A novel transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) device with controllable pulse width (PW) and near rectangular pulse shape (cTMS) is described. The cTMS device uses an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) with appropriate snubbers to switch coil currents up to 7 kA, enabling PW control from 5 ?s to over 100 ?s. The near-rectangular induced electric field pulses use 22–34% less energy and generate 67–72% less coil heating compared to matched conventional cosine pulses. CTMS is used to stimulate rhesus monkey motor cortex in vivo with PWs of 20 to 100 ?s, demonstrating the expected decrease of threshold pulse amplitude with increasing PW. The technological solutions used in the cTMS prototype can expand functionality, and reduce power consumption and coil heating in TMS, enhancing its research and therapeutic applications. PMID:18232369

  20. Neural field theory of calcium dependent plasticity with applications to transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Fung, P K; Robinson, P A

    2013-05-01

    Calcium dependent plasticity (CaDP), a physiologically realistic plasticity mechanism in the microscopic regime, is incorporated into a neural field theory to explore system-level plasticity. This system-level plasticity model is capable of reproducing the characteristic plasticity window of spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) in paired associative stimulation (PAS), where a peripheral electric pulse stimulation is paired to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the cortex, and rTMS frequency dependent plasticity, where low and high frequency rTMS trains induce depression and potentiation, respectively. These thus reproduce experimental results for system-level plasticity for the first time. This also bridges the gap between microscopic plasticity theory and system-level plasticity observed experimentally, and addresses long standing problems of stability and adaptability by predicting stable plasticity, a possible seizure state where neurons fire at a high rate, and spike-rate adaptation. PMID:23376643

  1. [The use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH)].

    PubMed

    Jandl, M

    2010-11-01

    Up to one-third of all schizophrenic patients suffer from auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) that are resistant to antipsychotics. The use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a therapeutic option that may disrupt or attenuate treatment resistant (TR) AVHs. This article reviews the available literature on the use of rTMS to treat AVHs, particularly focusing on randomised controlled trials, which have introduced new definitions ("refractory AVHs"), and techniques (active comparator strategies and imaging-guided rTMS). A number of meta-analyses are considered, which support a range of positive effect sizes for AVH attenuation in response to rTMS. Larger maintenance and follow-up studies with clearer clinical definitions of TR AVH are required. The underlying mechanism of action of rTMS on language networks needs further clarification and future trials should focus on methods for assessing AVH changes, time courses of response, and the development of response markers. PMID:20648414

  2. Update on repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in obsessive-compulsive disorder: different targets.

    PubMed

    Blom, Rianne M; Figee, Martijn; Vulink, Nienke; Denys, Damiaan

    2011-08-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic, disabling disorder. Ten percent of patients remain treatment refractory despite several treatments. For these severe, treatment-refractory patients, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been suggested as a treatment option. Since 1997, in published trials, a total of 110 OCD patients have been treated with rTMS. This review aims to provide an update on rTMS treatment in patients with OCD. First, the mechanism of action is discussed, followed by the efficacy and side effects of rTMS at various brain targets, and finally implications for the future. Due to the lack of studies with comparable stimulation or treatment parameters and with reliable designs, it is difficult to draw clear conclusions. In general, rTMS appears to be effective in open-label studies; however, this has not yet been replicated in randomized, sham-controlled trials. PMID:21547545

  3. Long-term repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation therapy: new research questions arising from one tinnitus case?

    PubMed

    Labar, Douglas Richard; Cortes, Mar; Edwards, Dylan

    2014-01-01

    Tinnitus may become refractory to treatment and disabling. Brain transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has shown promise as a therapy, but has been employed primarily short-term. We treated a patient with 5 weeks of weekly repetitive TMS (rTMS), followed by 6 months of monthly rTMS. He was a 75-year-old dentist with chronic tinnitus from occupational noise exposure. Physical examination and MRIs of the auditory canals and brain had revealed no lesions. The patient showed a general gradual, progressive improvement on per cent of severe tinnitus diary days (from baseline 100% to 33%), tinnitus handicap inventory (from baseline score 70 to 18), and mini-tinnitus questionnaire (from baseline score 17 to 6). No changes occurred in serial audiograms. Transient adverse events were a headache during stimulation, and dizziness 30 min after treatment. Implications and questions for future non-invasive neuromodulation clinical research raised by our case are discussed. PMID:25538216

  4. Functional Neurosurgery in the Human Thalamus by Transcranial Magnetic Resonance Guided Focused Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Beat; Morel, Anne; Jeanmonod, Daniel; Martin, Ernst

    2009-04-01

    Potential applications of Transcranial Magnetic Resonance guided Focused Ultrasound (TcMRgFUS) include treatment of functional brain disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia and tremor, neurogenic pain and tinnitus, neuropsychiatric disorders and epilepsy. In this study we demonstrate the feasibility of non-invasive TcMRgFUS ablation of clinically well established targets in the human thalamus that are currently accessed stereotactically by interventional strategies based on the concept of the thalamocortical dysrhythmia (TCD). Thermal hotspots suitable for clinical intervention were created successfully in anatomical preparations of human ex-vivo heads under pseudo clinical conditions. The hotspots could be positioned at the target locations as needed and local energy deposition was sufficient to create tissue ablation. Numerical simulations based on these experimental data predict that the acoustic energy needed to create ablative lesions in-vivo will be within limits that can safely applied.

  5. Assessment and modulation of neuroplasticity in rehabilitation with transcranial magnetic stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Shahid; Mizrahi, Ilan; Weaver, Kayleen; Fregni, Felipe; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    Despite intensive efforts towards the improvement of outcomes after acquired brain injury functional recovery is often limited. One reasons is the challenge in assessing and guiding plasticity after brain injury. In this context, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) - a noninvasive tool of brain stimulation - could play a major role. TMS has shown to be a reliable tool to measure plastic changes in the motor cortex associated with interventions in the motor system; such as motor training and motor cortex stimulation. In addition, as illustrated by the experience in promoting recovery from stroke, TMS a promising therapeutic tool to minimize motor, speech, cognitive, and mood deficits. In this review, we will focus on stroke to discuss how TMS can provide insights into the mechanisms of neurological recovery, and can be used for measurement and modulation of plasticity after an acquired brain insult. PMID:21172687

  6. Transcranial magnetic stimulation selectively impairs interhemispheric transfer of visuo-motor information in humans.

    PubMed

    Marzi, C A; Miniussi, C; Maravita, A; Bertolasi, L; Zanette, G; Rothwell, J C; Sanes, J N

    1998-02-01

    We investigated the cerebral cortical route by which visual information reaches motor cortex when visual signals are used for manual responses. Subjects responded unimanually to photic stimuli delivered to the hemifield ipsilateral or contralateral to the moving hand. On some trials, trans-cranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied unilaterally over the occiput, with the aim of stimulating extrastriate visual areas and thereby modifying transmission of visual input. In association with the side of a visual stimulus and a motor response, TMS could change inter- or intra-hemispheric transmission needed to convey visual information to motor areas. Reaction time differences following TMS suggested that TMS exerted an inhibitory effect only when visuo-motor information had to be transferred interhemispherically. This result reinforces evidence for an extrastriate pathway of interhemispheric transfer of visuomotor information. PMID:9497152

  7. [Functional neuroimaging and the treatment of aphasia: speech therapy and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation].

    PubMed

    de Boissezon, X; Raboyeau, G; Simonetta-Moreau, M; Puel, M; Démonet, J F; Cardebat, D

    2008-05-01

    Functional imaging has provided new evidence of the neurobiological impact of the treatment of aphasia, including speech therapy, through the alteration of the activated language neural network. In such a way, speech therapy has proved its impact. The role of each hemisphere is still very unclear. Some of the authors link the left-lateralisation of activations to the therapeutic improvement of language and the right-activated network to a maladaptative strategy, whereas others consider the latter as a useful compensatory network for speech disorders. Repetitive trans-cranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), first used to determine cortical activity, is now used to directly interfere with cerebral activity. In the years to come, rTMS should be developed as an adjuvant therapy for aphasia. PMID:18675046

  8. Maintaining remission of depression with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation during pregnancy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Burton, Cassandra; Gill, Shane; Clarke, Patrick; Galletly, Cherrie

    2014-06-01

    It is important to explore potential safe treatment options for the ongoing treatment of women's depression during pregnancy. One promising treatment is repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). We report on the case of a woman who became pregnant while receiving regular maintenance rTMS combined with pharmacotherapy treatment for major depressive episode. The patient achieved remission following two acute courses of rTMS and continued with maintenance rTMS treatment over the course of 4 years, during which she became pregnant and gave birth to a healthy infant. Her remission was maintained over this time including during and after her pregnancy. There were no adverse effects to the patient or her infant during the pregnancy or in the post-natal period. Maintenance rTMS may be an effective and feasible treatment option for depression during pregnancy. PMID:24638141

  9. Simultaneous transcranial magnetic stimulation and single neuron recording in alert non-human primates

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Jerel K.; Grigsby, Erinn M.; Prevosto, Vincent; Petraglia, Frank W.; Rao, Hrishikesh; Deng, Zhi-De; Peterchev, Angel V.; Sommer, Marc A.; Egner, Tobias; Platt, Michael L.; Grill, Warren M.

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a widely used, noninvasive method for stimulating nervous tissue, yet its mechanisms of effect are poorly understood. Here we report novel methods for studying the influence of TMS on single neurons in the brain of alert non-human primates. We designed a TMS coil that focuses its effect near the tip of a recording electrode and recording electronics that enable direct acquisition of neuronal signals at the site of peak stimulus strength minimally perturbed by stimulation artifact in intact, awake monkeys (Macaca mulatta). We recorded action potentials within ~1 ms after 0.4 ms TMS pulses and observed changes in activity that differed significantly for active stimulation as compared to sham stimulation. The methodology is compatible with standard equipment in primate laboratories, allowing for easy implementation. Application of these new tools will facilitate the refinement of next generation TMS devices, experiments, and treatment protocols. PMID:24974797

  10. Surgical leg rotation: cortical neuroplasticity assessed through brain mapping using transcranial magnetic stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Maria Grazia; Rota, Viviana; Manfrini, Marco; Perucca, Laura; Caronni, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Rotationplasty (Borggreve-Van Nes operation) is a rare limb salvage procedure, most often applied to children presenting with sarcoma of the distal femur. In type A1 operation, the distal thigh is removed and the proximal tibia is axially rotated by 180°, remodeled, grafted onto the femoral stump, and then prosthetized. The neurovascular bundle is spared. The rotated ankle then works as a knee. The foot plantar and dorsal flexors act as knee extensors and flexors, respectively. Functional results may be excellent. Cortical neuroplasticity was studied in three men (30–31 years) who were operated on the left lower limb at ages between 7 and 11 years and were fully autonomous with a custom-made prosthesis, as well as in three age–sex matched controls. The scalp stimulation coordinates, matching the patients’ brain MRI spots, were digitized through a ‘neuronavigation’ optoelectronic system, in order to guide the transcranial magnetic stimulation coil, thus ensuring spatial precision during the procedure. Through transcranial magnetic stimulation driven by neuronavigation, the cortical representations of the contralateral soleus and vastus medialis muscles were studied in terms of amplitude of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and centering and width of the cortical areas from which the potentials could be evoked. Map centering on either hemisphere did not differ substantially across muscles and participants. In the operated patients, MEP amplitudes, the area from which MEPs could be evoked, and their product (volume) were larger for the muscles of the unaffected side compared with both the rotated soleus muscle (average effect size 0.75) and the muscles of healthy controls (average effect size 0.89). In controls, right–left differences showed an effect size of 0.38. In no case did the comparisons reach statistical significance (P>0.25). Nevertheless, the results seem consistent with cortical plasticity reflecting strengthening of the unaffected leg and a combination of cross-education and skill training of the rotated leg. PMID:25153790

  11. Risk and safety of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: report and suggested guidelines from the International Workshop on the Safety of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, June 5–7, 1996

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric M. Wassermann

    1998-01-01

    Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a safe and useful tool for investigating various aspects of human neurophysiology, particularly corticospinal function, in health and disease. Repetitive TMS (rTMS), however, is a more powerful and potentially dangerous modality, capable of regionally blocking or facilitating cortical processes. Although there is evidence that rTMS is useful for treating clinical depression, and possibly other

  12. Experimentation with a transcranial magnetic stimulation system for functional brain mapping.

    PubMed

    Ettinger, G J; Leventon, M E; Grimson, W E; Kikinis, R; Gugino, L; Cote, W; Sprung, L; Aglio, L; Shenton, M E; Potts, G; Hernandez, V L; Alexander, E

    1998-06-01

    We describe functional brain mapping experiments using a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) device. This device, when placed on a subject's scalp, stimulates the underlying neurons by generating focused magnetic field pulses. A brain mapping is then generated by measuring responses of different motor and sensory functions to this stimulation. The key process in generating this mapping is the association of the 3-D positions and orientations of the TMS probe on the scalp to a 3-D brain reconstruction such as is feasible with a magnetic resonance image (MRI). We have developed a registration system which not only generates functional brain maps using such a device, but also provides real-time feedback to guide the technician in placing the probe at appropriate points on the head to achieve the desired map resolution. Functional areas we have mapped are the motor and visual cortex. Validation experiments focus on repeatability tests for mapping the same subjects several times. Applications of the technique include neuroanatomy research, surgical planning and guidance, treatment and disease monitoring, and therapeutic procedures. PMID:10646759

  13. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of mouse brain using high-resolution anatomical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowther, L. J.; Hadimani, R. L.; Kanthasamy, A. G.; Jiles, D. C.

    2014-05-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) offers the possibility of non-invasive treatment of brain disorders in humans. Studies on animals can allow rapid progress of the research including exploring a variety of different treatment conditions. Numerical calculations using animal models are needed to help design suitable TMS coils for use in animal experiments, in particular, to estimate the electric field induced in animal brains. In this paper, we have implemented a high-resolution anatomical MRI-derived mouse model consisting of 50 tissue types to accurately calculate induced electric field in the mouse brain. Magnetic field measurements have been performed on the surface of the coil and compared with the calculations in order to validate the calculated magnetic and induced electric fields in the brain. Results show how the induced electric field is distributed in a mouse brain and allow investigation of how this could be improved for TMS studies using mice. The findings have important implications in further preclinical development of TMS for treatment of human diseases.

  14. Induction of central nervous system plasticity by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to promote sensorimotor recovery in incomplete spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Ellaway, Peter H.; Vásquez, Natalia; Craggs, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Cortical and spinal cord plasticity may be induced with non-invasive transcranial magnetic stimulation to encourage long term potentiation or depression of neuronal circuits. Such plasticity inducing stimulation provides an attractive approach to promote changes in sensorimotor circuits that have been degraded by spinal cord injury (SCI). If residual corticospinal circuits can be conditioned appropriately there should be the possibility that the changes are accompanied by functional recovery. This article reviews the attempts that have been made to restore sensorimotor function and to obtain functional benefits from the application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the cortex following incomplete spinal cord injury. The confounding issues that arise with the application of rTMS, specifically in SCI, are enumerated. Finally, consideration is given to the potential for rTMS to be used in the restoration of bladder and bowel sphincter function and consequent functional recovery of the guarding reflex. PMID:24904326

  15. Combined functional magnetic resonance imaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation evidence of ipsilateral motor pathway with congenital brain disorder: A case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung Ho Jang; Woo Mok Byun; Yongmin Chang; Bong Soo Han; Sang Ho Ahn

    2001-01-01

    Jang SH, Byun WM, Chang Y, Han BS, Ahn SH. Combined functional magnetic resonance imaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation evidence of ipsilateral motor pathway with congenital brain disorder: a case report. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:1733-6. We present the case of 28-year-old man with schizencephaly who had mild left hemiparesis with mirror movement. Brain mapping using functional magnetic resonance imaging

  16. Time-dependent effects of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the supramarginal gyrus.

    PubMed

    Torii, T; Sato, A; Iwahashi, M; Itoh, Y; Iramina, K

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we report our studies of the effects of stimulating the bilateral supramarginal gyrus (SMG) with low-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) or short-term rTMS on brain excitability in humans. We analyzed the effects of various durations of stimulation on P300 latencies of the event-related potential (ERP). Magnetic pulses were delivered using a figure-eight flat coil. The intensity of rTMS was set to 80 % of the subject's motor threshold. In each round of rTMS, 100 magnetic pulses were applied over the scalp at frequencies of 1.00, 0.75, and 0.50 Hz. ERPs were measured prior to magnetic stimulation as a control. The effects of magnetic stimulation were then determined by measuring its effects on P300 latencies elicited by an odd-ball task. These latencies were measured before and 0, 5, 10, and 15 min after the magnetic stimulation. 1.00 Hz low-frequency rTMS of the left SMG decreased P300 latencies for approximately 10 min. In contrast, 0.50 Hz rTMS of the left SMG resulted in delayed P300 latencies for approximately 15 min. We furthermore found that 0.75 Hz rTMS of the left SMG and 1.00, 0.75 and 0.5 Hz rTMS of the right SMG did not affect P300 latencies. These results suggest that the duration of the effects of rTMS depend on the frequency of stimulation. PMID:23366649

  17. Stump nerve signals during transcranial magnetic motor cortex stimulation recorded in an amputee via longitudinal intrafascicular electrodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Rossini; Jacopo Rigosa; Silvestro Micera; Giovanni Assenza; Luca Rossini; Florinda Ferreri

    2011-01-01

    Do central and peripheral motor pathways associated with an amputated limb retain at least some functions over periods of\\u000a years? This problem could be addressed by evaluating the response patterns of nerve signals from peripheral motor fibers during\\u000a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of corticospinal tracts. The aim of this study was to record for the first time TMS-related\\u000a responses from

  18. Reliability of the input–output properties of the cortico-spinal pathway obtained from transcranial magnetic and electrical stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy J Carroll; Stephan Riek; Richard G Carson

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to assess the test–retest reliability of input–output parameters of the cortico-spinal pathway derived from transcranial magnetic (TMS) and electrical (TES) stimulation at rest and during muscle contraction. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the first dorsal interosseous muscle of eight individuals on three separate days. The intensity of TMS at rest was varied

  19. Transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of depression: feasibility and results under naturalistic conditions: a retrospective analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elmar Frank; Peter Eichhammer; Julia Burger; Marc Zowe; Michael Landgrebe; Göran Hajak; Berthold Langguth

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of controlled studies strongly support an antidepressant effect of high-frequency repetitive transcranial\\u000a magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. However, these data come from highly selected study\\u000a populations. Whether rTMS is a feasible therapeutic tool for the treatment of depression under naturalistic condition has\\u000a not yet been addressed. Here, we report results from 232 depressive

  20. Effects of attention on inhibitory and facilitatory phenomena elicited by paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation in healthy subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonella Conte; Daniele Belvisi; Ennio Iezzi; Francesco Mari; Maurizio Inghilleri; Alfredo Berardelli

    2008-01-01

    We investigated whether human attentional processes influence the activity of intracortical inhibitory and excitatory circuits—short-interval\\u000a intracortical inhibition (SICI), long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI), and the intracortical facilitation (ICF)—elicited\\u000a by paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in healthy subjects. In eight healthy subjects we tested SICI, LICI\\u000a and ICF under different attention-demanding conditions: “relaxed”, “target hand” and “non-target hand”. To compare the effects

  1. Suppression of EMG activity by subthreshold paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to the leg motor cortex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    François D. Roy

    2009-01-01

    Cortical activity driving a voluntary muscle contraction is inhibited by very low-intensity transcranial magnetic stimulation\\u000a (TMS) and is reflected in the suppression of the average rectified EMG. This approach offers a method to test the contribution\\u000a of cortical neurons actively involved in a motor task, but requires a large number of stimuli (~100) to suitably depress the\\u000a average EMG. Here,

  2. Effects of chronic levodopa and pergolide treatment on cortical excitability in patients with Parkinson's disease: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P Strafella; F Valzania; S. A Nassetti; A Tropeani; A Bisulli; M Santangelo; C. A Tassinari

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to assess the effects of chronic levodopa and pergolide treatment on motor cortex excitability in Parkinson disease (PD).Methods: Motor thresholds, intracortical inhibition and facilitation were studied at baseline and after 6 and 12 months of therapy in 10 PD patients and compared to 7 age-matched controls.Results: At baseline, there was significantly less intracortical inhibition

  3. Preferential activation of different I waves by transcranial magnetic stimulation with a figure-of-eight-shaped coil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsuyuki Sakai; Yoshikazu Ugawa; Yasuo Terao; Ritsuko Hanajima; Toshiaki Furubayashi; Ichiro Kanazawa

    1997-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the human primary motor cortex (M1) evokes motor responses in the contralateral\\u000a limb muscles. The latencies and amplitudes of those responses depend on the direction of induced current in the brain by the\\u000a stimuli (Mills et al. 1992, Werhahn et al. 1994). This observation suggests that different neural elements might be activated\\u000a by the differently

  4. The right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is essential in time reproduction: an investigation with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine R. G. Jones; Karin Rosenkranz; John C. Rothwell; Marjan Jahanshahi

    2004-01-01

    This study used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to investigate the roles of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and supplementary motor area (SMA) in short (500 ms) and long (2 s) interval timing. The results were compared with rTMS over the leg area of motor cortex, an area not thought to be involved with time estimation. rTMS was delivered during one

  5. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex affects divided attention immediately after cessation of stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Wagner; Tonia A. Rihs; Urs P. Mosimann; Hans U. Fisch; Thomas E. Schlaepfer

    2006-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation has evolved into a powerful neuroscientific tool allowing to interfere transiently with specific brain functions. In addition, repetitive TMS (rTMS) has long-term effects (e.g. on mood), probably mediated by neurochemical alterations. While long-term safety of rTMS with regard to cognitive functioning is well established from trials exploring its therapeutic efficacy, little is known on whether rTMS can

  6. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in treatment-resistant depressed patients: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Rossini; Adelio Lucca; Raffaella Zanardi; Lorenzo Magri; Enrico Smeraldi

    2005-01-01

    This 5-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigated the efficacy and tolerability of high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) directed to the left prefrontal cortex in drug-resistant depressed patients. Fifty-four patients were randomly assigned to receive 10 daily applications of either real or sham rTMS. Subjects assigned to receive active stimulation were divided into two further subgroups according to the

  7. High frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation mimics the effects of ECS in upregulating astroglial gene expression in the murine CNS.

    PubMed

    Fujiki, M; Steward, O

    1997-03-01

    The present study evaluates the consequences of high frequency (25 hz) trans-cranial magnetic stimulation on the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the murine CNS. Trains of transcranial magnetic stimulation (1-30 trains at 25 Hz, 10 s duration) were delivered to mice via 5-cm diameter round coils. The stimulation produced stimulus-locked motor responses but did not elicit behavioral seizures. GFAP mRNA levels were evaluated 12, 24, 36, 48 h, 4 days, and 8 days following stimulation by in situ hybridization. Following multiple 25 Hz trains, there were dramatic increases in the levels of GFAP mRNA in the hippocampal dentate gyrus; more modest increases were observed in the cerebral cortex. The selective increases in GFAP mRNA in the dentate gyrus were similar to those observed following single electroconvulsive seizures (ECS). These results indicate that trans-cranial magnetic stimulation can be used to modulate astroglial gene expression, inducing the first stage of a reactive response that is similar to what occurs following nervous system injury. PMID:9073172

  8. Preserved Transcallosal Inhibition to Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Nondemented Elderly Patients with Leukoaraiosis

    PubMed Central

    Bella, Rita; Giuffrida, Salvatore; Pennisi, Giovanni; Spampinato, Concetto; Giordano, Daniela; Malaguarnera, Giulia; Raggi, Alberto; Pennisi, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    Structural corpus callosum (CC) changes in patients with leukoaraiosis (LA) are significantly associated with cognitive and motor impairment. The aim of this study is to investigate the transcallosal fibers functioning by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in elderly patients with LA. The resting motor threshold (rMT), the motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), and the controlateral (cSP) and ipsilateral silent periods (iSP) were determined using single-pulse TMS in 15 patients and 15 age-matched controls. The neuropsychological profile and the vascular burden at brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were concomitantly explored. Patients reported abnormal scores at tests evaluating executive control functions. No significant difference was found in TMS measures of intra- and intercortical excitability. No CC lesion was evident at MRI. Transcallosal inhibitory mechanisms to TMS seem to be spared in LA patients, a finding which is in line with neuroimaging features and suggests a functional integrity of the CC despite the ischemic interruption of corticosubcortical loops implicated in cognition and behavior. The observed neurophysiological finding differs from that reported in degenerative dementia, even in the preclinical or early stage. In our group of patients, the pure extent of LA is more related to impairment of frontal lobe abilities rather than functional callosal changes. PMID:23984349

  9. Comparison of current distributions in electroconvulsive therapy and transcranial magnetic stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekino, Masaki; Ueno, Shoogo

    2002-05-01

    We compared current density distributions in electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) by numerical calculations. The model consisted of an air region and three types of tissues with different conductivities representing the brain, the skull, and the scalp. In the ECT model, electric currents were applied through electrodes with a voltage of 100 V. In the TMS model, a figure-eight coil (6 cm diameter per coil) was placed on the vertex of the head model. An alternating current with a peak intensity of 3.0 kA and a frequency of 4.2 kHz was applied to the coil. The maximum current densities inside the brain in ECT (bilateral electrode position) and TMS were 234 and 322 A/m2, respectively. The results indicate that magnetic stimulators can generate comparable current densities to ECT. While the skull significantly affected current distributions in ECT, TMS efficiently induced eddy currents in the brain. In addition, TMS is more beneficial than ECT because the localized current distribution reduces the risk of adverse side effects.

  10. The influence of sulcus width on simulated electric fields induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, A. M.; Rampersad, S. M.; Lucka, F.; Lanfer, B.; Lew, S.; Aydin, Ü.; Wolters, C. H.; Stegeman, D. F.; Oostendorp, T. F.

    2013-07-01

    Volume conduction models can help in acquiring knowledge about the distribution of the electric field induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation. One aspect of a detailed model is an accurate description of the cortical surface geometry. Since its estimation is difficult, it is important to know how accurate the geometry has to be represented. Previous studies only looked at the differences caused by neglecting the complete boundary between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and grey matter (Thielscher et al 2011 NeuroImage 54 234-43, Bijsterbosch et al 2012 Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 50 671-81), or by resizing the whole brain (Wagner et al 2008 Exp. Brain Res. 186 539-50). However, due to the high conductive properties of the CSF, it can be expected that alterations in sulcus width can already have a significant effect on the distribution of the electric field. To answer this question, the sulcus width of a highly realistic head model, based on T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images, was altered systematically. This study shows that alterations in the sulcus width do not cause large differences in the majority of the electric field values. However, considerable overestimation of sulcus width produces an overestimation of the calculated field strength, also at locations distant from the target location.

  11. The influence of sulcus width on simulated electric fields induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, A M; Rampersad, S M; Lucka, F; Lanfer, B; Lew, S; Aydin, Ü; Wolters, C H; Stegeman, D F; Oostendorp, T F

    2013-01-01

    Volume conduction models can help in acquiring knowledge about the distribution of the electric field induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). One aspect of a detailed model is an accurate description of the cortical surface geometry. Since its estimation is difficult, it is important to know how accurate the geometry has to be represented. Previous studies only looked at the differences caused by neglecting the complete boundary between the CSF and GM (Thielscher et al. 2011; Bijsterbosch et al. 2012), or by resizing the whole brain (Wagner et al. 2008). However, due to the high conductive properties of the CSF, it can be expected that alterations in sulcus width can already have a significant effect on the distribution of the electric field. To answer this question, the sulcus width of a highly realistic head model, based on T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI), was altered systematically. This study shows that alterations in the sulcus width do not cause large differences in the majority of the electric field values. However, considerable overestimation of sulcus width produces an overestimation of the calculated field strength, also at locations distant from the target location. PMID:23787706

  12. The Neuroprotection of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Pre-treatment in Vascular Dementia Rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Chang, Guang-Ming; Yu, Qian; Geng, Xin

    2015-05-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive technique that could interfere cortical excitability though brief electric currents induced by alternating magnetic fields from the inductive coil. Currently, it has been applied in many fields of basic and clinical neuro-research. The aims of the present study are to investigate the effect of rTMS pre-treatment on cognitive function in vascular dementia (VaD) rats and further explore the molecular mechanism of rTMS neuroprotection on VaD. We found that rTMS pre-treated VaD rats showed significantly better memory and learning abilities in Morris water maze test compared to the untreated group. Moreover, the mRNA and protein expression levels of BDNF, TrkB, and SYN were significantly higher in the rTMS pre-treated group, indicating that rTMS pre-treatment has neuroprotective effect for VaD, which may have resulted from the increased level of BDNF, TrkB, and SYN in the hippocampal CA1 area. PMID:25585610

  13. Transcranial magnetic stimulation for investigating causal brain-behavioral relationships and their time course.

    PubMed

    Sliwinska, Magdalena W; Vitello, Sylvia; Devlin, Joseph T

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a safe, non-invasive brain stimulation technique that uses a strong electromagnet in order to temporarily disrupt information processing in a brain region, generating a short-lived "virtual lesion." Stimulation that interferes with task performance indicates that the affected brain region is necessary to perform the task normally. In other words, unlike neuroimaging methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) that indicate correlations between brain and behavior, TMS can be used to demonstrate causal brain-behavior relations. Furthermore, by varying the duration and onset of the virtual lesion, TMS can also reveal the time course of normal processing. As a result, TMS has become an important tool in cognitive neuroscience. Advantages of the technique over lesion-deficit studies include better spatial-temporal precision of the disruption effect, the ability to use participants as their own control subjects, and the accessibility of participants. Limitations include concurrent auditory and somatosensory stimulation that may influence task performance, limited access to structures more than a few centimeters from the surface of the scalp, and the relatively large space of free parameters that need to be optimized in order for the experiment to work. Experimental designs that give careful consideration to appropriate control conditions help to address these concerns. This article illustrates these issues with TMS results that investigate the spatial and temporal contributions of the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG) to reading. PMID:25079670

  14. A measure of acoustic noise generated from transcranial magnetic stimulation coils.

    PubMed

    Dhamne, Sameer C; Kothare, Raveena S; Yu, Camilla; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsun; Anastasio, Elana M; Oberman, Lindsay; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Rotenberg, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The intensity of sound emanating from the discharge of magnetic coils used in repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can potentially cause acoustic trauma. Per Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards for safety of noise exposure, hearing protection is recommended beyond restricted levels of noise and time limits. We measured the sound pressure levels (SPLs) from four rTMS coils with the goal of assessing if the acoustic artifact levels are of sufficient amplitude to warrant protection from acoustic trauma per OSHA standards. We studied the SPLs at two frequencies (5 and 10 Hz), three machine outputs (MO) (60, 80 and 100%), and two distances from the coil (5 and 10 cm). We found that the SPLs were louder at closer proximity from the coil and directly dependent on the MO. We also found that in all studied conditions, SPLs were lower than the OSHA permissible thresholds for short (<15 min) acoustic exposure, but at extremes of use, may generate sufficient noise to warrant ear protection with prolonged (>8 h) exposure. PMID:24582370

  15. [Design of a half solenoid coil for optimization of magnetic focusing in trans-cranial magnetic stimulation].

    PubMed

    Hu, Weiping; Wang, Xiuxin; Yang, Yongxu; Liang, Dongdong; Zhao, Fangwei

    2007-08-01

    Trans-cranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is the process that excitable human brain tissue is activated with the electric field induced from a changing magnetic field. Magnetic focusing characteristic is one of the most important technical considerations of coil design in TMS. In this paper, a half solenoid coil was proposed to be used in TMS and the magnitude profile of the induced electric fields in different depth was studied based on the induced electric field theory of magnetic stimulating coil. The magnitude profile of the induced electric fields produced by half solenoid coils was compared with that of butterfly-shaped coils. The result shows that half solenoid coils retain the good focusing characteristics of the main lobe of the butterfly-shaped coils. At the same time side effect of the side lobes on notargeted tissue is mitigated, which would otherwise lead to undesirable stimulation. Hence magnetic focusing is optimized, which is expected to give a more accurate delivery of the focal point for more effective stimulation. PMID:17899772

  16. Treatment envelope evaluation in transcranial magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound utilizing 3D MR thermometry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Current clinical targets for transcranial magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (tcMRgFUS) are all located close to the geometric center of the skull convexity, which minimizes challenges related to focusing the ultrasound through the skull bone. Non-central targets will have to be reached to treat a wider variety of neurological disorders and solid tumors. Treatment envelope studies utilizing two-dimensional (2D) magnetic resonance (MR) thermometry have previously been performed to determine the regions in which therapeutic levels of FUS can currently be delivered. Since 2D MR thermometry was used, very limited information about unintended heating in near-field tissue/bone interfaces could be deduced. Methods In this paper, we present a proof-of-concept treatment envelope study with three-dimensional (3D) MR thermometry monitoring of FUS heatings performed in a phantom and a lamb model. While the moderate-sized transducer used was not designed for transcranial geometries, the 3D temperature maps enable monitoring of the entire sonication field of view, including both the focal spot and near-field tissue/bone interfaces, for full characterization of all heating that may occur. 3D MR thermometry is achieved by a combination of k-space subsampling and a previously described temporally constrained reconstruction method. Results We present two different types of treatment envelopes. The first is based only on the focal spot heating—the type that can be derived from 2D MR thermometry. The second type is based on the relative near-field heating and is calculated as the ratio between the focal spot heating and the near-field heating. This utilizes the full 3D MR thermometry data achieved in this study. Conclusions It is shown that 3D MR thermometry can be used to improve the safety assessment in treatment envelope evaluations. Using a non-optimal transducer, it is shown that some regions where therapeutic levels of FUS can be delivered, as suggested by the first type of envelope, are not necessarily safely treated due to the amount of unintended near-field heating occurring. The results presented in this study highlight the need for 3D MR thermometry in tcMRgFUS. PMID:25343028

  17. Cerebellar Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: The Role of Coil Geometry and Tissue Depth?

    PubMed Central

    Hardwick, Robert M.; Lesage, Elise; Miall, R. Chris

    2014-01-01

    Background While transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) coil geometry has important effects on the evoked magnetic field, no study has systematically examined how different coil designs affect the effectiveness of cerebellar stimulation. Hypothesis The depth of the cerebellar targets will limit efficiency. Angled coils designed to stimulate deeper tissue are more effective in eliciting cerebellar stimulation. Methods Experiment 1 examined basic input–output properties of the figure-of-eight, batwing and double-cone coils, assessed with stimulation of motor cortex. Experiment 2 assessed the ability of each coil to activate cerebellum, using cerebellar-brain inhibition (CBI). Experiment 3 mapped distances from the scalp to cerebellar and motor cortical targets in a sample of 100 subjects' structural magnetic resonance images. Results Experiment 1 showed batwing and double-cone coils have significantly lower resting motor thresholds, and recruitment curves with steeper slopes than the figure-of-eight coil. Experiment 2 showed the double-cone coil was the most efficient for eliciting CBI. The batwing coil induced CBI only at higher stimulus intensities. The figure-of-eight coil did not elicit reliable CBI. Experiment 3 confirmed that cerebellar tissue is significantly deeper than primary motor cortex tissue, and we provide a map of scalp-to-target distances. Conclusions The double-cone and batwing coils designed to stimulate deeper tissue can effectively stimulate cerebellar targets. The double-cone coil was found to be most effective. The depth map provides a guide to the accessible regions of the cerebellar volume. These results can guide coil selection and stimulation parameters when designing cerebellar TMS studies. PMID:24924734

  18. Interdisciplinary Approaches of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Applied to a Respiratory Neuronal Circuitry Model

    PubMed Central

    Vinit, Stéphane; Keomani, Emilie; Deramaudt, Thérèse B.; Spruance, Victoria M.; Bezdudnaya, Tatiana; Lane, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory related diseases associated with the neuronal control of breathing represent life-threatening issues and to date, no effective therapeutics are available to enhance the impaired function. The aim of this study was to determine whether a preclinical respiratory model could be used for further studies to develop a non-invasive therapeutic tool applied to rat diaphragmatic neuronal circuitry. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was performed on adult male Sprague-Dawley rats using a human figure-of-eight coil. The largest diaphragmatic motor evoked potentials (MEPdia) were recorded when the center of the coil was positioned 6 mm caudal from Bregma, involving a stimulation of respiratory supraspinal pathways. Magnetic shielding of the coil with mu metal reduced magnetic field intensities and improved focality with increased motor threshold and lower amplitude recruitment curve. Moreover, transynaptic neuroanatomical tracing with pseudorabies virus (applied to the diaphragm) suggest that connections exist between the motor cortex, the periaqueductal grey cell regions, several brainstem neurons and spinal phrenic motoneurons (distributed in the C3-4 spinal cord). These results reveal the anatomical substrate through which supraspinal stimulation can convey descending action potential volleys to the spinal motoneurons (directly or indirectly). We conclude that MEPdia following a single pulse of TMS can be successfully recorded in the rat and may be used in the assessment of respiratory supraspinal plasticity. Supraspinal non-invasive stimulations aimed to neuromodulate respiratory circuitry will enable new avenues of research into neuroplasticity and the development of therapies for respiratory dysfunction associated with neural injury and disease (e.g. spinal cord injury, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis). PMID:25406091

  19. Sensorimotor Plasticity after Music-Supported Therapy in Chronic Stroke Patients Revealed by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Amengual, Julià L.; Rojo, Nuria; Veciana de las Heras, Misericordia; Marco-Pallarés, Josep; Grau-Sánchez, Jennifer; Schneider, Sabine; Vaquero, Lucía; Juncadella, Montserrat; Montero, Jordi; Mohammadi, Bahram; Rubio, Francisco; Rueda, Nohora; Duarte, Esther; Grau, Carles; Altenmüller, Eckart; Münte, Thomas F.; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Background Several recently developed therapies targeting motor disabilities in stroke sufferers have shown to be more effective than standard neurorehabilitation approaches. In this context, several basic studies demonstrated that music training produces rapid neuroplastic changes in motor-related brain areas. Music-supported therapy has been recently developed as a new motor rehabilitation intervention. Methods and Results In order to explore the plasticity effects of music-supported therapy, this therapeutic intervention was applied to twenty chronic stroke patients. Before and after the music-supported therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied for the assessment of excitability changes in the motor cortex and a 3D movement analyzer was used for the assessment of motor performance parameters such as velocity, acceleration and smoothness in a set of diadochokinetic movement tasks. Our results suggest that the music-supported therapy produces changes in cortical plasticity leading the improvement of the subjects' motor performance. Conclusion Our findings represent the first evidence of the neurophysiological changes induced by this therapy in chronic stroke patients, and their link with the amelioration of motor performance. Further studies are needed to confirm our observations. PMID:23613966

  20. Transcranial magnetic stimulation over human secondary somatosensory cortex disrupts perception of pain intensity.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Patricia L; Iannetti, Gian Domenico; Haggard, Patrick

    2013-09-01

    Pain is a complex sensory experience resulting from the activity of a network of brain regions. However, the functional contribution of individual regions in this network remains poorly understood. We delivered single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the contralateral primary somatosensory cortex (S1), secondary somatosensory cortex (S2) and vertex (control site) 120 msec after selective stimulation of nociceptive afferents using neodymium:yttrium-aluminium-perovskite (Nd:YAP) laser pulses causing painful sensations. Participants were required to judge either the intensity (medium/high) or the spatial location (proximal/distal) of the stimulus in a two-alternative forced choice paradigm. When TMS pulses were delivered over S2, participants' ability to judge pain intensity was disrupted, as compared to S1 and vertex (control) stimulation. Signal-detection analysis demonstrated a loss of sensitivity to stimulation intensity, rather than a shift in perceived pain level or response bias. We did not find any effect of TMS on the ability to localise nociceptive stimuli on the skin. The novel finding that TMS over S2 can disrupt perception of pain intensity suggests a causal role for S2 in encoding of pain intensity. PMID:23290634

  1. The Effects of Lateral Prefrontal Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Item Memory Encoding

    PubMed Central

    Blumenfeld, Robert S.; Lee, Taraz; D’Esposito, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging research has established that the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) is involved in long-term memory (LTM) encoding for individual items. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is implicated less frequently, and one theory that has gained support to explain this discrepancy is that DLPFC is involved in forming item-item relational but not item LTM. Given that neuroimaging results are correlational, complimentary methods such as repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) have been used to test causal hypotheses generated from imaging data. Most TMS studies of LTM encoding have found that disruption of lateral PFC activity impairs subsequent memory. However these studies have lacked methods to precisely localize and directly compare TMS effects from frontal subregions implicated by the neuroimaging literature. Here, we target specific subregions of lateral PFC with TMS to test the prediction from the item/relational framework that temporary disruption of VLPFC during encoding will impair subsequent memory whereas TMS to DLPFC during item encoding will not. Frontal TMS was administered prior to a LTM encoding task in which participants were presented with a list of individual nouns and asked to judge whether each noun was concrete or abstract. After a 40 minute delay period, item recognition memory was tested. Results indicate that VLPFC and DLPFC TMS have differential effects on subsequent item memory. VLPFC TMS reliably disrupted subsequent item memory whereas DLPFC TMS led to numerical enhancement in item memory, relative to TMS to a control region. PMID:24316198

  2. Neural summation in human motor cortex by subthreshold transcranial magnetic stimulations.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaoming; Choa, Fow-Sen; Summerfelt, Ann; Tagamets, Malle A; Rowland, Laura M; Kochunov, Peter; Shepard, Paul; Hong, L Elliot

    2015-02-01

    Integration of diverse synaptic inputs is a basic neuronal operation that relies on many neurocomputational principles, one of which is neural summation. However, we lack empirical understanding of neuronal summation in the human brains in vivo. Here, we explored the effect of neural summation on the motor cortex using two subthreshold pulses of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), each with intensities ranging from 60 to 95% of the resting motor threshold (RMT) and interstimulus interval (ISI) varying from 1 to 25 ms. We found that two subthreshold TMS pulses can produce suprathreshold motor response when ISIs were less than 10 ms, most prominent at 1, 1.5 and 3 ms. This facilitatory, above-threshold response was evident when the intensity of the subthreshold pulses was above 80% of RMT but was absent as the intensity was 70% or below. Modeling of the summation data across intensity suggested that they followed an exponential function with excellent model fitting. Understanding the constraints for inducing summation of subthreshold stimulations to generate above-threshold response may have implications in modeling neural operations and potential clinical applications. PMID:25399245

  3. The effects of lateral prefrontal transcranial magnetic stimulation on item memory encoding.

    PubMed

    Blumenfeld, Robert S; Lee, Taraz G; D'Esposito, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging research has established that the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) is involved in long-term memory (LTM) encoding for individual items. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is implicated less frequently, and one theory that has gained support to explain this discrepancy is that DLPFC is involved in forming item-item relational but not item LTM. Given that neuroimaging results are correlational, complimentary methods such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) have been used to test causal hypotheses generated from imaging data. Most TMS studies of LTM encoding have found that disruption of lateral PFC activity impairs subsequent memory. However these studies have lacked methods to precisely localize and directly compare TMS effects from frontal subregions implicated by the neuroimaging literature. Here, we target specific subregions of lateral PFC with TMS to test the prediction from the item/relational framework that temporary disruption of VLPFC during encoding will impair subsequent memory whereas TMS to DLPFC during item encoding will not. Frontal TMS was administered prior to a LTM encoding task in which participants were presented with a list of individual nouns and asked to judge whether each noun was concrete or abstract. After a 40 min delay period, item recognition memory was tested. Results indicate that VLPFC and DLPFC TMS have differential effects on subsequent item memory. VLPFC TMS reliably disrupted subsequent item memory whereas DLPFC TMS led to numerical enhancement in item memory, relative to TMS to a control region. PMID:24316198

  4. Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on synaptic plasticity and apoptosis in vascular dementia rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui-Yun; Liu, Yang; Xie, Jia-Cun; Liu, Nan-Nan; Tian, Xin

    2015-03-15

    This study aims to determine whether low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) protects pyramidal cells from apoptosis and promotes hippocampal synaptic plasticity in a vascular dementia (VaD) rat model. Following establishment of a VaD rat model using two-vessel occlusion (2VO), learning and memory were evaluated via the Morris Water Maze (MWM), hippocampal CA1 neuron ultrastructure was examined via electron microscopy, and hippocampal synaptic plasticity was assessed by long-term potentiation (LTP). Western blot was used to detect the expression of N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor 1 (NMDAR1), Bcl-2, and Bax. Compared with VaD group, rats treated with low-frequency rTMS had reduced-escape latencies, increased swimming time in the target quadrant (P<0.05), and significantly less synaptic structure damage. LTP at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses was enhanced (P<0.05). Low-frequency rTMS significantly up-regulated NMDAR1 and Bcl-2 expression and down-regulated Bax expression. Low-frequency rTMS improves learning and memory, protects the synapse, and increases synaptic plasticity in VaD model rats. Increased Bcl-2 expression and reduced Bax expression may be a novel protective mechanism of low-frequency rTMS treatment for VaD. PMID:25541037

  5. Combining near-infrared spectroscopy with electroencephalography and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Näsi, Tiina; Kotilahti, Kalle; Mäki, Hanna; Nissilä, Ilkka; Meriläinen, Pekka

    2009-07-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the usability of a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) device in multimodal measurements. We combined NIRS with electroencephalography (EEG) to record hemodynamic responses and evoked potentials simultaneously, and with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate hemodynamic responses to repetitive TMS (rTMS). Hemodynamic responses and visual evoked potentials (VEPs) to 3, 6, and 12 s stimuli consisting of pattern-reversing checkerboards were successfully recorded in the NIRS/EEG measurement, and ipsi- and contralateral hemodynamic responses to 0.5, 1, and 2 Hz rTMS in the NIRS/TMS measurement. In the NIRS/EEG measurements, the amplitudes of the hemodynamic responses increased from 3- to 6-s stimulus, but not from 6- to 12-s stimulus, and the VEPs showed peaks N75, P100, and N135. In the NIRS/TMS measurements, the 2-Hz stimulus produced the strongest hemodynamic responses compared to the 0.5- and 1-Hz stimuli. In two subjects oxyhemoglobin concentration decreased and in one increased as a consequence of the 2-Hz rTMS. To locate the origin of the measured NIRS responses, methods have to be developed to investigate TMS-induced scalp muscle contractions. In the future, multimodal measurements may prove useful in monitoring or treating diseases such as stroke or Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation enhances BDNF-TrkB signaling in both brain and lymphocyte.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hoau-Yan; Crupi, Domenica; Liu, Jingjing; Stucky, Andres; Cruciata, Giuseppe; Di Rocco, Alessandro; Friedman, Eitan; Quartarone, Angelo; Ghilardi, M Felice

    2011-07-27

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) induces neuronal long-term potentiation or depression. Although brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its cognate tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) contribute to the effects of rTMS, their precise role and underlying mechanism remain poorly understood. Here we show that daily 5 Hz rTMS for 5 d improves BDNF-TrkB signaling in rats by increasing the affinity of BDNF for TrkB, which results in higher tyrosine-phosphorylated TrkB, increased recruitment of PLC-?1 and shc/N-shc to TrkB, and heightened downstream ERK2 and PI-3K activities in prefrontal cortex and in lymphocytes. The elevated BDNF-TrkB signaling is accompanied by an increased association between the activated TrkB and NMDA receptor (NMDAR). In normal human subjects, 5 d rTMS to motor cortex decreased resting motor threshold, which correlates with heightened BDNF-TrkB signaling and intensified TrkB-NMDAR association in lymphocytes. These findings suggest that rTMS to cortex facilitates BDNF-TrkB-NMDAR functioning in both cortex and lymphocytes. PMID:21795553

  7. Probing feedforward and feedback contributions to awareness with visual masking and transcranial magnetic stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Tapia, Evelina; Beck, Diane M.

    2014-01-01

    A number of influential theories posit that visual awareness relies not only on the initial, stimulus-driven (i.e., feedforward) sweep of activation but also on recurrent feedback activity within and between brain regions. These theories of awareness draw heavily on data from masking paradigms in which visibility of one stimulus is reduced due to the presence of another stimulus. More recently transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used to study the temporal dynamics of visual awareness. TMS over occipital cortex affects performance on visual tasks at distinct time points and in a manner that is comparable to visual masking. We draw parallels between these two methods and examine evidence for the neural mechanisms by which visual masking and TMS suppress stimulus visibility. Specifically, both methods have been proposed to affect feedforward as well as feedback signals when applied at distinct time windows relative to stimulus onset and as a result modify visual awareness. Most recent empirical evidence, moreover, suggests that while visual masking and TMS impact stimulus visibility comparably, the processes these methods affect may not be as similar as previously thought. In addition to reviewing both masking and TMS studies that examine feedforward and feedback processes in vision, we raise questions to guide future studies and further probe the necessary conditions for visual awareness. PMID:25374548

  8. Parietal influence on temporal encoding indexed by simultaneous transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Martin; Kliot, Dasha; Turkeltaub, Peter E; Hamilton, Roy H; Wolk, David A; Coslett, H Branch

    2012-08-29

    Previous studies have suggested that contingent negative variation (CNV), as recorded by electroencaphalography (EEG), may serve as an index of temporal encoding. The interpretation of these studies is complicated by the fact that, in a majority of studies, the CNV signal was obtained at a time when subjects were not only registering stimulus duration but also making decisions and preparing to act. Previously, we demonstrated that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the right supramarginal gyrus (rSMG) in humans lengthened the perceived duration of a visual stimulus (Wiener et al., 2010a), suggesting the rSMG is involved in basic encoding processes. Here, we report a replication of this effect with simultaneous EEG recordings during the encoding of stimulus duration. Stimulation of the rSMG led to an increase in perceived duration and the amplitude of N1 and CNV components recorded from frontocentral sites. Furthermore, the size of the CNV amplitude, but not N1, positively correlated with the size of the rTMS effect but negatively correlated with bias (the baseline tendency to report a comparison stimulus as shorter), suggesting that the CNV indexes stimulus duration. These results suggest that a feedforward mechanism from parietal to prefrontal regions mediates temporal encoding and demonstrate a dissociation between early and late phases of encoding processes. PMID:22933807

  9. Disruptions to human speed perception induced by motion adaptation and transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Burton, M P; McKeefry, D J; Barrett, B T; Vakrou, C; Morland, A B

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the underlying nature of the effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on speed perception, we applied repetitive TMS (rTMS) to human V5/MT+ following adaptation to either fast- (20 deg/s) or slow (4 deg/s)-moving grating stimuli. The adapting stimuli induced changes in the perceived speed of a standard reference stimulus moving at 10 deg/s. In the absence of rTMS, adaptation to the slower stimulus led to an increase in perceived speed of the reference, whilst adaptation to the faster stimulus produced a reduction in perceived speed. These induced changes in speed perception can be modelled by a ratio-taking operation of the outputs of two temporally tuned mechanisms that decay exponentially over time. When rTMS was applied to V5/MT+ following adaptation, the perceived speed of the reference stimulus was reduced, irrespective of whether adaptation had been to the faster- or slower-moving stimulus. The fact that rTMS after adaptation always reduces perceived speed, independent of which temporal mechanism has undergone adaptation, suggests that rTMS does not selectively facilitate activity of adapted neurons but instead leads to suppression of neural function. The results highlight the fact that potentially different effects are generated by TMS on adapted neuronal populations depending upon whether or not they are responding to visual stimuli. PMID:19912329

  10. Transcranial magnetic stimulation modulates the brain's intrinsic activity in a frequency-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Eldaief, Mark C; Halko, Mark A; Buckner, Randy L; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2011-12-27

    Intrinsic activity in the brain is organized into networks. Although constrained by their anatomical connections, functional correlations between nodes of these networks reorganize dynamically. Dynamic organization implies that couplings between network nodes can be reconfigured to support processing demands. To explore such reconfigurations, we combined repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) to modulate cortical activity in one node of the default network, and assessed the effect of this upon functional correlations throughout the network. Two different frequencies of rTMS to the same default network node (the left posterior inferior parietal lobule, lpIPL) induced two topographically distinct changes in functional connectivity. High-frequency rTMS to lpIPL decreased functional correlations between cortical default network nodes, but not between these nodes and the hippocampal formation. In contrast, low frequency rTMS to lpIPL did not alter connectivity between cortical default network nodes, but increased functional correlations between lpIPL and the hippocampal formation. These results suggest that the default network is composed of (at least) two subsystems. More broadly, the finding that two rTMS stimulation regimens to the same default network node have distinct effects reveals that this node is embedded within a network that possesses multiple, functionally distinct relationships among its distributed partners. PMID:22160708

  11. Neural Correlates of the Antinociceptive Effects of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Central Pain After Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ohn, Suk Hoon; Chang, Won Hyuk; Park, Chang-hyun; Kim, Sung Tae; Lee, Jung Il; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Background Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) modulates central neuropathic pain in some patients after stroke, but the mechanisms of action are uncertain. Objective The authors used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional MRI (fMRI) to evaluate the integrity of the thalamocortical tract (TCT) and the activation pattern of the pain network in 22 patients with poststroke central pain. Methods Each patient underwent daily 10-Hz rTMS sessions for 1000 pulses on 5 consecutive days over the hotspot for the first dorsal interosseus muscle. Pain severity was monitored using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Mood was assessed by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Results Clinical data from all participants along with the DTI and fMRI findings from 10 patients were analyzed. VAS scores decreased significantly, if modestly, following administration of rTMS in 14 responders, which lasted for 2 weeks after the intervention. Regression analysis showed a significant correlation between less initial depression and higher antalgic effect of rTMS. Integrity of the superior TCT in the ipsilesional hemisphere showed significant correlation with change of VAS score after rTMS. fMRI showed significantly decreased activity in the secondary somatosensory cortex, insula, prefrontal cortex, and putamen in rTMS responders, whereas no change was noted in nonresponders. Conclusion Mood may affect the modest antinociceptive effects of rTMS that we found, which may be mediated by the superior TCT through modulation of a distributed pain network. PMID:21980153

  12. Frontal eye field involvement in sustaining visual attention: Evidence from transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Esterman, Michael; Liu, Guanyu; Okabe, Hidefusa; Reagan, Andrew; Thai, Michelle; DeGutis, Joe

    2015-05-01

    The frontal eye field (FEF), particularly the right FEF, is broadly implicated in top-down control of transient acts of attention, but less is known about its involvement in sustained attention. Although neuroimaging studies of sustained attention tasks commonly find FEF activation, it is unclear how this region contributes to moment-to-moment fluctuations in sustained performance. We sought to determine if the FEF plays a critical role in sustained attention, and if that role differs between periods of worse performance (out-of-the-zone) and periods of better performance (in-the-zone). We used offline 1Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to temporarily attenuate either right or left FEF excitability while participants performed a go/no-go sustained attention task (the gradual onset continuous performance task). The results demonstrate that following TMS to the right FEF, sustained attention during in-the-zone periods significantly worsened both in terms of lower accuracy and increased reaction time variability. In contrast, applying TMS to the left FEF did not significantly affect accuracy or variability. These results demonstrate that the right FEF plays a crucial role in supporting optimal sustained attention. PMID:25655445

  13. Potentiation of quantitative electroencephalograms following prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with major depression.

