Science.gov

Sample records for deep underground gas

  1. Relevance of deep-subsurface microbiology for underground gas storage and geothermal energy production.

    PubMed

    Gniese, Claudia; Bombach, Petra; Rakoczy, Jana; Hoth, Nils; Schlömann, Michael; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Krüger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives the reader an introduction into the microbiology of deep geological systems with a special focus on potential geobiotechnological applications and respective risk assessments. It has been known for decades that microbial activity is responsible for the degradation or conversion of hydrocarbons in oil, gas, and coal reservoirs. These processes occur in the absence of oxygen, a typical characteristic of such deep ecosystems. The understanding of the responsible microbial processes and their environmental regulation is not only of great scientific interest. It also has substantial economic and social relevance, inasmuch as these processes directly or indirectly affect the quantity and quality of the stored oil or gas. As outlined in the following chapter, in addition to the conventional hydrocarbons, new interest in such deep subsurface systems is rising for different technological developments. These are introduced together with related geomicrobiological topics. The capture and long-termed storage of large amounts of carbon dioxide, carbon capture and storage (CCS), for example, in depleted oil and gas reservoirs, is considered to be an important options to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and global warming. On the other hand, the increasing contribution of energy from natural and renewable sources, such as wind, solar, geothermal energy, or biogas production leads to an increasing interest in underground storage of renewable energies. Energy carriers, that is, biogas, methane, or hydrogen, are often produced in a nonconstant manner and renewable energy may be produced at some distance from the place where it is needed. Therefore, storing the energy after its conversion to methane or hydrogen in porous reservoirs or salt caverns is extensively discussed. All these developments create new research fields and challenges for microbiologists and geobiotechnologists. As a basis for respective future work, we introduce the three major topics, that is

  2. North American deep underground laboratories: Soudan Underground Laboratory, SNOLab, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesko, Kevin T.

    2015-08-01

    Over the past several decades, fundamental physics experiments have required access to deep underground laboratories to satisfy the increasingly strict requirements for ultra-low background environments and shielding from cosmic rays. In this presentation, I summarize the existing and anticipated physics programs and laboratory facilities of North America's deep facilities: The Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota, SNOLab in Ontario, Canada, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota.

  3. The world deep underground laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettini, A.

    2012-09-01

    This paper is an introduction to a series of coordinated articles of an EPJ Plus Focus Point on underground physics laboratories, written by the directors of the larger ones and by the coordinators of the principal new projects. The paper is largely based on the text of my lecture Perspectives of underground physics, given at the Enrico Fermi Varenna International School, Course CLXXXII (2011), Neutrino physics and astrophysics, reproduced here by permission of the Italian Physical Society. Underground laboratories provide the low radioactive background environment necessary to explore the highest energy scales that cannot be reached with accelerators, by searching for extremely rare phenomena. Experiments range from the direct search of the dark-matter particles that constitute the largest fraction of matter in the Universe, to the exploration of the properties of the neutrinos, the most elusive of the known particles and which might be particle and antiparticle at the same time, to the investigation on why our universe contains only matter and almost no antimatter, and much more.

  4. Visit to the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2010-01-08

    U.S. Department of Energy scientists and administrators join members of the National Science Foundation and South Dakotas Sanford Underground Laboratory for the deepest journey yet to the proposed site of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL).

  5. Visit to the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-31

    U.S. Department of Energy scientists and administrators join members of the National Science Foundation and South Dakotas Sanford Underground Laboratory for the deepest journey yet to the proposed site of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL).

  6. Visit to the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    U.S. Department of Energy scientists and administrators join members of the National Science Foundation and South Dakotas Sanford Underground Laboratory for the deepest journey yet to the proposed site of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL).

  7. Sidereal variations deep underground in Tasmania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humble, J. E.; Fenton, K. B.; Fenton, A. G.

    1985-01-01

    Data from the deep underground vertically directed muon telescopes at Poatina, Tasmania, have been used since 1972 for a number of investigations, including the daily intensity variations, atmospheric influences, and checking for possible effects due to the interplanetary magnetic field. These telescopes have a total sensitive area of only 3 square meters, with the result that the counting rate is low (about 1680 events per hour) and the statistical errors on the results are rather large. Consequently, it was decided several years ago to construct larger detectors for this station. The first of these telescopes has been in operation for two complete years, and the results from it are presented. Results from the new, more stable equipment at Poatina appear to confirm the existence of a first harmonic in the daily variations in sidereal time reported earlier, and are consistent with small or non-existent first harmonics in solar and anti-sidereal time. All the second harmonics appear to be small, if not zero at these energies.

  8. Deep source gas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-02-01

    Three separate emplacement concepts could explain the occurrence of gas at extreme depths: abiogenesis (a primordial, nonbiologic origin source); subducted, organic-origin gas (involving the deep, tectonic subduction emplacement of hydrocarbon-generating ocean sediments); and deep sedimentary basin gas (the more conventional emplacement of sedimentary rocks by deep downwarping of the Earth's crust). Of these concepts, Deep Source Gas research focuses on the subducted, organic-origin concept. The purpose of Deep Source Gas research is to verify natural gas arising from depths in excess of 30,000 feet, to relate these occurrences to conceptual models, to define the limits of target areas, to quantify the resource, and to determine the significance of the gas to the nation's reserves. The research emphasizes an Earth science study (geology, geochemistry, and geophysics) of the Cordilleran Geologic Province of western North America. This area is considered a prospective source largely because of known and suspected plate tectonic structures and their youthful emplacement, which increase the likelihood of a timely entrapment of deep-source generated hydrocarbons. Detailed geochemical studies indicate that the deep-source-gas generating capacity of the Aleutian Trench area of southern Alaska is high. Furthermore, geophysical studies show that an apparent fossil subduction zone exists in western Washington. This zone appears to have very thick sedimentary rock units, the existence of which will be evaluated through a more detailed seismic study and possibly through drilling activities. Structural observations made in the northern Brooks Range and central Alaskan Range indicate that overthrusting and compressional features may serve as large-scale target areas for deep source gas generation and occurrence. 12 figures, 2 tables.

  9. Low energy neutron background in deep underground laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, Andreas; Görres, Joachim; Junker, Matthias; Kratz, Karl-Ludwig; Laubenstein, Matthias; Long, Alexander; Nisi, Stefano; Smith, Karl; Wiescher, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The natural neutron background influences the maximum achievable sensitivity in most deep underground nuclear, astroparticle and double-beta decay physics experiments. Reliable neutron flux numbers are an important ingredient in the design of the shielding of new large-scale experiments as well as in the analysis of experimental data. Using a portable setup of 3He counters we measured the thermal neutron flux at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility, the Soudan Underground Laboratory, on the 4100 ft and the 4850 ft levels of the Sanford Underground Research Facility, at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. Absolute neutron fluxes at these laboratories are presented.

  10. Underground natural gas storage reservoir management

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.

    1995-06-01

    The objective of this study is to research technologies and methodologies that will reduce the costs associated with the operation and maintenance of underground natural gas storage. This effort will include a survey of public information to determine the amount of natural gas lost from underground storage fields, determine the causes of this lost gas, and develop strategies and remedial designs to reduce or stop the gas loss from selected fields. Phase I includes a detailed survey of US natural gas storage reservoirs to determine the actual amount of natural gas annually lost from underground storage fields. These reservoirs will be ranked, the resultant will include the amount of gas and revenue annually lost. The results will be analyzed in conjunction with the type (geologic) of storage reservoirs to determine the significance and impact of the gas loss. A report of the work accomplished will be prepared. The report will include: (1) a summary list by geologic type of US gas storage reservoirs and their annual underground gas storage losses in ft{sup 3}; (2) a rank by geologic classifications as to the amount of gas lost and the resultant lost revenue; and (3) show the level of significance and impact of the losses by geologic type. Concurrently, the amount of storage activity has increased in conjunction with the net increase of natural gas imports as shown on Figure No. 3. Storage is playing an ever increasing importance in supplying the domestic energy requirements.

  11. Deformation of underground deep cavities in rock salts at their long-term operations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuravleva, T.; Shafarenko, E.

    1995-12-01

    The underground deep cavities are created in rock salts of various morphological types with the purpose of storage of petroleum, gas and nuclear wastes. It is well known that the rock salt has rheological properties, which can result in closure of caverns and loss of their stability. In the evaporitic rocks, especially those containing halite, time-dependent deformation is pronounced even at comparatively low stress levels. At high stress levels this creep becomes a dominant feature of the mechanical behavior of salt rocks. So the knowledge of creep behavior of rock salt is of paramount importance in underground storage application of gas, petroleum products and nuclear wastes.

  12. Deep Secrets of the Neutrino: Physics Underground

    SciTech Connect

    Rowson, P.C.

    2010-03-23

    Among the many beautiful, unexpected and sometimes revolutionary discoveries to emerge from subatomic physics, probably none is more bizarre than an elementary particle known as the 'neutrino'. More than a trillion of these microscopic phantoms pass unnoticed through our bodies every second, and indeed, through the entire Earth - but their properties remain poorly understood. In recent years, exquisitely sensitive experiments, often conducted deep below ground, have brought neutrino physics to the forefront. In this talk, we will explore the neutrino - what we know, what we want to know, and how one experiment in a New Mexico mine is trying to get there.

  13. 30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4463 Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to maintenance...

  14. 30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4463 Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to maintenance...

  15. 30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4463 Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to maintenance...

  16. 30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4463 Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to maintenance...

  17. 30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4463 Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to maintenance...

  18. The Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory at Homestake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesko, Kevin T.

    2008-11-01

    The National Science Foundation and the international underground science community are well into establishing a world-class, multidisciplinary Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) at the former Homestake mine in Lead South Dakota. The NSF's review committee, following the first two NSF solicitations, selected the Homestake Proposal and site as the prime location to be developed into an international research facility. Homestake DUSEL will provide much needed underground research space to help relieve the worldwide shortage, particularly at great depth, and will develop research campuses at several different depths to satisfy the research requirements for the coming decades. The State of South Dakota has demonstrated remarkable support for the project and has secured the site with the transfer from the Homestake Mining Corp. The State, through its Science and Technology Authority with state funds and those of a philanthropic donor has initiated rehabilitation of the surface and underground infrastructure including the Ross and Yates hoists accessing the 4850 Level (feet below ground, 4100 to 4200 mwe). The scientific case for DUSEL and the progress in establishing the preliminary design of the facility and the associated suite of experiments to be funded along with the facility by the NSF are presented.

  19. Laboratory background of an escape-suppressed Clover gamma-ray detector overground, shallow underground, and deep underground

    SciTech Connect

    Szuecs, T.

    2010-03-01

    This study presents the laboratory background measurement of a Clover-type composite gamma-detector equipped with a BGO escape-suppression shield. Recently, such a detector had been used in an in-beam gamma-spectroscopy measurement of the {sup 14}N(p,gamma){sup 15}O reaction deep underground. Here the laboratory gamma-ray background of that detector is studied in three different environments: overground, in a shallow underground laboratory and deep underground. In addition, the effect of the escape-suppression shield on the cosmic-ray induced background has been studied in all three cases. The measurements have been performed at LUNA site in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory, Assergi, Italy (deep underground), at the Felsenkeller Laboratory, Dresden, Germany (shallow underground) and ATOMKI, Debrecen, Hungary (Earth's surface).

  20. Sanford Underground Research Facility - The United State's Deep Underground Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardiman, D.

    2012-12-01

    The 2.5 km deep Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is managed by the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority (SDSTA) at the former Homestake Mine site in Lead, South Dakota. The US Department of Energy currently supports the development of the facility using a phased approach for underground deployment of experiments as they obtain an advanced design stage. The geology of the Sanford Laboratory site has been studied during the 125 years of operations at the Homestake Mine and more recently as part of the preliminary geotechnical site investigations for the NSF's Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory project. The overall geology at DUSEL is a well-defined stratigraphic sequence of schist and phyllites. The three major Proterozoic units encountered in the underground consist of interbedded schist, metasediments, and amphibolite schist which are crosscut by Tertiary rhyolite dikes. Preliminary geotechnical site investigations included drift mapping, borehole drilling, borehole televiewing, in-situ stress analysis, laboratory analysis of core, mapping and laser scanning of new excavations, modeling and analysis of all geotechnical information. The investigation was focused upon the determination if the proposed site rock mass could support the world's largest (66 meter diameter) deep underground excavation. While the DUSEL project has subsequently been significantly modified, these data are still available to provide a baseline of the ground conditions which may be judiciously extrapolated throughout the entire Proterozoic rock assemblage for future excavations. Recommendations for facility instrumentation and monitoring were included in the preliminary design of the DUSEL project design and include; single and multiple point extensometers, tape extensometers and convergence measurements (pins), load cells and pressure cells, smart cables, inclinometers/Tiltmeters, Piezometers, thermistors, seismographs and accelerometers, scanners (laser

  1. The deep underground science and engineering laboratory at Homestake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesko, Kevin T.

    2009-06-01

    The US National Science Foundation and the US underground science community are well into the campaign to establish a world-class, multi-disciplinary deep underground science and engineering laboratory — DUSEL. The NSF's review committee, following the first two NSF solicitations, selected Homestake as the prime site to be developed into an international, multidisciplinary, world-class research facility. Homestake DUSEL will provide much needed underground research space to help relieve the worldwide shortage, particularly at great depth, and will develop research campuses at different depths to satisfy the research requirements for the coming decades. The State of South Dakota has demonstrated remarkable support for the project and has secured the site with the transfer of the former Homestake Gold Mine and has initiated re-entry and rehabilitation of the facility to host a modest interim science program with state funds and those from a substantial philanthropic donor. I review the scientific case for DUSEL and the progress in developing the preliminary design of DUSEL in Homestake and the initial suite of experiments to be funded along with the facility.

  2. The Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory at Homestake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesko, Kevin T.

    2009-12-01

    The US National Science Foundation and the US underground science community are well into the campaign to establish a world-class, multi-disciplinary deep underground science and engineering laboratory—DUSEL. The NSF's review committee, following the first two NSF solicitations, selected Homestake as the prime site to be developed into an international, multidisciplinary, world-class research facility. Homestake DUSEL will provide much needed underground research space to help relieve the worldwide shortage, particularly at great depth, and will develop research campuses at different depths to satisfy the research requirements for the coming decades. The State of South Dakota demonstrates remarkable support for the project and has secured the site with the transfer of the former Homestake Gold Mine and has initiated re-entry and rehabilitation of the facility to host a modest interim science program with state funds and those from a substantial philanthropic donor. I review the scientific case for DUSEL and the progress in developing the preliminary design of DUSEL in Homestake and the integrated suite of experiments to be funded along with the facility.

  3. The Mile Deep Muon Detector at Sanford Underground Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahan, Margaret; Gabriel, Steve

    2012-03-01

    For educating students and teachers about basic nuclear and particle physics, you can't go wrong with cosmic rays muons as a cheap and reliable source of data. A simple and relatively inexpensive detector gives a myriad of possibilities to cover core material in physical science, chemistry, physics, and statistics and gives students opportunities to design their own investigations. At Sanford Underground Laboratory at Homestake, in Lead, SD, cosmic ray muon detectors are being used to answer the first question always asked by any visitor to the facility, ``Why are you building the lab a mile underground'' A conventional Quarknet-style detector is available in the education facility on the surface, with a much larger companion detector, the Mile Deep Muon Detector, set up 4850 feet below the surface. Using the Quarknet data acquisition board, the data will be made available to students and teachers through the Cosmic Ray E-lab website. The detector was tested and installed as part of a summer program for students beginning their first or second year of college.

  4. Photon detection system designs for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittington, D.

    2016-05-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) will be a premier facility for exploring long-standing questions about the boundaries of the standard model. Acting in concert with the liquid argon time projection chambers underpinning the far detector design, the DUNE photon detection system will capture ultraviolet scintillation light in order to provide valuable timing information for event reconstruction. To maximize the active area while maintaining a small photocathode coverage, the experiment will utilize a design based on plastic light guides coated with a wavelength-shifting compound, along with silicon photomultipliers, to collect and record scintillation light from liquid argon. This report presents recent preliminary performance measurements of this baseline design and several alternative designs which promise significant improvements in sensitivity to low-energy interactions.

  5. Photon Detection System Designs for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Whittington, Denver

    2015-11-19

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) will be a premier facility for exploring long-standing questions about the boundaries of the standard model. Acting in concert with the liquid argon time projection chambers underpinning the far detector design, the DUNE photon detection system will capture ultraviolet scintillation light in order to provide valuable timing information for event reconstruction. To maximize the active area while maintaining a small photocathode coverage, the experiment will utilize a design based on plastic light guides coated with a wavelength-shifting compound, along with silicon photomultipliers, to collect and record scintillation light from liquid argon. This report presents recent preliminary performance measurements of this baseline design and several alternative designs which promise significant improvements in sensitivity to low-energy interactions.

  6. Optimal configurations of the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barger, Vernon; Bhattacharya, Atri; Chatterjee, Animesh; Gandhi, Raj; Marfatia, Danny; Masud, Mehedi

    2016-02-01

    We perform a comprehensive study of the ability of the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) to answer outstanding questions in the neutrino sector. We consider the sensitivities to the mass hierarchy, the octant of θ23 and to CP violation using data from beam and atmospheric neutrinos. We evaluate the dependencies on the precision with which θ13 will be measured by reactor experiments, on the detector size, beam power and exposure time, on detector magnetization, and on the systematic uncertainties achievable with and without a near detector. We find that a 35 kt far detector in DUNE with a near detector will resolve the eightfold degeneracy that is intrinsic to long baseline experiments and will meet the primary goals of oscillation physics that it is designed for.

  7. DUSEL CO2: A deep underground laboratory for geologic carbon sequestration studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, C. A.; Dobson, P. F.; Oldenburg, C. M.; Scherer, G.; Onstott, T. C.; Birkholzer, J. T.; Freifeld, B. M.; Celia, M. A.; Wang, J. S.; Prevost, J.

    2009-12-01

    The objective of geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas mitigation strategy is the long-term containment of CO2 in deep underground formations. To develop a sound understanding of geologic carbon sequestration, we will build a deep underground laboratory to study the processes of storing and trapping CO2, including the risks of unintended leakage. The laboratory will be part of the new DUSEL facility at the Homestake mine in South Dakota. In this presentation, we will highlight the features and capabilities of the planned facility, to be called “DUSEL CO2”. The experimental design exploits the nearly half-kilometer vertical extent of existing “sandline” borings at Homestake. Pipes will be installed within the sandlines to serve as long flow columns. These columns will contain the CO2 and allow experimentation at the same pressure and temperature conditions as in deep subsurface reservoirs. Fill materials will mimic sedimentary layering, as well as cements in plugged wells. Instrumentation will enable detailed monitoring of flow, pressure, temperature, brine composition, geomechanics, and microbial activity. As part of the initial suite of experiments, we plan to simulate a leak in which CO2 changes from a supercritical fluid to a subcritical gas as the pressure drops during upflow over tens to hundreds of meters. We will test for possible acceleration in CO2 flow due to increasing buoyancy. Also, we will examine the interactions of CO2 with caprocks and well cements, and determine whether CO2 will enlarge flow pathways or cause self-sealing. Finally, we will investigate the effects of anaerobic, thermophilic bacteria on CO2 conversion to methane and carbonate. The findings from these unique experiments will advance carbon management technology worldwide and help reduce global greenhouse gas emissions.

  8. A Subsurface Explorer for Deep Underground Exploration on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, B. H.; Morgan, A. R.

    2000-01-01

    A subsurface explorer (SSX) is being developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory which is suitable for exploration of the deep underground environments on Mars. The device is a self-contained piledriver which uses a novel 'spinning hammer' technology to convert a small continuous power feed from the surface over a two-wire tether into a large rotational energy of a spinning mass. The rotational energy is converted to translational energy by a novel mechanism described here. The hammer blows propagate as shock waves through a nosepiece, pulverizing the medium ahead of the SSX. A small portion of the pulverized medium is returned to the surface through a hole liner extending behind the SSX. This tube is 'cast in place' from two chemical feedstocks which come down from the surface through passages in the hole liner and which are reacted together to produce new material with which to produce the hole liner. The lined hole does not need to be the full diameter of the SSX: approximately 100 kilograms of liner material can create a tunnel liner with a three millimeter inside diameter and a six millimeter outside diameter with at total length of four kilometers. Thus it is expected that core samples representing an overlapping set of three-millimeter diameter cores extending the entire length of the SSX traverse could be returned to the surface. A pneumatic prototype has been built which penetrated easily to the bottom of an eight meter vertical test facility. An electric prototype is now under construction. It is expected that the SSX will be able to penetrate through sand or mixed regolith, ice, permafrost, or solid rock, such as basalt. For pure or nearly pure ice applications, the device may be augmented with hot water jets to melt the ice and stir any sediment which may build up ahead of the vehicle. It is expected that an SSX approximately one meter long, three to four centimeters in diameter, and with a power budget of approximately 200 Watts will be able to explore

  9. Dynamic Underground Stripping: In situ steam sweeping and electrical heating to remediate a deep hydrocarbon spill

    SciTech Connect

    Yow, J.L. Jr.; Aines, R.D.; Newmark, R.L.; Udell, K.S.; Ziagos, J.P.

    1994-07-01

    Dynamic Underground Stripping is a combination of in situ steam injection, electrical resistance heating, and fluid extraction for rapid removal and recovery of subsurface contaminants such as solvents or fuels. Underground imaging and other measurement techniques monitor the system in situ for process control. Field tests at a deep gasoline spill at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory recovered over 7000 gallons of gasoline during several months of field operations. Preliminary analysis of system cost and performance indicate that Dynamic Underground Stripping compares favorably with conventional pump-and-treat and vacuum extraction schemes for removing non-aqueous phase liquids such as gasoline from deep subsurface plumes.

  10. "DIANA" - A New, Deep-Underground Accelerator Facility for Astrophysics Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, M.; Leitner, D.; Lemut, A.; Vetter, P.; Wiescher, M.

    2009-05-28

    The DIANA project (Dakota Ion Accelerators for Nuclear Astrophysics) is a collaboration between the University of Notre Dame, University of North Carolina, Western Michigan University, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to build a nuclear astrophysics accelerator facility 1.4 km below ground. DIANA is part of the US proposal DUSEL (Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory) to establish a cross-disciplinary underground laboratory in the former gold mine of Homestake in South Dakota, USA. DIANA would consist of two high-current accelerators, a 30 to 400 kV variable, high-voltage platform, and a second, dynamitron accelerator with a voltage range of 350 kV to 3 MV. As a unique feature, both accelerators are planned to be equipped with either high-current microwave ion sources or multi-charged ECR ion sources producing ions from protons to oxygen. Electrostatic quadrupole transport elements will be incorporated in the dynamitron high voltage column. Compared to current astrophysics facilities, DIANA could increase the available beam densities on target by magnitudes: up to 100 mA on the low energy accelerator and several mA on the high energy accelerator. An integral part of the DIANA project is the development of a high-density super-sonic gas-jet target which can handle these anticipated beam powers. The paper will explain the main components of the DIANA accelerators and their beam transport lines and will discuss related technical challenges.

  11. Geologic studies of deep natural gas resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyman, T. S., (Edited By); Kuuskraa, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    In 1995, the USGS estimated a mean resource of 114 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered technically recoverable natural gas in plays deeper than 15,000 feet/4,572 meters in onshore regions of the United States. This volume summarizes major conclusions of ongoing work. Chapters A and B address the areal extent of drilling and distribution of deep basins in the U.S. Chapter C summarizes distribution of deep sedimentary basins and potential for deep gas in the former Soviet Union. Chapters D and E are geochemical papers addressing source-rock issues and deep gas generation. Chapter F develops a probabilistic method for subdividing gas resources into depth slices, and chapter G analyzes the relative uncertainty of estimates of deep gas in plays in the Gulf Coast Region. Chapter H evaluates the mechanism of hydrogenation of deep, high-rank spent kerogen by water, with subsequent generation of methane-rich HC gas.

  12. A Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) at Kimballton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogelaar, R. Bruce

    2004-11-01

    The National Academy of Science, as well as several long-range plans from the physics communities, have endorsed the need to create a large, multi-disciplinary underground laboratory in the US. Several potential sites have been identified, and the National Science Foundation has begun a solicitation process to help formulate the science program as well as to identify and develop candidate sites. The only site on the East Coast is at Kimballton, near Blacksburg, in western Virginia. Of all the sites, it is the only one located in sedimentary rocks. This makes it an IDEAL and unique location for both physics, geoscience, and engineering studies. Kimballton is also only half an hour from Virginia Tech, the largest university in the state of Virginia. A multi-institution group has been developing this possibility, and will be competing on the national scale to have DUSEL located at Kimballton. One of the assets of this location is a large limestone mine, already at a depth of 2300 ft (1850 mwe), with true drive-in access and extremely large caverns. The DUSEL facility at this location will try to take advantage of the existing infrastructure, while at the same time develop complementary and adjacent facilities down to 7000 ft (6000 mwe) to allow independent operation of the future facility. Since 2003, Virginia Tech and the Naval Research Laboratory have been working to also develop a general low-level facility at this location. The initial program is to help develop extremely low-background germanium and gas proportional counters, and a single super-module of the Low-Energy Neutrino Spectroscopy (LENS) detector -- designed to measure the real-time low-energy neutrino spectrum from the Sun, including the pp-flux. Progress in this program (including seismic imaging), and the proposed overall extensive science program (Phys, Geo, Eng, Bio) which can be addressed at Kimballton will be presented. For further information, see our webpage http://www.phys.vt.edu/ kimballton

  13. Sudden stratospheric warmings seen in MINOS deep underground muon data

    SciTech Connect

    Osprey, S.; Barnett, J.; Smith, J.; Adamson, P.; Andreopoulos, C.; Arms, K.E.; Armstrong, R.; Auty, D.J.; Ayres, D.S.; Baller, B.; Barnes, P.D., Jr.; /LLNL, Livermore /Oxford U.

    2009-01-01

    The rate of high energy cosmic ray muons as measured underground is shown to be strongly correlated with upper-air temperatures during short-term atmospheric (10-day) events. The effects are seen by correlating data from the MINOS underground detector and temperatures from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts during the winter periods from 2003-2007. This effect provides an independent technique for the measurement of meteorological conditions and presents a unique opportunity to measure both short and long-term changes in this important part of the atmosphere.

  14. A study of the trace 39Ar content in argon from deep underground sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J.; Calaprice, F.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; Guray, G.; Hohman, T.; Holtz, D.; Ianni, An.; Laubenstein, M.; Loer, B.; Love, C.; Martoff, C. J.; Montanari, D.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Nelson, A.; Rountree, S. D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Wright, A.

    2015-06-01

    The discovery of argon from deep underground sources with significantly less 39Ar than atmospheric argon was an important step in the development of direct dark matter detection experiments using argon as the active target. We report on the design and operation of a low-background single-phase liquid argon detector that was built to study the 39Ar content of this underground argon. Underground argon from the Kinder Morgan CO2 plant in Cortez, Colorado was determined to have less than 0.65% of the 39Ar activity in atmospheric argon, or 6.6 mBq/kg specific 39Ar activity.

  15. Underground mining and deep geologic disposal - Two compatible and complementary activities

    SciTech Connect

    Rempe, N.T.

    1995-12-31

    Active and mature underground mining districts offer conditions favorable to deep geologic disposal because their geology is known in more detail, the feasibility of underground excavations has already been demonstrated, mining leaves distinctive footprints and records that alert subsequent generations to the anthropogenic alterations of the underground environment, and subsequent exploration and production proceeds with great care and accuracy to locate and generally to avoid old mine workings. Compatibility of mining with deep geologic waste disposal has been proven by decades of experience with safe storage and disposal in former mines and in the mined-out areas of still active mining operations. Mineral extraction around an intended repository reduces the incentive for future disturbance. Incidental features of mineral exploration and extraction such as lost circulation zones, allochthonous backfill, and permanent surface markers can deter future intrusion into a repository. Thus exploration and production of mineral resources should be compatible with, and complementary to, deep geologic waste disposal.

  16. NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS

    SciTech Connect

    Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

    2002-02-05

    From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations using laboratory

  17. USGS assesses deep undiscovered gas resource

    SciTech Connect

    Dyman, T.S.; Schmoker, J.W.; Root, D.H.

    1998-04-20

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) estimated in 1995 that 1,412 tcf of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or developed in US onshore areas. A significant part of that resource base, 114 tcf, is undiscovered gas in deep sedimentary basins assessed by the USGS in onshore areas and state waters. This article contains: (1) descriptions of the deep gas plays supplied by USGS province geologists; (2) estimates of undiscovered technically-recoverable gas from these plays; and, (3) comparisons of the USGS estimates with other recent deep gas assessments. For detailed discussions of the deep gas plays and maps illustrating the play outlines, refer to the 1995 USGS National Petroleum Assessment CD-ROM.

  18. Deep and Ultra-deep Underground Observatory for In Situ Stress, Fluids, and Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutt, D. F.; Wang, H.; Kieft, T. L.

    2008-12-01

    The question 'How deeply does life extend into the Earth?' forms a single, compelling vision for multidisciplinary science opportunities associated with physical and biological processes occurring naturally or in response to construction in the deep and ultra-deep subsurface environment of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) in the former Homestake mine. The scientific opportunity is to understand the interaction between the physical environment and microbial life, specifically, the coupling among (1) stress state and deformation; (2) flow and transport and origin of fluids; and (3) energy and nutrient sources for microbial life; and (4) microbial identity, diversity and activities. DUSEL-Homestake offers the environment in which these questions can be addressed unencumbered by competing human activities. Associated with the interaction among these variables are a number of questions that will be addressed at variety of depths and scales in the facility: What factors control the distribution of life as a function of depth and temperature? What patterns in microbial diversity, microbial activity and nutrients are found along this gradient? How do state variables (stress, strain, temperature, and pore pressure) and constitutive properties (permeability, porosity, modulus, etc.) vary with scale (space, depth, time) in a large 4D heterogeneous system: core - borehole - drift - whole mine - regional? How are fluid flow and stress coupled in a low-permeability, crystalline environment dominated by preferential flow paths? How does this interaction influence the distribution of fluids, solutes, gases, colloids, and biological resources (e.g. energy and nutritive substrates) in the deep continental subsurface? What is the interaction between geomechanics/geohydrology and microbiology (microbial abundance, diversity, distribution, and activities)? Can relationships elucidated within the mechanically and hydrologically altered subsurface habitat

  19. Deep basin gas - fact or fiction

    SciTech Connect

    Sandmeyer, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    The geology of the Deep basin is complex. Prior to 1976 the region had been explored sporadically primarily to investigate the potential in the deeper rocks with little expectation that the shallower zones would be productive. These shallower zones of relatively low quality reservoir rocks are the source of the current interest in the Deep basin. Today, estimates of natural gas resource potential of the Deep basin range up to 440 TCF. Prior to the discovery of gas in the Deep basin, proved accumulations of gas in place in Alberta and6 British Columbia were 145 tcf and 18 tcf, respectively. The potential of the Deep basin must be viewed as significant in Canada's future energy planning. However, estimating resource potential and proving the existence of recoverable gas which can be marketed, are distinctly different problems. It is a fact that a large gas resource potential has been discovered in the Deep basin, but there is some risk that any currently discussed estimate of recoverable gas volumes will be viewed as fiction in the future.

  20. Microbial Life in an Underground Gas Storage Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombach, Petra; van Almsick, Tobias; Richnow, Hans H.; Zenner, Matthias; Krüger, Martin

    2015-04-01

    While underground gas storage is technically well established for decades, the presence and activity of microorganisms in underground gas reservoirs have still hardly been explored today. Microbial life in underground gas reservoirs is controlled by moderate to high temperatures, elevated pressures, the availability of essential inorganic nutrients, and the availability of appropriate chemical energy sources. Microbial activity may affect the geochemical conditions and the gas composition in an underground reservoir by selective removal of anorganic and organic components from the stored gas and the formation water as well as by generation of metabolic products. From an economic point of view, microbial activities can lead to a loss of stored gas accompanied by a pressure decline in the reservoir, damage of technical equipment by biocorrosion, clogging processes through precipitates and biomass accumulation, and reservoir souring due to a deterioration of the gas quality. We present here results from molecular and cultivation-based methods to characterize microbial communities inhabiting a porous rock gas storage reservoir located in Southern Germany. Four reservoir water samples were obtained from three different geological horizons characterized by an ambient reservoir temperature of about 45 °C and an ambient reservoir pressure of about 92 bar at the time of sampling. A complementary water sample was taken at a water production well completed in a respective horizon but located outside the gas storage reservoir. Microbial community analysis by Illumina Sequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes indicated the presence of phylogenetically diverse microbial communities of high compositional heterogeneity. In three out of four samples originating from the reservoir, the majority of bacterial sequences affiliated with members of the genera Eubacterium, Acetobacterium and Sporobacterium within Clostridiales, known for their fermenting capabilities. In

  1. Geoengineering Research for a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory in Sedimentary Rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauldon, M.

    2004-12-01

    A process to identify world-class research for a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) in the USA has been initiated by NSF. While allowing physicists to study, inter alia, dark matter and dark energy, this laboratory will create unprecedented opportunities for biologists to study deep life, geoscientists to study crustal processes and geoengineers to study the behavior of rock, fluids and underground cavities at depth, on time scales of decades. A substantial portion of the nation's future infrastructure is likely to be sited underground because of energy costs, urban crowding and vulnerability of critical surface facilities. Economic and safe development of subsurface space will require an improved ability to engineer the geologic environment. Because of the prevalence of sedimentary rock in the upper continental crust, much of this subterranean infrastructure will be hosted in sedimentary rock. Sedimentary rocks are fundamentally anisotropic due to lithology and bedding, and to discontinuities ranging from microcracks to faults. Fractures, faults and bedding planes create structural defects and hydraulic pathways over a wide range of scales. Through experimentation, observation and monitoring in a sedimentary rock DUSEL, in conjunction with high performance computational models and visualization tools, we will explore the mechanical and hydraulic characteristics of layered rock. DUSEL will permit long-term experiments on 100 m blocks of rock in situ, accessed via peripheral tunnels. Rock volumes will be loaded to failure and monitored for post-peak behavior. The response of large rock bodies to stress relief-driven, time-dependent strain will be monitored over decades. Large block experiments will be aimed at measurement of fluid flow and particle/colloid transport, in situ mining (incl. mining with microbes), remediation technologies, fracture enhancement for resource extraction and large scale long-term rock mass response to induced

  2. Measurement techniques for in situ stresses around underground constructions in a deep clay formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstricht, J.; Areias, L.; Bastiaens, W.; Li, X. L.

    2010-06-01

    Disposal in deep underground geological formations is internationally recognized as the most viable option for the long-term management of high-level radioactive waste. In Belgium, the Boom clay formation is extensively studied in this context, in particular at the 225 m deep HADES Underground Research Facility in Mol. A cost-effective design of deep underground structures requires an accurate assessment of the in situ stresses; a good estimation of these stresses is also essential when interpreting in situ experiments regarding the hydro-mechanical behaviour of the host formation. Different measurement techniques are available to provide data on the stress evolution and other mechanical properties of the geological formation. The measurement can be direct (measurement of total pressure), or it can be an indirect technique, deriving the stress from related quantities such as strain (changes) in structural members. Most total stress measurements are performed through permanently installed sensors; also once-only measurements are performed through specific methods (e.g. pressuremeter). Direct measurement of the stress state is challenging due to the complex mechanical behaviour of the clay, and the fact that the sensor installation inevitably disturbs the original stress field. This paper describes ways to deal with these problems and presents the results obtained using different techniques at HADES.

  3. First Microbial Community Assessment of Borehole Fluids from the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, D. P.; Anderson, C.; Bang, S.; Jones, T. L.; Boutt, D.; Kieft, T.; Sherwood Lollar, B.; Murdoch, L. C.; Pfiffner, S. M.; Bruckner, J.; Fisher, J. C.; Newburn, J.; Wheatley, A.; Onstott, T. C.

    2010-12-01

    Fluid and gas samples were collected from two flowing boreholes at the 4100 (1,250 m) and 4850 ft (1478 m) levels of the former Homestake Gold Mine in Lead, South Dakota. Service- and flood water samples were also collected as comparative benchmarks. With a maximum depth of 8,000 ft, (2,438 m), this mine currently hosts the Sanford Laboratory and is the proposed location for the US Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). The uncased 4100L hole is a legacy of mining; whereas, the cased 4850 hole was drilled in 2009 in support of large cavity construction. Both were packered or valved to exclude mine air and sampled anaerobically using aseptic technique. Physical measurements, aquatic and dissolved gas chemistry, cell counts, and microbial community assessments (SSU rRNA libraries) were performed on all samples. This study represents the first at Sanford Lab/DUSEL specifically focused on the deep biosphere rather than mine microbiology. Fluids from the two holes differed markedly, with that from 4100L being characterized by NaHCO3 and 4850 by Na2SO4. pH values of 8.2 vs. 7.5, conductivities (μS) of 1790 vs. 7667 and alkalinities (mg/L) of 767 vs. 187 were obtained from 4100L and 4850, respectively. As expected, the deeper 4850L hole had the higher temperature (38 vs. 30 oC). Neither had measureable nitrate, but both had similar dissolved organic C (DOC) concentrations (0.8 vs. 0.9 mg/L). Sulfate was present at 337 vs. 4,470 mg/L in 4100L and 4850L. Major dissolved gases were N2 (91 and 81 vol%), O2 (12 and 16 vol%) and CH4 (0.07 and 3.35 vol%) in 4100L and 4850L. The δ13C of CH4 was -51 and -56.7 permil in 4100L and 4850, respectively. The uncorrected 14C age of DIC was calculated at 25,310 (+/- 220) and 47,700 (+/-3,100) years for the two fluids. Cell counts were 5.9e3 and 2.01e5 in 4100L and 4850. Microbial community structure was diverse in both holes and distinct from that of service water. A large proportion of rRNA library clones were

  4. Underground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrchota, Janet

    1974-01-01

    At a time when the future of New York's subway system looked bleak, new underground zoning legislation (the first ever) has been enacted. This new law requires buildings constructed near a subway station to provide transit easement space to allow public access to the subway through the building property. (MA)

  5. Countermeasures Planned for Reducing Water Inflow into Deep Shafts at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuji, Masayoshi; Sato, Toshinori; Mikake, Shinichiro; Hara, Nasato; Minamide, Masashi; Sugihara, Kozo

    The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) is currently being constructed. The MIU design consists of two 1,000 m-deep shafts with several research galleries. The goals of the MIU project are to establish techniques for investigation, analysis and assessment of deep geological environments, and to develop a range of engineering expertise for application in deep underground excavations in crystalline rocks such as granite. The diameter of the Main and the Ventilation Shafts are 6.5 m and 4.5 m, respectively. Horizontal tunnels to connect the shafts will be excavated at 100 m depth intervals. The Middle Stage, at about 500 m in depth, and the Main Stage, at about 1,000 m in depth, will be the main locations for scientific investigations. The Main and the Ventilation Shafts were 180 m and 191 m deep, respectively, in November 2006. During construction, water inflow into the shafts has been increasing and affecting the project progress. In order to reduce the water inflow into the shafts, pre- and post-excavation grouting has been planned. A post-excavation grouting test has been undertaken in the Ventilation Shaft and the applicability of several techniques has been evaluated. This paper describes an outline of the MIU project, its work plan and the results of the post-excavation grouting test.

  6. ADVANCED UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE CONCEPTS REFRIGERATED-MINED CAVERN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill-withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. Five regions of the U.S.A. were studied for underground storage development and PB-KBB reviewed the literature to determine if the geology of these regions was suitable for siting hard rock storage caverns. Area gas market conditions in these regions were also studied to determine the need for such storage. Based on an analysis of many factors, a possible site was determined to be in Howard and Montgomery Counties, Maryland. The area has compatible geology and a gas industry infrastructure for the nearby market populous of Baltimore and Washington D.C.. As Gas temperature is lowered, the compressibility of the gas reaches an optimum value. The compressibility of the gas, and the resultant gas density, is a function of temperature and pressure. This relationship can be used to commercial advantage by reducing the size of a storage cavern for a given working volume of natural gas. This study looks at this relationship and and the potential for commercialization of the process in a storage application. A conceptual process design, and cavern design were developed for various operating conditions. Potential site locations were considered

  7. Life in Inner Space: Subsurface Microbiology Investigations in Underground Research Laboratories and Deep Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood Lollar, B.; Onstott, T. C.; van Heerden, E.; Kieft, T. L.; Ballentine, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    extinct life beyond Earth as well, as Mars, like the Precambrian cratons, is dominated by billion year old tectonically quiescent geologic terrains, some with serpentinized ultramafics capable of sustaining production of hydrogen and potentially other reduced gases. Taking advantage of deep boreholes, subsurface mines and deep research laboratories worldwide, researchers in geology, geochemistry, hydrogeology, microbiology and genomics are mobilizing to explore Earth's "Inner Space". The presentation will highlight work at underground sites in 2-3 billion year old Precambrian Shield rocks in South Africa, Canada and Finland where isotope geochemistry has identified large accumulations of free H2 gas, methane, higher hydrocarbons and noble gases dissolved in saline fracture waters with residence times on the order of millions of years. Within these fracture waters, a low biomass chemolithotrophic microbial community couples H2 consumption to sulfate-reduction to eke out an existence at maintenance levels in an exotic outpost of life far from the photosphere.

  8. Simultaneous observation of extensive air showers and deep-underground muons at the Gran Sasso Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F.; Caliccio, M.; De Cataldo, G.; De Marzo, C.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Giglietto, N.; Nappi, E.; Spinelli, P. ); Cecchini, S.; Fabbri, M.; Giacomelli, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Matteuzzi, P.; Pal, B.; Patrizii, L.; Predieri, F.; Sanzani, G.L.; Serra, P.; Spurio, M. ); Ahlen, S.; Ficenec, D.; Hazen, E.; Klein, S.; Levin, D.; Marin, A.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Worstell, W. ); Barish, B.; Coutu, S.; Hong, J.; Liu, G.; Peck, C.; Solie, D.; Steele, J. ); Lane, C.; Steinberg, R. ); Battistoni, G.; Bilokon, H.; Bloise, C.; Campana, P.; Chiarella, V.; Forti, C.; Grillo, A.; Iarocci, E.; Marini, A.; Patera, V.; Re; MACRO Collaboration

    1990-09-01

    Combined measurements of extensive air showers at the surface and high-energy muons deep underground have been initiated at the Gran Sasso Laboratory. The underground detector is the first supermodule of MACRO (area=140 m{sup 2}, depth=3100 m of water equivalent , {ital E}{sub {mu}}{gt}1.3 TeV) and the surface detector is the EAS-TOP array (altitude 2000 m above sea level, total enclosed area {ital A}{approximately}10{sup 5} m{sup 2}). We discuss the correlation technique, the comparison between the shower parameters as determined by the two detectors, and some of the characteristics of the reconstructed events.

  9. Ground movements caused by deep underground mining in Guan-Zhuang iron mine, Luzhong, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wen-Xiu; Wen, Lei; Liu, Xiao-Min

    2010-06-01

    It is difficult to calculate the accurate ground movement due to deep underground mining because of the complexity of the geotechnical environment. Guan-Zhuang iron mine is a pillarless sublevel caving mine operated by Luzhong Metallurgical Mining Company, south-east of Jinan, PR China. It mines the Zhangjiawa Seam at a depth of approximately 520 m. Although the towers are outside the conventional 'angle of draw' subsidence influence criteria, and have seen only negligible vertical displacement as a result of deep mining, there has been widespread evidence of regional horizontal displacement of the land surface, large distances away from the mining area. Possible explanations of these displacements include one or a combination of mechanisms such as pre-mining stress relaxation, regional joint patterns, soft rock strata, displacement toward active goaf areas. Luzhong Metallurgical Mining Company have been making precise measurements of distances near the shaft towers in the Guan-Zhuang iron mine since 2003. The results show horizontal displacements of up to 96 mm occur even when underground mining is about 0.8 km from the survey displacements. From an analysis of these and other survey results it is concluded that mining effects extend a long way from deep mining. The results also show that ground horizontal displacements are typically at least as great as the vertical component, that the maximum horizontal displacement occurs soon after undermining.

  10. Gas Production Strategy of Underground Coal Gasification Based on Multiple Gas Sources

    PubMed Central

    Tianhong, Duan; Zuotang, Wang; Limin, Zhou; Dongdong, Li

    2014-01-01

    To lower stability requirement of gas production in UCG (underground coal gasification), create better space and opportunities of development for UCG, an emerging sunrise industry, in its initial stage, and reduce the emission of blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas, this paper, for the first time, puts forward a new mode of utilization of multiple gas sources mainly including ground gasifier gas, UCG gas, blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas and the new mode was demonstrated by field tests. According to the field tests, the existing power generation technology can fully adapt to situation of high hydrogen, low calorific value, and gas output fluctuation in the gas production in UCG in multiple-gas-sources power generation; there are large fluctuations and air can serve as a gasifying agent; the gas production of UCG in the mode of both power and methanol based on multiple gas sources has a strict requirement for stability. It was demonstrated by the field tests that the fluctuations in gas production in UCG can be well monitored through a quality control chart method. PMID:25114953

  11. Gas production strategy of underground coal gasification based on multiple gas sources.

    PubMed

    Tianhong, Duan; Zuotang, Wang; Limin, Zhou; Dongdong, Li

    2014-01-01

    To lower stability requirement of gas production in UCG (underground coal gasification), create better space and opportunities of development for UCG, an emerging sunrise industry, in its initial stage, and reduce the emission of blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas, this paper, for the first time, puts forward a new mode of utilization of multiple gas sources mainly including ground gasifier gas, UCG gas, blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas and the new mode was demonstrated by field tests. According to the field tests, the existing power generation technology can fully adapt to situation of high hydrogen, low calorific value, and gas output fluctuation in the gas production in UCG in multiple-gas-sources power generation; there are large fluctuations and air can serve as a gasifying agent; the gas production of UCG in the mode of both power and methanol based on multiple gas sources has a strict requirement for stability. It was demonstrated by the field tests that the fluctuations in gas production in UCG can be well monitored through a quality control chart method. PMID:25114953

  12. Deep underground measurements of 60Co in steel exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb explosion.

    PubMed

    Hult, Mikael; Gasparro, Joël; Vasselli, Roberto; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Arnold, Dirk; Neumaier, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    When using gamma-ray spectrometry performed deep underground, it is possible to measure 60Co activities down to 0.1 mBq in steel samples of some 100 g without any pre-concentration. It is thus still possible to measure 60Co induced by neutrons from the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima in pieces of steel collected at distances up to about 1200 m slant range. The results of non-destructive measurements of eight steel samples are compared with the 1986 Dose Re-Evaluation (DS86) model calculations. PMID:15177340

  13. A STUDY ON APPLICABILITY OF GROUND RESPONSE ACCELERATION METHOD TO DEEP VERTICAL UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Mai; Shiba, Yukio; Watanabe, Kazuaki

    This paper discusses the applicability of ground response acceleration method to seismic analysis for deep vertical underground structures. To examine the applicability, an analysis of relationships between response of ground and the shaft was conducted. It was found from the analysis that vertical axial stress of the shaft was not correspond with shear stress of ground. Accordingly, it was concluded that the axial stress was not evaluated correctly by the existing method. Therefore, to extend the applicability of the method, ground responses correlated with the axial stress were analyzed and a new method using these ground responses was proposed.

  14. 40 CFR Table W - 4 of Subpart W-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 4 of Subpart W-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage W Table W Protection of Environment... Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage Underground natural gas...

  15. Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Analytical Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Sams, Terry L.

    2013-08-15

    Long Abstract. Full Text. The purpose of the Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Analytical Evaluation (DSGRE-AE) is to evaluate the postulated hypothesis that a hydrogen GRE may occur in Hanford tanks containing waste sludges at levels greater than previously experienced. There is a need to understand gas retention and release hazards in sludge beds which are 200 -300 inches deep. These sludge beds are deeper than historical Hanford sludge waste beds, and are created when waste is retrieved from older single-shell tanks (SST) and transferred to newer double-shell tanks (DST).Retrieval of waste from SSTs reduces the risk to the environment from leakage or potential leakage of waste into the ground from these tanks. However, the possibility of an energetic event (flammable gas accident) in the retrieval receiver DST is worse than slow leakage. Lines of inquiry, therefore, are (1) can sludge waste be stored safely in deep beds; (2) can gas release events (GRE) be prevented by periodically degassing the sludge (e.g., mixer pump); or (3) does the retrieval strategy need to be altered to limit sludge bed height by retrieving into additional DSTs? The scope of this effort is to provide expert advice on whether or not to move forward with the generation of deep beds of sludge through retrieval of C-Farm tanks. Evaluation of possible mitigation methods (e.g., using mixer pumps to release gas, retrieving into an additional DST) are being evaluated by a second team and are not discussed in this report. While available data and engineering judgment indicate that increased gas retention (retained gas fraction) in DST sludge at depths resulting from the completion of SST 241-C Tank Farm retrievals is not expected and, even if gas releases were to occur, they would be small and local, a positive USQ was declared (Occurrence Report EM-RP--WRPS-TANKFARM-2012-0014, "Potential Exists for a Large Spontaneous Gas Release Event in Deep Settled Waste Sludge"). The purpose of this technical

  16. Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity using Abandoned Works (open pits and deep mines)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujades, E.; Willems, T.; Bodeux, S.; Orban, P.; Dassargues, A.

    2015-12-01

    Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (PSH) is a good alternative to increase the efficiency of power plants, which cannot regulate the amount of electricity generated according to the demand (wind, solar or even nuclear power plants). PSH plants, which consist in two reservoirs located at different heights (upper and lower), can store energy during low demand periods (pumping water from the lower to the upper reservoir) and generate electricity during the high demand peaks (falling water from the upper to the lower reservoir). Given that the two reservoirs must be located at different heights, PSH plants cannot be constructed in flat regions. Nevertheless, in these regions, an alternative could be to use abandoned underground works (open pits or deep mines) as lower reservoirs to construct Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants. To select the best place to construct a plant, two considerations must be taken into account regarding the interaction between UPSH plants and groundwater: 1) the alteration of the natural conditions of aquifers and 2), the efficiency of the plant since the electricity generated depends on the hydraulic head inside the underground reservoir. Obviously, a detailed numerical model must be necessary before to select a location. However, a screening methodology to reject the most disadvantageous sites in a short period of time would be useful. Groundwater flow impacts caused by UPSH plants are analyzed numerically and the main variables involved in the groundwater evolution are identified. The most noticeable effect consists in an oscillation of the groundwater. The hydraulic head around which groundwater oscillates, the magnitude of the oscillations and the time to achieve a "dynamic steady state" depend on the boundaries, the parameters of the aquifer and the characteristics of the underground reservoir. A screening methodology is proposed to assess the main impacts caused in aquifers by UPSH plants. Finally, the efficiency

  17. Monitoring underground gas storage for seismic risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guido, Francesco Luigi; Picotti, Vincenzo; Antonellini, Marco

    2013-04-01

    Temporary gas storage facilities play a fundamental role in the design of energy supply. The evaluation and recognition of induced seismicity, geodetic displacements and wellbores damages are their main associated risks that should be minimized for a safe management of these facilities, especially in densely populated areas. Injection and withdrawal of gas into/from a porous reservoir generally lead reservoir rocks to deform. Rock deformation is due to variations of the state of stress of rocks, both in the reservoir and the surrounding: subsidence, wellbore damages and induced or activated seismicity are primary consequences of these variations. In this paper we present a case study on induced deformation by an exploited gas reservoir, converted to temporary natural gas storage since 1994, in North-Eastern Italy. The reservoir, composed by 2 independent carbonatic sandstone intervals, approximately 10 meters thick, and 1400 meters deep, has been exploited since 1983, recording a pressure drop of about 16 MPa. The inversion of gas pressure and volume data, together with a 26 year ground displacement dataset monitoring, allow us to define reservoir deformations, modelled by a semi-analytical method based on an equivalent Eshelby's inclusion problem, able to account for mechanical differences between reservoir and surrounding rocks. Stress field changes, and displacement fields around the reservoir and on the ground mainly represent the results of this modelling. A Coulomb Failure Stress analysis, performed by FEA, was applied to define and evaluate the influence of magnitude and shape of stress field changes on rock stability, highlighting rock volumes that mainly suffer stress changes eventually leading to induced/activated earthquakes. The microseismic monitoring provides then the control on failures and their location. The methodology here used provide a solid base for induced or activated seismicity risk assessment: it provides an easy tool to quantify magnitude

  18. Integrated Earth Science Research in Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. S.; Hazen, T. C.; Conrad, M. E.; Johnson, L. R.; Salve, R.

    2004-12-01

    There are three types of sites being considered for deep-underground earth science and physics experiments: (1) abandoned mines (e.g., the Homestake Gold Mine, South Dakota; the Soudan Iron Mine, Minnesota), (2) active mines/facilities (e.g., the Henderson Molybdenum Mine, Colorado; the Kimballton Limestone Mine, Virginia; the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant [in salt], New Mexico), and (3) new tunnels (e.g., Icicle Creek in the Cascades, Washington; Mt. San Jacinto, California). Additional sites have been considered in the geologically unique region of southeastern California and southwestern Nevada, which has both very high mountain peaks and the lowest point in the United States (Death Valley). Telescope Peak (along the western border of Death Valley), Boundary Peak (along the California-Nevada border), Mt. Charleston (outside Las Vegas), and Mt. Tom (along the Pine Creek Valley) all have favorable characteristics for consideration. Telescope Peak can site the deepest laboratory in the United States. The Mt. Charleston tunnel can be a highway extension connecting Las Vegas to Pahrump. The Pine Creek Mine next to Mt. Tom is an abandoned tungsten mine. The lowest levels of the mine are accessible by nearly horizontal tunnels from portals in the mining base camp. Drainage (most noticeable in the springs resulting from snow melt) flows (from the mountain top through upper tunnel complex) out of the access tunnel without the need for pumping. While the underground drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have not yet been considered (since they are relatively shallow for physics experiments), they have undergone extensive earth science research for nearly 10 years, as the site for future storage of nation's spent nuclear fuels. All these underground sites could accommodate different earth science and physics experiments. Most underground physics experiments require depth to reduce the cosmic-ray-induced muon flux from atmospheric sources. Earth science experiments can be

  19. Non-standard interactions in propagation at the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coloma, Pilar

    2016-03-01

    We study the sensitivity of current and future long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments to the effects of dimension six operators affecting neutrino propagation through Earth, commonly referred to as Non-Standard Interactions (NSI). All relevant parameters entering the oscillation probabilities (standard and non-standard) are considered at once, in order to take into account possible cancellations and degeneracies between them. We find that the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment will significantly improve over current constraints for most NSI parameters. Most notably, it will be able to rule out the so-called LMA-dark solution, still compatible with current oscillation data, and will be sensitive to off-diagonal NSI parameters at the level of ɛ ˜ {O} (0.05 - 0.5). We also identify two degeneracies among standard and non-standard parameters, which could be partially resolved by combining T2HK and DUNE data.

  20. Non-Standard Interactions in propagation at the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Coloma, Pilar

    2016-03-03

    Here, we study the sensitivity of current and future long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments to the effects of dimension six operators affecting neutrino propagation through Earth, commonly referred to as Non-Standard Interactions (NSI). All relevant parameters entering the oscillation probabilities (standard and non-standard) are considered at once, in order to take into account possible cancellations and degeneracies between them. We find that the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment will significantly improve over current constraints for most NSI parameters. Most notably, it will be able to rule out the so-called LMA-dark solution, still compatible with current oscillation data, and will be sensitive to off-diagonal NSI parameters at the level of ε ~more » $$ \\mathcal{O} $$ (0.05 – 0.5). We also identify two degeneracies among standard and non-standard parameters, which could be partially resolved by combining T2HK and DUNE data.« less

  1. Gas generation and gas migration in deep geological repositories for radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Haijtink, B.

    1996-12-31

    It is generally accepted that there will be some degree of gas generation in deep geological repositories for radioactive waste. This gas generation will depend on a number of factors such as the nature of the waste, the waste container, the buffer material and the near field host rock. In an ideal situation the gas generated would all dissolve in the groundwater and/or be transported away from the deep repository by the mechanisms of advection, diffusion and dispersion. However the sought-after characteristic of a repository host medium of very low permeability, e.g. bentonite buffer material and argillaceous geological media can be problematic when considering gas migration. High gas pressures might be build-up which could lead to potential fracturing of engineered barriers in the near field and enhancing groundwater flow and radionuclide migration. Various theoretical as well as experimental research activities have been undertaken to investigate the different phenomena. Within the framework of R&D programmes on Management and Storage of Radioactive Waste, conducted by the European Commission, some of the research activities are grouped together in a coordinated project named PEGASUS (Project on the Effects of GAS in an Underground Storage facility). In this project a total of about twenty research institutes and laboratories from seven different European countries are involved. This PEGASUS project will be followed up by a new project named PROGRESS (PROject of Research into Gas generation and migration in radioactive waste REpository SystemS). In this paper, an overview is given of the various research activities carried out and results obtained so far.

  2. Chemolithotrophy in the continental deep subsurface: Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF), USA

    PubMed Central

    Osburn, Magdalena R.; LaRowe, Douglas E.; Momper, Lily M.; Amend, Jan P.

    2014-01-01

    The deep subsurface is an enormous repository of microbial life. However, the metabolic capabilities of these microorganisms and the degree to which they are dependent on surface processes are largely unknown. Due to the logistical difficulty of sampling and inherent heterogeneity, the microbial populations of the terrestrial subsurface are poorly characterized. In an effort to better understand the biogeochemistry of deep terrestrial habitats, we evaluate the energetic yield of chemolithotrophic metabolisms and microbial diversity in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in the former Homestake Gold Mine, SD, USA. Geochemical data, energetic modeling, and DNA sequencing were combined with principle component analysis to describe this deep (down to 8100 ft below surface), terrestrial environment. SURF provides access into an iron-rich Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary deposit that contains deeply circulating groundwater. Geochemical analyses of subsurface fluids reveal enormous geochemical diversity ranging widely in salinity, oxidation state (ORP 330 to −328 mV), and concentrations of redox sensitive species (e.g., Fe2+ from near 0 to 6.2 mg/L and Σ S2- from 7 to 2778μg/L). As a direct result of this compositional buffet, Gibbs energy calculations reveal an abundance of energy for microorganisms from the oxidation of sulfur, iron, nitrogen, methane, and manganese. Pyrotag DNA sequencing reveals diverse communities of chemolithoautotrophs, thermophiles, aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophs, and numerous uncultivated clades. Extrapolated across the mine footprint, these data suggest a complex spatial mosaic of subsurface primary productivity that is in good agreement with predicted energy yields. Notably, we report Gibbs energy normalized both per mole of reaction and per kg fluid (energy density) and find the later to be more consistent with observed physiologies and environmental conditions. Further application of this approach will significantly

  3. Earth Science Research in DUSEL; a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairhurst, C.; Onstott, T. C.; Tiedje, J. M.; McPherson, B.; Pfiffner, S. M.; Wang, J. S.

    2004-12-01

    A summary of efforts to create one or more Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratories (DUSEL) in the United States is presented. A workshop in Berkeley, August 11-14, 2004, explored the technical requirements of DUSEL for research in basic and applied geological and microbiological sciences, together with elementary particle physics and integrated education and public outreach. The workshop was organized by Bernard Sadoulet, an astrophysicist and the principal investigator (PI) of a community-wide DUSEL program evolving in coordination with the National Science Foundation. The PI team has three physicists (in nuclear science, high-energy physics, and astrophysics) and three earth scientists (in geoscience, biology and engineering). Presentations, working group reports, links to previous workshop/meeting talks, and information about DUSEL candidate sites, are presented in http://neutrino.lbl.gov/DUSELS-1. The Berkeley workshop is a continuation of decades of efforts, the most recent including the 2001 Underground Science Conference's earth science and geomicrobiology workshops, the 2002 International Workshop on Neutrino and Subterranean Science, and the 2003 EarthLab Report. This perspective (from three earth science co-PIs, the lead author of EarthLab report, the lead scientist of education/outreach, and the local earth science organizer) is to inform the community on the status of this national initiative, and to invite their active support. Having a dedicated facility with decades-long, extensive three-dimensional underground access was recognized as the most important single attribute of DUSEL. Many research initiatives were identified and more are expected as the broader community becomes aware of DUSEL. Working groups were organized to evaluate hydrology and coupled processes; geochemistry; rock mechanics/seismology; applications (e.g., homeland security, environment assessment, petroleum recovery, and carbon sequestration); geomicrobiology and

  4. Earth Science Research at the Homestake Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roggenthen, W.; Wang, J.

    2004-12-01

    The Homestake Mine in South Dakota ceased gold production in 2002 and was sealed for entry in 2003. The announcement of mine closure triggered the revival of a national initiative to establish a deep underground facility, currently known as the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). The National Science Foundation announced that solicitations were to be issued in 2004 and 2005, with the first one (known as S-1) issued in June, 2004. The focus of S-1 is on site non-specific technical requirements to define the scientific program at DUSEL. Earth scientists and physicists participated in an S-1 workshop at Berkeley in August, 2004. This abstract presents the prospects of the Homestake Mine to accommodate the earth science scientific programs defined at the S-1 workshop. The Homestake Mine has hundreds of kilometers of drifts over fifty levels accessible (upon mine reopening) for water evaluation, seepage quantification, seismic monitoring, geophysical imaging, geological mapping, mineral sampling, ecology and geo-microbiology. The extensive network of drifts, ramps, and vertical shafts allows installation of 10-kilometer-scale seismograph and electromagnetic networks. Ramps connecting different levels, typically separated by 150 ft, could be instrumented for flow and transport studies, prior to implementation of coupled thermal-hydro-chemical-mechanical-biological processes testing. Numerous large rooms are available for ecological and introduced-material evaluations. Ideas for installing instruments in cubic kilometers of rock mass can be realized over multiple levels. Environmental assessment, petroleum recovery, carbon sequestration were among the applications discussed in the S-1 workshop. If the Homestake Mine can be expediently reopened, earth scientists are ready to perform important tests with a phased approach. The drifts and ramps directly below the large open pit could be the first area for shallow testing. The 4,850 ft level is the

  5. Deep gas poses opportunities, challenges to U.S. operators

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, S.R.; Kuuskraa, J.A.; Kuuskraa, V.A.

    1998-05-04

    The previous article in this series on emerging natural gas resources introduced deep gas--natural gas in deep onshore sedimentary basins (below 15,000 ft)--by presenting a 1996 US Geological Survey assessment for this resource. The USGS estimated that 114 tcf of technically recoverable conventional and nonconventional deep gas remains to be discovered in the Rocky Mountains (57 tcf), Gulf Coast (27 tcf), Alaska (18 tcf), West Texas/New Mexico (4 tcf), and Midcontinent (3 tcf), among others. This article, third in this series and the second on deep gas, takes a closer look at this large and challenging resource by addressing the following key questions: (1) Where are the locations and what are the differences among the major deep gas basins? (2) How successful and active have the deep gas plays been? (3) What obstacles and rewards are likely for developers of deep gas? This article concludes with reviews and case studies of three specific deep gas basins: the mature Anadarko basin, the emerging Green River basin, and the frontier Wind River basin. Reviews of these basins highlight the challenges in finding and producing deep gas, as well as the results and rewards.

  6. Environmental projects. Volume 13: Underground storage tanks, removal and replacement. Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bengelsdorf, Irv

    1991-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC), located in the Mojave Desert about 40 miles north of Barstow, California, and about 160 miles northeast of Pasadena, is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Deep Space Network, one of the world's largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation networks. Activities at the GDSCC are carried out in support of six large parabolic dish antennas. As a large-scale facility located in a remote, isolated desert region, the GDSCC operations require numerous on-site storage facilities for gasoline, diesel oil, hydraulic oil, and waste oil. These fluids are stored in underground storage tanks (USTs). This present volume describes what happened to the 26 USTs that remained at the GDSCC. Twenty-four of these USTs were constructed of carbon steel without any coating for corrosion protection, and without secondary containment or leak detection. Two remaining USTs were constructed of fiberglass-coated carbon steel but without secondary containment or leak protection. Of the 26 USTs that remained at the GDSCC, 23 were cleaned, removed from the ground, cut up, and hauled away from the GDSCC for environmentally acceptable disposal. Three USTs were permanently closed (abandoned in place).

  7. Viability of underground coal gasification in the 'deep coals' of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    2007-06-15

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the PRB coal geology, hydrology, infrastructure, environmental and permitting requirements and to analyze the possible UCG projects which could be developed in the PRB. Project economics on the possible UCG configurations are presented to evaluate the viability of UCG. There are an estimated 510 billion tons of sub-bituminous coal in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. These coals are found in extremely thick seams that are up to 200 feet thick. The total deep coal resource in the PRB has a contained energy content in excess of twenty times the total world energy consumption in 2002. However, only approximately five percent of the coal resource is at depths less than 500 feet and of adequate thickness to be extracted by open pit mining. The balance is at depths between 500 and 2,000 feet below the surface. These are the PRB 'deep coals' evaluated for UCG in this report. The coal deposits in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming are thick, laterally continuous, and nearly flat lying. These deposits are ideal for development by Underground Coal Gasification. The thick deep coal seams of the PRB can be harvested using UCG and be protective of groundwater, air resources, and with minimum subsidence. Protection of these environmental values requires correct site selection, site characterization, impact definition, and impact mitigation. The operating 'lessons learned' of previous UCG operations, especially the 'Clean Cavity' concepts developed at Rocky Mountain 1, should be incorporated into the future UCG operations. UCG can be conducted in the PRB with acceptable environmental consequences. The report gives the recommended development components for UCG commercialization. 97 refs., 31 figs., 57 tabs., 1 app.