    PubMed

    Noda, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Motoaki; Saeki, Takashi; Inoue, Misa; Iwanari, Hideo; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2013-01-01

    The long-lasting effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on electroencephalogram (EEG) activity are not clear. We aimed to investigate the cumulative rTMS effects on EEG and clinical outcomes in patients with major depression. Twenty-five patients with medication-resistant depression underwent 10 daily rTMS sessions over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. We measured resting EEG and spectrum-power before and after the rTMS course. Clinical efficacy was evaluated with the Hamilton's Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). In an ANOVA model, including all prefrontal electrodes, post hoc analyses revealed significant time effects on the theta (F1,24 = 7.89, P = 0.010; +43%), delta (F1,24 = 6.58, P = 0.017; +26%), and alpha (F1,24 = 4.64, P = 0.042; 31%) bands without site specificity. Clinical correlations were observed between F4 alpha power increases and improvements in HAM-D retardation, F3 alpha power increases and improvements of the absolute changes in perseveration and error number on the WCST, and C3 and C4 theta power increases and improvements of the percent change in perseveration and error number on the WCST following rTMS. Consecutive prefrontal rTMS could induce long-lasting EEG potentiations beyond the aftereffects, resulting in improved cognitive and depressive symptoms. PMID:23827366

  14. Timecourse of mirror and counter-mirror effects measured with transcranial magnetic stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Cavallo, Andrea; Heyes, Cecilia; Becchio, Cristina; Bird, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    The human mirror system has been the subject of much research over the past two decades, but little is known about the timecourse of mirror responses. In addition, it is unclear whether mirror and counter-mirror effects follow the same timecourse. We used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to investigate the timecourse of mirror and counter-mirror responses in the human brain. Experiment 1 demonstrated that mirror responses can be measured from around 200 ms after observed action onset. Experiment 2 demonstrated significant effects of counter-mirror sensorimotor training at all timepoints at which a mirror response was found in Experiment 1 (i.e. from 200 ms onward), indicating that mirror and counter-mirror responses follow the same timecourse. By suggesting similarly direct routes for mirror and counter-mirror responses, these results support the associative account of mirror neuron origins whereby mirror responses arise as a result of correlated sensorimotor experience during development. More generally, they contribute to theorizing regarding mirror neuron function by providing some constraints on how quickly mirror responses can influence social cognition. PMID:23709352

  15. Positive predictors for antidepressive response to prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS).

    PubMed

    Brakemeier, Eva-Lotta; Luborzewski, Alexander; Danker-Hopfe, Heidi; Kathmann, Norbert; Bajbouj, Malek

    2007-08-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a brain stimulation technique which had recently been investigated as a putative antidepressant intervention. However, there is little agreement about clinically useful predictors of rTMS outcome. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine whether specific biographical, clinical, and psychopathological parameters are associated with the antidepressant response to rTMS in a large sample of 70 depressive patients. We performed a logistic regression analysis in 70 patients with major depressive disorder treated with rTMS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex testing the predictive value of various domains of the depression syndrome as well as the variables episode duration, degree of treatment resistance, and CORE criteria. Response was defined as a 50% reduction of the initial Hamilton score (HAMD). After two weeks of treatment, 21% of the patients showed a response to rTMS. The binary logistic regression model correctly assigned 86.7% of the responders and 96.4% of the non-responders to their final response group. In the model, a high level of sleep disturbances was a significant predictor for treatment response to rTMS. Also, a low score of treatment resistance and a short duration of episode were positive predictors. These findings provide new evidence that especially pronounced sleep disturbances may be a significant clinical predictor of a response to rTMS. Prospective rTMS studies are necessary to validate the predictive value of the derived model. PMID:16554071

  16. Determination of motor threshold using visual observation overestimates transcranial magnetic stimulation dosage: Safety implications

    PubMed Central

    Lisanby, Sarah H.; Luber, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Objective While the standard has been to define motor threshold (MT) using EMG to measure motor cortex response to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), another method of determining MT using visual observation of muscle twitch (OM-MT) has emerged in clinical and research use. We compared these two methods for determining MT. Methods Left motor cortex MTs were found in 20 healthy subjects. Employing the commonly-used relative frequency procedure and beginning from a clearly suprathreshold intensity, two raters used motor evoked potentials and finger movements respectively to determine EMG-MT and OM-MT. Results OM-MT was 11.3% higher than EMG-MT (p<0.001), ranging from 0-27.8%. In eight subjects, OM-MT was more than 10% higher than EMG-MT, with two greater than 25%. Conclusions These findings suggest using OM yields significantly higher MTs than EMG, and may lead to unsafe TMS in some individuals. In more than half of the subjects in the present study, use of their OM-MT for typical rTMS treatment of depression would have resulted in stimulation beyond safety limits. Significance For applications that involve stimulation near established safety limits and in the presence of factors that could elevate risk such as concomitant medications, EMG-MT is advisable, given that safety guidelines for TMS parameters were based on EMG-MT. PMID:23993680

  17. Cerebellar dysfunction in progressive supranuclear palsy: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    PubMed

    Shirota, Yuichiro; Hamada, Masashi; Hanajima, Ritsuko; Terao, Yasuo; Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Ohminami, Shinya; Tsuji, Shoji; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2010-10-30

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) rarely shows cerebellar signs and symptoms even though the cerebellar dentate nuclei are involved pathologically. This study evaluates cerebellar function using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to determine whether subclinical cerebellar involvement is present in PSP patients. We studied 11 patients with PSP, 11 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and 10 age-matched controls. Patients were examined with their usual medications and in their relative on state. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the hand muscle. Cerebellar function was evaluated using suppressive effects of TMS over the cerebellum on MEPs elicited by TMS over the contralateral motor cortex, which we call cerebellar inhibition (CBI). Interstimulus intervals (ISIs) of 4 to 8 ms were used, and the time course of CBI was analyzed. The CBI was reduced in PSP patients. By contrast, the CBI was normal in PD patients in their on state. Although the CBI in their off state should be examined in future studies, the results described herein suggest that Purkinje cells or the dentato-thalamo-cortical pathway assessed by CBI is involved in PSP. Our results are compatible with the pathological findings showing severe dentate nucleus degeneration in PSP patients. PMID:20818672

  18. First preoperative functional mapping via navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation in a 3-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Coburger, Jan; Karhu, Jari; Bittl, Markus; Hopf, Nikolai J

    2012-06-01

    Preoperative functional mapping in children younger than 5 years old remains a challenge. Awake functional MRI (fMRI) is usually not an option for these patients. Except for a description of passive fMRI in sedated patients and magnetoencephalography, no other noninvasive mapping method has been reported as a preoperative diagnostic tool in children. Therefore, invasive intraoperative direct cortical stimulation remains the method of choice. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of a young child undergoing preoperative functional motor cortex mapping with the aid of navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS). In this 3-year-old boy with a rolandic ganglioglioma, awake preoperative mapping was performed using nTMS. A precise location of Broca area 4 could be established. The surgical approach was planned according to the preoperative findings. Intraoperative direct cortical stimulation verified the location of the nTMS hotspots, and complete resection of the precentral tumor was achieved. Navigated TMS is a precise tool for preoperative motor cortex mapping and is feasible even in very young pediatric patients. In children for whom performing the fMRI motor paradigm is challenging, nTMS is the only available option for functional mapping. PMID:22656259

  19. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the supramarginal gyrus: a window to perception of upright.

    PubMed

    Kheradmand, Amir; Lasker, Adrian; Zee, David S

    2015-03-01

    Although the pull of gravity, primarily detected by the labyrinth, is the fundamental input for our sense of upright, vision and proprioception must also be integrated with vestibular information into a coherent perception of spatial orientation. Here, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to probe the role of the cortex at the temporal parietal junction (TPJ) of the right cerebral hemisphere in the perception of upright. We measured the perceived vertical orientation of a visual line; that is, the subjective visual vertical (SVV), after a short period of continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) with the head upright. cTBS over the posterior aspect of the supramarginal gyrus (SMGp) in 8 right-handed subjects consistently tilted the perception of upright when tested with the head tilted 20° to either shoulder (right: 3.6°, left: 2.7°). The tilt of SVV was always in the direction opposite to the head tilt. On the other hand, there was no significant tilt after sham stimulation or after cTBS of nearby areas. These findings suggest that a small area of cerebral cortex-SMGp-has a role in processing information from different sensory modalities into an accurate perception of upright. PMID:24084127

  20. Effect of cerebellar transcranial magnetic stimulation on soleus Ia presynaptic and reciprocal inhibition.

    PubMed

    Matsugi, Akiyoshi; Mori, Nobuhiko; Uehara, Shintaro; Kamata, Noriyuki; Oku, Kosuke; Okada, Yohei; Kikuchi, Yutaka; Mukai, Kouichi; Nagano, Kiyoshi

    2015-02-11

    Previously, we reported that cerebellar transcranial magnetic stimulation (C-TMS) facilitates spinal motoneuronal excitability in resting humans. In this study, we aimed to characterize the descending pathway that is responsible for the C-TMS-associated cerebellar spinal facilitation. We evaluated the effect of C-TMS on ipsilateral soleus Ia presynaptic inhibition (PSI) and reciprocal inhibition (RI) because the vestibulospinal and reticulospinal tracts project from the cerebellum to mediate spinal motoneurons via interneurons associated with PSI. PSI and RI were measured with a soleus H-reflex test following operant conditioning using electrical stimulation of the common peroneal nerve. C-TMS was delivered before test tibial nerve stimulation with conditioning-test interstimulus intervals of 110?ms. C-TMS did not generate motor-evoked potentials, and it did not increase electromyography activity in the ipsilateral soleus muscle, indicating that C-TMS does not directly activate the corticospinal tract and motoneurons. However, C-TMS facilitated the ipsilateral soleus H-reflex and reduced the amount of soleus Ia PSI, but not RI. These findings indicate that C-TMS may facilitate the excitability of the spinal motoneuron pool via the vestibulospinal or reticulospinal tracts associated with PSI. Cerebellar spinal facilitation may be useful for assessing the functional connectivity of the cerebellum and vestibular nuclei or reticular formation. PMID:25569794

  1. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation to quantify electrophysiological changes following concussive brain injury: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Major, Brendan P; Rogers, Mark A; Pearce, Alan J

    2015-04-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and sports concussion are a growing public health concern, with increasing demands for more rigorous methods to quantify changes in the brain post-injury. Electrophysiology, and in particular, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), have been demonstrated to provide prognostic value in a range of neurological conditions; however, no review has quantified the efficacy of TMS in mTBI/concussion. In the present study, we present a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature from 1990 to 2014 that has used TMS to investigate corticomotor excitability responses at short-term (< 12 months), medium-term (1-5 years), and long-term (> 5 years) post-mTBI/concussion. Thirteen studies met the selection criteria, with six studies presenting short-term changes, five studies presenting medium-term changes, and two studies presenting long-term changes. Irrespective of time post-concussion, change in intracortical inhibition was the most reported observation. Other findings included increased stimulation threshold, and slowed neurological conduction time. Although currently limited, the data suggest that TMS has prognostic value in detecting neurophysiological changes post-mTBI/concussion. PMID:25603731

  2. Voltage-sensitive dye imaging of transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced intracortical dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Kozyrev, Vladislav; Eysel, Ulf T.; Jancke, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is widely used in clinical interventions and basic neuroscience. Additionally, it has become a powerful tool to drive plastic changes in neuronal networks. However, highly resolved recordings of the immediate TMS effects have remained scarce, because existing recording techniques are limited in spatial or temporal resolution or are interfered with by the strong TMS-induced electric field. To circumvent these constraints, we performed optical imaging with voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) in an animal experimental setting using anaesthetized cats. The dye signals reflect gradual changes in the cells' membrane potential across several square millimeters of cortical tissue, thus enabling direct visualization of TMS-induced neuronal population dynamics. After application of a single TMS pulse across visual cortex, brief focal activation was immediately followed by synchronous suppression of a large pool of neurons. With consecutive magnetic pulses (10 Hz), widespread activity within this “basin of suppression” increased stepwise to suprathreshold levels and spontaneous activity was enhanced. Visual stimulation after repetitive TMS revealed long-term potentiation of evoked activity. Furthermore, loss of the “deceleration–acceleration” notch during the rising phase of the response, as a signature of fast intracortical inhibition detectable with VSD imaging, indicated weakened inhibition as an important driving force of increasing cortical excitability. In summary, our data show that high-frequency TMS changes the balance between excitation and inhibition in favor of an excitatory cortical state. VSD imaging may thus be a promising technique to trace TMS-induced changes in excitability and resulting plastic processes across cortical maps with high spatial and temporal resolutions. PMID:25187557

  3. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for clinical applications in neurological and psychiatric disorders: an overview.

    PubMed

    Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Paes, Flávia; Vieira, Renata Teles; Caixeta, Leonardo; Novaes, Felipe; Marinho, Tamires; Almada, Leonardo Ferreira; Silva, Adriana Cardoso; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2013-10-01

    Neurological and psychiatric disorders are characterized by several disabling symptoms for which effective, mechanism-based treatments remain elusive. Consequently, more advanced non-invasive therapeutic methods are required. A method that may modulate brain activity and be viable for use in clinical practice is repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). It is a non-invasive procedure whereby a pulsed magnetic field stimulates electrical activity in the brain. Here, we focus on the basic foundation of rTMS, the main stimulation parametters, the factors that influence individual responses to rTMS and the experimental advances of rTMS that may become a viable clinical application to treat neurological and psychiatric disorders. The findings showed that rTMS can improve some symptoms associated with these conditions and might be useful for promoting cortical plasticity in patients with neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, these changes are transient and it is premature to propose these applications as realistic therapeutic options, even though the rTMS technique has been evidenced as a potential modulator of sensorimotor integration and neuroplasticity. Functional imaging of the region of interest could highlight the capacity of rTMS to bring about plastic changes of the cortical circuitry and hint at future novel clinical interventions. Thus, we recommend that further studies clearly determine the role of rTMS in the treatment of these conditions. Finally, we must remember that however exciting the neurobiological mechanisms might be, the clinical usefulness of rTMS will be determined by its ability to provide patients with neurological and psychiatric disorders with safe, long-lasting and substantial improvements in quality of life. PMID:25610279

  4. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Clinical Applications in Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Paes, Flávia; Vieira, Renata Teles; Caixeta, Leonardo; Novaes, Felipe; Marinho, Tamires; Almada, Leonardo Ferreira; Silva, Adriana Cardoso; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2013-01-01

    Neurological and psychiatric disorders are characterized by several disabling symptoms for which effective, mechanism-based treatments remain elusive. Consequently, more advanced non-invasive therapeutic methods are required. A method that may modulate brain activity and be viable for use in clinical practice is repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). It is a non-invasive procedure whereby a pulsed magnetic field stimulates electrical activity in the brain. Here, we focus on the basic foundation of rTMS, the main stimulation parametters, the factors that influence individual responses to rTMS and the experimental advances of rTMS that may become a viable clinical application to treat neurological and psychiatric disorders. The findings showed that rTMS can improve some symptoms associated with these conditions and might be useful for promoting cortical plasticity in patients with neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, these changes are transient and it is premature to propose these applications as realistic therapeutic options, even though the rTMS technique has been evidenced as a potential modulator of sensorimotor integration and neuroplasticity. Functional imaging of the region of interest could highlight the capacity of rTMS to bring about plastic changes of the cortical circuitry and hint at future novel clinical interventions. Thus, we recommend that further studies clearly determine the role of rTMS in the treatment of these conditions. Finally, we must remember that however exciting the neurobiological mechanisms might be, the clinical usefulness of rTMS will be determined by its ability to provide patients with neurological and psychiatric disorders with safe, long-lasting and substantial improvements in quality of life. PMID:25610279

  5. Responses to rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation of the human motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Leone, A; Valls-Solé, J; Wassermann, E M; Hallett, M

    1994-08-01

    We applied trains of focal, rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the motor cortex of 14 healthy volunteers with recording of the EMG from the contralateral abductor pollicis brevis, extensor carpi radialis, biceps brachii and deltoid muscles. Modulation of the amplitude of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) produced in the target muscle during rTMS showed a pattern of inhibitory and excitatory effects which depended on the rTMS frequency and intensity. With the magnetic coil situated over the optimal scalp position for activating the abductor pollicis brevis, rTMS led to spread of excitation, as evident from the induction of progressively larger MEPs in the other muscles. The number of pulses inducing this spread of excitation decreased with increasing rTMS frequency and intensity. Latency of the MEPs produced in the other muscles during the spread of excitation was significantly longer than that produced by single-pulse TMS applied to the optimal scalp positions for their activation. The difference in MEP latency could be explained by a delay in intracortical conduction along myelinated cortico-cortical pathways. Following rTMS, a 3-4 min period of increased excitability was demonstrated by an increase in the amplitude of MEPs produced in the target muscles by single-pulse TMS. Nevertheless, repeated rTMS trains applied 1 min apart led to similar modulation of the responses and to spread of excitation after approximately the same number of pulses. This suggests that the spread might be due to the breakdown of inhibitory connections or the recruitment of excitatory pathways, whereas the post-stimulation facilitation may be due to a transient increase in the efficacy of excitatory synapses. PMID:7922470

  6. Tracking post-error adaptation in the motor system by transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Amengual, J L; Marco-Pallarés, J; Richter, L; Oung, S; Schweikard, A; Mohammadi, B; Rodríguez-Fornells, A; Münte, T F

    2013-10-10

    The commission of an error triggers cognitive control processes dedicated to error correction and prevention. Post-error adjustments leading to response slowing following an error ("post-error slowing"; PES) might be driven by changes in excitability of the motor regions and the corticospinal tract (CST). The time-course of such excitability modulations of the CST leading to PES is largely unknown. To track these presumed excitability changes after an error, single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied to the motor cortex ipsilateral to the responding hand, while participants were performing an Eriksen flanker task. A robotic arm with a movement compensation system was used to maintain the TMS coil in the correct position during the experiment. Magnetic pulses were delivered over the primary motor cortex ipsilateral to the active hand at different intervals (150, 300, 450 ms) after correct and erroneous responses, and the motor-evoked potentials (MEP) of the first dorsal interosseous muscle (FDI) contralateral to the stimulated hemisphere were recorded. MEP amplitude was increased 450 ms after the error. Two additional experiments showed that this increase was neither associated to the correction of the erroneous responses nor to the characteristics of the motor command. To the extent to which the excitability of the motor cortex ipsi- and contralateral to the response hand are inversely related, these results suggest a decrease in the excitability of the active motor cortex after an erroneous response. This modulation of the activity of the CST serves to prevent further premature and erroneous responses. At a more general level, the study shows the power of the TMS technique for the exploration of the temporal evolution of post-error adjustments within the motor system. PMID:23876325

  7. Investigating Representations of Facial Identity in Human Ventral Visual Cortex with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Silvanto, Juha; Schwarzkopf, Dietrich S.; Rees, Geraint

    2010-01-01

    The occipital face area (OFA) is face-selective. This enhanced activation to faces could reflect either generic face and shape-related processing or high-level conceptual processing of identity. Here we examined these two possibilities using a state-dependent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paradigm. The lateral occipital (LO) cortex which is activated non-selectively by various types of objects served as a control site. We localized OFA and LO on a per-participant basis using functional MRI. We then examined whether TMS applied to either of these regions affected the ability of participants to decide whether two successively presented and physically different face images were of the same famous person or different famous people. TMS was applied during the delay between first and second face presentations to investigate whether neuronal populations in these regions played a causal role in mediating the behavioral effects of identity repetition. Behaviorally we found a robust identity repetition effect, with shorter reaction times (RTs) when identity was repeated, regardless of the fact that the pictures were physically different. Surprisingly, TMS applied over LO (but not OFA) modulated overall RTs, compared to the No-TMS condition. But critically, we found no effects of TMS to either area that were modulated by identity repetition. Thus, we found no evidence to suggest that OFA or LO contain neuronal representations selective for the identity of famous faces which play a causal role in identity processing. Instead, these brain regions may be involved in the processing of more generic features of their preferred stimulus categories. PMID:20631842

  8. Correlation between motor and phosphene thresholds: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    PubMed

    Deblieck, Choi; Thompson, Benjamin; Iacoboni, Marco; Wu, Allan D

    2008-06-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has become a common tool for the brain mapping of a wide variety of cognitive functions. Because TMS over cortical regions of interest other than motor cortex often does not produce easily observable effects, the ability to calibrate TMS intensity for stimulation over nonmotor regions can be problematic. Previous studies reported no correlation between motor thresholds (MT) over the motor cortex and phosphene thresholds (PT) over the visual cortex. However, different thresholding methods, lighting, and eye-closure conditions were used to determine MT and PT. We investigated the correlation between resting MT (rMT), active MT (aMT), and PT in 27 dark-adapted healthy volunteers. All thresholds were measured with eyes-open in the dark and determined by gradually reducing stimulation intensity downward. All subjects had aMT and rMT; 21 subjects had measurable PT. rMT was 70.4% +/- 9.8% (mean +/- SD of maximum stimulator output); aMT was 61.1% +/- 7.9%; PT was 82.2% +/- 10.1%. A significant positive correlation was found between aMT and PT (r = 0.53; P = 0.014) with a trend toward correlation between rMT and PT (r = 0.43; P = 0.052). Our results suggest that sensitivity to TMS over visual and motor cortices may be correlated under similar thresholding procedures. They also provide a rationale for the use of easily obtained aMT to calibrate TMS intensities in brain mapping studies that employ TMS in cortical regions besides motor cortex. PMID:17598167

  9. Changes in Voluntary Activation Assessed by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation during Prolonged Cycling Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Perrey, Stephane; Temesi, John; Wuyam, Bernard; Levy, Patrick; Verges, Samuel; Millet, Guillaume Y.

    2014-01-01

    Maximal central motor drive is known to decrease during prolonged exercise although it remains to be determined whether a supraspinal deficit exists, and if so, when it appears. The purpose of this study was to evaluate corticospinal excitability and muscle voluntary activation before, during and after a 4-h cycling exercise. Ten healthy subjects performed three 80-min bouts on an ergocycle at 45% of their maximal aerobic power. Before exercise and immediately after each bout, neuromuscular function was evaluated in the quadriceps femoris muscles under isometric conditions. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to assess voluntary activation at the cortical level (VATMS), corticospinal excitability via motor-evoked potential (MEP) and intracortical inhibition by cortical silent period (CSP). Electrical stimulation of the femoral nerve was used to measure voluntary activation at the peripheral level (VAFNES) and muscle contractile properties. Maximal voluntary force was significantly reduced after the first bout (13±9%, P<0.01) and was further decreased (25±11%, P<0.001) at the end of exercise. CSP remained unchanged throughout the protocol. Rectus femoris and vastus lateralis but not vastus medialis MEP normalized to maximal M-wave amplitude significantly increased during cycling. Finally, significant decreases in both VATMS and VAFNES (?8%, P<0.05 and ?14%, P<0.001 post-exercise, respectively) were observed. In conclusion, reductions in VAFNES after a prolonged cycling exercise are partly explained by a deficit at the cortical level accompanied by increased corticospinal excitability and unchanged intracortical inhibition. When comparing the present results with the literature, this study highlights that changes at the cortical and/or motoneuronal levels depend not only on the type of exercise (single-joint vs. whole-body) but also on exercise intensity and/or duration. PMID:24586559

  10. Cortical excitability changes after high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for central poststroke pain.

    PubMed

    Hosomi, Koichi; Kishima, Haruhiko; Oshino, Satoru; Hirata, Masayuki; Tani, Naoki; Maruo, Tomoyuki; Yorifuji, Shiro; Yoshimine, Toshiki; Saitoh, Youichi

    2013-08-01

    Central poststroke pain (CPSP) is one of the most refractory chronic pain syndromes. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the primary motor cortex has been demonstrated to provide moderate pain relief for CPSP. However, the mechanism underlying the pain relief remains unclear. The objective of this study was to assess changes in cortical excitability in patients with intractable CPSP before and after rTMS of the primary motor cortex. Subjects were 21 patients with CPSP of the hand who underwent rTMS. The resting motor threshold, the amplitude of the motor evoked potential, duration of the cortical silent period, short interval intracortical inhibition, and intracortical facilitation were measured as parameters of cortical excitability before and after navigation-guided 5 Hz rTMS of the primary motor cortex corresponding to the painful hand. Pain reduction from rTMS was assessed with a visual analog scale. The same parameters were measured in both hemispheres of 8 healthy controls. Eight of 21 patients experienced ? 30% pain reduction after rTMS (responders). The resting motor threshold in the patients was higher than those in the controls at baseline (P=.035). Intracortical facilitation in the responders was lower than in the controls and the nonresponders at baseline (P=.035 and P=.019), and significantly increased after rTMS (P=.039). There were no significant differences or changes in the other parameters. Our findings suggest that restoration of abnormal cortical excitability might be one of the mechanisms underlying pain relief as a result of rTMS in CPSP. PMID:23707310

  11. Modulation of corticospinal excitability by transcranial magnetic stimulation in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Oberman, Lindsay M.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Rotenberg, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The developmental pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is currently not fully understood. However, multiple lines of evidence suggest that the behavioral phenotype may result from dysfunctional inhibitory control over excitatory synaptic plasticity. Consistent with this claim, previous studies indicate that adults with Asperger’s Syndrome show an abnormally extended modulation of corticospinal excitability following a train of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). As ASD is a developmental disorder, the current study aimed to explore the effect of development on the duration of modulation of corticospinal excitability in children and adolescents with ASD. Additionally, as the application of rTMS to the understanding and treatment of pediatric neurological and psychiatric disorders is an emerging field, this study further sought to provide evidence for the safety and tolerability of rTMS in children and adolescents with ASD. Corticospinal excitability was measured by applying single pulses of TMS to the primary motor cortex both before and following a 40 s train of continuous theta burst stimulation. 19 high-functioning males ages 9–18 with ASD participated in this study. Results from this study reveal a positive linear relationship between age and duration of modulation of rTMS after-effects. Specifically we found that the older participants had a longer lasting response. Furthermore, though the specific protocol employed typically suppresses corticospinal excitability in adults, more than one third of our sample had a paradoxical facilitatory response to the stimulation. Results support the safety and tolerability of rTMS in pediatric clinical populations. Data also support published theories implicating aberrant plasticity and GABAergic dysfunction in this population. PMID:25165441

  12. Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on the somatosensory cortex during prism adaptation.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hee-Chul; Lee, Kyung-Hyun; Huh, Dong-Chan; Lee, Ji-Hang; Lee, Dong-Hyun

    2014-04-01

    Although the behavioral characteristics and the neural correlates of prism adaptation processes have been studied extensively, the underlying mechanism is yet to be investigated. Recently, somatosensory suppression was heralded as a mechanism for the sensory re-alignment process accompanying the adaptation. Somatosensory suppression should facilitate the re-alignment process in the proprioceptive system. The shift in the proprioceptive system takes place mostly during a concurrent visual feedback (CVF) condition; during a terminal visual feedback (TVF) condition, the visual system experiences significant adaptation (visual shift), so somatosensory suppression should have minimal functional consequences under TVF. To test this hypothesis, a repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was applied to the primary somatosensory cortex as an artificial somatosensory suppression right after the reaching initiation in CVF and TVF conditions, and changes in adaptation were observed. Because somatosensory suppression is already in effect during CVF, rTMS would cause no significant changes. During TVF with rTMS, however, significantly different patterns of adaptation could be expected when compared to a sham rTMS condition. Young adults (N = 12) participated in 4 sessions (CVF/ TVF, real/sham rTMS); visual proprioceptive, and total shifts were measured. Movement time and curvature of the reaching movement were measured during the adaptation phase. Results showed that while the total shift was unchanged, the proprioceptive shift increased and the visual shift decreased in the TVF condition when rTMS was delivered. However, the total, proprioceptive, and visual shifts were not influenced by rTMS in the CVF condition. Suppression of proprioception induced by the rTMS could be one of the requisites for successful proprioceptive shift during prism adaptation. PMID:24897882

  13. Mechanisms of human motor cortex facilitation induced by subthreshold 5-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Martin; Rummel, Milena; Norden, Christoph; Rothkegel, Holger; Lang, Nicolas; Paulus, Walter

    2013-06-01

    Our knowledge about the mechanisms of human motor cortex facilitation induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is still incomplete. Here we used pharmacological conditioning with carbamazepine, dextrometorphan, lorazepam, and placebo to elucidate the type of plasticity underlying this facilitation, and to probe if mechanisms reminiscent of long-term potentiation are involved. Over the primary motor cortex of 10 healthy subjects, we applied biphasic rTMS pulses of effective posterior current direction in the brain. We used six blocks of 200 pulses at 5-Hz frequency and 90% active motor threshold intensity and controlled for corticospinal excitability changes using motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes and latencies elicited by suprathreshold pulses before, in between, and after rTMS. Target muscle was the dominant abductor digiti minimi muscle; we coregistered the dominant extensor carpi radialis muscle. We found a lasting facilitation induced by this type of rTMS. The GABAergic medication lorazepam and to a lesser extent the ion channel blocker carbamazepine reduced the MEP facilitation after biphasic effective posteriorly oriented rTMS, whereas the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-antagonist dextrometorphan had no effect. Our main conclusion is that the mechanism of the facilitation induced by biphasic effective posterior rTMS is more likely posttetanic potentiation than long-term potentiation. Additional findings were prolonged MEP latency under carbamazepine, consistent with sodium channel blockade, and larger MEP amplitudes from extensor carpi radialis under lorazepam, suggesting GABAergic involvement in the center-surround balance of excitability. PMID:23536708

  14. The Role of Pulse Shape in Motor Cortex Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Using Full-Sine Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Delvendahl, Igor; Gattinger, Norbert; Berger, Thomas; Gleich, Bernhard; Siebner, Hartwig R.; Mall, Volker

    2014-01-01

    A full-sine (biphasic) pulse waveform is most commonly used for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), but little is known about how variations in duration or amplitude of distinct pulse segments influence the effectiveness of a single TMS pulse to elicit a corticomotor response. Using a novel TMS device, we systematically varied the configuration of full-sine pulses to assess the impact of configuration changes on resting motor threshold (RMT) as measure of stimulation effectiveness with single-pulse TMS of the non-dominant motor hand area (M1). In young healthy volunteers, we (i) compared monophasic, half-sine, and full-sine pulses, (ii) applied two-segment pulses consisting of two identical half-sines, and (iii) manipulated amplitude, duration, and current direction of the first or second full-sine pulse half-segments. RMT was significantly higher using half-sine or monophasic pulses compared with full-sine. Pulses combining two half-sines of identical polarity and duration were also characterized by higher RMT than full-sine stimuli resulting. For full-sine stimuli, decreasing the amplitude of the half-segment inducing posterior-anterior oriented current in M1 resulted in considerably higher RMT, whereas varying the amplitude of the half-segment inducing anterior-posterior current had a smaller effect. These findings provide direct experimental evidence that the pulse segment inducing a posterior-anterior directed current in M1 contributes most to corticospinal pathway excitation. Preferential excitation of neuronal target cells in the posterior-anterior segment or targeting of different neuronal structures by the two half-segments can explain this result. Thus, our findings help understanding the mechanisms of neural stimulation by full-sine TMS. PMID:25514673

  15. Therapeutic effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in an animal model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Yong; Kim, Sung Hoon; Ko, Ah-Ra; Lee, Jin Suk; Yu, Ji Hea; Seo, Jung Hwa; Cho, Byung Pil; Cho, Sung-Rae

    2013-11-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is used to treat neurological diseases such as stroke and Parkinson's disease (PD). Although rTMS has been used clinically, its underlying therapeutic mechanism remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to clarify the neuroprotective effect and therapeutic mechanism of rTMS in an animal model of PD. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were unilaterally injected with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the right striatum. Rats with PD were then treated with rTMS (circular coil, 10 Hz, 20 min/day) daily for 4 weeks. Behavioral assessments such as amphetamine-induced rotational test and treadmill locomotion test were performed, and the dopaminergic (DA) neurons of substantia nigra pas compacta (SNc) and striatum were histologically examined. Expression of neurotrophic/growth factors was also investigated by multiplex ELISA, western blotting analysis and immunohistochemistry 4 weeks after rTMS application. Among the results, the number of amphetamine-induced rotations was significantly lower in the rTMS group than in the control group at 4 weeks post-treatment. Treadmill locomotion was also significantly improved in the rTMS-treated rats. Tyrosine hydroxylase-positive DA neurons and DA fibers in rTMS group rats were greater than those in untreated group in both ipsilateral SNc and striatum, respectively. The expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor were elevated in both the 6-OHDA-injected hemisphere and the SNc of the rTMS-treated rats. In conclusion, rTMS treatment improved motor functions and survival of DA neurons, suggesting that the neuroprotective effect of rTMS treatment might be induced by upregulation of neurotrophic/growth factors in the PD animal model. PMID:23998987

  16. A neurophysiological insight into the potential link between transcranial magnetic stimulation, thalamocortical dysrhythmia and neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Fuggetta, Giorgio; Noh, Nor Azila

    2013-07-01

    Altered neural oscillations and their abnormal synchronization are crucial factors in the pathophysiology of several neuropsychiatric disorders. There is increasing evidence that the perturbation with an abnormal increase of spontaneous thalamocortical neural oscillations lead to a phenomenon termed Thalamocortical dysrhythmia (TCD) which underlies the symptomatology of a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, epilepsy, neuropathic pain, tinnitus, major depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder. In addition, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive neurophysiological tool that has been shown to both induce a modulation of neural oscillations and alleviate a wide range of human neuropsychiatric pathologies. However, little is known about the precise electrophysiological mechanisms behind the therapeutic effect of rTMS and its potential to improve abnormal oscillations across diverse neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we show, using combined rTMS and surface electroencephalography (EEG), a short lasting frequency-dependent rTMS after-effect on thalamocortical rhythmic interplay of low-frequency oscillations in healthy humans at rest. In particular, high-frequency rTMS (10 Hz) induces a transient synchronised activity for delta (?) and theta (?) rhythms thus mimicking the pathological TCD-like oscillations. In contrast, rTMS 1 and 5 Hz have the opposite outcome of de-synchronising low-frequency brain rhythms. These results lead to a new neurophysiological insight of basic mechanisms underlying neurological and psychiatric disorders and a probable electrophysiological mechanism underlying the therapeutic effects of rTMS. Thus, we propose the use of rTMS and EEG as a platform to test possible treatments of TCD phenotypes by restoring proper neural oscillations across various neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:23063603

  17. Uncertainty quantification in transcranial magnetic stimulation via high-dimensional model representation.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Luis J; Yücel, Abdulkadir C; Hernandez-Garcia, Luis; Taylor, Stephan F; Michielssen, Eric

    2015-01-01

    A computational framework for uncertainty quantification in transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is presented. The framework leverages high-dimensional model representations (HDMRs), which approximate observables (i.e., quantities of interest such as electric (E) fields induced inside targeted cortical regions) via series of iteratively constructed component functions involving only the most significant random variables (i.e., parameters that characterize the uncertainty in a TMS setup such as the position and orientation of TMS coils, as well as the size, shape, and conductivity of the head tissue). The component functions of HDMR expansions are approximated via a multielement probabilistic collocation (ME-PC) method. While approximating each component function, a quasi-static finite-difference simulator is used to compute observables at integration/collocation points dictated by the ME-PC method. The proposed framework requires far fewer simulations than traditional Monte Carlo methods for providing highly accurate statistical information (e.g., the mean and standard deviation) about the observables. The efficiency and accuracy of the proposed framework are demonstrated via its application to the statistical characterization of E-fields generated by TMS inside cortical regions of an MRI-derived realistic head model. Numerical results show that while uncertainties in tissue conductivities have negligible effects on TMS operation, variations in coil position/orientation and brain size significantly affect the induced E-fields. Our numerical results have several implications for the use of TMS during depression therapy: 1) uncertainty in the coil position and orientation may reduce the response rates of patients; 2) practitioners should favor targets on the crest of a gyrus to obtain maximal stimulation; and 3) an increasing scalp-to-cortex distance reduces the magnitude of E-fields on the surface and inside the cortex. PMID:25203980

  18. Perfusion MRI Indexes Variability in the Functional Brain Effects of Theta-Burst Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Gratton, Caterina; Lee, Taraz G.; Nomura, Emi M.; D’Esposito, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is an important tool for testing causal relationships in cognitive neuroscience research. However, the efficacy of TMS can be variable across individuals and difficult to measure. This variability is especially a challenge when TMS is applied to regions without well-characterized behavioral effects, such as in studies using TMS on multi-modal areas in intrinsic networks. Here, we examined whether perfusion fMRI recordings of Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF), a quantitative measure sensitive to slow functional changes, reliably index variability in the effects of stimulation. Twenty-seven participants each completed four combined TMS-fMRI sessions during which both resting state Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) and perfusion Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) scans were recorded. In each session after the first baseline day, continuous theta-burst TMS (TBS) was applied to one of three locations: left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L dlPFC), left anterior insula/frontal operculum (L aI/fO), or left primary somatosensory cortex (L S1). The two frontal targets are components of intrinsic networks and L S1 was used as an experimental control. CBF changes were measured both before and after TMS on each day from a series of interleaved resting state and perfusion scans. Although TBS led to weak selective increases under the coil in CBF measurements across the group, individual subjects showed wide variability in their responses. TBS-induced changes in rCBF were related to TBS-induced changes in functional connectivity of the relevant intrinsic networks measured during separate resting-state BOLD scans. This relationship was selective: CBF and functional connectivity of these networks were not related before TBS or after TBS to the experimental control region (S1). Furthermore, subject groups with different directions of CBF change after TBS showed distinct modulations in the functional interactions of targeted networks. These results suggest that CBF is a marker of individual differences in the effects of TBS. PMID:24992641

  19. Volitional muscle activity paired with transcranial magnetic stimulation increases corticospinal excitability

    PubMed Central

    Edwardson, Matthew A.; Avery, David H.; Fetz, Eberhard E.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of activity-dependent stimulation in non-human primates suggest that pairing each instance of volitional muscle activity with immediate intracortical stimulation causes long-term-potentiation-like effects. This technique holds promise for clinical rehabilitation, yet few investigators have tested activity-dependent stimulation in human subjects. In addition, no one has studied activity-dependent stimulation on the cortical representation for two separate target muscles in human subjects. We hypothesized that 40 min of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) triggered from ballistic muscle activity at a mean repetition rate of 1 Hz would cause greater increases in corticospinal excitability than TMS-cued muscle activity, and that these changes would be specific to the muscle of study. Ten healthy human subjects participated in 4 separate sessions in this crossover study: (1) visually cued volitional activation of the abductor pollicis brevis (APB) muscle triggering TMS (APB-Triggered TMS), (2) volitional activation of APB in response to TMS delivered from a recording of the prior APB-Triggered TMS session (TMS-Cued APB), (3) visually cued volitional activation of the extensor digitorum (ED) triggering TMS (ED-Triggered TMS), and (4) volitional activation of ED in response to TMS delivered from a recording of the prior ED-Triggered TMS session (TMS-Cued ED). Contrary to our hypothesis, we discovered evidence of increased corticospinal excitability for all conditions as measured by change in area of the motor evoked potential. We conclude that single TMS pulses paired either before or after muscle activity may increase corticospinal excitability and that further studies are needed to clarify the optimal time window for inducing neural plasticity with activity-dependent stimulation. These findings will inform the design of future activity-dependent stimulation protocols for clinical rehabilitation. PMID:25628525

  20. Enhancement of single motor unit inhibitory responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Schmied, Annie; Attarian, Shahram

    2008-08-01

    In healthy human subjects, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied to the motor cortex induces concurrent inhibitory and excitatory effects on motoneurone activity. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a neurodegenerative disease affecting both cortical and spinal motor neurons, paired-pulse studies based on electromyographic (EMG) recording have revealed a decrease in TMS-induced inhibition. This suggested that inhibition loss may promote excito-toxicity in this disease. Against this hypothesis, an abnormally high incidence of inhibitory responses to TMS has been observed in the peristimulus time histograms (PSTHs) in ALS single motor unit studies. The disappearance of cortico-motoneuronal excitatory inputs might, however, have facilitated the detection of single motor unit inhibitory responses in the PSTHs. This question was addressed here using a new approach, where the strength of the excitatory and inhibitory effects of TMS on motoneurone activity was assessed from the duration of inter-spike intervals (ISIs). This analysis was conducted on single motor unit (MU), tested on healthy subjects and patients with ALS or Kennedy's disease (KD), a motor neuron disease which unlike ALS, spares the cortico-spinal pathway. MUs tested on KD patients behaved like those of healthy subjects unlike those tested on ALS patients. The present data reveal that in ALS, the TMS-induced inhibitory effects are truly enhanced during voluntary contractions and not reduced, as observed in paired-pulse TMS studies under resting conditions. The possible contribution of inhibitory loss to the physiopathology of ALS therefore needs to be reconsidered. The present data do not support the idea that inhibition loss may underlie excito-toxicity in ALS. PMID:18496679

  1. Mirror Neuron Dysfunction and Ego-Boundary Disturbances in Schizophrenia: A Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Basavaraju, Rakshathi; Mehta, Urvakhsh Meherwan; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Gangadhar, Bangalore N.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ego-boundary disturbance (EBD) is a unique symptom cluster characterized by passivity experiences (involving thoughts, actions, emotions and sensations) attributed by patients to some external agency. The neurobiology of these “first rank” symptoms is poorly understood. Aberrant mirror neuron activation may explain impaired self-monitoring and agency attribution underlying these symptoms. We aim to study mirror neuron activity (MNA) in schizophrenia patients with and without EBD using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Materials and Methods: 50 right-handed schizophrenia patients (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition) were evaluated using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. They completed a TMS experiment to assess putative premotor MNA. Motor evoked potential (MEP) was recorded in the right first dorsal interosseous muscle (FDI) with (a) 120% of resting motor threshold (RMT), (b) stimulus intensity set to evoke MEP of motor threshold 1 mV amplitude (MT1), (c) two paired pulse paradigms (short- and long interval intra-cortical inhibition). These were done in three states: Actual observation of an action using the FDI, virtual-observation (video) of this action and resting state. The percent change of MEP from resting to action-observation states formed the measure of putative MNA. Results: MNA measured using MT1 and 120% RMT paradigms was significantly lower in the 18 patients with EBD (thought-broadcast/withdrawal/insertion, made-act/impulse/affect and somatic passivity) than the 32 patients without EBD (t = 2.431, P = 0.020; t = 2.051, P = 0.04 respectively for the two paradigms). The two groups did not differ on age, gender, education and total symptom scores. Conclusion: Schizophrenia patients with EBD have lower premotor MNA. This highlights the role of MNA dysfunction in the pathophysiology of this unique and intriguing symptom cluster in schizophrenia. PMID:25722514

  2. Electric field depth–focality tradeoff in transcranial magnetic stimulation: simulation comparison of 50 coil designs

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Zhi-De; Lisanby, Sarah H.; Peterchev, Angel V.

    2012-01-01

    Background Various transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) coil designs are available or have been proposed. However, key coil characteristics such as electric field focality and attenuation in depth have not been adequately compared. Knowledge of the coil focality and depth characteristics can help TMS researchers and clinicians with coil selection and interpretation of TMS studies. Objective To quantify the electric field focality and depth of penetration of various TMS coils. Methods The electric field distributions induced by 50 TMS coils were simulated in a spherical human head model using the finite element method. For each coil design, we quantified the electric field penetration by the half-value depth, d1/2, and focality by the tangential spread, S1/2, defined as the half-value volume (V1/2) divided by the half-value depth, S1/2 = V1/2/d1/2. Results The 50 TMS coils exhibit a wide range of electric field focality and depth, but all followed a depth–focality tradeoff: coils with larger half-value depth cannot be as focal as more superficial coils. The ranges of achievable d1/2 are similar between coils producing circular and figure-8 electric field patterns, ranging 1.0–3.5 cm and 0.9–3.4 cm, respectively. However, figure-8 field coils are more focal, having S1/2 as low as 5 cm2 compared to 34 cm2 for circular field coils. Conclusions For any coil design, the ability to directly stimulate deeper brain structures is obtained at the expense of inducing wider electrical field spread. Novel coil designs should be benchmarked against comparison coils with consistent metrics such as d1/2 and S1/2. PMID:22483681

  3. Conditioning effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation evoking motor?evoked potential on V?wave response

    PubMed Central

    Grosprêtre, Sidney; Martin, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to examine the collision responsible for the volitional V?wave evoked by supramaximal electrical stimulation of the motor nerve during voluntary contraction. V?wave was conditioned by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the motor cortex at several inter?stimuli intervals (ISI) during weak voluntary plantar flexions (n = 10) and at rest for flexor carpi radialis muscle (FCR; n = 6). Conditioning stimulations were induced by TMS with intensity eliciting maximal motor?evoked potential (MEPmax). ISIs used were ranging from ?20 to +20 msec depending on muscles tested. The results showed that, for triceps surae muscles, conditioning TMS increased the V?wave amplitude (~ +250%) and the associated mechanical response (~ +30%) during weak voluntary plantar flexion (10% of the maximal voluntary contraction ?MVC) for ISIs ranging from +6 to +18 msec. Similar effect was observed at rest for the FCR with ISI ranging from +6 to +12 msec. When the level of force was increased from 10 to 50% MVC or the conditioning TMS intensity was reduced to elicit responses of 50% of MEPmax, a significant decrease in the conditioned V?wave amplitude was observed for the triceps surae muscles, linearly correlated to the changes in MEP amplitude. The slope of this correlation, as well as the electro?mechanical efficiency, was closed to the identity line, indicating that V?wave impact at muscle level seems to be similar to the impact of cortical stimulation. All these results suggest that change in V?wave amplitude is a great index to reflect changes in cortical neural drive addressed to spinal motoneurons. PMID:25501438

  4. 5 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the ipsilesional sensory cortex enhances motor learning after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Brodie, Sonia M.; Meehan, Sean; Borich, Michael R.; Boyd, Lara A.

    2014-01-01

    Sensory feedback is critical for motor learning, and thus to neurorehabilitation after stroke. Whether enhancing sensory feedback by applying excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the ipsilesional primary sensory cortex (IL-S1) might enhance motor learning in chronic stroke has yet to be investigated. The present study investigated the effects of 5 Hz rTMS over IL-S1 paired with skilled motor practice on motor learning, hemiparetic cutaneous somatosensation, and motor function. Individuals with unilateral chronic stroke were pseudo-randomly divided into either Active or Sham 5 Hz rTMS groups (n = 11/group). Following stimulation, both groups practiced a Serial Tracking Task (STT) with the hemiparetic arm; this was repeated for 5 days. Performance on the STT was quantified by response time, peak velocity, and cumulative distance tracked at baseline, during the 5 days of practice, and at a no-rTMS retention test. Cutaneous somatosensation was measured using two-point discrimination. Standardized sensorimotor tests were performed to assess whether the effects might generalize to impact hemiparetic arm function. The active 5 Hz rTMS + training group demonstrated significantly greater improvements in STT performance {response time [F(1, 286.04) = 13.016, p < 0.0005], peak velocity [F(1, 285.95) = 4.111, p = 0.044], and cumulative distance [F(1, 285.92) = 4.076, p = 0.044]} and cutaneous somatosensation [F(1, 21.15) = 8.793, p = 0.007] across all sessions compared to the sham rTMS + training group. Measures of upper extremity motor function were not significantly different for either group. Our preliminary results suggest that, when paired with motor practice, 5 Hz rTMS over IL-S1 enhances motor learning related change in individuals with chronic stroke, potentially as a consequence of improved cutaneous somatosensation, however no improvement in general upper extremity function was observed. PMID:24711790

  5. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Reduces Nicotine Cue Craving

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xingbao; Hartwell, Karen J.; Owens, Max; LeMatty, Todd; Borckardt, Jeffrey; Hanlon, Colleen; Brady, Kathleen T.; George, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can non-invasively stimulate the brain and transiently amplify or block behaviors mediated through a region. We hypothesized that a single high-frequency rTMS session over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) would reduce cue craving for cigarettes compared to a sham TMS session. Methods Sixteen non-treatment seeking, nicotine-dependent participants were randomized to receive either real high-frequency rTMS (10 Hz, 100% resting motor threshold, 5 second-on, 10 second-off for 15 minutes; 3000 pulses) or active sham (eSham) TMS over the DLPFC in two visits with one week between visits. The participants received cue exposure before and after rTMS and rated their craving after each block of cue presentation. Results Stimulation of the left DLFPC with real, but not sham, rTMS reduced craving significantly from baseline (64.1± 5.9 vs. 45.7±6.4, t = 2.69, p = 0.018). When compared to neutral cue craving, the effect of real TMS on cue craving was significantly greater than the effect of sham TMS (12.5 ±10.4 vs. ?9.1±10.4; t = 2.07, p = 0.049). More decreases in subjective craving induced by TMS correlated positively with higher Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) score (r = 0.58, p = 0.031) and more cigarettes smoked per day (r = 0.57, p = 0.035). Conclusions One session of high frequency rTMS (10 Hz) of the left DLPFC significantly reduced subjective craving induced by smoking cues in nicotine-dependent participants. Further studies are needed to explore the use of rTMS as an aid to smoking cessation. PMID:23485014

  6. Controllable pulse parameter transcranial magnetic stimulator with enhanced circuit topology and pulse shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterchev, Angel V.; D?Ostilio, Kevin; Rothwell, John C.; Murphy, David L.

    2014-10-01

    Objective. This work aims at flexible and practical pulse parameter control in transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which is currently very limited in commercial devices. Approach. We present a third generation controllable pulse parameter device (cTMS3) that uses a novel circuit topology with two energy-storage capacitors. It incorporates several implementation and functionality advantages over conventional TMS devices and other devices with advanced pulse shape control. cTMS3 generates lower internal voltage differences and is implemented with transistors with a lower voltage rating than prior cTMS devices. Main results. cTMS3 provides more flexible pulse shaping since the circuit topology allows four coil-voltage levels during a pulse, including approximately zero voltage. The near-zero coil voltage enables snubbing of the ringing at the end of the pulse without the need for a separate active snubber circuit. cTMS3 can generate powerful rapid pulse sequences (\\lt 10 ms inter pulse interval) by increasing the width of each subsequent pulse and utilizing the large capacitor energy storage, allowing the implementation of paradigms such as paired-pulse and quadripulse TMS with a single pulse generation circuit. cTMS3 can also generate theta (50 Hz) burst stimulation with predominantly unidirectional electric field pulses. The cTMS3 device functionality and output strength are illustrated with electrical output measurements as well as a study of the effect of pulse width and polarity on the active motor threshold in ten healthy volunteers. Significance. The cTMS3 features could extend the utility of TMS as a research, diagnostic, and therapeutic tool.

  7. Impairment of executive performance after transcranial magnetic modulation of the left dorsal frontal-striatal circuit.

    PubMed

    van den Heuvel, Odile A; Van Gorsel, Helene C; Veltman, Dick J; Van Der Werf, Ysbrand D

    2013-02-01

    The dorsal frontal-striatal circuit is implicated in executive functions, such as planning. The Tower of London task, a planning task, in combination with off-line low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), was used to investigate whether interfering with dorsolateral prefrontal function would modulate executive performance, mimicking dorsal frontal-striatal dysfunction as found in neuropsychiatric disorders. Eleven healthy controls (seven females; mean age 25.5 years) were entered in a cross-over design: two single-session treatments of low-frequency (1 Hz) rTMS (vs. sham rTMS) for 20 min on the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Directly following the off-line rTMS treatment, the Tower of London task was performed during MRI measurements. The low-frequency rTMS treatment impaired performance, but only when the subjects had not performed the task before: we found a TMS condition-by-order effect, such that real TMS treatment in the first session led to significantly more errors (P = 0.032), whereas this TMS effect was not present in subjects who received real TMS in the second session. At the neural level, rTMS resulted in decreased activation during the rTMS versus sham condition in prefrontal brain regions (i.e., premotor, dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior prefrontal cortices) and visuospatial brain regions (i.e., precuneus/cuneus and inferior parietal cortex). The results show that low-frequency off-line rTMS on the DLPFC resulted in decreased task-related activations in the frontal and visuospatial regions during the performance of the Tower of London task, with a behavioral effect only when task experience is limited. PMID:22076808

  8. Developments in deep brain stimulation using time dependent magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Crowther, L.J.; Nlebedim, I.C.; Jiles, D.C.

    2012-03-07

    The effect of head model complexity upon the strength of field in different brain regions for transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been investigated. Experimental measurements were used to verify the validity of magnetic field calculations and induced electric field calculations for three 3D human head models of varying complexity. Results show the inability for simplified head models to accurately determine the site of high fields that lead to neuronal stimulation and highlight the necessity for realistic head modeling for TMS applications.