  8. Advances in technology for the construction of deep-underground facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-31

    The workshop was organized in order to address technological issues important to decisions regarding the feasibility of strategic options. The objectives of the workshop were to establish the current technological capabilities for deep-underground construction, to project those capabilities through the compressed schedule proposed for construction, and to identify promising directions for timely allocation of existing research and development resources. The earth has been used as a means of protection and safekeeping for many centuries. Recently, the thickness of the earth cover required for this purpose has been extended to the 2,000- to 3,000-ft range in structures contemplated for nuclear-waste disposal, energy storage, and strategic systems. For defensive missile basing, it is now perceived that the magnitude of the threat has increased through better delivery systems, larger payloads, and variable tactics of attack. Thus, depths of 3,000 to 8,000 ft are being considered seriously for such facilities. Moreover, it appears desirable that the facilities be operational (if not totally complete) for defensive purposes within a five-year construction schedule. Deep excavations such as mines are similar in many respects to nearsurface tunnels and caverns for transit, rail, sewer, water, hydroelectric, and highway projects. But the differences that do exist are significant. Major distinctions between shallow and deep construction derive from the stress fields and behavior of earth materials around the openings. Different methodologies are required to accommodate other variations resulting from increased depth, such as elevated temperatures, reduced capability for site exploration, and limited access during project execution. This report addresses these and other questions devoted to geotechnical characterization, design, construction, and excavation equipment.

  9. Understanding fast neutrons utilizing a water Cherenkov detector and a gas-filled detector at the soudan underground laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, Chiranjibi

    Many experiments are currently searching for Weakly Interactive Massive Particles (WIMPs), a well-motivated class of hypothetical dark matter candidates. These direct dark matter detection experiments are located in deep underground to shield from cosmic-ray muons and the fast neutrons they produce. Fast neutrons are particularly dangerous to WIMP detectors because they can penetrate a WIMP-search experiment's neutron shielding. Once inside, these fast neutrons can interact with high-Z material near the WIMP detector, producing slower neutrons capable of mimicking the expected WIMP signal. My research uses two detectors located in Soudan Underground Laboratory to understand fast neutron production by muons in an underground environment: a water-Cherenkov detector sensitive to fast neutrons; and a gas-filled detector sensitive to charged particles like muons. The different kinds of selection criterion and their efficiencies are reported in this thesis. This thesis estimate the number of high energy neutron-like candidates associated with a nearby muon by using data from both detector systems.

  10. Probabilistic Analysis of Fracture Reactivation Associated with Deep Underground CO2 Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaewon; Min, Ki-Bok; Rutqvist, Jonny

    2013-07-01

    In the context of carbon capture and storage, deep underground injection of CO2 induces the geomechanical changes within and around the injection zone and their impact on CO2 storage security should be evaluated. In this study, we conduct coupled multiphase fluid flow and geomechanical modeling to investigate such geomechanical changes, focusing on probabilistic analysis of injection-induced fracture reactivation (such as shear slip) that could lead to enhanced permeability and CO2 migration across otherwise low-permeability caprock formations. Fracture reactivation in terms of shear slip was analyzed by implicitly considering the fracture orientations generated using the Latin hypercube sampling method, in one case using published fracture statistics from a CO2 storage site. The analysis was conducted by a coupled multiphase fluid flow and geomechanical simulation to first calculate the three-dimensional stress evolution during a hypothetical CO2 injection operation and then evaluate the probability of shear slip considering the statistical fracture distribution and a Coulomb failure analysis. We evaluate the probability of shear slip at different points within the injection zone and in the caprock just above the injection zone and relate this to the potential for opening of new flow paths through the caprock. Our analysis showed that a reverse faulting stress field would be most favorable for avoiding fracture shear reactivation, but site-specific analyses will be required because of strong dependency of the local stress field and fracture orientations.

  11. Gas filtration from an underground reservoir at a large initial pressure gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miroshnichenko, T. P.; Lutsenko, N. A.; Levin, V. A.

    2015-09-01

    Gas filtration from an underground reservoir through a layer of a porous medium due to an instantaneous increase in the gas pressure in the reservoir is studied. The problem is considered in a one-dimensional formulation in the general case where the temperatures of the gas and the porous medium are different and unstable, and in the case of a high specific heat of the solid phase and a high interfacial heat-transfer rate. The dynamics of the gas flow at the inlet and outlet of the underground reservoir is analyzed, the time of unloading of the system is estimated as a function of the permeability of the porous medium. It is shown that, depending on the properties of the porous layer, two characteristic gas flow regimes are possible: a fast discharge regime and a slow regime which is determined mainly by barodiffusion.

  12. Validation of Fiber-Optic Strain-Sensing Cable for Deep Underground Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noni, N.; Filler, L.; Maclaughlin, M.; Wang, H. F.

    2010-12-01

    The laboratory tests presented here are in preparation for rock deformation monitoring at the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). These tests validate the strain-sensing capability of fiber optic cable. In contrast to traditional, point-measurement sensors, this Distributed Strain and Temperature (DST) cable provides continuous data along its length, up to several kilometers. The fiber optic cable was subjected to increasing tensile strain in two different test setups. The first setup checked for slip between the glass fiber and the outer layers of the cable. The second setup proved that the experiment design is adequate for comparing recorded strain with analytical strain. The first test setup held a 3.5-meter cable between two clamps with screws that allowed fine increases in cable length. These changes in length were measured with a digital caliper and were used to calculate incremental strain values. The data sets for caliper-measured strain and recorded strain plotted as parallel straight lines, indicating no slip between the fiber and the cable’s outer layers. Our lines also matched the manufacturer’s slope and intercept within 10%. The second test setup approximated an ideally deflected beam. The concrete beam had a 3-meter cable resting on top, attached at each end. An analytical solution provided strain values as a function of beam thickness and radius of curvature. The beam was incrementally bent by placing it on supporting arches of increasing center height. The arches were cut to various radii for center deflections of 0 - 5 inches. For each radius, there was a reasonable comparison between the recorded strain and analytical strain. Ongoing understanding and application of the DST system may improve that comparison. The ultimate goal is to develop a robust and practical attachment method that does not allow slip between the cable and the rock. Continuing lab work will test various methods of attaching the entire cable length

  13. 30 CFR 203.49 - May I substitute the deep gas drilling provisions in this part for the deep gas royalty relief...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I substitute the deep gas drilling provisions in this part for the deep gas royalty relief provided in my lease terms? 203.49 Section 203.49... substitute the deep gas drilling provisions in this part for the deep gas royalty relief provided in my...

  14. 30 CFR 203.49 - May I substitute the deep gas drilling provisions in this part for the deep gas royalty relief...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I substitute the deep gas drilling provisions in this part for the deep gas royalty relief provided in my lease terms? 203.49 Section 203.49... substitute the deep gas drilling provisions in this part for the deep gas royalty relief provided in my...

  15. 30 CFR 203.49 - May I substitute the deep gas drilling provisions in this part for the deep gas royalty relief...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May I substitute the deep gas drilling provisions in this part for the deep gas royalty relief provided in my lease terms? 203.49 Section 203.49... substitute the deep gas drilling provisions in this part for the deep gas royalty relief provided in my...

  16. 40 CFR Table W - 4 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 4 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage W Table W Protection of... of Part 98—Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage...

  17. 40 CFR Table W - 4 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 4 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage W Table W Protection of... of Part 98—Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage...

  18. Effectiveness evaluation of existing noise controls in a deep shaft underground mine.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Eric A; Reed, Rustin J; Turner, Dylan; Littau, Sally R; Lee, Vivien; Hu, Chengcheng

    2015-01-01

    Noise exposures and hearing loss in the mining industry continue to be a major problem, despite advances in noise control technologies. This study evaluated the effectiveness of engineering, administrative, and personal noise controls using both traditional and in-ear dosimetry by job task, work shift, and five types of earplug. The noise exposures of 22 miners performing deep shaft-sinking tasks were evaluated during 56 rotating shifts in an underground mine. Miners were earplug-insertion trained, earplug fit-tested, and monitored utilizing traditional and in-ear dosimetry. The mean TWA8 noise exposure via traditional dosimetry was 90.1 ± 8.2 dBA, while the mean in-ear TWA8 was 79.6 ± 13.8 dBA. The latter was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) personal exposure limit (PEL) of 90 dBA. Dosimetry mean TWA8 noise exposures for bench blowing (103.5 ± 0.9 dBA), jumbo drill operation (103.0 ± 0.8 dBA), and mucking tasks (99.6 ± 4.7 dBA) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than other tasks. For bench blowing, cable pulling, grinding, and jumbo drill operation tasks, the mean in-ear TWA8 was greater than 85 dBA. Those working swing shift had a significantly higher (p < 0.001) mean TWA8 noise exposure (95.4 ± 7.3 dBA) than those working day shift. For percent difference between traditional vs. in-ear dosimetry, there was no significant difference among types of earplug used. Reflective of occupational hearing loss rate trends across the mining industry, this study found that, despite existing engineering and administrative controls, noise exposure levels exceeded regulatory limits, while the addition of personal hearing protection limited excessive exposures. PMID:25830445

  19. Steady-state model for estimating gas production from underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Perkins; Veena Sahajwalla

    2008-11-15

    A pseudo-one-dimensional channel model has been developed to estimate gas production from underground coal gasification. The model incorporates a zero-dimensional steady-state cavity growth submodel and models mass transfer from the bulk gas to the coal wall using a correlation for natural convection. Simulations with the model reveal that the gas calorific value is sensitive to coal reactivity and the exposed reactive surface area per unit volume in the channel. A comparison of model results with several small-scale field trials conducted at Centralia in the U.S.A. show that the model can make good predictions of the gas production and composition under a range of different operating conditions, including operation with air and steam/oxygen mixtures. Further work is required to determine whether the model formulation is also suitable for simulating large-scale underground coal gasification field trials.

  20. A communication and monitoring system for an underground coal mine, iron ore mine, and deep underground silver mine. Open file report Jun 73-Mar 78

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, A.A.; Collins, R.L.; Michels, J.L.

    1981-11-01

    Advanced communication and monitoring systems were developed and demonstrated in three underground mines representing different mining techniques, geographical areas, and material mined. The first was a large coal mine in western Pennsylvania using room-and-pillar techniques and continuous mining methods. The system developed provided private telephone channels, environmental monitoring, and control of underground equipment, all on a single coaxial cable, with all system operations under the direction of a minicomputer. The second was a magnetite ore mine in eastern Pennsylvania that used block caving mining techniques. A radio system was developed that provided two-way communications between trackless vehicles and roving personnel. A unique system of uhf-vhf repeaters combined with a 'leaky-feeder' transmission line offered operational and emergency features not previously found in mine communication systems. The third was a deep silver mine in the Cour d'Alene district of Idaho. This system utilizes a single wire pair to provide up to 14 voice channels. A combination of PBX, telephone carrier systems, and intercoms offered private conversations, selective signaling, and emergency backup communications.

  1. Multi-disciplinary monitoring of the Hutubi underground natural gas storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.

    2015-12-01

    Underground natural Gas Storage (UGS) can balance the gas demand and supply through injecting gas into or withdraw gas from the subsurface rock formation. UGS has been wildly established all over the world to face the complicated international energy system. In 2013, the Hutubi underground natural gas storage was put into production, which was one of the largest UGS in China. In the Hutubi UGS, the pressurized natural gas is injected into and extracted from an obsolete gas reservoir during summer and winter time, respectively. The repeatable in and out going high pressure gas may change the stress state and material properties of the underground rock formation, which may in turn cause surface deformation and alter the seismic hazard in this region. To understand the physical process of the periodic loading and unloading, we established a multi-disciplinary monitoring system composed of a geodetic network, a seismic network, and an active source monitoring system. The position and level of 13 spots around and above the UGS area are measured every three to six months with Global Position System (GPS) and short base-line leveling. More than 30 portable broad band three component seismic stations were deployed in study area to continuously monitor the background and possible triggered seismicity. These seismic stations together with a 12000 in3 airgun source, are also used to monitor the seismic velocity change associated with the gas injection and extraction. Preliminary results indicate that seismic velocity change correlates well with the injection pressure; seismicity decays with the lapse time after the startup of Hutubi UGS; small but detectable surface deformation associated with the gas activities is observed.

  2. Giddings Austin chalk enters deep lean-gas phase

    SciTech Connect

    Moritis, G.

    1995-12-25

    Deep lean gas is the latest phase in the growth of the Giddings field Austin chalk play. The first phase involved drilling vertical oil and gas wells. Next came the horizontal well boom in the shallower Austin chalk area, which is still continuing. And now this third phase places horizontal laterals in the Austen chalk at about 14,000--15,000 ft to produce lean gas. The article describes the producing wells and gas gathering.

  3. Value of Underground Storage in Today's Natural Gas Industry, The

    EIA Publications

    1995-01-01

    This report explores the significant and changing role of storage in the industry by examining the value of natural gas storage; short-term relationships between prices, storage levels, and weather; and some longer term impacts of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) Order 636.

  4. The Texas Railroad Commission, Oil and Gas Division underground injection control program: A peer review

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The reports included herein and any reports added subsequently are the result of an effort to evaluate the effectiveness of state programs to protect Underground Sources of Drinking Water (USDW) from potential contamination resulting from the operation of injection wells related to the production of oil and gas (Class II injection wells). The programs examined in this study cover wells which are used for the injection of fluids into oil reservoirs for the purpose of stimulating or furthering their production when natural production mechanisms decline or cease (enhanced recovery wells) and for the disposal of waters produced in conjunction with the production of oil and gas (disposal wells). The programs examined are those where primary enforcement authority has been delegated to the states by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under provisions of the Safe Drinking Water Act and EPA regulations (see following UIC Development Section of this report). The study was conducted under the auspices of the Underground Injection Practices Council (UIPC).

  5. Underground storage of natural gas by interstate pipeline companies for 1979 and Winter 1979--1980

    SciTech Connect

    Pappas, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    This report covers the underground storage of natural gas for the calendar year 1979 by pipeline companies subject to the jurisdiction of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). Data are based on: FPC Form 2 (Form 2) annual reports of 31 interstate pipeline companies; certificates filed with FERC; and FPC Form 8 (Form 8) semi-monthly reports (November 1, 1979 through March 31, 1980) of 32 pipeline companies and 5 independent producers. 4 figs., 10 tabs.

  6. Sudden deep gas eruption nearby Rome's airport of Fiumicino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciotoli, Giancarlo; Etiope, Giuseppe; Florindo, Fabio; Marra, Fabrizio; Ruggiero, Livio; Sauer, Peter E.

    2013-11-01

    24 August 2013 a sudden gas eruption from the ground occurred in the Tiber river delta, nearby Rome's international airport of Fiumicino. We assessed that this gas, analogous to other minor vents in the area, is dominantly composed of deep, partially mantle-derived CO2, as in the geothermal gas of the surrounding Roman Comagmatic Province. Increased amounts of thermogenic CH4 are likely sourced from Meso-Cenozoic petroleum systems, overlying the deep magmatic fluids. We hypothesize that the intersection of NE-SW and N-S fault systems, which at regional scale controls the location of the Roman volcanic edifices, favors gas uprising through the impermeable Pliocene and deltaic Holocene covers. Pressurized gas may temporarily be stored below these covers or within shallower sandy, permeable layers. The eruption, regardless the triggering cause—natural or man-made, reveals the potential hazard of gas-charged sediments in the delta, even at distances far from the volcanic edifices.

  7. Seismic Response of a Deep Underground Geologic Repository for Nuclear Waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, P.E.

    1998-11-02

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a deep underground nuclear waste repository certified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ,(EPA) to store transuranic defense-related waste contaminated by small amounts of radioactive materials. Located at a depth of about 655 meters below the surface, the facility is sited in southeastern New Mexico, about 40 Department of Energy underground facilities, waste disposal. kilometers east of the city of Carlsbad, New Mexico. The U.S. (DOE) managed the design and construction of the surface and and remains responsible for operation and closure following The managing and operating contractor for the DOE at the WIPP, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, maintains two rechmiant seismic monitoring systems located at the surface and in the underground. This report discusses two earthquakes detected by the seismic monitoring system, one a duratior magnitude 5.0 (Md) event located approximately 60 km east-southeast of the facility, and another a body-wave magnitude 5.6 (rob) event that occurred approximately 260 kilometers to the south-southeast.

  8. Relevance of underground natural gas storage to geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, Marcelo J.; Benson, Sally M.

    2002-07-01

    The practice of underground natural gas storage (UNGS), which started in the USA in 1916, provides useful insight into the geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide--the dominant anthropogenic greenhouse gas released into the atmosphere. In many ways, UNGS is directly relevant to geologic CO{sub 2} storage because, like CO{sub 2}, natural gas (essentially methane) is less dense than water. Consequently, it will tend to rise to the top of any subsurface storage structure located below the groundwater table. By the end of 2001 in the USA, about 142 million metric tons of natural gas were stored underground in depleted oil and gas reservoirs and brine aquifers. Based on their performance, UNGS projects have shown that there is a safe and effective way of storing large volumes of gases in the subsurface. In the small number of cases where failures did occur (i.e., leakage of the stored gas into neighboring permeable layers), they were mainly related to improper well design, construction, maintenance, and/or incorrect project operation. In spite of differences in the chemical and physical properties of the gases, the risk-assessment, risk-management, and risk-mitigation issues relevant to UNGS projects are also pertinent to geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration.

  9. Dynamic simulation of an underground gas storage injection-production network .

    PubMed

    Peng, Shanbi; Liu, Enbin; Xian, Weiwei; Wang, Di; Zhang, Hongbing

    2015-07-01

    Underground gas storage is a well-known strategic practice to seasonal peak shaving and emergency facility. The changing operation conditions of injection-production network directly affects the reliability of downstream gas supply of the city. In the present study, a model of injection-production network on the basis of field data analysis and research was established. By comparing the actual node pressure and simulation results, the reliability of model was verified. Based on the volume of underground gas storage and downstream gas consumption, the best seasonal peak-shaving schedule of the whole year was set. According to dynamic analysis of network, 20% increase in downstream demand could be fulfilled. Besides, the study also analyzed the well pressure and flow rate changes after shutdown of gas well, which is most likely to fail, and concludes that the best rescue time should be within 4 hr after gas supply interruption. The results would help in making decisions about the operation of injection-production network, which have important significance in the environmental protection. PMID:26387354

  10. Three-Dimensional Geologic Modeling of a Prospective Deep Underground Laboratory Site for High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. Y.; Lee, S.; Park, S. U.; Kim, J. M.; Kihm, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    A series of three-dimensional geologic modeling was performed using a geostatistical geologic model GOCAD (ASGA and Paradigm) to characterize quantitatively and to visualize realistically a prospective deep underground laboratory site for high-level radioactive waste disposal in Korea. The necessity of a deep underground laboratory arises from its in-situ conditions for related deep scientific experiments. However, the construction and operation of such a deep underground laboratory take great efforts and expenses owing to its larger depth and thus higher geologic uncertainty. For these reasons, quantitative characterization and realistic visualization of geologic formations and structures of a deep underground laboratory site is crucial before its construction and operation. The study area for the prospective deep underground laboratory site is mainly consists of Precambrian metamorphic rocks as a complex. First, various topographic and geologic data of the study area were collected from literature and boreholes and preliminarily analyzed. Based on the preliminary analysis results, a three-dimensional structural model, which consists of the boundaries between the geologic formations and structures, was established, and a three-dimensional grid model, which consists of hexahedral grid blocks, was produced. Three-dimensional geologic formation model was then established by polymerizing these two models. Finally, a series of three-dimensional lithofacies modeling was performed using the sequential indicator simulation (SIS) and truncated Gaussian simulation (TGS). The volume fractions of metamorphic rocks predicted using the TGS are more similar to the actual data observed in boreholes than those predicted using the SIS. These three-dimensional geologic modeling results can improve a quantitative and realistic understanding of geologic characteristics of the prospective deep underground laboratory site for high-level radioactive waste disposal and thus can provide

  11. Experiments in a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) Hosted in Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbey, T. J.; Kimballton, M. O.; Science Team

    2004-12-01

    Sedimentary-rock environments, particularly those dominated by carbonate rock, provide unique opportunities for geoscientists, geobiologists, and geophysicists, to perform revolutionary experiments aimed at answering fundamental science questions and satisfying our societal demands for resources and environmental stewardship. As part of the National Science Foundation's DUSEL initiative, the selected site should offer structurally and biologically diverse environments. At the same time, the site should offer host rock capable of providing safely engineered hallways and laboratories at depths as great as 2,200 m for numerous deep underground physics, engineering, and earth science experiments. An ideal sedimentary-rock environment offers the prospect of highly folded, thrusted, and fractured rocks that allow opportunities to study the 3-D behavior of thrusts that propagate parallel to bedding as well as those that ramp across bedding. Flow dynamics along and across deeply buried faults is poorly understood. Experiments will be developed at various scales to assess flow and transport processes to better quantify hydrogeological mechanisms influencing flow and possible aquifer compartmentalization. Seismic reflection images, vertical seismic profiles, and tomograms will provide details of the fault properties and geometry, which can be verified in-situ. Repeated overthrusted sequences provide opportunities for geobiologists to investigate how microbes in rocks of similar age are affected by differences in pressure, temperature, and depth. Carbonate rocks provide opportunities to study energy sources and adaptations for nutrient acquisition, reproduction, stability, survival, and repair under extreme conditions. Results from these investigations will permit comparisons with other foreland fold-thrust belts worldwide. Fossil fuels remain the world's main energy resource and the large majority of these are hosted in sedimentary rocks. Improved methods for reservoir

  12. Stability of natural gas in the deep subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, C.

    1996-07-01

    Natural gas is becoming increasingly important as a fuel because of its widespread occurrence and because it has a less significant environmental impact than oil. Many of the known gas accumulations were discovered by accident during exploration for oil, but with increasing demand for gas, successful exploration will require a clearer understanding of the factors that control gas distribution and gas composition. Natural gas is generated by three main processes. In oxygen-deficient, sulfate-free, shallow (few thousand feet) environments bacteria generate biogenic gas that is essentially pure methane with no higher hydrocarbons ({open_quotes}dry gas{close_quotes}). Gas is also formed from organic matter ({open_quotes}kerogen{close_quotes}), either as the initial product from the thermal breakdown of Type III, woody kerogens, or as the final hydrocarbon product from all kerogen types. In addition, gas can be formed by the thermal cracking of crude oil in the deep subsurface. The generation of gas from kerogen requires higher temperatures than the generation of oil. Also, the cracking of oil to gas requires high temperatures, so that there is a general trend from oil to gas with increasing depth. This produces a well-defined {open_quotes}floor for oil{close_quotes}, below which crude oil is not thermally stable. The possibility of a {open_quotes}floor for gas{close_quotes} is less well documented and understanding the limits on natural gas occurrence was one of the main objectives of this research.

  13. Advanced Underground Gas Storage Concepts: Refrigerated-Mined Cavern Storage, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-30

    Over the past 40 years, cavern storage of LPG's, petrochemicals, such as ethylene and propylene, and other petroleum products has increased dramatically. In 1991, the Gas Processors Association (GPA) lists the total U.S. underground storage capacity for LPG's and related products of approximately 519 million barrels (82.5 million cubic meters) in 1,122 separate caverns. Of this total, 70 are hard rock caverns and the remaining 1,052 are caverns in salt deposits. However, along the eastern seaboard of the U.S. and the Pacific northwest, salt deposits are not available and therefore, storage in hard rocks is required. Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. Competing methods include LNG facilities and remote underground storage combined with pipeline transportation to the area. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. DOE has identified five regions, that have not had favorable geological conditions for underground storage development: New England, Mid-Atlantic (NY/NJ), South Atlantic (DL/MD/VA), South Atlantic (NC/SC/GA), and the Pacific Northwest (WA/OR). PB-KBB reviewed published literature and in-house databases of the geology of these regions to determine suitability of hard rock formations for siting storage

  14. Underground storage of natural gas by interstate pipeline companies for 1978 and winter 1978-1979. Energy data report

    SciTech Connect

    Pappas, T.A.

    1980-01-22

    Underground storage of natural gas by pipeline companies subject to the jurisdiction of the Federal Regulatory Commission (FERC) are given for the most recent calendar year and of the most recent winter heating season. Annual data are based on FERC Form 2, annual reports of 32 companies, and winter data are from FERC Form 8, semi-monthly reports of 32 pipeline companies and 5 independent producers. Covered for the two most recent years are the underground gas storage, deliverability, and peak day use for pipeline companies; the estimated cost of storing gas underground; comparisons of fixed cost with operating and maintenance expenses for storing gas, and of the capacity used and the cost of storing gas; and gas injections and withdrawals. Data for the most recent winter heating season (November through March) include gas storage balance; the natural gas in underground storage (injections and withdrawals), in reservoirs, and in storage owned by reporting companies; comparisons of total gas withdrawn from storage, and of net withdrawals from storage. Data are shown by company and by geographic region (Eastern, Midwestern, Southern, and Western). Gas data are reported in thousand cubic feet, with some percentage comparisons. The preface and the narratives at the beginning of each of the four sub-sections explain methodologies and definitions, and highlight statistics. 10 figures, 12 tables.

  15. Deep Underground Science and Engineering Lab: S1 Dark Matter Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Akerib, Daniel S.; Aprile, E.; Baltz, E.A.; Dragowsky, M.R.; Gaitskell, R.J.; Gondolo, P.; Hime, A.; Martoff, C.J.; Mei, D.-M.; Nelson, H.; Sadoulet, B.; Schnee, R.W.; Sonnenschein, A.H.; Strigari, L.E.; /UC, Irvine

    2006-06-09

    In this report we have described the broad and compelling range of astrophysical and cosmological evidence that defines the dark matter problem, and the WIMP hypothesis, which offers a solution rooted in applying fundamental physics to the dynamics of the early universe. The WIMP hypothesis is being vigorously pursued, with a steady march of sensitivity improvements coming both from astrophysical searches and laboratory efforts. The connections between these approaches are profound and will reveal new information from physics at the smallest scales to the origin and workings of the entire universe. Direct searches for WIMP dark matter require sensitive detectors that have immunity to electromagnetic backgrounds, and are located in deep underground laboratories to reduce the flux from fast cosmic-ray-muon-induced neutrons which is a common background to all detection methods. With US leadership in dark matter searches and detector R&D, a new national laboratory will lay the foundation of technical support and facilities for the next generation of scientists and experiments in this field, and act as magnet for international cooperation and continued US leadership. The requirements of depth, space and technical support for the laboratory are fairly generic, regardless of the approach. Current experiments and upgraded versions that run within the next few years will probe cross sections on the 10{sup -45}-10{sup -44} cm{sup 2} scale, where depths of 3000-4000 m.w.e. are sufficient to suppress the neutron background. On the longer term, greater depths on the 5000-6000 level are desirable as cross sections down to 10{sup -46} cm{sup 2} are probed, and of course, if WIMPs are discovered then building up a statistical sample free of neutron backgrounds will be essential to extracting model parameters and providing a robust solution to the dark matter problem. While most of the detector technologies are of comparable physical scale, i.e., the various liquid and solid

  16. Results and prospects of deep under-ground, under-water and under-ice experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zornoza, J. D.

    2014-04-01

    Astroparticle experiments have provided a long list of achievements both for particle physics and astrophysics. Many of these experiments require to be protected from the background produced by cosmic rays in the atmosphere. The main options for such protection are to build detectors deep under ground (mines, tunnels) or in the deep sea or Antarctic ice. In this proceeding we review the main results shown in the RICAP 2013 conference related with these kind of experiments and the prospects for the future.

  17. The deep Madden Field, a super-deep Madison gas reservoir, Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, C.H.; Hawkins, C.

    1996-12-31

    Madison dolomites form the reservoir of a super deep, potential giant sour gas field developed on the Madden Anticline immediately in front of the Owl Creek Thrust along the northern rim of the Wind River Basin, central Wyoming. The Madison reservoir dolomites are presently buried to some 25,000 feet at Madden Field and exhibit porosity in excess of 15%. An equivalent dolomitized Madison sequence is exposed in outcrop only 5 miles to the north on the hanging wall of the Owl Creek thrust at Lysite Mountain. Preliminary comparative stratigraphic, geochemical and petrologic data, between outcrop and available cores and logs at Deep Madden suggests: (1) early, sea level-controlled, evaporite-related dolomitization of the reservoir and outcrop prior to significant burial; (2) both outcrop and deep reservoir dolomites underwent significant recrystallization during a common burial history until their connection was severed during Laramide faulting in the Eocene; (3) While the dolomite reservoir at Madden suffered additional diagenesis during an additional 7-10 thousand feet of burial, the pore systems between outcrop and deep reservoir are remarkably similar. The two existing deep Madison wells at Madden are on stream, with a third deep Madison well currently drilling. The sequence stratigraphic framework and the diagenetic history of the Madison strongly suggests that outcrops and surface cores of the Madison in the Owl Creek Mountains will be useful in further development and detailed reservoir modeling of the Madden Deep Field.

  18. The deep Madden Field, a super-deep Madison gas reservoir, Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, C.H. ); Hawkins, C. )

    1996-01-01

    Madison dolomites form the reservoir of a super deep, potential giant sour gas field developed on the Madden Anticline immediately in front of the Owl Creek Thrust along the northern rim of the Wind River Basin, central Wyoming. The Madison reservoir dolomites are presently buried to some 25,000 feet at Madden Field and exhibit porosity in excess of 15%. An equivalent dolomitized Madison sequence is exposed in outcrop only 5 miles to the north on the hanging wall of the Owl Creek thrust at Lysite Mountain. Preliminary comparative stratigraphic, geochemical and petrologic data, between outcrop and available cores and logs at Deep Madden suggests: (1) early, sea level-controlled, evaporite-related dolomitization of the reservoir and outcrop prior to significant burial; (2) both outcrop and deep reservoir dolomites underwent significant recrystallization during a common burial history until their connection was severed during Laramide faulting in the Eocene; (3) While the dolomite reservoir at Madden suffered additional diagenesis during an additional 7-10 thousand feet of burial, the pore systems between outcrop and deep reservoir are remarkably similar. The two existing deep Madison wells at Madden are on stream, with a third deep Madison well currently drilling. The sequence stratigraphic framework and the diagenetic history of the Madison strongly suggests that outcrops and surface cores of the Madison in the Owl Creek Mountains will be useful in further development and detailed reservoir modeling of the Madden Deep Field.

  19. Three-dimensional seasonal deformations induced by underground gas storage. Monitoring by PSI and modeling by FE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teatini, P.; Lovison, A.; Janna, C.; Ferretti, A.

    2012-04-01

    Land subsidence and uplift due to the production/injection of fluids from/into the subsurface have been widely observed worldwide over the last decades and occur for a variety of purposes such as groundwater pumping, aquifer system recharge, gas/oil field development, enhanced oil recovery, geologic CO2 sequestration, underground gas storage and waste disposal. The need for a reliable prediction of these processes has led to a continuous improvement of the numerical tools employed in poromechanics. However, although sophisticated poro-visco-plastic 3D codes have been developed, the lack of accurate measurements of the ground surface displacements has rarely allowed an accurate calibration of the geomechanical models. Recently, advanced Persistent Scatterer Interferometry data, obtained by combining ascending and descending RADARSAT-1 images acquired from 2003 to 2008 above gas storage fields located in the sedimentary basin of the Po river plain, Italy, provide reliable measurement of seasonal vertical ups and downs as well as horizontal displacements to and from the injection/withdrawal wells. Combination of the land surface movements together with an accurate reconstruction of the subsurface geology made available by three-dimensional seismic surveys and long-time records of fluid pore pressure within the 1000-1500 m deep reservoirs has allowed for the development of an accurate 3D transversally isotropic poromechanical finite-element model which satisfactorily reproduces the seasonal deformation due to gas injection/removal. An accurate calibration of the finite element model to the interferometry data is performed by combining metamodeling techniques such as Kriging and global optimization strategies specifically designed for handling uncertain measurements. Furthermore, it is also possible to estimate the functional dependence of physically relevant quantities, e.g., the maximum vertical seasonal displacement, with respect to operational parameters (e

  20. A New Shallow Underground Gas-Proportional Counting Lab - First Results and Ar-37 Sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Aalseth, Craig E.; Day, Anthony R.; Fuller, Erin S.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Keillor, Martin E.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Mace, Emily K.; Merriman, Jason H.; Myers, Allan W.; Overman, Cory T.; Panisko, Mark E.; Seifert, Allen; Warren, Glen A.; Williams, Richard M.

    2013-11-01

    Abstract A new ultra-low-background proportional counter was recently developed with an internal volume of 100 ml and has been characterized at pressures from 1-10 atmospheres with P-10 (90% Ar, 10% methane) gas. This design, along with a counting system providing event digitization and passive and active shielding, has been developed to complement a new shallow underground laboratory (30 meters water-equivalent). Backgrounds and low-level reference materials have been measured, and system sensitivity for Ar-37 has been calculated.

  1. Underground natural gas storage in the United States 1979 - 1980 heating year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    Total gas in storage in the nation's active underground natural gas storage reservoirs as of March 31, 1980, the end of the 1979-1980 heating year, was reported at 5,129 billion cubic feet. Of this total, approximately 69.1 percent was base, or cushion, gas and 30.9 percent was working gas. Working gas totaled 1,586 billion cubic feet, approximately 28.2 percent above that available at the beginning of the heating year. The nation's 383 active storage reservoirs were operated by 77 companies. Total reservoir capacity was reported at 7,287 billion cubic feet, approximately 51.4 percent, or 3,744 billion cubic feet of which was working gas capacity. Approximately 67.9 percent of this working gas capacity was in 228 reservoirs operated by 30 interstate pipeline companies, 29.1 percent was in 142 reservoirs operated by 42 intrastate companies, and 3.1 percent was in 13 reservoirs operated by 5 independent producers.

  2. Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity using abandoned works (deep mines or open pits) and the impact on groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujades, Estanislao; Willems, Thibault; Bodeux, Sarah; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-04-01

    Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants using open-pit or deep mines can be used in flat regions to store the excess of electricity produced during low-demand energy periods. It is essential to consider the interaction between UPSH plants and the surrounding geological media. There has been little work on the assessment of associated groundwater flow impacts. The impacts on groundwater flow are determined numerically using a simplified numerical model which is assumed to be representative of open-pit and deep mines. The main impact consists of oscillation of the piezometric head, and its magnitude depends on the characteristics of the aquifer/geological medium, the mine and the pumping and injection intervals. If an average piezometric head is considered, it drops at early times after the start of the UPSH plant activity and then recovers progressively. The most favorable hydrogeological conditions to minimize impacts are evaluated by comparing several scenarios. The impact magnitude will be lower in geological media with low hydraulic diffusivity; however, the parameter that plays the more important role is the volume of water stored in the mine. Its variation modifies considerably the groundwater flow impacts. Finally, the problem is studied analytically and some solutions are proposed to approximate the impacts, allowing a quick screening of favorable locations for future UPSH plants.

  3. On the Superficial Gas Velocity in Deep Gas-Solid Fluidized Beds

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tingwen; Grace, John; Shadle, Lawrence; Guenther, Chris

    2011-11-15

    The superficial gas velocity is one of the key parameters used to determine the flow hydrodynamics in gas–solids fluidized beds. However, the superficial velocity varies with height in practice, and there is no consistent basis for its specification. Different approaches to determine the superficial gas velocity in a deep gas–solids system are shown to cause difficulties in developing models and in comparing predictions with experimental results. In addition, the reference conditions for superficial gas velocity are important in modeling of deep gas–solids systems where there is a considerable pressure drop.

  4. Coincident observation of air [hacek C]erenkov light by a surface array and muon bundles by a deep underground detector

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosio, M.; Antolini, R.; Auriemma, G.; Baker, R.; Baldini, A.; Bam, B.; Barbarino, G.C.; Barish, B.C.; Battistoni, G.; Bellotti, R.; Bemporad, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bilokon, H.; Bisi, V.; Bloise, C.; Bower, C.; Bussino, S.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Campana, D.; Carboni, M.; Corona, A.; Cecchini, S.; Cei, F.; Chiarella, V.; Cormack, R.; Coutu, S.; DeCataldo, G.; Dekhissi, H.; DeMarzo, C.; De Vincenzi, M.; Di Credico, A.; Diehl, E.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Forti, C.; Fusco, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giannini, G.; Giglietto, N.; Grassi, M.; Green, P.; Grillo, A.; Guarino, F.; Guarnaccia, P.; Gustavino, C.; Habig, A.; Heinz, R.; Hong, J.T.; Iarocci, E.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kearns, E.; Kertzman, M.; Kyriazopoulou, S.; Lamanna, E.; Lane, C.; Lee, C.; Levin, D.S.; Lipari, P.; Liu, G.; Liu, R.; Longo, M.J.; Lu, Y.; Ludlam, G.; Mancarella, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta-Neri, A.; Marin, A.; Marini, A.; Martello, D.; Marzari Chiesa, A.; Michael, D.G.; Mikheyev, S.; Miller, L.; Mittlebrunn, M.; Mon

    1994-09-01

    We report on the simultaneous observation of atmospheric [hacek C]erenkov light by a prototype five telescope array, GRACE, (Gran Sasso Air [hacek C]erenkov Experiment) with deep underground muons in the MACRO (Monopole Astrophysics and Cosmic Ray Observatory). The telescope array was deployed at Campo Imperatore above the Gran Sasso Laboratory for a run completed in the fall of 1992. The total live time for the combined surface-underground operation was [similar to]100 h during which more than 300 events were seen in coincidence. The efficacy of this technique to monitor the electromagnetic and penetrating muon components of a cosmic-ray-induced cascade is discussed.

  5. From the Cosmos to the Geosphere: the quest of four European Deep Underground Laboratories originally built for Astroparticle Physics to understand Global Environmental Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrafioti, I.

    2014-12-01

    A number of deep underground laboratories exist around the world, all originally developed to advance our understanding of the Universe. They were built to host 'low-background' Astroparticle Physics experiments, needing to be shielded from interference produced by cosmic radiation. These unique infrastructures show great diversity in terms of depth, size, and geological and environmental characteristics. Over the last decade, the four European deep underground laboratories - LSM in France, LSC in Spain, LNGS in Italy and Boulby in the UK - supported by their funding agencies, have been making great efforts to get integrated into a single distributed research infrastructure. At the same time, they have been asking "how can our facilities, primarily built for Astroparticle Physics, be used to tackle global challenges?". Astroparticle Physicists have wide experience in forming long-term large international collaborations, developing innovative technologies, building unique facilities and organising data handling, reduction, storage and analysis: all of these were put to the disposal of scientists from other disciplines. As a result, a number of very interesting multidisciplinary projects have been hosted in the labs with excellent scientific results: geologists, climatologists, environmental scientists and biologists from academia and public authorities have all used these deep underground environments. Even more recently, the four European labs have decided to go one step further: in order to treat global challenges, global cooperation is necessary, so they are trying to unite the global deep underground science community around these multidisciplinary synergies. The objective of this talk is to present the bottom-up policy adopted by these world-leading European research infrastructures related to global environmental change, including some of the most interesting scientific results received so far (e.g. muon tide detector for continuous, passive monitoring of

  6. Influence of Geological Structure on Coal and Gas Outburst Occurrences in Turkish Underground Coal Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esen, Olgun; Özer, Samet Can; Fişne, Abdullah

    2015-04-01

    Coal and gas outbursts are sudden and violent releases of gas and in company with coal that result from a complex function of geology, stress regime with gas pressure and gas content of the coal seam. The phenomena is referred to as instantaneous outbursts and have occurred in virtually all the major coal producing countries and have been the cause of major disasters in the world mining industry. All structures from faults to joints and cleats may supply gas or lead to it draining away. Most geological structures influence the way in which gas can drain within coal seams. From among all the geological factors two groups can be distinguished: parameters characterising directly the occurrence and geometry of the coal seams; parameters characterising the tectonic disturbances of the coal seams and neighbouring rocks. Also dykes may act as gas barriers. When the production of the coal seam is advanced in mine working areas, these barriers are failed mostly in the weak and mylonitized zones. Geology also plays a very important role in the outburst process. Coal seams of complex geological structure including faults, folds, and fractured rocks are liable to outbursts if coal seams and neighbouring rocks have high gas content level. The purpose of the study is to enlighten the coal industry in Turkey to improving mine safety in underground coal production and decrease of coal and gas outburst events due to increasing depth of mining process. In Turkey; the years between 1969 and 2013, the number of 90 coal and gas outbursts took place in Zonguldak Hard Coal Basin in both Kozlu and Karadon Collieries. In this study the liability to coal and gas outburst of the coal seams are investigated by measuring the strength of coal and the rock pressure. The correlation between these measurements and the event locations shows that the geological structures resulted in 52 events out of 90 events; 19 events close to the fault zones, 25 events thorough the fault zones and 8 events in

  7. Evaluating Gas-Phase Transport And Detection Of Noble Gas Signals From Underground Nuclear Explosions Using Chemical Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrigan, C. R.; Hunter, S. L.; Sun, Y.; Wagoner, J. L.; Ruddle, D.; Anderson, G.; Felske, D.; Myers, K.; Zucca, J. J.; Emer, D. F.; Townsend, M.; Drellack, S.; Chipman, V.; Snelson, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    The 1993 Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) involved detonating 1 kiloton of chemical explosive in a subsurface cavity which also contained bottles of tracer gases (ref 1). That experiment provided an improved understanding of transport processes relevant to the detection of noble gas signals at the surface emanating from a clandestine underground nuclear explosion (UNE). As an alternative to performing large chemical detonations to simulate gas transport from UNEs, we have developed a test bed for subsurface gas transport, sampling and detection studies using a former UNE cavity. The test bed site allows for the opportunity to evaluate pathways to the surface created by the UNE as well as possible transport mechanisms including barometric pumping and cavity pressurization (ref 2). With the test bed we have monitored long-term chemical tracers as well as newly injected tracers. In order to perform high temporal resolution tracer gas monitoring, we have also developed a Subsurface Gas Smart Sampler (SGSS) which has application during an actual On Site Inspection (OSI) and is available for deployment in OSI field exercises planned for 2014. Deployment of five SGSS at the remote test bed has provided unparalleled detail concerning relationships involving tracer gas transport to the surface, barometric fluctuations and temporal variations in the natural radon concentration. We anticipate that the results of our tracer experiments will continue to support the development of improved noble gas detection technology for both OSI and International Monitoring System applications. 1. C.R. Carrigan et al., 1996, Nature, 382, p. 528. 2. Y. Sun and C.R. Carrigan, 2012, Pure Appl. Geophys., DOI 10.1007/s00024-012-0514-4.

  8. Norg underground gas storage - an integrated 3-D geological and geophysical reservoir modeling study

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, J.; Smith, S. ); Huis, R.; Copper, J.; Whyte, S. )

    1993-09-01

    The Netherlands have an extensive gas distribution infrastructure supplying 80 x 10[sup 9] m[sup 3] per annum to the domestic and European market. The capacity requirement exceeds 600 x 10[sup 6] sm[sup 3]/d, of which 430 x 10[sup 6] sm[sup 3]/d is provided by the giant Groningen gas field. The Groningen field will soon reach a pressure at which this capacity can no longer be met without considerable investments. It will also become difficult to maintain the market gas quality, because of the increasing supply from small fields with widely varying gas qualities. Underground Gas Storage (UGS) will satisfy both capacity and gas-quality requirements. This UGS must eventually store 4.5 x 10[sup 9] m[sup 3] with injection/production capacities of 36/80-100 x 10[sup 6] sm[sup 3]/d, making it one of the largest UGS projects in the world. These extremely high-capacity requirements demand both high-matrix permeability and good understanding of vertical and lateral reservoir continuity. Matrix permeability is predictable due to the close relationship with the lithofacies defined within the primary Rotliegende depositional model. Minor faults, identified on three-dimensional (3-D) seismic attribute maps, represent potential transmissibility impairment zones, compartmentalizing the reservoir. This was initially suggested by core fracture studies and confirmed by a subsequent field shut-in and pressure buildup test. Lithofacies and seismic structural data are integrated within a computerized reservoir geological modeling system known as [open quotes]Monarch[close quotes] to provide a highly detailed 3-D permeability model that is then tranformed into a model for dynamic reservoir simulation. The results confirm the required working volume for the UGS operation and provide a basis for the initial field development planning.

  9. First Dark Matter Search Results from a 4-kg CF$_3$I Bubble Chamber Operated in a Deep Underground Site

    SciTech Connect

    Behnke, E.; Behnke, J.; Brice, S.J.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Collar, J.I.; Conner, A.; Cooper, P.S.; Crisler, M.; Dahl, C.E.; Fustin, D.; Grace, E.; /Indiana U., South Bend /Fermilab

    2012-04-01

    New data are reported from the operation of a 4.0 kg CF{sub 3}I bubble chamber in the 6800 foot deep SNOLAB underground laboratory. The effectiveness of ultrasound analysis in discriminating alpha decay background events from single nuclear recoils has been confirmed, with a lower bound of >99.3% rejection of alpha decay events. Twenty single nuclear recoil event candidates and three multiple bubble events were observed during a total exposure of 553 kg-days distributed over three different bubble nucleation thresholds. The effective exposure for single bubble recoil-like events was 437.4 kg-days. A neutron background internal to the apparatus, of known origin, is estimated to account for five single nuclear recoil events and is consistent with the observed rate of multiple bubble events. This observation provides world best direct detection constraints on WIMP-proton spin-dependent scattering for WIMP masses >20 GeV/c{sup 2} and demonstrates significant sensitivity for spin-independent interactions.

  10. Modeling of coulpled deformation and permeability evolution during fault reactivation induced by deep underground injection of CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Cappa, F.; Rutqvist, J.

    2010-06-01

    The interaction between mechanical deformation and fluid flow in fault zones gives rise to a host of coupled hydromechanical processes fundamental to fault instability, induced seismicity, and associated fluid migration. In this paper, we discuss these coupled processes in general and describe three modeling approaches that have been considered to analyze fluid flow and stress coupling in fault-instability processes. First, fault hydromechanical models were tested to investigate fault behavior using different mechanical modeling approaches, including slip interface and finite-thickness elements with isotropic or anisotropic elasto-plastic constitutive models. The results of this investigation showed that fault hydromechanical behavior can be appropriately represented with the least complex alternative, using a finite-thickness element and isotropic plasticity. We utilized this pragmatic approach coupled with a strain-permeability model to study hydromechanical effects on fault instability during deep underground injection of CO{sub 2}. We demonstrated how such a modeling approach can be applied to determine the likelihood of fault reactivation and to estimate the associated loss of CO{sub 2} from the injection zone. It is shown that shear-enhanced permeability initiated where the fault intersects the injection zone plays an important role in propagating fault instability and permeability enhancement through the overlying caprock.

  11. First dark matter search results from a 4-kg CF3I bubble chamber operated in a deep underground site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnke, E.; Behnke, J.; Brice, S. J.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Collar, J. I.; Conner, A.; Cooper, P. S.; Crisler, M.; Dahl, C. E.; Fustin, D.; Grace, E.; Hall, J.; Hu, M.; Levine, I.; Lippincott, W. H.; Moan, T.; Nania, T.; Ramberg, E.; Robinson, A. E.; Sonnenschein, A.; Szydagis, M.; Vázquez-Jáuregui, E.

    2012-09-01

    New data are reported from the operation of a 4.0-kg CF3I bubble chamber in the 6800-foot-deep SNOLAB underground laboratory. The effectiveness of ultrasound analysis in discriminating alpha-decay background events from single nuclear recoils has been confirmed, with a lower bound of >99.3% rejection of alpha-decay events. Twenty single nuclear recoil event candidates and three multiple bubble events were observed during a total exposure of 553 kg-days distributed over three different bubble nucleation thresholds. The effective exposure for single bubble recoil-like events was 437.4 kg-days. A neutron background internal to the apparatus, of known origin, is estimated to account for five single nuclear recoil events and is consistent with the observed rate of multiple bubble events. The remaining excess of single bubble events exhibits characteristics indicating the presence of an additional background. These data provide new direct detection constraints on WIMP-proton spin-dependent scattering for WIMP masses >20GeV/c2 and demonstrate significant sensitivity for spin-independent interactions.

  12. Monitoring induced seismicity from underground gas storage: first steps in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucciarelli, Marco; Priolo, Enrico

    2013-04-01

    The supply of natural gas and its storage are focal points of the Italian politics of energy production and will have increasing importance in the coming years. About a dozen reservoirs are currently in use and fifteen are in development or awaiting approval. Some of these are found in the vicinity of geological structures that are seismically active. The assessment of seismic hazard (both for natural background and induced seismicity) for a geological gas storage facility has a number of unconventional aspects that must be recognized and traced in a clear, ordered way and using guidelines and rules that leave less room as possible for interpretation by the individual applicant / verification body. Similarly, for control and monitoring there are not clearly defined procedures or standard instrumentation, let alone tools for analysing and processing data. Finally, governmental organizations in charge of permission grants and operative control tend to have appropriate scientific knowledge only in certain areas and not in others (e.g. the seismic one), and the establishment of an independent multidisciplinary inspection body appears desirable. The project StoHaz (https://sites.google.com/site/s2stohaz/home) aims to initiate a series of actions to overcome these deficiencies and allow to define procedures and standards for the seismic hazard assessment and control of the activities of natural gas storage in underground reservoirs. OGS will take advantage of the experience gained with the design, installation and maintenance of the seismic network monitoring the Collalto reservoir, at the moment the only example in Italy of a public research institution monitoring independently the activities of a private gas storage company.

  13. Method of producing synthesis gas by underground gasification of coal using specific well configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Gash, B.W.; Arri, L.E.; Hunt, E.B. Jr.; Parrish, D.R.

    1987-03-10

    A method is described of producing synthesis gas by the underground gasification of coal in individual noninteracting cavities formed by the gasification of the coal in a thick coal seam which is generally horizontal under an overburden and wherein loose coal and char formed from the combustion of the coal in the seam have a known angle of repose. The seam is provided with an injection well positioned at an angle with respect to the horizontal of less than the angle of repose and with a production well positioned at an angle with respect to the horizontal of greater than the angle of repose but less than 90/sup 0/. The distance between the wells decreases toward the bottom of the seam. The method comprises linking the wells, initiating combustion near the bottom of the seam and thereby producing a cavity in the seam, introducing an oxygen-containing gas mixture into the seam through the injection well, and removing combustion products through the production well.

  14. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Annual report, October 1994--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.

    1995-10-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy-Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues (CCBs) in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground CCB placement. This report describes progress in the following areas: environmental characterization, mix development and geotechnical characterization, material handling and system economics, underground placement, and field demonstration.

  15. Offshore oil & gas: Deep waters dominate in 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Pagano, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    Deep water exploration and field development dominate the energy market as 1997 begins. All indicators point that a turnaround in the oil and gas industry is in full swing. Strong market fundamentals are in place: the worldwide offshore mobile rig fleet is approaching full utilization of marketed rigs, which has tightened the supply/demand balance and boosted day rates for all types of drilling units. The exploration and production niche is in its healthiest shape in more than 15 years with a growth spurt in progress. The excess rig supply has disappeared and some market observers believe the present supply of deep water rigs needs to triple just to meet demand in the Gulf of Mexico market alone. There is evidence that some energy companies are delaying drilling programs because suitable rigs simply are not available. Floating rigs generally are working longer-term contracts with some units under contract until late in the decade. Analysts forecast a heated market over the next 12 to 18 months. Gas prices are expected to remain strong through 1997 and crude prices should hold steady.

  16. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Topical report, April 1, 1996--April 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Chugh, Y.P.; Brackebusch, F.; Carpenter, J.

    1998-12-31

    This report represents the Final Technical Progress Report for Phase II of the overall program for a cooperative research agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy - MORGANTOWN Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC). Under the agreement, SIUC will develop and demonstrate technologies for the handling, transport, and placement in abandoned underground coal mines of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products, such as fly ash, scrubber sludge, fluidized bed combustion by-products, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground placement. The overall program is divided into three (3) phases. Phase II of the program is primarily concerned with developing and testing the hardware for the actual underground placement demonstrations. Two technologies have been identified and hardware procured for full-scale demonstrations: (1) hydraulic placement, where coal combustion by-products (CCBs) will be placed underground as a past-like mixture containing about 70 to 75 percent solids; and (2) pneumatic placement, where CCBs will be placed underground as a relatively dry material using compressed air. 42 refs., 36 figs., 36 tabs.

  17. (Per)chlorate reduction by an acetogenic bacterium, Sporomusa sp., isolated from an underground gas storage

    PubMed Central

    Mehboob, Farrakh; van Gelder, Antonie H.; Rijpstra, W. Irene C.; Damsté, Jaap S. Sinninghe; Stams, Alfons J. M.

    2010-01-01

    A mesophilic bacterium, strain An4, was isolated from an underground gas storage reservoir with methanol as substrate and perchlorate as electron acceptor. Cells were Gram-negative, spore-forming, straight to curved rods, 0.5–0.8 μm in diameter, and 2–8 μm in length, growing as single cells or in pairs. The cells grew optimally at 37°C, and the pH optimum was around 7. Strain An4 converted various alcohols, organic acids, fructose, acetoin, and H2/CO2 to acetate, usually as the only product. Succinate was decarboxylated to propionate. The isolate was able to respire with (per)chlorate, nitrate, and CO2. The G+C content of the DNA was 42.6 mol%. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain An4 was most closely related to Sporomusa ovata (98% similarity). The bacterium reduced perchlorate and chlorate completely to chloride. Key enzymes, perchlorate reductase and chlorite dismutase, were detected in cell-free extracts. PMID:20680263

  18. Gas Membrane Sensor Technique for Long Term Gas Measurements in Deep Boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, M.; Erzinger, J.; Kujawa, Chr.; Co2-Sink Group

    2009-04-01

    The direct determination of the gas composition in subsurface brines in deep boreholes is necessary for the characterization of existing fluids and the monitoring of changes of reservoir gases during industrial use. The conventional methods used for this purpose were mostly expensive and sophisticated techniques and typically involve the collection of discrete samples that are transported to a laboratory for analyses. Alternatively, the presented new gas membrane sensor technique allows for a permanent collection of gas in the subsurface and the continuous conduction of the gathered gas through a special borehole cable with subsequent real time analyses at the surface. The system is easy to handle, avoids complex mechanical components and therefore reduces costs. The main component of the gas sensor is a tube-shaped membrane, together with a piezoresistive pressure and temperature transmitter and two stainless steel capillaries embedded in a borehole cable for the gas transport to the surface. A filler material prevents the membrane from collapsing inwardly under pressures exceeding 200 bars. The practicability of our method was tested by comprehensive laboratory experiments at different pressures, temperatures and salt concentrations and by comparing the results with literature data on gas permeation coefficients and activation energies gained by the conventional "time-lag" method. By taking into account the permeability coefficient for carbon dioxide in the used polydimethylsiloxan membrane, the Henry-law coefficient and the salting out effect the quantification of dissolved carbon dioxide in deep borehole brines is possible. The described method was successful applied at the scientific carbon dioxide storage test site in Ketzin, Germany. Changes in the reservoir gas composition were monitored and the breakthrough of injected carbon dioxide and krypton gas tracer into the observation well were recorded.

  19. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    On September 30, 1993, the US Department of Energy - Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned underground coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of these technologies for the management of coal combustion by-products. The two technologies for the underground placement that will be developed and demonstrated are: (1) pneumatic placement, using virtually dry materials, and (2) hydraulic placement, using a {open_quotes}paste{close_quotes} mixture of materials with about 70% solids. Phase II of the overall program began April 1, 1996. The principal objective of Phase II is to develop and fabricate the equipment for placing the coal combustion by-products underground, and to conduct a demonstration of the technologies on the surface. Therefore, this quarter has been largely devoted to developing specifications for equipment components, visiting fabrication plants throughout Southern Illinois to determine their capability for building the equipment components in compliance with the specifications, and delivering the components in a timely manner.

  20. An explanation of large-scale coal and gas outbursts in underground coal mines: the effect of low-permeability zones on abnormally abundant gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, F. H.; Cheng, Y. P.

    2013-09-01

    Large-scale coal and gas outbursts post a risk of fatal disasters in underground mines. Large-scale outbursts (outburst of coal and rock greater than 500 t) in recent years in China indicate that there is abundant gas in areas of outbursts containing large amounts of potential energy. The adequate sealing properties of the roof and floor of a coal seam are required for local abundant gas around the site of an outburst, but an annular low-permeability zone in a coal seam, which prevents the loss by gas migration through the coal seam itself, is also required. The distribution of coal gas with this annular zone of low permeability is described, and it is proposed that the annular zone of low permeability creates conditions for confining the coal gas. The effect of this low-permeability zone on the gas distribution is analyzed after allowing for simplifications in the model. The results show that the permeability and length of the low-permeability zone have a great impact on the gas distribution. A steep gradient of gas pressure in the low-permeability zone and the high gas pressure in the abundant zone of gas can promote coal mass failure and coal wall deformation, thereby accelerating the coal and gas outburst. The high pressure gas in abundant zone of gas will lead to a large-scale outburst if an outburst occurs.

  1. Prediction of Peak Hydrogen Concentrations for Deep Sludge Retrieval in Tanks AN-101 and AN-106 from Historical Data of Spontaneous Gas Release Events

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, Beric E.; Cooley, Scott K.; Meacham, Joseph E.

    2013-10-21

    Radioactive and chemical wastes from nuclear fuel processing are stored in large underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The Tank Operations Contractor is continuing a program of moving solid wastes from single-shell tanks (SSTs) to double-shell tanks (DSTs) and preparing for waste feed delivery (WFD). A new mechanism for a large spontaneous gas release event (GRE) in deep sludge sediments has been postulated. The creation of this potential new GRE hazard, deep sludge gas release events (DSGREs), is the retrieval of sludge waste into a single DST that results in a sediment depth greater than operating experience has demonstrated is safe. The Tank Operations Contractor program of moving solid wastes from SSTs to DSTs and preparing for WFD is being negatively impacted by this sediment depth limit.

  2. Underground laboratories in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-08-17

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  3. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, July 1 - September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    On September 30, 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy-Morgantown Energy Technology Center and Souther Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled ``Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines``. Under the agreement SIUC will develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion by-products in abandoned underground coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of these technologies for the management of coal combustion by-products. The two technologies for the underground placement that will be developed and demonstrated are: (1) pneumatic placement, using virtually dry materials, and (2) hydraulic placement, using a ``paste`` mixture of materials with about 70% solids. Phase II of the overall program began April 1, 1996. The principal objective of Phase II is to develop and fabricate the equipment for both the pneumatic and hydraulic placement technologies, and to conduct a surface demonstration-test of both technologies. During the current quarter the main thrust was to develop the equipment necessary for the program. Shop drawings were completed for the pneumatic placement equipment, and purchase orders issued for many of the component parts. The final pneumatic placement system will be assembled in the SIUC Carterville facility.

  4. Improving the location of induced earthquakes associated with an underground gas storage in the Gulf of Valencia (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaite, Beatriz; Ugalde, Arantza; Villaseñor, Antonio; Blanch, Estefania

    2016-05-01

    On September 2013, increased seismic activity was recorded near the CASTOR offshore underground gas storage (UGS), in the Gulf of Valencia (Spain). According to the reports by the Spanish Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN), more than 550 events occurred during two months, the strongest having a magnitude of Mw = 4.2 which took place two weeks after the gas injection stopped. The low magnitude of the events (with only 17 earthquakes having mbLg greater than 3), the lack of nearby stations, and the inhomogeneous station distribution made the location problem a great challenge. Here we present improved locations for a subset of 161 well recorded events from the earthquake sequence using a probabilistic nonlinear earthquake location method. A new 3-D shear-wave velocity model is also estimated in this work from surface-wave ambient noise tomography. To further improve the locations, waveform cross-correlations are computed at each station for every event pair and new locations are obtained from an inverted set of adjusted travel time picks. The resulting hypocentral solutions show a tighter clustering with respect to the initial locations and they are distributed in a NW-SE direction. Most of the earthquakes are located near the injection well at depths of about 6 km. Our results indicate that the observed seismicity is closely associated with the injection activities at the CASTOR underground gas storage and may have resulted from the reactivation of pre-existing unmapped faults, located a few kilometers below the reservoir.

  5. Integrated underground gas storage of CO2 and CH4 to decarbonize the "power-to-gas-to-gas-to-power" technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, Michael; Streibel, Martin; Nakaten, Natalie; Kempka, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Massive roll-out of renewable energy production units (wind turbines and solar panels) leads to date to excess energy which cannot be consumed at the time of production. So far, long-term storage is proposed via the so called 'power-to-gas' technology. Energy is transferred to methane gas and subsequently combusted for power production - 'power-to-gas-to-power' (PGP) - when needed. PGP profits from the existing infrastructure of the gas market and could be deployed immediately. However, major shortcoming is the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) from renewables and its emission into the atmosphere. We present an innovative idea which is a decarbonised extension of the PGP technology. The concept is based on a closed carbon cycle: (1) Hydrogen (H2) is generated from renewable energy by electrolysis and (2) transformed into methane (CH4) with CO2 taken from an underground geological storage. (3) CH4 produced is stored in a second storage underground until needed and (4) combusted in a combined-cycled power plant on site. (5) CO2 is separated during energy production and re-injected into the storage formation. We studied a show case for the cities Potsdam and Brandenburg/Havel in the Federal State of Brandenburg in Germany to determine the energy demand of the entire process chain and the costs of electricity (COE) using an integrated techno-economic modelling approach (Nakaten et al. 2014). Taking all of the individual process steps into account, the calculation shows an overall efficiency of 27.7 % (Streibel et al. 2013) with total COE of 20.43 euro-cents/kWh (Kühn et al. 2013). Although the level of efficiency is lower than for pump and compressed air storage, the resulting costs are similar in magnitude, and thus competitive on the energy storage market. The great advantage of the concept proposed here is that, in contrast to previous PGP approaches, this process is climate-neutral due to CO2 utilisation. For that purpose, process CO2 is temporally stored in an

  6. Geo-mechanical Model Testing for Stability of Underground Gas Storage in Halite During the Operational Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xuguang; Zhang, Qiangyong; Li, Shucai; Liu, Dejun

    2016-07-01

    A 3D geo-mechanical model test is conducted to study the stability of underground gas storage in halite, modeled after the Jintan gas storage constructed in bedded salt rock in China. A testing apparatus is developed to generate long-term stable trapezoid geostresses onto the model cavity, corresponding to the actual gas storage cavern. The time-depending character of the material is simulated using a rheological material, which was tested using a self-developed apparatus. The model cavern is built using an ellipsoid wooden mold divided into small blocks which are assembled and placed into the designed position during the model construction. They are then pulled out one by one to form the cavern. The ellipsoid cavern wall is then lined within a latex balloon. Gas is injected into the cavity and extracted to simulate the operational process of gas injection and recovery. Optical sensors embedded into the model to measure the displacement around the cavity showed that the largest deformation occurs in the middle section of the cavity. The deformation rate increases with increasing gas pressure. At 11 MPa the cavity is in equilibrium with the geostress. The pressure is highest during the gas recovery stages, indicating that gas recovery can threaten the cavern's operational stability, while high gas injection causes rock mass compression and deformation outward from the cavern. The deformation is the combination of cavern convergence and gas-induced rebound which leads to tensile and compression during gas injection and recovery. Hence, the fatigue properties of salt rock should be studied further.

  7. Assessment of soil-gas contamination at building 310 underground storage tank area, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2010-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Soil gas was assessed for contaminants in the building 310 underground storage tank area adjacent to the Dwight D. Eisenhower Army Medical Center at Ft. Gordon, Georgia, from October 2010 to September 2011. The assessment, which also included the detection of organic compounds in soil gas, provides environmental contamination data to Fort Gordon personnel pursuant to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. The study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army Environmental and Natural Resources Management Office of the U.S. Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon. Soil-gas samplers were deployed below land surface at 37 locations in the building 310 underground storage tank area. Soil-gas samplers were deployed in a grid pattern near the storage tank area as well as downslope of the tank area in the direction of groundwater flow toward an unnamed tributary to Butler Creek. Total petroleum hydrocarbons were detected in 35 of the 37 soil-gas samplers at levels above the method detection level, and the combined mass of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and total xylenes were detected above their detection levels in 8 of the 37 samplers. In addition, the combined masses of undecane, tridecane, and pentadecane were detected at or above their method detection levels in 9 of the 37 samplers. Other volatile organic compounds detected above their respective method detection levels were chloroform, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and perchloroethylene. In addition, naphthalene, 2-methyl naphthalene, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene were detected below the method detection levels, but above the nondetection level.

  8. An explanation of large-scale coal and gas outbursts in underground coal mines: the effect of low-permeability zones on abnormally abundant gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, F. H.; Cheng, Y. P.

    2014-08-01

    Large-scale coal and gas outbursts pose a risk of fatal disasters in underground mines. Large-scale outbursts (outburst of coal and rock greater than 500 t) in recent years in China indicate that there is abundant gas in areas of outbursts containing large amounts of potential energy. The adequate sealing properties of the roof and floor of a coal seam are required for local abundant gas around the site of an outburst, but an annular low-permeability zone in a coal seam, which prevents the loss by gas migration through the coal seam itself, is also required. The distribution of coal gas with this annular zone of low permeability is described, and it is proposed that the annular zone of low permeability creates conditions for confining the coal gas. The effect of this low-permeability zone on the gas distribution is analyzed after allowing for simplifications in the model. The results show that the permeability and length of the low-permeability zone have a great impact on the gas distribution, and the permeability is required to be several orders of magnitude less than that of normal coal and enough length is also in demand. A steep gradient of gas pressure in the low-permeability zone and the high-pressure gas in the abundant zone of gas can promote coal mass failure and coal wall deformation, thereby accelerating the coal and gas outburst. The high-pressure gas in abundant zone of gas will lead to a large-scale outburst if an outburst occurs.

  9. PEGASUS, a European research project on the effects of gas in underground storage facilities for radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Haijtink, B.; McMenamin, T.