  9. Magnetic transcranial stimulation in healthy humans: influence on the behavior of upper limb motor units.

    PubMed

    Rossini, P M; Caramia, M D; Iani, C; Desiato, M T; Sciarretta, G; Bernardi, G

    1995-04-10

    Aim of the study was to analyze the characteristics of motor action potentials recruitment during magnetic trans-cranial stimulation (TCS) of the brain. Coaxial needle recordings from hand and upper limb musculature, as well as surface electrodes were employed in 20 healthy controls during magnetic TCS with regular and figure-of-8 coil in different experimental protocols including: (a) simple reaction time paradigm during which TCS at subthreshold intensity for eliciting MEPs in relaxation was delivered at various intervals between the signal to move and the onset of the voluntary EMG burst; (b) suprathreshold TCS was randomly delivered while the subject was voluntarily firing at a regular rate one 'low' and/or 'high threshold' motor unit action potential (MUAP). The pre- and post-TCS MUAPs recruitment as well as their firing rates were compared; (c) recordings with two separate needles picking up individual MUAPs from the same or from two different muscles were obtained in order to test 'synchrony' of MUAP's discharge before and after TCS; (d) the influence of the time-interval separating the last discharged MUAP from TCS was evaluated. (e) differences between simultaneous surface and depth recordings were examined. The following results were obtained. (a) The same low-amplitude MUAP which is first voluntarily recruited at the onset of the EMG burst is the one initially fired by TCS in the pre-movement period. Latency shortenings and amplitude enlargement of surface MEPs were observed with faster reaction times. Such changes were coupled to the recruitment of high-threshold MUAPs being larger in amplitude and briefer in latency than the initial one. (b) When using suprathreshold TCS, MEPs followed by silent periods were found. The SP was followed by a rebound acceleration of the MUAPs firing rate compared with pre-TCS levels. Besides rebound acceleration, new MUAPs of larger amplitude than the original (= pre-stimulus) ones were recruited beyond the voluntary control. This phenomenon-together with longer SPs- was progressively more pronounced with stronger stimuli. (c) TCS was affecting the 'synchrony' of MUAPs. (d) If the latency difference between the last pre-stimulus spike and the TCS was exceeding the half-cycle of the MUAP 'natural' firing, the SP was longer in duration. (e) SPs not preceded by MEPs were clearly present in depth recordings. Surface recordings mainly reflected the behavior of high-threshold and large MUAPs. PMID:7614001

  10. Antidepressant-like effects of nicotine and transcranial magnetic stimulation in the olfactory bulbectomy rat model of depression

    PubMed Central

    Vieyra-Reyes, Patricia; Mineur, Yann S.; Túnez, Isaac; Vidaltamayo, Román; Picciotto, Marina R.; Drucker-Colín, René

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we compared the depression–like symptoms induced by olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) in the two inbred Wistar and Long Evans rat strains. We also analyzed the self-regulated oral intake of nicotine in these strains and the effect of nicotine on the depression-like symptoms of olfactory bulbectomy. Furthermore, we compared the antidepressant-like effects of nicotine on Wistar rats to those of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which has emerged as a therapeutic alternative for depression management. Our results show that Wistar rats develop depression-like symptoms, demonstrated by the forced swim test (FST), four weeks after OBX. However, we cannot observe these symptoms in bulbectomized Long Evans rats. Our results suggest that there are some innate differences in susceptibility to stress between these two rat strains. In Wistar rats, voluntary oral nicotine intake (1.2 mg/kg/day for 14 days) as well as nicotine administered as a single daily i.p. injection (1.5 mg/kg/day for 14 days) decrease the depression-like symptoms of OBX. Daily transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS; 60 Hz and 0.7 mT for two hours per day for 14 days) also decreases depression-like symptoms but is less effective than nicotine. In conclusion, our results support the idea that there are possible innate differences for depression susceptibility and that nicotine and TMS may be useful in the treatment of this syndrome. PMID:18582540

  11. Inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex modulates early affective processing.

    PubMed

    Zwanzger, Peter; Steinberg, Christian; Rehbein, Maimu Alissa; Bröckelmann, Ann-Kathrin; Dobel, Christian; Zavorotnyy, Maxim; Domschke, Katharina; Junghöfer, Markus

    2014-11-01

    The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) has often been suggested as a key modulator of emotional stimulus appraisal and regulation. Therefore, in clinical trials, it is one of the most frequently targeted regions for non-invasive brain stimulation such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). In spite of various encouraging reports that demonstrate beneficial effects of rTMS in anxiety disorders, psychophysiological studies exploring the underlying neural mechanisms are sparse. Here we investigated how inhibitory rTMS influences early affective processing when applied over the right dlPFC. Before and after rTMS or sham stimulation, subjects viewed faces with fearful or neutral expressions while whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) was recorded. Due to the disrupted functioning of the right dlPFC, visual processing in bilateral parietal, temporal, and occipital areas was amplified starting at around 90 ms after stimulus onset. Moreover, increased fear-specific activation was found in the right TPJ area in a time-interval between 110 and 170 ms. These neurophysiological effects were reflected in slowed reaction times for fearful, but not for neutral faces in a facial expression identification task while there was no such effect on a gender discrimination control task. Our study confirms the specific and important role of the dlPFC in regulation of early emotional attention and encourages future clinical research to use minimal invasive methods such as transcranial magnetic (TMS) or direct current stimulation (tDCS). PMID:25019678

  12. Preliminary guidelines for safe and effective use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in moderate to severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Nielson, Dylan M; McKnight, Curtis A; Patel, Riddhi N; Kalnin, Andrew J; Mysiw, Walter J

    2015-04-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation has generated extensive interest within the traumatic brain injury (TBI) rehabilitation community, but little work has been done with repetitive protocols, which can produce prolonged changes in behavior. This is partly because of concerns about the safety of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in subjects with TBI, particularly the risk of seizures. These risks can be minimized by careful selection of the rTMS protocol and exclusion criteria. In this article, we identify guidelines for safe use of rTMS in subjects with TBI based on a review of the literature and illustrate their application with a case study. Our subject is a 48-year-old man who sustained a severe TBI 5 years prior to beginning rTMS for the treatment of post-TBI depression. After a 4-week baseline period, we administered daily sessions of low-frequency stimulation to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for 6 weeks. After stimulation, we performed monthly assessments for 3 months. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) was our primary outcome measure. The stimulation was well tolerated and the patient reported no side effects. After 6 weeks of stimulation, the patient's depression was slightly improved, and these improvements continued through follow-up. At the end of follow-up, the patient's HAMD score was 49% of the average baseline score. PMID:25281871

  13. Safety study of 50 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Benninger, David H.; Lomarev, Mikhail; Wassermann, Eric; Lopez, Grisel; Houdayer, Elise; Fasano, Rebecca E.; Dang, Nguyet; Hallett, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Objective Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has shown promising results in treating Parkinson’s disease (PD), but the best values for rTMS parameters are not established. 50 Hz rTMS may be superior to ? 25 Hz rTMS investigated so far. The objective of this study was to determine if 50 Hz rTMS could be delivered safely in PD patients since current safety limits are exceeded. Methods 50 Hz rTMS was applied with a circular coil on the primary motor cortex (M1). Stimulation intensity was first tested at 60% rest motor threshold [RMT] and 0.5 sec train duration and then increased in 0.5 sec steps to 2 sec, and by 10% steps to 90% RMT. Multi-channel electromyography (EMG) was recorded to control for signs of increasing time-locked EMG activity including correlates of the spread of excitation and after-discharges, or an increase of M1 excitability. Pre- and post-50 Hz rTMS assessments included EEG, Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Grooved Pegboard Test, Serial Reaction Time Task (SRTT), Folstein Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and Verbal Fluency to control for motor and cognitive side effects. Results Ten PD patients were investigated. Multi-channel EMG showed no signs of increased time-locked EMG activity including correlates of the spread of excitation and after-discharges, or increased M1 excitability in 9 patients. A PD patient with bi-temporal spikes in the pre-testing EEG had clinical and EMG correlates of spread of excitation at 90% RMT, but no seizure activity. Pre- and post-50 Hz assessment showed no changes. No adverse events were observed. 50 Hz rTMS was well tolerated except by one patient who wished to terminate the study due to facial muscle stimulation. Conclusion 50 Hz rTMS at an intensity of 90% RMT for 2 sec appears safe in patients with PD, but caution should be taken for patients with paroxysmal EEG activity. For this reason, comprehensive screening should include EEG before higher-frequency rTMS is applied. Significance This is the first study to investigate safety of 50 Hz rTMS in humans. PMID:19285918

  14. Evaluation of transcranial magnetic stimulation for investigating transmission in descending motor tracts in the rat.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, J B; Perez, M A; Oudega, M; Enriquez-Denton, M; Aimonetti, J-M

    2007-02-01

    In the rat, non-invasive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has shown promise for evaluation of transmission through the spinal cord before and after repair strategies, but it is still unclear which pathways are activated by TMS. The aim of the present study was therefore to identify these pathways and to analyse the effect of TMS on spinal neurons. In 19 rats, TMS evoked responses bilaterally in forelimb (biceps brachii; BB) and hindlimb muscles (tibialis anterior). The latency and amplitude of these motor-evoked responses (MEPs) were highly variable and depended strongly on the coil position and the stimulation intensity. The most frequently observed latencies for the BB MEPs could be divided into three groups: 3-6 ms, 8-12 ms and 14-18 ms. Lesions in the dorsal columns, which destroyed the corticospinal tract at C2 and C5, significantly depressed MEPs in the mid- and high-latency ranges, but not those in the low-latency range. Lesions in the dorsolateral funiculus, which interrupted the rubrospinal tract, had no effect on MEPs in any of the latency ranges. By contrast, bilateral lesion of the reticulospinal tract and other ventro-laterally located descending pathways abolished all responses. Intracellular recordings from 54 cervical motoneurons in five rats revealed that TMS evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) at latencies that corresponded well with those of the BB MEPs. The short-latency EPSPs had rise times of around 1 ms, suggesting that they were mediated by a monosynaptic pathway. EPSPs with longer latencies had considerably longer rise times, which indicated conduction through polysynaptic pathways. Selective electrical stimulation of the pyramidal tract in the brainstem was performed in seven rats, where intracellular recordings from 70 motoneurons revealed that the earliest EPSPs and MEPs evoked by TMS were not mediated by the corticospinal tract, but by other descending motor pathways. Together, these results showed that in the rat TMS activates several descending pathways that converge on common spinal interneurons and motoneurons. Our observations confirm that the corticospinal tract has weak (and indirect) projections to cervical spinal motoneurons. PMID:17328776

  15. Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of refractory partial epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Fu, Wei; Mao, Wei; Wang, Dequan; Wang, Yuping

    2011-01-01

    Seventeen refractory partial epilepsy patients were enrolled in an open-label study to evaluate the antiepileptic effect of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Seven of the patients had not obtained seizure-free status after epileptogenic focus resection surgery before they were enrolled in the study. All patients were treated with low-frequency rTMS which included 3 sessions per day (0.5 Hz, 90% RMT and 500 pulses each session) and lasted for 2 weeks. Seizure frequency, seizure days and epileptic discharges in the EEG obtained before, during and after stimulation were compared. The psychological conditions of all individual patients were evaluated with Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) before and after rTMS treatment. Mean seizure frequencies per week significantly decreased in the following 4-week rTMS treatment period compared with the pretreatment period (14.09 vs. 5.63, p < 0.05, mean reduction of 60.02% in seizure frequency). Mean seizure days per week during the treatment period and the post-treatment period were lower than that of the pretreatment period (5.18 vs. 2.99 p < 0.05, mean reduction of 42.5% in seizure days). Mean epileptic discharges in the EEG decreased significantly during the treatment period compared to that of the pre-treatment period (78.60 vs. 66.09, p < 0.05, mean reduction of 15.9% in epileptic spikes discharges) in all 17 patients. Fourteen patients completed the test of Symptom Checklist-90 effectively. The scales of Global Severity Index, Depression, Anxiety, Phobic anxiety, Paranoid ideation, Psychoticism, Somatization, Obsession-compulsion, Interpersonal sensitivity, Hostility in patients decreased respectively at the post-treatment periods compared with those of the pre-treatment periods (P < 0.05). Low-frequency rTMS may have a significant antiepileptic effect in patients with refractory partial epilepsy. Additionally, our results indicate rTMS treatment can improve the psychological condition of these patients. PMID:21309441

  16. Abnormal excitability of the corticospinal pathway in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a single motor unit study using transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Kohara; R. Kaji; Y. Kojima; K. R. Mills; H. Fujii; T. Hamano; J. Kimura; N. Takamatsu; T. Uchiyama

    1996-01-01

    The pathophysiology of corticospinal tract degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) was investigated by studying the effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation on discharge characteristics of single motor units during voluntary activation. The motor units were recorded from the first dorsal interosseus muscles of 12 patients with ALS, 14 healthy subjects, 12 patients with upper motor neuron lesions and 9 with

  17. Electrical Stimulation of Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex Enhances Forebrain Serotonin Output: Implications for Electroconvulsive Therapy and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georg Juckel; Anna Mendlin; Barry L Jacobs

    1999-01-01

    Decreased activity of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), as well as reduced serotonergic neurotransmission, is considered as a characteristic feature of major depression. The mechanism by which electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) achieve their antidepressant effects may involve changes in PFC activity. It is, however, still unclear whether these changes are accompanied by increased synaptic availability of serotonin

  18. Metabolic alterations in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex after treatment with high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with unipolar major depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Luborzewski; Florian Schubert; Frank Seifert; Heidi Danker-Hopfe; Eva-Lotta Brakemeier; Peter Schlattmann; Ion Anghelescu; Michael Colla; Malek Bajbouj

    2007-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies suggest a specific role of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in major depression. Stimulation of the latter by means of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as an antidepressant intervention has increasingly been investigated in the past. The objective of the present study was to examine in vivo neurochemical alterations in both brain regions

  19. Topographic mapping of trans-cranial magnetic stimulation data on surface rendered MR images of the brain.

    PubMed

    Singh, K D; Hamdy, S; Aziz, Q; Thompson, D G

    1997-10-01

    We present a method for the coregistration and topographic mapping of trans-cranial magnetic stimulation (TCMS) data on surface rendered images of the cortex, derived from Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI). We describe the TCMS procedure and the methods used to locate the TCM stimulation sites in the MRI coordinate system, and the algorithms needed to depict the TCMS distribution as a pseudocolour contour map on the cortical surface. The methods are validated using TCMS data from the hand (thenar) and leg (tibialis muscle). The methods used correctly depict the expected motor representations of each of these areas and we therefore propose that this technique may be used as a functional imaging tool in the investigation of cortical function in both normals and patients. PMID:9362998

  20. Possible structural abnormality of the brainstem in unipolar depressive illness: a transcranial ultrasound and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Steele, J; Bastin, M; Wardlaw, J; Ebmeier, K

    2005-01-01

    Background: Most empirically derived antidepressants increase monoamine levels. The nuclei of cells synthesising these monoamines are located in the brainstem, and projection tracts such as the medial forebrain bundle reach virtually all other brain areas. Two studies of unipolar depressive illness using transcranial ultrasound have reported reduced echogenicity of the brainstem midline in unipolar depressed patients. This may be consistent with disruption of white matter tracts, including the medial forebrain bundle, and it has been suggested that the effect of such disruption could be reversed by antidepressants. Objective: To replicate these findings in a group of unipolar depressed patients and controls. Methods: Fifteen unipolar depressed patients and 15 controls were studied using transcranial ultrasound imaging and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI). Results: No difference in echogenicity of the brainstem midline of unipolar depressed patients was found. A possible trend (Cohen's d = 0.39) in the direction of previous studies was found. Although the echogenicity of the brainstem midline of the control group was found to be similar to previous reports, there was no reduction in the patient group. Additionally, no structural abnormality of the brainstem was identified using DT-MRI. Conclusions: While these data do not replicate the findings of previous studies reporting a significant reduction in the echogenicity of the brainstem midline in unipolar depressed patients, the ultrasound investigation indicated that there may be a trend in this direction. Given the importance of identifying the causes of depressive illness, it is important that other groups attempt similar studies. PMID:16227541

  1. The Effect of a Series of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulations of the Motor Cortex on Central Pain After Spinal Cord Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth Defrin; Leon Grunhaus; Doron Zamir; Gabi Zeilig

    Defrin R, Grunhaus L, Zamir D, Zeilig G. The effect of a series of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimula- tions of the motor cortex on central pain after spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2007;88:1574-80. Objective: To study the analgesic effect of repetitive trans- cranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the motor cortex on central pain in patients with chronic spinal

  2. Novel Therapeutic Strategies for Alcohol and Drug Addiction: Focus on GABA, Ion Channels and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Addolorato, Giovanni; Leggio, Lorenzo; Hopf, F Woodward; Diana, Marco; Bonci, Antonello

    2012-01-01

    Drug addiction represents a major social problem where addicts and alcoholics continue to seek and take drugs despite adverse social, personal, emotional, and legal consequences. A number of pharmacological compounds have been tested in human addicts with the goal of reducing the level or frequency of intake, but these pharmacotherapies have often been of only moderate efficacy or act in a sub-population of humans. Thus, there is a tremendous need for new therapeutic interventions to treat addiction. Here, we review recent interesting studies focusing on gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors, voltage-gated ion channels, and transcranial magnetic stimulation. Some of these treatments show considerable promise to reduce addictive behaviors, or the early clinical studies or pre-clinical rationale suggest that a promising avenue could be developed. Thus, it is likely that within a decade or so, we could have important new and effective treatments to achieve the goal of reducing the burden of human addiction and alcoholism. PMID:22030714

  3. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation applications normalized prefrontal dysfunctions and cognitive-related metabolic profiling in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hualong; Geng, Yuan; Han, Bing; Qiang, Jing; Li, Xiaoli; Sun, Meiyu; Wang, Qian; Wang, Mingwei

    2013-01-01

    Chronic high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that has recently received increasing interests as a therapeutic procedure for neurodegenerative diseases. To identify the metabolism mechanism underlying the improving effects of rTMS, we observed that high frequency (25Hz) rTMS for 14 days could reverse the decline of the performance of the passive avoidance task in aged mice. We further investigated the metabolite profiles in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in those mice and found that rTMS could also reverse the metabolic abnormalities of gamma-aminobutyric acid, N-acetyl aspartic, and cholesterol levels to the degree similar to the young mice. These data suggested that the rTMS could ameliorate the age-related cognitive impairment and improving the metabolic profiles in PFC, and potentially can be used to improve cognitive decline in the elderly. PMID:24278445

  4. Enhancing the quality of studies using transcranial magnetic and electrical stimulation with a new computer-controlled system.

    PubMed

    Kaelin-Lang, A; Cohen, L G

    2000-10-15

    Transcranial magnetic (TMS) and electrical (TES) stimulation of the human brain have become useful tools in neurophysiological and neuropsychological research. Here we describe an integrated system that allows experimental control, data recording and analysis of neurophysiological and neuropsychological TMS and TES procedures (including motor thresholds, recruitment curves, intracortical inhibition and facilitation with paired pulses). The system uses a multifunction input/output board and a set of virtual instruments (VI) programmed with the Labview graphical programming language. It also includes online curve fitting of recruitment curves using the Boltzmann sigmoid function and monitoring of the preinnervation grade of the target muscle. Modules for neuropsychological stimulus presentation or faster repetitive stimulation can be easily added. This system yields more accurate data recording and analysis in a user friendly and unified environment. PMID:11000414

  5. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Applications Normalized Prefrontal Dysfunctions and Cognitive-Related Metabolic Profiling in Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hualong; Geng, Yuan; Han, Bing; Qiang, Jing; Li, Xiaoli; Sun, Meiyu; Wang, Qian; Wang, Mingwei

    2013-01-01

    Chronic high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that has recently received increasing interests as a therapeutic procedure for neurodegenerative diseases. To identify the metabolism mechanism underlying the improving effects of rTMS, we observed that high frequency (25Hz) rTMS for 14 days could reverse the decline of the performance of the passive avoidance task in aged mice. We further investigated the metabolite profiles in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in those mice and found that rTMS could also reverse the metabolic abnormalities of gamma-aminobutyric acid, N-acetyl aspartic, and cholesterol levels to the degree similar to the young mice. These data suggested that the rTMS could ameliorate the age-related cognitive impairment and improving the metabolic profiles in PFC, and potentially can be used to improve cognitive decline in the elderly. PMID:24278445

  6. Listening to speech recruits specific tongue motor synergies as revealed by transcranial magnetic stimulation and tissue-Doppler ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    D'Ausilio, A; Maffongelli, L; Bartoli, E; Campanella, M; Ferrari, E; Berry, J; Fadiga, L

    2014-01-01

    The activation of listener's motor system during speech processing was first demonstrated by the enhancement of electromyographic tongue potentials as evoked by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over tongue motor cortex. This technique is, however, technically challenging and enables only a rather coarse measurement of this motor mirroring. Here, we applied TMS to listeners' tongue motor area in association with ultrasound tissue Doppler imaging to describe fine-grained tongue kinematic synergies evoked by passive listening to speech. Subjects listened to syllables requiring different patterns of dorso-ventral and antero-posterior movements (/ki/, /ko/, /ti/, /to/). Results show that passive listening to speech sounds evokes a pattern of motor synergies mirroring those occurring during speech production. Moreover, mirror motor synergies were more evident in those subjects showing good performances in discriminating speech in noise demonstrating a role of the speech-related mirror system in feed-forward processing the speaker's ongoing motor plan. PMID:24778384

  7. A neuronal network model for simulating the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on local field potential power spectra.

    PubMed

    Bey, Alina; Leue, Stefan; Wienbruch, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) holds promise as a non-invasive therapy for the treatment of neurological disorders such as depression, schizophrenia, tinnitus, and epilepsy. Complex interdependencies between stimulus duration, frequency and intensity obscure the exact effects of rTMS stimulation on neural activity in the cortex, making evaluation of and comparison between rTMS studies difficult. To explain the influence of rTMS on neural activity (e.g. in the motor cortex), we use a neuronal network model. The results demonstrate that the model adequately explains experimentally observed short term effects of rTMS on the band power in common frequency bands used in electroencephalography (EEG). We show that the equivalent local field potential (eLFP) band power depends on stimulation intensity rather than on stimulation frequency. Additionally, our model resolves contradictions in experiments. PMID:23145082

  8. Metabolic changes after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the left prefrontal cortex: a sham-controlled proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) study of healthy brain.

    PubMed

    Michael, Nikolaus; Gösling, Michael; Reutemann, Michael; Kersting, Annette; Heindel, Walter; Arolt, Volker; Pfleiderer, Bettina

    2003-06-01

    Rapid transcranial magnetic stimulation is being increasingly used in the treatment of psychiatric disorders, especially major depression. However, its mechanisms of action are still unclear. The aim of this study was to assess metabolic changes by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy following high-frequency rapid transcranial magnetic stimulation (20 Hz), both immediately after a single session and 24 h after a series of five consecutive sessions. Twelve healthy volunteers were enrolled in a prospective single-blind, randomized study [sham (n = 5) vs. real (n = 7)]. Three brain regions were investigated (right, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left anterior cingulate cortex). A single as well as a series of consecutive rapid transcranial magnetic stimulations affected cortical glutamate/glutamine levels. These effects were present not only close to the stimulation site (left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex), but also in remote (right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left cingulate cortex) brain regions. Remarkably, the observed changes in glutamate/glutamine levels were dependent on the pre-transcranial magnetic stimulation glutamate/glutamine concentration, i.e. the lower the pre-stimulation glutamate/glutamine level, the higher the glutamate/glutamine increase observed after short- or long-term stimulation (5 days). In general, the treatment was well tolerated and no serious side-effects were reported. Neither transient mood changes nor significant differences in the outcome of a series of neuropsychological test batteries after real or sham transcranial magnetic stimulation occurred in our experiment. In summary, these data indicate that rapid transcranial magnetic stimulation may act via stimulation of glutamatergic prefrontal neurons. PMID:12814378

  9. Temporospatial identification of language-related cortical function by a combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation and magnetoencephalography

    PubMed Central

    Shinshi, Misako; Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Hirata, Masayuki; Goto, Tetsu; Sugata, Hisato; Araki, Toshihiko; Okamura, Yumiko; Hasegawa, Yuka; Ihara, Aya S; Yorifuji, Shiro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Identification of language-related cortical functions can be carried out noninvasively by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and magnetoencephalography (MEG), which allow for lesion-based interrogation and global temporospatial investigation of cortices, respectively. Combining these two modalities can improve the accuracy of the identification, but the relationships between them remain unclear. We compared TMS and MEG responses during the same language task to elucidate their temporospatial relationships and used the results to develop a novel method to identify language-related cortical functions. Methods Twelve healthy right-handed volunteers performed a picture-naming task during TMS and MEG. TMS was applied on the right or left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) at five time points, and the reaction times (RTs) for naming the pictures were measured. The temporospatial oscillatory changes measured by MEG during the same task were then compared with the TMS results. Results Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the left IFG significantly lengthened RTs at 300 and 375 msec after picture presentation, whereas TMS of the right IFG did not change RTs significantly. Interestingly, the stimulus time point at which RTs increased significantly for each individual was correlated with when the low gamma event-related desynchronizations (ERDs) peaked in the left IFG. Moreover, combining the results of TMS and MEG improved the detection rate for identifying the laterality of language function. Conclusions These results suggest that the low gamma ERDs measured by MEG strongly relate to the language function of picture naming in the left IFG. Finally, we propose a novel method to identify language-related cortical functions by combining TMS and MEG. PMID:25642395

  10. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) to Treat Social Anxiety Disorder: Case Reports and a Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Paes, Flávia; Baczynski, Tathiana; Novaes, Felipe; Marinho, Tamires; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Budde, Henning; Sack, Alexander T.; Huston, Joseph P.; Almada, Leonardo Ferreira; Carta, Mauro; Silva, Adriana Cardoso; Nardi, Antonio E.; Machado, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common and debilitating anxiety disorders. However, few studies had been dedicated to the neurobiology underlying SAD until the last decade. Rates of non-responders to standard methods of treatment remain unsatisfactorily high of approximately 25%, including SAD. Advances in our understanding of SAD could lead to new treatment strategies. A potential non invasive therapeutic option is repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Thus, we reported two cases of SAD treated with rTMS Methods: The bibliographical search used Pubmed/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge and Scielo databases. The terms chosen for the search were: anxiety disorders, neuroimaging, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Results: In most of the studies conducted on anxiety disorders, except SAD, the right prefrontal cortex (PFC), more specifically dorsolateral PFC was stimulated, with marked results when applying high-rTMS compared with studies stimulating the opposite side. However, according to the “valence hypothesis”, anxiety disorders might be characterized by an interhemispheric imbalance associated with increased right-hemispheric activity. With regard to the two cases treated with rTMS, we found a decrease in BDI, BAI and LSAS scores from baseline to follow-up. Conclusion: We hypothesize that the application of low-rTMS over the right medial PFC (mPFC; the main structure involved in SAD circuitry) combined with high-rTMS over the left mPFC, for at least 4 weeks on consecutive weekdays, may induce a balance in brain activity, opening an attractive therapeutic option for the treatment of SAD. PMID:24278088

  11. Effect of 30 Hz theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation on the primary motor cortex in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pedapati, Ernest V.; Gilbert, Donald L.; Horn, Paul S.; Huddleston, David A.; Laue, Cameron S.; Shahana, Nasrin; Wu, Steve W.

    2015-01-01

    Fourteen healthy children (13.8 ± 2.2 years, range 10–16; M:F = 5:9) received 30 Hz intermittent theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (iTBS) with a stimulation intensity of 70% of resting motor threshold (RMT) with a total of 300 (iTBS300) pulses. All volunteers were free of neurologic, psychiatric and serious medical illnesses, not taking any neuropsychiatric medications, and did not have any contraindications to transcranial magnetic stimulation. Changes in the mean amplitudes of motor-evoked potentials from baseline following iTBS were expressed as a ratio and assessed from 1 to 10 min (BLOCK1) and 1–30 min (BLOCK2) using repeated-measures analysis of variance. All 14 subjects completed iTBS300 over the dominant primary motor cortex (M1) without any clinically reported adverse events. ITBS300 produced significant M1 facilitation [F(5, 65) = 3.165, p = 0.01] at BLOCK1 and trend level M1 facilitation at BLOCK2 [F(10, 129) = 1.69, p = 0.089]. Although iTBS300 (stimulation duration of 92 s at 70% RMT) delivered over M1 in typically developed children was well-tolerated and produced on average significant facilitatory changes in cortical excitability, the post-iTBS300 neurophysiologic response was variable in our small sample. ITBS300-induced changes may represent a potential neuroplastic biomarker in healthy children and those with neuro-genetic or neuro-psychiatric disorders. However, a larger sample size is needed to address safety and concerns of response variability.

  12. Shaped magnetic field pulses by multi-coil repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) differentially modulate anterior cingulate cortex responses and pain in volunteers and fibromyalgia patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has shown promise in the alleviation of acute and chronic pain by altering the activity of cortical areas involved in pain sensation. However, current single-coil rTMS technology only allows for effects in surface cortical structures. The ability to affect activity in certain deep brain structures may however, allow for a better efficacy, safety, and tolerability. This study used PET imaging to determine whether a novel multi-coil rTMS would allow for preferential targeting of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), an area always activated with pain, and to provide preliminary evidence as to whether this targeted approach would allow for efficacious, safe, and tolerable analgesia both in a volunteer/acute pain model as well as in fibromyalgia chronic pain patients. Methods Part 1: Different coil configurations were tested in a placebo-controlled crossover design in volunteers (N?=?16). Tonic pain was induced using a capsaicin/thermal pain model and functional brain imaging was performed by means of H215O positron emission tomography – computed tomography (PET/CT) scans. Differences in NRS pain ratings between TMS and sham treatment (NRSTMS-NRSplacebo) which were recorded each minute during the 10 minute PET scans. Part 2: 16 fibromyalgia patients were subjected to 20 multi-coil rTMS treatments over 4 weeks and effects on standard pain scales (Brief Pain Inventory, item 5, i.e. average pain NRS over the last 24 hours) were recorded. Results A single 30 minute session using one of 3 tested rTMS coil configurations operated at 1 Hz consistently produced robust reduction (mean 70% on NRS scale) in evoked pain in volunteers. In fibromyalgia patients, the 20 rTMS sessions also produced a significant pain inhibition (43% reduction in NRS pain over last 24 hours), but only when operated at 10 Hz. This degree of pain control was maintained for at least 4 weeks after the final session. Conclusion Multi-coil rTMS may be a safe and effective treatment option for acute as well as for chronic pain, such as that accompanying fibromyalgia. Further studies are necessary to optimize configurations and settings as well as to elucidate the mechanisms that lead to the long-lasting pain control produced by these treatments. PMID:23819466

  13. Right frontal lobe slow frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (SF r-TMS) is an effective treatment for depression: a case-control pilot study of safety and efficacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel L Menkes; Peter Bodnar; Roderick A Ballesteros; Michael R Swenson

    1999-01-01

    Major depression may result from decreased left frontal lobe function with respect to the right. Fast frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (FF r-TMS) excites the underlying cortex whereas slow frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (SF r-TMS) causes cortical inhibition. Left frontal FF r-TMS attenuates major depression whereas the inhibitory effects of right frontal SF r-TMS are unknown. This study tested

  14. Disturbance of visual search by stimulating to posterior parietal cortex in the brain using transcranial magnetic stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iramina, Keiji; Ge, Sheng; Hyodo, Akira; Hayami, Takehito; Ueno, Shoogo

    2009-04-01

    In this study, we applied a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate the temporal aspect for the functional processing of visual attention. Although it has been known that right posterior parietal cortex (PPC) in the brain has a role in certain visual search tasks, there is little knowledge about the temporal aspect of this area. Three visual search tasks that have different difficulties of task execution individually were carried out. These three visual search tasks are the "easy feature task," the "hard feature task," and the "conjunction task." To investigate the temporal aspect of the PPC involved in the visual search, we applied various stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) and measured the reaction time of the visual search. The magnetic stimulation was applied on the right PPC or the left PPC by the figure-eight coil. The results show that the reaction times of the hard feature task are longer than those of the easy feature task. When SOA=150 ms, compared with no-TMS condition, there was a significant increase in target-present reaction time when TMS pulses were applied. We considered that the right PPC was involved in the visual search at about SOA=150 ms after visual stimulus presentation. The magnetic stimulation to the right PPC disturbed the processing of the visual search. However, the magnetic stimulation to the left PPC gives no effect on the processing of the visual search.

  15. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NEURAL SYSTEMS AND REHABILITATION ENGINEERING, VOL. 21, NO. 3, MAY 2013 383 Noninvasive Transcranial Focal Stimulation Via

    E-print Network

    Besio, Walter G.

    including transcranial magnetic stimulation(TMS)[18]­[21]andtranscra- nial direct current stimulation (t Noninvasive Transcranial Focal Stimulation Via Tripolar Concentric Ring Electrodes Lessens Behavioral Seizure developing a noninvasive transcranial focal electrical stimulation with our novel tripolar concentric ring

  16. Test-retest assessment of cortical activation induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation with brain atlas-guided optical topography.

    PubMed

    Tian, Fenghua; Kozel, F Andrew; Yennu, Amarnath; Croarkin, Paul E; McClintock, Shawn M; Mapes, Kimberly S; Husain, Mustafa M; Liu, Hanli

    2012-11-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a technology that stimulates neurons with rapidly changing magnetic pulses with demonstrated therapeutic applications for various neuropsychiatric disorders. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a suitable tool to assess rTMS-evoked brain responses without interference from the magnetic or electric fields generated by the TMS coil. We have previously reported a channel-wise study of combined rTMS/fNIRS on the motor and prefrontal cortices, showing a robust decrease of oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (?[HbO2]) at the sites of 1-Hz rTMS and the contralateral brain regions. However, the reliability of this putative clinical tool is unknown. In this study, we develop a rapid optical topography approach to spatially characterize the rTMS-evoked hemodynamic responses on a standard brain atlas. A hemispherical approximation of the brain is employed to convert the three-dimensional topography on the complex brain surface to a two-dimensional topography in the spherical coordinate system. The test-retest reliability of the combined rTMS/fNIRS is assessed using repeated measurements performed two to three days apart. The results demonstrate that the ?[HbO2] amplitudes have moderate-to-high reliability at the group level; and the spatial patterns of the topographic images have high reproducibility in size and a moderate degree of overlap at the individual level. PMID:23139044

  17. Test-retest assessment of cortical activation induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation with brain atlas-guided optical topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Fenghua; Kozel, F. Andrew; Yennu, Amarnath; Croarkin, Paul E.; McClintock, Shawn M.; Mapes, Kimberly S.; Husain, Mustafa M.; Liu, Hanli

    2012-11-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a technology that stimulates neurons with rapidly changing magnetic pulses with demonstrated therapeutic applications for various neuropsychiatric disorders. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a suitable tool to assess rTMS-evoked brain responses without interference from the magnetic or electric fields generated by the TMS coil. We have previously reported a channel-wise study of combined rTMS/fNIRS on the motor and prefrontal cortices, showing a robust decrease of oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (?[HbO2]) at the sites of 1-Hz rTMS and the contralateral brain regions. However, the reliability of this putative clinical tool is unknown. In this study, we develop a rapid optical topography approach to spatially characterize the rTMS-evoked hemodynamic responses on a standard brain atlas. A hemispherical approximation of the brain is employed to convert the three-dimensional topography on the complex brain surface to a two-dimensional topography in the spherical coordinate system. The test-retest reliability of the combined rTMS/fNIRS is assessed using repeated measurements performed two to three days apart. The results demonstrate that the ?[HbO2] amplitudes have moderate-to-high reliability at the group level; and the spatial patterns of the topographic images have high reproducibility in size and a moderate degree of overlap at the individual level.

  18. SKA Deep Polarization and Cosmic Magnetism

    E-print Network

    Taylor, A R; Akahori, Takuya; Beck, Rainer; Gaensler, Bryan; Heald, George; Johnston-Hollitt, Melanie; Langer, Mathieu; Rudnick, Lawrence; Ryu, Dongsu; Scaife, Anna; Schleicher, Dominik; Stil, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    Deep surveys with the SKA1-MID array offer for the first time the opportunity to systematically explore the polarization properties of the microJy source population. Our knowledge of the polarized sky approaching these levels is still very limited. In total intensity the population will be dominated by star-forming and normal galaxies to intermediate redshifts ($z \\sim1-2$), and low-luminosity AGN to high redshift. The polarized emission from these objects is a powerful probe of their intrinsic magnetic fields and of their magnetic environments. For redshift of order 1 and above the broad bandwidth of the mid-bands span the Faraday thick and thin regimes allowing study of the intrinsic polarization properties of these objects as well as depolarization from embedded and foreground plasmas. The deep field polarization images will provide Rotation Measures data with very high solid angle density allowing a sensitive statistical analysis of the angular variation of RM on critical arc-minute scales from a magnetic...

  19. Behavioral/Cognitive Bihemispheric Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

    E-print Network

    Diedrichsen, Jörn

    Behavioral/Cognitive Bihemispheric Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Enhances Effector these into purposeful sequences. Although transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the primary motor cortex (M1 provided by micro- stimulation in macaques (Overduin et al., 2012) and transcranial magnetic stimulation

  20. Effect of high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on reaction time, clinical features and cognitive functions in patients with Parkinson’s disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvie Sedlá?ková; Irena Rektorová; Hana Srovnalová; Ivan Rektor

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of one session of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic\\u000a stimulation (rTMS) applied over the left dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on choice\\u000a reaction time in a noise-compatibility task, and cognitive functions in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Clinical motor\\u000a symptoms of PD were assessed as

  1. Treatment of auditory verbal hallucinations with transcranial magnetic stimulation in a patient with psychotic major depression: One-year follow-up

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catarina Freitas; Chester Pearlman; Alvaro Pascual-Leone

    2011-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in patients with schizophrenia can respond to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We report the therapeutic utility of rTMS in a 48-year-old patient with a 20-year history of severe depression (five suicidal gestures and previous failure of ECT) and internal AVH. First, 20 Hz rTMS to the left prefrontal cortex for 3 weeks significantly improved depression

  2. Treatment of auditory verbal hallucinations with transcranial magnetic stimulation in a patient with psychotic major depression: One-year follow-up

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catarina Freitas; Chester Pearlman; Alvaro Pascual-Leone

    2012-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in patients with schizophrenia can respond to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We report the therapeutic utility of rTMS in a 48-year-old patient with a 20-year history of severe depression (five suicidal gestures and previous failure of ECT) and internal AVH. First, 20 Hz rTMS to the left prefrontal cortex for 3 weeks significantly improved depression

  3. Frequency dependence of antidepressant response to left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as a function of baseline cerebral glucose metabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy A. Kimbrell; John T. Little; Robert T. Dunn; Mark A. Frye; Benjamin D. Greenberg; Eric M. Wassermann; Jennifer D. Repella; Aimee L. Danielson; Mark W. Willis; Brenda E. Benson; Andrew M. Speer; Elizabeth Osuch; Mark S. George; Robert M. Post

    1999-01-01

    Background: Recent studies suggest that both high frequency (10–20 Hz) and low frequency (1 Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have an antidepressant effect in some individuals. Electrophysiologic data indicate that high frequency rTMS enhances neuronal firing efficacy and that low frequency rTMS has the opposite effect.Methods: We investigated the antidepressant effects of 10 daily left prefrontal 1 Hz versus

  4. Decrease of middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity after low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens D. Rollnik; Ariane Düsterhöft; Jan Däuper; Andon Kossev; Karin Weissenborn; Reinhard Dengler

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been tried therapeutically in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. Both, inhibition and activation of cortical areas may be achieved using different stimulation parameters. Using low-frequency rTMS (0.9Hz), inhibition of cortical areas can be observed.Methods: In the present study, 38 right-handed, healthy, normotensive subjects (aged 21–50 years, mean 30.2 years, SD=4.9; 17 women) were

  5. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) in the Management of Alcohol Dependence and other Substance Abuse Disorders – Emerging Data and Clinical Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Avinash De

    2013-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used widely in various psychiatric disorders like depression and schizophrenia. There have been some reports of its usefulness in alcohol dependence and substance use disorders. The present paper reviews the studies done using rTMS in substance use disorders including alcohol and nicotine dependence. Various studies done have been reviewed including the proposed mechanisms of action are outlined with the future research needs and need for further clinical data PMID:25337357

  6. The relationship between brain oscillatory activity and therapeutic effectiveness of transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Leuchter, Andrew F.; Cook, Ian A.; Jin, Yi; Phillips, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is marked by disturbances in brain functional connectivity. This connectivity is modulated by rhythmic oscillations of brain electrical activity, which enable coordinated functions across brain regions. Oscillatory activity plays a central role in regulating thinking and memory, mood, cerebral blood flow, and neurotransmitter levels, and restoration of normal oscillatory patterns is associated with effective treatment of MDD. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a robust treatment for MDD, but the mechanism of action (MOA) of its benefits for mood disorders remains incompletely understood. Benefits of rTMS have been tied to enhanced neuroplasticity in specific brain pathways. We summarize here the evidence that rTMS entrains and resets thalamocortical oscillators, normalizes regulation and facilitates reemergence of intrinsic cerebral rhythms, and through this mechanism restores normal brain function. This entrainment and resetting may be a critical step in engendering neuroplastic changes and the antidepressant effects of rTMS. It may be possible to modify the method of rTMS administration to enhance this MOA and achieve better antidepressant effectiveness. We propose that rTMS can be administered: (1) synchronized to a patient's individual alpha frequency (IAF), or synchronized rTMS (sTMS); (2) as a low magnetic field strength sinusoidal waveform; and, (3) broadly to multiple brain areas simultaneously. We present here the theory and evidence indicating that these modifications could enhance the therapeutic effectiveness of rTMS for the treatment of MDD. PMID:23550274

  7. The relationship between brain oscillatory activity and therapeutic effectiveness of transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Leuchter, Andrew F; Cook, Ian A; Jin, Yi; Phillips, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is marked by disturbances in brain functional connectivity. This connectivity is modulated by rhythmic oscillations of brain electrical activity, which enable coordinated functions across brain regions. Oscillatory activity plays a central role in regulating thinking and memory, mood, cerebral blood flow, and neurotransmitter levels, and restoration of normal oscillatory patterns is associated with effective treatment of MDD. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a robust treatment for MDD, but the mechanism of action (MOA) of its benefits for mood disorders remains incompletely understood. Benefits of rTMS have been tied to enhanced neuroplasticity in specific brain pathways. We summarize here the evidence that rTMS entrains and resets thalamocortical oscillators, normalizes regulation and facilitates reemergence of intrinsic cerebral rhythms, and through this mechanism restores normal brain function. This entrainment and resetting may be a critical step in engendering neuroplastic changes and the antidepressant effects of rTMS. It may be possible to modify the method of rTMS administration to enhance this MOA and achieve better antidepressant effectiveness. We propose that rTMS can be administered: (1) synchronized to a patient's individual alpha frequency (IAF), or synchronized rTMS (sTMS); (2) as a low magnetic field strength sinusoidal waveform; and, (3) broadly to multiple brain areas simultaneously. We present here the theory and evidence indicating that these modifications could enhance the therapeutic effectiveness of rTMS for the treatment of MDD. PMID:23550274

  8. Relationship between transcranial magnetic stimulation measures of intracortical inhibition and spectroscopy measures of GABA and glutamate+glutamine

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Sara; Beaulé, Vincent; Proulx, Sébastien; de Beaumont, Louis; Marja?ska, Ma?gorzata; Doyon, Julien; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Lassonde, Maryse

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can provide an index of intracortical excitability/inhibition balance. However, the neurochemical substrate of these measures remains unclear. Pharmacological studies suggest the involvement of GABAA and GABAB receptors in TMS protocols aimed at measuring intracortical inhibition, but this link remains inferential. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) permits measurement of GABA and glutamate + glutamine (Glx) concentrations in the human brain and might help in the direct empirical assessment of the relationship between TMS inhibitory measures and neurotransmitter concentrations. In the present study, MRS-derived relative concentrations of GABA and Glx measured in the left M1 of healthy participants were correlated with TMS measures of intracortical inhibition. Glx levels were found to correlate positively with TMS-induced silent period duration, whereas no correlation was found between GABA concentration and TMS measures. The present data demonstrate that specific TMS measures of intracortical inhibition are linked to shifts in cortical Glx, rather than GABA neurotransmitter levels. Glutamate might specifically interact with GABAB receptors, where higher MRS-derived Glx concentrations seem to be linked to higher levels of receptor activity. PMID:23221412

  9. Blood flow and oxygenation changes due to low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the cerebral cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesquita, Rickson C.; Faseyitan, Olufunsho K.; Turkeltaub, Peter E.; Buckley, Erin M.; Thomas, Amy; Kim, Meeri N.; Durduran, Turgut; Greenberg, Joel H.; Detre, John A.; Yodh, Arjun G.; Hamilton, Roy H.

    2013-06-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) modulates processing in the human brain and is therefore of interest as a treatment modality for neurologic conditions. During TMS administration, an electric current passing through a coil on the scalp creates a rapidly varying magnetic field that induces currents in the cerebral cortex. The effects of low-frequency (1 Hz), repetitive TMS (rTMS) on motor cortex cerebral blood flow (CBF) and tissue oxygenation in seven healthy adults, during/after 20 min stimulation, is reported. Noninvasive optical methods are employed: diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) for blood flow and diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) for hemoglobin concentrations. A significant increase in median CBF (33%) on the side ipsilateral to stimulation was observed during rTMS and persisted after discontinuation. The measured hemodynamic parameter variations enabled computation of relative changes in cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption during rTMS, which increased significantly (28%) in the stimulated hemisphere. By contrast, hemodynamic changes from baseline were not observed contralateral to rTMS administration (all parameters, p>0.29). In total, these findings provide new information about hemodynamic/metabolic responses to low-frequency rTMS and, importantly, demonstrate the feasibility of DCS/DOS for noninvasive monitoring of TMS-induced physiologic effects.

  10. Movement and afferent representations in human motor areas: a simultaneous neuroimaging and transcranial magnetic/peripheral nerve-stimulation study

    PubMed Central

    Shitara, H.; Shinozaki, T.; Takagishi, K.; Honda, M.; Hanakawa, T.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroimaging combined with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to primary motor cortex (M1) is an emerging technique that can examine motor-system functionality through evoked activity. However, because sensory afferents from twitching muscles are widely represented in motor areas the amount of evoked activity directly resulting from TMS remains unclear. We delivered suprathreshold TMS to left M1 or gave electrical right median nerve stimulation (MNS) in 18 healthy volunteers while simultaneously conducting functional magnetic resonance imaging and monitoring with electromyography (EMG). We examined in detail the localization of TMS-, muscle afferent- and superficial afferent-induced activity in M1 subdivisions. Muscle afferent- and TMS-evoked activity occurred mainly in rostral M1, while superficial afferents generated a slightly different activation distribution. In 12 participants who yielded quantifiable EMG, differences in brain activity ascribed to differences in movement-size were adjusted using integrated information from the EMGs. Sensory components only explained 10–20% of the suprathreshold TMS-induced activity, indicating that locally and remotely evoked activity in motor areas mostly resulted from the recruitment of neural and synaptic activity. The present study appears to justify the use of fMRI combined with suprathreshold TMS to M1 for evoked motor network imaging. PMID:24062660

  11. Extended Remediation of Sleep Deprived-Induced Working Memory Deficits Using fMRI-guided Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Luber, Bruce; Steffener, Jason; Tucker, Adrienne; Habeck, Christian; Peterchev, Angel V.; Deng, Zhi-De; Basner, Robert C.; Stern, Yaakov; Lisanby, Sarah H.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: We attempted to prevent the development of working memory (WM) impairments caused by sleep deprivation using fMRI-guided repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Novel aspects of our fMRI-guided rTMS paradigm included the use of sophisticated covariance methods to identify functional networks in imaging data, and the use of fMRI-targeted rTMS concurrent with task performance to modulate plasticity effects over a longer term. Design: Between-groups mixed model. Setting: TMS, MRI, and sleep laboratory study. Participants: 27 subjects (13 receiving Active rTMS, and 14 Sham) completed the sleep deprivation protocol, with another 21 (10 Active, 11 Sham) non-sleep deprived subjects run in a second experiment. Interventions: Our previous covariance analysis had identified a network, including occipital cortex, which demonstrated individual differences in resilience to the deleterious effects of sleep deprivation on WM performance. Five Hz rTMS was applied to left lateral occipital cortex while subjects performed a WM task during 4 sessions over the course of 2 days of total sleep deprivation. Measurements and Results: At the end of the sleep deprivation period, Sham sleep deprived subjects exhibited degraded performance in the WM task. In contrast, those receiving Active rTMS did not show the slowing and lapsing typical in sleep deprivation, and instead performed similarly to non- sleep deprived subjects. Importantly, the Active sleep deprivation group showed rTMS-induced facilitation of WM performance a full 18 hours after the last rTMS session. Conclusions: Over the course of sleep deprivation, these results indicate that rTMS applied concurrently with WM task performance affected neural circuitry involved in WM to prevent its full impact. Citation: Luber B; Steffener J; Tucker A; Habeck C; Peterchev AV; Deng ZD; Basner RC; Stern Y; Lisanby SH. Extended remediation of sleep deprived-induced working memory deficits using fMRI-guided transcranial magnetic stimulation. SLEEP 2013;36(6):857-871. PMID:23729929

  12. Impairment of callosal and corticospinal system function in adolescents with early-treated phenylketonuria: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    PubMed

    Röricht, S; Meyer, B U; Irlbacher, K; Ludolph, A C

    1999-01-01

    The transcranial activation and the conduction properties of corticospinal and callosal neurons were investigated in 12 early-treated adolescents (aged 17.3, SD 3.5 years; range 14-27 years) with phenylketonuria (PKU) by focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (fTMS) of the motor cortex. The patients had no functionally relevant motor disturbances in daily life or on clinical testing. Corticospinally mediated excitatory (response thresholds, amplitudes, central motor latencies) and inhibitory [duration of postexcitatory inhibition (PI)] effects of fTMS were investigated in contralateral hand muscles. Transcallosal inhibition (TI) (onset latency, duration, transcallosal latency) of tonic electromyographic (EMG) activity was tested in ipsilateral muscles. Peripheral motor latencies were determined for responses elicited by magnetic stimulation over cervical nerve roots. Ten normal subjects served as controls. Since in all PKU patients, central and peripheral motor latencies were normal, no neurophysiological indication of a demyelination of corticospinal or peripheral motor fibres was found. However, cortical thresholds of corticospinally mediated responses were increased (52.1, SD 11.6% versus 35.0, SD 7.4% of maximum stimulator output; P < 0.05; n = 24 hands) and their amplitudes reduced (2.9, SD 1.4 mV versus 6.1, SD 1.5 mV, P < 0.05). The duration of PI was shortened (132, SD 53 ms versus 178, SD 57 ms; P < 0.05). TI was absent in 37.5% of the investigated hands or tended to be weak. When TI was present, its onset latencies (38.0, SD 3.6 ms versus 34.7, SD 3.3 ms) and transcallosal latencies were prolonged (18.5, SD 3.8 ms versus 14.8, SD 3.2 ms), while its duration was normal. These abnormal excitatory and inhibitory effects of fTMS suggest a reduced susceptibility of cortical excitatory and inhibitory neuronal structures compatible with a loss of neurons or a rarefication of their dendrites. PMID:9987710

  13. Safe use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with implanted vagus nerve stimulators.

    PubMed

    Philip, Noah S; Carpenter, S Louisa; Carpenter, Linda L

    2014-01-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) and repetitive transcranial stimulation (rTMS) devices are FDA cleared for therapeutic use in treatment resistant depression. Since VNS systems have ferromagnetic components and large-scale safety testing has not been done, the implanted VNS device is considered a contraindication for rTMS therapy. This contraindication should not be considered absolute, as VNS components typically lie outside the electromagnetic field generated by an rTMS treatment coil. We solicited information from clinicians at several academic medical centers through an informal survey about their use of rTMS for depressed patients with implanted VNS systems, and reviewed relevant safety issues with one rTMS device manufacturer. rTMS clinical practices may use special consent procedures and take additional precautions to enhance safety in these situations. Specific recommendations are provided for minimizing risks (heating or movement of VNS components and unintended change in VNS stimulation parameters) when delivering rTMS to patients with implanted VNS systems. PMID:24794163

  14. Venus Deep Nightside Magnetic Fields Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villarreal, M. N.; Luhmann, J. G.; Ma, Y.; Russell, C. T.; Wei, H.; Zhang, T.

    2011-12-01

    We reexamined the near-Venus deep nightside magnetic fields observed by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter(PVO) over two decades ago. This analysis was in part inspired by recent discussions of the possibilities of identifying a weak planetary dynamo or remanent magnetic field, and in part by the availability of numerical simulations of weak field plasma interactions using the BATS-R-US MHD code. The data were first scrutinized for statistically significant regions of radial field in the near-midnight low altitude wake from the prime mission periapsis of ~150km up to about 450 km. Radial field 'maps' were constructed for a range of altitudes in both solar wind interaction and planetary geographical coordinate systems. The results suggested the presence of weak radial fields above ~250km that show a persistent North-South sign bias. This behavior is not seen at the lowest altitudes probed, and is present regardless of the interplanetary magnetic field sector. The MHD simulations provided basic pictures of what might be expected for a hypothetical planet with a weak but still detectable dipole field that is comparable to the solar wind interaction-related draped interplanetary field. These show similar tendencies, illustrating that models are essential to the interpretation of potential weak intrinsic field signatures at planets such as Venus. Further modeling specific to Venus is needed to make further progress.

  15. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Reveals Dissociable Mechanisms for Global Versus Selective Corticomotor Suppression Underlying the Stopping of Action

    PubMed Central

    Majid, D. S. Adnan; Cai, Weidong; George, Jobi S.; Verbruggen, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    Stopping an initiated response is an essential function, investigated in many studies with go/no-go and stop-signal paradigms. These standard tests require rapid action cancellation. This appears to be achieved by a suppression mechanism that has “global” effects on corticomotor excitability (i.e., affecting task-irrelevant muscles). By contrast, stopping action in everyday life may require selectivity (i.e., targeting a specific response tendency without affecting concurrent action). We hypothesized that while standard stopping engages global suppression, behaviorally selective stopping engages a selective suppression mechanism. Accordingly, we measured corticomotor excitability of the task-irrelevant leg using transcranial magnetic stimulation while subjects stopped the hand. Experiment 1 showed that for standard (i.e., nonselective) stopping, the task-irrelevant leg was suppressed. Experiment 2 showed that for behaviorally selective stopping, there was no mean leg suppression. Experiment 3 directly compared behaviorally nonselective and selective stopping. Leg suppression occurred only in the behaviorally nonselective condition. These results argue that global and selective suppression mechanisms are dissociable. Participants may use a global suppression mechanism when speed is stressed; however, they may recruit a more selective suppression mechanism when selective stopping is behaviorally necessary and preparatory information is available. We predict that different fronto–basal–ganglia pathways underpin these different suppression mechanisms. PMID:21666129

  16. Does Inhibitory Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Augment Functional Task Practice to Improve Arm Recovery in Chronic Stroke?

    PubMed Central

    McGuirk, Theresa E.; Triggs, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Restoration of upper extremity (UE) functional use remains a challenge for individuals following stroke. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive modality that modulates cortical excitability and is being explored as a means to potentially ameliorate these deficits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in the presence of chronic stroke, the effects of low-frequency rTMS to the contralesional hemisphere as an adjuvant to functional task practice (FTP), to improve UE functional ability. Methods. Twenty-two individuals with chronic stroke and subsequent moderate UE deficits were randomized to receive 16 sessions (4 times/week for 4 weeks) of either real-rTMS or sham-rTMS followed by 1-hour of paretic UE FTP. Results. No differences in UE outcomes were revealed between the real-rTMS and sham-rTMS intervention groups. After adjusting for baseline differences, no differences were revealed in contralesional cortical excitability postintervention. In a secondary analysis, data pooled across both groups revealed small, but statistically significant, improvements in UE behavioral measures. Conclusions. rTMS did not augment changes in UE motor ability in this population of individuals with chronic stroke. The chronicity of our participant cohort and their degree of UE motor impairment may have contributed to inability to produce marked effects using rTMS. PMID:25197611

  17. Bilateral Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Auditory Hallucinations in Patients with Schizophrenia: A Randomized Controlled, Cross-over Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Ji; Yeo, Seonguk; Hwang, Inho; Park, Jong-Il; Cui, Yin; Jin, Hong-Mei; Kim, Hyung Tae; Hwang, Tae-Young

    2014-01-01

    Objective A randomized double-blind cross-over trial was conducted in patients with persistent auditory hallucinations (AHs) to investigate whether bilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) at the temporoparietal area or Broca's area is more effective at high- or low-frequencies compared to a sham condition. Methods Twenty three patients with persistent AHs who remained stable on the same medication for 2 months were enrolled. They were randomized to one of four conditions: low-frequency (1 Hz)-rTMS to the temporoparietal area (L-TP), high-frequency (20 Hz)-rTMS to the temporoparietal area (H-TP), high-frequency (20 Hz)-rTMS to Broca's area (H-B), or sham. Results All the four rTMS conditions resulted in significant decrease in the scores under the auditory hallucination rating scale and hallucination change scale over time. However, there were no significant treatment effects or interaction between time and treatment, suggesting no superior effects of the new paradigms over the sham condition. Conclusion Our findings suggest that bilateral rTMS at the temporoparietal area or Broca's area with high- or low-frequency does not produce superior effects in reducing AHs compared to sham stimulation. PMID:25598827

  18. Impact of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Post-Stroke Dysmnesia and the Role of BDNF Val66Met SNP

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Haitao; Zhang, Tong; Wen, Mei; Sun, Li

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effects of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on dysmnesia and the impact of brain nucleotide neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). This study investigated the impact of low-frequency rTMS on post-stroke dysmnesia and the impact of BDNF Val66Met SNP. Material/Methods Forty patients with post-stroke dysmnesia were prospectively randomized into the rTMS and sham groups. BDNF Val66Met SNP was determined using restriction fragment length polymorphism. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Loewenstein Occupational Therapy of Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA), and Rivermead Behavior Memory Test (RBMT) scores, as well as plasma BDNF concentrations, were measured at baseline and at 3 days and 2 months post-treatment. Results MoCA, LOTCA, and RBMT scores were higher after rTMS. Three days after treatment, BDNF decreased in the rTMS group but it increased in the sham group (P<0.05). Two months after treatment, RMBT scores in the rTMS group were higher than in the sham group, but not MoCA and LOTCA scores. Conclusions Low-frequency rTMS may improve after-stoke memory through various pathways, which may involve polymorphisms and several neural genes, but not through an increase in BDNF levels. PMID:25770310

  19. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the orbitofrontal cortex for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a double-blind, crossover study

    PubMed Central

    Nauczyciel, C; Le Jeune, F; Naudet, F; Douabin, S; Esquevin, A; Vérin, M; Dondaine, T; Robert, G; Drapier, D; Millet, B

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study was designed to assess the efficacy of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) by means of a double-cone coil in patients suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder. We hypothesized that low-frequency stimulation of the OFC would lead to a reduction in clinical symptoms, as measured on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). A randomized, double-blind, crossover design was implemented with two 1-week treatment periods (active stimulation versus sham stimulation) separated by a 1-month washout period. Concomitantly, a subgroup of patients underwent a positron emission tomography (PET) scan after each stimulation sequence. Statistical analyses compared the Y-BOCS scores at the end of each period. At day 7, we observed a significant decrease from baseline in the Y-BOCS scores, after both active (P<0.01) and sham stimulation (P=0.02). This decrease tended to be larger after active stimulation than after sham stimulation: ?6 (?29, 0) points versus ?2 (?20, 4) points (P=0.07). Active versus sham PET scan contrasts showed that stimulation was related to a bilateral decrease in the metabolism of the OFC. The OFC should definitely be regarded as a key neuroanatomical target for rTMS, as it is easier to reach than either the striatum or the subthalamic nucleus, structures favored in neurosurgical approaches. PMID:25203167

  20. Novel ‘hunting’ method using transcranial magnetic stimulation over parietal cortex disrupts visuospatial sensitivity in relation to motor thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, R; Bjoertomt, O; Driver, J; Greenwood, R; Rothwell, J

    2010-01-01

    There is considerable inter-study and inter-individual variation in the scalp location of parietal sites where transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) may modulate visuospatial behaviours (see Ryan, Bonilha, & Jackson 2006); and no clear consensus on methods for identifying such sites. Here we introduce a novel TMS “hunting paradigm” that allows rapid, reliable identification of a site over right anterior intraparietal sulcus (IPS), where short trains (at 10 Hz for 0.5s) of TMS disrupt performance of a task in which subjects judge the presence or absence of a small peripheral gap (at 14 degrees eccentricity), on one or other (known) side of an extended (29 degrees) horizontal line centred on fixation. Signal detection analysis confirmed that TMS at this site reduced sensitivity (d’) for gap targets in the left visual hemifield. A further experiment showed that the same right-parietal TMS increased sensitivity instead for gaps in the right hemifield. Comparing TMS across a grid of scalp locations around the identified ‘hotspot’ confirmed the spatial specificity. Assessment of the TMS intensity required to produce the phenomena found this was linearly related to individuals’ resting motor TMS threshold over hand M1. Our approach provides a systematic new way to identify an effective site and intensity in individuals, at which TMS over right parietal cortex reliably changes visuospatial sensitivity. PMID:19651149

  1. Role of the posterior temporal lobe during language tasks: a virtual lesion study using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoon-Hee; Park, Hae Kyung; Paik, Nam-Jong

    2015-04-15

    Functional brain imaging studies have suggested that the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the middle temporal gyrus (MTG) are involved in phonological and lexical-semantic processing, respectively. However, the precise role of the posterior temporal lobe is not fully understood. To clarify the functional relevance of the left posterior STG and MTG during language processing, we used neuronavigation-guided repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). The reaction times and error rates for 12 healthy volunteers performing auditory repetition and lexical-semantic decision tasks were compared before and during rTMS stimulation. We applied 1?Hz rTMS over the left posterior STG or MTG or sham stimulation for 10?min in a random order. Stimulation of the left posterior MTG significantly slowed the response time for the lexical-semantic decision task from 478.9±56.5 to 583.1±80.0?ms. However, stimulation over the left posterior STG or MTG did not affect the response time or the error rate for the auditory repetition task. Our results suggest that the left posterior MTG might be involved in lexical decision making. Neuronavigation-guided rTMS virtual lesion studies could help determine the functional roles of specific brain areas in language processing, and our findings provide new evidence supporting the use of neuromodulation through rTMS for patients with aphasia. PMID:25714425

  2. Transcranial magnetic stimulation as an investigative tool for motor dysfunction and recovery in stroke: an overview for neurorehabilitation clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Cortes, Mar; Black-Schaffer, Randie M; Edwards, Dylan J

    2012-01-01

    Rationale An improved understanding of motor dysfunction and recovery after stroke has important clinical implications that may lead to the design of more effective rehabilitation strategies for patients with hemiparesis. Scope Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a safe and painless tool that has been used in conjunction with other existing diagnostic tools to investigate motor pathophysiology in stroke patients. Since TMS emerged over two decades ago, its application in clinical and basic neuroscience has expanded worldwide. TMS can quantify the corticomotor excitability properties of clinically affected and unaffected muscles, and probe local cortical networks, as well as remote but functionally related areas. This provides novel insight into the physiology of neural circuits underlying motor dysfunction, and brain reorganization during the motor recovery process. This important tool needs to be used with caution by clinical investigators, its limitations need to be understood and the results should be interpreted along with clinical evaluation in this patient population. Summary In this review, we provide an overview of the rationale, implementation and limitations of TMS to study stroke motor physiology. This knowledge may be useful to guide future rehabilitation treatments by assessing and promoting functional plasticity. PMID:22624621

  3. The Perceived Position of Moving Objects: Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of Area MT+ Reduces the Flash-Lag Effect

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Jamie; Nijhawan, Romi; Whitney, David

    2013-01-01

    How does the visual system assign the perceived position of a moving object? This question is surprisingly complex, since sluggish responses of photoreceptors and transmission delays along the visual pathway mean that visual cortex does not have immediate information about a moving object's position. In the flash-lag effect (FLE), a moving object is perceived ahead of an aligned flash. Psychophysical work on this illusion has inspired models for visual localization of moving objects. However, little is known about the underlying neural mechanisms. Here, we investigated the role of neural activity in areas MT+ and V1/V2 in localizing moving objects. Using short trains of repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) or single pulses at different time points, we measured the influence of TMS on the perceived location of a moving object. We found that TMS delivered to MT+ significantly reduced the FLE; single pulse timings revealed a broad temporal tuning with maximum effect for TMS pulses, 200 ms after the flash. Stimulation of V1/V2 did not significantly influence perceived position. Our results demonstrate that area MT+ contributes to the perceptual localization of moving objects and is involved in the integration of position information over a long time window. PMID:22302116

  4. Disrupted Central Inhibition after Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of Motor Cortex in Schizophrenia with Long-Term Antipsychotic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lauerma, Hannu; Kähkönen, Seppo

    2013-01-01

    Aims. Schizophrenia is a neuropsychiatric disorder associated with mental and motor disturbances. We aimed to investigate motor control, especially central silent period (CSP) in subjects with schizophrenia (n = 11) on long-term antipsychotic treatment compared to healthy controls (n = 9). Methods. Latency and duration of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and CSPs were measured with the help of single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and intramuscular electrodes. After stimulation of the dominant and nondominant motor cortex of abductor digiti minimi (ADM) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscle areas, respective responses were measured on the contralateral side. Results. MEPs did not differ significantly between the groups. Multiple CSPs were found predominantly in subjects with schizophrenia, which showed a higher number of CSPs in the dominant ADM and the longest summarized duration of CSPs in the nondominant ADM (P < 0.05) compared to controls. Conclusions. There were multiple CSPs predominantly in the upper extremities and in the dominant body side in subjects with schizophrenia. Behind multiple CSPs may lie an impaired regulation of excitatory or inhibitory neurotransmitter systems in central motor pathways. Further research is needed to clarify the role of the intramuscular recording methods and the effect of antipsychotics on the results. PMID:23738224

  5. Suppression of EMG activity by subthreshold paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to the leg motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Roy, François D

    2009-03-01

    Cortical activity driving a voluntary muscle contraction is inhibited by very low-intensity transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and is reflected in the suppression of the average rectified EMG. This approach offers a method to test the contribution of cortical neurons actively involved in a motor task, but requires a large number of stimuli (approximately 100) to suitably depress the average EMG. Here, we investigated whether two pulses of subthreshold TMS at interstimulus intervals (ISIs) ranging between 1 and 12 ms could enhance the amount of EMG suppression in the tibialis anterior muscle compared to a single pulse. Pairs of subthreshold TMS at an ISI of 7 ms produced the maximum EMG suppression that was 42% more than the inhibition elicited using a single pulse. In addition, the signal-to-noise ratio of the TMS-induced suppression was further increased by a second pulse, delivered 7 ms later. The reduction in the EMG at the 7 ms paired-pulse interval occurred without any short-latency excitation suggesting that the two stimuli increased the activation of cortical inhibitory neurons. Subthreshold paired-pulse TMS at ISIs of 1-3 ms was prone to EMG excitation in the period that immediately preceded the inhibition and is consistent with the recruitment of short-interval intracortical facilitation (SICF). We propose that pairs of subthreshold TMS outside the range of SICF with an inter-pulse interval of 7 ms is optimal to inhibit ongoing cortical activity during human motor movement. PMID:19183971

  6. Impact of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Post-Stroke Dysmnesia and the Role of BDNF Val66Met SNP.