    1993-12-31

    Whereas the subject of gas generation and possible gas release from radioactive waste repositories has gained in interest on the international scene, the Commission of the European Communities has increased its research efforts on this issue. In particular in the 4th five year R and D program on Management and Storage of Radioactive Waste (1990--1994), a framework has been set up in which research efforts on the subject of gas generation and migration, supported by the CEC, are brought together and coordinated. In this project, called PEGASUS, Project on the Effects of GAS in Underground Storage facilities for radioactive waste, about 20 organizations and research institutes from 7 European countries are involved. The project covers both experimental and theoretical studies of the processes of gas formation and possible gas release from the different waste types, LLW, ILW and HLW, under typical repository conditions in suitable geological formations as clay, salt and granite. In this paper an overview is given of the various studies undertaken in the project as well as some first results presented.

  10. Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) gas to methanol and MTG-gasoline: An economic and sensitivity study, task B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-06-01

    The technical and economic aspects of the production of methanol and gasoline using gas from an underground coal gasification (UCG) facility are discussed. The economics of producing gasoline is studied as well as a number of other aspects of the economics of upgrading UCG gas. Capital and operating costs for three different capacities of gasoline plants are presented. These are 1600 barrels per day (BPD), 4800 BPD, and 9600 BPD. These capacities are equivalent to fuel grade methanol plants having capacities of 4000 BPD, 12,000 BPD, and 24,000 BPD - the methanol capacities considered in the previous studies. The economics of the gasoline plant were developed using published information and the best estimate of the processing steps in the gasoline process. Several sensitivity studies were undertaken to examine the sensitivity of both methanol and gasoline product costs to changes in technical and economic parameters.

  11. Numerical modeling of gas mixing and bio-chemical transformations during underground hydrogen storage within the project H2STORE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagemann, B.; Feldmann, F.; Panfilov, M.; Ganzer, L.

    2015-12-01

    The change from fossil to renewable energy sources is demanding an increasing amount of storage capacities for electrical energy. A promising technological solution is the storage of hydrogen in the subsurface. Hydrogen can be produced by electrolysis using excessive electrical energy and subsequently converted back into electricity by fuel cells or engine generators. The development of this technology starts with adding small amounts of hydrogen to the high pressure natural gas grid and continues with the creation of pure underground hydrogen storages. The feasibility of hydrogen storage in depleted gas reservoirs is investigated in the lighthouse project H2STORE financed by the German Ministry for Education and Research. The joint research project has project members from the University of Jena, the Clausthal University of Technology, the GFZ Potsdam and the French National Center for Scientic Research in Nancy. The six sub projects are based on laboratory experiments, numerical simulations and analytical work which cover the investigation of mineralogical, geochemical, physio-chemical, sedimentological, microbiological and gas mixing processes in reservoir and cap rocks. The focus in this presentation is on the numerical modeling of underground hydrogen storage. A mathematical model was developed which describes the involved coupled hydrodynamic and microbiological effects. Thereby, the bio-chemical reaction rates depend on the kinetics of microbial growth which is induced by the injection of hydrogen. The model has been numerically implemented on the basis of the open source code DuMuX. A field case study based on a real German gas reservoir was performed to investigate the mixing of hydrogen with residual gases and to discover the consequences of bio-chemical reactions.

  12. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines

    SciTech Connect

    Sevim, H.

    1997-06-01

    Disposal of coal combustion by-products (CCBs) in an environmentally sound manner is a major issue facing the coal and utility industries in the US today. Disposal into abandoned sections of underground coal mines may overcome many of the surface disposal problems along with added benefits such as mitigation of subsidence and acid mine drainage. However, many of the abandoned underground coal mines are located far from power plants, requiring long distance hauling of by-products which will significantly contribute to the cost of disposal. For underground disposal to be economically competitive, the transportation and handling cost must be minimized. This requires careful selection of the system and optimal design for efficient operation. The materials handling and system economics research addresses these issues. Transportation and handling technologies for CCBs were investigated from technical, environmental and economic points of view. Five technologies were found promising: (1) Pneumatic Trucks, (2) Pressure Differential Rail Cars, (3) Collapsible Intermodal Containers, (4) Cylindrical Intermodal Tanks, and (5) Coal Hopper Cars with Automatic Retractable Tarping. The first two technologies are currently being utilized in transporting by-products from power plants to disposal sites, whereas the next three are either in development or in conceptualization phases. In this research project, engineering design and cost models were developed for the first four technologies. The engineering design models are in the form of spreadsheets and serve the purpose of determining efficient operating schedules and sizing of system components.

  13. Structural Stability Monitoring of a Physical Model Test on an Underground Cavern Group during Deep Excavations Using FBG Sensors.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Wang, Hanpeng; Zhu, Weishen; Li, Shucai; Liu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors are comprehensively recognized as a structural stability monitoring device for all kinds of geo-materials by either embedding into or bonding onto the structural entities. The physical model in geotechnical engineering, which could accurately simulate the construction processes and the effects on the stability of underground caverns on the basis of satisfying the similarity principles, is an actual physical entity. Using a physical model test of underground caverns in Shuangjiangkou Hydropower Station, FBG sensors were used to determine how to model the small displacements of some key monitoring points in the large-scale physical model during excavation. In the process of building the test specimen, it is most successful to embed FBG sensors in the physical model through making an opening and adding some quick-set silicon. The experimental results show that the FBG sensor has higher measuring accuracy than other conventional sensors like electrical resistance strain gages and extensometers. The experimental results are also in good agreement with the numerical simulation results. In conclusion, FBG sensors could effectively measure small displacements of monitoring points in the whole process of the physical model test. The experimental results reveal the deformation and failure characteristics of the surrounding rock mass and make some guidance for the in situ engineering construction. PMID:26404287

  14. Structural Stability Monitoring of a Physical Model Test on an Underground Cavern Group during Deep Excavations Using FBG Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong; Wang, Hanpeng; Zhu, Weishen; Li, Shucai; Liu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors are comprehensively recognized as a structural stability monitoring device for all kinds of geo-materials by either embedding into or bonding onto the structural entities. The physical model in geotechnical engineering, which could accurately simulate the construction processes and the effects on the stability of underground caverns on the basis of satisfying the similarity principles, is an actual physical entity. Using a physical model test of underground caverns in Shuangjiangkou Hydropower Station, FBG sensors were used to determine how to model the small displacements of some key monitoring points in the large-scale physical model during excavation. In the process of building the test specimen, it is most successful to embed FBG sensors in the physical model through making an opening and adding some quick-set silicon. The experimental results show that the FBG sensor has higher measuring accuracy than other conventional sensors like electrical resistance strain gages and extensometers. The experimental results are also in good agreement with the numerical simulation results. In conclusion, FBG sensors could effectively measure small displacements of monitoring points in the whole process of the physical model test. The experimental results reveal the deformation and failure characteristics of the surrounding rock mass and make some guidance for the in situ engineering construction. PMID:26404287

  15. Putting the Deep Biosphere on the Map for Oceanography Courses: Gas Hydrates As a Case Study for the Deep Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikorski, J. J.; Briggs, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    The ocean is essential for life on our planet. It covers 71% of the Earth's surface, is the source of the water we drink, the air we breathe, and the food we eat. Yet, the exponential growth in human population is putting the ocean and thus life on our planet at risk. However, based on student evaluations from our introductory oceanography course it is clear that our students have deficiencies in ocean literacy that impact their ability to recognize that the ocean and humans are inextricably connected. Furthermore, life present in deep subsurface marine environments is also interconnected to the study of the ocean, yet the deep biosphere is not typically covered in undergraduate oceanography courses. In an effort to improve student ocean literacy we developed an instructional module on the deep biosphere focused on gas hydrate deposits. Specifically, our module utilizes Google Earth and cutting edge research about microbial life in the ocean to support three inquiry-based activities that each explore different facets of gas hydrates (i.e. environmental controls, biologic controls, and societal implications). The relevant nature of the proposed module also makes it possible for instructors of introductory geology courses to modify module components to discuss related topics, such as climate, energy, and geologic hazards. This work, which will be available online as a free download, is a solid contribution toward increasing the available teaching resources focused on the deep biosphere for geoscience educators.

  16. Numerical Simulation Research of Gas Migration Laws on Real Underground Mining Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, S. Y.; Chen, X. X.; Dong, L. H.; Li, Z.

    In order to show gas migration process visually and research gas migration laws at different status when gas gushed from driving working face and then migrated along the roadway, we used FLUENT to research the characters of gas migration when wind velocities were 6m / s, 8m / s, 10m / s, and gas emission speeds were 10m / s, 30m / s and 50m / s on real atmospheric pressure, moisture content, viscosity coefficient of the mixed gas and other real roadway conditions. We derived the following results: Gas group gather together at the bottom of the roadway when it gush from driving working face by wind action, and then rise to the top gradually. Its volume increased while gas concentration came down in the process of migration. Attenuation degree of gas group diminished slower as the volume of gas group nun larger when the wind velocity is constant. Gas attenuation degree diminished slower as wind speed came down while gas emission volume is constant. Contrarily, wind speed is constant, the volume of gas emission became larger the maximum values of gas group became much more approximated to power function.

  17. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.

    1995-07-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy-Morgantown Energy Technology Center and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground residues placement. Previous quarterly Technical Progress Reports have set forth the specific objectives of the program, and a discussion of these is not repeated here. Rather, this report discusses the technical progress made during the period April 1 - June 30, 1995. A final topical report on the SEEC, Inc. demonstration of its technology for the transporting of coal combustion residues was completed during the quarter, although final printing of the report was accomplished early in July, 1995. The SEEC technology involves the use of Collapsible Intermodal Containers (CIC`s) developed by SEEC, and the transportation of such containers - filled with fly ash or other coal combustion residues - on rail coal cars or other transportation means. Copies of the final topical report, entitled {open_quotes}The Development and Testing of Collapsible Intermodal Containers for the Handling and Transport of Coal Combustion Residues{close_quotes} were furnished to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The Rapid Aging Test colums were placed in operation during the quarter. This test is to determine the long-term reaction of both the pneumatic and hydraulic mixtures to brine as a leaching material, and simulates the conditions that will be encountered in the actual underground placement of the coal combustion residues mixtures. The tests will continue for about one year.

  18. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy - Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SITJC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC-30252). Under the agreement SIUC will develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion by-products in abandoned underground coal mine workings, and assess the environmental impact of such underground placements. This report discusses the technical progress achieved during the period October 1 - December 31, 1995. Rapid Aging Test columns were placed in operation during the second quarter of 1995, and some preliminary data were acquired during this quarter. These data indicate that the highly caustic pH is initially generated in the pneumatic mix, but that such pH is short lived. The initial pH rapidly declines to the range of 8 to 9. Leachates in this pH range will have little or no effect on environmental concerns. Dedicated sampling equipment was installed in the groundwater monitoring wells at the proposed placement site at the Peabody Number 10 mine. Also, the groundwater monitoring wells were {open_quotes}developed{close_quotes} during the quarter to remove the fines trapped in the sand pack and screen. A new procedure was used in this process, and proved successful. A series of tests concerning the geotechnical characteristics of the pneumatic mixes were conducted. Results show that both moisture content and curing time have a direct effect on the strength of the mixes. These are, of course, the expected general results. The Christmas holidays and the closing of the University during an extended period affected the progress of the program during the quarter. However, the program is essentially on schedule, both technically and fiscally, and any delays will be overcome during the first quarter of 1996.

  19. Geophysical investigation for the evaluation of the long-time safety of repositories and underground disposals in deep geological formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Just, A.; Salinar Group

    2003-04-01

    The performance assessment of underground disposal facilities is an indispensable premise to ensure that repositories fulfil the requirements for permanent and safe disposal of hazardous waste. The geological barrier is supposed to be a virtually impermeable host formation like rock salt. The efficiency of the barrier is endangered by the presence of risk zones such as faults or fractures particularly with regard to water-bearing host rocks. Thus the evaluation of the long-time safety of the geological barrier has to be carried out with a minimum of invasion of the future host formation and a maximum of spatial coverage and resolution. Especially geophysical methods are suitable to investigate the geological barrier due to their non-destructive character and spatial information content. Three research projects supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) are engaged in the design and enhancement of a complex geophysical measuring and evaluation system for the investigation of problem zones of the geological barrier in rock salt. The benefit of the combination of high-performance geophysical measuring techniques as seismics, DC-geoelectrics, ground penetrating radar (GPR), electromagnetics and sonar together with strong knowledge of regional salt geology is to increase essentially the reliability of the interpretation of underground measurements. The measuring methods and interpretation tools for host rock characterisation were applied, developed and improved in a flat salt seam structure of an inoperative salt mine in the Lower Harz region. The joint interpretation of the underground geophysical measurements revealed a by-then unknown wet zone, which was tectonically affected. With the scope of refining the complex geophysical measuring and evaluation system and transferring the precedingly acquired experiences to another type of host formation, an operating potassium salt mine in the vicinity of Hannover/Germany was chosen as a new

  20. Underground natural gas storage reservoir management: Phase 2. Final report, June 1, 1995--March 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.V.

    1996-12-31

    Gas storage operators are facing increased and more complex responsibilities for managing storage operations under Order 636 which requires unbundling of storage from other pipeline services. Low cost methods that improve the accuracy of inventory verification are needed to optimally manage this stored natural gas. Migration of injected gas out of the storage reservoir has not been well documented by industry. The first portion of this study addressed the scope of unaccounted for gas which may have been due to migration. The volume range was estimated from available databases and reported on an aggregate basis. Information on working gas, base gas, operating capacity, injection and withdrawal volumes, current and non-current revenues, gas losses, storage field demographics and reservoir types is contained among the FERC Form 2, EIA Form 191, AGA and FERC Jurisdictional databases. The key elements of this study show that gas migration can result if reservoir limits have not been properly identified, gas migration can occur in formation with extremely low permeability (0.001 md), horizontal wellbores can reduce gas migration losses and over-pressuring (unintentionally) storage reservoirs by reinjecting working gas over a shorter time period may increase gas migration effects.

  1. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Chugh, Y.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.; Ghafoori, N.; Paul, B.; Sevim, H.; Thomasson, E.

    1995-01-01

    On September 30, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative agreement entitled ``Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines`` (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground residues placement. The major event during the quarter was the demonstration of the SEEC, Inc. technology for loading and transporting coal combustion residues in the SEEC developed Collapsible Intermodal Containers (CIC). The demonstration was held on November 17, 1994, at the Illinois Power Company Baldwin power plant, and was attended by about eighty (80) invited guest. Also during the quarter meetings were held with Peabody Coal Company officials to finalize the area in the Peabody No. 10 mine to be used for the placement of coal combustion residues. Work under the Materials Handling and Systems Economics area continued, particularly in refining the costs and systems configuration and in economic evaluation of various systems using equipment leasing rather than equipment purchases. Likewise, work progressed on residues characterization, with some preparations being made for long-term testing.

  2. Potential for deep natural gas resources in eastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, D.D.; Schenk, C.J.; Schmoker, J.W.; Fox, J.E.; Clayton, J.L.; Dyman, T.S.; Higley, D.K.; Keighin, C.W.; Law, B.E.; Pollastro, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    The main purpose of the research is to evaluate the geological possibility that significant economically recoverable resources of natural gas exist in sedimentary basins of the United States at depths greater than 150,000 ft. While relatively unexplored, these gas resources may be large. The main objectives of the research are to determine the geologic factors that control deep gas accumulations in addition to the distribution and resource potential of these accumulations.

  3. Potential for deep natural gas resources in eastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, D.D.; Schenk, C.J.; Schmoker, J.W.; Fox, J.E.; Clayton, J.L.; Dyman, T.S.; Higley, D.K.; Keighin, C.W.; Law, B.E.; Pollastro, R.M.

    1992-06-01

    The main purpose of the research is to evaluate the geological possibility that significant economically recoverable resources of natural gas exist in sedimentary basins of the United States at depths greater than 150,000 ft. While relatively unexplored, these gas resources may be large. The main objectives of the research are to determine the geologic factors that control deep gas accumulations in addition to the distribution and resource potential of these accumulations.

  4. Detecting deep crustal magma movement: Exploring linkages between increased gas emission, deep seismicity, and deformation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, C. A.; Poland, M. P.; Power, J. A.; Sutton, A. J.; Elias, T.; Grapenthin, R.; Thelen, W. A.

    2013-12-01

    Typically in the weeks to days before a volcanic eruption there are indisputable signals of unrest that can be identified in geophysical and geochemical data. Detection of signals of volcanic unrest months to years prior to an eruption, however, relies on our ability to recognize and link more subtle changes. Deep long-period earthquakes, typically 10-45 km beneath volcanoes, are thought to represent magma movement and may indicate near future unrest. Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) exsolves from most magmas at similar depths and increases in CO2 discharge may also provide a months-to-years precursor as it emits at the surface in advance of the magma from which it exsolved. Without the use of sensitive monitoring equipment and routine measurements, changes in CO2 can easily go undetected. Finally, inflation of the surface, through use of InSAR or GPS stations (especially at sites tens of km from the volcano) can also indicate accumulation of magma in the deep crust. Here we present three recent examples, from Redoubt, Kilauea, and Mammoth Mountain volcanoes, where increases in CO2 emission, deep long-period earthquakes, and surface deformation data indicate either the intrusion of magma into the deep crust in the months to years preceding volcanic eruptions or a change in ongoing volcanic unrest. At Redoubt volcano, Alaska, elevated CO2 emission (~ 1200 t/d, or roughly 20 times the background emission) was measured in October, 2008, over 5 months prior to the first magmatic eruption in March, 2009. In addition to CO2 release, deep long-period earthquakes were first recorded in December, 2008, and a deep deformation signal was detected starting in May 2008, albeit retrospectively. At Kilauea, Hawaii, increases in CO2 emissions from the summit (up to nearly 25 kt/d, over three times the background emission) were measured mid-2004, roughly coincident with a change in deformation behavior from deflation to inflation. Nearly 3 years later, a change in eruptive activity occurred

  5. Strong ground motion generated by controlled blasting experiments and mining induced seismic events recorded underground at deep level mines in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milev, A.; Selllers, E.; Skorpen, L.; Scheepers, L.; Murphy, S.; Spottiswoode, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    A number of simulated rockbursts were conducted underground at deep level gold mines in South Africa in order to estimate the rock mass response when subjected to strong ground motion. The rockbursts were simulated by means of large blasts detonated in solid rock close to the sidewall of a tunnel. The simulated rockbursts involved the design of the seismic source, seismic observations in the near and far field, high-speed video filming, a study of rock mass conditions such as fractures, joints, rock strength etc. Knowledge of the site conditions before and after the simulated rockbursts was also gained. The numerical models used in the design of the simulated rockbursts were calibrated by small blasts taking place at each experimental site. A dense array of shock type accelerometers was installed along the blasting wall to monitor the attenuation of the strong ground motion as a function of the distance from the source. The attenuation of peak particle velocities, was found to be proportional to R^-1.7. Special investigations were carried out to evaluate the mechanism and the magnitude of damage, as well as the support behaviour under excessive dynamic loading. The strong ground motion generated by mining induced seismic events was studied, as part of this work, not only to characterize the rock mass response, but also to estimate the site effect on the surface of the underground excavations. A stand-alone instrument especially designed for recording strong ground motions was used to create a large database of peak particle velocities measured on stope hangingwalls. A total number of 58 sites located in stopes where the Carbon Leader Reef, Ventersdorp Contact Reef, Vaal Reef and Basal Reef are mined, were monitored. The peak particle velocities were measured at the surface of the excavations to identify the effect of the free surface and the fractures surrounding the underground mining. Based on these measurements the generally accepted velocity criterion of 3 m

  6. Investigation of relationship between barometric pressure and coal and gas outburst events in underground coal mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yönet, Sinem; Esen, Olgun; Fişne, Abdullah

    2015-04-01

    Coal and gas outburst is a serious risk which occurs during the mine production. This accident results both ejection of high volumes of gas and high amount of coal into the mine production area, and death of mining workers for many years in Turkey. Outburst of gas, coal and rock can be defined as sudden release of coal and rock accompanied by large quantities of gas into the working face or other mine workings. It is a phenomena that influenced by geological structure such as folds, joints of rocks or coal seams, is also still investigated for many years. Zonguldak Coal Basin is the main part of the Upper Carboniferous bituminous coal basin of Turkey. Much of the bituminous coal mining has thus been concentrated in the Zonguldak Basin which is located on the Black Sea coast. The coal field has been disturbed by tectonic activity, first by Hercynian and later by Alpine orogenesis resulting in folding and faulting of strata. This formation has a complex structural geology which consists mostly fault zones, anticlinal and syncline strata and because of this a large amount of methane gases are adsorbed or accumulated in strata or in coal fractures, pores and micropores. There are 5 Collieries exists in Zonguldak Coalfield and coal and gas outbursts were occurred only in two collieries such as Karadon and Kozlu Mines. In addition at a number of 90 coal and gas outburst events were experienced in these collieries. Based on the analysis of data, oscillation at barometric pressure and temperature values at the location of Kozlu and Karadon Mines were seen when coal and gas outburst events were occurred. In this study, barometric pressure and temperature changes are investigated at Kozlu and Karadon Mines. Also the relationship between the variation at temperature with barometric pressure and coal and gas outbursts are evaluated. It can be understand that this investigation depends to field observations and macroscopic considerations and on the purpose of predicting the

  7. Etching radical controlled gas chopped deep reactive ion etching

    DOEpatents

    Olynick, Deidre; Rangelow, Ivo; Chao, Weilun

    2013-10-01

    A method for silicon micromachining techniques based on high aspect ratio reactive ion etching with gas chopping has been developed capable of producing essentially scallop-free, smooth, sidewall surfaces. The method uses precisely controlled, alternated (or chopped) gas flow of the etching and deposition gas precursors to produce a controllable sidewall passivation capable of high anisotropy. The dynamic control of sidewall passivation is achieved by carefully controlling fluorine radical presence with moderator gasses, such as CH.sub.4 and controlling the passivation rate and stoichiometry using a CF.sub.2 source. In this manner, sidewall polymer deposition thicknesses are very well controlled, reducing sidewall ripples to very small levels. By combining inductively coupled plasmas with controlled fluorocarbon chemistry, good control of vertical structures with very low sidewall roughness may be produced. Results show silicon features with an aspect ratio of 20:1 for 10 nm features with applicability to nano-applications in the sub-50 nm regime. By comparison, previous traditional gas chopping techniques have produced rippled or scalloped sidewalls in a range of 50 to 100 nm roughness.

  8. Subsurface Hybrid Power Options for Oil & Gas Production at Deep Ocean Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J C; Haut, R; Jahn, G; Goldman, J; Colvin, J; Karpinski, A; Dobley, A; Halfinger, J; Nagley, S; Wolf, K; Shapiro, A; Doucette, P; Hansen, P; Oke, A; Compton, D; Cobb, M; Kopps, R; Chitwood, J; Spence, W; Remacle, P; Noel, C; Vicic, J; Dee, R

    2010-02-19

    An investment in deep-sea (deep-ocean) hybrid power systems may enable certain off-shore oil and gas exploration and production. Advanced deep-ocean drilling and production operations, locally powered, may provide commercial access to oil and gas reserves otherwise inaccessible. Further, subsea generation of electrical power has the potential of featuring a low carbon output resulting in improved environmental conditions. Such technology therefore, enhances the energy security of the United States in a green and environmentally friendly manner. The objective of this study is to evaluate alternatives and recommend equipment to develop into hybrid energy conversion and storage systems for deep ocean operations. Such power systems will be located on the ocean floor and will be used to power offshore oil and gas exploration and production operations. Such power systems will be located on the oceans floor, and will be used to supply oil and gas exploration activities, as well as drilling operations required to harvest petroleum reserves. The following conceptual hybrid systems have been identified as candidates for powering sub-surface oil and gas production operations: (1) PWR = Pressurized-Water Nuclear Reactor + Lead-Acid Battery; (2) FC1 = Line for Surface O{sub 2} + Well Head Gas + Reformer + PEMFC + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (3) FC2 = Stored O2 + Well Head Gas + Reformer + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (4) SV1 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (5) SV2 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Engine or Turbine + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (6) SV3 = Submersible Vehicle + Charge at Docking Station + ZEBRA & Li-Ion Batteries; (7) PWR TEG = PWR + Thermoelectric Generator + Lead-Acid Battery; (8) WELL TEG = Thermoelectric Generator + Well Head Waste Heat + Lead-Acid Battery; (9) GRID = Ocean Floor Electrical Grid + Lead-Acid Battery; and (10) DOC = Deep Ocean Current + Lead-Acid Battery.

  9. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, January--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Chugh, Y.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.

    1995-04-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC 30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground residues placement. Previous quarterly Technical Progress Reports have set forth the specific objectives of the program, as well as the management plan and the test plan for the overall program, and a discussion of these will not be repeated here. Rather, this report, will set forth the technical progress made during the period January 1 through March 31, 1995. The demonstration of the SEEC, Inc. technology for the transporting of coal combustion residues was completed with the unloading and final disposition of the three Collapsible Intermodal Containers (CIC). The loading and transport by rail of the three CIC`s was quire successful; however some difficulties were encountered in the unloading of the containers. A full topical report on the entire SEEC demonstration is being prepared. As a result of the demonstration some modifications of the SEEC concept may be undertaken. Also during the quarter the location of the injection wells at the Peabody No. 10 mine demonstration site were selected. Peabody Coal Company has developed the specifications for the wells and sought bids for the actual drilling. It is expected that the wells will be drilled early in May.

  10. Effect of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-product on water quality at an underground coal mine.

    PubMed

    Lamminen, M; Wood, J; Walker, H; Chin, Y P; He, Y; Traina, S J

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a field study was carried out to examine the effect of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-product on water quality at an underground coal mine in central-eastern Ohio. Flue gas desulfurizalion by-product was injected into the down-dip portions of the Robert-Dawson mine in an attempt to seal major seeps exiting the mine and to coat exposed pyritic surfaces. Immediately following grout injection, significant increases in acidity, iron, aluminum, sulfur, and calcium were observed at most surface and ground water locations near where grouting was carried out. Following this initial flush of elements, concentrations of most constituents have decreased to near pre-grouting levels. Data from the site and geochemical modeling suggest that an increase in water level or rerouting of drainage flow resulted in the dissolution of iron and aluminum sulfate salts and ferrihydrite. Dissolution of the FGD grout material resulted in increases in calcium and sulfate concentrations in the drainage waters. Water within the mine voids was saturated with respect to calcium sulfate and gypsum immediately following grout injection. Based on an analysis of core samples obtained from the site, acid mine drainage (AMD) was in contact with at least some portions of the grout and this resulted in grout weathering. Subsequent transport of calcium and sulfate to the underclay, perhaps by fracture flow, has resulted in the deposition of gypsum and calcium sulfate solids. PMID:11476516

  11. Seismic risk mitigation in deep level South African mines by state of the art underground monitoring - Joint South African and Japanese study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milev, A.; Durrheim, R.; Nakatani, M.; Yabe, Y.; Ogasawara, H.; Naoi, M.

    2012-04-01

    Two underground sites in a deep level gold mine in South Africa were instrumented by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) with tilt meters and seismic monitors. One of the sites was also instrumented by JApanese-German Underground Acoustic emission Research in South Africa (JAGUARS) with a small network, approximately 40m span, of eight Acoustic Emission (AE) sensors. The rate of tilt, defined as quasi-static deformations, and the seismic ground motion, defined as dynamic deformations, were analysed in order to understand the rock mass behavior around deep level mining. In addition the high frequency AE events recorded at hypocentral distances of about 50m located at 3300m below the surface were analysed. A good correspondence between the dynamic and quasi-static deformations was found. The rate of coseismic and aseismic tilt, as well as seismicity recorded by the mine seismic network, are approximately constant until the daily blasting time, which takes place from about 19:30 until shortly before 21:00. During the blasting time and the subsequent seismic events the coseismic and aseismic tilt shows a rapid increase.Much of the quasi-static deformation, however, occurs independently of the seismic events and was described as 'slow' or aseismic events. During the monitoring period a seismic event with MW 2.2 occurred in the vicinity of the instrumented site. This event was recorded by both the CSIR integrated monitoring system and JAGUARS acoustic emotion network. The tilt changes associated with this event showed a well pronounced after-tilt. The aftershock activities were also well recorded by the acoustic emission and the mine seismic networks. More than 21,000 AE aftershocks were located in the first 150 hours after the main event. Using the distribution of the AE events the position of the fault in the source area was successfully delineated. The distribution of the AE events following the main shock was related to after tilt in order to

  12. Possible deep-water gas hydrate accumulations in the Bering Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barth, Ginger A.; Scholl, David W.; Childs, Jonathan R.

    2006-01-01

    Seismic reflection images from the deep-water Aleutian and Bowers Basins of the Bering Sea contain many hundreds of acoustic Velocity-AMPlitude (VAMP) anomalies, each of which may represent a large accumulation of natural gas hydrate. Against a backdrop of essentially horizontal sedimentary reflections, the VAMP anomalies stand out as both high-amplitude bright spots and zones of vertically aligned horizon distortions. The VAMPs are interpreted as natural gas chimneys overlain by concentrated hydrate caps.

  13. Estimate of Maximum Underground Working Gas Storage Capacity in the United States

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    This report examines the aggregate maximum capacity for U.S. natural gas storage. Although the concept of maximum capacity seems quite straightforward, there are numerous issues that preclude the determination of a definitive maximum volume. The report presents three alternative estimates for maximum capacity, indicating appropriate caveats for each.

  14. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 9: UNDERGROUND PIPELINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  15. The value of underground storage in today`s natural gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The report consists of three chapters and four appendices. Chapter 1 provides basic information on the role of storage in today`s marketplace where natural gas is treated as a commodity. Chapter 2 provides statistical analyses of the relationship between storage and spot prices on both a monthly and daily basis. For the daily analysis, temperature data were used a proxy for storage withdrawals, providing a new means of examining the short-term relationship between storage and spot prices. Chapter 3 analyzes recent trends in storage management and use, as well as plans for additions to storage capacity. It also reviews the status of the new uses of storage resulting from Order 636, that is, market-based rates and capacity release. Appendix A serves as a stand-along primer on storage operations, and Appendix B provides further data on plans for the expansion of storage capacity. Appendix C explains recent revisions made to working gas and base gas capacity on the part of several storage operators in 1991 through 1993. The revisions were significant, and this appendix provides a consistent historical data series that reflects these changes. Finally, Appendix D presents more information on the regression analysis presented in Chapter 2. 19 refs., 21 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. (Per)chlorate Reduction by the Thermophilic Bacterium Moorella perchloratireducens sp. nov., Isolated from Underground Gas Storage▿

    PubMed Central

    Balk, Melike; van Gelder, Ton; Weelink, Sander A.; Stams, Alfons J. M.

    2008-01-01

    A thermophilic bacterium, strain An10, was isolated from underground gas storage with methanol as a substrate and perchlorate as an electron acceptor. Cells were gram-positive straight rods, 0.4 to 0.6 μm in diameter and 2 to 8 μm in length, growing as single cells or in pairs. Spores were terminal with a bulged sporangium. The temperature range for growth was 40 to 70°C, with an optimum at 55 to 60°C. The pH optimum was around 7. The salinity range for growth was between 0 and 40 g NaCl liter−1 with an optimum at 10 g liter−1. Strain An10 was able to grow on CO, methanol, pyruvate, glucose, fructose, cellobiose, mannose, xylose, and pectin. The isolate was able to respire with (per)chlorate, nitrate, thiosulfate, neutralized Fe(III) complexes, and anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate. The G+C content of the DNA was 57.6 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA analysis, strain An10 was most closely related to Moorella thermoacetica and Moorella thermoautotrophica. The bacterium reduced perchlorate and chlorate completely to chloride. Key enzymes, perchlorate reductase and chlorite dismutase, were detected in cell extracts. Strain An10 is the first thermophilic and gram-positive bacterium with the ability to use (per)chlorate as a terminal electron acceptor. PMID:17981952

  17. Novel gas-tight multi-sampler for discrete deep-sea water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haocai; Yang, Canjun; Chen, Shicheng; Chen, Daohua; Sun, Chunyan; Niu, Wenda; Li, Fengbo; Liu, Guanghu; Chen, Ying

    2012-07-01

    The issues of how to quickly collect seawater samples and of how to make sure that those samples truly reflect the in-situ information on gas composition and concentration have therefore become a hot but difficult topic in the field of ocean technology. Most conventional seawater samplers only focus on collecting seawater itself, but take little consideration on gas preservation. A set of new oceanographic tools are presented for ocean resource exploration such as hydrothermal sulfide and gas hydrate, and for investigations on the processes and mechanisms of marine physical, chemical and biological evolutions. A gas-tight deep-sea water sampling system (GTWSS) is designed for the collection of deep-sea geochemical samples. This set of tools mainly consists of a conductivity temperature depth profiler (CTD), release devices and gas-tight deep-sea water samplers (GTWS). The GTWS is able to hold the gases in deep-sea water samples tightly, providing in-situ information on gas contents in the seawater samples and can be deployed on a routine wire-deployed CTD sampler for multi-layer discrete sampling of gas-tight seawater. Sea trials are performed successfully in 2008 and 2009, on a research vessel named HaiYang Si Hao in South China Sea, with the deepest trial depth 3 930 m. GTWSS is capable of quickly sampling 12 discrete gas-tight seawater samples (8.3 L per sample) during its single deployment. The head space method is employed to separate the gases from the seawater samples immediately after recovery of the seawater samples on the vessel. Field geochemical analysis is carried out by gaseous hydrocarbon sensors and an infrared gas analyzer. Results show that the concentrations of CH4 and CO2 in the seawater sampled by GTWSS are higher than those sampled by general non-gas-tight water samplers, thus confirming the gas tightness of GTWSS. Seawater samples can be collected quickly by using GTWSS, and GTWSS can keep the samples' integrity quite well.

  18. Interpretation of multiple archaeal lipid biomarkers in deep sediments bearing gas hydrate in the East Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong-Hun, Lee; Jong-Gu, Gal; Ji-Hoon, Kim; Jang-Jun, Bahk; Kyung-Hoon, Shin

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the distributions and stable carbon isotope values of arhaeal lipid biomarkers at seismically chimney and non-chimney sites (UBGH 2-3, UBGH 2-1_1) of gas hydrate bearing deep core sediments during the second Ulleung Basin Gas Hydrate Drilling Expedition (UBGH 2). The objective of this study was to identify and compare the metabolic pathway of methane-related archaea between both sites. The increased concentration and δ13C-depleted archaeol and sn-2-hydroxyarcheol at the Sulphate-Methane transition Zone (SMTZ) of UBGH 2-11 could be predominantly methanotrophic activity indicating methane consumption by Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane (AOM). The concentration of methane-related specific biomarkers (PMI, crocetane, archaeol, sn-2-hydroxyarcheol) within deep core sediment bearing gas hydrate of both sites is relatively higher than in other sediment sections, showing lower Cl- concentration. The carbon stable isotopic data (-47.5 o -75.2o to -52.4) for archaeol, sn-2-hydroxyarcheol in the sediment sections (20mbsf, 93 - 100mbsf) at UBGH 2-11 reflect methane production via microbial carbon dioxide reduction in deep core sediment. Archaeal lipid biomarker concentrations are slightly different depending on upward methane diffusion or advection with the seismic characteristics of both sites. Based on the archaeal lipid biomarker ratio (sn-2-hydroxyarchaeol/archaeol) as a tool to demonstrate the different ANME communities, our result suggest that the predominant occurrence of ANMEs is mediated by upward migration of microbial methane. Consequently, geochemical signature of archaeal lipid biomarkers in the East Sea of the western North Paci?c may be a potential indicator reflected by upward transported-methane in methane cycle of deep core sediment. In addition, the distribution of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) is discussed with archaeal lipid biomarkers in the gas hydrate bearing deep sediment.

  19. Chemical process modelling of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) and evaluation of produced gas quality for end use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korre, Anna; Andrianopoulos, Nondas; Durucan, Sevket

    2015-04-01

    Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is an unconventional method for recovering energy from coal resources through in-situ thermo-chemical conversion to gas. In the core of the UCG lays the coal gasification process which involves the engineered injection of a blend of gasification agents into the coal resource and propagating its gasification. Athough UCG technology has been known for some time and considered a promising method for unconventional fossil fuel resources exploitation, there are limited modelling studies which achieve the necessary accuracy and realistic simulation of the processes involved. This paper uses the existing knowledge for surface gasifiers and investigates process designs which could be adapted to model UCG. Steady state simulations of syngas production were developed using the Advanced System for Process ENgineering (Aspen) Plus software. The Gibbs free energy minimisation method was used to simulate the different chemical reactor blocks which were combined using a FORTRAN code written. This approach facilitated the realistic simulation of the gasification process. A number of model configurations were developed to simulate different subsurface gasifier layouts considered for the exploitation of underground coal seams. The two gasifier layouts considered here are the linked vertical boreholes and the controlled retractable injection point (CRIP) methods. Different stages of the UCG process (i.e. initialisation, intermediate, end-phase) as well as the temperature level of the syngas collection point in each layout were found to be the two most decisive and distinctive parameters during the design of the optimal model configuration for each layout. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to investigate the significance of the operational parameters and the performance indicators used to evaluate the results. The operational parameters considered were the type of reagents injected (i.e. O2, N2, CO2, H2O), the ratio between the injected reagents

  20. Multimodel analysis of anisotropic diffusive tracer-gas transport in a deep arid unsaturated zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Christopher T.; Walvoord, Michelle A.; Andraski, Brian J.; Striegl, Robert G.; Stonestrom, David A.

    2015-08-01

    Gas transport in the unsaturated zone affects contaminant flux and remediation, interpretation of groundwater travel times from atmospheric tracers, and mass budgets of environmentally important gases. Although unsaturated zone transport of gases is commonly treated as dominated by diffusion, the characteristics of transport in deep layered sediments remain uncertain. In this study, we use a multimodel approach to analyze results of a gas-tracer (SF6) test to clarify characteristics of gas transport in deep unsaturated alluvium. Thirty-five separate models with distinct diffusivity structures were calibrated to the tracer-test data and were compared on the basis of Akaike Information Criteria estimates of posterior model probability. Models included analytical and numerical solutions. Analytical models provided estimates of bulk-scale apparent diffusivities at the scale of tens of meters. Numerical models provided information on local-scale diffusivities and feasible lithological features producing the observed tracer breakthrough curves. The combined approaches indicate significant anisotropy of bulk-scale diffusivity, likely associated with high-diffusivity layers. Both approaches indicated that diffusivities in some intervals were greater than expected from standard models relating porosity to diffusivity. High apparent diffusivities and anisotropic diffusivity structures were consistent with previous observations at the study site of rapid lateral transport and limited vertical spreading of gas-phase contaminants. Additional processes such as advective oscillations may be involved. These results indicate that gases in deep, layered unsaturated zone sediments can spread laterally more quickly, and produce higher peak concentrations, than predicted by homogeneous, isotropic diffusion models.

  1. Multimodel analysis of anisotropic diffusive tracer-gas transport in a deep arid unsaturated zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, Christopher T.; Walvoord, Michelle Ann; Andraski, Brian J.; Striegl, Rob; Stonestrom, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Gas transport in the unsaturated zone affects contaminant flux and remediation, interpretation of groundwater travel times from atmospheric tracers, and mass budgets of environmentally important gases. Although unsaturated zone transport of gases is commonly treated as dominated by diffusion, the characteristics of transport in deep layered sediments remain uncertain. In this study, we use a multimodel approach to analyze results of a gas-tracer (SF6) test to clarify characteristics of gas transport in deep unsaturated alluvium. Thirty-five separate models with distinct diffusivity structures were calibrated to the tracer-test data and were compared on the basis of Akaike Information Criteria estimates of posterior model probability. Models included analytical and numerical solutions. Analytical models provided estimates of bulk-scale apparent diffusivities at the scale of tens of meters. Numerical models provided information on local-scale diffusivities and feasible lithological features producing the observed tracer breakthrough curves. The combined approaches indicate significant anisotropy of bulk-scale diffusivity, likely associated with high-diffusivity layers. Both approaches indicated that diffusivities in some intervals were greater than expected from standard models relating porosity to diffusivity. High apparent diffusivities and anisotropic diffusivity structures were consistent with previous observations at the study site of rapid lateral transport and limited vertical spreading of gas-phase contaminants. Additional processes such as advective oscillations may be involved. These results indicate that gases in deep, layered unsaturated zone sediments can spread laterally more quickly, and produce higher peak concentrations, than predicted by homogeneous, isotropic diffusion models.

  2. Depleted Argon from Underground Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Back, H. O.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; Loer, B.; Montanari, D.; Mosteiro, P.; Alexander, T.; Alton, A.; Rogers, H.; Kendziora, C.; Pordes, S.

    2011-04-27

    Argon is a strong scintillator and an ideal target for Dark Matter detection; however {sup 39}Ar contamination in atmospheric argon from cosmic ray interactions limits the size of liquid argon dark matter detectors due to pile-up. Argon from deep underground is depleted in {sup 39}Ar due to the cosmic ray shielding of the earth. In Cortez, Colorado, a CO{sub 2} well has been discovered to contain approximately 600 ppm of argon as a contamination in the CO{sub 2}. We first concentrate the argon locally to 3% in an Ar, N{sub 2}, and He mixture, from the CO{sub 2} through chromatographic gas separation, and then the N{sub 2} and He will be removed by continuous distillation to purify the argon. We have collected 26 kg of argon from the CO{sub 2} facility and a cryogenic distillation column is under construction at Fermilab to further purify the argon.

  3. Gas and condensate composition in the deep Tuscaloosa trend, southern Louisiana - influence of oil and wet gas cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Claypool, G.E.; Rooney, M.A.; Vuletich, A.K. )

    1996-01-01

    Natural gas and condensate samples from 34 wells in six fields producing from deep Tuscaloosa sandstones show regular changes in chemical and isotopic composition with increasing depth of burial. A gas-condensate system at 5.2 km (17,000 ft) changes to dry gas at 6.1 km (20,500 ft). Carbon isotopic compositions of ethane and propane become heavier ([delta] [sup 13]C[sub 2] increases from -31 to -23 permil); ([delta][sup 13]C[sub 3] increases from -29 to -21 permil), while methane becomes lighter ([delta][sup 13]C[sub 1] decreases from -38 to -42 permil). Depletion of condensate liquids relative to gas over this same depth interval (condensate/gas ratios decrease from 120 to 1 bbl/mmcf) is accompanied by systematic molecular and isotopic changes in the residual liquids. Higher molecular-weight (>C[sub 20]) hydrocarbons are progressively depleted, and isoprenoids are lost relative to adjacent normal alkanes. The liquids shift to heavier [delta][sup 13]C values (from -27 to -23 permil). These changes are believed to be caused by thermal cracking and progressive conversion of oil and wet gas hydrocarbons to dry gas in Tuscaloosa reservoirs at temperatures of 165 to 195[degrees]C.

  4. Deep earthquakes beneath Mount St. Helens: Evidence for magmatic gas transport?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, C.S.; Zollweg, J.E.; Malone, S.D.

    1983-01-01

    Small-magnitude earthquakes began beneath Mount St. Helens 40 days before the eruption of 20 March 1982. Unlike earlier preeruption seismicity for this volcano, which had been limited to shallow events (less than 3 kilometers), many of these earthquakes were deep (between 5 and 11 kilometers). The location of these preeruptive events at such depth indicates that a larger volume of the volcanic system was affected prior to the 20 March eruption than prior to any of the earlier dome-building eruptions. The depth-time relation between the deep earthquakes and the explosive onset of the eruption is compatible with the upward migration of magmatic gas released from a separate deep reservoir.

  5. Deep earthquakes beneath mount st. Helens: evidence for magmatic gas transport?

    PubMed

    Weaver, C S; Zollweg, J E; Malone, S D

    1983-09-30

    Small-magnitude earthquakes began beneath Mount St. Helens 40 days before the eruption of 20 March 1982. Unlike earlier preeruption seismicity for this volcano, which had been limited to shallow events (less than 3 kilometers), many of these earthquakes were deep (between 5 and 11 kilometers). The location of these preeruptive events at such depth indicates that a larger volume of the volcanic system was affected prior to the 20 March eruption than prior to any of the earlier dome-building eruptions. The depth-time relation between the deep earthquakes and the explosive onset of the eruption is compatible with the upward migration of magmatic gas released from a separate deep reservoir. PMID:17759013

  6. Pumping carbon out of underground coal deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M.

    1999-07-01

    Thin steam and deep coal deposits are difficult and costly to mine. Underground coal gasification (UCG) with air or oxygen was thought to alleviate this problem. Experimental field tests were conducted in Wyoming and Illinois. Problems were encountered concerning a clear path for the team gasification to take place and removal of gas. The high endothermic heat of reaction requiring large quantities of steam and oxygen makes the process expensive. Safety problems due to incomplete reaction is also of concern. A new approach is proposed which can remedy most of these drawbacks for extracting energy from underground coal deposits. It is proposed to hydrogasify the coal underground with a heated hydrogen gas stream under pressure to produce a methane-rich gas effluent stream. The hydrogasification of coal is essentially exothermic so that no steam or oxygen is required. The gases formed are always in a reducing atmosphere making the process safe. The hydrogen is obtained by thermally decomposing the effluent methane above ground to elemental carbon and hydrogen. The hydrogen is returned underground for further hydrogasification of the coal seam. The small amount of oxygen and sulfur in the coal can be processed out above ground by removal as water and H{sub 2}S. Any CO can be removed by a methanation step returning the methane to process. The ash remains in the ground and the elemental carbon produced is the purest form of coal. The particulate carbon can be slurried with water to produce a fuel stream that can be fed to a turbine for efficient combined cycle power plants with lower CO{sub 2} emissions. Coal cannot be used for combined cycle because of its ash and sulfur content destroys the gas turbine. Depending on its composition of coal seam some excess hydrogen is also produced. Hydrogen is, thus, used to pump pure carbon out of the ground.

  7. Effect of a deep breath on gas mixing and diffusion in the lung.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, M B; Mink, J T; Graham, B L; Cotton, D J

    1990-03-01

    We examined the effect of a previous deep breath on both inert gas mixing and the single breath diffusing capacity (DLCOSB) during submaximal single breath maneuvers in normal subjects. Single breath washouts were performed either immediately after a deep breath or after breathing tidally for 10 min. Maneuvers consisted of inhaling test gas from functional residual capacity to 50% inspiratory capacity and, after either 0 or 6 s of breath holding, exhaling slowly back to residual volume. We measured the Fowler dead space, the Phase III slope of the alveolar plateau of the He washout (delta He/L), the amplitude of the cardiogenic oscillations (Oc), closing capacity, mixing efficiency (Emix) and DLCOSB using the three equation method. For maneuvers immediately after a deep breath we found that delta He/L was steeper and the Oc were larger for washouts with 6 s but not 0 s of breath holding, while Emix was significantly lower and DLCOSB significantly higher for both the 0 s and the 6 s breath holding maneuvers. We conclude that a deep breath increases DLCOSB but simultaneously also increases convective-dependent inhomogeneity in the lung. PMID:2356360

  8. Threaded connection qualification procedures utilized for an ultra-deep, high-pressure gas well

    SciTech Connect

    Minge, J.C.; Pejac, R.D.; Asbill, W.T.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the premium connection qualification program used to qualify three different connections for the production tubular strings used in an ultra-deep, high pressure gas well. A total of eight connection types were tested during the program. Four connections failed to meet the program's acceptance criteria. Full-scale test procedures and the data acquisition system used to collect, store, reduce, and plot strain gauge data while testing are discussed.

  9. A very high-resolution, deep-towed, multichannel seismic survey of gas, gas hydrates and gas hydrate-related features in marine sediments off Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitzke, M.; Bialas, J.

    2003-04-01

    A very high-resolution, deep-towed, multichannel seismic survey was carried out in the Yaquina Basin off Peru in 2002 (RV Sonne cruise SO162) in order (1) to test the newly developed deep tow system and verify the lateral and vertical resolution of the recorded data and (2) to image small-scale features related to the occurrence of gas, gas hydrates and fluid flow in the finely layered hemipelagic sediments of the Yaquina Basin. The deep tow streamer configuration used for this survey had an overall length of 75 m and consisted of a 50 m lead-in cable and 26 digital nodes separated by 1 m long cables. As seismic sources a conventional GI-gun of 0.7 l volume and a Prakla-type air gun of 1.6 l volume were used and excited frequencies between about 20 - 300 Hz, leading to an average vertical resolution of 2.5 - 5 m. A towing depth of 100 m above sea floor allowed to obtain data with a lateral resolution that is about 3 times higher in 1000 m water depth than can be achieved with a conventional surface-towed system due to the reduction of the size of the Fresnel zone by the hybrid, deep-towed system. Two completely different areas were studied in the Yaquina Basin. The first area is located on the Peruvian continental margin in about 1000 m water depth. Here, the deep tow seismic line crosses a formerly recorded MCS line (RV Sonne cruise SO146, 2000) along which a weak BSR was observed. In the newly acquired deep tow data several very small-scale normal faults, which might act as pathways for fluid flow, could be resolved in addition to the BSR. In the second area a small 3D grid of closely spaced parallel profile lines covers an area where some chemoherms were already found on the sea floor in about 1000 m water depth during the former RV Sonne cruise SO146, too. An analysis of the newly acquired deep tow data shows these outcropping chemoherms and several additional buried chemoherms and their internal structures in great detail. Furthermore, the surrounding finely

  10. Underground physics with DUNE

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.

    2016-01-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a project to design, construct and operate a next-generation long-baseline neutrino detector with a liquid argon (LAr) target capable also of searching for proton decay and supernova neutrinos. It is a merger of previous efforts of the LBNE and LBNO collaborations, as well as other interested parties to pursue a broad programme with a staged 40-kt LAr detector at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) 1300 km from Fermilab. This programme includes studies of neutrino oscillations with a powerful neutrino beam from Fermilab, as well as proton decay and supernova neutrino burst searches. In this study, we will focus on the underground physics with DUNE.

  11. Underground physics with DUNE

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.

    2016-01-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a project to design, construct and operate a next-generation long-baseline neutrino detector with a liquid argon (LAr) target capable also of searching for proton decay and supernova neutrinos. It is a merger of previous efforts of the LBNE and LBNO collaborations, as well as other interested parties to pursue a broad programme with a staged 40-kt LAr detector at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) 1300 km from Fermilab. This programme includes studies of neutrino oscillations with a powerful neutrino beam from Fermilab, as well as proton decay and supernova neutrino burst searches.more » In this study, we will focus on the underground physics with DUNE.« less

  12. Underground physics with DUNE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.; DUNE Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a project to design, construct and operate a next-generation long-baseline neutrino detector with a liquid argon (LAr) target capable also of searching for proton decay and supernova neutrinos. It is a merger of previous efforts of the LBNE and LBNO collaborations, as well as other interested parties to pursue a broad programme with a staged 40-kt LAr detector at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) 1300 km from Fermilab. This programme includes studies of neutrino oscillations with a powerful neutrino beam from Fermilab, as well as proton decay and supernova neutrino burst searches. In this paper we will focus on the underground physics with DUNE.

  13. Feasibility and Costs of Natural Gas as a Bridge to Deep Decarbonization in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. D.; McJeon, H. C.; Muratori, M.; Shi, W.

    2015-12-01

    Achieving emissions reductions consistent with a 2 degree Celsius global warming target requires nearly complete replacement of traditional fossil fuel combustion with near-zero carbon energy technologies in the United States by 2050. There are multiple technological change pathways consistent with this deep decarbonization, including strategies that rely on renewable energy, nuclear, and carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies. The replacement of coal-fired power plants with natural gas-fired power plants has also been suggested as a bridge strategy to achieve near-term emissions reduction targets. These gas plants, however, would need to be replaced by near-zero energy technologies or retrofitted with CCS by 2050 in order to achieve longer-term targets. Here we examine the costs and feasibility of a natural gas bridge strategy. Using the Global Change Assessment (GCAM) model, we develop multiple scenarios that each meet the recent US Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to reduce GHG emissions by 26%-28% below its 2005 levels in 2025, as well as a deep decarbonization target of 80% emissions reductions below 1990 levels by 2050. We find that the gas bridge strategy requires that gas plants be retired on average 20 years earlier than their designed lifetime of 45 years, a potentially challenging outcome to achieve from a policy perspective. Using a more idealized model, we examine the net energy system costs of this gas bridge strategy compared to one in which near-zero energy technologies are deployed in the near tem. We explore the sensitivity of these cost results to four factors: the discount rate applied to future costs, the length (or start year) of the gas bridge, the relative capital cost of natural gas vs. near-zero energy technology, and the fuel price of natural gas. The discount rate and cost factors are found to be more important than the length of the bridge. However, we find an important interaction as well. At low discount rates

  14. The use of novel DNA nanotracers to determine groundwater flow paths - a test study at the Grimsel Deep Underground Geothermal (DUG) Laboratory in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittilä, Anniina; Evans, Keith; Puddu, Michela; Mikutis, Gediminas; Grass, Robert N.; Deuber, Claudia; Saar, Martin O.

    2016-04-01

    earlier test. In this study, we present the results of tests of applying novel DNA nanotracers to characterize groundwater flow properties and the flow pathways in a fracture-dominated reservoir in the Deep Underground Geothermal (DUG) Laboratory at the Grimsel Test Site in the Swiss Alps. This study is motivated by subsequent comparisons of similar characterizations of fractured rock masses after hydraulic stimulation. These will take place at the DUG Lab at the end of 2016. The results of the flow-path characterization are also compared with those obtained from classical solute tracer tests.

  15. Gas hydrate formation in the deep sea: In situ experiments with controlled release of methane, natural gas, and carbon dioxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brewer, P.G.; Orr, F.M., Jr.; Friederich, G.; Kvenvolden, K.A.; Orange, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    We have utilized a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) to initiate a program of research into gas hydrate formation in the deep sea by controlled release of hydrocarbon gases and liquid CO2 into natural sea water and marine sediments. Our objectives were to investigate the formation rates and growth patterns of gas hydrates in natural systems and to assess the geochemical stability of the reaction products over time. The novel experimental procedures used the carrying capacity, imaging capability, and control mechanisms of the ROV to transport gas cylinders to depth and to open valves selectively under desired P-T conditions to release the gas either into contained natural sea water or into sediments. In experiments in Monterey Bay, California, at 910 m depth and 3.9??C water temperature we find hydrate formation to be nearly instantaneous for a variety of gases. In sediments the pattern of hydrate formation is dependent on the pore size, with flooding of the pore spaces in a coarse sand yielding a hydrate cemented mass, and gas channeling in a fine-grained mud creating a veined hydrate structure. In experiments with liquid CO2 the released globules appeared to form a hydrate skin as they slowly rose in the apparatus. An initial attempt to leave the experimental material on the sea floor for an extended period was partially successful; we observed an apparent complete dissolution of the liquid CO2 mass, and an apparent consolidation of the CH4 hydrate, over a period of about 85 days.

  16. Ultimate recovery analysis by formation and play for deep Anadarko Basin and estimation of undiscovered gas potential

    SciTech Connect

    Hugman, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    Deep gas resources have assumed a growing role in the United States gas picture since the mid-1960s. The deep Anadarko basin has been one of the areas of heavy activity, and is thought to contain a significant portion of the remaining unproven deep gas resource in the lower-48 states. A detailed analysis of gas production and proven reserves in the deep basin has established the characteristics and historical importance of each of the major plays and productive formations. The analysis should prove to be a valuable tool in estimating the undiscovered gas potential of the deep basin. Through 1985, there were 908 completions in the deep Anadarko basin. These completions accounted for 6.10 tcf of proven ultimate recovery, an average of 6.72 bcf per completion. In general, there is one completion per well and one well per section. Thus, ultimate recovery per completion represents ultimate recovery per section. The Hunton Group has the highest mean ultimate recovery at 15.3 bcf, followed by the Arbuckle Group at 10.1 bcf. In an attempt to evaluate existing resource appraisals of the deep basin, the areal distribution of production by formation was determined for the mature, shallow part of the basin. Over 20,000 completions were included in this analysis, demonstrating a significant database application. By using this distribution as a guide, along with certain other constraints, a range of 15-47 tcf of undiscovered potential was estimated.

  17. Regulating the underground injection of CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, D.W.; Giardina, J.A.; Morgan, M.G.; Wilson, E.J.

    2005-12-15

    Florida's battles during the last decade over injecting wastewater from sewage treatment plants deep underground offer a lesson for any future US regulation of the underground disposal and sequestration of CO{sub 2}. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Simulation of deep-seated zonal jets and shallow vortices in gas giant atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimpel, Moritz; Gastine, Thomas; Wicht, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Jupiter's banded cloud layer hosts spots of various sizes. The bands are defined by eastward and westward jet streams and the spots correspond to vortices, predominantly anticyclones, which rotate in the opposite direction of Earth's cyclonic storms. Despite 350 years of observation, the origin and dynamics of jets and vortices in the atmospheres of giant planets remain debated. Simulations of the shallow weather layer produce both features, but only reproduce observed prograde equatorial flow on Jupiter and Saturn under special conditions. In contrast, deep convection models reproduce equatorial superrotation, but lack coherent vortices. Here we combine both approaches in a three-dimensional simulation where deep convection grades into a stably stratified shallow layer. We find that steady zonal jets are driven by deep convective flows, whereas anticyclonic vortices form where upwelling plumes impinge on the shallow layer. The simulated vortex circulation consists of cool anticyclones shielded by warm downwelling cyclonic rings and filaments, in agreement with observations and theory. We find that the largest vortices form in westward anticyclonic shear flow nearest to the equatorial jet, similar to Saturn's so-called storm alley and Jupiter's Great Red Spot. We conclude that vortices have a deep origin in gas giant atmospheres.

  19. Noble gas-derived insights into carbon cycling into the deep biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood Lollar, B.; Ballentine, C. J.; Lippmann-Pipke, J.; Slater, G. F.; Onstott, T. C.; Lin, L.; Moran, J.; Tille, S.; Moser, D. P.; Lacrampe-Couloume, G.

    2009-12-01

    Discovery of chemoautotrophic microbial communities at the mid-ocean ridges launched the exploration of the "deep hot biosphere". Recent advances have demonstrated however that chemoautotrophic communities are not restricted to high temperature hydrothermal settings. The discovery that the terrestrial subsurface too hosts chemoautotrophic ecosystems sustained by the products of water-rock reactions - albeit at lower temperatures and slower rates of reaction - has expanded our view of the extent of the planet that is habitable. Compelling questions remain. What are the ultimate limits to life in the Earth's deep subsurface? What are the underlying controls on microbial metabolic activity and biodiversity? The answers to these questions may provide insight into the evolutionary relationship of deep terrestrial microbial communities to marine sediment-hosted and vent-hosted communities, into the origin of life on Earth, and the potential for life on other planets and moons. At more than 2 km below surface, fracture waters accessed via mines in the tectonically quiescent Precambrian Shields of Canada and South Africa are dominated by radiogenic noble gases and crustal-derived carbon sources. Key uncertainties concerning the deep terrestrial biosphere in these settings include the rates and mechanisms of carbon cycling far from the photosphere, and hence the scale and significance of this remote and exotic reservoir of the global biogeochemical cycle. While carbon geochemistry and stable isotopes, as well as molecular microbiology, have facilitated major advances in identifying the geochemical and microbiological processes involved, this presentation will highlight how coupling these techniques with noble gases constrains the timescales for the deep carbon cycle. In particular, the coupling of noble gas tracers with carbon geochemistry provides the key to recognizing that hydrogeologically isolated fracture networks of geochemically distinct groundwaters exert a major

  20. Characterizing Natural Gas Hydrates in the Deep Water Gulf of Mexico: Applications for Safe Exploration and Production Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, Jimmy

    2014-05-31

    In 2000 Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deep water portion of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Chevron is an active explorer and operator in the Gulf of Mexico and is aware that natural gas hydrates need to be understood to operate safely in deep water. In August 2000 Chevron worked closely with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and held a workshop in Houston, Texas to define issues concerning the characterization of natural gas hydrate deposits. Specifically, the workshop was meant to clearly show where research, the development of new technologies, and new information sources would be of benefit to the DOE and to the oil and gas industry in defining issues and solving gas hydrate problems in deep water.

  1. An extended dynamical model of a geyser induced by inflow of gas (3) : effects of various friction loss in an underground watercourse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagami, H.

    2009-04-01

    We have proposed a mathematical model (a static model), a dynamical model and a modified dynamical model of a geyser induced by inflow of gas (a periodic bubbling spring) based on observation of Hirogawara Geyser (Yamagata, Japan)and model experiments of the geyser and have also proposed a combined model combining above 2 models. And numerical simulations of the modified dynamical model or the combined model reappear dynamics of spouting of geysers induced by inflow of gas and it becomes possible that parameters (volume of the underground space, depth of spouting hole and so on) under a geyser are estimated due to comparison between results of simulation and those of observation. Moreover we have verified above models through geological exploration, analysis of hot spring water and radioactive prospecting. Then we added evaporation effect of gas dissolved in hot spring water to the combined model. Then we expanded the combined model through adding effects of a complicated underground watercourse, that is, effects of watercourses' sudden expansion, sudden contraction, repeat of them and elbow shape to the combined model. As a result, though we could see change of spouting's amplitude, period and so on dependent on degrees of above effects, we could also see that these effects were much smaller than those of other parameters, that is, volume of the underground space, depth of spouting hole and so on. But in the case of such a long watercourse as a geyser's underground watercourse, an effect of friction loss between walls of the watercourse and hot spring water flowing along it is largest among the other effects concerning head loss. Therefore we have to consider above effect of friction loss when we discuss spouting dynamics of a geyser. In this study, we expand further above expanded model through adding effects of friction loss between walls of the watercourse and hot spring water during spouting to the combined model and estimate effects of it on spouting dynamics

  2. Noble gas residence times of saline waters within crystalline bedrock, Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole, Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kietäväinen, Riikka; Ahonen, Lasse; Kukkonen, Ilmo T.; Niedermann, Samuel; Wiersberg, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Noble gas residence times of saline groundwaters from the 2516 m deep Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole, located within the Precambrian crystalline bedrock of the Fennoscandian Shield in Finland, are presented. The accumulation of radiogenic (4He, 40Ar) and nucleogenic (21Ne) noble gas isotopes in situ together with the effects of diffusion are considered. Fluid samples were collected from depths between 180 and 2480 m below surface, allowing us to compare the modelled values with the measured concentrations along a vertical depth profile. The results show that while the concentrations in the upper part are likely affected by diffusion, there is no indication of diffusive loss at or below 500 m depth. Furthermore, no mantle derived gases were found unequivocally. Previous studies have shown that distinct vertical variation occurs both in geochemistry and microbial community structuring along the drill hole, indicating stagnant waters with no significant exchange of fluids between different fracture systems or with surface waters. Therefore in situ accumulation is the most plausible model for the determination of noble gas residence times. The results show that the saline groundwaters in Outokumpu are remarkably old, with most of the samples indicating residence times between ∼20 and 50 Ma. Although being first order approximations, the ages of the fluids clearly indicate that their formation must predate more recent events, such as Quaternary glaciations. Isolation within the crust since the Eocene-Miocene epochs has also direct implications to the deep biosphere found at Outokumpu. These ecosystems must have been isolated for a long time and thus very likely rely on energy and carbon sources such as H2 and CO2 from groundwater and adjacent bedrock rather than from the ground surface.

  3. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, August 1--October 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Chugh, Y.P.

    1997-12-31

    The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion by-products in abandoned underground coal mines, and to assess the environmental impact of these technologies for the management of CCB materials. The two technologies for the underground placement that were to be developed and demonstrated are: (1) pneumatic placement using virtually dry CCB products, and (2) hydraulic placement using a paste mixture of CCB products with about 70% solids. The period covered by this report is the second quarter of Phase 3 of the overall program. During this period over 8,000 tons of CCB mixtures was injected using the hydraulic paste technology. This amount of material virtually filled the underground opening around the injection well, and was deemed sufficient to demonstrate fully the hydraulic injection technology. By the end of this quarter about 2,000 tons of fly ash had been placed underground using the pneumatic placement technology. While the rate of injection of about 50 tons per hour met design criteria, problems were experienced in the delivery of fly ash to the pneumatic demonstration site. The source of the fly ash, the Archer Daniels Midland Company power plant at Decatur, Illinois is some distance from the demonstration site, and often sufficient tanker trucks are not available to haul enough fly ash to fully load the injection equipment. Further, on some occasions fly ash from the plant was not available. The injection well was plugged three times during the demonstration. This typically occurred due to cementation of the FBC ash in contact with water. After considerable deliberations and in consultation with the technical project officer, it was decided to stop further injection of CCB`s underground using the developed pneumatic technology.

  4. Natural gas production and anomalous geothermal gradients of the deep Tuscaloosa Formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burke, Lauri

    2011-01-01

    For the largest producing natural gas fields in the onshore Gulf of Mexico Basin, the relation between temperature versus depth was investigated. Prolific natural gas reservoirs with the highest temperatures were found in the Upper Cretaceous downdip Tuscaloosa trend in Louisiana. Temperature and production trends from the deepest field, Judge Digby field, in Pointe Coupe Parish, Louisiana, were investigated to characterize the environment of natural gas in the downdip Tuscaloosa trend. The average production depth in the Judge Digby field is approximately 22,000 ft. Temperatures as high as 400 degrees F are typically found at depth in Judge Digby field and are anomalously low when compared to temperature trends extrapolated to similar depths regionally. At 22,000 ft, the minimum and maximum temperatures for all reservoirs in Gulf Coast producing gas fields are 330 and 550 degrees F, respectively; the average temperature is 430 degrees F. The relatively depressed geothermal gradients in the Judge Digby field may be due to high rates of sediment preservation, which may have delayed the thermal equilibration of the sediment package with respect to the surrounding rock. Analyzing burial history and thermal maturation indicates that the deep Tuscaloosa trend in the Judge Digby field is currently in the gas generation window. Using temperature trends as an exploration tool may have important implications for undiscovered hydrocarbons at greater depths in currently producing reservoirs, and for settings that are geologically analogous to the Judge Digby fiel

  5. Atmospheric noble gas signatures in deep Michigan Basin brines as indicators of a past thermal event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lin; Castro, Maria Clara; Hall, Chris M.