    PubMed

    Lu, Haitao; Zhang, Tong; Wen, Mei; Sun, Li

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effects of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on dysmnesia and the impact of brain nucleotide neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). This study investigated the impact of low-frequency rTMS on post-stroke dysmnesia and the impact of BDNF Val66Met SNP. Material and Methods Forty patients with post-stroke dysmnesia were prospectively randomized into the rTMS and sham groups. BDNF Val66Met SNP was determined using restriction fragment length polymorphism. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Loewenstein Occupational Therapy of Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA), and Rivermead Behavior Memory Test (RBMT) scores, as well as plasma BDNF concentrations, were measured at baseline and at 3 days and 2 months post-treatment. Results MoCA, LOTCA, and RBMT scores were higher after rTMS. Three days after treatment, BDNF decreased in the rTMS group but it increased in the sham group (P<0.05). Two months after treatment, RMBT scores in the rTMS group were higher than in the sham group, but not MoCA and LOTCA scores. Conclusions Low-frequency rTMS may improve after-stoke memory through various pathways, which may involve polymorphisms and several neural genes, but not through an increase in BDNF levels. PMID:25770310

  7. Motor Threshold in Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: The Impact of White Matter Fiber Orientation and Skull-to-Cortex Distance

    PubMed Central

    Herbsman, Tal; Forster, Lauren; Molnar, Christine; Dougherty, Robert; Christie, Doug; Koola, Jejo; Ramsey, Dave; Morgan, Paul S.; Bohning, Daryl E.; George, Mark S.; Nahas, Ziad

    2010-01-01

    The electrophysiology of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of motor cortex is not well understood. In this study, we investigate several structural parameters of the corticospinal tract and their relation to the TMS motor threshold (MT) in 17 subjects, with and without schizophrenia. We obtained structural and diffusion tensor MRI scans and measured the fractional anisotropy and principal diffusion direction for regions of interest in the corticospinal tract. We also measured the skull-to-cortex distance over the left motor region. The anterior–posterior trajectory of principle diffusion direction of the corticospinal tract and skull-to-cortex distance were both found to be highly correlated with MT, while fractional anisotropy, age and schizophrenia status were not. Two parameters—skull-to-cortex distance and the anterior component of the principle diffusion direction of the corticospinal tract as it passes the internal capsule—are highly predictive of MT in a linear regression model, and account for 82% of the variance observed (R2 = 0.82, F = 20.27, P < 0.0001) in measurements of MT. The corticospinal tract’s anterior–posterior direction alone contributes 13% of the variance explained. PMID:18973261

  8. Cerebellar-related long latency motor response in upper limb musculature by transcranial magnetic stimulation of the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Sachiyo; Hirata, Masayuki; Goto, Tetsu; Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Sugata, Hisato; Araki, Toshihiko; Okamura, Yumiko; Hasegawa, Yuka; Shinshi, Misako; Yorifuji, Shiro

    2014-04-16

    In this study, we aimed to identify the cerebellum-related electromyographic (EMG) response that appeared in the upper limbs musculature. Thirty times averaged transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with a double-cone coil placed over the cerebellar hemisphere elicited long latency EMG responses at the bilateral extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscles. The peak latency of this EMG response was 70.7±12.7 ms in the ipsilateral ECR and 62.9±10.2 ms in the contralateral ECR of the TMS side. These latencies were much longer than the latency of the muscle evoked potential when we stimulated pyramidal tracts at the foramen magnum level. Cerebellar hemisphere loading by the finger target pursuit test made this EMG response faster during TMS on the ipsilateral side of the cerebellum and slower during TMS on the contralateral side of the cerebellum. Furthermore, the deeper the level of drowsiness, the slower the peak latency of this EMG response became. These results suggest that this EMG potential is a specific response of the cerebellum and brainstem reticular formation, and may be conducted from the cerebellar structure to the ECR muscle through the polysynaptic transmission of the reticulospinal tract. PMID:24113113

  9. Improvement of white matter and functional connectivity abnormalities by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in crossed aphasia in dextral

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Haitao; Wu, Haiyan; Cheng, Hewei; Wei, Dongjie; Wang, Xiaoyan; Fan, Yong; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Tong

    2014-01-01

    As a special aphasia, the occurrence of crossed aphasia in dextral (CAD) is unusual. This study aims to improve the language ability by applying 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). We studied multiple modality imaging of structural connectivity (diffusion tensor imaging), functional connectivity (resting fMRI), PET, and neurolinguistic analysis on a patient with CAD. Furthermore, we applied rTMS of 1 Hz for 40 times and observed the language function improvement. The results indicated that a significantly reduced structural and function connectivity was found in DTI and fMRI data compared with the control. The PET imaging showed hypo-metabolism in right hemisphere and left cerebellum. In conclusion, one of the mechanisms of CAD is that right hemisphere is the language dominance. Stimulating left Wernicke area could improve auditory comprehension, stimulating left Broca’s area could enhance expression, and the results outlasted 6 months by 1 Hz rTMS balancing the excitability inter-hemisphere in CAD. PMID:25419415

  10. An Investigation of the Late Excitatory Potentials in the Hand following Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Early Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Balla, Christina; Maertens de Noordhout, Alain; Pepin, Jean Louis

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent neuroimaging studies in humans support the clinical observations that the motor cortex is affected early in the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Patients and Methods We measured the silent period (SP) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation in AD patients in the very early stage of the disease, and we explored whether and in which way the pharmacologic manipulation of the cholinergic system could modify it. Results An increase in the duration of the SP was observed in AD patients in the early stage in comparison to controls. After 2 months of treatment with donepezil, the duration did not differ significantly from that of normal subjects. The results of our study show a fragmentation and an enlargement of the SP in the presence of multiple late excitatory potentials (LEPs) in early untreated AD patients. These LEPs were also modulated by donepezil. Conclusions The results suggest an early functional impairment of cholinergic neurotransmission in AD. The disturbance in acetylcholine output in early AD leads to a decrease in excitability of the motor system.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging/angiography and transcranial Doppler velocities in sickle cell anemia: results from the SWiTCH trial.

    PubMed

    Helton, Kathleen J; Adams, Robert J; Kesler, Karen L; Lockhart, Alex; Aygun, Banu; Driscoll, Catherine; Heeney, Matthew M; Jackson, Sherron M; Krishnamurti, Lakshmanan; Miller, Scott T; Sarnaik, Sharada A; Schultz, William H; Ware, Russell E

    2014-08-01

    The Stroke With Transfusions Changing to Hydroxyurea (SWiTCH) trial compared standard (transfusions/chelation) to alternative (hydroxyurea/phlebotomy) treatment to prevent recurrent stroke and manage iron overload in children chronically transfused over 7 years before enrollment. Standardized brain magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and transcranial Doppler (TCD) exams were performed at entry and exit, with a central blinded review. A novel MRA vasculopathy grading scale demonstrated frequent severe baseline left/right vessel stenosis (53%/41% ?Grade 4); 31% had no vessel stenosis on either side. Baseline parenchymal injury was prevalent (85%/79% subcortical, 53%/37% cortical, 50%/35% subcortical and cortical). Most children had low or uninterpretable baseline middle cerebral artery TCD velocities, which were associated with worse stenoses (incidence risk ratio [IRR] = 5.1, P ? .0001 and IRR = 4.1, P < .0001) than normal velocities; only 2% to 12% had any conditional/abnormal velocity. Patients with adjudicated stroke (7) and transient ischemic attacks (19 in 11 standard/8 alternative arm subjects) had substantial parenchymal injury/vessel stenosis. At exit, 1 child (alternative arm) had a new silent infarct, and another had worse stenosis. SWiTCH neuroimaging data document severe parenchymal and vascular abnormalities in children with SCA and stroke and support concerns about chronic transfusions lacking effectiveness for preventing progressive cerebrovascular injury. The novel SWiTCH vasculopathy grading scale warrants validation testing and consideration for use in future clinical trials. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00122980. PMID:24914136

  12. Safety, ethical considerations, and application guidelines for the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation in clinical practice and research?

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Simone; Hallett, Mark; Rossini, Paolo M.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    This article is based on a consensus conference, which took place in Certosa di Pontignano, Siena (Italy) on March 7–9, 2008, intended to update the previous safety guidelines for the application of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in research and clinical settings. Over the past decade the scientific and medical community has had the opportunity to evaluate the safety record of research studies and clinical applications of TMS and repetitive TMS (rTMS). In these years the number of applications of conventional TMS has grown impressively, new paradigms of stimulation have been developed (e.g., patterned repetitive TMS) and technical advances have led to new device designs and to the real-time integration of TMS with electroencephalography (EEG), positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Thousands of healthy subjects and patients with various neurological and psychiatric diseases have undergone TMS allowing a better assessment of relative risks. The occurrence of seizures (i.e., the most serious TMS-related acute adverse effect) has been extremely rare, with most of the few new cases receiving rTMS exceeding previous guidelines, often in patients under treatment with drugs which potentially lower the seizure threshold. The present updated guidelines review issues of risk and safety of conventional TMS protocols, address the undesired effects and risks of emerging TMS interventions, the applications of TMS in patients with implanted electrodes in the central nervous system, and safety aspects of TMS in neuroimaging environments. We cover recommended limits of stimulation parameters and other important precautions, monitoring of subjects, expertise of the rTMS team, and ethical issues. While all the recommendations here are expert based, they utilize published data to the extent possible. PMID:19833552

  13. Short-term effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on speech and voice in individuals with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Hartelius, L; Svantesson, P; Hedlund, A; Holmberg, B; Revesz, D; Thorlin, T

    2010-01-01

    The main characteristics of dysarthria in Parkinson's disease (PD) are monotony of pitch and loudness, reduced stress, variable speech rate, imprecise consonants, and breathy and harsh voice. Earlier treatment studies have shown that dysarthria is less responsive to both pharmacological and surgical treatments than other gross motor symptoms. Recent findings have suggested that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) may have a beneficial effect on vocal function in PD. In the present study, 10 individuals with mild PD and no or minimal dysarthria were treated with rTMS as well as placebo stimulation in a blinded experiment. Stimulation was delivered using a frequency of 10 Hz and a stimulation intensity of 90% of the motor threshold. The site of stimulation was the cortical area corresponding to the hand, on the hemisphere contralateral to the patient's most affected side. The participants were audio-recorded before and after both rTMS and sham stimulation. Acoustic analysis was performed on 3 sustained /a:/ for each of the 4 conditions, and analyzed both for the whole group as well as for men and women separately. Results showed that there were no significant differences between any of the conditions regarding duration of sustained fricative or sustained vowel phonation, diadochokinetic rates or intelligibility. Above all, the results of acoustic analyses showed an effect of placebo; there was a significant reduction in fundamental frequency (F(0)) variation, pitch period perturbation, amplitude period perturbation, noise-to-harmonics ratio and coefficient of variation in F(0) between the recordings performed before compared to after sham stimulation. PMID:20424465

  14. Safety and tolerability of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with pathologic positive sensory phenomena: a review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Paul A; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Rotenberg, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is emerging as a valuable therapeutic and diagnostic tool. rTMS appears particularly promising for disorders characterized by positive sensory phenomena attributable to alterations in sensory cortex excitability. Among these are tinnitus, auditory and visual hallucinations, and pain syndromes. OBJECTIVE Despite studies addressing rTMS efficacy in suppression of positive sensory symptoms, the safety of stimulation of potentially hyperexcitable cortex has not been fully addressed. We performed a systematic literature review and metanalysis to describe the rTMS safety profile in these disorders. METHODS Using the PubMed database, we performed an English-language literature search from January 1985 to April 2011 to review all pertinent publications. Per study, we noted and listed pertinent details. From these data we also calculated a crude per-subject risk for each adverse event. RESULTS 106 publications (n = 1815 subjects) were identified with patients undergoing rTMS for pathologic positive sensory phenomena. Adverse events associated with rTMS were generally mild and occurred in 16.7% of subjects. Seizure was the most serious adverse event, and occurred in three patients with a 0.16% crude per-subject risk. The second most severe adverse event involved aggravation of sensory phenomena, occurring in 1.54%. CONCLUSIONS The published data suggest rTMS for the treatment or diagnosis of pathologic positive sensory phenomena appears to be a relatively safe and well-tolerated procedure. However, published data are lacking in systematic reporting of adverse events, and safety risks of rTMS in these patient populations will have to be addressed in future prospective trials. PMID:22322098

  15. Anti-depressive mechanism of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in rat: the role of the endocannabinoid system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua-ning; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Rui-guo; Chen, Yun-chun; Liu, Ling; Gao, Fang; Nie, Huang; Hou, Wu-gang; Peng, Zheng-wu; Tan, Qingrong

    2014-04-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to treat depression has been thoroughly investigated in recent years. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) paradigm was applied to male Sprague Dawley rats. Then rTMS was performed for 7 consecutive days, and the anti-depressive effects were evaluated by the sucrose preference test (SPT), the forced swimming test (FST), and the open-field test (OFT). Hippocampal cannabinoid type I receptor (CB1) expression was measured, and the expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), Bcl-2, and Bax and the number of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells were also investigated. These parameters were also observed after the selective CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 was used as a blocking agent. The results showed that CUMS induced a significant decrease in sucrose preference, a significant increase in immobility time in the FST, and a significantly decreased horizontal distance in the OFT. In addition, reduced hippocampal CB1 receptor, BDNF, and Bcl-2/Bax protein expression levels in CUMS rats, as well as decreased cell proliferation were also observed in the dentate gyrus. Meanwhile, rTMS treatment up-regulated cell proliferation; elevated CB1 receptor, BDNF, and Bcl-2/Bax expression levels in the hippocampus; and ameliorated depressive-like behaviors. All of these beneficial effects were abolished by AM251. These results indicate that rTMS increases BDNF production and hippocampal cell proliferation to protect against CUMS-induced changes through its effect on CB1 receptors. PMID:24479995

  16. The molecular evidence of neural plasticity induced by cerebellar repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the rat brain: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Ah; Oh, Byung-Mo; Kim, Sang Jeong; Paik, Nam-Jong

    2014-07-11

    Cerebellar repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been applied to treat several pathological conditions with insufficient evidence of molecular mechanism. Neural plasticity is proposed as one of mechanism. This study aimed to (1) confirm the feasibility of focal stimulation over cerebellar cortex and (2) investigate cerebellar rTMS effects on molecular changes associated with neural plasticity in the rat. For feasibility, six male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent (18)F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) to confirm focal stimulation on the cerebellar cortex after rTMS. For molecular evidence, thirty rats underwent a single (N=15) or 10 sessions (N=15) of rTMS with low-, high-frequency, or sham stimulation. In cerebellar cortex, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were performed on mRNA and proteins associated with neural plasticity: metabotrophic glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1), 2-amino-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionatic acid (AMPA) receptor (GluR2) and protein kinase C (PKC). As a result, (18)F-FDG-PET showed an increase of glucose metabolism in the cerebellar cortex. The transcription of mGluR1 decreased following a single session of high-frequency rTMS. Synthesis of mGluR, PKC and GluR2 was reduced after rTMS, especially high frequency stimulation. It is suggested that rTMS could focus on the cerebellar cortex in the rat and induce neural plasticity associated with long-term depression. PMID:24861505

  17. Low-intensity repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation improves abnormal visual cortical circuit topography and upregulates BDNF in mice.

    PubMed

    Makowiecki, Kalina; Harvey, Alan R; Sherrard, Rachel M; Rodger, Jennifer

    2014-08-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is increasingly used as a treatment for neurological and psychiatric disorders. Although the induced field is focused on a target region during rTMS, adjacent areas also receive stimulation at a lower intensity and the contribution of this perifocal stimulation to network-wide effects is poorly defined. Here, we examined low-intensity rTMS (LI-rTMS)-induced changes on a model neural network using the visual systems of normal (C57Bl/6J wild-type, n = 22) and ephrin-A2A5(-/-) (n = 22) mice, the latter possessing visuotopic anomalies. Mice were treated with LI-rTMS or sham (handling control) daily for 14 d, then fluorojade and fluororuby were injected into visual cortex. The distribution of dorsal LGN (dLGN) neurons and corticotectal terminal zones (TZs) was mapped and disorder defined by comparing their actual location with that predicted by injection sites. In the afferent geniculocortical projection, LI-rTMS decreased the abnormally high dispersion of retrogradely labeled neurons in the dLGN of ephrin-A2A5(-/-) mice, indicating geniculocortical map refinement. In the corticotectal efferents, LI-rTMS improved topography of the most abnormal TZs in ephrin-A2A5(-/-) mice without altering topographically normal TZs. To investigate a possible molecular mechanism for LI-rTMS-induced structural plasticity, we measured brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the visual cortex and superior colliculus after single and multiple stimulations. BDNF was upregulated after a single stimulation for all groups, but only sustained in the superior colliculus of ephrin-A2A5(-/-) mice. Our results show that LI-rTMS upregulates BDNF, promoting a plastic environment conducive to beneficial reorganization of abnormal cortical circuits, information that has important implications for clinical rTMS. PMID:25100609

  18. Effect of chronic and acute low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on spatial memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Yang, Yuye; Ye, Qing; Yang, Bo; Wang, Zhengrong

    2007-03-15

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a novel, non-invasive neurological and psychiatric tool. The low-frequency (1 Hz or less) rTMS is likely to play a particular role in its mechanism of action with different effects in comparison with high-frequency (>1 Hz) rTMS. There is limited information regarding the effect of low-frequency rTMS on spatial memory. In our study, each male Wistar rat was daily given 300 stimuli (1.0 T, 200 micros) at a rate of 0.5 Hz or sham stimulation. We investigated the effects of chronic and acute rTMS on reference/working memory process in Morris water maze test with the hypothesis that the effect would differ by chronic or acute condition. Chronic low-frequency rTMS impaired the retrieval of spatial short- and long-term spatial reference memory but not acquisition process and working memory, whereas acute low-frequency rTMS predominantly induced no deficits in acquisition or short-term spatial reference memory as well as working memory except for long-term reference memory. In summary, chronic 0.5 Hz rTMS disrupts spatial short- and long-term reference memory function, but acute rTMS differently affects reference memory. Chronic low-frequency rTMS may be used to modulate reference memory. Treatment protocols using low-frequency rTMS in neurological and psychiatric disorders need to take into account the potential effect of chronic low-frequency rTMS on memory and other cognitive functions. PMID:17259018

  19. Diffusion tensor fiber tracking in patients with central post-stroke pain; correlation with efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Goto, Tetsu; Saitoh, Youichi; Hashimoto, Naoya; Hirata, Masayuki; Kishima, Haruhiko; Oshino, Satoru; Tani, Naoki; Hosomi, Koichi; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2008-12-01

    Central post-stroke pain (CPSP) is one of the most common types of intractable pain. We reported that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of primary motor cortex relieves pain for patients who were refractory to medical treatment. But the mechanism is unclear. In the present study, we investigated relations between the characteristics of CPSP and the results of fiber tracking, which is the only noninvasive method of evaluating the anatomical connectivity of white matter pathways. Fiber tracking of the corticospinal tract (CST) and thalamocortical tract (TCT) was investigated in 17 patients with CPSP. The stroke lesion was located in a supratentorial region in all cases (corona radiata, one case; thalamus, seven cases; putamen, nine cases). Relations between the delineation ratio (defined as the ratio of the cross section of the affected side to that of the unaffected side) of the CST and of the TCT, manual muscle test score, pain score, region of pain, and efficacy of rTMS were evaluated. Fiber tracking was successful in 13 patients with the stroke lesion involving the TCT. The rTMS-effective group had higher delineation ratio of the CST (p=0.02) and the TCT (p=0.005) than the rTMS-ineffective group. Previous studies suggested that an intact CST allows pain control but did not discuss the TCT. Our results suggest that the TCT also plays a role in pain reduction by rTMS of the primary motor cortex and that the efficacy of rTMS for patients with CPSP is predictable by fiber tracking. PMID:19004554

  20. Low-Intensity Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Improves Abnormal Visual Cortical Circuit Topography and Upregulates BDNF in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Makowiecki, Kalina; Harvey, Alan R.; Sherrard, Rachel M.

    2014-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is increasingly used as a treatment for neurological and psychiatric disorders. Although the induced field is focused on a target region during rTMS, adjacent areas also receive stimulation at a lower intensity and the contribution of this perifocal stimulation to network-wide effects is poorly defined. Here, we examined low-intensity rTMS (LI-rTMS)-induced changes on a model neural network using the visual systems of normal (C57Bl/6J wild-type, n = 22) and ephrin-A2A5?/? (n = 22) mice, the latter possessing visuotopic anomalies. Mice were treated with LI-rTMS or sham (handling control) daily for 14 d, then fluorojade and fluororuby were injected into visual cortex. The distribution of dorsal LGN (dLGN) neurons and corticotectal terminal zones (TZs) was mapped and disorder defined by comparing their actual location with that predicted by injection sites. In the afferent geniculocortical projection, LI-rTMS decreased the abnormally high dispersion of retrogradely labeled neurons in the dLGN of ephrin-A2A5?/? mice, indicating geniculocortical map refinement. In the corticotectal efferents, LI-rTMS improved topography of the most abnormal TZs in ephrin-A2A5?/? mice without altering topographically normal TZs. To investigate a possible molecular mechanism for LI-rTMS-induced structural plasticity, we measured brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the visual cortex and superior colliculus after single and multiple stimulations. BDNF was upregulated after a single stimulation for all groups, but only sustained in the superior colliculus of ephrin-A2A5?/? mice. Our results show that LI-rTMS upregulates BDNF, promoting a plastic environment conducive to beneficial reorganization of abnormal cortical circuits, information that has important implications for clinical rTMS. PMID:25100609

  1. Transcranial magnetic stimulation: potential treatment for co-occurring alcohol, traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorders

    PubMed Central

    Herrold, Amy A.; Kletzel, Sandra L.; Harton, Brett C.; Chambers, R. Andrew; Jordan, Neil; Pape, Theresa Louise-Bender

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD), mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) commonly co-occur (AUD + mTBI + PTSD). These conditions have overlapping symptoms which are, in part, reflective of overlapping neuropathology. These conditions become problematic because their co-occurrence can exacerbate symptoms. Therefore, treatments must be developed that are inclusive to all three conditions. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is non-invasive and may be an ideal treatment for co-occurring AUD + mTBI + PTSD. There is accumulating evidence on rTMS as a treatment for people with AUD, mTBI, and PTSD each alone. However, there are no published studies to date on rTMS as a treatment for co-occurring AUD + mTBI + PTSD. This review article advances the knowledge base for rTMS as a treatment for AUD + mTBI + PTSD. This review provides background information about these co-occurring conditions as well as rTMS. The existing literature on rTMS as a treatment for people with AUD, TBI, and PTSD each alone is reviewed. Finally, neurobiological findings in support of a theoretical model are discussed to inform TMS as a treatment for co-occurring AUD + mTBI + PTSD. The peer-reviewed literature was identified by targeted literature searches using PubMed and supplemented by cross-referencing the bibliographies of relevant review articles. The existing evidence on rTMS as a treatment for these conditions in isolation, coupled with the overlapping neuropathology and symptomology of these conditions, suggests that rTMS may be well suited for the treatment of these conditions together. PMID:25422632

  2. Changes in motor cortex excitability associated with temporal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in tinnitus: hints for cross-modal plasticity?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Motor cortex excitability was found to be changed after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the temporal cortex highlighting the occurrence of cross-modal plasticity in non-invasive brain stimulation. Here, we investigated the effects of temporal low-frequency rTMS on motor cortex plasticity in a large sample of tinnitus patients. In 116 patients with chronic tinnitus different parameters of cortical excitability were assessed before and after ten rTMS treatment sessions. Patients received one of three different protocols all including 1 Hz rTMS over the left temporal cortex. Treatment response was defined as improvement by at least five points in the tinnitus questionnaire (TQ). Variables of interest were resting motor threshold (RMT), short-interval intra-cortical inhibition (SICI), intracortical facilitation (ICF), and cortical silent period (CSP). Results After rTMS treatment RMT was decreased by about 1% of stimulator output near-significantly in the whole group of patients. SICI was associated with significant changes with respect to treatment response. The group of treatment responders showed a decrease of SICI over the course of treatment, the group of non-responders the reverse pattern. Conclusions Minor RMT changes during rTMS treatment do not necessarily suggest the need for systematic re-examination of the RMT for safety and efficacy issues. Treatment response to rTMS was shown to be related to changes in SICI that might reflect modulation of GABAergic mechanisms directly or indirectly related to rTMS treatment effects. PMID:24898574

  3. Medium-term results of combined treatment with transcranial magnetic stimulation and antidepressant drug for chronic tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Bilici, Suat; Yigit, Ozgur; Taskin, Umit; Gor, Ayse Pelin; Yilmaz, Enver Demirel

    2015-02-01

    We compared the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and paroxetine [a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)] on tinnitus in terms of effectiveness and medium-term results. This is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Seventy-five patients with moderate tinnitus were divided into five equal groups. Each group was treated for 1 month as follows: group 1 received rTMS alone at 1 Hz frequency; group 2 received rTMS alone at 10 Hz frequency; group 3 received rTMS at 1 Hz frequency combined with paroxetine; group 4 received paroxetine alone; and group 5 received a placebo (sham rTMS). Participants were tested using the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), Tinnitus Severity Index (TSI), the Beck Anxiety Scoring (BAS), and Psychiatric Sign Screening (PSS) tests. THI, TSI, BAS, and PSS were measured prior to treatment, and at the first and sixth month post-treatment. The THI and TSI scores improved after treatment in all groups, except the placebo group. The THI scores in groups 1 and 2 showed a statistically significant improvement after the first and sixth month compared to pretreatment scores, whereas a significant improvement in THI scores occurred only after the sixth month in groups 3 and 4. The TSI scores in group 3 showed a significant improvement at the first and sixth month marks after treatment. The rTMS and SSRI play potential roles in the reduction of tinnitus severity, but without cumulative or synergistic effects when a combination of treatment regimens is applied. These positive effects might be due to the relationship between the auditory cortex areas related to emotions and tinnitus. PMID:24337899

  4. Carbonic Anhydrase I, II, and VI, Blood Plasma, Erythrocyte and Saliva Zinc and Copper Increase After Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Henkin, Robert I.; Potolicchio, Samuel J.; Levy, Lucien M.; Moharram, Ramy; Velicu, Irina; Martin, Brian M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used to treat symptoms from many disorders; biochemical changes occurred with this treatment. Preliminary studies with rTMS in patients with taste and smell dysfunction improved sensory function and increased salivary carbonic anhydrase (CA) VI and erythrocyte CA I, II. To obtain more information about these changes after rTMS, we measured changes in several CA enzymes, proteins, and trace metals in their blood plasma, erythrocytes, and saliva. Methods Ninety-three patients with taste and smell dysfunction were studied before and after rTMS in an open clinical trial. Before and after rTMS, we measured erythrocyte CA I, II and salivary CA VI, zinc and copper in parotid saliva, blood plasma, and erythrocytes, and appearance of novel salivary proteins by using mass spectrometry. Results After rTMS, CA I, II and CA VI activity and zinc and copper in saliva, plasma, and erythrocytes increased with significant sensory benefit. Novel salivary proteins were induced at an m/z value of 21.5K with a repetitive pattern at intervals of 5K m/z. Conclusions rTMS induced biochemical changes in specific enzymatic activities, trace metal concentrations, and induction of novel salivary proteins, with sensory improvement in patients with taste and smell dysfunction. Because patients with several neurologic disorders exhibit taste and smell dysfunction, including Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, and multiple sclerosis, and because rTMS improved their clinical symptoms, the biochemical changes we observed may be relevant not only in our patients with taste and smell dysfunction but also in patients with neurologic disorders with these sensory abnormalities. PMID:20090508

  5. Synergistic effects of noradrenergic modulation with atomoxetine and 10 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on motor learning in healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is able to induce changes in neuronal activity that outlast stimulation. The underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. They might be analogous to long-term potentiation or depression, as the duration of the effects seems to implicate changes in synaptic plasticity. Norepinephrine (NE) has been shown to play a crucial role in neuronal plasticity in the healthy and injured human brain. Atomoxetine (ATX) and other NE reuptake inhibitors have been shown to increase excitability in different systems and to influence learning processes. Thus, the combination of two facilitative interventions may lead to further increase in excitability and motor learning. But in some cases homeostatic metaplasticity might protect the brain from harmful hyperexcitability. In this study, the combination of 60 mg ATX and 10 Hz rTMS over the primary motor cortex was used to examine changes in cortical excitability and motor learning and to investigate their influence on synaptic plasticity mechanisms. Results The results of this double-blind placebo-controlled study showed that ATX facilitated corticospinal and intracortical excitability in motor cortex. 10 Hertz rTMS applied during a motor task was able to further increase intracortical excitability only in combination with ATX. In addition, only the combination of 10 Hz rTMS and ATX was capable of enhancing the total number of correct responses and reaction time significantly, indicating an interaction effect between rTMS and ATX without signs of homeostatic metaplasticity. Conclusion These results suggest that pharmacologically enhanced NE transmission and 10 Hz rTMS exert a synergistic effect on motor cortex excitability and motor learning in healthy humans. PMID:24690416

  6. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) produces localized and specific alterations in neurochemistry: a ¹H magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Clark, Vincent P; Coffman, Brian A; Trumbo, Michael C; Gasparovic, Charles

    2011-08-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been found to produce significant changes in behavior, including a large increase of learning and performance for a difficult visual perceptual task (Clark et al., NeuroImage 2010). The mechanisms by which tDCS produces these behavioral effects are currently uncertain. One hypothesis is that anodal tDCS leads to increased metabolic activity in the brain, which enhances cognitive and memory processes. Here we examined the neuronal mechanisms by which tDCS influences learning by measuring changes in brain metabolite concentrations using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H MRS). As perception and learning can also influence neurochemistry, here we applied tDCS during rest. MRS data was obtained before and after 2.0 mA of anodal tDCS was applied for 30 min over electrode site P4, with the cathode placed on the contralateral arm. MRS data were acquired from the right parietal lobe beneath the anodal tDCS electrode, and from the homologous regions of the left hemisphere once before and once after tDCS. Significantly higher combined glutamate and glutamine levels were found in right parietal cortex, beneath the stimulating electrode, with non-significant increases in homologous regions of the opposite hemisphere. In addition, a significant interaction between hemispheres was found for tDCS effects on tNAA. These results suggest that changes in glutamatergic activity and tNAA may be related to the mechanisms by which tDCS influences learning and behavior. PMID:21683766

  7. Corticospinal excitability in human subjects during nonrapid eye movement sleep: single and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    PubMed

    Avesani, Mirko; Formaggio, Emanuela; Fuggetta, Giorgio; Fiaschi, Antonio; Manganotti, Paolo

    2008-05-01

    The mechanisms responsible for changes in brain function during normal sleep are poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of sleep on human corticospinal excitability by estimating resting motor threshold (RMT), and latency and amplitude of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) after delivering transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in ten healthy subjects. We also aimed to study short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) during sleep with paired-pulse TMS (pp-TMS). Ten healthy volunteers were studied. They were monitored immediately before, during and after a 3-h sleep (from 1 p.m. to 4 p.m., immediately after the mid-day meal). EEG was continuously recorded during sleep and the various sleep stages were identified off line. Every 10 min, subjects received ten single stimuli (to estimate RMT, MEP latency and amplitude) and six paired stimuli (to estimate SICI). MEP amplitude decreased and latency and RMT increased during the various sleep stages and returned to baseline values on awakening. Post hoc comparisons showed a significant difference in pp-TMS MEP amplitudes between the sleep and all the other conditions. The changes in TMS evoked variables during the different sleep stages indicate that during nonrapid eye movement sleep, cortical pyramidal neuron excitability (as measured by RMT, MEP latency and amplitude) progressively diminishes and the efficiency of the intracortical GABA-ergic network (as assessed by three pp-TMS) increases. On awakening, these sleep-induced changes in corticospinal excitability return rapidly to values observed during wakefulness. PMID:18231786

  8. Task-related changes in intracortical inhibition assessed with paired- and triple-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Opie, George M; Ridding, Michael C; Semmler, John G

    2015-03-01

    Recent research has demonstrated a task-related modulation of postsynaptic intracortical inhibition within primary motor cortex for tasks requiring isolated (abduction) or synergistic (precision grip) muscle activation. The current study sought to investigate task-related changes in pre- and postsynaptic intracortical inhibition in motor cortex. In 13 young adults (22.5 ± 3.5 yr), paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to measure short (SICI)- and long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI) (i.e., postsynaptic motor cortex inhibition) in first dorsal interosseous muscle, and triple-pulse TMS was used to investigate changes in SICI-LICI interactions (i.e., presynaptic motor cortex inhibition). These measurements were obtained at rest and during muscle activation involving isolated abduction of the index finger and during a precision grip using the index finger and thumb. SICI was reduced during abduction and precision grip compared with rest, with greater reductions during precision grip. The modulation of LICI during muscle activation depended on the interstimulus interval (ISI; 100 and 150 ms) but was not different between abduction and precision grip. For triple-pulse TMS, SICI was reduced in the presence of LICI at both ISIs in resting muscle (reflecting presynaptic motor cortex inhibition) but was only modulated at the 150-ms ISI during index finger abduction. Results suggest that synergistic contractions are accompanied by greater reductions in postsynaptic motor cortex inhibition than isolated contractions, but the contribution of presynaptic mechanisms to this disinhibition is limited. Furthermore, timing-dependent variations in LICI provide additional evidence that measurements using different ISIs may not represent activation of the same cortical process. PMID:25475354

  9. Modulation of amplitude and latency of motor evoked potential by direction of transcranial magnetic stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Aya; Torii, Tetsuya; Iwahashi, Masakuni; Itoh, Yuji; Iramina, Keiji

    2014-05-01

    The present study analyzed the effects of monophasic magnetic stimulation to the motor cortex. The effects of magnetic stimulation were evaluated by analyzing the motor evoked potentials (MEPs). The amplitude and latency of MEPs on the abductor pollicis brevis muscle were used to evaluate the effects of repetitive magnetic stimulation. A figure eight-shaped flat coil was used to stimulate the region over the primary motor cortex. The intensity of magnetic stimulation was 120% of the resting motor threshold, and the frequency of magnetic stimulation was 0.1 Hz. In addition, the direction of the current in the brain was posterior-anterior (PA) or anterior-posterior (AP). The latency of MEP was compared with PA and AP on initial magnetic stimulation. The results demonstrated that a stimulus in the AP direction increased the latency of the MEP by approximately 2.5 ms. MEP amplitude was also compared with PA and AP during 60 magnetic stimulations. The results showed that a stimulus in the PA direction gradually increased the amplitude of the MEP. However, a stimulus in the AP direction did not modulate the MEP amplitude. The average MEP amplitude induced from every 10 magnetic pulses was normalized by the average amplitude of the first 10 stimuli. These results demonstrated that the normalized MEP amplitude increased up to approximately 150%. In terms of pyramidal neuron indirect waves (I waves), magnetic stimulation inducing current flowing backward to the anterior preferentially elicited an I1 wave, and current flowing forward to the posterior elicited an I3 wave. It has been reported that the latency of the I3 wave is approximately 2.5 ms longer than the I1 wave elicitation, so the resulting difference in latency may be caused by this phenomenon. It has also been reported that there is no alteration of MEP amplitude at a frequency of 0.1 Hz. However, this study suggested that the modulation of MEP amplitude depends on stimulation strength and stimulation direction.

  10. Topiramate modulates excitability of the occipital cortex when measured by transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SK Aurora; PM Barrodale; AR Vermaas; CB Rudra

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure differences in occipital cortex excitability in migraineurs before and after administration of topiramate. We have previously demonstrated occipital cortex hyperexcitability in migraine using an objective technique of magnetic suppression of perceptual accuracy (MSPA). We hypothesized that a neuromodulator such as topiramate would demonstrate differences in MSPA in migraine compared with baseline. Ten

  11. Modulation of cortical excitability induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: influence of timing and geometrical parameters and underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Pell, Gaby S; Roth, Yiftach; Zangen, Abraham

    2011-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that activates neurons via generation of brief pulses of high-intensity magnetic field. If these pulses are applied in a repetitive fashion (rTMS), persistent modulation of neural excitability can be achieved. The technique has proved beneficial in the treatment of a number of neurological and psychiatric conditions. However, the effect of rTMS on excitability and the other performance indicators shows a considerable degree of variability across different sessions and subjects. The frequency of stimulation has always been considered as the main determinant of the direction of excitability modulation. However, interactions exist between frequency and several other stimulation parameters that also influence the degree of modulation. In addition, the spatial interaction of the transient electric field induced by the TMS pulse with the cortical neurons is another contributor to variability. Consideration of all of these factors is necessary in order to improve the consistency of the conditioning effect and to better understand the outcomes of investigations with rTMS. These user-controlled sources of variability are discussed against the background of the mechanisms that are believed to drive the excitability changes. The mechanism behind synaptic plasticity is commonly accepted as the driver of sustained excitability modulation for rTMS and indeed, plasticity and rTMS share many characteristics, but definitive evidence is lacking for this. It is more likely that there is a multiplicity of mechanisms behind the action of rTMS. The different mechanisms interact with each other and this will contribute to the variability of rTMS-induced excitability changes. This review investigates the links between rTMS and synaptic plasticity, describes their similarities and differences, and highlights a neglected contribution of the membrane potential. In summary, the principal aims of this review are (i) to discuss the different experimental and subject-related factors that contribute to the variability of excitability modulation induced by rTMS, and (ii) to discuss a generalized underlying mechanism for the excitability modulation. PMID:21056619

  12. Resting and active motor thresholds versus stimulus–response curves to determine transcranial magnetic stimulation intensity in quadriceps femoris

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a widely-used investigative technique in motor cortical evaluation. Recently, there has been a surge in TMS studies evaluating lower-limb fatigue. TMS intensity of 120-130% resting motor threshold (RMT) and 120% active motor threshold (AMT) and TMS intensity determined using stimulus–response curves during muscular contraction have been used in these studies. With the expansion of fatigue research in locomotion, the quadriceps femoris is increasingly of interest. It is important to select a stimulus intensity appropriate to evaluate the variables, including voluntary activation, being measured in this functionally important muscle group. This study assessed whether selected quadriceps TMS stimulus intensity determined by frequently employed methods is similar between methods and muscles. Methods Stimulus intensity in vastus lateralis, rectus femoris and vastus medialis muscles was determined by RMT, AMT (i.e. during brief voluntary contractions at 10% maximal voluntary force, MVC) and maximal motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitude from stimulus–response curves during brief voluntary contractions at 10, 20 and 50% MVC at different stimulus intensities. Results Stimulus intensity determined from a 10% MVC stimulus–response curve and at 120 and 130% RMT was higher than stimulus intensity at 120% AMT (lowest) and from a 50% MVC stimulus–response curve (p??0.05). Conclusions Similar optimal stimulus intensity and maximal MEP amplitudes at 20 and 50% MVC and the minimal risk of residual fatigue at 20% MVC suggest that a 20% MVC stimulus–response curve is appropriate for determining TMS stimulus intensity in the quadriceps femoris. The higher selected stimulus intensities at 120-130% RMT have the potential to cause increased coactivation and discomfort and the lower stimulus intensity at 120% AMT may underestimate evoked responses. One muscle may also act as a surrogate in determining optimal quadriceps femoris stimulation intensity. PMID:24655366

  13. The long-term effects of sports concussion on retired Australian football players: a study using transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Alan J; Hoy, Kate; Rogers, Mark A; Corp, Daniel T; Maller, Jerome J; Drury, Hannah G K; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated corticomotor excitability and inhibition, cognitive functioning, and fine motor dexterity in retired elite and amateur Australian football (AF) players who had sustained concussions during their playing careers. Forty male AF players who played at the elite level (n=20; mean age 49.7±5.7 years) or amateur level (n=20; mean age 48.4±6.9 years), and had sustained on average 3.2 concussions 21.9 years previously, were compared with 20 healthy age-matched male controls (mean age 47.56±6.85 years). All participants completed assessments of fine dexterity, visuomotor reaction time, spatial working memory (SWM), and associative learning (AL). Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to measure corticospinal excitability: stimulus-response (SR) curves and motor evoked potential (MEP) 125% of active motor threshold (aMT); and intracortical inhibition: cortical silent period (cSP), short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), and long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI). Healthy participants performed better in dexterity (p=0.003), reaction (p=0.003), and movement time (p=0.037) than did both AF groups. Differences between AF groups were found in AL (p=0.027) and SWM (p=0.024). TMS measures revealed that both AF groups showed reduced cSP duration at 125% aMT (p>0.001) and differences in SR curves (p>0.001) than did healthy controls. Similarly, SICI (p=0.012) and LICI (p=0.009) were reduced in both AF groups compared with controls. Regression analyses revealed a significant contribution to differences in motor outcomes with the three measures of intracortical inhibition. The measures of inhibition differed, however, in terms of which performance measure they had a significant and unique predictive relationship with, reflecting the variety of participant concussion injuries. This study is the first to demonstrate differences in motor control and intracortical inhibition in AF players who had sustained concussions during their playing career two decades previously. PMID:24579780

  14. Deep-brain magnetic stimulation promotes adult hippocampal neurogenesis and alleviates stress-related behaviors in mouse models for neuropsychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)/ Deep-brain Magnetic Stimulation (DMS) is an effective therapy for various neuropsychiatric disorders including major depression disorder. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the impacts of rTMS/DMS on the brain are not yet fully understood. Results Here we studied the effects of deep-brain magnetic stimulation to brain on the molecular and cellular level. We examined the adult hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampal synaptic plasticity of rodent under stress conditions with deep-brain magnetic stimulation treatment. We found that DMS promotes adult hippocampal neurogenesis significantly and facilitates the development of adult new-born neurons. Remarkably, DMS exerts anti-depression effects in the learned helplessness mouse model and rescues hippocampal long-term plasticity impaired by restraint stress in rats. Moreover, DMS alleviates the stress response in a mouse model for Rett syndrome and prolongs the life span of these animals dramatically. Conclusions Deep-brain magnetic stimulation greatly facilitates adult hippocampal neurogenesis and maturation, also alleviates depression and stress-related responses in animal models. PMID:24512669

  15. Functional Dopaminergic Neurons in Substantia Nigra are Required for Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation-Induced Motor Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Tsung-Hsun; Huang, Ying-Zu; Rotenberg, Alexander; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Chiang, Yung-Hsiao; Wang, Jia-Yi; Chen, Jia-Jin J

    2014-01-22

    Repetitive magnetic stimulation (rTMS), including theta burst stimulation (TBS), is capable of modulating motor cortical excitability through plasticity-like mechanisms and might have therapeutic potential for Parkinson's disease (PD). An animal model would be helpful for elucidating the mechanism of rTMS that remain unclear and controversial. Here, we have established a TMS model in rat and applied this model to study the impact of substantia nigra dopamine neuron on TBS-induced motor plasticity in PD rats. In parallel with human results, continuous TBS (cTBS) successfully suppressed motor evoked potentials (MEPs), while MEPs increased after intermittent TBS (iTBS) in healthy rats. We then tested the effect of iTBS in early and advanced 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned PD. Moreover, dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra and rotation behavior were assessed to correlate with the amount of iTBS-induced plasticity. In results, iTBS-induced potentiation was reduced in early PD rats and was absent in advanced PD rats. Such reduction in plasticity strongly correlated with the dopaminergic cell loss and the count of rotation in PD rats. In conclusion, we have established a TMS PD rat model. With the help of this model, we confirmed the loss of domaninergic neurons in substantia nigra resulting in reduced rTMS-induced motor plasticity in PD. PMID:24451657

  16. Musical training-induced functional reorganization of the adult brain: functional magnetic resonance imaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation study on amateur string players.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Eog; Shin, Min-Jung; Lee, Kyoung-Min; Chu, Kon; Woo, Sung Ho; Kim, Young Ro; Song, Eun-Cheol; Lee, Jun-Won; Park, Seong-Ho; Roh, Jae-Kyu

    2004-12-01

    We used the combined technique of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to observe changes that occur in adult brains after the practice of stringed musical instruments. We carried out fMRI on eight volunteers (aged 20-22 years): five novices and three individuals who had discontinued practice for more than 5 years. The motor paradigm contained a repetitive lift-abduction/fall-adduction movement of the left/right little finger, carried out with maximum efforts without pacing. The sensory paradigm was to stimulate the same little finger using a string. In parallel to the fMRI acquisition, TMS motor maps for the little finger were obtained using a frameless stereotactic neuronavigation system. After the baseline study, each participant began to learn a stringed instrument. Newly developed fMRI activations for the left little finger were observed 6 months after practice at multiple brain regions including inferior parietal lobule, premotor area (PMA), left precuneus, right anterior superior temporal gyrus, and posterior middle temporal gyrus. In contrast, new activations were rarely observed for the right little finger. The TMS study revealed new motor representation sites for the left little finger in the PMA or supplementary motor area (SMA). Unexpectedly, TMS motor maps for the right little finger were reduced significantly. Among new fMRI activations for sensory stimuli of the left little finger, the cluster of highest activation was located in the SMA. Collectively, these data provide insight into orchestrated reorganization of the sensorimotor and temporal association cortices contributing to the skillful fingering and musical processing after the practice of playing stringed instruments. PMID:15449354

  17. Electric vs magnetic trans-cranial stimulation of the brain in healthy humans: a comparative study of central motor tracts 'conductivity' and 'excitability'.

    PubMed

    Caramia, M D; Pardal, A M; Zarola, F; Rossini, P M

    1989-02-01

    Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were elicited in the thenar muscles of 11 healthy volunteers via individual electric unifocal and magnetic trans-cranial stimuli (TCS). The effects of TCS strength, of the muscular state (relaxed, contracted) as well as of the amplitude-latency characteristics and the duration of the motor tracts central conduction times (CCTs) to hand muscles, were evaluated and compared between the two types of brain excitation. MEPs with the shortest latency (18.91 +/- 1.31 ms) were recorded in the voluntarily contracted muscle during electric TCS, whilst those with maximal latency (23.3 +/- 1.63 ms) were found after magnetic TCS with an intensity at threshold for eliciting an MEP of about 0.1 mV in the relaxed muscle. Mean CCTs for electric and magnetic TCS calculated in the contracted target muscles, were respectively 5.07 +/- 0.51 and 6.34 +/- 0.46 ms. MEPs with larger amplitudes and durations were observed during magnetic TCS, being maximal when suprathreshold stimuli were delivered. A restricted range of liminar values of magnetic TCS was obtained by defining the threshold for raising motor responses in complete muscle relaxation, indicating that magnetic pulses might represent a useful probe for testing the 'excitability' of the motor tracts. PMID:2924156

  18. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of prefrontal cortex enhances working memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felipe Fregni; Paulo S. Boggio; Michael Nitsche; Felix Bermpohl; Andrea Antal; Eva Feredoes; Marco A. Marcolin; Sergio P. Rigonatti; Maria T. A. Silva; Walter Paulus; Alvaro Pascual-Leone

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have claimed that weak transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) induces persisting excitability changes in the human motor cortex that can be more pronounced than cortical modulation induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation, but there are no studies that have evaluated the effects of tDCS on working memory. Our aim was to determine whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation, which

  19. 3390 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 39, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 2003 The Effect of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on

    E-print Network

    Kawato, Suguru

    cosine current pulses 238 in duration. The peak magnetic fields were set to 0.50 T ( motor threshold) and 1.25 T ( motor threshold) at the center of the coil. Rats received 10 1 s trains of 25 pulses of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan (e-mail: ogiue@medes.m.u-tokyo.ac.jp; ueno@medes.m.u-tokyo

  20. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation induced hypomanic symptoms in a woman with a history of electroconvulsive therapy induced mania:  a case report

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Noah S.

    2013-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a comparatively novel option for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric illnesses. Previous research has shown rTMS to be safe and without significant side effects compared to pharmacologic options. However, rare cases of rTMS-induced mania have been reported. This case report describes such an affective switch in a 52 year old female veteran with treatment-resistant MDD and a history of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)-induced mania. Six treatments of rTMS were administered at 5 Hz for a total of 3000 pulses per day, when the patient began to display multiple hypomanic symptoms. These symptoms decreased after the termination of treatment and abated within a couple of days. In conclusion, caution should be used when administering rTMS to patients with a history of ECT-induced mania. PMID:24715970

  1. Changes in regional cerebral blood flow after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in treatment-resistant depression.

    PubMed

    Kito, Shinsuke; Fujita, Kenichi; Koga, Yoshihiko

    2008-01-01

    High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is effective in treatment-resistant depression, although its mechanism is still not completely elucidated. To clarify the neuroanatomical alteration of function elicited by rTMS, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with (99m)Tc-ECD was performed on 12 male inpatients with treatment-resistant unipolar depression before and after high-frequency rTMS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These results suggest that the manifestation of the antidepressant effect of high-frequency rTMS is associated with changes in the neuroanatomical function of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex as well as of the limbic-paralimbic region, including the ipsilateral subgenual cingulate, and the basal ganglia. PMID:18305287

  2. Towards dynamic control of magnetic fields to focus magnetic carriers to targets deep inside the body

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic drug delivery has the potential to target therapy to specific regions in the body, improving efficacy and reducing side effects for treatment of cancer, stroke, infection, and other diseases. Using stationary external magnets, which attract the magnetic drug carriers, this treatment is limited to shallow targets (<5 cm below skin depth using the strongest possible, still safe, practical magnetic fields). We consider dynamic magnetic actuation and present initial results that show it is possible to vary magnets one against the other to focus carriers between them on average. The many remaining tasks for deep targeting in-vivo are then briefly noted. PMID:20165553

  3. Head-to-Head Comparison of Transcranial Random Noise Stimulation, Transcranial AC Stimulation, and Transcranial DC Stimulation for Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Vanneste, Sven; Fregni, Felipe; De Ridder, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Tinnitus is the perception of a sound in the absence of an external sound stimulus. This phantom sound has been related to plastic changes and hyperactivity in the auditory cortex. Different neuromodulation techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have been used in an attempt to modify local and distant neuroplasticity as to reduce tinnitus symptoms. Recently, two techniques of pulsed electrical stimulation using weak electrical currents – transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) and transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) – have also shown significant neuromodulatory effects. In the present study we conducted the first head-to-head comparison of three different transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) techniques, namely tDCS, tACS, and tRNS in 111 tinnitus patients by placing the electrodes overlying the auditory cortex bilaterally. The results demonstrated that tRNS induced the larger transient suppressive effect on the tinnitus loudness and the tinnitus related distress as compared to tDCS and tACS. Both tDCS and tACS induced small and non-significant effects on tinnitus symptoms, supporting the superior effects of tRNS as a method for tinnitus suppression. PMID:24391599

  4. Transcranial stimulation and cognition.

    PubMed

    Miniussi, Carlo; Ruzzoli, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    Noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) is a unique method for studying cognitive function. For the study of cognition, NIBS has gained popularity as a complementary method to functional neuroimaging. By bypassing the correlative approaches of standard imaging techniques, it is possible to establish a putative relationship between brain cognition. In fact, functional neuroimaging data cannot demonstrate the actual role of a particular cortical activation in a specific function because an activated area may simply be correlated with task performance, rather than being responsible for it. NIBS can induce a temporary modification of performance only if the stimulated area is causally engaged in the task. In analogy with lesion studies, NIBS can provide information about where and when a particular process occurs. Based on this assumption, NIBS has been used in many different cognitive domains. However, one of the most interesting questions in neuroscience may not be where and when, but how cognitive activity occurs. Beyond localization approaches, NIBS can be employed to study brain mechanisms. NIBS techniques have the potential to influence behavior transiently by altering neuronal activity, which may have facilitatory or inhibitory behavioral effects. NIBS techniques include transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial electrical stimulation (tES). TMS has been shown transiently to modulate neural excitability in a manner that is dependent mainly on the timing and frequency of stimulation (high versus low). The mechanism underlying tES is a change in neuronal membrane potentials that appears to be dependent mainly on the direction of current flow (anodal versus cathodal). Nevertheless, the final effects induced by TMS or tES depend on many technical parameters used during stimulation, such as the intensity of stimulation, coil orientation, site of the reference electrode, and time of application. Moreover, an important factor is the possible interactions between these factors and the physiological and cognitive state of the subject. To use NIBS in cognition, it is important to understand not only how NIBS functions but also the brain mechanisms being studied and the features of the area of interest. To describe better the advanced knowledge provided by NIBS in cognition, we will treat each NIBS technique separately and underline the related hypotheses beyond applications. PMID:24112935

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging safety of deep brain stimulator devices.

    PubMed

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the standard of care for the evaluation of different neurological disorders of the brain and spinal cord due to its multiplanar capabilities and excellent soft tissue resolution. With the large and increasing population of patients with implanted deep brain stimulation (DBS) devices, a significant proportion of these patients with chronic neurological diseases require evaluation of their primary neurological disease processes by MRI. The presence of an implanted DBS device in a magnetic resonance environment presents potential hazards. These include the potential for induction of electrical currents or heating in DBS devices, which can result in neurological tissue injury, magnetic field-induced device migration, or disruption of the operational aspects of the devices. In this chapter, we review the basic physics of potential interactions of the MRI environment with implanted DBS devices, summarize results from phantom studies and clinical series, and discuss present recommendations for safe MRI in patients with implanted DBS devices. PMID:24112886

  6. Bilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment-resistant depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y.Q.; Zhu, D.; Zhou, X.Y.; Liu, Y.Y.; Qin, B.; Ren, G.P.; Xie, P.

    2015-01-01

    There has been concern regarding the use of controversial paradigms for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to manage treatment-resistant depression (TRD). This meta-analysis assessed the efficacy of bilateral rTMS compared with unilateral and sham rTMS in patients with TRD. PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, EAGLE and NTIS databases were searched to identify relevant studies, and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on bilateral rTMS for TRD patients were included. The response was defined as the primary outcome, and remission was the secondary outcome. Ten RCTs that included 634 patients met the eligibility criteria. The risk ratio (RRs) of both the primary and secondary outcomes of bilateral rTMS showed non-significant increases compared to unilateral rTMS (RR=1.01, P=0.93; odds ratio [OR]=0.77, P=0.22). Notably, the RR of the primary bilateral rTMS outcome was significantly increased compared to that for sham rTMS (RR=3.43, P=0.0004). The results of our analysis demonstrated that bilateral rTMS was significantly more effective than sham rTMS but not unilateral rTMS in patients with TRD. Thus, bilateral rTMS may not be a useful paradigm for patients with TRD. PMID:25590350

  7. The use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a tool for the measurement of bi-hemispheric transcranial electric stimulation effects on primary motor cortex metabolism.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Sara; Beaulé, Vincent; Proulx, Sébastien; Lafleur, Louis-Philippe; Doyon, Julien; Marja?ska, Ma?gorzata; Théoret, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulation technique that has been increasingly used over the past decade in the treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders such as stroke and depression. Yet, the mechanisms underlying its ability to modulate brain excitability to improve clinical symptoms remains poorly understood. To help improve this understanding, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) can be used as it allows the in vivo quantification of brain metabolites such as ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate in a region-specific manner. In fact, a recent study demonstrated that (1)H-MRS is indeed a powerful means to better understand the effects of tDCS on neurotransmitter concentration. This article aims to describe the complete protocol for combining tDCS (NeuroConn MR compatible stimulator) with (1)H-MRS at 3 T using a MEGA-PRESS sequence. We will describe the impact of a protocol that has shown great promise for the treatment of motor dysfunctions after stroke, which consists of bilateral stimulation of primary motor cortices. Methodological factors to consider and possible modifications to the protocol are also discussed. PMID:25490453

  8. Mechanism of functional recovery after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the subacute cerebral ischemic rat model: neural plasticity or anti-apoptosis?

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kyung Jae; Lee, Yong-Taek; Han, Tai Ryoon

    2011-10-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been studied increasingly in recent years to determine whether it has a therapeutic benefit on recovery after stroke. However, the underlying mechanisms of rTMS in stroke recovery remain unclear. Here, we evaluated the effect of rTMS on functional recovery and its underlying mechanism by assessing proteins associated with neural plasticity and anti-apoptosis in the peri-lesional area using a subacute cerebral ischemic rat model. Twenty cerebral ischemic rats were randomly assigned to the rTMS or the sham group at post-op day 4. A total of 3,500 impulses with 10 Hz frequency were applied to ipsilesional cortex over a 2-week period. Functional outcome was measured before (post-op day 4) and after rTMS (post-op day 18). The rTMS group showed more functional improvement on the beam balance test and had stronger Bcl-2 and weaker Bax expression on immunohistochemistry compared with the sham group. The expression of NMDA and MAP-2 showed no significant difference between the two groups. These results suggest that rTMS in subacute cerebral ischemia has a therapeutic effect on functional recovery and is associated with an anti-apoptotic mechanism in the peri-ischemic area rather than with neural plasticity. PMID:21904929

  9. Patients with a major depressive episode responding to treatment with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) are resistant to the effects of rapid tryptophan depletion.

    PubMed

    O'Reardon, John P; Cristancho, Pilar; Pilania, Pramod; Bapatla, Kiran B; Chuai, Shaokun; Peshek, Andrew D

    2007-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) appears to be efficacious in the treatment of major depression based on the results of controlled studies, but little is known about its antidepressant mechanism of action. Mood sensitivity following rapid tryptophan depletion (RTD) has been demonstrated in depressed patients responding to SSRI antidepressants and phototherapy, but not in responders to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). We sought to study the effects of RTD in patients with major depression responding to a course of treatment with rTMS. Twelve subjects treated successfully with rTMS monotherapy underwent both RTD and sham depletion in a double-blind crossover design. Depressive symptoms were assessed using both a modified Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The differential change in depression scores across the procedures was compared. No significant difference in mood symptoms was noted between RTD and the sham-depletion procedure on either continuous measures of depression, or in the proportions of subjects that met predefined criteria for a significant degree of mood worsening. Responders to rTMS are resistant to the mood perturbing effects of RTD. This suggests that rTMS does not depend on the central availability of serotonin to exert antidepressant effects in major depression. PMID:17131353

  10. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Ameliorates Anxiety-Like Behavior and Impaired Sensorimotor Gating in a Rat Model of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua-ning; Bai, Yuan-han; Chen, Yun-chun; Zhang, Rui-guo; Wang, Huai-hai; Zhang, Ya-hong; Gan, Jing-li; Peng, Zheng-wu; Tan, Qing-rong

    2015-01-01

    Background Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been employed for decades as a non-pharmacologic treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although a link has been suggested between PTSD and impaired sensorimotor gating (SG), studies assessing the effects of rTMS against PTSD or PTSD with impaired SG are scarce. Aim To assess the benefit of rTMS in a rat model of PTSD. Methods Using a modified single prolonged stress (SPS&S) rat model of PTSD, behavioral parameters were acquired using open field test (OFT), elevated plus maze test (EPMT), and prepulse inhibition trial (PPI), with or without 7 days of high frequency (10Hz) rTMS treatment of SPS&S rats. Results Anxiety-like behavior, impaired SG and increased plasma level of cortisol were observed in SPS&S animals after stress for a prolonged time. Interestingly, rTMS administered immediately after stress prevented those impairment. Conclusion Stress-induced anxiety-like behavior, increased plasma level of cortisol and impaired PPI occur after stress and high-frequency rTMS has the potential to ameliorate this behavior, suggesting that high frequency rTMS should be further evaluated for its use as a method for preventing PTSD. PMID:25659132

  11. Repeated mapping of cortical language sites by preoperative navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation compared to repeated intraoperative DCS mapping in awake craniotomy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was recently described for mapping of human language areas. However, its capability of detecting language plasticity in brain tumor patients was not proven up to now. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate such data in order to compare rTMS language mapping to language mapping during repeated awake surgery during follow-up in patients suffering from language-eloquent gliomas. Methods Three right-handed patients with left-sided gliomas (2 opercular glioblastomas, 1 astrocytoma WHO grade III of the angular gyrus) underwent preoperative language mapping by rTMS as well as intraoperative language mapping provided via direct cortical stimulation (DCS) for initial as well as for repeated Resection 7, 10, and 15 months later. Results Overall, preoperative rTMS was able to elicit clear language errors in all mappings. A good correlation between initial rTMS and DCS results was observed. As a consequence of brain plasticity, initial DCS and rTMS findings only corresponded with the results obtained during the second examination in one out of three patients thus suggesting changes of language organization in two of our three patients. Conclusions This report points out the usefulness but also the limitations of preoperative rTMS language mapping to detect plastic changes in language function or for long-term follow-up prior to DCS even in recurrent gliomas. However, DCS still has to be regarded as gold standard. PMID:24479694

  12. Functional Interaction between Right Parietal and Bilateral Frontal Cortices during Visual Search Tasks Revealed Using Functional Magnetic Imaging and Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, Amanda; Ball, Keira L.; Moseley, Peter; Dowsett, James; Smith, Daniel T.; Weis, Susanne; Lane, Alison R.

    2014-01-01

    The existence of a network of brain regions which are activated when one undertakes a difficult visual search task is well established. Two primary nodes on this network are right posterior parietal cortex (rPPC) and right frontal eye fields. Both have been shown to be involved in the orientation of attention, but the contingency that the activity of one of these areas has on the other is less clear. We sought to investigate this question by using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to selectively decrease activity in rPPC and then asking participants to perform a visual search task whilst undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Comparison with a condition in which sham tDCS was applied revealed that cathodal tDCS over rPPC causes a selective bilateral decrease in frontal activity when performing a visual search task. This result demonstrates for the first time that premotor regions within the frontal lobe and rPPC are not only necessary to carry out a visual search task, but that they work together to bring about normal function. PMID:24705681

  13. Effect of low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on kindling-induced changes in electrophysiological properties of rat CA1 pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Moradi Chameh, Homeira; Janahmadi, Mahyar; Semnanian, Saeed; Shojaei, Amir; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on the kindling induced changes in electrophysiological firing properties of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was investigated. Male Wistar rats were kindled by daily electrical stimulation of the basolateral amygdala in a semi-rapid manner (12 stimulations/day) until they achieved stage-5 seizure. One group (kindled+rTMS (KrTMS)) of animals received rTMS (240 pulses at 1Hz) at 5min after termination of daily kindling stimulations. Twenty-four hours following the last kindling stimulation electrophysiological properties of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons were investigated using a whole-cell patch clamp technique, under current clamp condition. Amygdala kindling significantly decreased the adaptation index, post-afterhyperpolarization, rheobase current, utilization time, and delay to the first rebound spike. It also caused an increase in the voltage sag, number of rebound spikes and number of evoked action potential. Results of the present study revealed that application of rTMS following kindling stimulations had antiepileptogenic effects. In addition, application of rTMS prevented hyperexcitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons induced by kindling and conserved the normal neuronal firing. PMID:25721786

  14. Benefits of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) for Spastic Subjects: Clinical, Functional, and Biomechanical Parameters for Lower Limb and Walking in Five Hemiparetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Raphael; Leboeuf, Fabien; Desal, Hubert; Hamel, Olivier; Nguyen, Jean Paul; Pérot, Chantal; Buffenoir, Kévin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Spasticity is a disabling symptom resulting from reorganization of spinal reflexes no longer inhibited by supraspinal control. Several studies have demonstrated interest in repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in spastic patients. We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind crossover study on five spastic hemiparetic patients to determine whether this type of stimulation of the premotor cortex can provide a clinical benefit. Material and Methods. Two stimulation frequencies (1?Hz and 10?Hz) were tested versus placebo. Patients were assessed clinically, by quantitative analysis of walking and measurement of neuromechanical parameters (H and T reflexes, musculoarticular stiffness of the ankle). Results. No change was observed after placebo and 10?Hz protocols. Clinical parameters were not significantly modified after 1?Hz stimulation, apart from a tendency towards improved recruitment of antagonist muscles on the Fügl-Meyer scale. Only cadence and recurvatum were significantly modified on quantitative analysis of walking. Neuromechanical parameters were modified with significant decreases in Hmax? /Mmax? and T/Mmax? ratios and stiffness indices 9 days or 31 days after initiation of TMS. Conclusion. This preliminary study supports the efficacy of low-frequency TMS to reduce reflex excitability and stiffness of ankle plantar flexors, while clinical signs of spasticity were not significantly modified. PMID:24883390

  15. Comparing the Effects of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Electroconvulsive Therapy in the Treatment of Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the longest standing psychiatric treatment available and has unequivocal benefit in severe depression. However this treatment comes with a number of side effects such as memory impairment. On the other hand, Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) is a relatively new form of treatment which has been shown to be efficacious in patients suffering from a number of psychopathologies, including severe depression, with few reported side effects. Due to its potential therapeutic efficacy and lack of side effects, rTMS has gained traction in the treatment of depression, with a number of authors keen to see it take over from ECT. However, it is not clear whether rTMS represents a therapeutic alternative to ECT. This meta-analysis will therefore compare the “gold standard” treatment for severe depression, with the relatively new but promising rTMS. A literature search will be performed with the intention to include all randomised clinical trials. The null hypothesis is that there is no difference in the antidepressant efficacy between the two types of treatment modalities. Statistical analysis of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) scores will be performed. PMID:25143831

  16. Changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis following successful treatment with low-frequency right prefrontal transcranial magnetic stimulation in treatment-resistant depression.

    PubMed

    Kito, Shinsuke; Hasegawa, Takashi; Fujita, Kenichi; Koga, Yoshihiko

    2010-01-30

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis abnormalities have been reported in some patients with major depression. To knowledge, however, the effects of low-frequency right prefrontal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on the HPT axis have not yet been elucidated. The goal of this study was to evaluate alterations in the HPT axis associated with the therapeutic efficacy of TMS treatments. Twenty patients with treatment-resistant depression received five 60-s 1-Hz trains over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Twelve treatment sessions were administered within a 3-week period (total pulses, 3600). Responders were defined as a > or =50% decrease in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) score. Serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (fT3), and free thyroxine (fT4) were measured, respectively, at pre- and post-treatment. There were no significant changes in fT3 and fT4 levels measured at either pre- or post-treatment in either responders or nonresponders; however, TSH levels of responders elevated significantly after TMS treatments. In addition, there was a significant negative correlation between TSH levels at pretreatment and decrease (%) in the HDRS score. These findings suggest that the HPT axis is associated with antidepressant effects of low-frequency right prefrontal TMS, and indicate that lower TSH levels at pre-treatment are correlated with better therapeutic efficacy. PMID:20004482

  17. The role of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in the Tower of London task performance: repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation study in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Srovnalova, H; Marecek, R; Kubikova, R; Rektorova, I

    2012-11-01

    We studied whether one session of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied over either the right or left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex would induce any measurable changes in the Tower of London spatial planning task performance in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Ten patients with PD (with no dementia and/or depression) entered the randomized, sham-stimulation-controlled study with a crossover design. Active and placebo rTMS were applied over either the left or the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (in four separate sessions) in each patient. The order of sessions was randomized. The Tower of London task was performed prior to and immediately after each appropriate session. The "total problem-solving time" was our outcome measure. Only active rTMS of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex induced significant enhancement of the total problem-solving time, p = 0.038. Stimulation of the left prefrontal cortex or sham stimulations induced no significant effects. Only rTMS applied over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex induced positive changes in the spatial planning task performance in PD, which further supports the results of functional imaging studies indicating the causal engagement of the right-sided hemispheric structures in solving the task in this patient population. PMID:22975864

  18. Naming facilitation induced by transcranial direct current stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Fertonani; Sandra Rosini; Maria Cotelli; Paolo Maria Rossini; Carlo Miniussi

    2010-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is able to generate a long-term increase or decrease in the neuronal excitability that can modulate cognitive tasks, similar to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of tDCS on a language task in young healthy subjects. Anodal, cathodal and sham tDCS were applied to the left dorsolateral

  19. Whole-Body Water Flow Stimulation to the Lower Limbs Modulates Excitability of Primary Motor Cortical Regions Innervating the Hands: A Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Daisuke; Yamashiro, Koya; Onishi, Hideaki; Baba, Yasuhiro; Nakazawa, Sho; Shimoyama, Yoshimitsu; Maruyama, Atsuo

    2014-01-01

    Whole-body water immersion (WI) has been reported to change sensorimotor integration. However, primary motor cortical excitability is not affected by low-intensity afferent input. Here we explored the effects of whole-body WI and water flow stimulation (WF) on corticospinal excitability and intracortical circuits. Eight healthy subjects participated in this study. We measured the amplitude of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) produced by single transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulses and examined conditioned MEP amplitudes by paired-pulse TMS. We evaluated short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) using the paired-TMS technique before and after 15-min intervention periods. Two interventions used were whole-body WI with water flow to the lower limbs (whole-body WF) and whole-body WI without water flow to the lower limbs (whole-body WI). The experimental sequence included a baseline TMS assessment (T0), intervention for 15 min, a second TMS assessment immediately after intervention (T1), a 10 min resting period, a third TMS assessment (T2), a 10 min resting period, a fourth TMS assessment (T3), a 10 min resting period, and the final TMS assessment (T4). SICI and ICF were evaluated using a conditioning stimulus of 90% active motor threshold and a test stimulus adjusted to produce MEPs of approximately 1–1.2 mV, and were tested at intrastimulus intervals of 3 and 10 ms, respectively. Whole-body WF significantly increased MEP amplitude by single-pulse TMS and led to a decrease in SICI in the contralateral motor cortex at T1, T2 and T3. Whole-body WF also induced increased corticospinal excitability and decreased SICI. In contrast, whole-body WI did not change corticospinal excitability or intracortical circuits. PMID:25025129

  20. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation promotes neural stem cell proliferation via the regulation of MiR-25 in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Guo, Feng; Han, Xiaohua; Zhang, Jinghui; Zhao, Xiuxiu; Lou, Jicheng; Chen, Hong; Huang, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has increasingly been studied over the past decade to determine whether it has a therapeutic benefit on focal cerebral ischemia. However, the underlying mechanism of rTMS in this process remains unclear. In the current study, we investigated the effects of rTMS on the proliferation of adult neural stem cells (NSCs) and explored microRNAs (miRNAs) that were affected by rTMS. Our data showed that 10 Hz rTMS significantly increased the proliferation of adult NSCs after focal cerebral ischemia in the subventricular zone (SVZ), and the expression of miR-25 was obviously up-regulated in the ischemic cortex after rTMS. p57, an identified miR-25 target gene that regulates factors linked to NSC proliferation, was also evaluated, and it exhibited down-regulation. To further verify the role of miR-25, rats were injected with a single dose of antagomir-25 and were subjected to focal cerebral ischemia followed by rTMS treatment. The results confirmed that miR-25 could be repressed specifically and could drive the up-regulation of its target gene (p57), which resulted in the inhibition of adult NSC proliferation in the SVZ after rTMS. Thus, our studies strongly indicated that 10 Hz rTMS can promote the proliferation of adult NSCs in the SVZ after focal cerebral ischemia by regulating the miR-25/p57 pathway. PMID:25302788

  1. Short and Long Term Effects of Left and Bilateral Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Schizophrenia Patients with Auditory Verbal Hallucinations: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bais, Leonie; Vercammen, Ans; Stewart, Roy; van Es, Frank; Visser, Bert; Aleman, André; Knegtering, Henderikus

    2014-01-01

    Background Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the left temporo-parietal junction area has been studied as a treatment option for auditory verbal hallucinations. Although the right temporo-parietal junction area has also shown involvement in the genesis of auditory verbal hallucinations, no studies have used bilateral stimulation. Moreover, little is known about durability effects. We studied the short and long term effects of 1 Hz treatment of the left temporo-parietal junction area in schizophrenia patients with persistent auditory verbal hallucinations, compared to sham stimulation, and added an extra treatment arm of bilateral TPJ area stimulation. Methods In this randomized controlled trial, 51 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and persistent auditory verbal hallucinations were randomly allocated to treatment of the left or bilateral temporo-parietal junction area or sham treatment. Patients were treated for six days, twice daily for 20 minutes. Short term efficacy was measured with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Auditory Hallucinations Rating Scale (AHRS), and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS). We included follow-up measures with the AHRS and PANAS at four weeks and three months. Results The interaction between time and treatment for Hallucination item P3 of the PANSS showed a trend for significance, caused by a small reduction of scores in the left group. Although self-reported hallucination scores, as measured with the AHRS and PANAS, decreased significantly during the trial period, there were no differences between the three treatment groups. Conclusion We did not find convincing evidence for the efficacy of left-sided rTMS, compared to sham rTMS. Moreover, bilateral rTMS was not superior over left rTMS or sham in improving AVH. Optimizing treatment parameters may result in stronger evidence for the efficacy of rTMS treatment of AVH. Moreover, future research should consider investigating factors predicting individual response. Trial Registration Dutch Trial Register NTR1813 PMID:25329799

  2. Preconditioning repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of premotor cortex can reduce but not enhance short-term facilitation of primary motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Suppa, A; Bologna, M; Gilio, F; Lorenzano, C; Rothwell, J C; Berardelli, A

    2008-02-01

    Short trains of suprathreshold 5-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over primary motor cortex (M1) evoke motor potentials (MEPs) in hand muscles that progressively increase in amplitude via a mechanism that is thought to be similar to short-term potentiation described in animal preparations. Long trains of subthreshold rTMS over dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) are known to affect the amplitude of single-pulse MEPs evoked from M1. We tested whether PMd-rTMS affects short-term facilitation in M1. We also explored the effect of PMd-rTMS on M1 responses evoked by single-pulse TMS of different polarities. We tested in 15 healthy subjects short-term facilitation in left M1 (10 suprathreshold TMS pulses at 5 Hz) after applying rTMS to left PMd (1,500 subthreshold pulses at 1 and 5 Hz). In a sample of subjects we delivered single-pulse TMS with different polarities and paired-pulse TMS at short intervals (SICI) after PMd-rTMS. Short-term facilitation in M1 was reduced after applying 1 Hz to PMd, but was unaffected after 5-Hz PMd-rTMS. PMd-rTMS with 1 Hz reduced the amplitude of MEPs evoked by monophasic posteroanterior (PA) or biphasic anteroposterior (AP)-PA but had little effect on MEPs by monophasic AP or biphasic PA-AP single-pulse TMS. PMd-rTMS left SICI unchanged. PMd-rTMS (1 Hz) reduces short-term facilitation in M1 induced by short 5-Hz trains. This effect is likely to be caused by reduced facilitation of I-wave inputs to corticospinal neurons. PMID:18057113

  3. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Promotes Neural Stem Cell Proliferation via the Regulation of MiR-25 in a Rat Model of Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinghui; Zhao, Xiuxiu; Lou, Jicheng; Chen, Hong; Huang, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has increasingly been studied over the past decade to determine whether it has a therapeutic benefit on focal cerebral ischemia. However, the underlying mechanism of rTMS in this process remains unclear. In the current study, we investigated the effects of rTMS on the proliferation of adult neural stem cells (NSCs) and explored microRNAs (miRNAs) that were affected by rTMS. Our data showed that 10 Hz rTMS significantly increased the proliferation of adult NSCs after focal cerebral ischemia in the subventricular zone (SVZ), and the expression of miR-25 was obviously up-regulated in the ischemic cortex after rTMS. p57, an identified miR-25 target gene that regulates factors linked to NSC proliferation, was also evaluated, and it exhibited down-regulation. To further verify the role of miR-25, rats were injected with a single dose of antagomir-25 and were subjected to focal cerebral ischemia followed by rTMS treatment. The results confirmed that miR-25 could be repressed specifically and could drive the up-regulation of its target gene (p57), which resulted in the inhibition of adult NSC proliferation in the SVZ after rTMS. Thus, our studies strongly indicated that 10 Hz rTMS can promote the proliferation of adult NSCs in the SVZ after focal cerebral ischemia by regulating the miR-25/p57 pathway. PMID:25302788

  4. Moderate therapeutic efficacy of positron emission tomography?navigated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for chronic tinnitus: a randomised, controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Plewnia, C; Reimold, M; Najib, A; Reischl, G; Plontke, S K; Gerloff, C

    2007-01-01

    Background Tinnitus has been shown to respond to modulations of cortical activity by high?frequency and low?frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Objective To determine the tinnitus?attenuating effects of a 2?week daily regimen of rTMS, navigated to the maximum of tinnitus?related increase in regional cerebral blood flow. Methods Six patients with chronic tinnitus were enrolled in this sham?controlled crossover study and treated with 2×2?weeks of suprathreshold 1?Hz rTMS (30?min) applied to the region with maximal tinnitus?related increase in regional cerebral blood flow delineated by functional imaging with [15O]H2O positron emission tomography and a control area. Tinnitus?related distress was assessed before and after each treatment and 2?weeks after the end of the 4?week course of stimulation using a validated tinnitus questionnaire. Additional self?assessment scores of tinnitus change, loudness and annoyance were obtained. Results In five of six patients, rTMS induced greater reduction of the tinnitus questionnaire score than sham stimulation. In two patients, all parameters measured (tinnitus change score, tinnitus loudness, tinnitus annoyance) showed unequivocal improvement. At the group level, the degree of response in the tinnitus questionnaire score was correlated with tinnitus?associated activation of the anterior cingulate cortex. Two weeks after the final stimulation, tinnitus had returned to baseline in all patients but one. Conclusion Tinnitus can be attenuated by low?frequency rTMS navigated to each person's maximum tinnitus?related cortical hyperactivity. The effects are only moderate; interindividual responsiveness varies and the attenuation seems to wear off within 2?weeks after the last stimulation session. Notably, tinnitus?related anterior cingulate cortex activation seems to predict the response to rTMS treatment. PMID:16891384

  5. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation improves open field locomotor recovery after low but not high thoracic spinal cord compression-injury in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Poirrier, Anne-Lise; Nyssen, Yves; Scholtes, Felix; Multon, Sylvie; Rinkin, Charline; Weber, Géraldine; Bouhy, Delphine; Brook, Gary; Franzen, Rachelle; Schoenen, Jean

    2004-01-15

    Electromagnetic fields are able to promote axonal regeneration in vitro and in vivo. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is used routinely in neuropsychiatric conditions and as an atraumatic method to activate descending motor pathways. After spinal cord injury, these pathways are disconnected from the spinal locomotor generator, resulting in most of the functional deficit. We have applied daily 10 Hz rTMS for 8 weeks immediately after an incomplete high (T4-5; n = 5) or low (T10-11; n = 6) thoracic closed spinal cord compression-injury in adult rats, using 6 high- and 6 low-lesioned non-stimulated animals as controls. Functional recovery of hindlimbs was assessed using the BBB locomotor rating scale. In the control group, the BBB score was significantly better from the 7th week post-injury in animals lesioned at T4-5 compared to those lesioned at T10-11. rTMS significantly improved locomotor recovery in T10-11-injured rats, but not in rats with a high thoracic injury. In rTMS-treated rats, there was significant positive correlation between final BBB score and grey matter density of serotonergic fibres in the spinal segment just caudal to the lesion. We propose that low thoracic lesions produce a greater functional deficit because they interfere with the locomotor centre and that rTMS is beneficial in such lesions because it activates this central pattern generator, presumably via descending serotonin pathways. The benefits of rTMS shown here suggest strongly that this non-invasive intervention strategy merits consideration for clinical trials in human paraplegics with low spinal cord lesions. PMID:14705146

  6. Whole-hand water flow stimulation increases motor cortical excitability: a study of transcranial magnetic stimulation and movement-related cortical potentials.

    PubMed

    Sato, Daisuke; Yamashiro, Koya; Onishi, Hideaki; Yasuhiro, Baba; Shimoyama, Yoshimitsu; Maruyama, Atsuo

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies examining the influence of afferent stimulation on corticospinal excitability have demonstrated that the intensity of afferent stimulation and the nature of the afferents targeted (cutaneous/proprioceptive) determine the effects. In this study, we assessed the effects of whole-hand water immersion (WI) and water flow stimulation (WF) on corticospinal excitability and intracortical circuits by measuring motor evoked potential (MEP) recruitment curves and conditioned MEP amplitudes. We further investigated whether whole-hand WF modulated movement-related cortical activity. Ten healthy subjects participated in three experiments, comprising the immersion of participants' right hands with (whole-hand WF) or without (whole-hand WI) water flow, and no immersion (control). We evaluated MEP recruitment curves produced by a single transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulse at increasing stimulus intensities, short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), and intracortical facilitation (ICF) using the paired TMS technique before and after 15 min of intervention. Movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs) were evaluated to examine primary motor cortex, supplementary motor area, and somatosensory cortex excitability upon movement before and after whole-hand WF. After whole-hand WF, the slope of the MEP recruitment curve significantly increased, whereas SICI decreased and ICF increased in the contralateral motor cortex. The amplitude of the Bereitschaftspotential, negative slope, and motor potential of MRCPs significantly increased after whole-hand WF. We demonstrated that whole-hand WF increased corticospinal excitability, decreased SICI, and increased ICF, although whole-hand WI did not change corticospinal excitability and intracortical circuits. Whole-hand WF modulated movement-related cortical activity, increasing motor cortex activation for the planning and execution of voluntary movements. PMID:25376780

  7. Regional cerebral blood flow changes after low-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in treatment-resistant depression.

    PubMed

    Kito, Shinsuke; Fujita, Kenichi; Koga, Yoshihiko

    2008-01-01

    Several studies have proved that low-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) showed an antidepressant effect, although its mechanism is still not completely elucidated. The aim of the present study was to clarify the alteration in neuroanatomical function elicited by low-frequency TMS of the right DLPFC in treatment-resistant depression and to detect the difference between responders and nonresponders to TMS. Single-photon emission computed tomography with (99m)Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer was performed in 14 right-handed male patients with treatment-resistant unipolar depression before and after low-frequency TMS of the right DLPFC. Five 60-second 1-Hz trains were applied and 12 treatment sessions were administered within a 3-week period (total pulses, 3,600). The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression was administered and the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was analyzed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM2). After TMS treatment in 14 patients, the score on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression decreased significantly, and considerable decreases in rCBF were seen in the bilateral prefrontal, orbitofrontal, anterior insula, right subgenual cingulate, and left parietal cortex, but no significant increase in rCBF occurred. Additionally, as compared with 8 nonresponders, 6 responders showed significant increases in rCBF at baseline in the left hemisphere including the prefrontal and limbic-paralimbic regions. These results suggest that the antidepressant effect of low-frequency TMS of the right DLPFC is associated with a decrease in rCBF in the limbic-paralimbic regions via the ipsilateral subgenual cingulate, and increased rCBF at baseline in the left hemisphere may be involved in the response to low-frequency TMS treatment. PMID:18781088

  8. Safety and tolerability of theta burst stimulation vs. single and paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation: a comparative study of 165 pediatric subjects

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yaejee H.; Wu, Steve W.; Pedapati, Ernest V.; Horn, Paul S.; Huddleston, David A.; Laue, Cameron S.; Gilbert, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although single- and paired-pulse (sp/pp) transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies are considered minimal risk in adults and children, the safety profile for theta-burst TMS (TBS) is unknown. Objective: In this comparative analysis, we explored the rate, severity, and specific symptoms of TMS-related adverse effects (AEs) between sp/ppTMS and TBS in subjects between ages 6 and 18 years. Method: Data from 165 participants from 2009 to 2014 were analyzed. Assessment of AEs was performed based on baseline and post-TMS administration of a symptom-based questionnaire that rated AEs on a 5-level ordinal scale (minimal, mild, moderate, marked, severe). AE rates and severity were compared using Chi Square or Fisher’s Exact Test depending on data characteristics. Result: Overall, no seizures or severe-rated AEs were reported by 165 pediatric participants. The rate of AE in all TBS sessions was 10.5% (n = 76, 95% CI: 4.7–19.7%), whereas the rate of AE in all sp/ppTMS sessions was 12.4% (n = 89, 95% CI: 6.3–21.0%). There was no statistical difference in AE rates between TBS and sp/ppTMS (p = 0.71). In all sp/ppTMS and TBS sessions, 20 subjects reported a total of 35 AEs, among these 31 (~88.6%) were rated as “minimal” or “mild”. There was no difference in the severity of AE between TBS and sp/ppTMS (p = 1.0). Only one of 76 TBS participants reported an AE rated as more than minimal/mild. Conclusion: Our comparative analysis showed that TBS appears to be as safe as sp/ppTMS in terms of AE rate and severity. This report supports further investigation of TBS in children. PMID:25698958

  9. Hand position-dependent modulation of errors in vibrotactile temporal order judgments: the effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation to the human posterior parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Hermosillo, Robert; Kroliczak, Gregory; van Donkelaar, Paul

    2014-06-01

    The ability to decide which of the two stimuli is presented first can be probed using a temporal order judgment (TOJ) task. When the stimuli are delivered to the fingers, TOJ decisions can be confounded by the fact that the hands can be moved to different locations in space. How and where this confounded information is processed in the brain is poorly understood. In the present set of experiments, we addressed this knowledge gap by using single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to disrupt processing in the right or left posterior parietal cortex (PPC) during a vibrotactile TOJ task with stimuli applied to the right and left index fingers. In the first experiment, participants held their hands in an uncrossed configuration, and we found that when the index finger contralateral to the site of TMS was stimulated first, there was a significant increase in TOJ errors. This increase did not occur when stimuli were delivered to the ipsilateral finger first. In the second experiment, participants held their hands in a crossed configuration and the pattern of errors was reversed relative to the first experiment. In both the first two experiments, significant increases in TOJ error were present with TMS over either hemisphere, regardless of arm configuration; however, they were larger overall following TMS over the right PPC. Control experiments using sham TMS indicated the systematic modulation in error was not due to nonspecific effects of the stimulation. Additionally, we showed that these TMS-induced changes in TOJ errors were not due to a reduced ability to detect the timing of the vibrotactile stimuli. Taken together, these results demonstrate that both the right and left PPC contribute to the processing underlying vibrotactile TOJs by integrating vibrotactile information and proprioceptive information related to arm position in space. PMID:24562409

  10. Small-animal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with [¹?F]-FDG microPET to quantify the neuromodulation effect in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Parthoens, J; Verhaeghe, J; Wyckhuys, T; Stroobants, S; Staelens, S

    2014-09-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive neurostimulation technique for the treatment of various neurological and psychiatric disorders. To investigate the working mechanism of this treatment approach, we designed a small-animal coil for dedicated use in rats and we combined this neurostimulation method with small-animal positron emission tomography (microPET or ?PET) to quantify regional 2-deoxy-2-((18)F)fluoro-d-glucose ([(18)F]-FDG) uptake in the rat brain, elicited by a low- (1 Hz) and a high- (50 Hz) frequency paradigm. Rats (n=6) were injected with 1 mCi of [(18)F]-FDG 10 min after the start of 30 min of stimulation (1 Hz, 50 Hz or sham), followed by a 20-min ?PET image acquisition. Voxel-based statistical parametric mapping (SPM) image analysis of 1-Hz and 50-Hz versus sham stimulation was performed. For both the 1-Hz and 50-Hz paradigms we found a large [(18)F]-FDG hypermetabolic cluster (2.208 mm(3) and 2.616 mm(3), resp.) (analysis of variance (ANOVA), p<0.05) located in the dentate gyrus complemented with an additional [(18)F]-FDG hypermetabolic cluster (ANOVA, p<0.05) located in the entorhinal cortex (2.216 mm(3)) for the 50-Hz stimulation. The effect on [(18)F]-FDG metabolism was 2.9 ± 0.8% at 1 Hz and 2.5 ± 0.8% at 50 Hz for the dentate gyrus clusters and 3.3 ± 0.5% for the additional cluster in the entorhinal cortex at 50 Hz. The maximal (4.19 vs. 2.58) and averaged (2.87 vs. 2.21) T-values are higher for 50 Hz versus 1 Hz. This experimental study demonstrates the feasibility to combine ?PET imaging in rats stimulated with rTMS using a custom-made small-animal magnetic stimulation setup to quantify changes in the cerebral [(18)F]-FDG uptake as a measure for neuronal activity. PMID:24979056

  11. Deep-tow study of magnetic anomalies in the Pacific Jurassic Quiet Zone

    E-print Network

    Tominaga, Masako

    2006-10-30

    The Jurassic Quiet Zone (JQZ) is a region of low amplitude, difficult-to-correlate magnetic anomalies located over Jurassic oceanic crust. We collected 1200 km of new deep-tow magnetic anomaly profiles over the Pacific JQZ that complement 2 deep...

  12. Low Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Improve Motor Function and Grip Force of Upper Limbs of Patients With Hemiplegia

    PubMed Central

    Motamed Vaziri, Poopak; Bahrpeyma, Farid; Firoozabadi, Mohammad; Forough, Bijan; Hatef, Boshra; Sheikhhoseini, Rahman; Shamili, Aryan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Stroke is the most common and debilitating neurological disorder among adults, and is a sudden onset of neurological signs caused by brain blood vessels impairments. Objectives: Some new therapeutic methods focus on the use of magnetic stimulation to produce therapeutic effects by inducing the currents. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of rTMS plus routine rehabilitation on hand grip and wrist motor functions in patients with hemiplegia, and compare with pure routine rehabilitation programs. Patients and Methods: In this study, 12 patients with hemiplegia were randomly divided in two groups. Control group, received the rehabilitation program with placebo magnetic stimulation, and the experimental group, received magnetic stimulation with routine rehabilitation program for 10 sessions for three times per week. Pre and post evaluations of treatment performed using Barthel and Fugl-Meyer indices and dynamometers. Results: In the control group, Barthel and Fugl-Meyer indices showed significant improvement (P = 0.01, P = 0.00), while in the experimental group, significant improvement in Barthel and Fugl-Meyer indices and dynamometers has been observed (P = 0.01, P = 0.00, P = 0.007). Conclusions: rTMS can improve hand muscle force and functions of patients with chronic hemiplegia, while conventional treatment is not effective. PMID:25389476

  13. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation coupled with repetitive electrical stimulation on cortical spreading depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felipe Fregni; David Liebetanz; Katia K. Monte-Silva; Manuella B. Oliveira; Angela A. Santos; Michael A. Nitsche; Alvaro Pascual-Leone; Rubem C. A. Guedes

    2007-01-01

    We have recently shown that two techniques of brain stimulation – repetitive electrical stimulation (ES) (that mimics transcranial magnetic stimulation) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) – modify the velocity of cortical spreading depression (CSD) significantly. Herein we aimed to study the effects of these two techniques combined on CSD. Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into four groups according to

  14. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on working memory in patients with Parkinson's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulo S. Boggio; Roberta Ferrucci; Sergio P. Rigonatti; Priscila Covre; Michael Nitsche; Alvaro Pascual-Leone; Felipe Fregni

    2006-01-01

    ObjectivesCognitive impairment is a common feature in Parkinson's disease (PD) and is an important predictor of quality of life. Past studies showed that some aspects of cognition, such as working memory, can be enhanced following dopaminergic therapy and transcranial magnetic stimulation. The aim of our study was to investigate whether another form of noninvasive brain stimulation, anodal transcranial direct current

  15. Cathodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of the Right Wernicke's Area Improves Comprehension in Subacute Stroke Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Dae Sang; Kim, Dae-Yul; Chun, Min Ho; Jung, Seung Eun; Park, Sung Jong

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown the appearance of right-sided language-related brain activity in right-handed patients after a stroke. Non-invasive brain stimulation such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have been shown to modulate excitability in the brain. Moreover, rTMS and…

  16. Comparison of effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation on primary motor cortex and supplementary motor area in motor skill learning (randomized, cross over study)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong Kyun; Shin, Sung Hun

    2014-01-01

    Motor skills require quick visuomotor reaction time, fast movement time, and accurate performance. Primary motor cortex (M1) and supplementary motor area (SMA) are closely related in learning motor skills. Also, it is well known that high frequency repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on these sites has a facilitating effect. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high frequency rTMS activation of these two brain sites on learning of motor skills. Twenty three normal volunteers participated. Subjects were randomly stimulated on either brain area, SMA or M1. The motor task required the learning of sequential finger movements, explicitly or implicitly. It consisted of pressing the keyboard sequentially with their right hand on seeing 7 digits on the monitor explicitly, and then tapping the 7 digits by memorization, implicitly. Subjects were instructed to hit the keyboard as fast and accurately as possible. Using Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI), the keyboard pressing task was measured before and after high frequency rTMS for motor performance, which was measured by response time (RT), movement time, and accuracy (AC). A week later, the same task was repeated by cross-over study design. At this time, rTMS was applied on the other brain area. Two-way ANOVA was used to assess the carry over time effect and stimulation sites (M1 and SMA), as factors. Results indicated that no carry-over effect was observed. The AC and RT were not different between the two stimulating sites (M1 and SMA). But movement time was significantly decreased after rTMS on both SMA and M1. The amount of shortened movement time after rTMS on SMA was significantly increased as compared to the movement time after rTMS on M1 (p < 0.05), especially for implicit learning of motor tasks. The coefficient of variation was lower in implicit trial than in explicit trial. In conclusion, this finding indicated an important role of SMA compared to M1, in implicit motor learning. PMID:25477809

  17. The restoration after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation treatment on cognitive ability of vascular dementia rats and its impacts on synaptic plasticity in hippocampal CA1 area.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Geng, Xin; Tao, Hua-Ying; Cheng, Yan

    2010-05-01

    The purposes of this research were to study the restoration on the cognitive ability of rat models with vascular dementia (VaD) by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment and its impacts on synaptic plasticity in hippocampal CA1 area and to further explore the molecular mechanisms of the rTMS treatment on vascular dementia. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: the normal control group, the vascular dementia model group, the low-frequency rTMS group, and the high-frequency rTMS group. Two-vessel occlusion was employed to make VaD models. Low-frequency rTMS group rats were treated with 0.5 Hz rTMS for 6 weeks. High-frequency rTMS group rats underwent 5 Hz rTMS for 6 weeks. Morris water maze was carried out to detect the ability of spatial learning and memory of rats. The ultra-structural changes of synapses in four groups were observed by transmission electron microscope. Then the expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), NMDAR1, and Synaptophysin (SYN) mRNA and proteins in hippocampal CA1 area were determined by real-time PCR, western blot, and immunohistochemistry assay. After rTMS treatment, the learning and memory abilities of VaD rats improved significantly. The ultra-structures of synapses in hippocampal CA1 area in rTMS groups were reformed. The mRNA and protein expressions of BDNF, NMDAR1, and SYN in the low-frequency rTMS group and in the high-frequency rTMS group were higher than that in VaD model group (P < 0.05). rTMS plays an important and beneficial role in the restoration treatment of vascular dementia, which may be related to the mechanism that rTMS can increase the mRNA and protein expressions of BDNF, NMDAR1, and SYN and affect the synaptic plasticity in hippocampal CA1 area. PMID:19953343

  18. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation as an augmentative strategy for treatment-resistant depression, a meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind and sham-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bangshan; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Li; Li, Lingjiang

    2014-11-30

    BackgroundDozens of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses have demonstrated the efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for major depressive disorder (MDD) treatment, but there has not been a meta-analysis report which evaluates the efficacy and tolerability of rTMS used as an augmentative strategy for antidepressants in treatment-resistant depression (TRD) treatment. We thus conducted this meta-analysis, aimed at clarifying whether rTMS enhances the efficacy of TRD.MethodsWe searched MEDLINE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for RCTs for studying the efficacy of rTMS versus (vs) sham condition when combined with antidepressants in TRD treatment, and screened the references of the previous meta-analysis about the rTMS for MDD treatment. Response rates and NNT were chose as the primary outcomes, and remission rates, change from baseline of HAMD scores, dropouts were used as secondary outcomes. For dichotomous data, an intention-to-treat analysis principle was applied; for continuous data, we calculated the standard mean difference between groups with a random-effect model. Sensitivity analysis was done to explore the source of heterogeneity and the factors which potentially impact the efficacy.ResultsSeven RCTs were finally included in the meta-analysis. The total sample size was 279, with 171 in the rTMS group and 108 in the sham group. The pooled response and remission rate for the rTMS and sham group was 46.6% and 22.1%, respectively; the pooled odds ratio (OR) was 5.12 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.11-12.45, z¿=¿3.60, p¿=¿0.0003, and the associated number needed to treat (NNT) was 3.4. rTMS group achieved a significant reduction of HAMD score than the sham group, the pooled SMD of change from baseline was 0.86 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57-1.15, z¿=¿5.75, p¿<¿0.00001]. Because of the small number of included RCTs, the preplanned sensitivity and subgroup analyses were finally abandoned. The dropouts in both groups were relatively low, indicating the high acceptability of rTMS.ConclusionsFor TRD patients, augmentative rTMS after the failure of medications significantly increases the effect of antidepressants, and rTMS was a safe strategy with relatively low adverse events and low dropout rate, suggesting that augmentative rTMS is an effective intervention for TRD. PMID:25433539

  19. Improvement of health-related quality of life in depression after transcranial magnetic stimulation in a naturalistic trial is associated with decreased perfusion in precuneus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Assessing Health-related Quality of life (HRQoL) is necessary to evaluate care and treatments provided to patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), in addition to the traditional assessment of clinical outcomes. However, HRQoL remains under-utilized to assess the effectiveness of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in research or in a routine clinical setting. The primary objective of this exploratory study on MDD was to investigate the impact of low-frequency rTMS on HRQoL using the SF-36 questionnaire. A secondary objective was to study the functional neural substrate underlying HRQoL changes using neuroimaging. Methods Fifteen right-handed patients who met DSM-IV criteria for MDD participated in the study. HRQoL was assessed using the SF-36, and regional cerebral blood (rCBF) flow using 99mTc-ECD-SPECT. Voxel based correlation was searched between concomitant changes in rCBF and in HRQoL after rTMS. Results Role-Physical Problems dimension showed a statistical significant improvement of 73.2% (p?=?0.001) and an effect size (Cohen’s d) of 0.43, indicating moderate effect. Five SF-36 dimension scores and the two composite scores showed effect sizes ranged from 0.28 to 0.43. Improvement of Mental Composite Score (MCS)-SF-36 after rTMS was correlated with a concomitant decrease of precuneus perfusion (p?

  20. Noninvasive Transcranial Brain Stimulation and Pain

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Allyson C.; Ramkumar, Mukund; Nguyen, Tam; Hoeft, Fumiko

    2009-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are two noninvasive brain stimulation techniques that can modulate activity in specific regions of the cortex. At this point, their use in brain stimulation is primarily investigational; however, there is clear evidence that these tools can reduce pain and modify neurophysiologic correlates of the pain experience. TMS has also been used to predict response to surgically implanted stimulation for the treatment of chronic pain. Furthermore, TMS and tDCS can be applied with other techniques, such as event-related potentials and pharmacologic manipulation, to illuminate the underlying physiologic mechanisms of normal and pathological pain. This review presents a description and overview of the uses of two major brain stimulation techniques and a listing of useful references for further study. PMID:19126365

  1. Transcranial focused ultrasound as a possible treatment for major depression.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shih-Jen

    2015-04-01

    Antidepressants are currently used as initial therapies for major depressive disorder (MDD). However, despite the remarkable increase in medications validated as effective in MDD, treatments are still plagued by inadequate responses in part of MDD patients. For MDD with inadequate responses to medications, brain stimulation methods such as electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), and deep brain stimulation (DBS) have been used as alternative strategies for treatment of depression, although each of these modalities has an indication for MDD treatment resistance and suffers from a limitation or weakness. Thus, development of new strategies based on novel theories of MDD may help to develop faster and more effective treatments for MDD. Recent studies have suggested that decreased brain brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may be involved in the pathogenesis of MDD. Moreover, increasing brain BDNF and adult hippocampal neurogenesis have been implicated in some of the therapeutic mechanisms of antidepressants. Transcranial focused ultrasound (tFUS), a novel technique to deliver highly focused acoustic energy to a small brain region, has been used for targeted drug delivery by increasing blood-brain barrier permeability, and it can noninvasively focally modulate human cortical function. Recent animal studies have demonstrated that tFUS stimulation can increase BDNF and neurogenesis in mice. Furthermore, the increase blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability may increase delivery of serum BDNF to the brain. From the above evidence, tFUS can increase brain BDNF levels and neurogenesis in the hippocampus, suggesting it could be an alternative strategy for the treatment of MDD. Further investigations into the frequency and duration of tFUS stimulation are needed to verify the efficacy of this intervention in depressive disorders. PMID:25665863

  2. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) produces localized and specific alterations in neurochemistry: A 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent P. Clark; Brian A. Coffman; Michael C. Trumbo; Charles Gasparovic

    2011-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been found to produce significant changes in behavior, including a large increase of learning and performance for a difficult visual perceptual task (Clark et al., NeuroImage 2010). The mechanisms by which tDCS produces these behavioral effects are currently uncertain. One hypothesis is that anodal tDCS leads to increased metabolic activity in the brain, which

  3. Language Lateralization in Children Using Functional Transcranial Doppler Sonography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haag, Anja; Moeller, Nicola; Knake, Susanne; Hermsen, Anke; Oertel, Wolfgang H.; Rosenow, Felix; Hamer, Hajo M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Language lateralization with functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) and lexical word generation has been shown to have high concordance with the Wada test and functional magnetic resonance imaging in adults. We evaluated a nonlexical paradigm to determine language dominance in children. Method: In 23 right-handed children (12…

  4. Transcranial direct current stimulation applied over the somatosensory cortex – Differential effect on low and high frequency SEPs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Dieckhöfer; Till Dino Waberski; Michael Nitsche; Walter Paulus; Helmut Buchner; René Gobbelé

    2006-01-01

    ObjectiveTranscranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has an influence on the excitability of the human motor cortex measured by motor evoked potentials (MEPs) after transcranial magnetic stimulation. Low and high frequency (HFOs) components of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were studied questioning whether a comparable effect can be observed after applying tDCS to the human somatosensory cortex.

  5. Premotor transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) affects primary motor excitability in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klára Boros; Csaba Poreisz; Alexander Münchau; Walter Paulus; Michael A. Nitsche

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the premotor cortex (PM) modifies the excitability of the ipsilateral primary motor cortex (M1). Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a new method to induce neuroplasticity in humans non-invasively. tDCS generates neuroplasticity directly in the cortical area under the electrode, but might also induce effects in distant brain areas,

  6. Short and long-lasting tinnitus relief induced by transcranial direct current stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre GarinChantal; Chantal Gilain; Jean-Philippe Van Damme; Katalin de Fays; Jacques Jamart; Michel Ossemann; Yves Vandermeeren

    A significant proportion of the population suffers from tinnitus, a bothersome auditory phantom perception that can severely\\u000a alter the quality of life. Numerous experimental studies suggests that a maladaptive plasticity of the auditory and limbic\\u000a cortical areas may underlie tinnitus. Accordingly, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been repeatedly\\u000a used with success to reduce tinnitus intensity. The potential of transcranial

  7. Estimation of the Iron Loss in Deep-Sea Permanent Magnet Motors considering Seawater Compressive Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yanyu; Zou, Jibin; Li, Jianjun; Qi, Wenjuan; Li, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Deep-sea permanent magnet motor equipped with fluid compensated pressure-tolerant system is compressed by the high pressure fluid both outside and inside. The induced stress distribution in stator core is significantly different from that in land type motor. Its effect on the magnetic properties of stator core is important for deep-sea motor designers but seldom reported. In this paper, the stress distribution in stator core, regarding the seawater compressive stress, is calculated by 2D finite element method (FEM). The effect of compressive stress on magnetic properties of electrical steel sheet, that is, permeability, BH curves, and BW curves, is also measured. Then, based on the measured magnetic properties and calculated stress distribution, the stator iron loss is estimated by stress-electromagnetics-coupling FEM. At last the estimation is verified by experiment. Both the calculated and measured results show that stator iron loss increases obviously with the seawater compressive stress. PMID:25177717

  8. Ages and magnetic structures of the South China Sea constrained by deep tow magnetic surveys and IODP Expedition 349

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun-Feng; Xu, Xing; Lin, Jian; Sun, Zhen; Zhu, Jian; Yao, Yongjian; Zhao, Xixi; Liu, Qingsong; Kulhanek, Denise K.; Wang, Jian; Song, Taoran; Zhao, Junfeng; Qiu, Ning; Guan, Yongxian; Zhou, Zhiyuan; Williams, Trevor; Bao, Rui; Briais, Anne; Brown, Elizabeth A.; Chen, Yifeng; Clift, Peter D.; Colwell, Frederick S.; Dadd, Kelsie A.; Ding, Weiwei; Almeida, Iván. Hernández; Huang, Xiao-Long; Hyun, Sangmin; Jiang, Tao; Koppers, Anthony A. P.; Li, Qianyu; Liu, Chuanlian; Liu, Zhifei; Nagai, Renata H.; Peleo-Alampay, Alyssa; Su, Xin; Tejada, Maria Luisa G.; Trinh, Hai Son; Yeh, Yi-Ching; Zhang, Chuanlun; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Guo-Liang

    2014-12-01

    analyses of deep tow magnetic anomalies and International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 349 cores show that initial seafloor spreading started around 33 Ma in the northeastern South China Sea (SCS), but varied slightly by 1-2 Myr along the northern continent-ocean boundary (COB). A southward ridge jump of ˜20 km occurred around 23.6 Ma in the East Subbasin; this timing also slightly varied along the ridge and was coeval to the onset of seafloor spreading in the Southwest Subbasin, which propagated for about 400 km southwestward from ˜23.6 to ˜21.5 Ma. The terminal age of seafloor spreading is ˜15 Ma in the East Subbasin and ˜16 Ma in the Southwest Subbasin. The full spreading rate in the East Subbasin varied largely from ˜20 to ˜80 km/Myr, but mostly decreased with time except for the period between ˜26.0 Ma and the ridge jump (˜23.6 Ma), within which the rate was the fastest at ˜70 km/Myr on average. The spreading rates are not correlated, in most cases, to magnetic anomaly amplitudes that reflect basement magnetization contrasts. Shipboard magnetic measurements reveal at least one magnetic reversal in the top 100 m of basaltic layers, in addition to large vertical intensity variations. These complexities are caused by late-stage lava flows that are magnetized in a different polarity from the primary basaltic layer emplaced during the main phase of crustal accretion. Deep tow magnetic modeling also reveals this smearing in basement magnetizations by incorporating a contamination coefficient of 0.5, which partly alleviates the problem of assuming a magnetic blocking model of constant thickness and uniform magnetization. The primary contribution to magnetic anomalies of the SCS is not in the top 100 m of the igneous basement.

  9. Gravity and magnetic anomalies and the deep structure of the Parnaiba cratonic basin, Brazil

    E-print Network

    Watts, A. B. "Tony"

    Gravity and magnetic anomalies and the deep structure of the Parnaiba cratonic basin, Brazil A. B profile across the Parnaiba cratonic basin in NorthEast Brazil. The purpose of this project is to acquire margin of Parnaíba Basin, Brazil. Geophysics 64: 337-356. Ussami N, Cogo de Sa N, Molina EC. 1993

  10. Deep superconducting magnetic traps for neutral atoms and molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, J. G. E.; Michniak, R. A.; Nguyen, S. V.; Campbell, W. C.; Egorov, D.; Maxwell, S. E.; van Buuren, L. D.; Doyle, J. M.

    2004-01-01

    We describe the design, construction and performance of three realizations of a high-field superconducting magnetic trap for neutral atoms and molecules. Each of these traps utilizes a pair of coaxial coils in the anti-Helmholtz geometry and achieves depths greater than 4 T, allowing it to capture magnetic atoms and molecules cooled in a cryogenic buffer gas. Achieving this depth requires that the repulsive force between the coils (which can exceed 30 metric tons) be contained. We also describe additional features of the traps, including the elimination of trapped fluxes from the coils and the integration of the coils into a cryogenic vacuum environment suitable for producing cold atoms and molecules.