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric noble gases (e.g., 22Ne, 36Ar, 84Kr, 130Xe) in crustal fluids are only sensitive to subsurface physical processes. In particular, depletion of atmospheric noble gases in groundwater due to boiling and steam separation is indicative of the occurrence of a thermal event and can thus be used to trace the thermal history of stable tectonic regions. We present noble gas concentrations of 38 deep brines (~ 0.5-3.6 km) from the Michigan Basin. The atmospheric noble gas component shows a strong depletion pattern with respect to air saturated water. Depletion of lighter gases ( 22Ne and 36Ar) is stronger compared to the heavier ones ( 84Kr and 130Xe). To understand the mechanisms responsible for this overall atmospheric noble gas depletion, phase interaction models were tested. We show that this atmospheric noble gas depletion pattern is best explained by a model involving subsurface boiling and steam separation, and thus, consistent with the occurrence of a past thermal event of mantle origin as previously indicated by both high 4He/heat flux ratios and the presence of primordial mantle He and Ne signatures in the basin. Such a conceptual model is also consistent with the presence of past elevated temperatures in the Michigan Basin (e.g., ~ 80-260 °C) at shallow depths as suggested by previous thermal studies in the basin. We suggest that recent reactivation of the ancient mid-continent rift system underneath the Michigan Basin is likely responsible for the release of both heat and mantle noble gases into the basin via deep-seated faults and fracture zones. Relative enrichment of atmospheric Kr and Xe with respect to Ar is also observed, and is interpreted as reflecting the addition of sedimentary Kr and Xe from associated hydrocarbons, following the hydrothermal event. This study pioneers the use of atmospheric noble gases in subsurface fluids to trace the thermal history of stable tectonic regions.

  6. The development of the ''Sleeping Giant'' deep basin natural gas, Alberta Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, D.L.

    1984-02-01

    During the past seven years attention has been focused on ''mega'' projects and the frontier areas for continental energy self sufficiency. However, a giant conventional resource project has been developing without fanfare. This project has potential impact on the well being of Canada and the North American energy scene. This ''Sleeping Giant'', which delivered its initial sales gas on November 1, 1979 is the Alberta (Elmworth) Deep Basin. The project area covers 67,400 square km (26,000 square miles) and contains potentially hydrocarbon bearing sediments over a thickness of 4,572 meters (15,000 feet). This basin is best equated in terms of size and reserves to the famous San Juan Basin. Since its discovery in 1976 approximately 1,000 multi-zoned gas wells have been drilled and reserves in the order of 140,000 10/sup 6/m/sup 3/ (5 trillion cubic feet) have been recognized by gas purchasers. Ten gas plants have been constructed with capacity of roughly 28,174 10/sup 3/m/sup 3/ (1 billion cubic feet) per day. This paper documents the development of these reserves and the stages in the construction of field facilities.

  7. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.; Ghafoori, N.; Paul, B.; Sevim, H.; Thomasson, E.

    1994-10-01

    Preliminary environmental risk assessment on the FGD by-products to be placed underground is virtually complete. The initial mixes for pneumatic and hydraulic placement have been selected and are being subject to TCLP, ASTM, and modified SLP shake tests as well as ASTM column leaching. Results of these analyses show that the individual coal combustion residues, and the residues mixes, are non-hazardous in character. Based on available information, including well logs obtained from Peabody Coal Company, a detailed study of the geology of the placement site was completed. The study shows that the disposal site in the abandoned underground mine workings at depths of between 325 and 375 feet are well below potable groundwater resources. This, coupled with the benign nature of the residues and residues mixtures, should alleviate any concern that the underground placement will have adverse effects on groundwater resources. Seven convergence stations were installed in the proposed underground placement area of the Peabody Coal Company No. 10 mine. Several sets of convergence data were obtained from the stations. A study of materials handling and transportation of coal combustion residues from the electric power plant to the injection site has been made. The study evaluated the economics of the transportation of coal combustion residues by pneumatic trucks, by pressure differential rail cars, and by SEEC, Inc. collapsible intermodal containers (CICs) for different annual handling rates and transport distances. The preliminary physico-chemical characteristics and engineering properties of various FBC fly ash-spent bed mixes have been determined, and long-term studies of these properties are continuing.

  8. Evaluation of the Coupling of a Full-Dimensional Multiphase Model with a Vertical Equilibrium Model for the Simulation of Underground Gas Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, B.; Helmig, R.; Flemisch, B.; Guo, B.; Celia, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Modeling underground gas storage requires simulations on a large domain over the whole time of plant operation and beyond, including local features such as fault zones and a representation of the transient saline front. The boundary conditions and resulting pressure reversal are affected by external fluctuations in energy demand and supply (e.g. power to gas) over a wide range of time scales. In addition, often a large number of simulation runs need to be conducted to quantify parameter uncertainty (e.g. Monte Carlo simulation). Within acceptable computational time this cannot be achieved by full three-dimensional multiphase multicomponent models due to limited computational resources. In contrast to that, less computational resources are required by numerous simplified mathematical models. One class of these models is based on the assumption of vertical equilibrium. However, this assumption may be invalid in the area around the well during injection and extraction of gas and at the tip of the plume and in general only holds after a certain timescale in the rest of the domain. In addition, simplified models do not provide the accuracy desired for some parts of interest in the domain, like fault zones, the displacement front or geological heterogeneity especially around the injection zone. The individual benefits of simplified models such as a vertically integrated model and more complex and thus more accurate models such as a full-dimensional multiphase model are combined by coupling both model types in one domain. The boundary between the models is adapted during the simulation to capture transient processes. Stability, applicability and efficiency of the coupled model for different injection scenarios and domain features will be analyzed and discussed. Physically/mathematically motivated coupling criteria to govern the movement of the boundaries between the models will be presented and compared. It will be shown how the coupled model maintains a high degree of

  9. Management of dry gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The objective is to develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion by-products in abandoned underground coal mines, and to assess the environmental impact of these technologies for the management of coal combustion by-products. The two technologies for the underground placement that will be developed and demonstrated are: (1) pneumatic placement using virtually dry coal combustion by-products, and (2) hydraulic placement using a paste mixture of combustion by-products with about 70% solids. Phase 2 of the overall program began April 1, 1996. The principal objective of Phase 2 is to develop and fabricate the equipment for both the pneumatic and hydraulic placement technologies, and to conduct a limited, small-scale shakedown test of the pneumatic and hydraulic placement equipment. The shakedown test originally was to take place on the surface, in trenches dug for the tests. However, after a thorough study it was decided, with the concurrence of DOE-METC, to drill additional injection wells and conduct the shakedown tests underground. This will allow a more thorough test of the placement equipment.

  10. Estimation of the denitrification in Baltic Sea deep water from gas tension measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeffler, Annekatrin; Schmidt, Martin; Schneider, Bernd

    2010-05-01

    Denitrification is considered to be the most important process removing nitrogen in oceanic waters. 50-70% of marine denitrification occurs in organic rich sediments and oxygen depleted water bodies of continental shelf regions or marginal seas like the Baltic Sea, where a high percentage of riverine discharge of nitrogen is denitrified before entering the open ocean. Measurements of the gas tension (= sum of the partial pressures of all dissolved gases in the water) provide a new experimental way for the quantification of denitrification by directly measuring the reaction product of this process. Continuous pumping of water from a defined depth trough the gas tension device with a pump-CTD allows getting integrated results. Changes in N2 concentrations were calculated from gas tension by subtracting the partial pressures of the most important other dissolved gases (O2, Ar, CO2, H2S, water vapor). The pO2, pCO2 and H2S-concentrations were measured; other parameters (pAr, pH2O, solubility coefficients) were obtained from temperature and salinity. The method allows the estimation of N2-concentrations with a maximum error of 0.5%, corresponding to a standard error of 1.5 μmol L-1. Results of gas tension measurements and calculation of N2 concentrations in the Gotland Basin deep water, central Baltic Sea, from 2008 and 2009 are presented. In the deep water below the permanent halocline the estimated N2 partial pressure is continuously rising towards the oxygen depleted water layers. The calculated N2 excess compared to equilibrium concentration reached values up to 20 μmol N2 L-1 in the stagnant anoxic water layer, indicating a mean N release of 10 μmol N L-1 y-1 after 4 years of stagnation. The increase of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (due to the N2 excess and formation of ammonium in the deep water) in relation to nitrogen background values was compared with the increase of total inorganic carbon due to mineralization processes. The resulting C:N ratios were

  11. Gas hydrates in the deep water Ulleung Basin, East Sea, Korea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Byong-Jae

    2016-04-01

    Studies on gas hydrates in the deep-water Ulleung Basin, East Sea, Korea was initiated by the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) to secure the future energy resources in 1996. Bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs) were first identified on seismic data collected in the southwestern part of the basin from 1998 to 1999. Regional geophysical surveys and geological studies of gas hydrates in the basin have been carried out by KIGAM from 2000 to 2004. The work included 12,367 km of 2D multi-channel seismic reflection lines and 38 piston cores 5 to 8 m long. As a part of the Korean National Gas Hydrate Program that has been performed since 2005, 6690 km of 2D multi-channel reflection seismic lines, 900 km2 of 3D seismic data, 69 piston cores and three PROD cores were additionally collected. In addition, two gas hydrate drilling expeditions were performed in 2007 and 2010. Cracks generally parallel to beddings caused by the dissociation of gas hydrate were often observed in cores. The lack of higher hydrocarbons and the carbon isotope ratios indicate that the methane is primarily biogenic. The seismic data showed clear and wide-spread bottom-simulating reflectors (BSRs). The BSR was identified by (a) its polarity opposite to the seafloor, (b) its seafloor-parallel reflection behavior, and (c) its occurrence at a sub-bottom depth corresponding to the expected base of gas hydrate stability zone. Several vertical to sub-vertical chimney-like blank zones up to several kilometers in diameter were also identified in the study area. They are often associated with velocity pull-up structures that are interpreted due to higher velocity in gas hydrate-bearing deposits. Seismic velocity analysis also showed a high velocity anomaly within the pull-up structure. Gas hydrate samples were collected from the shallow sedimentary section of blanking zone by piston coring in 2007. BSRs mainly occur in the southern part of the basin. They also locally observed in the

  12. Culturable prokaryotic diversity of deep, gas hydrate sediments: first use of a continuous high-pressure, anaerobic, enrichment and isolation system for subseafloor sediments (DeepIsoBUG)

    PubMed Central

    Parkes, R John; Sellek, Gerard; Webster, Gordon; Martin, Derek; Anders, Erik; Weightman, Andrew J; Sass, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Deep subseafloor sediments may contain depressurization-sensitive, anaerobic, piezophilic prokaryotes. To test this we developed the DeepIsoBUG system, which when coupled with the HYACINTH pressure-retaining drilling and core storage system and the PRESS core cutting and processing system, enables deep sediments to be handled without depressurization (up to 25 MPa) and anaerobic prokaryotic enrichments and isolation to be conducted up to 100 MPa. Here, we describe the system and its first use with subsurface gas hydrate sediments from the Indian Continental Shelf, Cascadia Margin and Gulf of Mexico. Generally, highest cell concentrations in enrichments occurred close to in situ pressures (14 MPa) in a variety of media, although growth continued up to at least 80 MPa. Predominant sequences in enrichments were Carnobacterium, Clostridium, Marinilactibacillus and Pseudomonas, plus Acetobacterium and Bacteroidetes in Indian samples, largely independent of media and pressures. Related 16S rRNA gene sequences for all of these Bacteria have been detected in deep, subsurface environments, although isolated strains were piezotolerant, being able to grow at atmospheric pressure. Only the Clostridium and Acetobacterium were obligate anaerobes. No Archaea were enriched. It may be that these sediment samples were not deep enough (total depth 1126–1527 m) to obtain obligate piezophiles. PMID:19694787

  13. Culturable prokaryotic diversity of deep, gas hydrate sediments: first use of a continuous high-pressure, anaerobic, enrichment and isolation system for subseafloor sediments (DeepIsoBUG).

    PubMed

    Parkes, R John; Sellek, Gerard; Webster, Gordon; Martin, Derek; Anders, Erik; Weightman, Andrew J; Sass, Henrik

    2009-12-01

    Deep subseafloor sediments may contain depressurization-sensitive, anaerobic, piezophilic prokaryotes. To test this we developed the DeepIsoBUG system, which when coupled with the HYACINTH pressure-retaining drilling and core storage system and the PRESS core cutting and processing system, enables deep sediments to be handled without depressurization (up to 25 MPa) and anaerobic prokaryotic enrichments and isolation to be conducted up to 100 MPa. Here, we describe the system and its first use with subsurface gas hydrate sediments from the Indian Continental Shelf, Cascadia Margin and Gulf of Mexico. Generally, highest cell concentrations in enrichments occurred close to in situ pressures (14 MPa) in a variety of media, although growth continued up to at least 80 MPa. Predominant sequences in enrichments were Carnobacterium, Clostridium, Marinilactibacillus and Pseudomonas, plus Acetobacterium and Bacteroidetes in Indian samples, largely independent of media and pressures. Related 16S rRNA gene sequences for all of these Bacteria have been detected in deep, subsurface environments, although isolated strains were piezotolerant, being able to grow at atmospheric pressure. Only the Clostridium and Acetobacterium were obligate anaerobes. No Archaea were enriched. It may be that these sediment samples were not deep enough (total depth 1126-1527 m) to obtain obligate piezophiles. PMID:19694787

  14. Noble gas as tracers for CO2 deep input in petroleum reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujol, Magali; Stuart, Finlay; Gilfillan, Stuart; Montel, François; Masini, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    The sub-salt hydrocarbon reservoirs in the deep offshore part of the Atlantic Ocean passive margins are a new key target for frontier oil and gas exploration. Type I source rocks locally rich in TOC (Total Organic Carbon) combined with an important secondary connected porosity of carbonate reservoirs overlain by an impermeable salt layer gives rise to reservoirs with high petroleum potential. However, some target structures have been found to be mainly filled with CO2 rich fluids. δ13C of the CO2 is generally between -9 and -4 permil, compatible with a deep source (metamorphic or mantle). Understanding the origin of the CO2 and the relative timing of its input into reservoir layers in regard to the geodynamic context appears to be a key issue for CO2 risk evaluation. The inertness and ubiquity of noble gases in crustal fluids make them powerful tools to trace the origin and migration of mixed fluids (Ballentine and Burnard 2002). The isotopic signature of He, Ne and Ar and the elemental pattern (He to Xe) of reservoir fluid from pressurized bottom hole samples provide an insight into fluid source influences at each reservoir depth. Three main end-members can be mixed into reservoir fluids (e.g. Gilfillan et al., 2008): atmospheric signature due to aquifer recharge, radiogenic component from organic fluid ± metamorphic influence, and mantle input. Their relative fractionation provides insights into the nature of fluid transport (Burnard et al., 2012)and its relative migration timing. In the studied offshore passive margin reservoirs, from both sides of South Atlantic margin, a strong MORB-like magmatic CO2 influence is clear. Hence, CO2 charge must have occurred during or after lithospheric break-up. CO2 charge(s) history appears to be complex, and in some cases requires several inputs to generate the observed noble gas pattern. Combining the knowledge obtained from noble gas (origin, relative timing, number of charges) with organic geochemical and thermodynamic

  15. Worldwide estimates of deep natural gas resources based on the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyman, T.S.; Crovelli, R.A.; Bartberger, C.E.; Takahashi, K.I.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey recently assessed undiscovered conventional gas and oil resources in eight regions of the world outside the U.S. The resources assessed were those estimated to have the potential to be added to reserves within the next thirty years. This study is a worldwide analysis of the estimated volumes and distribution of deep (>4.5 km or about 15,000 ft), undiscovered conventional natural gas resources based on this assessment. Two hundred forty-six assessment units in 128 priority geologic provinces, 96 countries, and two jointly held areas were assessed using a probabilistic Total Petroleum System approach. Priority geologic provinces were selected from a ranking of 937 provinces worldwide. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment Team did not assess undiscovered petroleum resources in the U.S. For this report, mean estimated volumes of deep conventional undiscovered gas resources in the U.S. are taken from estimates of 101 deep plays (out of a total of 550 conventional plays in the U.S.) from the U.S. Geological Survey's 1995 National Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources. A probabilistic method was designed to subdivide gas resources into depth slices using a median-based triangular probability distribution as a model for drilling depth to estimate the percentages of estimated gas resources below various depths. For both the World Petroleum Assessment 2000 and the 1995 National Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources, minimum, median, and maximum depths were assigned to each assessment unit and play; these depths were used in our analysis. Two-hundred seventy-four deep assessment units and plays in 124 petroleum provinces were identified for the U.S. and the world. These assessment units and plays contain a mean undiscovered conventional gas resource of 844 trillion cubic ft (Tcf) occuring at depths below 4.5 km. The deep undiscovered conventional gas resource (844 Tcf) is about 17% of the total world gas resource (4,928 Tcf) based on

  16. Assistance to state underground injection control programs and the oil and gas industry with class 2 injection well data management and technology transfer. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Paque, M.J.

    1995-11-23

    The Underground Injection Practices Research Foundation (UIPRF) administered a grant project funded by the US Department of Energy relating to Class 2 injection well operations in various primacy and direct implementation states throughout the country. This effort provided substantial benefits to state regulatory agencies and oil and gas producing companies. It enhanced the protection of the environment through the protection of ground water resources and improved oil and gas production operations within affected states. This project involved the following accomplishment: (1) Completed the design and installation of the only comprehensive, fully relational PC-Based Oil and Gas regulatory data management system (the Risk Based Data Management System) in the country. Additionally, training and data conversion was conduced and the RBDMS User`s Guide and the RBDMS Administrator`s Guide were completed. (2) State wide Area-Of-Review (AOR) workshop were held in California and Oklahoma and a national three-day workshop was held in Kansas City, Missouri where 24 state oil and gas agencies were represented.

  17. Underground Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadlock, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    The movement of groundwater in underground aquifers is an ideal physical example of many important themes in mathematical modeling, ranging from general principles (like Occam's Razor) to specific techniques (such as geometry, linear equations, and the calculus). This article gives a self-contained introduction to groundwater modeling with…

  18. How man-made interference might cause gas bubble emboli in deep diving whales

    PubMed Central

    Fahlman, Andreas; Tyack, Peter L.; Miller, Patrick J. O.; Kvadsheim, Petter H.

    2014-01-01

    Recent cetacean mass strandings in close temporal and spatial association with sonar activity has raised the concern that anthropogenic sound may harm breath-hold diving marine mammals. Necropsy results of the stranded whales have shown evidence of bubbles in the tissues, similar to those in human divers suffering from decompression sickness (DCS). It has been proposed that changes in behavior or physiological responses during diving could increase tissue and blood N2 levels, thereby increasing DCS risk. Dive data recorded from sperm, killer, long-finned pilot, Blainville's beaked and Cuvier's beaked whales before and during exposure to low- (1–2 kHz) and mid- (2–7 kHz) frequency active sonar were used to estimate the changes in blood and tissue N2 tension (PN2). Our objectives were to determine if differences in (1) dive behavior or (2) physiological responses to sonar are plausible risk factors for bubble formation. The theoretical estimates indicate that all species may experience high N2 levels. However, unexpectedly, deep diving generally result in higher end-dive PN2 as compared with shallow diving. In this focused review we focus on three possible explanations: (1) We revisit an old hypothesis that CO2, because of its much higher diffusivity, forms bubble precursors that continue to grow in N2 supersaturated tissues. Such a mechanism would be less dependent on the alveolar collapse depth but affected by elevated levels of CO2 following a burst of activity during sonar exposure. (2) During deep dives, a greater duration of time might be spent at depths where gas exchange continues as compared with shallow dives. The resulting elevated levels of N2 in deep diving whales might also make them more susceptible to anthropogenic disturbances. (3) Extended duration of dives even at depths beyond where the alveoli collapse could result in slow continuous accumulation of N2 in the adipose tissues that eventually becomes a liability. PMID:24478724

  19. How man-made interference might cause gas bubble emboli in deep diving whales.

    PubMed

    Fahlman, Andreas; Tyack, Peter L; Miller, Patrick J O; Kvadsheim, Petter H

    2014-01-01

    Recent cetacean mass strandings in close temporal and spatial association with sonar activity has raised the concern that anthropogenic sound may harm breath-hold diving marine mammals. Necropsy results of the stranded whales have shown evidence of bubbles in the tissues, similar to those in human divers suffering from decompression sickness (DCS). It has been proposed that changes in behavior or physiological responses during diving could increase tissue and blood N2 levels, thereby increasing DCS risk. Dive data recorded from sperm, killer, long-finned pilot, Blainville's beaked and Cuvier's beaked whales before and during exposure to low- (1-2 kHz) and mid- (2-7 kHz) frequency active sonar were used to estimate the changes in blood and tissue N2 tension (PN2 ). Our objectives were to determine if differences in (1) dive behavior or (2) physiological responses to sonar are plausible risk factors for bubble formation. The theoretical estimates indicate that all species may experience high N2 levels. However, unexpectedly, deep diving generally result in higher end-dive PN2 as compared with shallow diving. In this focused review we focus on three possible explanations: (1) We revisit an old hypothesis that CO2, because of its much higher diffusivity, forms bubble precursors that continue to grow in N2 supersaturated tissues. Such a mechanism would be less dependent on the alveolar collapse depth but affected by elevated levels of CO2 following a burst of activity during sonar exposure. (2) During deep dives, a greater duration of time might be spent at depths where gas exchange continues as compared with shallow dives. The resulting elevated levels of N2 in deep diving whales might also make them more susceptible to anthropogenic disturbances. (3) Extended duration of dives even at depths beyond where the alveoli collapse could result in slow continuous accumulation of N2 in the adipose tissues that eventually becomes a liability. PMID:24478724

  20. The technology path to deep greenhouse gas emissions cuts by 2050: the pivotal role of electricity.

    PubMed

    Williams, James H; DeBenedictis, Andrew; Ghanadan, Rebecca; Mahone, Amber; Moore, Jack; Morrow, William R; Price, Snuller; Torn, Margaret S

    2012-01-01

    Several states and countries have adopted targets for deep reductions in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050, but there has been little physically realistic modeling of the energy and economic transformations required. We analyzed the infrastructure and technology path required to meet California's goal of an 80% reduction below 1990 levels, using detailed modeling of infrastructure stocks, resource constraints, and electricity system operability. We found that technically feasible levels of energy efficiency and decarbonized energy supply alone are not sufficient; widespread electrification of transportation and other sectors is required. Decarbonized electricity would become the dominant form of energy supply, posing challenges and opportunities for economic growth and climate policy. This transformation demands technologies that are not yet commercialized, as well as coordination of investment, technology development, and infrastructure deployment. PMID:22116030

  1. IMPROVED TUBULARS FOR BETTER ECONOMICS IN DEEP GAS WELL DRILLING USING MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Dinesh Agrawal

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of the research program has been to improve the rate-of-penetration in deep hostile environments by improving the life cycle and performance of coiled-tubing, an important component of a deep well drilling system for oil and gas exploration, by utilizing the latest developments in the microwave materials technology. This is being accomplished by developing an efficient and economically viable continuous microwave process to sinter continuously formed/extruded steel powder for the manufacture of seamless coiled tubing and other tubular products. The entire program has been spread over three phases with the following goals: Phase I--Demonstration of the feasibility concept of continuous microwave sintering process for tubular steel products. Phase II--Design, building and testing of a prototype microwave system which shall be combined with a continuous extruder for steel tubular objects. Phase III--Execution of the plan for commercialization of the technology by one of the industrial partners. The criteria for the success of the program is based on the performance of coiled tubing made by the microwave process. It is expected that this product will have superior quality and performance to the standard product, and will be economically viable.

  2. Improved Tubulars for Better Economics in Deep Gas Well Drilling using Microwave Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dinesh Agrawal; Paul Gigl; Mark Hunt; Mahlon Dennis

    2007-07-31

    The main objective of the entire research program has been to improve the rate-of-penetration in deep hostile environments by improving the life cycle and performance of coiled-tubing, an important component of a deep well drilling system for oil and gas exploration, by utilizing the latest developments in the microwave materials technology. Based on the results of the Phase I and insurmountable difficulties faced in the extrusion and de-waxing processes, the approach of achieving the goals of the program was slightly changed in the Phase II in which an approach of microwave sintering combined with Cold Isostatic Press (CIP) and joining (by induction or microwave) has been adopted. This process can be developed into a semicontinuous sintering process if the CIP can produce parts fast enough to match the microwave sintering rates. The main objective of the Phase II research program is to demonstrate the potential to economically manufacture microwave processed coiled tubing with improved performance for extended useful life under hostile coiled tubing drilling conditions. After the completion of the Phase II, it is concluded that scale up and sintering of a thin wall common O.D. size tubing that is widely used in the market is still to be proved and further experimentation and refinement of the sintering process is needed in Phase III. Actual manufacturing capability of microwave sintered, industrial quality, full length tubing will most likely require several million dollars of investment.

  3. Improved Tubulars for Better Economics in Deep Gas Well Drilling Using Microwave Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dinesh Agrawal

    2006-09-30

    The main objective of the entire research program has been to improve the rate-of-penetration in deep hostile environments by improving the life cycle and performance of coiled-tubing, an important component of a deep well drilling system for oil and gas exploration, by utilizing the latest developments in the microwave materials technology. Based on the results of the Phase I and insurmountable difficulties faced in the extrusion and de-waxing processes, the approach of achieving the goals of the program was slightly changed in the Phase II in which an approach of microwave sintering combined with Cold Isostatic Press (CIP) and joining (by induction or microwave) has been adopted. This process can be developed into a semicontinuous sintering process if the CIP can produce parts fast enough to match the microwave sintering rates. The main objective of the Phase II research program is to demonstrate the potential to economically manufacture microwave processed coiled tubing with improved performance for extended useful life under hostile coiled tubing drilling conditions. After the completion of the Phase II, it is concluded that scale up and sintering of a thin wall common O.D. size tubing that is widely used in the market is still to be proved and further experimentation and refinement of the sintering process is needed in Phase III. Actual manufacturing capability of microwave sintered, industrial quality, full length tubing will most likely require several million dollars of investment.

  4. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Topical report, October 1, 1993--March 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    The DESEVAL-TRANS program is developed for the purpose of helping the engineer to design and economically evaluate coal combustion byproduct transportation systems that will operate between the power plant and the disposal site. The objective of the research project was to explore the technical, environmental and economic feasibility of disposing coal combustion byproducts in underground mines in Illinois. The DESEVAL-TRANS (short for Design and Evaluation of Transportation Systems) was developed in the Materials Handling and Systems Economics branch of the overall project. Four types of coal combustion byproducts were targeted for transportation and handling: Conventional fly ash; Scrubber sludge; Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) fly ash; and Spent-bed ash. Several transportation and handling systems that could handle these byproducts were examined. These technologies were classified under three general categories: Truck; Rail; and Container. The purpose of design models is to determine the proper number of transport units, silo capacity, loading and unloading rates, underground placement capacity, number of shifts, etc., for a given case, defined by a distance-tonnage combination. The cost computation models were developed for the determination of the operating and capital costs. An economic evaluation model, which is common to all categories, was also developed to establish the cost-per-ton of byproduct transported.

  5. Underground caverns for hydrocarbon storage

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, T.F.

    1998-12-31

    Large, international gas processing projects and growing LPG imports in developing countries are driving the need to store large quantities of hydrocarbon liquids. Even though underground storage is common in the US, many people outside the domestic industry are not familiar with the technology and the benefits underground storage can offer. The latter include lower construction and operating costs than surface storage, added safety, security and greater environmental acceptance.

  6. DEEP CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF THE EXTENDED GAS SLOSHING SPIRAL IN A2029

    SciTech Connect

    Paterno-Mahler, R.; Blanton, E. L.; Randall, S. W.; Clarke, T. E. E-mail: eblanton@bu.edu E-mail: tracy.clarke@nrl.navy.mil

    2013-08-20

    Recent X-ray observations of galaxy clusters have shown that there is substructure present in the intracluster medium (ICM), even in clusters that are seemingly relaxed. This substructure is sometimes a result of sloshing of the ICM, which occurs in cool core clusters that have been disturbed by an off-axis merger with a sub-cluster or group. We present deep Chandra observations of the cool core cluster Abell 2029, which has a sloshing spiral extending radially outward from the center of the cluster to approximately 400 kpc at its fullest extent-the largest continuous spiral observed to date. We find a surface brightness excess, a temperature decrement, a density enhancement, an elemental abundance enhancement, and a smooth pressure profile in the area of the spiral. The sloshing gas seems to be interacting with the southern lobe of the central radio galaxy, causing it to bend and giving the radio source a wide-angle tail (WAT) morphology. This shows that WATs can be produced in clusters that are relatively relaxed on large scales. We explore the interaction between heating and cooling in the central region of the cluster. Energy injection from the active galactic nucleus is likely insufficient to offset the cooling, and sloshing may be an important additional mechanism in preventing large amounts of gas from cooling to very low temperatures.

  7. Variation in the Deep Gas Composition in Hot Spots on Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjoraker, Gordon; de Pater, Imke; Wong, Michael H.; Adamkovics, Mate; Hewagama, Tilak; Hesman, Brigette

    2015-11-01

    We used CSHELL on NASA’s Infrared Telescope Facility and NIRSPEC on the Keck telescope in the last two years to spectrally resolve line profiles of CH3D, NH3, PH3, and H2O in 5-micron Hot Spots on Jupiter. The profile of the CH3D lines at 4.66 microns is very broad in both NEB and SEB Hot Spots due to collisions with up to 8 bars of H2, where unit optical depth occurs due to collision-induced H2 opacity. The extreme width of these CH3D features implies that the Hot Spots that we observed do not have significant cloud opacity for P > 2 bars. We retrieved NH3, PH3, and gaseous H2O within Hot Spots in both the NEB and SEB. We had dry nights on Mauna Kea and a sufficient Doppler shift to detect H2O. We will compare line wings to derive H2O profiles in the 2 to 6-bar region. NEB Hot Spots are depleted in NH3 with respect to adjacent regions. Interestingly, SEB Hot Spots exhibit stronger NH3 absorption than NEB Hot Spots. In addition, SEB Hot Spots have very similar 5-micron spectra as neighboring longitudes in the SEB, implying similar deep gas composition. The dynamical origin of SEB Hot Spots is much less studied than that of NEB Hot Spots, so our observations of gas composition in both regions may constrain mechanisms for forming Hot Spots.

  8. Outlook for Underground Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowles, Thomas

    2003-04-01

    Nuclear and particle physics has a long history of carrying out experiments deep underground to search for rare processes such as proton decay and double beta decay and to observe neutrinos from a variety of astrophysical sources. This science program has recently resulted in remarkable evidence for neutrino mass as evidenced in atmospheric, solar, and terrestrial neutrino experiments. These discoveries have fueled a renewed effort in the United States to create a National Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (NUSEL) that would provide the basis for an expanded program of science underground. The research issues that would be addressed at a NUSEL include not only nuclear and particle physics, but also a broad range of topics in geology, geoengineering, and geobiology. A NUSEL would also create new resources for applications of interest to industry and national defense as well as providing a significant new opportunity for education and outreach. In this talk I will present an overview of the scientific opportunities that could be addressed at a NUSEL. I will also provide an update on the status of efforts to create a NUSEL at various possible sites in the U.S.

  9. Mud Gas Logging In A Deep Borehole: IODP Site C0002, Nankai Trough Accretionary Prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toczko, S.; Hammerschmidt, S.; Maeda, L.