  11. Changes of symptom and EEG in mal de debarquement syndrome patients after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over bilateral prefrontal cortex: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Guofa Shou; Han Yuan; Urbano, Diamond; Yoon-Hee Cha; Lei Ding

    2014-01-01

    Mal de debarquement syndrome (MdDS) is a chronic disorder of imbalance characterized by a feeling of rocking and swaying. The medical treatment for MdDS is still limited. Motivated by our previous pilot study that demonstrates the promising clinical efficacy of repetitive transcranial stimulation (rTMS) in MdDS patients, a novel rTMS paradigm, i.e., 1 Hz stimulation over ipsilateral dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) with respect to the dominant hand followed by 10 Hz stimulation over contralateral DLPFC, was proposed and conducted in MdDS in the present study. To evaluate the potential efficacy, we examined the changes before and after rTMS in both subjective reported symptom using visual analogue scale (VAS) and direct brain activity in resting state electroencephalography (rsEEG). To disentangle activity from distinct brain substrates and/or local networks in rsEEG signals, a group-wise independent component analysis was employed and the corresponding spectral power changes were examined in the identified components. In general, reduction in rocking sensation was reported in five of ten subjects (with dramatic reductions (changes > 30) in three subjects) after rTMS using the present paradigm, while no changes and slight increases in rocking sensation were reported in the remaining subjects. In rsEEG, significant elevated spectral powers in low frequency bands (i.e., theta and alpha) over broad areas of occipital, parietal, motor, and prefrontal cortices were induced by rTMS, reflecting the enhancement of cortical inhibition over these areas. Meanwhile, the significant correlations between changes in rsEEG and VAS scores were detected in the high frequency bands (i.e., high alpha and beta) over posterior parietal and left visual areas, reflecting the suppression of spatial information processing. Therefore, the present findings demonstrate the promising clinical efficacy of a new rTMS paradigm for MdDS, and suggest its merit for further studies in more patients. PMID:25570942

  12. RESEARCH Open Access Facilitating myoelectric-control with transcranial

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RESEARCH Open Access Facilitating myoelectric-control with transcranial direct current stimulation treatment at the central nervous system (CNS) level with transcranial direct current stimulation (t interfaces. Keywords: Functional electrical stimulation, Myoelectric control, Transcranial direct current

  13. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Over the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex for Treating Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Exploratory Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Double-Blind and Sham-Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Berlim, Marcelo T; Van den Eynde, Frederique

    2014-01-01

    Objective Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has yielded promising results as a treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, to date, no quantitative review of its clinical utility has been published. Method: We searched for randomized and sham-controlled trials from 1995 to March 2013 using MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CENTRAL, and SCOPUS. We then performed an exploratory random effects meta-analysis. Results: Studies on rTMS applied to the right DLPFC included 64 adults with PTSD. The pooled Hedges g effect size for pre and post changes in clinician-rated and self-reported PTSD symptoms were, respectively, 1.65 (P < 0.001) and 1.91 (P < 0.001), indicating significant and large-sized differences in outcome favouring active rTMS. Also, there were significant pre and post decreases with active rTMS in overall anxiety (Hedges g = 1.24; P = 0.02) and depressive (Hedges g = 0.85; P < 0.001) symptoms. Dropout rates at study end did not differ between active and sham rTMS groups. Regarding rTMS applied to the left DLPFC, there is only one study published to date (using a high frequency protocol), and its results showed that active rTMS seems to be superior overall to sham rTMS. Conclusions: Our exploratory meta-analysis shows that active rTMS applied to the DLPFC seems to be effective and acceptable for treating PTSD. However, the small number of subjects included in the analyses limits the generalizability of these findings. Future studies should include larger samples and deliver optimized stimulation parameters. PMID:25565694

  14. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) augmentation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for SSRI-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhong-Rui; Shi, Li-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as augmentation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for SSRI-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have yielded conflicting results. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to assess the efficacy of this strategy for SSRI-resistant OCD. Methods: Scientific and medical databases, including international databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CCTR, Web of Science, PsycINFO), two Chinese databases (CBM-disc, CNKI), and relevant websites dated up to July 2014, were searched for RCTs on this strategy for treating OCD. Mantel-Haenszel random-effects model was used. Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) score, response rates and drop-out rates were evaluated. Results: Data were obtained from nine RCTs consisting of 290 subjects. Active rTMS was an effective augmentation strategy in treating SSRI-resistant OCD with a pooled WMD of 3.89 (95% CI = [1.27, 6.50]) for reducing Y-BOCS score and a pooled odds ratio (OR) of 2.65 (95% CI = [1.36, 5.17] for response rates. No significant differences in drop-out rates were found. No publication bias was detected. Conclusion: The pooled examination demonstrated that this strategy seems to be efficacious and acceptable for treating SSRI-resistant OCD. As the number of RCTs included here was limited, further large-scale multi-center RCTs are required to validate our conclusions. PMID:25663986

  15. Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation reveals probability-dependent changes in functional connectivity between right inferior frontal cortex and primary motor cortex during go/no-go performance

    PubMed Central

    van Campen, A. Dilene; Neubert, Franz-Xaver; van den Wildenberg, Wery P. M.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Mars, Rogier B.

    2013-01-01

    The functional role of the right inferior frontal cortex (rIFC) in mediating human behavior is the subject of ongoing debate. Activation of the rIFC has been associated with both response inhibition and with signaling action adaptation demands resulting from unpredicted events. The goal of this study is to investigate the role of rIFC by combining a go/no-go paradigm with paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) over rIFC and the primary motor cortex (M1) to probe the functional connectivity between these brain areas. Participants performed a go/no-go task with 20% or 80% of the trials requiring response inhibition (no-go trials) in a classic and a reversed version of the task, respectively. Responses were slower to infrequent compared to frequent go trials, while commission errors were more prevalent to infrequent compared to frequent no-go trials. We hypothesized that if rIFC is involved primarily in response inhibition, then rIFC should exert an inhibitory influence over M1 on no-go (inhibition) trials regardless of no-go probability. If, by contrast, rIFC has a role on unexpected trials other than just response inhibition then rIFC should influence M1 on infrequent trials regardless of response demands. We observed that rIFC suppressed M1 excitability during frequent no-go trials, but not during infrequent no-go trials, suggesting that the role of rIFC in response inhibition is context dependent rather than generic. Importantly, rIFC was found to facilitate M1 excitability on all low frequent trials, irrespective of whether the infrequent event involved response inhibition, a finding more in line with a predictive coding framework of cognitive control. PMID:24282398

  16. Chronic high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation improves age-related cognitive impairment in parallel with alterations in neuronal excitability and the voltage-dependent Ca(2+) current in female mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua-Long; Xian, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Yan-Yong; Geng, Yuan; Han, Bing; Wang, Ming-Wei; Li, Wen-Bin

    2015-02-01

    Chronic high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive method to increase the excitability of neurons, and it induces long-term effects that can improve symptoms related to neurodegenerative diseases, including cognitive ability. The present study was undertaken to identify the mechanism by which rTMS improves cognitive impairments in mice. The novel object recognition test in vivo was used to evaluate the cognitive function of the mice. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were used to evaluate the neuronal excitability, including the resting membrane potential, the number of action potentials induced by depolarized current, after-hyperpolarization, and the voltage-dependent Ca(2+) current in hippocampal slices. We found that the aged mice showed impairments in cognitive function, and high-frequency (25Hz) rTMS for 14 consecutive-days ameliorated the impairments. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings showed that, compared to matured mice, the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons of aged mice showed significantly hyperpolarized resting membrane potential, significantly decreased numbers of action potentials after injection of depolarizing current, and significantly increased after-hyperpolarization after an action potential. The exposure to high-frequency rTMS significantly improved the above deficits in the neuronal excitability in the aged rTMS mice. Consistent with the above changes, the exposure to high-frequency rTMS also significantly decreased the voltage-dependent Ca(2+) current of the neurons compared with the aged sham mice. These data suggested that the rTMS could improve the age-related cognitive impairment in parallel with regulating the neuronal excitability and modifying the voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels. PMID:25451310

  17. Advances in transcranial doppler ultrasonography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georgios Tsivgoulis; Andrei V. Alexandrov; Michael A. Sloan

    2009-01-01

    Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) is the only noninvasive real-time neuroimaging modality for the evaluation of characteristics\\u000a of blood flow in basal intracerebral vessels that adds physiologic information to structural imaging. TCD has been rapidly\\u000a evolving from a simple noninvasive diagnostic tool to an imaging modality with a broad spectrum of clinical applications.\\u000a In acute stroke, TCD can provide rapid information

  18. Synthesis of brightly PEGylated luminescent magnetic upconversion nanophosphors for deep tissue and dual MRI imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongyu; Qi, Bin; Moore, Thomas; Colvin, Daniel C.; Crawford, Thomas; Gore, John C.; Alexis, Frank; Mefford, O. Thompson; Anker, Jeffrey N.

    2014-01-01

    We developed a novel method to fabricate monodispersed biocompatible Yb/Er or Yb/Tm doped ?-NaGdF4 upconversion phosphors using polyelectrolytes to prevent irreversible particle aggregation during the conversion of the precursor (Gd2O(CO3)2•H2O:Yb/Er or Yb/Tm) to ?-NaGdF4:Yb/Er or Yb/Tm. The polyelectrolyte on the outer surface of nanophosphors also provided an amine tag for PEGylation. This method is also employed to fabricate PEGylated magnetic upconversion phosphors with Fe3O4 as the core and ?-NaGdF4 as a shell. These magnetic upconversion nanophosphors have relatively high saturation magnetization (7.0 emu g-1) and magnetic susceptibility (1.7×10-2 emu g-1 Oe-1), providing them with large magnetophoretic mobilities. We have studied their magnetic properties for separation and controlled release in flow, their optical properties for cell labeling, deep tissue imaging, and their T1 and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) relaxivities. The magnetic upconversion phosphors display both strong magnetophoresis, dual MRI imaging (r1=2.9 mM-1 s-1, r2=204 mM-1 s-1), and bright luminescence under 1 cm chicken breast. PMID:23828629

  19. Combined Transnasal and Transcranial Removal of a Giant Clival Chordoma

    PubMed Central

    Koechlin, Nicolas O.; Simmen, Daniel; Briner, Hans Rudolf; Reisch, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Clival chordomas confront the surgeon with the task of resecting an aggressively invasive and destructive tumor in a critical surrounding. For many, mainly smaller, chordomas, the transnasal transclival approach is a feasible and safe surgical access. Larger tumors and especially those with extensive intradural, retrochiasmal, and/or deep cervical expansion are mostly approached by open craniotomy. Staged procedures are also commonly used in the case of expansive tumor growth. We present the first case of a single-session combined transnasal and transcranial approach to radically resect a large clival chordoma. PMID:25083400

  20. Widespread Magnetofossil Occurrences in Deep-sea Sediments and Implications for Paleo- and Environmental Magnetism (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, T.; Roberts, A. P.

    2013-12-01

    Recent progress in rock magnetism has enabled quantitative estimation of magnetizations carried by magnetofossils. Using FORC diagrams, IRM component analyses, ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy, low-temperature magnetometry, and transmission electron microscopy, it has been found that magnetofossils are widespread in deep-sea sediments and are often a dominant constituent of magnetic mineral assemblages. Some studies have documented a relationship between increased magnetofossil abundances and enhanced oceanic productivity induced by iron fertilization via eolian dust. The morphology of magnetosomes, which is species specific, may reflect a preference of magnetotactic bacteria for particular redox conditions. Dominant magnetofossil morphologies in sediments (cubo-octahedral vs. elongated) can be detected with rock magnetic techniques. Thus, magnetofossil abundance and morphology have considerable potential as paleoenvironmental indicators. It is widely held that magnetotactic bacteria live at or below the oxic-anoxic transition zone (OATZ) in chemically stratified aquatic environments. If so, it is expected that sediments that contain magnetofossils would have acquired their remanent magnetization at around the OATZ, and that the magnetization carried by magnetofossils will be delayed with respect to a pDRM carried by detrital magnetic minerals if the OATZ lies below the surface mixed layer and the pDRM acquisition zone. However, magnetofossils often dominate the magnetic mineral assemblage even in marine red clays that lack an OATZ. Changes in the relative abundance of biogenic and detrital magnetic components can be estimated from the ratio of ARM susceptibility to SIRM; a smaller average magnetic grain size and weaker magnetostatic interactions in the biogenic component causes higher ARM susceptibility. In relative paleointensity estimations, the kARM/SIRM ratio sometimes anti-correlates with normalized intensity regardless of the choice of normalizer (ARM or IRM). This implies that changes in relative abundance of biogenic magnetite may not be well compensated for by the widely used normalizers and may contaminate relative paleointensity records.

  1. Magnetic properties of Archean gneisses from the northeastern North China Craton: the relationship between magnetism and metamorphic grade in the deep continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongcai; Liu, Qingsheng; Zhao, Weihua; Li, Zhiyong; Zheng, Jianping

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic mineralogy of crustal rocks has important implications for understanding continental crustal evolution and origin of regional magnetic anomalies. However, magnetic properties of the deep continental crust are still poorly understood. In this paper, measurements of density (?), mass-specific magnetic susceptibility (?), natural remanent magnetization (NRM) and magnetic hysteresis loops, temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility (?-T), chemical and mineral analyses were conducted on Archean gneiss samples from the Jixian petrophysical section in the Precambrian terrain, northeastern North China Craton, with the aim of refining understanding of magnetic phase transformations in the deep crustal rocks. Results show that density and rock magnetic properties change distinctly with metamorphic facies. The dominant magnetic mineral is magnetite, while a little hematite is present in a few samples. Together with geochemical and mineralogical compositions, it is inferred that progressive increase in metamorphic grade from east to west is the major cause for magnetic enhancement of the lower crust in the studied section. Therefore, we conclude that study of magnetic phases of deep crustal rocks can offer important insights into the history of high metamorphic grade terranes.

  2. Short and long duration transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the human hand motor area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshiaki Furubayashi; Yasuo Terao; Noritoshi Arai; Shingo Okabe; Hitoshi Mochizuki; Ritsuko Hanajima; Masashi Hamada; Akihiro Yugeta; Satomi Inomata-Terada; Yoshikazu Ugawa

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to study effects of short and long duration transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)\\u000a on the human motor cortex. In eight normal volunteers, motor evoked potentials (MEPs) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation\\u000a (TMS) were recorded from the right first dorsal interosseous muscle, and tDCS was given with electrodes over the left primary\\u000a motor cortex

  3. Diminution of training-induced transient motor cortex plasticity by weak transcranial direct current stimulation in the human

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin Rosenkranz; Michael A Nitsche; Frithjof Tergau; Walter Paulus

    2000-01-01

    Training of a thumb movement in the opposite direction of a twitch in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) induces a transient directional change of post-training TMS-evoked movements towards the trained direction. Functional synaptic mechanisms seem to underlie this rapid training-induced plasticity. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) induces outlasting changes of cerebral excitability, thus presenting as promising tool for neuroplasticity

  4. Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation of the right Wernicke’s area improves comprehension in subacute stroke patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dae Sang You; Dae-Yul Kim; Min Ho Chun; Seung Eun Jung; Sung Jong Park

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown the appearance of right-sided language-related brain activity in right-handed patients after a stroke. Non-invasive brain stimulation such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have been shown to modulate excitability in the brain. Moreover, rTMS and tDCS have been found to improve naming in non-fluent post-stroke aphasic patients. Here, we investigated

  5. Insights into motor performance and muscle fatigue based on transcranial stimulation of the human motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Gandevia, S C

    1996-01-01

    1. Direct cortical stimulation of motor and sensory areas of the cortex in experimental animals and some neurosurgical patients has provided much useful physiological information. Some of the benefits of this approach can be provided in awake volunteer subjects using new techniques which activate the motor cortex thorough the skull (i.e. transcranial electrical or magnetic stimulation). 2. Both electrical and magnetic transcranial stimulation produce complex descending corticospinal volleys which usually contain a direct component (via corticofugal axons) and an indirect trans-synaptic component. Changes in cortical 'excitability' can affect the evoked corticofugal volleys and the electromyographic responses which they involve. 3. Apart from its diagnostic applications to patients with neurological disorders, transcranial stimulation has been applied to the study of a range of aspects of human motor control ranging from apparent cortical 'plasticity' to the changes in cortical behaviour produced by exercise. PMID:8911740

  6. Deep structure of the Mount Amram igneous complex, interpretation of magnetic and gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirman, Boris; Rybakov, Michael; Beyth, Michael; Mushkin, Amit; Ginat, Hanan

    2015-03-01

    The Mt Amram igneous complex (AIC) represents northern tip of the Neoproterozoic Arabian Nubian Shield (ANS). For the first time the AIC deep structure was studied using the gravity, aero and ground magnetic, magnetic susceptibility and density measurements and geological data. Analysing all available data at the Amram area we concluded what only monzonite body can be reason for gravity high and coinciding reduced to pole (RTP) maximum. Geological knowledge allowed suggesting its intrusive character and compact body form. Cluster of inverse solutions (Werner deconvolution) localized this body as initial model for forward modelling. Further iterations (23/4-D forward modelling) clarified the monzonite geometry and properties; the modelling allowed also to investigate the non-uniqueness and estimate also the confident intervals for final solution. The research consists three interconnected stages. At the detailed scale, ground magnetic data suggested three magmatic blocks of few hundred meters shifted dextral about 100 m along the Zefunut fault. Estimated accuracy for geometry of the magnetic bodies is a few tens metres. At the middle scale, quantitative gravity and magnetic interpretations provide model of the monzonite body, which is an order of magnitude more than the volume of the felsic rhyolites and granite rocks. Boundary of the whole monzonite body was estimated with accuracy as a hundred meters. As a result we suggest that the parent magma for the AIC is the monzonite, similar to the model suggested for the Timna Igneous Complex 12 km north of the AIC. The model developed can be applied to evaluate the subsurface volumes of the mafic magmatic rocks in adjacent locations. At the regional scale for exposed the Sinai and Arab Saudi Precambrian crystalline shield our approach allows to understand the apparent contradiction between geological predominantly granite composition (low magnetic rocks) and magnetic data. The aeromagnetic data show number strong magnetic anomalies suggesting the presence large volume of high magnetic (mainly basic) rocks at the depth. This problem is proposed for future research.

  7. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of the Right Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hagit Cohen; D. Zeev Kaplan; Moshe Kotler; Irena Kouperman; Regina Moisa; Nimrod Grisaru

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The efficacy of repetitive tran- scranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the right prefrontal cortex was studied in patients with posttraumatic stress disor- der (PTSD) under double-blind, placebo- controlled conditions. Method: Twenty-four patients with PTSD were randomly assigned to receive rTMS at low frequency (1 Hz) or high frequency (10 Hz) or sham rTMS in a double-blind design. Treatment was

  8. Development of marine magnetic vector measurement system using AUV and deep-towed vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayanagi, K.; Isezaki, N.; Matsuo, J.; Harada, M.; Kasaya, T.; Nishimura, K.; Baba, H.

    2012-04-01

    Marine magnetic survey is one of useful methods in order to investigate the nature of the oceanic crust. Most of the data are, however, intensity of the geomagnetic field without its direction. Therefore we cannot properly apply a physical formula describing the relation between magnetic field and magnetization to analyses of the data. With this problem, Isezaki (1986) developed a shipboard three-component magnetometer which measures the geomagnetic vector at the sea. On the other hand, geophysical surveys near the seafloor have been more and more necessary in order to show the details of the oceanic crust. For instance, development of seabed resources like hydrothermal deposits needs higher resolution surveys compared with conventional surveys at the sea for accurate estimation of abundance of the resources. From these viewpoints, we have been developing a measurement system of the deep-sea geomagnetic vector using AUV and deep-towed vehicle. The measurement system consists of two 3-axis flux-gate magnetometers, an Overhauser magnetometer, an optical fiber gyro, a main unit (control, communication, recording), and an onboard unit. These devices except for the onboard unit are installed in pressure cases (depth limit: 6000m). Thus this measurement system can measure three components and intensity of the geomagnetic field in the deep-sea. In 2009, the first test of the measurement system was carried out in the Kumano Basin using AUV Urashima and towing vehicle Yokosuka Deep-Tow during the R/V Yokosuka YK09-09 cruise. In this test, we sank a small magnetic target to the seafloor, and examined how the system worked. As a result, we successfully detected magnetic anomaly of the target to confirm the expected performance of that in the sea. In 2010, the measurement system was tested in the Bayonnaise Knoll area both using a titanium towing frame during the R/V Bosei-maru cruise and using AUV Urashima during the R/V Yokosuka YK10-17 cruise. The purpose of these tests was to evaluate the performance of the system in an actual hydrothermal deposit area for practical applications of that. The Bayonnaise Knoll is a submarine caldera with an outer rim of 2.5-3 km and a floor of 840-920 m, which is located in the Izu-Ogasawara arc. A large hydrothermal deposit, Hakurei deposit lies in the southeast part of the caldera. In the R/V Bosei-maru cruise, we observed three components of magnetic anomalies at depths of 400-570 m along SE-NW and WE tracks across the caldera. In the R/V Yokosuka YK10-17 cruise, we observed three components and intensity of magnetic anomalies at altitudes of 60-100 m around the Hakurei deposit and at depth of 500 m above the caldera. From these tests, we have succeeded in measuring the geomagnetic vector and intensity using the AUV and the deep-towed vehicle, and also have obtained detailed magnetic anomaly in the Hakurei deposit area. We will here present the outlines of the measurement system and the tests in the sea. Note that this study has been supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science & Technology (MEXT).

  9. Magnetic Anomalies and Rock Magnetic Properties Related to Deep Crustal Rocks of the Athabasca Granulite Terrane, Northern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, L. L.; Williams, M. L.

    2010-12-01

    The Athabasca granulite terrane in northernmost Saskatchewan, Canada is an exceptional exposure of lower crustal rocks having experienced several high temperature events (ca 800C) during a prolonged period of deep-crustal residence (ca 1.0 GPa) followed by uplift and exhumation. With little alteration since 1.8 Ga these rocks allow us to study ancient lower crustal lithologies. Aeromagnetic anomalies over this region are distinct and complex, and along with other geophysical measurements, define the Snowbird Tectonic zone, stretching NE-SW across northwestern Canada, separating the Churchill province into the Hearne (mid-crustal rocks, amphibolite facies) from the Rae (lower crust rocks, granulite facies). Distinct magnetic highs and lows appear to relate roughly to specific rock units, and are cut by mapped shear zones. Over fifty samples from this region, collected from the major rock types, mafic granulites, felsic granulites, granites, and dike swarms, as well as from regions of both high and low magnetic anomalies, are being used to investigate magnetic properties. The intention is to investigate what is magnetic in the lower crust and how it produces the anomalies observed from satellite measurements. The samples studied reveal a wide range of magnetic properties with natural remanent magnetization ranging from an isolated high of 38 A/m to lows of 1 mA/m. Susceptibilities also range over several orders of magnitude, from 1 to 1 x10-4 SI. Magnetite is identified in nearly all samples using both low and high temperature measurements, but concentrations are generally very low. Hysteresis properties on 41 samples reveal nearly equal numbers of samples represented by PSD and MD grains, with a few samples (N=6) plotting in or close to the SD region. Low temperature measurements indicate that most samples contain magnetite, showing a marked Verway transition around 120K. Also identified in nearly half of the samples is pyrrhotite, noted by low temperature transitions at 30-35K. Preliminary results indicate that the same general lithologies can have very different magnetic properties with varying concentrations of magnetic minerals and with widely varying domain sizes and thus magnetic behavior. Additional work is needed to fully understand the magnetic signature causing the aeromagnetic anomalies, but with this information we will be able to better understand the varying rock types, compositions, and exposures in lower crustal rocks, be able to predict anomaly patterns, and eventually better understand the geologic history of this complex area.

  10. Deep sea three component magnetic survey using ROV in the hydrothermal vent of the Lau Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, C.; Park, C.

    2011-12-01

    We conducted magnetic survey at Apr., 2011 in the western slope of the caldera of TA25, the Lau Basin, the southwestern Pacific using IBRV(Ice Breaker Research Vessel) ARAON of KORDI(Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute), ROV(Remotely Operated Vehicle) of Oceaneering Co. and three component magnetometer(Fig. 1,Fig. 2). The deep-sea three component magnetic survey lines are the 13 N-S lines(100 m spacing) and the 2 E-W lines(Fig. 2). The depth ranges of the survey area are from about 900 m to 1200 m, below sea level. For the magnetic survey, the magnetometer sensor and the data logger was attached with the upper part and lower part of ROV, respectively(Fig. 2). We wanted to make the distance between the magnetometer sensor and ROV over 2 m long to reduce the noise effect of ROV. But, for the safe of deployment and recovery of ROV, the distance between the magnetometer sensor and ROV was 126 cm(Fig. 2). In the magnetic survey, ROV followed the planning tracks at 25~30 m above seafloor using the altimeter and USBL(Ultra Short Base Line) of ROV. IBRV ARAON accompanied ROV on the magnetic survey. The three component magnetometer measure the X(North), Y(East) and Z(Vertical) vector components of a magnetic field. A motion sensor(Oxtans) provided us the data of pitch, roll, yaw for the correction of the magnetic data to the motion of ROV. The data of the magnetometer sensor and the motion sensor were recorded on a notebook through the optical cable of ROV and the network of ARON using magnetometer software. The precision positions of magnetic data were merged by the post-processing of USBL of ROV. Hydrothermal fluids over Curie temperature can quickly alter or replace the iron-rich magnetic minerals, reducing the magnetic remanence of the crustal rocks, in some cases to near 0A/m magnetization. So, the obtained three component magnetic data are fully utilized by finding possible hydrothermal vents of the survey area.

  11. Search for Magnetic Monopoles with Deep Underwater Cherenkov Detectors at Lake Baikal

    E-print Network

    The BAIKAL Collaboration

    1996-01-30

    The deep underwater Cherenkov neutrino telescope NT-200 is currently under construction at Lake Baikal. The "subdetectors" NT-36 (1993-95) and NT-72 (1995-96) have been operating successfully over 3 years. Various techniques have been developed to search for magnetic monopoles with these arrays. Here we describe a method used to detect superheavy slowly moving (beta = v/c = 0.00001 - 0.001) monopoles catalyzing baryon decay. We present results obtained from the preliminary analysis of the data taken with NT-36 detector in 1993. Furthermore, possibilities to observe faster (beta = 0.2 - 1) monopoles via other effects are discussed.

  12. Search for magnetic monopoles with deep underwater Cherenkov detectors at Lake Baikal

    E-print Network

    Belolaptikov, I A; Borisovets, B A; Budnev, N M; Chensky, A G; Danilchenko, I A; Djilkibaev, J A M; Dobrynin, V I; Domogatsky, G V; Doroshenko, A A; Fialkovsky, S V; Gaponenko, O N; Garus, A A; Gress, O A; Gress, T A; Heukenkamp, H; Karle, A; Klabukov, A M; Klimov, A I; Klimushin, S I; Koshechkin, A P; Kulepov, V F; Kuzmichov, L A; Lubsandorzhiev, B K; Mikolajski, T; Milenin, M B; Mirgazov, R R; Moroz, A V; Moseiko, N I; Nikiforov, S A; Osipova, E A; Panfilov, A I; Parfenov, Yu V; Pavlov, A A; Petukhov, D P

    1996-01-01

    The deep underwater Cherenkov neutrino telescope NT-200 is currently under construction at Lake Baikal. The "subdetectors" NT-36 (1993-95) and NT-72 (1995-96) have been operating successfully over 3 years. Various techniques have been developed to search for magnetic monopoles with these arrays. Here we describe a method used to detect superheavy slowly moving (beta = v/c = 0.00001 - 0.001) monopoles catalyzing baryon decay. We present results obtained from the preliminary analysis of the data taken with NT-36 detector in 1993. Furthermore, possibilities to observe faster (beta = 0.2 - 1) monopoles via other effects are discussed.

  13. Deep-sea Vector Magnetic Anomalies over the Bayonnaise Knoll Caldera (Izu-Ogasawara Arc) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honsho, C.; Ura, T.; Kim, K.

    2013-12-01

    The Bayonnaise Knoll caldera is located on the eastern margin of the backarc rift zone of the Izu-Ogasawara island arc. The caldera rim is ~3 km in diameter and 100-200 m high from the caldera floor 840-920 m deep. A large active hydrothermal field associated with sulfide deposit, called the Hakurei site, has been found at the foot of the southeastern caldera wall. We conducted deep-sea magnetic measurements using autonomous underwater vehicles to map ~75 % of an area 3 km by 4 km in the caldera. The magnetic vector field data were collected at 40-150 m altitude along the survey lines spaced 80-200 m apart. We improved the conventional correction method applied for removing the effect of vehicle magnetization, which greatly enhanced the precision of the resulting vector anomalies and allowed us to use the vector anomaly instead of the total intensity anomaly for inversion analysis. The magnetization distribution obtained using the vector anomaly was significantly different from the one obtained using the total intensity anomaly, especially in areas where the survey tracks were widely spaced. The aliasing effect appears in areas of sparse data distribution, and the magnetic field is more correctly calculated from the vector anomaly than the total intensity anomaly. The magnetization distribution in the caldera has two major features: a ~1.5-km wide belt of high magnetization, trending NNW-SSE through the caldera, and a clear low magnetization zone, ~300 m x ~500 m wide, extending over the Hakurei site. The high magnetization belt is considered to reflect basaltic volcanism associated with the backarc rifting that occurred after the formation of the Bayonnaise Knoll. The low magnetization zone is interpreted as the alteration zone resulting from the hydrothermal activity. Several zones of localized high magnetization are recognized within the high magnetization belt, some of them in the caldera wall adjacent to the low magnetization zone of the Hakurei site. We speculate that intensive magma intrusion occurred beneath the caldera wall and has provided the heat to generate hydrothermal fluid, which has been spouting out through the caldera wall faults. The surface expression of the vent field extends beyond the alteration zone inferred from the magnetization distribution, spreading upwards in the caldera wall. High-resolution topography around the Hakurei site indicates that the hydrothermal vents are generally distributed over a landform of slope failure. These observations would imply that hydrothermal fluid rising up in the up-flow zone moves laterally as well when it comes near the seafloor, probably along numerous fractures and fissures in the caldera wall. The distribution of pre-existing faults and fractures may rather control the fluid flow pathways in the shallow part and condition the surface extent of the vent field.

  14. Recovery of iron from copper slag by deep reduction and magnetic beneficiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ke-qing; Ping, Shuo; Wang, Hong-yu; Ni, Wen

    2013-11-01

    Aiming at recovering iron from high-iron-content copper slag, this article introduced a combination technology of deep reduction and magnetic beneficiation, investigated the iron recovery efficiency and optimized the technical conditions. When coke powder with 86wt% fixed carbon was used as a reductant, iron was successfully extracted from the copper slag. Under the optimized condition of the coke powder content of 14wt%, the calcium-to-silicon mass ratio (Ca/Si) of 0.2, the roasting temperature of 1300°C, the roasting time of 3 h, the grinding time of 20 min, and the magnetic field intensity of 61 kA·m-1, the iron recovery rate of the copper slag can reach 91.82%, and the extracted iron powder has an iron grade of 96.21%. With the characteristics of high iron grade and low impurity content, the extracted iron powder can be used as high-quality raw materials of weathering steel.

  15. Design and testing of planar magnetic micromotors fabricated by deep x-ray lithography and electroplating

    SciTech Connect

    Guckel, H.; Christenson, T.R.; Skrobis, K.J.; Klein, J. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Karnowsky, M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The successful design and testing of a three-phase planar integrated magnetic micromotor is presented. Fabrication is based on a modified deep X-ray lithography and electroplating or LIGA process. Maximum rotational speeds of 33,000 rpm are obtained in air with a rotor diameter of 285 {mu}m and do not change when operated in vacuum. Real time rotor response is obtained with an integrated shaft encoder. Long lifetime is evidenced by testing to over 5(10){sup 7} ration cycles without changes in performance. Projected speeds of the present motor configuration are in the vicinity of 100 krpm and are limited by torque ripple. Higher speeds, which are attractive for sensor applications. require constant torque characteristic excitation as is evidenced by ultracentrifuge and gyroscope design. Further understanding of electroplated magnetic material properties will drive these performance improvements.

  16. More female patients and fewer stimuli per session are associated with the short-term antidepressant properties of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS): a meta-analysis of 54 sham-controlled studies published between 1997–2013

    PubMed Central

    Kedzior, Karina Karolina; Azorina, Valeriya; Reitz, Sarah Kim

    2014-01-01

    Background Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) appears to have short-term antidepressant properties. The aim of the current study was to update our previous meta-analysis and to investigate factors associated with the antidepressant properties of rTMS. Method Following a systematic literature search conducted in Medline and PsycInfo, N=14 sham-controlled, parallel design studies (published after 2008 to August 2013) that had utilized rTMS of the DLPFC in major depression were included in the current meta-analysis. The sensitivity and moderator analyses also included data from N=40 studies (published in 1997–2008) from our previous meta-analysis. The effect size (Cohen’s d) in each study was the standardized difference in mean depression scores (on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale) from baseline to final (after last session) in rTMS compared to sham groups. Results According to a random-effects model with inverse-variance weights, depression scores were significantly reduced after rTMS compared to sham in studies published from 2008–2013 based on N=659 patients (overall mean weighted d=?0.42, 95% confidence interval: ?0.66, ?0.18, P=0.001). Combining studies from our past and current meta-analyses (published in 1997–2013; N=54) revealed that depression was significantly reduced after left-fast (>1 Hz), right-slow (?1 Hz), and bilateral (or sequential) rTMS of DLPFC compared to sham. Significant antidepressant properties of rTMS were observed in studies with patients who were treatment resistant, unipolar (or bipolar), non-psychotic, medication-free (or started on antidepressants concurrently with rTMS). According to univariate meta-regressions, depression scores were significantly lower in studies with more female patients and fewer stimuli per session. There was little evidence that publication bias occurred in the analysis. Conclusion According to this study, the largest meta-analysis to date, short-term antidepressant properties of rTMS are independent of concurrent antidepressants and might depend on sex and the number of stimuli per session. PMID:24855360

  17. Transcranial direct current stimulation: A computer-based human model study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim Wagner; Felipe Fregni; Shirley Fecteau; Alan Grodzinsky; Markus Zahn; Alvaro Pascual-Leone

    2007-01-01

    ObjectivesInterest in transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in clinical practice has been growing, however, the knowledge about its efficacy and mechanisms of action remains limited. This paper presents a realistic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived finite element model of currents applied to the human brain during tDCS.

  18. Migraine-Mimicking Headache and Sickle Cell DiseaseA Transcranial Doppler Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GS Silva; P Vicari; HC Junior; MH Idagawa; AR Massaro

    2006-01-01

    Headache occurs in sickle cell disease (SCD), but its characteristics and frequency have not previously been studied. Our aim was to study patterns of headache in adults with SCD and to correlate its presence with blood flow velocities measured by transcranial Doppler (TCD) and with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities. We studied 56 adults with SCD. Twenty-eight patients (50%)

  19. Treatment of depression with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS): A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. Nitsche; Paulo S. Boggio; Felipe Fregni; Alvaro Pascual-Leone

    2009-01-01

    Major Depression Disorder (MDD) is usually accompanied by alterations of cortical activity and excitability, especially in prefrontal areas. These are reflections of a dysfunction in a distributed cortico-subcortical, bihemispheric network. Therefore it is reasonable to hypothesize that altering this pathological state with techniques of brain stimulation may offer a therapeutic target. Besides repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, tonic stimulation with weak

  20. Structural setting and magnetic properties of pseudotachylyte in a deep crustal shear zone, western Canadian shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlandini, O. F.; Mahan, K. H.; Brown, L. L.; Regan, S.; Williams, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    Seismic slip commonly produces pseudotachylytes, a glassy vein-filling substance that is typically interpreted as either a frictional melt or an ultra-triturated cataclasite. In either form, pseudotachylytes are commonly magnetite enriched, even in magnetite-free host rocks, and therefore are potentially useful as high fidelity recorders of natural magnetic fields at the time of slip in a wide array of lithologies. Pseudotachylytes generally have high magnetic susceptibility and thus should preserve the dominant field present as the material passes the Curie temperatures of magnetic minerals, primarily magnetite. Two potential sources have been proposed for the dominant magnetic field recorded: the earth's magnetic field at the time of slip or the temporary and orders of magnitude more intense field created by the presence of coseismic currents along the failure plane. Pseudotachylytes of the Cora Lake shear zone (CLsz) in the Athabasca Granulite Terrain, western Canadian shield, are consistently hosted in high strain ultramylonitic orthogneiss. Sinistral and extensional oblique-slip in the CLsz occurred at high-pressure granulite-grade conditions of ~1.0 GPa and >800°C and may have persisted to somewhat lower P-T conditions (~0.8 GPa, 700 °C) during ductile deformation. Pseudotachylyte-bearing slip surfaces have sinistral offset, matching the larger shear zone, and clasts of wall rock in the more brecciated veins display field evidence for ductile shear along the same plane prior to brittle failure. The presence of undeformed pseudotachylyte in kinematically compatible fracture arrays localized in ultramylonite indicates that brittle failure may have occurred in the waning stages of shear zone activity and at similar deep crustal conditions. Field-documented occurrences of pseudotachylyte include 2 cm-thick veins that run subparallel to mylonitic foliation and contain small flow-aligned clasts and large, heavily brecciated foliation-crosscutting zones up to seven centimeters thick. Field studies of pseudotachylytes in the Cora Lake shear zone confirm high magnetic susceptibility, both by strongly interfering with hand-held compasses and by testing with a hand-held magnetic susceptibility meter (over 7 x10-2 SI). More detailed laboratory analyses are planned in order to clarify the spatial association between veins of pseudotachylyte and areas of magnetic susceptibility. Investigation is also currently underway to determine if the remnant field preserved in these pseudotachylytes dominantly reflects a signature of the Earth's paleomagnetic field or that of a lightning-like coseismic current.

  1. Correlation of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography with MRI and MRA in the evaluation of sickle cell disease patients with prior stroke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Kogutt; S. S. Goldwag; K. L. Gupta; K. Kaneko; J. R. Humbert

    1994-01-01

    We prospectively evaluated a group of patients with sickle cell disease and a clinical history of prior stroke, comparing transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) to both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) to determine its efficacy for the detection of flow abnormalities associated with prior cerebral infarction. Using MRI as the standard examination, there was 94% sensitivity and

  2. Deep X-Ray Lithography Based Fabrication of Rare-Earth Based Permanent Magnets and their Applications to Microactuators

    SciTech Connect

    Christenson, T.R.; Garino, T.J.; Venturini, E.L.

    1999-01-27

    Precision high aspect-ratio micro molds constructed by deep x-ray lithography have been used to batch fabricate accurately shaped bonded rare-earth based permanent magnets with features as small as 5 microns and thicknesses up to 500 microns. Maximum energy products of up to 8 MGOe have been achieved with a 20%/vol. epoxy bonded melt-spun isotropic Nd2Fe14b powder composite. Using individually processed sub- millimeter permanent sections multipole rotors have been assembled. Despite the fact that these permanent magnet structures are small, their magnetic field producing capability remains the same as at any scale. Combining permanent magnet structures with soft magnetic materials and micro-coils makes possible new and more efficient magnetic microdevices.

  3. Go-no-go task performance improvement after anodal transcranial DC stimulation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in major depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulo S. Boggio; Felix Bermpohl; Adriana O. Vergara; Ana L. C. R. Muniz; Fernanda H. Nahas; Priscila B. Leme; Sergio P. Rigonatti; Felipe Fregni

    2007-01-01

    BackgroundWe recently showed that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) can affect the performance in an affective go-no-go (AGN) task. We aimed to extend this previous investigation testing whether one session of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the left DLPFC, as compared with anodal occipital and sham tDCS, affects this AGN task performance.

  4. Toroidal magnetic fields for protecting astronauts from ionizing radiation in long duration deep space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papini, Paolo; Spillantini, Piero

    2014-11-01

    Among the configurations of superconducting magnet structures proposed for protecting manned spaceships or manned deep space bases from ionizing radiation, toroidal ones are the most appealing for the efficient use of the magnetic field, being most of the incoming particle directions perpendicular to the induction lines of the field. The parameters of the toroid configuration essentially depend from the shape and volume of the habitat to be protected and the level of protection to be guaranteed. Two options are considered: (1) the magnetic system forming with the habitat a unique complex (compact toroid) to be launched as one piece; (2) the magnetic system to be launched separately from the habitat and assembled around it in space (large toroid). In first option the system habitat+toroid is assumed to have a cylindrical shape, with the toroid surrounding a cylindrical habitat, and launched with its axis on the axis of the launching system. The outer diameter is limited by the diameter of the shroud, which for present and foreseeable launching systems cannot be more than 9 m. The habitat is assumed to be 10 m long and have a 4 m diameter, leaving about 2 m all around for the protecting magnetic field. The volume of the habitat results about 100 m3, barely sufficient to a somewhat small crew (4-5 members) for a long duration (?2 years) mission. Technological problems and the huge magnetic pressure exerted on the inner cylindrical conductor of the toroid limit to not more than 4 T the maximum intensity of the magnetic field. With these parameters the mitigation of the dose inside the habitat due to the galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) is about 70% at minimum solar activity, while also most intense solar events cannot significantly contribute to the dose. The toroidal magnetic field can be produced by a large number of windings of the superconducting cable, arranged in cylindrical symmetry around the habitat to form continuous inner and outer cylindrical surfaces ('continuous' winding). In the option of separated launches for the habitat and the magnetic system, the volume of the habitat can be much larger, up to ?300 m3, i.e. a volume to be considered for a permanently manned space basis rather than for a spaceship. The toroidal field can occupy a larger volume around it, and indeed be less intense (B<3 T) for obtaining the same mitigation of the radiation dose inside the habitat. Also for the separate launches option several structural arrangements can be foreseen, depending from the considered number of windings. The limit of only two huge windings is the most attractive, as it minimizes the material and could be mechanically more stable, but it could be the most difficult to be assembled in space. Main parameters for the different configurations are reported, and the plan for the development of solutions and techniques is presented.

  5. Magnetic fabrics in deformed metaperidotites of the Outokumpu Deep Drill Core, Finland: Implications for a major crustal shear zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontny, Agnes; Dietze, Frank

    2014-08-01

    The Outokumpu (OKU) assemblage was studied in drill cores from the 2516 m deep OKU Deep Drill Hole, Finland, and we observed that the strongest magnetic anomalies found in borehole measurements are related to three ferrimagnetic metaperidotite units with magnetic susceptibilities of up to 93 × 10- 3 SI separated by paramagnetic rock units. The main ferrimagnetic minerals are magnetite and minor pyrrhotite. Magnetic fabric studies were done in order to examine deformation within the OKU assemblage during the collisional deformation event 1.9 Ga ago. Well-defined magnetic axes (kmax, kmin) and nearly horizontal magnetic foliation subparallel to the macroscopic foliation occur at the top and the bottom of the OKU formation. Low- and high-field AMS measurements showed that ferri- and paramagnetic subfabrics are coaxial. Paramagnetic units intercalated between the ferrimagnetic units show mostly triaxial magnetic fabrics, and low degrees of magnetic anisotropy values (P? < 1.3) with a high variation of the shape factor (T) from prolate to oblate shapes. P? of the ferrimagnetic metaperidotite is high and range between 1.3 and 3.6 and T tends to more oblate shapes (T > 0). Ferrimagnetic unit 2 shows the highest magnetic susceptibility and P? up to 5.6, which is related to a high amount of magnetite and pyrrhotite mostly concentrated in huge aggregates and veins. Alignment of magnetic minerals parallel with the structural foliation and the high P? values in the ferrimagnetic metaperidotite indicate that magnetic fabric was acquired in a high strain zone. The magnetic fabrics represent shear zone (SC) fabrics, which have been formed during early obduction-related deformation of the Svecofennian orogeny. The stacked sequence of the ferri- and paramagnetic metaperidotite bodies can be interpreted as a thrust system with an imbricate fan, in which three individual listric thrust sheets occur. This interpretation is in accordance with previous tectonic models of the Outokumpu area.

  6. Transcranial direct current stimulation for major depression: A general system for quantifying transcranial electrotherapy dosage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marom Bikson; Peter Bulow; John W. Stiller; Abhishek Datta; Fortunato Battaglia; Sergei V. Karnup; Teodor T. Postolache

    2008-01-01

    Opinion statement  There has been a recent resurgence of interest in therapeutic modalities using transcranial weak electrical stimulation through\\u000a scalp electrodes, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), as a means of experimentally modifying and studying\\u000a brain function and possibly treating psychiatric conditions. A range of electrotherapy paradigms have been investigated, but\\u000a no consistent method has been indicated for reporting reproducible

  7. Modulation of moving phosphene thresholds by transcranial direct current stimulation of V1 in human

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Antal; Tamás Z. Kincses; Michael A. Nitsche; Walter Paulus

    2003-01-01

    Small moving sensations, so-called moving phosphenes are perceived, when V5, a visual area important for visual motion analysis, is stimulated by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). However, it is still a matter of debate if only V5 takes part in movement perception or other visual areas are also involved in this process. In this study we tested the involvement of V1

  8. Deep-Sea Magnetics on Active and Fossil Hydrothermal Sites: a Tool to Detect and Characterize Submarine Ore Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyment, J.; Szitkar, F.; Fouquet, Y.; Choi, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Since the first discoveries of hydrothermal sites at mid-ocean ridges in the 70s, international efforts in the deep seafloor exploration have unravelled a wide variety of hydrothermal sites in terms of geological settings, physical parameters, and biological communities as well. Such efforts, coordinated in the InterRidge program since 1992, are becoming even more important when the increasing need in metals for developing economies makes the exploitation of metal sulfides accumulated at deep-sea hydrothermal sites a realistic target. The usual method to find hydrothermal sites is to detect the associated chemical plumes enriched in manganese, methane, hydrogen, helium 3, in the water column. How efficient it has been proven, such a method is limited to the search for active hydrothermal vents. Active vents, however, are not the best places for mining the seafloor, because (1) they host massive sulfides deposits in the making and may not represent the largest accumulation; (2) they are still very hot and would rapidly damage the mining tools; and, last but not the least, (3) they host fragile and precious ecosystem that could be dramatically affected by mining operations. Methods to find fossil hydrothermal sites (i.e. colder and devoid of specific ecosystems) include systematic rock sampling - a very tedious endeavour - and high resolution, near seafloor geophysical surveys. Existing magnetic surveys on basalt-hosted, peridotite-hosted and sediment-hosted sites revealed different types of signatures, which reflect the magnetizations of the host rock and the ore deposit, among others. Basalt-hosted sites exhibit negative magnetic anomalies, i.e. a deficit of magnetization, due to thermal demagnetization and hydrothermal alteration of the highly magnetic basalt, whereas both peridotite-hosted and sediment-hosted sites show positive anomalies, i.e. an excess of magnetization, clearly associated with the ore deposit. Results from recent cruises Serpentine (R/V Pourquoi pas?, 2007) and MoMARDream (R/V L'Atalante, 2008), both using ROV Victor of IFREMER, on basalt and ultramafic-hosted sites of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, will be presented. High resolution, deep-sea magnetic investigations may therefore significantly contribute to the detection and characterization of active and fossil sites and to the evaluation of their mining potential, for instance through a fleet of small AUV exploring systematically the deep seafloor.

  9. Massive Transcranial Parotid Pleomorphic Adenoma: Recurrence after 30 Years*

    PubMed Central

    Strub, Graham M.; Georgolios, Alexandros; Graham, Robert S.; Powers, Celeste N.; Coelho, Daniel H.

    2012-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma, also known as benign mixed tumor, is the most common tumor affecting the parotid gland and can reach massive size; however, intracranial invasion is rare. Recurrence of pleomorphic adenoma after excision is a well-known phenomenon and can present decades after resection of the primary tumor. Here we present the case of a 53-year-old man who presented to our clinic with ear fullness, otalgia, and hearing loss 30 years after undergoing total parotidectomy and external beam radiotherapy for pleomorphic adenoma. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a massive transcranial tumor invading the mastoid cavity, the dura of the posterior fossa, the fallopian and semicircular canals, the jugular foramen, the lateral infratemporal fossa skull base, the sigmoid and transverse sinuses, and the superior parapharyngeal region. Gross examination and histopathological studies confirmed that the mass was a recurrent pleomorphic adenoma. Here we discuss the features of recurrent pleomorphic adenoma and review the current literature. PMID:23946917

  10. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Augments Perceptual Sensitivity and 24-Hour Retention in a

    E-print Network

    Parasuraman, Raja

    Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Augments Perceptual Sensitivity and 24-Hour Retention Abstract We have previously shown that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) improved performance) Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Augments Perceptual Sensitivity and 24-Hour Retention in a Complex

  11. Empirical research Enhancing vigilance in operators with prefrontal cortex transcranial direct current

    E-print Network

    Parasuraman, Raja

    2012 Available online xxxx Keywords: Noninvasive brain stimulation Transcranial direct current prefrontal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) at one of two different time points duringEmpirical research Enhancing vigilance in operators with prefrontal cortex transcranial direct

  12. MR-guided transcranial brain HIFU in small animal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrat, B.; Pernot, M.; Aubry, J.-F.; Dervishi, E.; Sinkus, R.; Seilhean, D.; Marie, Y.; Boch, A.-L.; Fink, M.; Tanter, M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the feasibility of transcranial high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy in the brain using adaptive focusing techniques. However, the complexity of the procedures imposes provision of accurate targeting, monitoring and control of this emerging therapeutic modality in order to ensure the safety of the treatment and avoid potential damaging effects of ultrasound on healthy tissues. For these purposes, a complete workflow and setup for HIFU treatment under magnetic resonance (MR) guidance is proposed and implemented in rats. For the first time, tissue displacements induced by the acoustic radiation force are detected in vivo in brain tissues and measured quantitatively using motion-sensitive MR sequences. Such a valuable target control prior to treatment assesses the quality of the focusing pattern in situ and enables us to estimate the acoustic intensity at focus. This MR-acoustic radiation force imaging is then correlated with conventional MR-thermometry sequences which are used to follow the temperature changes during the HIFU therapeutic session. Last, pre- and post-treatment magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) datasets are acquired and evaluated as a new potential way to non-invasively control the stiffness changes due to the presence of thermal necrosis. As a proof of concept, MR-guided HIFU is performed in vitro in turkey breast samples and in vivo in transcranial rat brain experiments. The experiments are conducted using a dedicated MR-compatible HIFU setup in a high-field MRI scanner (7 T). Results obtained on rats confirmed that both the MR localization of the US focal point and the pre- and post-HIFU measurement of the tissue stiffness, together with temperature control during HIFU are feasible and valuable techniques for efficient monitoring of HIFU in the brain. Brain elasticity appears to be more sensitive to the presence of oedema than to tissue necrosis.

  13. The value of transcranial Doppler derived pulsatility index for diagnosing cerebral small-vessel disease

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbani, Abbas; Ahmadi, Mohammad Javad; Shemshaki, Hamidreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: The pulsatility index (PI), measured by transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography, can reflect vascular resistance induced by cerebral small-vessel disease (SVD). We evaluated the value of TCD-derived PI for diagnosing SVD as compared with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods: Fifty-six consecutive cases with SVD (based on MRI) and 48 controls with normal MRI underwent TCD. Based on MRI findings, patients were categorized into five subgroups of preventricular hyperintensity (PVH), deep white matter hyperintensity (DWMH), lacunar, pontin hyperintensity (PH), and PVH+DWMH+lacunar. The sensitivity and specificity of TCD in best PI cut-off points were calculated in each group. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of TCD in comparison with MRI with best PI cut-off points were as follows: In PVH with PI = 0.83, the sensitivity and specificity was 90% and 98%, respectively. In DWMH with PI = 0.79, the sensitivity and specificity was 75% and 87.5%, respectively. In lacunar with PI = 0.80, the sensitivity and specificity was 73% and 90%, respectively. In PH with PI = 0.69, the sensitivity and specificity was 92% and 87.5%, respectively. And, in PVH+DWMH+lacunar subgroup with PI = 0.83, the sensitivity and specificity was 90% and 96%, respectively. Conclusions: Increased TCD derived PI can accurately indicate the SVD. Hence, TCD can be used as a non-invasive and inexpensive method for diagnosing SVD, and TCD-derived PI can be considered as a physiologic index of the disease as well.

  14. Absolute magnetization of the seafloor at a basalt-hosted hydrothermal site: Insights from a deep-sea submersible survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szitkar, Florent; Dyment, Jérôme; Fouquet, Yves; Choi, Yujin; Honsho, Chie

    2015-02-01

    The analysis of high-resolution vector magnetic data acquired by deep-sea submersibles (DSSs) requires the development of specific approaches adapted to their uneven tracks. We present a method that takes advantage of (1) the varying altitude of the DSS above the seafloor and (2) high-resolution multibeam bathymetric data acquired separately, at higher altitude, by an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle, to estimate the absolute magnetization intensity and the magnetic polarity of the shallow subseafloor along the DSS path. We apply this method to data collected by DSS Nautile on a small active basalt-hosted hydrothermal site. The site is associated with a lack of magnetization, in agreement with previous findings at the same kind of sites: the contrast between nonmagnetic sulfide deposits/stockwork zone and strongly magnetized basalt is sufficient to explain the magnetic signal observed at such a low altitude. Both normal and reversed polarities are observed in the lava flows surrounding the site, suggesting complex history of accumulating volcanic flows.

  15. In Vivo Magnetization Transfer and Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Detects Thrombus Composition in a Mouse Model of Deep Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Prakash; Modarai, Bijan; Smith, Alberto; Botnar, René M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Deep vein thrombosis remains a major health problem necessitating accurate diagnosis. Thrombolysis is associated with significant morbidity and is effective only for the treatment of unorganized thrombus. We tested the feasibility of in vivo magnetization transfer (MT) and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to detect thrombus organization in a murine model of deep vein thrombosis. Methods and Results Deep vein thrombosis was induced in the inferior vena cava of male BALB/C mice. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed at days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 after thrombus induction using MT, diffusion-weighted, inversion-recovery, and T1-mapping protocols. Delayed enhancement and T1 mapping were repeated 2 hours after injection of a fibrin contrast agent. Finally, excised thrombi were used for histology. We found that MT and diffusion-weighted imaging can detect histological changes associated with thrombus aging. MT rate (MTR) maps and percentage of MT rate (%MTR) allowed visualization and quantification of the thrombus protein content, respectively. The %MTR increased with thrombus organization and was significantly higher at days 14, 21, and 28 after thrombus induction (days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28: %MTR=2483±451, 2079±1210, 7029±2490, 10 295±4356, 32 994±25 449; Panova<0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between the %MTR and the histological protein content of the thrombus (r=0.70; P<0.05). The apparent diffusion coefficient was lower in erythrocyte-rich and collagen-rich thrombus (0.72±0.10 and 0.69±0.05 [×10?3 mm2/s]). Thrombus at days 7 and 14 had the highest apparent diffusion coefficient values (0.95±0.09 and 1.10±0.18 [×10?3 mm2/s]). Conclusions MT and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging sequences are promising for the staging of thrombus composition and could be useful in guiding medical intervention. PMID:23564561

  16. Excitability changes induced in the human motor cortex by weak transcranial direct current stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Nitsche, M A; Paulus, W

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate in the intact human the possibility of a non-invasive modulation of motor cortex excitability by the application of weak direct current through the scalp.Excitability changes of up to 40 %, revealed by transcranial magnetic stimulation, were accomplished and lasted for several minutes after the end of current stimulation.Excitation could be achieved selectively by anodal stimulation, and inhibition by cathodal stimulation.By varying the current intensity and duration, the strength and duration of the after-effects could be controlled.The effects were probably induced by modification of membrane polarisation. Functional alterations related to post-tetanic potentiation, short-term potentiation and processes similar to postexcitatory central inhibition are the likely candidates for the excitability changes after the end of stimulation. Transcranial electrical stimulation using weak current may thus be a promising tool to modulate cerebral excitability in a non-invasive, painless, reversible, selective and focal way. PMID:10990547

  17. Deep-tow magnetic anomaly study of the Pacific Jurassic Quiet Zone and implications for the geomagnetic polarity reversal timescale and

    E-print Network

    ., 113, B07110, doi:10.1029/2007JB005527. 1. Introduction [2] The Jurassic period appears to be a time of the Jurassic magnetic field. It was once suggested that this Jurassic ``Quiet Zone'' (JQZ) reflects a periodDeep-tow magnetic anomaly study of the Pacific Jurassic Quiet Zone and implications

  18. Characterization of deep geothermal energy resources using Electro-Magnetic methods, Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loveless, Sian; Harcout-Menou, Virginie; De Ridder, Fjo; Claessens, Bert; Laenen, Ben

    2014-05-01

    Sedimentary basins in Northwest Europe have significant potential for low to medium enthalpy, deep geothermal energy resources. These resources are currently assessed using standard exploration techniques (seismic investigations followed by drilling of a borehole). This has enabled identification of geothermal resources but such techniques are extremely costly. The high cost of exploration remains one of the main barriers to geothermal project development due to the lack of capital in the geothermal industry. We will test the possibility of using the Electro-Magnetic (EM) methods to aid identification of geothermal resources in conjunction with more traditional exploration methods. An EM campaign could cost a third of a seismic campaign and is also often a passive technology, resulting in smaller environmental impacts than seismic surveys or drilling. EM methods image changes in the resistivity of the earth's sub-surface using natural or induced frequency dependant variations of electric and magnetic fields. Changes in resistivity can be interpreted as representing different subsurface properties including changes in rock type, chemistry, temperature and/or hydraulic transmissivity. While EM techniques have proven to be useful in geothermal exploration in high enthalpy areas in the last 2-3 years only a handful of studies assess their applicability in low enthalpy sedimentary basins. Challenges include identifying which sub-surface features cause changes in electrical resistivity as low enthalpy reservoirs are unlikely to exhibit the hydrothermally altered clay layer above the geothermal aquifer that is typical for high enthalpy reservoirs. Yet a principal challenge is likely to be the high levels of industrialisation in the areas of interest. Infrastructure such as train tracks and power cables can create a high level of background noise that can obfuscate the relevant signal. We present our plans for an EM campaign in the Flemish region of Belgium. Field techniques will be developed to increase the signal-noise ratio and identify background noise. Firstly, surface noise will be filtered off by non-parametric approaches such as proper orthogonal decomposition. Secondly, the EM signal and newly acquired seismic data will be combined to obtain a multi-dimensional earth model via an inversion process. Typically, these identification procedures are non-unique, resulting in multiple possible scenarios that cannot be distinguished based on the information at hand. To this end standard approaches) use a regularisation term including an apriori model. Here, Bayesian approaches will also be used, in which expert knowledge is used to guide the outcome to reasonable solutions. We will assess the reduction in uncertainty and therefore risks that EM methods can provide when used in combination with seismic surveys for geothermal exploration prior to drilling. It may also be possible to use this technique for monitoring the evolution of geothermal systems. Such techniques may prove to be extremely valuable for the future development of geothermal energy resources.

  19. Spectral image reconstruction for transcranial ultrasound measurement

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Greg T.

    2005-01-01

    An approach aimed at improved ultrasound resolution and signal strength through highly attenuating media is presented. The method delivers a series of multiple-cycle bursts in order to construct a discrete spectral (frequency domain) response in one dimension. Cross-correlation of this ultrasound A-mode response with its transmitted signal results in time-localized peaks that correspond to scattering locations. The approach is particularly relevant to the problem of transcranial ultrasound imaging, as it combines numerous smaller signals into a single signal whose net power may exceed that which could be achieved using a single burst. Tests are performed with human skull fragments and nylon-wire targets embedded in a tissue phantom. Skulls are oriented to produce both lateral and shear modes of transcranial propagation. A total of 9 locations distributed over three ex vivo human skull samples are studied. Compared with pulsed and chirped signals, results indicate more localized peaks when using the multi-cycle approach, with more accurate positioning when combined with the transcranial shear mode. PMID:16306652

  20. Spectral image reconstruction for transcranial ultrasound measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, Greg T.

    2005-12-01

    An approach aimed at improved ultrasound resolution and signal strength through highly attenuating media is presented. The method delivers a series of multiple-cycle bursts in order to construct a discrete spectral (frequency domain) response in one dimension. Cross-correlation of this ultrasound A-mode response with its transmitted signal results in time-localized peaks that correspond to scattering locations. The approach is particularly relevant to the problem of transcranial ultrasound imaging, as it combines numerous smaller signals into a single signal whose net power may exceed that which could be achieved using a single burst. Tests are performed with human skull fragments and nylon-wire targets embedded in a tissue phantom. Skulls are oriented to produce both lateral and shear modes of transcranial propagation. A total of nine locations distributed over three ex vivo human skull samples are studied. Compared with pulsed and chirped signals, results indicate more localized peaks when using the multi-cycle approach, with more accurate positioning when combined with the transcranial shear mode.

  1. Parietal transcranial direct current stimulation modulates primary motor cortex excitability.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Urbina, Guadalupe Nathzidy; Batsikadze, Giorgi; Molero-Chamizo, Andrés; Paulus, Walter; Kuo, Min-Fang; Nitsche, Michael A

    2015-03-01

    The posterior parietal cortex is part of the cortical network involved in motor learning and is structurally and functionally connected with the primary motor cortex (M1). Neuroplastic alterations of neuronal connectivity might be an important basis for learning processes. These have however not been explored for parieto-motor connections in humans by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Exploring tDCS effects on parieto-motor cortical connectivity might be functionally relevant, because tDCS has been shown to improve motor learning. We aimed to explore plastic alterations of parieto-motor cortical connections by tDCS in healthy humans. We measured neuroplastic changes of corticospinal excitability via motor evoked potentials (MEP) elicited by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) before and after tDCS over the left posterior parietal cortex (P3), and 3 cm posterior or lateral to P3, to explore the spatial specificity of the effects. Furthermore, short-interval intracortical inhibition/intracortical facilitation (SICI/ICF) over M1, and parieto-motor cortical connectivity were obtained before and after P3 tDCS. The results show polarity-dependent M1 excitability alterations primarily after P3 tDCS. Single-pulse TMS-elicited MEPs, M1 SICI/ICF at 5 and 7 ms and 10 and 15 ms interstimulus intervals (ISIs), and parieto-motor connectivity at 10 and 15 ms ISIs were all enhanced by anodal stimulation. Single pulse-TMS-elicited MEPs, and parieto-motor connectivity at 10 and 15 ms ISIs were reduced by cathodal tDCS. The respective corticospinal excitability alterations lasted for at least 120 min after stimulation. These results show an effect of remote stimulation of parietal areas on M1 excitability. The spatial specificity of the effects and the impact on parietal cortex-motor cortex connections suggest a relevant connectivity-driven effect. PMID:25645274

  2. Ground States of Ultracold Spin-1 Atoms in a Deep Double-Well Optical Superlattice in a Weak Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Gong-Ping; Qin, Shuai-Feng; Wang, Shou-Yang; Jian, Wen-Tian

    2013-04-01

    The ground states of the ultracold spin-1 atoms trapped in a deep one-dimensional double-well optical superlattice in a weak magnetic field are obtained. It is shown that the ground-state diagrams of the reduced double-well model are remarkably different for the antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic condensates. The transition between the singlet state and nematic state is observed for the antiferromagnetic interaction atoms, which can be realized by modulating the tunneling parameter or the quadratic Zeeman energy. An experiment to distinguish the different spin states is suggested.

  3. Electronic and magnetic structures of the postperovskite-type Fe2O3 and implications for planetary magnetic records and deep interiors.

    PubMed

    Shim, Sang-Heon; Bengtson, Amelia; Morgan, Dane; Sturhahn, Wolfgang; Catalli, Krystle; Zhao, Jiyong; Lerche, Michael; Prakapenka, Vitali

    2009-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that high pressure (P) induces the metallization of the Fe(2+)-O bonding, the destruction of magnetic ordering in Fe, and the high-spin (HS) to low-spin (LS) transition of Fe in silicate and oxide phases at the deep planetary interiors. Hematite (Fe(2)O(3)) is an important magnetic carrier mineral for deciphering planetary magnetism and a proxy for Fe in the planetary interiors. Here, we present synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction combined with ab initio calculations for Fe(2)O(3) revealing the destruction of magnetic ordering at the hematite --> Rh(2)O(3)-II type (RhII) transition at 70 GPa and 300 K, and then the revival of magnetic ordering at the RhII --> postperovskite (PPv) transition after laser heating at 73 GPa. At the latter transition, at least half of Fe(3+) ions transform from LS to HS and Fe(2)O(3) changes from a semiconductor to a metal. This result demonstrates that some magnetic carrier minerals may experience a complex sequence of magnetic ordering changes during impact rather than a monotonic demagnetization. Also local Fe enrichment at Earth's core-mantle boundary will lead to changes in the electronic structure and spin state of Fe in silicate PPv. If the ultra-low-velocity zones are composed of Fe-enriched silicate PPv and/or the basaltic materials are accumulated at the lowermost mantle, high electrical conductivity of these regions will play an important role for the electromagnetic coupling between the mantle and the core. PMID:19279204

  4. Electronic and magnetic structures of the postperovskite-type Fe2O3 and implications for planetary magnetic records and deep interiors

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Sang-Heon; Bengtson, Amelia; Morgan, Dane; Sturhahn, Wolfgang; Catalli, Krystle; Zhao, Jiyong; Lerche, Michael; Prakapenka, Vitali

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that high pressure (P) induces the metallization of the Fe2+–O bonding, the destruction of magnetic ordering in Fe, and the high-spin (HS) to low-spin (LS) transition of Fe in silicate and oxide phases at the deep planetary interiors. Hematite (Fe2O3) is an important magnetic carrier mineral for deciphering planetary magnetism and a proxy for Fe in the planetary interiors. Here, we present synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction combined with ab initio calculations for Fe2O3 revealing the destruction of magnetic ordering at the hematite ? Rh2O3-II type (RhII) transition at 70 GPa and 300 K, and then the revival of magnetic ordering at the RhII ? postperovskite (PPv) transition after laser heating at 73 GPa. At the latter transition, at least half of Fe3+ ions transform from LS to HS and Fe2O3 changes from a semiconductor to a metal. This result demonstrates that some magnetic carrier minerals may experience a complex sequence of magnetic ordering changes during impact rather than a monotonic demagnetization. Also local Fe enrichment at Earth's core-mantle boundary will lead to changes in the electronic structure and spin state of Fe in silicate PPv. If the ultra-low-velocity zones are composed of Fe-enriched silicate PPv and/or the basaltic materials are accumulated at the lowermost mantle, high electrical conductivity of these regions will play an important role for the electromagnetic coupling between the mantle and the core. PMID:19279204

  5. Transcranial direct current stimulation: State of the art 2008

    E-print Network

    Miall, Chris

    Transcranial direct current stimulation: State of the art 2008 Michael A. Nitsche, MDa , Leonardo G. Beyond this, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of different cortical areas has been shown direct currents is a promising tool in human neuroscience and neurobehavioral research. To facilitate

  6. Cerebral Microembolism Detected by Transcranial Doppler During Cardiac Procedures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Stygall; Robert Kong; J. Malcolm Walker; Suzanna M. C. Hardman; Michael J. G. Harrison; Stanton P. Newman; Dip Psych

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose—Cerebral embolism with clinical sequelae may rarely complicate cardioversion and cardiac catheterization. Transcranial Doppler sonography has recently been introduced to monitor microemboli entering the middle cerebral artery in cardiac and carotid surgery. We therefore used this technique to evaluate the risk of asymptomatic embolism during common cardiac procedures. Methods—Patients were monitored by transcranial Doppler while undergoing direct current

  7. Boosting brain excitability by transcranial high frequency stimulation in the ripple range

    PubMed Central

    Moliadze, Vera; Antal, Andrea; Paulus, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Alleviating the symptoms of neurological diseases by increasing cortical excitability through transcranial stimulation is an ongoing scientific challenge. Here, we tackle this issue by interfering with high frequency oscillations (80–250 Hz) via external application of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) over the human motor cortex (M1). Twenty-one subjects participated in three different experimental studies and they received on separate days tACS at three frequencies (80 Hz, 140 Hz and 250 Hz) and sham stimulation in a randomized order. tACS with 140 Hz frequency increased M1 excitability as measured by transcranial magnetic stimulation-generated motor evoked potentials (MEPs) during and for up to 1 h after stimulation. Control experiments with sham and 80 Hz stimulation were without any effect, and 250 Hz stimulation was less efficient with a delayed excitability induction and reduced duration. After-effects elicited by 140 Hz stimulation were robust against inversion of test MEP amplitudes seen normally under activation. Stimulation at 140 Hz reduced short interval intracortical inhibition, but left intracortical facilitation, long interval cortical inhibition and cortical silent period unchanged. Implicit motor learning was not facilitated by 140 Hz stimulation. High frequency stimulation in the ripple range is a new promising non-invasive brain stimulation protocol to increase human cortical excitability during and after the end of stimulation. PMID:20962008

  8. Imaging of current density and current pathways in rabbit brain during transcranial electrostimulation.

    PubMed

    Joy, M L; Lebedev, V P; Gati, J S

    1999-09-01

    A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method was used for a noninvasive study of current density (CD) and current pathways (CP's) inside the skull during transcranial electrostimulation in rabbits. The transcranial impulse current directions studied were those previously used in transcranial electric treatment either sagittally or bilaterally. MRI data were collected from slices perpendicular to the direction of current application. In these slices, only the perpendicular component of the CD was measured. Computer methods for accurate topographic mapping of the main areas with high CD and for reconstruction of CP's are described. It was revealed that current applied on the head sagittally passed mostly through the cerebrospinal fluid in the basal brain cisternas connected in series, and through the anterior horns of the lateral ventricles, foramina of Monro, ventrocaudal part of the third ventricle, aqueductus, and fourth ventricle. Possible connections between these CP's are suggested. Bilaterally applied current passed through the brain and skull core more diffusely without concentrations in cisternas and ventricles. The results of the present study suggest an explanation for the observation that sagittally applied current more effectively stimulates brain structures with antinociceptive function and elicits more pronounced analgesic effect. PMID:10493077

  9. Violation of the Guiding Center Approximation for Energetic Ions in the Deep Inner Magnetosphere during Magnetic Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibahara, K.; Nose, M.

    2009-12-01

    During a magnetic storm, the ring current is developed in the inner magnetosphere. It is believed that the decrease of Dst index during a strom is mainly due to the development of the ring current. Recent numerical simulations have revealed how the ring current grows and decays (Lemon et al., 2004; Zaharia et al., 2006) in the self-consistent field with the guiding center approximation (GCA). This approximation breaks down if the spatial scale of the magnetic field change is comparable to the gyroradius. From the following two reasons, we suspect an approach to treat motion of ring current oxygen ions with the GCA. (1) During magnetic storms a dominant part of energy density of the ring current is carried by oxygen ions (Daglis at al., 1999) which are 16 times heavier than protons; that is, gyroradius of oxygen ions is 4 times larger than that of protons with the same kinetic energy. (2) Magnetic field configuration becomes far deviated from dipole field even in the deep inner magnetosphere. In this study, we examine whether the GCA is valid for ring current ions, in particular for oxygen ions. We compared energetic ion trajectories computed by the Lorentz equation and those by the GCA equation (Northrop, 1963). We used the TS04 (Tsyganenko and Sitnov, 2005) magnetic field model as well as the Volland-Stern (Volland 1973; Stern 1975) electric field model. In case of integration of the Lorentz equation, we found that some of ions have different trajectories from those of the GCA equation. Most remarkable results can be summarized as follows. First, ions having a pitch angle of ~90 degrees do not conserve the first adiabatic invariant and gradually increase their amplitude of bouncing motion around the magnetic equator. Second, an ion with a large gyroradius (i.e, an energetic oxygen ion) can be accelerated thorough the meandering motion even in the deep inner magnetosphere. Above-mentioned results lead some interest phenomena, for example, pitch angle distribution or the development of the ring current. Therefore, we suggest that GCA may not describe the ring current development and decay appropriately.

  10. MRI-based magnetic navigation of nanomedical devices for drug delivery and hyperthermia in deep tissues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Baptiste Mathieu; Sylvain Martel

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners can be used with minimum upgrades as integrated platforms for targeted delivery of micro\\/nanoparticles in the human body. In addition to being widespread in hospitals, they provide real-time tracking, control and means of propulsion for magnetic devices without penetration depth limitations. From these positive features, MRI appears as the perfect central element of a nanomedical

  11. Deep TMS add-on treatment for intractable Tourette syndrome: A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Yuval; Arad, Shira; Levkovitz, Yechiel

    2014-10-24

    Objectives. In a considerable minority of patients who suffer from Tourette syndrome (TS) the disorder persists into adulthood and is associated with severe symptoms and limited therapeutic options. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the supplementary motor area (SMA) has shown promising therapeutic results. Deep rTMS is a novel technology that enables deeper non-invasive cortical stimulation. This open-label pilot study is the first to examine the possible role of deep rTMS as add-on treatment for intractable TS. Methods. Twelve patients were recruited in order to examine bilateral SMA inhibition via deep TMS using the HBDL coil, as a possible treatment for adult TS treatment-resistant patients. Two patients did not complete the 20-day study protocol. Results. There were no significant side effects. While tics did not improve among the group as a whole, the subgroup of six patients with combined TS and OCD (obsessive compulsive syndrome) showed significant improvement in tic severity (P = 0.037). Conclusions. These findings support the safety of deep rTMS for treating TS. The results also highlight the importance of studying the different TS syndromes separately (e.g., with or without OCD comorbidity) when evaluating deep rTMS protocols for TS patients. PMID:25342253

  12. Integrated Analysis on Gravity and Magnetic Fields of the Hailar Basin, NE China: Implications for Basement Structure and Deep Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, B.; Wang, L.; Dong, P.; Scientific Team Of Applied Geophysics

    2010-12-01

    The Hailar Basin is one of the most representative basins among the Northeast China Basin Group, which is situated in the east of East Asia Orogene between the Siberia Plate and the North China Plate. Based on the detailed analysis of the Bouguer gravity anomaly, aeromagnetic anomaly as well as petrophysical data, we studied the features of gravity-magnetic fields in the basin and its neighboring areas. A combined approach of Wavelet Multi-scale Decomposition and Power Spectrum Analysis was adopted to quantitatively grade the gravity and magnetic anomalies into four levels. Accordingly, the apparent depths of the source fields can be assessed. The results reveal the crustal density and magnetic structures of the Hailar Basin. Low-order wavelet details of gravity-magnetic anomalies were carried out on studying basin basement structure. Seven major basement faults of the basin were identified, and the basement lithology was discussed and predicted. Three major uplifts and 14 depressions were delineated according to basement depth inversion by the Park method. High-order wavelet approximations of gravity-magnetic anomalies were carried out on studying deep tectonics of the basin. The average Moho depth of the study area is about 40 km, with a mantle uplift located in the northeast of the basin. The average depth of the Curie interface is about 19 km, while the uplift of the Curie interface is in the basin center and its east and west sides are depressions. Finally, inversion of Bouguer gravity anomalies was conducted on an across-basin GGT profile using the Wavelet Multi-scale Decomposition. The inversion results are consistent with those of GGT seismic inversion, suggesting that the Wavelet Multi-scale Decomposition can be applied to distinguish major crustal density interfaces.

  13. Acute stroke: therapeutic transcranial color duplex sonography.

    PubMed

    Eggers, Jürgen

    2006-01-01

    The enhancement of thrombolysis by ultrasound energy (sonothrombolysis) is an emerging field of interest in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Recent in vitro and clinical studies have investigated the effects of using transcranially applied 'diagnostic' ultrasound for this purpose. Using transcranial color duplex sonography (TCDS) allows an examiner to identify the site of occlusion and focus the ultrasound beam on it. Clinical studies using TCDS to enhance thrombolysis in acute middle cerebral artery occlusions have revealed an accelerating effect on recanalization, as well as a tendency for a better outcome. Data from small sample studies suggest that this effect on recanalization is present not only in combination with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA), but also with any thrombolytic drug. However, when TCDS was used in combination with rt-PA, an increase in the rate of asymptomatic and symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhages tended to occur compared to patients treated with thrombolysis alone. Larger sample-sized clinical studies should be conducted in the future to evaluate the safety and efficacy of using TCDS for sonothrombolysis. This method should also be further developed to determine its effect when used in combination with other types of ultrasound and thrombolytic drugs. PMID:17290135

  14. Transcranial photoacoustic tomography of the monkey brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Liming; Huang, Chao; Guo, Zijian; Anastasio, Mark; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-02-01

    A photoacoustic tomography (PAT) system using a virtual point ultrasonic transducer was developed for transcranial imaging of monkey brains. The virtual point transducer provided a 10 times greater field-of-view (FOV) than finiteaperture unfocused transducers, which enables large primate imaging. The cerebral cortex of a monkey brain was accurately mapped transcranially, through up to two skulls ranging from 4 to 8 mm in thickness. The mass density and speed of sound distributions of the skull were estimated from adjunct X-ray CT image data and utilized with a timereversal algorithm to mitigate artifacts in the reconstructed image due to acoustic aberration. The oxygenation saturation (sO2) in blood phantoms through a monkey skull was also imaged and quantified, with results consistent with measurements by a gas analyzer. The oxygenation saturation (sO2) in blood phantoms through a monkey skull was also imaged and quantified, with results consistent with measurements by a gas analyzer. Our experimental results demonstrate that PAT can overcome the optical and ultrasound attenuation of a relatively thick skull, and the imaging aberration caused by skull can be corrected to a great extent.

  15. Magnetic signature of large exhumed mantle domains of the Southwest Indian Ridge - results from a deep-tow geophysical survey over 0 to 11 Ma old seafloor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronner, A.; Sauter, D.; Munschy, M.; Carlut, J.; Searle, R.; Cannat, M.; Manatschal, G.

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the magnetic signature of ultramafic seafloor in the eastern part of the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR). There, detachment faulting, continuous over 11 Myr, exhumed large areas of mantle-derived rocks. These exhumed mantle domains occur in the form of a smooth rounded topography with broad ridges locally covered by a thin highly discontinuous volcanic carapace. We present high-resolution data combining deep-tow magnetics, side-scan sonar images and dredged samples collected within two exhumed mantle domains between 62° E and 65° E. We show that, despite an ultra-slow spreading rate, volcanic areas within robust magmatic segments are characterized by well-defined seafloor spreading anomalies. By contrast, the exhumed mantle domains, including a few thin volcanic patches, reveal a weak and highly variable magnetic pattern. The analysis of the magnetic properties of the dredged samples and careful comparison between the nature of the seafloor, the deep-tow magnetic anomalies and the seafloor equivalent magnetization suggest that the serpentinized peridotites do not carry a sufficiently stable remanent magnetization to produce seafloor spreading magnetic anomalies in exhumed mantle domains.

  16. Magnetic signature of large exhumed mantle domains of the Southwest Indian Ridge: results from a deep-tow geophysical survey over 0 to 11 Ma old seafloor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronner, A.; Sauter, D.; Munschy, M.; Carlut, J.; Searle, R.; Cannat, M.; Manatschal, G.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the magnetic signature of an ultramafic seafloor in the eastern part of the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR). There, detachment faulting, continuous over 11 Myrs, exhumed large areas of mantle derived rocks. These exhumed mantle domains occur in the form of a smooth rounded topography with broad ridges locally covered by a thin highly discontinuous volcanic carapace. We present high-resolution data combining deep-tow magnetics, side-scan sonar images and dredged samples collected within two exhumed mantle domains between 62° E and 65° E. We show that, despite an ultraslow spreading rate, volcanic areas within robust magmatic segments are characterized by well defined seafloor spreading anomalies. By contrast, the exhumed mantle domains, including a few thin volcanic patches, reveal a weak and highly variable magnetic pattern. The analysis of the magnetic properties of the dredged samples and careful comparison between the nature of the seafloor, the deep-tow magnetic anomalies and the seafloor equivalent magnetization suggest that the serpentinized peridotites do not carry a sufficiently stable remanent magnetization to produce seafloor spreading magnetic anomalies in exhumed mantle domains.

  17. Transcranial Clot Lysis Using High Intensity Focused Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölscher, Thilo; Zadicario, Eyal; Fisher, David J.; Bradley, William G.

    2010-03-01

    Stroke is the third common cause of death worldwide. The majority of strokes are caused by sudden vessel occlusion, due to a blood clot. Vessel recanalization is the primary goal of all acute stroke treatment strategies. Initial data using ultrasound in combination with a therapeutic agent for clot lysis in stroke are promising. However, sound absorption and defocusing of the ultrasound beam occur during transskull insonation, limiting the efficiency of this approach to high extent. Using a transskull High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) head system we were able to lyse blood clots within seconds and in absence of further lytic agents. We could show that any correction for the distortion might be negligible to focus the ultrasound beam after transskull insonation. The use of transskull HIFU for immediate clot lysis in the human brain without the need of further drugs and disregarding individual skull bone characteristics could become a successful strategy in early stroke treatment. Using magnetic resonance tomography for neuronavigation MRI Guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound has the potential to open new avenues for therapeutic applications in the brain including Stroke, Intracranial Hemorrhages, Braintumors, Neurodegenerative Diseases, Thalamic Pain, BBB opening, and local drug delivery. First results in transcranial clot lysis will be presented in this paper.

  18. An electronically steered, wearable transcranial doppler ultrasound system

    E-print Network

    Pietrangelo, Sabino Joseph

    2013-01-01

    This thesis details the design of a transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound system to measure cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) at the middle cerebral artery (MCA). TCD sonography has been clinically indicated in a variety ...

  19. CHILES Con Pol: Probing galaxy evolution, the dark Universe, and cosmic magnetism with a deep 1000 hour Jansky VLA survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, Christopher A.; Chiles Con Pol Collaboration

    2014-04-01

    We recently started a 1000 hour campaign to observe 0.2 square degrees of the COSMOS field in full polarization continuum at 1.4 GHz with the Jansky VLA, as part of a joint program with the spectral line COSMOS HI Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES). When complete, we expect our CHILES Continuum Polarization (CHILES Con Pol) survey to reach an unprecedented SKA-era sensitivity of 0.7 uJy per 4 arcsecond FWHM beam. Here we present the key goals of CHILES Con Pol, which are to (i) produce a source catalog of legacy value to the astronomical community, (ii) measure differential source counts in total intensity, linear polarization, and circular polarization in order to constrain the redshift and luminosity distributions of source populations, (iii) perform a novel weak lensing study using radio polarization as an indicator of intrinsic alignment to better study dark energy and dark matter, and (iv) probe the unknown origin of cosmic magnetism by measuring the strength and structure of intergalactic magnetic fields in the filaments of large scale structure. The CHILES Con Pol source catalog will be a useful resource for upcoming wide-field surveys by acting as a training set for machine learning algorithms, which can then be used to identify and classify radio sources in regions lacking deep multiwavelength coverage.

  20. Hands-Free Transcranial Color Doppler Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Robert; Madala, Srihdar; Sattler, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Current transcranial color Doppler (TCD) transducer probes are bulky and difficult to move in tiny increments to search and optimize TCD signals. This invention provides miniature motions of a TCD transducer probe to optimize TCD signals. The mechanical probe uses spherical bearing in guiding and locating the tilting crystal face. The lateral motion of the crystal face as it tilts across the full range of motion was achieved by minimizing the distance between the pivot location and the crystal face. The smallest commonly available metal spherical bearing was used with an outer diameter of 12 mm, a 3-mm tall retaining ring, and 5-mm overall height. Small geared motors were used that would provide sufficient power in a very compact package. After confirming the validity of the basic positioning concept, optimization design loops were completed to yield the final design.

  1. Nanoscale nuclear magnetic resonance with a 1.9-nm-deep nitrogen-vacancy sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Loretz, M.; Degen, C. L., E-mail: degenc@ethz.ch [Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Schafmattstrasse 16, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Pezzagna, S.; Meijer, J. [Department of Nuclear Solid State Physics, Institute for Experimental Physics II, Universität Leipzig, Linnéstr. 5, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2014-01-20

    We present nanoscale nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements performed with nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers located down to about 2 nm from the diamond surface. NV centers were created by shallow ion implantation followed by a slow, nanometer-by-nanometer removal of diamond material using oxidative etching in air. The close proximity of NV centers to the surface yielded large {sup 1}H NMR signals of up to 3.4 ?T-rms, corresponding to ?330 statistically polarized or ?10 fully polarized proton spins in a (1.8 nm){sup 3} detection volume.

  2. Transcranial Brain Stimulation Techniques For Major Depression: Should We Extend TMS Lessons to tDCS?

    PubMed Central

    Dell’Osso, Bernardo; Altamura, A. Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are non-invasive brain stimulation techniques that, by means of magnetic fields and low intensity electrical current, respectively, aim to interefere with and modulate cortical excitability, at the level of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, in patients with major depression and poor response to standard antidepressants. While the clinical efficacy of TMS in major depression has been extensively investigated over the last 10 years, tDCS has attracted research interest only in the last years, with fewer randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in the field. Nevertheless, in spite of the different rationale and mechanism of action of the two techniques, tDCS recent acquisitions, in relation to the treatment of major depression, seem to parallel those previously obtained with TMS, in terms of treatment duration to achieve optimal benefit and patient's history of drug-resistance. After briefly introducing the two techniques, the article examines possible common pathways of clinical use for TMS and tDCS, emerging from recent RCTs and likely orienting future investigation with non invasive brain stimulation for the treatment of major depression. PMID:25317200

  3. Inspiratory resistances facilitate the diaphragm response to transcranial stimulation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Locher, Chrystèle; Raux, Mathieu; Fiamma, Marie-Noelle; Morélot-Panzini, Capucine; Zelter, Marc; Derenne, Jean-Philippe; Similowski, Thomas; Straus, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Background Breathing in humans is dually controlled for metabolic (brainstem commands) and behavioral purposes (suprapontine commands) with reciprocal modulation through spinal integration. Whereas the ventilatory response to chemical stimuli arises from the brainstem, the compensation of mechanical loads in awake humans is thought to involve suprapontine mechanisms. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis by examining the effects of inspiratory resistive loading on the response of the diaphragm to transcranial magnetic stimulation. Results Six healthy volunteers breathed room air without load (R0) and then against inspiratory resistances (5 and 20 cmH2O/L/s, R5 and R20). Ventilatory variables were recorded. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was performed during early inspiration (I) or late expiration (E), giving rise to motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the diaphragm (Di) and abductor pollicis brevis (APB). Breathing frequency significantly decreased during R20 without any other change. Resistive breathing had no effect on the amplitude of Di MEPs, but shortened their latency (R20: -0.903 ms, p = 0.03) when TMS was superimposed on inspiration. There was no change in APB MEPs. Conclusion Inspiratory resistive breathing facilitates the diaphragm response to TMS while it does not increase the automatic drive to breathe. We interpret these findings as a neurophysiological substratum of the suprapontine nature of inspiratory load compensation in awake humans. PMID:16875504

  4. Efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation\\/transcranial direct current stimulation in cognitive neurorehabilitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlo Miniussi; Stefano F. Cappa; Leonardo G. Cohen; Agnes Floel; Felipe Fregni; Michael A. Nitsche; Massimiliano Oliveri; Alvaro Pascual-Leone; Walter Paulus; Alberto Priori; Vincent Walsh

    2008-01-01

    Summary Cognitive deficits are a common consequence of neurologic disease, in particular, of traumatic brain injury, stroke, and neurodegenerative disorders, and there is evidence that specific cognitive training may be effective in cognitive rehabilitation. Several investigations emphasize the fact that interacting with cortical activity, by means of cortical stimulation, can positively affect the short-term cognitive performance and improve the rehabilitation

  5. Transcranial electrical brain stimulation modulates neuronal tuning curves in perception of numerosity and duration

    E-print Network

    Penny, Will

    Magnitude judgement Numerosity Duration Time Computational modelling Transcranial direct current stimulationTranscranial electrical brain stimulation modulates neuronal tuning curves in perception (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation method with many putative applications and reported

  6. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Modulates Repetition

    E-print Network

    Gosselin, Frédéric

    Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Modulates Repetition and learning of unfamiliar faces remains unclear. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) transiently Direct Current Stimulation of the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Modulates Repetition Suppression

  7. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of Right Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Does Not Affect Model-

    E-print Network

    Smittenaar, Peter

    Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of Right Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Does Not Affect be achieved by anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of the same region. We tested 22 healthy adult setup, these data suggest that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over right dorsolateral

  8. On the Role of Electric Field Orientation in Optimal Design of Transcranial Current Stimulation

    E-print Network

    Parra, Lucas C.

    On the Role of Electric Field Orientation in Optimal Design of Transcranial Current Stimulation , and Lucas C. Parra 1 Abstract-- Transcranial current stimulation (tCS) is a promising noninvasive technique in the development of rational electrical stimulation paradigms. I. INTRODUCTION Transcranial current stimulation (t

  9. The Point Spread Function of the Human Head and its Implications for Transcranial Current

    E-print Network

    Parra, Lucas C.

    of transcranial current stimulation (tCS) requires solving the "forward problem": to compute the electric fieldThe Point Spread Function of the Human Head and its Implications for Transcranial Current for targeting an infinitesimal point in the brain are shown. #12;2 1. Introduction Transcranial current

  10. EFFECTS OF TRANSCRANIAL DIRECT CURRENT STIMULATION (tDCS) ON SENSORY EVOKED POTENTIALS: A COMPUTATIONAL MODELING

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    EFFECTS OF TRANSCRANIAL DIRECT CURRENT STIMULATION (tDCS) ON SENSORY EVOKED POTENTIALS/computational modeling approach aimed at studying the effects of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (t field, transcranial direct current stimulation, tDCS, local field potential, LFP, Evoked potential EP

  11. An Automated Method for High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Modeling*

    E-print Network

    Parra, Lucas C.

    An Automated Method for High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Modeling* Yu Huang1 stimulation (tDCS) therapy. I. INTRODUCTION Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applies weak transcranial stimulation with electric currents requires accurate models of the current flow from scalp

  12. Transcranial electrical stimulation affects adaptation of MT/V5 neurons in awake, behaving macaques

    E-print Network

    Krekelberg, Bart

    directions). In the stimulation conditions we applied transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS; 10Transcranial electrical stimulation affects adaptation of MT/V5 neurons in awake, behaving macaques of action of transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) are poorly understood. We partially attribute

  13. Transcranial direct current stimulation over posterior parietal cortex modulates visuospatial localization

    E-print Network

    Krekelberg, Bart

    Transcranial direct current stimulation over posterior parietal cortex modulates visuospatial, our goal was to determine whether modulation of the PPC via transcranial direct current stimulation (t localization. We used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the PPC of healthy human volunteers

  14. Vision Sciences Society Effects of transcranial electrical stimulation on human motion detection

    E-print Network

    Krekelberg, Bart

    Vision Sciences Society Effects of transcranial electrical stimulation on human motion detection Transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) has been widely used for both clinical and basic neuroscience investigated the acute effects of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS, 0.5mA, 10Hz) on motion

  15. Improved Cognitive Function After Transcranial, Light-Emitting Diode Treatments in Chronic, Traumatic Brain Injury: Two Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Saltmarche, Anita; Krengel, Maxine H.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Knight, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Two chronic, traumatic brain injury (TBI) cases, where cognition improved following treatment with red and near-infrared light-emitting diodes (LEDs), applied transcranially to forehead and scalp areas, are presented. Background: Significant benefits have been reported following application of transcranial, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) to humans with acute stroke and mice with acute TBI. These are the first case reports documenting improved cognitive function in chronic, TBI patients treated with transcranial LED. Methods: Treatments were applied bilaterally and to midline sagittal areas using LED cluster heads [2.1? diameter, 61 diodes (9?×?633?nm, 52?×?870?nm); 12–15?mW per diode; total power: 500?mW; 22.2?mW/cm2; 13.3?J/cm2 at scalp (estimated 0.4?J/cm2 to cortex)]. Results: Seven years after closed-head TBI from a motor vehicle accident, Patient 1 began transcranial LED treatments. Pre-LED, her ability for sustained attention (computer work) lasted 20 min. After eight weekly LED treatments, her sustained attention time increased to 3 h. The patient performs nightly home treatments (5 years); if she stops treating for more than 2 weeks, she regresses. Patient 2 had a history of closed-head trauma (sports/military, and recent fall), and magnetic resonance imaging showed frontoparietal atrophy. Pre-LED, she was on medical disability for 5 months. After 4 months of nightly LED treatments at home, medical disability discontinued; she returned to working full-time as an executive consultant with an international technology consulting firm. Neuropsychological testing after 9 months of transcranial LED indicated significant improvement (+1, +2SD) in executive function (inhibition, inhibition accuracy) and memory, as well as reduction in post-traumatic stress disorder. If she stops treating for more than 1 week, she regresses. At the time of this report, both patients are continuing treatment. Conclusions: Transcranial LED may improve cognition, reduce costs in TBI treatment, and be applied at home. Controlled studies are warranted. PMID:21182447

  16. Transcranial direct current stimulation in psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Tortella, Gabriel; Casati, Roberta; Aparicio, Luana V M; Mantovani, Antonio; Senço, Natasha; D'Urso, Giordano; Brunelin, Jerome; Guarienti, Fabiana; Selingardi, Priscila Mara Lorencini; Muszkat, Débora; Junior, Bernardo de Sampaio Pereira; Valiengo, Leandro; Moffa, Adriano H; Simis, Marcel; Borrione, Lucas; Brunoni, André R

    2015-03-22

    The interest in non-invasive brain stimulation techniques is increasing in recent years. Among these techniques, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been the subject of great interest among researchers because of its easiness to use, low cost, benign profile of side effects and encouraging results of research in the field. This interest has generated several studies and randomized clinical trials, particularly in psychiatry. In this review, we provide a summary of the development of the technique and its mechanism of action as well as a review of the methodological aspects of randomized clinical trials in psychiatry, including studies in affective disorders, schizophrenia, obsessive compulsive disorder, child psychiatry and substance use disorder. Finally, we provide an overview of tDCS use in cognitive enhancement as well as a discussion regarding its clinical use and regulatory and ethical issues. Although many promising results regarding tDCS efficacy were described, the total number of studies is still low, highlighting the need of further studies aiming to replicate these findings in larger samples as to provide a definite picture regarding tDCS efficacy in psychiatry. PMID:25815258

  17. Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound: Technique and Application

    PubMed Central

    Purkayastha, Sushmita; Sorond, Farzaneh

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound provides rapid, noninvasive, real-time measures of cerebrovascular function. TCD can be used to measure flow velocity in the basal arteries of the brain to assess relative changes in flow, diagnose focal vascular stenosis, or to detect embolic signals within these arteries. TCD can also be used to assess the physiologic health of a particular vascular territory by measuring blood flow responses to changes in blood pressure (cerebral autoregulation), changes in end-tidal CO2 (cerebral vasoreactivity), or cognitive and motor activation (neurovascular coupling or functional hyperemia). TCD has established utility in the clinical diagnosis of a number of cerebrovascular disorders such as acute ischemic stroke, vasospasm, subarachnoid hemorrhage, sickle cell disease, as well as other conditions such as brain death. Clinical indication and research applications for this mode of imaging continue to expand. In this review, the authors summarize the basic principles and clinical utility of TCD and provide an overview of a few TCD research applications. PMID:23361485

  18. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS)

    PubMed Central

    Antal, Andrea; Paulus, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) seems likely to open a new era of the field of noninvasive electrical stimulation of the human brain by directly interfering with cortical rhythms. It is expected to synchronize (by one single resonance frequency) or desynchronize (e.g., by the application of several frequencies) cortical oscillations. If applied long enough it may cause neuroplastic effects. In the theta range it may improve cognition when applied in phase. Alpha rhythms could improve motor performance, whereas beta intrusion may deteriorate them. TACS with both alpha and beta frequencies has a high likelihood to induce retinal phosphenes. Gamma intrusion can possibly interfere with attention. Stimulation in the “ripple” range induces intensity dependent inhibition or excitation in the motor cortex (M1) most likely by entrainment of neuronal networks, whereas stimulation in the low kHz range induces excitation by neuronal membrane interference. TACS in the 200 kHz range may have a potential in oncology. PMID:23825454

  19. Transcranial direct current stimulation in psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tortella, Gabriel; Casati, Roberta; Aparicio, Luana V M; Mantovani, Antonio; Senço, Natasha; D’Urso, Giordano; Brunelin, Jerome; Guarienti, Fabiana; Selingardi, Priscila Mara Lorencini; Muszkat, Débora; Junior, Bernardo de Sampaio Pereira; Valiengo, Leandro; Moffa, Adriano H; Simis, Marcel; Borrione, Lucas; Brunoni, André R

    2015-01-01

    The interest in non-invasive brain stimulation techniques is increasing in recent years. Among these techniques, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been the subject of great interest among researchers because of its easiness to use, low cost, benign profile of side effects and encouraging results of research in the field. This interest has generated several studies and randomized clinical trials, particularly in psychiatry. In this review, we provide a summary of the development of the technique and its mechanism of action as well as a review of the methodological aspects of randomized clinical trials in psychiatry, including studies in affective disorders, schizophrenia, obsessive compulsive disorder, child psychiatry and substance use disorder. Finally, we provide an overview of tDCS use in cognitive enhancement as well as a discussion regarding its clinical use and regulatory and ethical issues. Although many promising results regarding tDCS efficacy were described, the total number of studies is still low, highlighting the need of further studies aiming to replicate these findings in larger samples as to provide a definite picture regarding tDCS efficacy in psychiatry.

  20. Transcranial Doppler assessment of cerebral autoregulation.

    PubMed

    Bellapart, Judith; Fraser, John F

    2009-06-01

    Cerebral autoregulation describes the process by which cerebral blood flow is maintained despite fluctuations in cerebral perfusion pressure. The assessment of cerebral autoregulation is a key to the optimisation of cerebral perfusion pressure in patients with brain injury. This review evaluates the current evidence for transcranial Doppler in the assessment of cerebral autoregulation. The study of cerebral autoregulation classically assesses changes in cerebral perfusion pressure secondary to changes in systemic blood pressure. It is defined static autoregulation if blood pressure changes are progressive, thereby allowing a steady-state autoregulatory response to be completed. For sudden changes in blood pressure, the autoregulatory response is defined as dynamic. The static and dynamic components of cerebral autoregulation have been approached using linear mathematical models (models based in direct correlations). Over the past decade, demonstration of the nonstationary (the property of changing over time or space) behaviour of cerebral autoregulation has emphasised the benefit obtained in using nonlinear statistical models (models based on changeable functions), suggesting that these methods may improve the mathematical representation of cerebral autoregulation. Despite the multiple determinants involved in cerebral autoregulation, it appears feasible to reliably assess cerebral autoregulation through the combination of linear and nonlinear methods. Nonlinear methods appear attractive in the research setting, but the challenge is how to adopt these methods to the clinical setting. PMID:19329245

  1. Transcranial random noise stimulation-induced plasticity is NMDA-receptor independent but sodium-channel blocker and benzodiazepines sensitive

    PubMed Central

    Chaieb, Leila; Antal, Andrea; Paulus, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Background: Application of transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) between 0.1 and 640 Hz of the primary motor cortex (M1) for 10 min induces a persistent excitability increase lasting for at least 60 min. However, the mechanism of tRNS-induced cortical excitability alterations is not yet fully understood. Objective: The main aim of this study was to get first efficacy data with regard to the possible neuronal effect of tRNS. Methods: Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to measure levels of cortical excitability before and after combined application of tRNS at an intensity of 1 mA for 10 min stimulation duration and a pharmacological agent (or sham) on eight healthy male participants. Results: The sodium channel blocker carbamazepine showed a tendency toward inhibiting MEPs 5–60 min poststimulation. The GABAA agonist lorazepam suppressed tRNS-induced cortical excitability increases at 0–20 and 60 min time points. The partial NMDA receptor agonist D-cycloserine, the NMDA receptor antagonist dextromethorphan and the D2/D3 receptor agonist ropinirole had no significant effects on the excitability increases seen with tRNS. Conclusions: In contrast to transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), aftereffects of tRNS are seem to be not NMDA receptor dependent and can be suppressed by benzodiazepines suggesting that tDCS and tRNS depend upon different mechanisms.

  2. Transcranial alternating current stimulation: a review of the underlying mechanisms and modulation of cognitive processes.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Christoph S; Rach, Stefan; Neuling, Toralf; Strüber, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Brain oscillations of different frequencies have been associated with a variety of cognitive functions. Convincing evidence supporting those associations has been provided by studies using intracranial stimulation, pharmacological interventions and lesion studies. The emergence of novel non-invasive brain stimulation techniques like repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) now allows to modulate brain oscillations directly. Particularly, tACS offers the unique opportunity to causally link brain oscillations of a specific frequency range to cognitive processes, because it uses sinusoidal currents that are bound to one frequency only. Using tACS allows to modulate brain oscillations and in turn to influence cognitive processes, thereby demonstrating the causal link between the two. Here, we review findings about the physiological mechanism of tACS and studies that have used tACS to modulate basic motor and sensory processes as well as higher cognitive processes like memory, ambiguous perception, and decision making. PMID:23785325

  3. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Improves Ipsilateral Selective Muscle Activation in a Frequency Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Uehara, Kazumasa; Coxon, James P.; Byblow, Winston D.

    2015-01-01

    Failure to suppress antagonist muscles can lead to movement dysfunction, such as the abnormal muscle synergies often seen in the upper limb after stroke. A neurophysiological surrogate of upper limb synergies, the selectivity ratio (SR), can be determined from the ratio of biceps brachii (BB) motor evoked potentials to transcranial magnetic stimulation prior to forearm pronation versus elbow flexion. Surprisingly, cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (c-TDCS) over ipsilateral primary motor cortex (M1) reduces (i.e. improves) the SR in healthy adults, and chronic stroke patients. The ability to suppress antagonist muscles may be exacerbated at high movement rates. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the selective muscle activation of the biceps brachii (BB) is dependent on altering frequency demands, and whether the c-tDCS improvement of SR is dependent on task frequency. Seventeen healthy participants performed repetitive isometric elbow flexion and forearm pronation at three rates, before and after c-tDCS or sham delivered to ipsilateral left M1. Ipsilateral c-tDCS improved the SR in a frequency dependent manner by selectively suppressing BB antagonist excitability. Our findings confirm that c-tDCS is an effective tool for improving selective muscle activation, and provide novel evidence for its efficacy at rates of movement where it is most likely to benefit task performance. PMID:25816204

  4. Transcranial cortical stimulation in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorders: efficacy studies.

    PubMed

    Saba, Ghassen; Moukheiber, Albert; Pelissolo, Antoine

    2015-05-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are non-invasive brain stimulation methods that became widely used as therapeutic tools during the past two decades especially in cases of depression and schizophrenia. Low frequency rTMS and cathodal effect of tDCS inhibits cortical functioning while high frequency and anodal effect of tDCS have the opposite effect. Prolonged and repetitive application of either methods leads to changes in excitability of the human cortex that outlast the period of stimulation. Both rTMS and tDCS induce functional changes in the brain-modulating neural activity at cortical level. This paper reviews rTMS and tDCS effects in clinical trials for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Low frequency rTMS, particularly targeting the supplementary motor area and the orbital frontal cortex, seems to be the most promising in terms of therapeutic efficacy while older studies targeting the prefrontal dorsal cortex were not as successful. tDCS clearly needs to be investigated in large scale and sufficiently powered randomized control studies. From a general point of view, these non-invasive techniques hold promise as novel therapeutic tools for OCD patients. PMID:25825002

  5. Transcranial Photoacoustic Measurements of Cold-Injured Brains in Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Yoshinori; Sato, Shunichi; Hasegawa, Makoto; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Saitoh, Daizoh; Shima, Katsuji; Ashida, Hiroshi; Obara, Minoru

    2005-09-01

    We performed transcranial photoacoustic measurements of cold-injured brains in rats. Before inducing injury, a signal peak was observed at two locations corresponding to the surfaces of the skull and brain, while after injury, a third peak appeared at a location corresponding to the back surface of the skull; the third peak was found to be caused by subdural hematoma. The signal peak for the brain surface shifted to a deeper region with elapse of time after injury, indicating deformation of the brain. These findings suggest that small hemorrhage and morphological change of the brain can be transcranially detected by photoacoustic measurement.

  6. Target Optimization in Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Sadleir, Rosalind J.; Vannorsdall, Tracy D.; Schretlen, David J.; Gordon, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is an emerging neuromodulation therapy that has been experimentally determined to affect a wide range of behaviors and diseases ranging from motor, cognitive, and memory processes to depression and pain syndromes. The effects of tDCS may be inhibitory or excitatory, depending on the relative polarities of electrodes and their proximity to different brain structures. This distinction is believed to relate to the interaction of current flow with activation thresholds of different neural complexes. tDCS currents are typically applied via a single pair of large electrodes, with one (the active electrode) sited close to brain structures associated with targeted processes. To efficiently direct current toward the areas presumed related to these effects, we devised a method of steering current toward a selected area by reference to a 19-electrode montage applied to a high-resolution finite element model of the head. We used a non-linear optimization procedure to maximize mean current densities inside the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), while simultaneously restricting overall current, and median current densities within the accumbens. We found that a distributed current pattern could be found that would indeed direct current toward the IFG in this way, and compared it to other candidate 2-electrode configurations. Further, we found a combination of four anterior-posterior electrodes could direct current densities to the accumbens. We conclude that a similar method using multiple electrodes may be a useful means of directing current toward or away from specific brain regions and also of reducing tDCS side effects. PMID:23087654

  7. Hands-Free Transcranial Color Doppler Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Robert; Madala, Srihdar; Sattler, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Current transcranial color Doppler (TCD) transducer probes are bulky and difficult to move in tiny increments to search and optimize TCD signals. This invention provides miniature motions of a TCD transducer probe to optimize TCD signals. The mechanical probe uses a spherical bearing in guiding and locating the tilting crystal face. The lateral motion of the crystal face as it tilts across the full range of motion was achieved by minimizing the distance between the pivot location and the crystal face. The smallest commonly available metal spherical bearing was used with an outer diameter of 12 mm, a 3-mm tall retaining ring, and 5-mm overall height. Small geared motors were used that would provide sufficient power in a very compact package. After confirming the validity of the basic positioning concept, optimization design loops were completed to yield the final design. A parallel motor configuration was used to minimize the amount of space wasted inside the probe case while minimizing the overall case dimensions. The distance from the front edge of the crystal to the edge of the case was also minimized to allow positioning of the probe very close to the ear on the temporal lobe. The mechanical probe is able to achieve a +/-20deg tip and tilt with smooth repeatable action in a very compact package. The enclosed probe is about 7 cm long, 4 cm wide, and 1.8 cm tall. The device is compact, hands-free, and can be adjusted via an innovative touchscreen. Positioning of the probe to the head is performed via conventional transducer gels and pillows. This device is amendable to having advanced software, which could intelligently focus and optimize the TCD signal.

  8. Red and NIR light dosimetry in the human deep brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitzschke, A.; Lovisa, B.; Seydoux, O.; Zellweger, M.; Pfleiderer, M.; Tardy, Y.; Wagnières, G.

    2015-04-01

    Photobiomodulation (PBM) appears promising to treat the hallmarks of Parkinson’s Disease (PD) in cellular or animal models. We measured light propagation in different areas of PD-relevant deep brain tissue during transcranial, transsphenoidal illumination (at 671 and 808 nm) of a cadaver head and modeled optical parameters of human brain tissue using Monte-Carlo simulations. Gray matter, white matter, cerebrospinal fluid, ventricles, thalamus, pons, cerebellum and skull bone were processed into a mesh of the skull (158 × 201 × 211 voxels; voxel side length: 1 mm). Optical parameters were optimized from simulated and measured fluence rate distributions. The estimated ?eff for the different tissues was in all cases larger at 671 than at 808 nm, making latter a better choice for light delivery in the deep brain. Absolute values were comparable to those found in the literature or slightly smaller. The effective attenuation in the ventricles was considerably larger than literature values. Optimization yields a new set of optical parameters better reproducing the experimental data. A combination of PBM via the sphenoid sinus and oral cavity could be beneficial. A 20-fold higher efficiency of light delivery to the deep brain was achieved with ventricular instead of transcranial illumination. Our study demonstrates that it is possible to illuminate deep brain tissues transcranially, transsphenoidally and via different application routes. This opens therapeutic options for sufferers of PD or other cerebral diseases necessitating light therapy.

  9. Red and NIR light dosimetry in the human deep brain.

    PubMed

    Pitzschke, A; Lovisa, B; Seydoux, O; Zellweger, M; Pfleiderer, M; Tardy, Y; Wagnières, G

    2015-04-01

    Photobiomodulation (PBM) appears promising to treat the hallmarks of Parkinson's Disease (PD) in cellular or animal models. We measured light propagation in different areas of PD-relevant deep brain tissue during transcranial, transsphenoidal illumination (at 671 and 808 nm) of a cadaver head and modeled optical parameters of human brain tissue using Monte-Carlo simulations. Gray matter, white matter, cerebrospinal fluid, ventricles, thalamus, pons, cerebellum and skull bone were processed into a mesh of the skull (158 × 201 × 211 voxels; voxel side length: 1 mm). Optical parameters were optimized from simulated and measured fluence rate distributions. The estimated ?eff for the different tissues was in all cases larger at 671 than at 808 nm, making latter a better choice for light delivery in the deep brain. Absolute values were comparable to those found in the literature or slightly smaller. The effective attenuation in the ventricles was considerably larger than literature values. Optimization yields a new set of optical parameters better reproducing the experimental data. A combination of PBM via the sphenoid sinus and oral cavity could be beneficial. A 20-fold higher efficiency of light delivery to the deep brain was achieved with ventricular instead of transcranial illumination. Our study demonstrates that it is possible to illuminate deep brain tissues transcranially, transsphenoidally and via different application routes. This opens therapeutic options for sufferers of PD or other cerebral diseases necessitating light therapy. PMID:25789711

  10. Extraction of Fronto-orbital Shower Hook through Transcranial Orbitotomy.

    PubMed

    Elia, Maxwell D; Gunel, Murat; Servat, Juan J; Levin, Flora

    2014-06-01

    Transorbital foreign bodies threaten both the integrity of the globe and the brain. We present an unusual case of a penetrating right frontal lobe-orbital metallic shower hook. Extensive intracranial involvement necessitated transcranial orbitotomy allowing for the removal of the object without loss of the globe. PMID:25050150

  11. Improvement of spatial tactile acuity by transcranial direct current stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Ragert; Yves Vandermeeren; Mickael Camus; Leonardo G. Cohen

    2008-01-01

    ObjectiveNon-invasive brain stimulation such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been successfully used to induce polarity-specific excitability changes in the brain. However, it is still unknown if anodal tDCS (tDCSanodal) applied to the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) can lead to behavioral changes in performance of tactile discriminative tasks.

  12. Safety limits of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Liebetanz; Reinhard Koch; Susanne Mayenfels; Fatima König; Walter Paulus; Michael A. Nitsche

    2009-01-01

    ObjectiveThe aim of this rat study was to investigate the safety limits of extended transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). tDCS may be of therapeutic value in several neuro-psychiatric disorders. For its clinical applicability, however, more stable effects are required, which may be induced by intensified stimulations.

  13. Transcranial direct current stimulation in adolescent and adult Rasmussen's encephalitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan de Dios Del Castillo Calcáneo; Maricarmen Fernández González-Aragón; Luis Bermúdez Maldonado; Álvaro Moreno Avellán; Edgar Valentín Gómez Argumosa; Felipe Fregni

    2011-01-01

    Rasmussen's encephalitis is a rare, progressive inflammatory disease that typically affects one cerebral hemisphere and causes intractable partial-onset seizures. Currently, the only effective therapy is hemispherectomy; however, this procedure is associated with irreversible neurological deficits. Novel therapeutic approaches to this condition are therefore necessary. One possible option that has not yet been extensively studied is electrical cathodal transcranial direct current

  14. Induction and Modulation of Neuroplasticity by Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Nitsche; A. Antal; D. Liebetanz; N. Lang; F. Tergau; W. Paulus

    2007-01-01

    Brain stimulation with weak direct current has recently been reintroduced as a method to elicit and modulate neuroplasticity of the human cerebral cortex. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) generates modulations of excitability during as well as up to an hour after the end of stimulation, depending on the duration of stimulation. While anodal stimulation increases excitability, cathodal stimulation reduces it.

  15. Towards Aberration Correction of Transcranial Ultrasound Using Acoustic Droplet Vaporization

    PubMed Central

    Haworth, Kevin J.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Carson, Paul L.; Kripfgans, Oliver D.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the first experiments demonstrating the transcranial acoustic formation of stable gas bubbles that can be used for transcranial ultrasound aberration correction. It is demonstrated that the gas bubbles can be formed transcranially by phase-transitioning single, superheated, micron-size, liquid dodecafluoropentane droplets with ultrasound, a process known as acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV). ADV was performed at 550 kHz, where the skull is less attenuating and aberrating, allowing for higher-amplitudes to be reached at the focus. Additionally, it is demonstrated that time-reversal focusing at 1 MHz can be used to correct for transcranial aberrations with a single gas bubble acting as a point beacon. Aberration correction was performed using a synthetic aperture approach and verified by the realignment of the scattered waveforms. Under the conditions described below, time-reversal aberration correction using gas bubbles resulted in a gain of 1.9 ± 0.3 in an introduced focusing factor. This is a small fraction of the gain anticipated from complete transmit-receive of a fully-populated two-dimensional array with sub-wavelength elements. PMID:17935872

  16. RESEARCH Open Access Trans-cranial focused ultrasound without hair

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RESEARCH Open Access Trans-cranial focused ultrasound without hair shaving: feasibility study made of human hair was sonicated using 220- and 710-kHz head transducers to evaluate the feasibility. Results showed that the hair had a negligible effect on focal spot thermal rise at 220 kHz and a 17% drop

  17. Feature Analysis for Parkinson's Disease Detection Based on Transcranial

    E-print Network

    Lübeck, Universität zu

    Feature Analysis for Parkinson's Disease Detection Based on Transcranial Sonography Image Lei Chen1 validation results show that the local features could be used for PD detection. Keywords: Parkinson's Disease sonography (TCS) was used for the first time in a clinical study between a group of Parkinson's disease (PD

  18. Transcranial Ultrasound in Acute Stroke: From Diagnosis to Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos A. Molina; Andrei V. Alexandrov

    2007-01-01

    In the last few years, several studies have improved our knowledge and understanding of the dynamic nature of the recanalization process during stroke thrombolysis. Transcranial Doppler ultrasound provides a unique opportunity to assess several aspects of clot dissolution by means of continuous monitoring of recanalization during and after administration of tissue plasminogen activator. This approach allows us to evaluate at

  19. High power transcranial beam steering for ultrasonic brain therapy

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 High power transcranial beam steering for ultrasonic brain therapy M. Pernot, J.-F. Aubry, M.N.R.S. 7587, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75005 Paris, France Shortened title: High power ultrasonic array for brain-elements corresponding to a new generation of high power transducers developed in collaboration with Imasonic (Besançon

  20. A Case Report of Thunderclap Headache with Sub-arachnoid Hemorrhage and Negative Angiography: A Review of Call-Fleming Syndrome and the use of Transcranial Dopplers in Predicting Morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Bittel, Brennen; Husmann, Kathrin

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: We present a case report in a patient with severe, recurrent, thunderclap with computed tomography (CT) evidence of subarachnoid blood and negative work-up for aneurysm. This case is an example of Call-Fleming syndrome with subarachnoid hemorrhage in which transcranial Doppler (TCD) was used for monitoring of cerebral vasoconstriction when angiography did not evidence vasoconstriction. We will review Call-Fleming syndrome and the utility of transcranial doppler imaging to assess cerebral vasoconstriction. Methods: A review of the current literature regarding diagnostics, treatment, and morbidity in Call-Fleming (reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome) as well as a review of the data using transcranial color-coded sonography and transcranial doppler imaging to assess vasospasm in these cases. Results: The patient underwent computed tomography angiography (CTA) and venography (CTV), catheter angiography, lumbar puncture, and vasculitis work-up which were all negative. His magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed T2 weighted and fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) hyper-intensities in the posterior frontal lobes as well as subarachnoid blood along bilateral occipital convexities. TCDs were obtained which showed elevated mean velocities. Conclusion: The use of bedside transcranial doppler imaging is a non-invasive means of assessing vasospasm in Call-Fleming syndrome; even in cases where angiography is negative. Determining the degree of vasospasm based on the data in subarachnoid hemorrhage, we are able to predict a patient’s risk of complications related to vasospasm including reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy and ischemic events. PMID:22518264

  1. Aging affects transcranial magnetic modulation of hippocampal evoked potentials

    E-print Network

    Segal, Menahem

    antidepressant (TCA) are in gen- eral less effective in treating depression in aged patients than stimulation (TMS) is being proposed as a method of choice for the treatment of clinical depression, yet its of antidepressants is highly age-dependent, we studied possible age-related effects of TMS on hippocampal evoked

  2. A Review of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Vascular Dementia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovanni Pennisi; Raffaele Ferri; Mariagiovanna Cantone; Giuseppe Lanza; Manuela Pennisi; Luisa Vinciguerra; Giulia Malaguarnera; Rita Bella

    2011-01-01

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is a clinical syndrome that encompasses a wide spectrum of cognitive disorders caused by cerebrovascular disease. The subcortical ischemic form of VaD is clinically homogeneous and a major cause of cognitive impairment in the elderly. Vascular lesions contribute to cognitive decline in neurodegenerative dementias, and VaD and Alzheimer’s disease often coexist and share clinical features and multiple

  3. Noninvasive Functional Brain Mapping Using Registered Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    E-print Network

    .J. Ettinger 1;6 W.E.L. Grimson 1 M.E. Leventon 1 R. Kikinis 2 V. Gugino 3 W. Cote 3 M. Karapelou 3 L. Aglio 3 Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston MA 02115 6 email: ettinger@ai.mit.edu #12; Non­invasive Functional

  4. 21 CFR 882.5805 - Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...major depressive disorder without inducing seizure in patients who have failed at least one antidepressant medication and are currently not on any antidepressant therapy. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The special...

  5. 21 CFR 882.5805 - Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...major depressive disorder without inducing seizure in patients who have failed at least one antidepressant medication and are currently not on any antidepressant therapy. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The special...

  6. 21 CFR 882.5805 - Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...major depressive disorder without inducing seizure in patients who have failed at least one antidepressant medication and are currently not on any antidepressant therapy. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The special...

  7. Transcranial Doppler changes in children with sickle cell disease on transfusion therapy.

    PubMed

    Minniti, Caterina P; Gidvani, Vinod K; Bulas, Dorothy; Brown, Wendy A; Vezina, Gilbert; Driscoll, M Catherine

    2004-10-01

    Transcranial Doppler (TCD) is an effective method for screening patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) at risk for first stroke. Its usefulness in monitoring children with SCD receiving transfusions has not been established. The authors studied 17 children with SCD evaluated with TCDs and magnetic resonance angiograms (MRAs) while receiving transfusion therapy. Patients with normalized TCDs had normal MRAs that remained normal on transfusions. Patients with persistently abnormal TCDs had abnormal MRAs. In these children, TCD velocities decreased but rarely reverted to normal. Patients with low TCD velocities (<70 cm/s) had corresponding vasculopathy on MRA. Low velocities may be a risk factor for stroke and should be followed. Overall, there was good correlation between TCD velocity changes and MRA analysis. PMID:15454832

  8. Random calibration for accelerating MR-ARFI guided ultrasonic focusing in transcranial therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Na; Liutkus, Antoine; Aubry, Jean-François; Marsac, Laurent; Tanter, Mickael; Daudet, Laurent

    2015-02-01

    Transcranial focused ultrasound is a promising therapeutic modality. It consists of placing transducers around the skull and emitting shaped ultrasound waves that propagate through the skull and then concentrate on one particular location within the brain. However, the skull bone is known to distort the ultrasound beam. In order to compensate for such distortions, a number of techniques have been proposed recently, for instance using Magnetic Resonance Imaging feedback. In order to fully determine the focusing distortion due to the skull, such methods usually require as many calibration signals as transducers, resulting in a lengthy calibration process. In this paper, we investigate how the number of calibration sequences can be significantly reduced, based on random measurements and optimization techniques. Experimental data with six human skulls demonstrate that the number of measurements can be up to three times lower than with the standard methods, while restoring 90% of the focusing efficiency.

  9. Yield of Transcranial Doppler in Acute Cerebral Ischemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrei V. Alexandrov; Andrew M. Demchuk; Theodore H. Wein; James C. Grotta

    Background and Purpose—The objective of this study was to evaluate the yield of emergent transcranial Doppler (TCD) for the evaluation of acute cerebral ischemia. Methods—We performed urgent bedside non- contrast-enhanced TCD in patients with acute cerebral ischemia before or immediately after baseline CT scanning. A fast-track scanning protocol (#15 minutes) and detailed diagnostic criteria were developed for portable single-channel TCD

  10. Contrast Transcranial Doppler Can Diagnose Large Patent Foramen Ovale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuto Kobayashi; Yasuyuki Iguchi; Kazumi Kimura; Yoko Okada; Yuka Terasawa; Noriko Matsumoto; Kenichirou Sakai; Jyunya Aoki; Kensaku Shibazaki

    2009-01-01

    Background: Contrast transesophageal echocardiography (c-TEE) and contrast transcranial Doppler (c-TCD) are useful diagnostic tools for detecting right-to-left shunts (RLS). However, the diagnostic accuracy of c-TCD for patent foramen ovale (PFO) remains uncertain. We investigated the relationship between the size of PFO determined by c-TEE and c-TCD findings and assessed the detectable rate of RLS by c-TCD. Methods: We assessed RLS

  11. Transcranial direct current stimulation influences the cardiac autonomic nervous control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafael Ayres Montenegro; Paulo de Tarso Veras Farinatti; Eduardo Bodnariuc Fontes; Pedro Paulo da Silva Soares; Felipe Amorim da Cunha; Jonas Lírio Gurgel; Flávia Porto; Edilson Serpeloni Cyrino; Alexandre Hideki Okano

    2011-01-01

    To investigate whether the manipulation of brain excitability by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates the heart rate variability (HRV), the effect of tDCS applied at rest on the left temporal lobe in athletes (AG) and non-athletes (NAG) was evaluated. The HRV parameters (natural logarithms of LF, HF, and LF\\/HF) was assessed in 20 healthy men before, and immediately after

  12. Transcranial optogenetic stimulation for functional mapping of the motor cortex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Riichiro Hira; Naoki Honkura; Jun Noguchi; Yoshio Maruyama; George J. Augustine; Haruo Kasai; Masanori Matsuzaki

    2009-01-01

    We developed a method that uses Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) for transcranial optogenetic stimulation. This method is based on scanning a light beam over the brain, thereby photostimulating ChR2-expressing neurons in intact mice. As a proof of principle, we applied this technique to the motor cortex of transgenic mice expressing ChR2 in cortical pyramidal cells. Photostimulation induced limb movements that were time-locked

  13. Transcranial Extracellular Impedance Control (tEIC) Modulates Behavioral Performances

    PubMed Central

    Matani, Ayumu; Nakayama, Masaaki; Watanabe, Mayumi; Furuyama, Yoshikazu; Hotta, Atsushi; Hoshino, Shotaro

    2014-01-01

    Electric brain stimulations such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS), and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) electrophysiologically modulate brain activity and as a result sometimes modulate behavioral performances. These stimulations can be viewed from an engineering standpoint as involving an artificial electric source (DC, noise, or AC) attached to an impedance branch of a distributed parameter circuit. The distributed parameter circuit is an approximation of the brain and includes electric sources (neurons) and impedances (volume conductors). Such a brain model is linear, as is often the case with the electroencephalogram (EEG) forward model. Thus, the above-mentioned current stimulations change the current distribution in the brain depending on the locations of the electric sources in the brain. Now, if the attached artificial electric source were to be replaced with a resistor, or even a negative resistor, the resistor would also change the current distribution in the brain. In light of the superposition theorem, which holds for any linear electric circuit, attaching an electric source is different from attaching a resistor; the resistor affects each active electric source in the brain so as to increase (or decrease in some cases of a negative resistor) the current flowing out from each source. From an electrophysiological standpoint, the attached resistor can only control the extracellular impedance and never causes forced stimulation; we call this technique transcranial extracellular impedance control (tEIC). We conducted a behavioral experiment to evaluate tEIC and found evidence that it had real-time enhancement and depression effects on EEGs and a real-time facilitation effect on reaction times. Thus, tEIC could be another technique to modulate behavioral performance. PMID:25047913

  14. Adaptive cancellation of harmonic interferences in transcranial Doppler signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabolotny, Wojciech M.; Karlowicz, Pawel; Jurkiewicz, Jerzy

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a method of improving the Transcranial Doppler (TCD) signal by removing harmonic interferences. Such interferences, originating from medical equipment using the high power HF signals are common in a clinical environment, especially in the neighborhood of the operating theater. The Adaptive Interference Canceler based on the NLMS FIR filter has been used. The reference signal was obtained by delaying of the original TCD signal. The presented method allows significant improvement of a seriously disturbed TCD signal.

  15. Abstract Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a method of non-invasive brain stimulation which uses weak

    E-print Network

    Chatterjee, Anjan

    Abstract Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a method intensity. I. INTRODUCTION Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non of non-invasive brain stimulation which uses weak electric currents applied

  16. Enhanced Motor Learning Following Task-Concurrent Dual Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Karok, Sophia; Witney, Alice G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the primary motor cortex (M1) has beneficial effects on motor performance and motor learning in healthy subjects and is emerging as a promising tool for motor neurorehabilitation. Applying tDCS concurrently with a motor task has recently been found to be more effective than applying stimulation before the motor task. This study extends this finding to examine whether such task-concurrent stimulation further enhances motor learning on a dual M1 montage. Method Twenty healthy, right-handed subjects received anodal tDCS to the right M1, dual tDCS (anodal current over right M1 and cathodal over left M1) and sham tDCS in a repeated-measures design. Stimulation was applied for 10 mins at 1.5 mA during an explicit motor learning task. Response times (RT) and accuracy were measured at baseline, during, directly after and 15 mins after stimulation. Motor cortical excitability was recorded from both hemispheres before and after stimulation using single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation. Results Task-concurrent stimulation with a dual M1 montage significantly reduced RTs by 23% as early as with the onset of stimulation (p<0.01) with this effect increasing to 30% at the final measurement. Polarity-specific changes in cortical excitability were observed with MEPs significantly reduced by 12% in the left M1 and increased by 69% in the right M1. Conclusion Performance improvement occurred earliest in the dual M1 condition with a stable and lasting effect. Unilateral anodal stimulation resulted only in trendwise improvement when compared to sham. Therefore, task-concurrent dual M1 stimulation is most suited for obtaining the desired neuromodulatory effects of tDCS in explicit motor learning. PMID:24376893

  17. Transcranial phase aberration correction using beam simulations and MR-ARFI

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, Urvi, E-mail: urvi.vyas@gmail.com; Kaye, Elena; Pauly, Kim Butts [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)] [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Transcranial magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery is a noninvasive technique for causing selective tissue necrosis. Variations in density, thickness, and shape of the skull cause aberrations in the location and shape of the focal zone. In this paper, the authors propose a hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique to achieve aberration correction for transcranial MR-guided focused ultrasound surgery. The technique uses ultrasound beam propagation simulations with MR Acoustic Radiation Force Imaging (MR-ARFI) to correct skull-caused phase aberrations. Methods: Skull-based numerical aberrations were obtained from a MR-guided focused ultrasound patient treatment and were added to all elements of the InSightec conformal bone focused ultrasound surgery transducer during transmission. In the first experiment, the 1024 aberrations derived from a human skull were condensed into 16 aberrations by averaging over the transducer area of 64 elements. In the second experiment, all 1024 aberrations were applied to the transducer. The aberrated MR-ARFI images were used in the hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique to find 16 estimated aberrations. These estimated aberrations were subtracted from the original aberrations to result in the corrected images. Each aberration experiment (16-aberration and 1024-aberration) was repeated three times. Results: The corrected MR-ARFI image was compared to the aberrated image and the ideal image (image with zero aberrations) for each experiment. The hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique resulted in an average increase in focal MR-ARFI phase of 44% for the 16-aberration case and 52% for the 1024-aberration case, and recovered 83% and 39% of the ideal MR-ARFI phase for the 16-aberrations and 1024-aberration case, respectively. Conclusions: Using one MR-ARFI image and noa priori information about the applied phase aberrations, the hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique improved the maximum MR-ARFI phase of the beam's focus.

  18. Excitability modulation of the motor system induced by transcranial direct current stimulation: a multimodal approach.

    PubMed

    Pellicciari, Maria Concetta; Brignani, Debora; Miniussi, Carlo

    2013-12-01

    Anodal and cathodal transcranial direct current stimulations (tDCS) are both established techniques to induce cortical excitability changes. Typically, in the human motor system, such cortical modulations are inferred through changes in the amplitude of the motor evoked potentials (MEPs). However, it is now possible to directly evaluate tDCS-induced changes at the cortical level by recording the transcranial magnetic stimulation evoked potentials (TEPs) using electroencephalography (EEG). The present study investigated the modulation induced by the tDCS on the motor system. The study evaluates changes in the MEPs, in the amplitude and distribution of the TEPs, in resting state oscillatory brain activity and in behavioral performance in a simple manual response task. Both the short- and long-term tDCS effects were investigated by evaluating their time course at ~0 and 30min after tDCS. Anodal tDCS over the left primary motor cortex (M1) induced an enhancement of corticospinal excitability, whereas cathodal stimulation produced a reduction. These changes in excitability were indexed by changes in MEP amplitude. More interestingly, tDCS modulated the cortical reactivity, which is the neuronal activity evoked by TMS, in a polarity-dependent and site-specific manner. Cortical reactivity increased after anodal stimulation over the left M1, whereas it decreased with cathodal stimulation. These effects were partially present also at long term evaluation. No polarity-specific effect was found either on behavioral measures or on oscillatory brain activity. The latter showed a general increase in the power density of low frequency oscillations (theta and alpha) at both stimulation polarities. Our results suggest that tDCS is able to modulate motor cortical reactivity in a polarity-specific manner, inducing a complex pattern of direct and indirect cortical activations or inhibitions of the motor system-related network, which might be related to changes in synaptic efficacy of the motor cortex. PMID:23845429

  19. Smoking Restores Impaired LTD-Like Plasticity in Schizophrenia: a Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Study.

    PubMed

    Strube, Wolfgang; Bunse, Tilmann; Nitsche, Michael A; Wobrock, Thomas; Aborowa, Richard; Misewitsch, Kristina; Herrmann, Maximiliane; Falkai, Peter; Hasan, Alkomiet

    2015-03-01

    Impaired neuroplastic responses following noninvasive brain stimulation have been reported repeatedly in schizophrenia patients. These findings have been associated with deficits in GABAergic, glutamatergic, and cholinergic neurotransmission. Although various neurophysiological studies have indicated a relationship between nicotine and neuroplasticity in healthy individuals, the present study is the first investigation into the impact of nicotine on LTD-like plasticity in patients with schizophrenia. Cortical excitability and cortical plasticity were explored in 30 schizophrenia patients (17 smoker, 13 nonsmoker) and 45 healthy controls (13 smoker, 32 nonsmoker) by using single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) before and following cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied to the left primary motor cortex. Our analysis revealed abolished LTD-like plasticity in nonsmoking schizophrenia patients. However, these plasticity deficits were not present in smoking schizophrenia patients. In healthy controls, significant MEP reductions following cathodal tDCS were observed in nonsmoking individuals, but only trend-level reductions in smokers. In smoking schizophrenia patients, the severity of negative symptoms correlated positively with reduced neuroplasticity, whereas nonsmoking patients displayed the opposite effect. Taken together, the data of our study support the notion of an association between chronic smoking and the restitution of impaired LTD-like plasticity in schizophrenia patients. Although replication and further research are needed to better understand this relationship, our findings indicate that nicotine intake might stabilize the impaired inhibition-facilitation balance in the schizophrenic brain through a complex interaction between cortical plasticity, and GABAergic and cholinergic neurotransmission, and might explain the reduced prevalence of negative symptoms in this population. PMID:25308351

  20. How Deep Is Deep?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This interactive online tool helps students grasp just how deep scientists must dive to study deep sea vents. By providing points of comparison, it puts the nearly unfathomable depth of the ocean floor into perspective. It compares the scale of a 2,400-meter (7,874-foot) dive against the height of famous landmarks such as the Empire State Building, the Eiffel Tower, and the Space Needle. Students can also enter the height, in feet or meters, of any landmark they chose to gain additional perspective.

  1. Comparison of transcranial color Doppler imaging (TCDI) and transcranial Doppler (TCD) in children with sickle-cell anemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Jones; Joanna J. Seibert; Fenwick T. Nichols; David L. Kinder; Katie Cox; Judy Luden; Elizabeth M. Carl; Donald Brambilla; Suzanne Saccente; Robert J. Adams

    2001-01-01

    Background. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) has been demonstrated to identify those at highest risk of stroke among children with sickle-cell\\u000a disease. Based on a randomized clinical trial [Stroke Prevention in Sickle-Cell Anemia Trial (STOP)], which ended in 1997,\\u000a the National Heart Lung and Blood Division of NIH has recommended TCD screening and chronic blood transfusion based on Nicolet\\u000a TC 2000 dedicated

  2. Prefrontal control during a semantic decision task that involves idiom comprehension: A transcranial direct current stimulation study

    E-print Network

    Ivry, Rich

    : A transcranial direct current stimulation study Tal Sela a , Richard B. Ivry b , Michal Lavidor a, we used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to test the hypotheses that (I) a prefrontal stimulation technique, transcranial direct current stimu- lation (tDCS). tDCS is a painless cortical

  3. Deep TMS on alcoholics: effects on cortisolemia and dopamine pathway modulation. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ceccanti, Marco; Inghilleri, Maurizio; Attilia, Maria Luisa; Raccah, Ruggero; Fiore, Marco; Zangen, Abraham; Ceccanti, Mauro

    2015-04-01

    The hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis and dopamine have a key role in transition from alcohol social use to addiction. The medial prefrontal cortex was shown to modulate dopaminergic activity and cortisol releasing factor (CRF) release in hypothalamic and extra-hypothalamic systems. The recent advancements in non-invasive neurostimulation technologies has enabled stimulation of deeper brain regions using H-coil transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in humans. This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study aims to evaluate H-coil efficacy in stimulating the medial prefrontal cortex. Cortisolemia and prolactinemia were evaluated as effectiveness markers. Alcohol intake and craving were considered as secondary outcomes. Eighteen alcoholics were recruited and randomized into 2 homogeneous groups: 9 in the real stimulation group and 9 in the sham stimulation group. Repetitive TMS (rTMS) was administered through a magnetic stimulator over 10 sessions at 20 Hz, directed to the medial prefrontal cortex. rTMS significantly reduced blood cortisol levels and decreased prolactinemia, thus suggesting dopamine increase. Craving visual analogic scale (VAS) in treated patients decreased, as well as mean number of alcoholic drinks/day and drinks on days of maximum alcohol intake (DMAI). In the sham group there was no significant effect observed on cortisolemia, prolactinemia, mean number of alcoholic drinks/day, or drinks/DMAI. Thus, deep rTMS could be considered a potential new treatment for alcoholism. PMID:25730614

  4. Categorization is modulated by transcranial direct current stimulation over left prefrontal cortex

    E-print Network

    Thompson-Schill, Sharon

    Categorization is modulated by transcranial direct current stimulation over left prefrontal cortex transcranial direct current stimulation alters performance of healthy subjects on a simple categoriza- tion of multiple catego- ries. A given object, such as a pillow may be--depending on current task demands

  5. Original Research Task-specific facilitation of cognition by cathodal transcranial direct current

    E-print Network

    Miall, Chris

    using transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) during two cognitive tasks that require comparableOriginal Research Task-specific facilitation of cognition by cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation of the cerebellum Q6 Paul A. Pope*, R. Chris Miall Behavioural Brain Sciences, School

  6. From Oscillatory Transcranial Current Stimulation to Scalp EEG Changes: A Biophysical and Physiological

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    and of the stimulation electrodes were first built to map the generated electric field distribution on the corticalFrom Oscillatory Transcranial Current Stimulation to Scalp EEG Changes: A Biophysical and neurophysiological aspects need to be considered to assess the impact of electric fields induced by transcranial

  7. MULTIPLE FEATURE EXTRACTION FOR EARLY PARKINSON RISK ASSESSMENT BASED ON TRANSCRANIAL SONOGRAPHY IMAGE

    E-print Network

    Lübeck, Universität zu

    MULTIPLE FEATURE EXTRACTION FOR EARLY PARKINSON RISK ASSESSMENT BASED ON TRANSCRANIAL SONOGRAPHY for the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) at a very early state. The TCS im- age of mesencephalon shows, Parkinson's Disease, Transcranial sonography, classification, texture analysis 1. INTRODUCTION Early

  8. The effect of intraoperative heparin administered during total hip arthroplasty on the incidence of proximal deep vein thrombosis assessed by magnetic resonance venography.

    PubMed

    Westrich, Geoffrey H; Salvati, Eduardo A; Sharrock, Nigel; Potter, Hollis G; Sánchez, Pamela M; Sculco, Thomas P

    2005-01-01

    Intraoperative, unfractionated heparin, administered intravenously before the femoral work, has demonstrated to be effective in reducing the strong thrombotic stimulus that occurs during total hip arthroplasty (THA) surgery. This randomized, double-blind, prospective study included only THA patients with significant comorbidities predisposing them to deep vein thrombosis (DVT). The 2 groups consisted of study patients who received a single dose of intravenous, intraoperative, unfractionated heparin and control patients who received a single dose of intravenous, intraoperative saline. Magnetic resonance venography was used as the DVT diagnostic tool. The overall prevalence of proximal femoral vein clots was 2.2% (3 of 134), whereas pelvic thrombosis was detected in 10.4% (14 of 134). This study demonstrated that pelvic thrombi may form following THA and that a single dose of intraoperative heparin does not prevent their formation, but may be effective at preventing ipsilateral femoral thrombi. This study strongly supports a multimodal approach to DVT prophylaxis following THA. PMID:15660059

  9. DEEP X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE YOUNG HIGH-MAGNETIC-FIELD RADIO PULSAR J1119-6127 AND SUPERNOVA REMNANT G292.2-0.5

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, C.-Y.; Kaspi, V. M. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Ho, W. C. G. [School of Mathematics, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Weltevrede, P. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Alan Turing Building, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Bogdanov, S. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Shannon, R. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Sciences, Australia Telescope National Facility, Marsfield, NSW 2210 (Australia); Gonzalez, M. E., E-mail: ncy@physics.mcgill.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2012-12-10

    High-magnetic-field radio pulsars are important transition objects for understanding the connection between magnetars and conventional radio pulsars. We present a detailed study of the young radio pulsar J1119-6127, which has a characteristic age of 1900 yr and a spin-down-inferred magnetic field of 4.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} G, and its associated supernova remnant G292.2-0.5, using deep XMM-Newton and Chandra X-ray Observatory exposures of over 120 ks from each telescope. The pulsar emission shows strong modulation below 2.5 keV with a single-peaked profile and a large pulsed fraction of 0.48 {+-} 0.12. Employing a magnetic, partially ionized hydrogen atmosphere model, we find that the observed pulse profile can be produced by a single hot spot of temperature 0.13 keV covering about one-third of the stellar surface, and we place an upper limit of 0.08 keV for an antipodal hot spot with the same area. The non-uniform surface temperature distribution could be the result of anisotropic heat conduction under a strong magnetic field, and a single-peaked profile seems common among high-B radio pulsars. For the associated remnant G292.2-0.5, its large diameter could be attributed to fast expansion in a low-density wind cavity, likely formed by a Wolf-Rayet progenitor, similar to two other high-B radio pulsars.

  10. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for Treating Depression in a Patient With Right Hemispheric Dominance: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Shiozawa, Pedro; da Silva, Mailu Enokibara; Cordeiro, Quirino

    2014-09-01

    We report the case of a 66-year-old male patient with major depressive disorder for the last 6 months. The patient had been diagnosed with dyslexia during childhood and was left-handed. The intervention protocol consisted in 10 consecutive daily transcranial direct current stimulation sessions. However, after 5 days of stimulation, the patient presented with intensification of depressive symptoms and panic attacks. It was hypothetized that the intensification of symptoms may have been due to stimulation protocol itself. Considering the patient was left-handed and presented comorbidity with dyslexia, there was a plausible hypothesis of right hemispheric dominance. This was corroborated by the Edinburgh Handedness Scale. In fact, dyslexic patients present right hemisphere dominance more frequently. The patient also presented a single photon emission computed tomography with a hypoperfusion area over the left posterior parietal lobe. After the patients agreement, a 10-day experimental repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation low-frequency protocol over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was started to inhibit the area, which was hypothetically hyperactivated following the rationale of right dominance. The patient presented amelioration of depressive and anxious symptoms. Given the hemispheric reversal we show in the present case study, however, it seems that therapies that are beneficial to right-handers could be detrimental to left-handers. PMID:25203287

  11. Brain Circulation during Panic Attack: A Transcranial Doppler Study with Clomipramine Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Marinoni, Marinella; Lejeune, Francesca; Alari, Fabiana; Depinesi, Daniela; Faravelli, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Cerebral blood flow has been well studied in patients with panic disorder, but only few studies analyzed the mechanisms underlying the onset of a panic attack. The aim of the present study was to monitor the cerebral hemodynamics modifications during a panic attack. Materials and Methods. 10 panic disorder patients with recent onset, fully drug naïve, were compared to 13 patients with panic disorder with a previous history of treatment and to 14 controls. A continuous bilateral monitoring of mean flow velocities in right and left middle cerebral arteries was performed by transcranial Doppler. Clomipramine was chosen as challenge. Results. Eight out of 10 patients drug naïve and 6 control subjects out of 13 had a full blown panic attack during the test, whereas none of the patients with a history of treatment panicked. The occurrence of a panic attack was accompanied by a rapid decrease of flow velocities in both right and left middle cerebral arteries. Discussion. The bilateral acute decrease of mean flow velocity during a panic attack suggests the vasoconstriction of the microcirculation of deep brain structures perfused by middle cerebral arteries and involved in the so-called “fear circuitry,” thus suggesting that cerebral homeostatic dysfunctions seem to have a key role in the onset of a panic attack. PMID:24829899

  12. Integrated Analysis on Gravity and Magnetic Fields of the Hailar Basin, NE China: Implications for Basement Structure and Deep Tectonics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Sun; L. Wang; P. Dong

    2010-01-01

    The Hailar Basin is one of the most representative basins among the Northeast China Basin Group, which is situated in the east of East Asia Orogene between the Siberia Plate and the North China Plate. Based on the detailed analysis of the Bouguer gravity anomaly, aeromagnetic anomaly as well as petrophysical data, we studied the features of gravity-magnetic fields in

  13. Modulating cognition using transcranial direct current stimulation of the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Pope, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have emerged recently that demonstrate the possibility of modulating, and in some cases enhancing, cognitive processes by exciting brain regions involved in working memory and attention using transcranial electrical brain stimulation. Some researchers now believe the cerebellum supports cognition, possibly via a remote neuromodulatory effect on the prefrontal cortex. This paper describes a procedure for investigating a role for the cerebellum in cognition using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), and a selection of information-processing tasks of varying task difficulty, which have previously been shown to involve working memory, attention and cerebellar functioning. One task is called the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT) and the other a novel variant of this task called the Paced Auditory Serial Subtraction Task (PASST). A verb generation task and its two controls (noun and verb reading) were also investigated. All five tasks were performed by three separate groups of participants, before and after the modulation of cortico-cerebellar connectivity using anodal, cathodal or sham tDCS over the right cerebellar cortex. The procedure demonstrates how performance (accuracy, verbal response latency and variability) could be selectively improved after cathodal stimulation, but only during tasks that the participants rated as difficult, and not easy. Performance was unchanged by anodal or sham stimulation. These findings demonstrate a role for the cerebellum in cognition, whereby activity in the left prefrontal cortex is likely dis-inhibited by cathodal tDCS over the right cerebellar cortex. Transcranial brain stimulation is growing in popularity in various labs and clinics. However, the after-effects of tDCS are inconsistent between individuals and not always polarity-specific, and may even be task- or load-specific, all of which requires further study. Future efforts might also be guided towards neuro-enhancement in cerebellar patients presenting with cognitive impairment once a better understanding of brain stimulation mechanisms has emerged. PMID:25741744

  14. Modulating Cognition Using Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of the Cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have emerged recently that demonstrate the possibility of modulating, and in some cases enhancing, cognitive processes by exciting brain regions involved in working memory and attention using transcranial electrical brain stimulation. Some researchers now believe the cerebellum supports cognition, possibly via a remote neuromodulatory effect on the prefrontal cortex. This paper describes a procedure for investigating a role for the cerebellum in cognition using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), and a selection of information-processing tasks of varying task difficulty, which have previously been shown to involve working memory, attention and cerebellar functioning. One task is called the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT) and the other a novel variant of this task called the Paced Auditory Serial Subtraction Task (PASST). A verb generation task and its two controls (noun and verb reading) were also investigated. All five tasks were performed by three separate groups of participants, before and after the modulation of cortico-cerebellar connectivity using anodal, cathodal or sham tDCS over the right cerebellar cortex. The procedure demonstrates how performance (accuracy, verbal response latency and variability) could be selectively improved after cathodal stimulation, but only during tasks that the participants rated as difficult, and not easy. Performance was unchanged by anodal or sham stimulation. These findings demonstrate a role for the cerebellum in cognition, whereby activity in the left prefrontal cortex is likely dis-inhibited by cathodal tDCS over the right cerebellar cortex. Transcranial brain stimulation is growing in popularity in various labs and clinics. However, the after-effects of tDCS are inconsistent between individuals and not always polarity-specific, and may even be task- or load-specific, all of which requires further study. Future efforts might also be guided towards neuro-enhancement in cerebellar patients presenting with cognitive impairment once a better understanding of brain stimulation mechanisms has emerged. PMID:25741744

  15. Electronic and magnetic structures of the postperovskite-type Fe[subscript 2]O[subscript 3] and implications for planetary magnetic records and deep interiors

    E-print Network

    Shim, Sang-Heon Dan

    Recent studies have shown that high pressure (P) induces the metallization of the Fe[superscript 2+]–O bonding, the destruction of magnetic ordering in Fe, and the high-spin (HS) to low-spin (LS) transition of Fe in silicate ...

  16. Transcranial duplex in the differential diagnosis of parkinsonian syndromes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annemarie M. M. Vlaar; Angela Bouwmans; Werner H. Mess; Selma C. Tromp; Wim E. J. Weber

    2009-01-01

    Background\\u000a   Transcranial duplex scanning (TCD) of the substantia nigra (SN) is increasingly used to diagnose Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease\\u000a (IPD). Up until now 70 diagnostic studies have been published, not only on investigation of the SN, but also of the lenticular\\u000a nucleus (LN) and the Raphe nuclei (RN).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method\\u000a   We systematically reviewed all diagnostic TCD studies in parkinsonian patients up to

  17. Transcranial Doppler validation of hemodynamic vertebrobasilar insufficiency diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Caliò, F G; Bertagni, A; Vietri, F; Martinelli, V

    1996-01-01

    Transcranial Doppler (TCD) can be useful in the diagnosis and validation of surgical treatment of vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI). A case is reported in which TCD confirmed the diagnosis of vertebrobasilar insufficiency and validated the indication of surgery by detecting a bidirectional flow in a stenotic and compressed vertebral artery. In the postoperative period and at late follow-up TCD demonstrated a restored antegrade flow, as a consequence of a well functioning revascularization. Surgical indication of VBI is rare and TCD can be proposed as part of routine patients' study before a surgical decision is taken. PMID:9177624

  18. A Noninvasive Imaging Approach to Understanding Speech Changes following Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narayana, Shalini; Jacks, Adam; Robin, Donald A.; Poizner, Howard; Zhang, Wei; Franklin, Crystal; Liotti, Mario; Vogel, Deanie; Fox, Peter T.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the use of noninvasive functional imaging and "virtual" lesion techniques to study the neural mechanisms underlying motor speech disorders in Parkinson's disease. Here, we report the use of positron emission tomography (PET) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to explain exacerbated speech impairment following…

  19. Magnetic fields in noninvasive brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Dourado, Marcos; Conforto, Adriana Bastos; Caboclo, Luis Otávio Sales Ferreira; Scaff, Milberto; Guilhoto, Laura Maria de Figueiredo Ferreira; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas

    2014-04-01

    The idea that magnetic fields could be used therapeutically arose 2000 years ago. These therapeutic possibilities were expanded after the discovery of electromagnetic induction by the Englishman Michael Faraday and the American Joseph Henry. In 1896, Arsène d'Arsonval reported his experience with noninvasive brain magnetic stimulation to the scientific French community. In the second half of the 20th century, changing magnetic fields emerged as a noninvasive tool to study the nervous system and to modulate neural function. In 1985, Barker, Jalinous, and Freeston presented transcranial magnetic stimulation, a relatively focal and painless technique. Transcranial magnetic stimulation has been proposed as a clinical neurophysiology tool and as a potential adjuvant treatment for psychiatric and neurologic conditions. This article aims to contextualize the progress of use of magnetic fields in the history of neuroscience and medical sciences, until 1985. PMID:23787954

  20. Mechanisms of Magnetic Stimulation of Central Nervous System Neurons

    E-print Network

    Bar-Gad, Izhar

    Mechanisms of Magnetic Stimulation of Central Nervous System Neurons Tamar Pashut1 , Shuki Wolfus2, Ramat-Gan, Israel Abstract Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a stimulation method in which an electric field that modulates neuronal activity. The spatial distribution of the induced electric field

  1. A computerized tomography system for transcranial ultrasound imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Sai Chun; Clement, Gregory T

    2014-01-01

    Hardware for tomographic imaging presents both challenge and opportunity for simplification when compared with traditional pulse-echo imaging systems. Specifically, point diffraction tomography does not require simultaneous powering of elements, in theory allowing just a single transmit channel and a single receive channel to be coupled with a switching or multiplexing network. In our ongoing work on transcranial imaging, we have developed a 512-channel system designed to transmit and/or receive a high voltage signal from/to arbitrary elements of an imaging array. The overall design follows a hierarchy of modules including a software interface, microcontroller, pulse generator, pulse amplifier, high-voltage power converter, switching mother board, switching daughter board, receiver amplifier, analog-to-digital converter, peak detector, memory, and USB communication. Two pulse amplifiers are included, each capable of producing up to 400Vpp via power MOSFETS. Switching is based around mechanical relays that allow passage of 200V, while still achieving switching times of under 2ms, with an operating frequency ranging from below 100kHz to 10MHz. The system is demonstrated through ex vivo human skulls using 1MHz transducers. The overall system design is applicable to planned human studies in transcranial image acquisition, and may have additional tomographic applications for other materials necessitating a high signal output. PMID:25598864

  2. Ultrasound measurement of transcranial distance during head-down tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torikoshi, S.; Wilson, M. H.; Ballard, R. E.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Murthy, G.; Yost, W. T.; Cantrell, J. H.; Chang, D. S.; Hargens, A. R.

    1995-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity elevates blood pressure and flow in the head, which may increase intracranial volume (ICV) and intracranial pressure (ICP). Rhesus monkeys exposed to simulated microgravity in the form of 6 degree head-down tilt (HDT) experience elevated ICP. With humans, twenty-four hours of 6 degree HDT bed rest increases cerebral blood flow velocity relative to pre-HDT upright posture. Humans exposed to acute 6 degree HDT experiments increased ICP, measured with the tympanic membrane displacement (TMD) technique. Other studies suggest that increased ICP in humans and cats causes measurable cranial bone movement across the sagittal suture. Due to the slightly compliant nature of the cranium, elevation of the ICP will increase ICV and transcranial distance. Currently, several non-invasive approaches to monitor ICP are being investigated. Such techniques include TMD and modal analysis of the skull. TMD may not be reliable over a large range of ICP and neither method is capable of measuring the small changes in pressure. Ultrasound, however, may reliably measure small distance changes that accompany ICP fluctuations. The purpose of our study was to develop and evaluate an ultrasound technique to measure transcranial distance changes during HDT.

  3. Cortical Control of Affective Networks

    E-print Network

    Kumar, S.

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation and deep brain stimulation have emerged as therapeutic modalities for treatment refractory depression; however, little remains known regarding the circuitry that mediates the therapeutic ...

  4. Opening of the Gulf of Mexico and the Nature of the Crust in the Deep Gulf: New Evidence from Seafloor Spreading Magnetic Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harry, D. L.; Eskamani, P. K.

    2013-12-01

    The seafloor spreading history in the Gulf of Mexico is poorly constrained due to a lack of recognized seafloor spreading magnetic anomalies, a paucity of deep penetrating seismic data, and absence of drilling to constrain crystalline ocean floor composition and ages. We have identified lineated magnetic anomalies in the eastern Gulf on profiles collected during the Woods Hole R/V Farnella FRNL85-2 cruise that correlate with magnetic chrons M21R to M10. Forward modeling shows that these anomalies formed during creation of weakly magnetized new seafloor in the eastern Gulf between 149-134 Ma at an average half-spreading rate of 3.2 cm/yr. The oldest anomalies are located against stretched continental crust beneath the western Florida shelf on the east and the Yucatan shelf on the west. The youngest anomalies form a juxtaposed conjugate pair that mark the location of an extinct spreading ridge between Yucatan and Florida. Seismic velocities of the crust in the eastern Gulf and the amplitude of the magnetic anomalies are similar to the Iberian and Newfoundland rifted margins, where the early stages of continental breakup were accommodated by exhumation of subcontinental lithosphere rather than creation of new basaltic oceanic crust. We infer that the eastern Gulf of Mexico is underlain by exhumed sub-continental peridotitic mantle intruded by lesser volumes of basaltic igneous rocks generated by decompression melting of the asthenosphere during the late stages of opening of the Gulf. The long wavelength characteristics of the magnetic and gravity fields in the eastern Gulf, as well as the seismic velocity structure of the crust, differ from those in the central and western Gulf, which are more similar to typical magmatic rifted margins. This suggests that the character of the Gulf changes along strike, from a magmatic western portion to an amagmatic eastern portion. Paleogeographic restoration of the lineated magnetic anomaly pattern suggests a 4-phase model for opening of the Gulf. During phase 1 (Early Permian-Late Triassic), Yucatan and associated tectonic blocks that now comprise eastern Mexico were translated eastward from the Pacific realm into positions near the modern western Gulf. During phase 2 (Late Triassic-ca. 160 Ma) Yucatan and the South Florida block were translated southeastward relative to North America, rotating 6.7? counterclockwise about a pole located at 34?N, 74?W. This resulted in ca. 430 km of southeastward extension on the North American coastal plain, 120 km of southward extension on the northern Yucatan shelf, and displacement of the South Florida Block from a pre-rift position on the northwest Florida shelf to its modern position. During phase 3 (ca. 160-149 Ma), Yucatan rotated counterclockwise 46? relative to North America about a pole located at 27.6?N, 84.0?W. Phase 3 may have coincided with seafloor spreading in the central and western Gulf, but predated seafloor spreading in the eastern Gulf. During phase 4 (149-134 Ma), Yucatan moved southwestward relative to North America, rotating counterclockwise 2.2? about a pole located at 17.6?N, 74.2?W and completing opening of the Gulf.

  5. Polarity Specific Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Interhemispheric Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Tazoe, Toshiki; Endoh, Takashi; Kitamura, Taku; Ogata, Toru

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been used as a useful interventional brain stimulation technique to improve unilateral upper-limb motor function in healthy humans, as well as in stroke patients. Although tDCS applications are supposed to modify the interhemispheric balance between the motor cortices, the tDCS after-effects on interhemispheric interactions are still poorly understood. To address this issue, we investigated the tDCS after-effects on interhemispheric inhibition (IHI) between the primary motor cortices (M1) in healthy humans. Three types of tDCS electrode montage were tested on separate days; anodal tDCS over the right M1, cathodal tDCS over the left M1, bilateral tDCS with anode over the right M1 and cathode over the left M1. Single-pulse and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulations were given to the left M1 and right M1 before and after tDCS to assess the bilateral corticospinal excitabilities and mutual direction of IHI. Regardless of the electrode montages, corticospinal excitability was increased on the same side of anodal stimulation and decreased on the same side of cathodal stimulation. However, neither unilateral tDCS changed the corticospinal excitability at the unstimulated side. Unilateral anodal tDCS increased IHI from the facilitated side M1 to the unchanged side M1, but it did not change IHI in the other direction. Unilateral cathodal tDCS suppressed IHI both from the inhibited side M1 to the unchanged side M1 and from the unchanged side M1 to the inhibited side M1. Bilateral tDCS increased IHI from the facilitated side M1 to the inhibited side M1 and attenuated IHI in the opposite direction. Sham-tDCS affected neither corticospinal excitability nor IHI. These findings indicate that tDCS produced polarity-specific after-effects on the interhemispheric interactions between M1 and that those after-effects on interhemispheric interactions were mainly dependent on whether tDCS resulted in the facilitation or inhibition of the M1 sending interhemispheric volleys. PMID:25478912

  6. Polarity specific effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on interhemispheric inhibition.

    PubMed

    Tazoe, Toshiki; Endoh, Takashi; Kitamura, Taku; Ogata, Toru

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been used as a useful interventional brain stimulation technique to improve unilateral upper-limb motor function in healthy humans, as well as in stroke patients. Although tDCS applications are supposed to modify the interhemispheric balance between the motor cortices, the tDCS after-effects on interhemispheric interactions are still poorly understood. To address this issue, we investigated the tDCS after-effects on interhemispheric inhibition (IHI) between the primary motor cortices (M1) in healthy humans. Three types of tDCS electrode montage were tested on separate days; anodal tDCS over the right M1, cathodal tDCS over the left M1, bilateral tDCS with anode over the right M1 and cathode over the left M1. Single-pulse and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulations were given to the left M1 and right M1 before and after tDCS to assess the bilateral corticospinal excitabilities and mutual direction of IHI. Regardless of the electrode montages, corticospinal excitability was increased on the same side of anodal stimulation and decreased on the same side of cathodal stimulation. However, neither unilateral tDCS changed the corticospinal excitability at the unstimulated side. Unilateral anodal tDCS increased IHI from the facilitated side M1 to the unchanged side M1, but it did not change IHI in the other direction. Unilateral cathodal tDCS suppressed IHI both from the inhibited side M1 to the unchanged side M1 and from the unchanged side M1 to the inhibited side M1. Bilateral tDCS increased IHI from the facilitated side M1 to the inhibited side M1 and attenuated IHI in the opposite direction. Sham-tDCS affected neither corticospinal excitability nor IHI. These findings indicate that tDCS produced polarity-specific after-effects on the interhemispheric interactions between M1 and that those after-effects on interhemispheric interactions were mainly dependent on whether tDCS resulted in the facilitation or inhibition of the M1 sending interhemispheric volleys. PMID:25478912

  7. Transcranial LED therapy for cognitive dysfunction in chronic, mild traumatic brain injury: Two case reports

    E-print Network

    Hamblin, Michael R.

    Two chronic, traumatic brain injury (TBI) cases are presented, where cognitive function improved following treatment with transcranial light emitting diodes (LEDs). At age 59, P1 had closed-head injury from a motor vehicle ...

  8. Manipulating neuronal activity with low frequency transcranial ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Michele Elizabeth

    Stimulation of the rodent cerebral cortex is used to investigate the underlying biological basis for the restorative effects of slow wave sleep. Neuronal activation by optogenetic and ultrasound stimulation elicits changes in action potentials across the cerebral cortex that are recorded as electroencephalograms. Optogenetic stimulation requires an invasive implantation procedure limiting its application in human studies. We sought to determine whether ultrasound stimulation could be as effective as optogenetic techniques currently used, in an effort to further understand the physiological and metabolic requirements of sleep. We successfully recorded electroencephalograms in response to transcranial ultrasound stimulation of the barrel cortex at 1 and 7 Hz frequencies, comparing them to those recorded in response to optogenetic stimuli applied at the same frequencies. Our results showed application of a 473 nm blue LED positioned 6 cm above the skull and ultrasound stimulation at an output voltage of 1000 mVpp produced electroencephalograms with physiological responses of similar amplitude. We concluded that there exists an intensity-proportionate response in the optogenetic stimulation, but not with ultrasound stimulation at the frequencies we surveyed. Activation of neuronal cells in response to optogenetic stimulation in a Thy1-ChR2 transgenic mouse line is specifically targeted to pyramidal cells in the cerebral cortex. ChR2 responses to optogenetic stimulation are mediated by a focal activation of neuronal ion channels. We measured electrophysiological responses to ultrasound stimulation, comparing them to those recorded from optogenetic stimuli. Our results show striking similarities between ultrasound-induced responses and optogenetically-induced responses, which may indicate that transcranial ultrasound stimulation is also mediated by ion channel dependent processes in cerebral cortical neurons. The biophysical substrates for electrical excitability of neurons impose temporal constraints on their response to stimulation. If ultrasound-mediated responses are, in fact, ion channel mediated responses, ultrasound-induced responses should exhibit time-dependence characteristics similar to those of optogenetically-triggered responses. Minimal stimulus duration thresholds and the temporal limits of paired pulse facilitation for ultrasound stimulation were identical to those of optogenetic stimulation. Collectively, these experiments demonstrate an electrophysiological basis for low-frequency transcranial ultrasound stimulation of cerebral cortical neuronal activity.

  9. Ferromagnetic resonance and magnetic studies of cores 60009/60010 and 60003 - Compositional and surface-exposure stratigraphy. [of Apollo deep drill lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. V.; Gose, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    Ferromagnetic resonance and static magnetic measurements were made on 131 samples from core 60009/60010 and on 40 samples from section 60003 of the Apollo 16 deep drill core. These studies provided depth profiles for composition, in terms of the concentration of FeO, and relative surface exposure age (or maturity), in terms of the values of the specific FMR intensity normalized to the FeO content. For core 60009/60010, the concentration of FeO ranged from about 1.6 wt.% to 5.8 wt.% with a mean value of 4.6 wt.% and the maturity ranged from immature to mature with most of the soils being submature. A systematic decrease in maturity from the lunar surface to a depth of about 12.5 cm was observed in core section 60010. For core section 60003, the concentration of FeO ranged from about 5.2 wt.% to 7.5 wt.% with a mean value of 6.4 wt.% and the maturity ranged from submature to mature with most of the soils being mature.

  10. DEEP RADIO CONTINUUM IMAGING OF THE DWARF IRREGULAR GALAXY IC 10: TRACING STAR FORMATION AND MAGNETIC FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Heesen, V.; Brinks, E. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Rau, U.; Rupen, M. P. [NRAO, P.V.D. Science Operations Center, National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Hunter, D. A. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2011-09-20

    We exploit the vastly increased sensitivity of the Expanded Very Large Array to study the radio continuum and polarization properties of the post-starburst, dwarf irregular galaxy IC 10 at 6 cm, at a linear resolution of {approx}50 pc. We find close agreement between radio continuum and H{alpha} emission, from the brightest H II regions to the weaker emission in the disk. A quantitative analysis shows a strictly linear correlation, where the thermal component contributes 50% to the total radio emission, the remainder being due to a non-thermal component with a surprisingly steep radio spectral index of between -0.7 and -1.0 suggesting substantial radiation losses of the cosmic-ray electrons. We confirm and clearly resolve polarized emission at the 10%-20% level associated with a non-thermal superbubble, where the ordered magnetic field is possibly enhanced due to the compression of the expanding bubble. A fraction of the cosmic-ray electrons has likely escaped because the measured radio emission is a factor of three lower than what is suggested by the H{alpha}-inferred star formation rate.

  11. Potentiation of fentanyl suppression of the jaw-opening reflex by transcranial electrical stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Alantar; J. Azérad; A. Limoge; C. Robert; R. Rokyta; B. Pollin

    1997-01-01

    Stinus et al. [L. Stinus, M. Auriacombe, J. Tignol, A. Limoge, M. Le Moal, Transcranial electrical stimulation with high frequency intermittent current (Limoge's) potentiates opiate-induced analgesia: blind studies, Pain, 42 (1990) 351–363.] observed that transcranial electrical stimulation (TCES) with high-frequency intermittent current potentiated opiate-induced analgesia using the tail-flick test. In unanesthetized, chronic preparations, electrical stimulation (0.5 Hz) of the lower

  12. Transcranial MR-guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound for Non-Invasive Functional Neurosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Beat; Morel, Anne; Zadicario, Eyal; Jeanmonod, Daniel; Martin, Ernst

    2010-03-01

    While the development of transcranial MR-guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound has been driven mainly by applications for tumor ablation this new intervention method is also very attractive for functional neurosurgery due to its non-invasiveness, the absence of ionizing radiation and the closed-loop intervention control by MRI. Here we provide preliminary data to demonstrate the clinical feasibility, safety and precision of non-invasive functional neurosurgery by transcranial MR-guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound.

  13. Transcranial Doppler detection of microemboli in prosthetic heart valve patients: dependency upon valve type

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Faichney; K LEES; M KAPS; J BERG; T MACKAY; D WHEATLEY; F DAPPER

    1996-01-01

    Transcranial Doppler ultrasound has revealed the existence of cerebrovascular microemboli in asymptomatic patients with prosthetic heart valves. We investigated the relation between the presence and number of emboli signals and valve type. Patients with six types of prosthetic valves (Björk-Shiley monostrut, Medtronic-Hall, Carbomedics, ATS, Carpentier-Edwards standard, Carpentier-Edwards supraannular) were examined using transcranial Doppler ultrasound in two centers. The monitoring time

  14. Transcranial cerebral oximetry in endovascular treatment of carotid-cavernous fistula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Misra; M. Dujovny; V. Aletich; M. S. Alp; G. M. Debrun; J. I. Ausman

    1996-01-01

    The transcranial cerebral oximeter is a reliable, low-cost, noninvasive device that provides real-time evaluation of regional brain oxygen saturation during endovascular treatment of cerebrovascular diseases. We discuss three patients with carotid-cavernous fistulae treated by endovascular balloon occlusion, each monitored continuously before, during, and after the procedure with transcranial cerebral oximetry. The cerebral oxygen saturation measured was directly related to the

  15. Brazilian Guidelines for transcranial doppler in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Clarisse Lopes de Castro; Cançado, Rodolfo Delfini; Leite, Ana Claudia Celestino Bezerra; dos Anjos, Ana Claudia Mendonça; Pinto, Ana Cristina Silva; Matta, Andre Palma da Cunha; Silva, Célia Maria; Silva, Gisele Sampaio; Friedrisch, João Ricardo; Braga, Josefina Aparecida Pellegrini; Lange, Marcos Christiano; Figueiredo, Maria Stella; Rugani, Marília Álvares; Veloso, Orlando; Moura, Patrícia Gomes; Cortez, Paulo Ivo; Adams, Robert; Gualandro, Sandra Fátima Menosi; de Castilho, Shirley Lopes; Thomé, Ursula; Zetola, Viviane Flumignan

    2011-01-01

    Background Sickle cell disease is the most common monogenic hereditary disease in Brazil. Although strokes are one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in these patients, the use of transcranial Doppler to identify children at risk is not universally used. Objective To develop Brazilian guidelines for the use of transcranial Doppler in sickle cell disease children and adolescents, so that related health policies can be expanded, and thus contribute to reduce morbidity and mortality. Methods The guidelines were formulated in a consensus meeting of experts in transcranial Doppler and sickle cell disease. The issues discussed were previously formulated and scientific articles in databases (MEDLINE, SciELO and Cochrane) were carefully analyzed. The consensus for each question was obtained by a vote of experts on the specific theme. Results Recommendations were made, including indications for the use of transcranial Doppler according to the sickle cell disease genotype and patients age; the necessary conditions to perform the exam and its periodicity depending on exam results; the criteria for the indication of blood transfusions and iron chelation therapy; the indication of hydroxyurea; and the therapeutic approach in cases of conditional transcranial Doppler. Conclusion The Brazilian guidelines on the use of transcranial doppler in sickle cell disease patients may reduce the risk of strokes, and thus reduce the morbidity and mortality and improve the quality of life of sickle cell disease patients. PMID:23284243

  16. Transcranial Doppler sonography within 12 hours after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Romner, B; Ljunggren, B; Brandt, L; Säveland, H

    1989-05-01

    Twenty-one patients were subjected to repeated assessment of cerebral blood flow velocities by means of transcranial Doppler sonography (TCDS) during the first 12 hours after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In 19 patients the study was performed following the first SAH, and in two after early rebleeds. Flow velocities did not indicate an early phase of arterial narrowing in any case. Following the first TCDS assessment, flows were evaluated repeatedly in the 19 survivors. Increased flow velocities suggesting arterial narrowing or vasospasm occurred only after a delay of at least 4 days. The results of this study favor the restoration of normal velocity patterns in surviving patients and do not indicate that an acute phase of vasospasm exists either immediately after or in the first 12 hours after SAH. PMID:2651585

  17. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) - Application in neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong-Il; Foerster, Águida; Nitsche, Michael A

    2015-03-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulation is a versatile tool to modulate psychological processes via alterations of brain activity, and excitability. It is applied to explore the physiological basis of cognition and behavior, as well as to reduce clinical symptoms in neurological and psychiatric diseases. Neuromodulatory brain stimulation via transcranial direct currents (tDCS) has gained increased attention recently. In this review we will describe physiological mechanisms of action of tDCS, and summarize its application to modulate psychological processes in healthy humans and neuropsychiatric diseases. Furthermore, beyond giving an overview of the state of the art of tDCS, including limitations, we will outline future directions of research in this relatively young scientific field. PMID:25656568

  18. Transcranial direct current stimulation modulates efficiency of reading processes

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Jennifer M.; Doruk, Deniz; Mascio, Bryan; Fregni, Felipe; Cerruti, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulatory technique that offers promise as an investigative method for understanding complex cognitive operations such as reading. This study explores the ability of a single session of tDCS to modulate reading efficiency and phonological processing performance within a group of healthy adults. Half the group received anodal or cathodal stimulation, on two separate days, of the left temporo-parietal junction while the other half received anodal or cathodal stimulation of the right homologue area. Pre- and post-stimulation assessment of reading efficiency and phonological processing was carried out. A larger pre-post difference in reading efficiency was found for participants who received right anodal stimulation compared to participants who received left anodal stimulation. Further, there was a significant post-stimulation increase in phonological processing speed following right hemisphere anodal stimulation. Implications for models of reading and reading impairment are discussed. PMID:25852513

  19. [Transcranial direct current stimulation: a new tool for neurostimulation].

    PubMed

    Thibaut, A; Chatelle, C; Gosseries, O; Laureys, S; Bruno, M-A

    2013-02-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a safe method to modulate cortical excitability. Anodal stimulation can improve the stimulated area's functions whereas cathodal stimulation reduces them. Currently, a lot of clinical trials have been conducted to study the effect of tDCS on post-stroke motor and language deficits, in depression, chronic pain, memory impairment and tinnitus in order to decrease symptoms. Results showed that, if an effect is observed with tDCS, it does not persist over time. Current studies suggest that direct current stimulation is a promising technique that helps to improve rehabilitation after stroke, to enhance cognitive deficiencies, to reduce depression and to relieve chronic pain. Moreover, it is a safe, simple and cheap device that could be easily integrated in a rehabilitation program. PMID:22959705

  20. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and language

    PubMed Central

    Monti, Alessia; Ferrucci, Roberta; Fumagalli, Manuela; Mameli, Francesca; Cogiamanian, Filippo; Ardolino, Gianluca; Priori, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a non-invasive neuromodulation technique inducing prolonged brain excitability changes and promoting cerebral plasticity, is a promising option for neurorehabilitation. Here, we review progress in research on tDCS and language functions and on the potential role of tDCS in the treatment of post-stroke aphasia. Currently available data suggest that tDCS over language-related brain areas can modulate linguistic abilities in healthy individuals and can improve language performance in patients with aphasia. Whether the results obtained in experimental conditions are functionally important for the quality of life of patients and their caregivers remains unclear. Despite the fact that important variables are yet to be determined, tDCS combined with rehabilitation techniques seems a promising therapeutic option for aphasia. PMID:23138766