    2014-12-01

    Mud logging, a tool in riser drilling, makes use of the essentially "closed-circuit" drilling mud flow between the drilling platform downhole to the bit and then back to the platform for analyses of gas from the formation in the drilling mud, cuttings from downhole, and a range of safety and operational parameters to monitor downhole drilling conditions. Scientific riser drilling, with coincident control over drilling mud, downhole pressure, and returning drilling mud analyses, has now been in use aboard the scientific riser drilling vessel Chikyu since 2009. International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 348, as part of the goal of reaching the plate boundary fault system near ~5000 mbsf, has now extended the deep riser hole (Hole C0002 N & P) to 3058.5 mbsf. The mud gas data discussed here are from two approximately parallel boreholes, one a kick-off from the other; 860-2329 mbsf (Hole C0002N) and 2163-3058 mbsf (Hole C0002P). An approximate overlap of 166 m between the holes allows for some slight depth comparison between the two holes. An additional 55 m overlap at the top of Hole C0002P exists where a 10-5/8-inch hole was cored, and then opened to 12-1/4-inch with logging while drilling (LWD) tools (Fig. 1). There are several fault zones revealed by LWD data, confirmed in one instance by coring. One of the defining formation characteristics of Holes C0002 N/P are the strongly dipping bedding planes, typically exceeding 60º. These fault zones and bedding planes can influence the methane/ethane concentrations found in the returning drilling mud. A focused comparison of free gas in drilling mud between one interval in Hole C0002 P, drilled first with a 10 5/8-inch coring bit and again with an 12 ¼-inch logging while drilling (LWD) bit is shown. Hole C0002N above this was cased all the way from the sea floor to the kick-off section. A fault interval (in pink) was identified from the recovered core section and from LWD resistivity and gamma. The plot of

  10. Deep microbial life in the Altmark natural gas reservoir: baseline characterization prior CO2 injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozova, Daria; Shaheed, Mina; Vieth, Andrea; Krüger, Martin; Kock, Dagmar; Würdemann, Hilke

    2010-05-01

    Within the framework of the CLEAN project (CO2 Largescale Enhanced gas recovery in the Altmark Natural gas field) technical basics with special emphasis on process monitoring are explored by injecting CO2 into a gas reservoir. Our study focuses on the investigation of the in-situ microbial community of the Rotliegend natural gas reservoir in the Altmark, located south of the city Salzwedel, Germany. In order to characterize the microbial life in the extreme habitat we aim to localize and identify microbes including their metabolism influencing the creation and dissolution of minerals. The ability of microorganisms to speed up dissolution and formation of minerals might result in changes of the local permeability and the long-term safety of CO2 storage. However, geology, structure and chemistry of the reservoir rock and the cap rock as well as interaction with saline formation water and natural gases and the injected CO2 affect the microbial community composition and activity. The reservoir located at the depth of about 3500m, is characterised by high salinity fluid and temperatures up to 127° C. It represents an extreme environment for microbial life and therefore the main focus is on hyperthermophilic, halophilic anaerobic microorganisms. In consequence of the injection of large amounts of CO2 in the course of a commercial EGR (Enhanced Gas Recovery) the environmental conditions (e.g. pH, temperature, pressure and solubility of minerals) for the autochthonous microorganisms will change. Genetic profiling of amplified 16S rRNA genes are applied for detecting structural changes in the community by using PCR- SSCP (PCR-Single-Strand-Conformation Polymorphism) and DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis). First results of the baseline survey indicate the presence of microorganisms similar to representatives from other saline, hot, anoxic, deep environments. However, due to the hypersaline and hyperthermophilic reservoir conditions, cell numbers are low, so that

  11. Depleted argon from underground sources

    SciTech Connect

    Back, H.O.; Alton, A.; Calaprice, F.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; Kendziora, C.; Loer, B.; Montanari, D.; Mosteiro, P.; Pordes, S.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Argon is a powerful scintillator and an excellent medium for detection of ionization. Its high discrimination power against minimum ionization tracks, in favor of selection of nuclear recoils, makes it an attractive medium for direct detection of WIMP dark matter. However, cosmogenic {sup 39}Ar contamination in atmospheric argon limits the size of liquid argon dark matter detectors due to pile-up. The cosmic ray shielding by the earth means that Argon from deep underground is depleted in {sup 39}Ar. In Cortez Colorado a CO{sub 2} well has been discovered to contain approximately 500ppm of argon as a contamination in the CO{sub 2}. In order to produce argon for dark matter detectors we first concentrate the argon locally to 3-5% in an Ar, N{sub 2}, and He mixture, from the CO{sub 2} through chromatographic gas separation. The N{sub 2} and He will be removed by continuous cryogenic distillation in the Cryogenic Distillation Column recently built at Fermilab. In this talk we will discuss the entire extraction and purification process; with emphasis on the recent commissioning and initial performance of the cryogenic distillation column purification.

  12. IMPROVED TUBULARS FOR BETTER ECONOMICS IN DEEP GAS WELL DRILLING USING MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Dinesh Agrawal; Paul Gigl; Mahlon Dennis; Roderic Stanley

    2005-03-01

    The main objective of the research program has been to improve the rate-of-penetration in deep hostile environments by improving the life cycle and performance of coiled-tubing, an important component of a deep well drilling system for oil and gas exploration, by utilizing the latest developments in the microwave materials technology. Originally, it was proposed to accomplish this by developing an efficient and economically viable continuous microwave process to sinter continuously formed/extruded steel powder for the manufacture of seamless coiled tubing and other tubular products. However, based on the results and faced with insurmountable difficulties in the extrusion and de-waxing processes, the approach of achieving the goals of the program has been slightly changed. In the continuation proposal an approach of microwave sintering combined with Cold Isostatic Press (CIP) and joining (by induction or microwave) is adopted. This process can be developed into a semi-continuous sintering process if the CIP can produce parts fast enough to match the microwave sintering rates. Originally, the entire program was spread over three phases with the following goals: Phase I: Demonstration of the feasibility concept of continuous microwave sintering process for tubular steel products. Phase II: Design, building and testing of a prototype microwave system which shall be combined with a continuous extruder for steel tubular objects. Phase III: Execution of the plan for commercialization of the technology by one of the industrial partners. However, since some of the goals of the phase I were not completed, an extension of nine months was granted and we continued extrusion experiments, designed and built semicontinuous microwave sintering unit.

  13. Characterization of the deep microbial life in the Altmark natural gas reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozova, D.; Alawi, M.; Vieth-Hillebrand, A.; Kock, D.; Krüger, M.; Wuerdemann, H.; Shaheed, M.

    2010-12-01

    Within the framework of the CLEAN project (CO2 Largescale Enhanced gas recovery in the Altmark Natural gas field) technical basics with special emphasis on process monitoring are explored by injecting CO2 into a gas reservoir. Our study focuses on the investigation of the in-situ microbial community of the Rotliegend natural gas reservoir in the Altmark, located south of the city Salzwedel, Germany. In order to characterize the microbial life in the extreme habitat we aim to localize and identify microbes including their metabolism influencing the creation and dissolution of minerals. The ability of microorganisms to speed up dissolution and formation of minerals might result in changes of the local permeability and the long-term safety of CO2 storage. However, geology, structure and chemistry of the reservoir rock and the cap rock as well as interaction with saline formation water and natural gases and the injected CO2 affect the microbial community composition and activity. The reservoir located at the depth of approximately 3500 m, is characterised by high salinity (420 g/l) and temperatures up to 127°C. It represents an extreme environment for microbial life and therefore the main focus is on hyperthermophilic, halophilic anaerobic microorganisms. In consequence of the injection of large amounts of CO2 in the course of a commercial EGR (Enhanced Gas Recovery), the environmental conditions (e.g. pH, temperature, pressure and solubility of minerals) for the autochthonous microorganisms will change. Genetic profiling of amplified 16S rRNA genes are applied for detecting structural changes in the community by using PCR- SSCP (PCR-Single-Strand-Conformation Polymorphism), DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis) and 16S rRNA cloning. First results of the baseline survey indicate the presence of microorganisms similar to representatives from other deep environments. The sequence analyses revealed the presence of several H2-oxidising bacteria (Hydrogenophaga sp

  14. Coupling Between Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer - A Mechanism for Quasi-Periodic Variations in CO2 Discharges from Deep Underground Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruess, K.

    2004-12-01

    Leakage of CO2 from underground sources is of interest in connection with volcanic hazards assessment, and with the integrity and safety of geologic disposal reservoirs for CO2 that have been proposed as a means for mitigating global warming from atmospheric emissions. Underground accumulations of CO2, whether naturally occurring or man-made, store vast amounts of compressional energy. At subsurface temperature and pressure conditions, CO2 is always buoyant relative to aqueous fluids, and its upward migration may conceivably give rise to a self-enhancing runaway release due to decompression and the much lower viscosity as compared to water. Natural occurrences of CO2 have been implicated in hydrothermal eruptions, and may be capable of causing "pneumatic" eruptions that are not powered by thermal energy. We have performed numerical simulations of CO2 release through fracture zones and faults in order to determine under what conditions, if any, a self-enhancing, eruptive release may be possible. Our simulations include coupling between multiphase fluid flow and associated heat transfer effects, and accurately represent the thermophysical properties of CO2 in sub-critical (liquid or gaseous) and supercritical conditions, as well as transitions between different phase compositions, and phase partitioning between CO2-rich and aqueous phases. The behavior of rising CO2 plumes is found to be strongly affected by heat transfer effects. As supercritical CO2 migrates upward it cools due to expansion. Much stronger cooling may arise from boiling of liquid CO2 that may occur after temperatures and pressures drop below critical values (Tcrit = 31.04 deg-C, Pcrit = 73.82 bar). Our simulations of CO2 migration up a fault zone produce quasi-periodic cycling of thermodynamic conditions and substantial variations of CO2 fluxes discharged at the land surface on a time scale of order 1 year. This behavior is explained in terms of an interplay between multiphase flow in the fault zone

  15. Noble gas tracers of ventilation during deep-water formation in the Weddell Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, D. P.; Khatiwala, S.; Heimbach, P.

    2016-05-01

    To explore the dynamics and implications of incomplete air-sea equilibration during the formation of abyssal water masses, we simulated noble gases in the Estimating the Circulation & Climate of the Ocean (ECCO) global ocean state estimate. A novel computation approach utilizing a matrix-free Newton-Krylov (MFNK) scheme was applied to quickly compute the periodic seasonal solutions for noble gas tracers. MFNK allows for quick computation of a cyclo-stationary solution for tracers (i.e., a spun-up, repeating seasonal cycle), which would otherwise be computationally infeasible due to the long time scale of dynamic adjustment of the abyssal ocean (1000’s of years). A suite of experiments isolates individual processes, including atmospheric pressure effects, the solubility pump and air-sea bubble fluxes. In addition to these modeled processes, a volumetric contribution of 0.28 ± 0.07% of glacial melt water is required to reconcile deep-water observations in the Weddell Sea. Another primary finding of our work is that the saturation anomaly of heavy noble gases in model simulations is in excess of two-fold more negative than is suggested from Weddell Sea observations. This result suggests that model water masses are insufficiently ventilated prior to subduction and thus there is insufficient communication between atmosphere and ocean at high latitudes. The discrepancy between noble gas observations and ECCO simulations highlights that important inadequacies remain in how we model high-latitude ventilation with large implications for the oceanic uptake and storage of carbon.

  16. Results of study of deep underground structure of mud volcanoes in North-Western Caucasus by means of geological and geophysical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobissevitch, A. L.; Gorbatikov, A. V.; Ovsuychenko, A. N.; Sobissevitch, L. E.; Stepanova, M. Yu.; Morev, B. A.

    2009-04-01

    Results of complementary geological and geophysical studies of mud volcanic phenomena in North-Western Caucasus (Taman mud volcanic province) are presented. New technology for passive subsurface sounding of the Earth's crust has been originally developed at the Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences. Patented since 2005, this technology represents the new kind of seismic survey based on specific features of propagation of the Rayleigh waves. It uses natural background microseismic noise as a sounding signal. By using the method of low-frequency microseismic sounding in the course of field works carried out in 2006 - 2008, there have been obtained three vertical cross-sections for the two mud volcanoes down to the depth of 25 km. For the two different mud volcanoes their deep subsurface structure has been revealed and discussed. The Gora Karabetova mud volcano is one of the most active mud volcanoes in the Taman peninsula with primarily explosive behaviour while the Shugo mud volcano's activity pattern is different, explosive events are rare and both types of phenomena may be explained by the configuration of their feeding systems, tectonic position and deep pathways of migration of fluids. Complementary interpretation of raw data sets delivered form geophysical and geological surveys allows considering principal differences of origin and mechanisms of mud volcanic activity for the Shugo and the Gora Karabetova mud volcanoes.

  17. Numerical Simulations of Underground Explosions: Effect of Joints Near the Source on Energy Coupling, Shear Motions and Gas Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoun, T.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Vorobiev, O.; Glenn, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    We have performed 3D high resolution simulations of underground explosions conducted recently in jointed rock outcrop as part of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE). The main goal is to understand the nature of the shear motions recorded in the near field at depth. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the genesis of shear motions: 1) sliding on the joints, 2) wave conversion at the material boundaries and 3) non sphericity of the source. We suggest yet another mechanism to be responsible for some shear wave generation when the cracks or joints are present in the rock mass containing the source and the explosive products find their way into the cracks. In order to investigate this mechanism, we have conducted several high resolution simulations of the source region using an Eulerian hydrodynamic code GEODYN. We explored the effect of joint orientations, number of family of fracture, energy deposition, joint aperture size, and joint spacing on the overall development of the source itself, sustained damage around the source and shear wave polarization and motions in the vicinity of the source. We have observed that waves interact with the joints and refraction and diffraction of the wave intensify the complexity of the wave field. It is worth noting that the fracture network topology has also dramatically been affected. It is expected that after the pressure has been released and the energy has been dissipated that source cavity may shrink to a different size but will sustain considerable irreversible damage which affect subsequent shots if they were to be conducted in the vicinity or at the same depth. Fracture network connectivity has drastically changed which will affect wave motions and flow of gases. To explore those effects, we have coupled STOTRAN code, which handles flow, mass and heat transport of fluids and gases in fractures and fractured porous media with the GEODYN code. We will present recent 2D and 3D simulations of typical settings for SPE

  18. Constraints on temporal velocity variations associated with an underground gas storage in the Gulf of Valencia using earthquake and seismic ambient noise data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugalde, Arantza; Gaite, Beatriz; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    During September 2013, the injection of the base gas in a depleted oil reservoir used as an underground natural gas storage (CASTOR) caused a sudden seismic activity increase in the eastern coast of Spain. As a result, a compact cluster of more than 550 earthquakes with magnitudes mbLg > 0.7 were located in the shallow offshore area of the Gulf of Valencia during two months. The strongest event, having a magnitude of Mw=4.2, was followed by two Mw=4.1 events the day after and took place once the gas injection activities had finished. Using the seismic data recorded by permanent stations at more than 25 km from the injection well, we applied coda wave interferometry to monitor changes in seismic velocity structure between similar earthquakes. Then we solved for a continuous function of velocity changes with time by combining observations from all the closely located earthquake sources. The rate of repeating events allowed measurements of relative velocity variations for about 30 days on a daily scale. To extend the analysis in time, we also processed the continuous data using the autocorrelation of band-pass filtered ambient seismic noise. A 10-day average was required to achieve a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio in the 0.2-0.5 Hz and 0.5-1 Hz frequency bands. We quantified the time lags between two traces in the frequency and time domains by means of the Moving Window Cross Spectral Analysis and a Dynamic Time Warping technique, respectively. Injection of fluids in geologic formations causes variations in seismic velocities associated to changes in fluid saturation, increase in pore pressure or opening or enlargement of cracks due to the injection process. Time delays associated with stress changes caused by moderate to large earthquakes have also been established. In this work, we found no velocity changes during the gas injection period nor on the occasion of the Mw 4.2 earthquake. The sensitivity of the method is dependent on the seismic network geometry and

  19. Developing Underground Research at DUSEL: Lessons from Other Laboratories (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doe, T. W.

    2009-12-01

    The Deep Underground and Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) should provide a significant venue for advancing our understanding of groundwater processes in fractured, basement rocks. As the planning for experimentation goes forward, it is important to recognize that underground experimentation has been going through a true golden age stimulated mainly by radioactive waste research, but also by needs in contaminant transport and oil and gas exploration. A complete discussion of the advances of fractured-rock hydrogeology is beyond the scope a short presentation. One area of investigation that has some transfer value from other test facilities is the importance of pressure and flow monitoring in the development of new areas of underground space. Each borehole and underground opening has the potential for changing the flow system. Monitoring and measuring these changes is essential for developing hydrostructural models of the significant conductors and their properties. The employment of multipoint monitoring systems has shown that fractured rock masses may be highly compartmentalized. Results of block-scale experiments at the Kamaishi Mine in Japan and the Äspö hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden have demonstrate that there can be a significant level of isolation between conducting features based on pressure, flow, and geochemical responses. Similar compartmentalization effects are well documented at the USGS’s Mirror Lake facility and the Hungarian research site at Bátaapáti (Üveghuta). The DUSEL site at the Homestake Mine is not well-characterized, other than a recognition that it is largely a dry mine. That said, there has been evidence of large inflows at deep levels that may indicate a level of isolation of the mine from conducting features. The connectivity of the mine to the large flow system will be very important to understanding how mine operations have or have not influenced the hydrogeology of the surrounding rock masses, as some of the most

  20. Detection of Noble Gas Radionuclides from an Underground Nuclear Explosion During a CTBT On-Site Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrigan, Charles R.; Sun, Yunwei

    2014-03-01

    The development of a technically sound approach to detecting the subsurface release of noble gas radionuclides is a critical component of the on-site inspection (OSI) protocol under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. In this context, we are investigating a variety of technical challenges that have a significant bearing on policy development and technical guidance regarding the detection of noble gases and the creation of a technically justifiable OSI concept of operation. The work focuses on optimizing the ability to capture radioactive noble gases subject to the constraints of possible OSI scenarios. This focus results from recognizing the difficulty of detecting gas releases in geologic environments—a lesson we learned previously from the non-proliferation experiment (NPE). Most of our evaluations of a sampling or transport issue necessarily involve computer simulations. This is partly due to the lack of OSI-relevant field data, such as that provided by the NPE, and partly a result of the ability of computer-based models to test a range of geologic and atmospheric scenarios far beyond what could ever be studied by field experiments, making this approach very highly cost effective. We review some highlights of the transport and sampling issues we have investigated and complete the discussion of these issues with a description of a preliminary design for subsurface sampling that addresses some of the sampling challenges discussed here.

  1. Deep-ocean basalts: inert gas content and uncertainties in age dating.

    PubMed

    Noble, C S; Naughton, J J

    1968-10-11

    The radiogenic argon and helium contents of three basalts erupted into the deep ocean from an active volcano (Kilauea) have been measured. Ages calculated from these measurements increase with sample depth up to 22 million years for lavas deduced to be recent. Caution is urged in applying dates from deep-ocean basalts in studies on ocean-floor spreading. PMID:17779379

  2. Delaware basin/Central basin platform margin: The development of a subthrust deep-gas province in the Permian Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Purves, W.J. ); Ting, S.C. )

    1990-05-01

    A deep-gas-prone province was identified along the Delaware basin/Central Basin platform margin, a margin conventionally interpreted to be bounded by high-angle normal or high-angle reverse structures. Redefinition of the tectonic style between the Delaware basin and the adjacent platform resulted in the identification of this Delaware basin/Central Basin platform subthrust province and a giant prospect within it. Definition of a giant-sized gas prospect in northern Pecos County, Texas, revealed that portions of this margin may be characterized by shingled, low-angle, eastward-dipping, basement involved thrust faults. Interpretations suggest that hidden, subthrust footwall structures may trend discontinuously for greater than 100 mi along this structural margin. Subthrust footwall structures formed as basinal buttress points for the Central Basin platform to climb over the Delaware basin. In this area, structural relief of over 19,000 ft over a 10-mi width is believed due to stacking of low-angle thrust sheets. Seismic resolution of this subthrust margin has been complexed by allochtonous hanging-wall gravity-glide blocks and folds and by velocity changes in overlying syn- and posttectonic sediments associated with basin-to-shelf lithofacies changes. Statistical studies indicate that this deep-gas province has a play potential of greater than 10 tcf of gas, with individual prospect sizes exceeding 1 tcfg. The prospects defined along this trend are deep (approximately 20,000 ft) subthrust structural traps that are indigenously sourced and reservoired by dual-matrix porosity. Vitrinite supported maturation modeling suggests that these subthrust structures formed prior to catagenic conversion of the oldest source rocks to oil and later to gas. Tectonically fractured Ordovician Ellenburger and Devonian sediments are considered the principal reservoirs. Shales overlying reservoir intervals form vertical seals.

  3. Science and Technology Gaps in Underground Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, R; Burton, E; Friedmann, J

    2006-06-27

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is an appropriate technology to economically access the energy resources in deep and/or unmineable coal seams and potentially to extract these reserves through production of synthetic gas (syngas) for power generation, production of synthetic liquid fuels, natural gas, or chemicals. India is a potentially good area for underground coal gasification. India has an estimated amount of about 467 billion British tons (bt) of possible reserves, nearly 66% of which is potential candidate for UCG, located at deep to intermediate depths and are low grade. Furthermore, the coal available in India is of poor quality, with very high ash content and low calorific value. Use of coal gasification has the potential to eliminate the environmental hazards associated with ash, with open pit mining and with greenhouse gas emissions if UCG is combined with re-injection of the CO{sub 2} fraction of the produced gas. With respect to carbon emissions, India's dependence on coal and its projected rapid rise in electricity demand will make it one of the world's largest CO{sub 2} producers in the near future. Underground coal gasification, with separation and reinjection of the CO{sub 2} produced by the process, is one strategy that can decouple rising electricity demand from rising greenhouse gas contributions. UCG is well suited to India's current and emerging energy demands. The syngas produced by UCG can be used to generate electricity through combined cycle. It can also be shifted chemically to produce synthetic natural gas (e.g., Great Plains Gasification Plant in North Dakota). It may also serve as a feedstock for methanol, gasoline, or diesel fuel production and even as a hydrogen supply. Currently, this technology could be deployed in both eastern and western India in highly populated areas, thus reducing overall energy demand. Most importantly, the reduced capital costs and need for better surface facilities provide a platform for rapid

  4. Kimballton Underground Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rountree, Steven Derek

    2014-03-01

    The Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF) is an operating deep underground research facility with six active projects, and greater than 50 trained researchers. KURF is 30 minutes from the Virginia Tech (VT) campus in an operating limestone mine with drive-in access (eg: roll-back truck, motor coach), over 50 miles of drifts (all 40' × 20 +' the current lab is 35' × 22' × 100'), and 1700' of overburden (1450m.w.e.). The laboratory was built in 2007 and offers fiber optic internet, LN2, 480/220/110 V power, ample water, filtered air, 55 F constant temp, low Rn levels, low rock background activity, and a muon flux of only ~0.004 muons per square meter, per second, per steradian. The current users are funded by NSF, DOE, and NNSA. Current user group: 1) mini-LENS (VT, Louisiana State University, BNL); 2) Double Beta Decay to Excited States (Duke University); 3) HPGe Low-Background Screening (University of North Carolina (UNC), VT); 4) MALBEK (UNC); 5&6) Watchman - 5) Radionuclide Detector and 6) MARS detector (LLNL, SNL, UC-Davis, UC-Berkeley, UH, Hawaii Pacific, UC-Irvine, VT).

  5. Field-scale sulfur hexafluoride tracer experiment to understand long distance gas transport in the deep unsaturated zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walvoord, Michelle Ann; Andraski, Brian; Green, Christopher T.; Stonestrom, David A.; Striegl, Rob

    2014-01-01

    A natural gradient SF6 tracer experiment provided an unprecedented evaluation of long distance gas transport in the deep unsaturated zone (UZ) under controlled (known) conditions. The field-scale gas tracer test in the 110-m-thick UZ was conducted at the U.S. Geological Survey’s Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) in southwestern Nevada. A history of anomalous (theoretically unexpected) contaminant gas transport observed at the ADRS, next to the first commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in the United States, provided motivation for the SF6 tracer study. Tracer was injected into a deep UZ borehole at depths of 15 and 48 m, and plume migration was observed in a monitoring borehole 9 m away at various depths (0.5–109 m) over the course of 1 yr. Tracer results yielded useful information about gas transport as applicable to the spatial scales of interest for off-site contaminant transport in arid unsaturated zones. Modeling gas diffusion with standard empirical expressions reasonably explained SF6 plume migration, but tended to underpredict peak concentrations for the field-scale experiment given previously determined porosity information. Despite some discrepancies between observations and model results, rapid SF6 gas transport commensurate with previous contaminant migration was not observed. The results provide ancillary support for the concept that apparent anomalies in historic transport behavior at the ADRS are the result of factors other than nonreactive gas transport properties or processes currently in effect in the undisturbed UZ.

  6. CHARACTERIZING NATURAL GAS HYDRATES IN THE DEEP WATER GULF OF MEXICO: APPLICATIONS FOR SAFE EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Holditch; Emrys Jones

    2003-01-01

    In 2000, Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deepwater portions of the Gulf of Mexico. A Joint Industry Participation (JIP) group was formed in 2001, and a project partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began in October 2001. The primary objective of this project is to develop technology and data to assist in the characterization of naturally occurring gas hydrates in the deep water Gulf of Mexico (GOM). These naturally occurring gas hydrates can cause problems relating to drilling and production of oil and gas, as well as building and operating pipelines. Other objectives of this project are to better understand how natural gas hydrates can affect seafloor stability, to gather data that can be used to study climate change, and to determine how the results of this project can be used to assess if and how gas hydrates act as a trapping mechanism for shallow oil or gas reservoirs. During April-September 2002, the JIP concentrated on: Reviewing the tasks and subtasks on the basis of the information generated during the three workshops held in March and May 2002; Writing Requests for Proposals (RFPs) and Cost, Time and Resource (CTRs) estimates to accomplish the tasks and subtasks; Reviewing proposals sent in by prospective contractors; Selecting four contractors; Selecting six sites for detailed review; and Talking to drill ship owners and operators about potential work with the JIP.

  7. CHARACTERIZING NATURAL GAS HYDRATES IN THE DEEP WATER GULF OF MEXICO: APPLICATIONS FOR SAFE EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Holditch; Emrys Jones

    2003-01-01

    In 2000, Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deepwater portions of the Gulf of Mexico. A Joint Industry Participation (JIP) group was formed in 2001, and a project partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began in October 2001. The primary objective of this project is to develop technology and data to assist in the characterization of naturally occurring gas hydrates in the deep water Gulf of Mexico (GOM). These naturally occurring gas hydrates can cause problems relating to drilling and production of oil and gas, as well as building and operating pipelines. Other objectives of this project are to better understand how natural gas hydrates can affect seafloor stability, to gather data that can be used to study climate change, and to determine how the results of this project can be used to assess if and how gas hydrates act as a trapping mechanism for shallow oil or gas reservoirs. During the first six months of operation, the primary activities of the JIP were to conduct and plan Workshops, which were as follows: (1) Data Collection Workshop--March 2002 (2) Drilling, Coring and Core Analyses Workshop--May 2002 (3) Modeling, Measurement and Sensors Workshop--May 2002.

  8. Gas and water flow in an excavation-induced fracture network around an underground drift: A case study for a radioactive waste repository in clay rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Vaissière, Rémi; Armand, Gilles; Talandier, Jean

    2015-02-01

    The Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) surrounding a drift, and in particular its evolution, is being studied for the performance assessment of a radioactive waste underground repository. A specific experiment (called CDZ) was designed and implemented in the Meuse/Haute-Marne Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in France to investigate the EDZ. This experiment is dedicated to study the evolution of the EDZ hydrogeological properties (conductivity and specific storage) of the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone under mechanical compression and artificial hydration. Firstly, a loading cycle applied on a drift wall was performed to simulate the compression effect from bentonite swelling in a repository drift (bentonite is a clay material to be used to seal drifts and shafts for repository closure purpose). Gas tests (permeability tests with nitrogen and tracer tests with helium) were conducted during the first phase of the experiment. The results showed that the fracture network within the EDZ was initially interconnected and opened for gas flow (particularly along the drift) and then progressively closed with the increasing mechanical stress applied on the drift wall. Moreover, the evolution of the EDZ after unloading indicated a self-sealing process. Secondly, the remaining fracture network was resaturated to demonstrate the ability to self-seal of the COx claystone without mechanical loading by conducting from 11 to 15 repetitive hydraulic tests with monitoring of the hydraulic parameters. During this hydration process, the EDZ effective transmissivity dropped due to the swelling of the clay materials near the fracture network. The hydraulic conductivity evolution was relatively fast during the first few days. Low conductivities ranging at 10-10 m/s were observed after four months. Conversely, the specific storage showed an erratic evolution during the first phase of hydration (up to 60 days). Some uncertainty remains on this parameter due to volumetric strain during the

  9. Water underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, Inge

    2015-04-01

    The world's largest assessable source of freshwater is hidden underground, but we do not know what is happening to it yet. In many places of the world groundwater is abstracted at unsustainable rates: more water is used than being recharged, leading to decreasing river discharges and declining groundwater levels. It is predicted that for many regions of the world unsustainable water use will increase, due to increasing human water use under changing climate. It would not be long before shortage causes widespread droughts and the first water war begins. Improving our knowledge about our hidden water is the first step to stop this. The world largest aquifers are mapped, but these maps do not mention how much water they contain or how fast water levels decline. If we can add a third dimension to the aquifer maps, so a thickness, and add geohydrological information we can estimate how much water is stored. Also data on groundwater age and how fast it is refilled is needed to predict the impact of human water use and climate change on the groundwater resource.

  10. Water Underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, I. E. M.

    2014-12-01

    The world's largest accessible source of freshwater is hidden underground. However it remains difficult to estimate its volume, and we still cannot answer the question; will there be enough for everybody? In many places of the world groundwater abstraction is unsustainable: more water is used than refilled, leading to decreasing river discharges and declining groundwater levels. It is predicted that for many regions in the world unsustainable water use will increase in the coming decades, due to rising human water use under a changing climate. It would not take long before water shortage causes widespread droughts and the first water war begins. Improving our knowledge about our hidden water is the first step to prevent such large water conflicts. The world's largest aquifers are mapped, but these maps do not mention how much water these aquifers contain or how fast water levels decline. If we can add thickness and geohydrological information to these aquifer maps, we can estimate how much water is stored and its flow direction. Also, data on groundwater age and how fast the aquifer is refilled is needed to predict the impact of human water use and climate change on the groundwater resource. Ultimately, if we can provide this knowledge water conflicts will focus more on a fair distribution instead of absolute amounts of water.

  11. Improved Tubulars for Better Economics in Deep Gas Well Drilling using Microwave Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dinesh Agrawal; Paul Gigl; Mahlon Dennis

    2006-02-01

    The objective of the research program has been to improve the rate-of-penetration in deep hostile environments by improving the life cycle and performance of coiled-tubing, an important component of a deep well drilling system for oil and gas exploration. The current process of the manufacture long tubular steel products consists of shaping the tube from flat strip, welding the seam and sections into lengths that can be miles long, and coiling onto reels. However, the welds, that are a weak point, now limit the performance of the coil tubing. This is not only from a toughness standpoint but also from a corrosion standpoint. By utilizing the latest developments in the sintering of materials with microwave energy and powder metal extrusion technology for the manufacture of seamless coiled tubing and other tubular products, these problems can be eliminated. The project is therefore to develop a continuous microwave process to sinter continuously steel tubulars and butt-join them using microwave/induction process. The program started about three years ago and now we are in the middle of Phase II. In Phase I (which ended in February 2005) a feasibility study of the extrusion process of steel powder and continuously sinter the extruded tubing was conducted. The research program has been based on the development of microwave technology to process tubular specimens of powder metals, especially steels. The existing microwave systems at the Materials Research Laboratory (MRL) and Dennis Tool Company (DTC) were suitably modified to process tubular small specimens. The precursor powder metals were either extruded or cold isostatically pressed (CIP) to form tubular specimens. After conducting an extensive and systematic investigation of extrusion process for producing long tubes, it was determined that there were several difficulties in adopting extrusion process and it cannot be economically used for producing thousands of feet long green tubing. Therefore, in the Phase II the

  12. Downhole fluid sampling and noble gas analysis of saline waters from the Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole, Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersberg, Thomas; Kietäväinen, Riikka; Ahonen, Lasse; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Niedermann, Samuel

    2014-05-01

    The 2516 m deep Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole is situated at the NW-SE trending boundary between the Archaean and Proterozoic domains of the eastern Fennoscandian Shield (Finland). In August 2011, eight fluid samples were collected with a Leutert positive displacement sampler (PDS) from 500 m to 2480 m depth in the open bore hole. The PDS allows sampling at in situ pressures, thus minimising fractionation from degassing during sampling. At the surface, the samples were transferred into an evacuated sampling line connected with a Cu-tube and a glass bulb for gas sampling, a pressure gauge, and a thermometer. Gas was liberated with a heated ultrasonic bath and then admitted to the sampling devices. Gas/water ratios were already determined in the field during gas extraction. Saline groundwaters rich in methane, nitrogen, hydrogen and helium and with water stable isotope composition distinctive from meteoric and sea water have been found to host isolated ecosystems within the Precambrian crystalline bedrock of Outokumpu (Kietäväinen et al., 2013). In order to characterise the geochemical and microbiological evolution of the deep subsurface of the area, noble gas residence times have been calculated based on radiogenic (4He, 40Ar), nucleogenic (21Ne) and fissiogenic (134Xe, 136Xe) noble gas nuclides. Geochemical and microbiological variations together with hydrogeological and geophysical data indicate negligible vertical fluid flow in the bedrock. Moreover, noble gas diffusion models show that diffusion is not likely to affect noble gas concentrations of groundwater at or below 500 m depth in Outokumpu. Therefore in situ accumulation was assumed as a basis for the age determination. In general, residence times between 10 and 50 Ma were indicated by 4He and21Ne, while somewhat younger ages were obtained by 40Ar, using average values for porosity, density and concentration of radioactive elements in the bedrock of Outokumpu. Kietäväinen R., Ahonen L., Kukkonen I

  13. Exploration for deep gas in the Devonian Chaco Basin of Southern Bolivia: Sequence stratigraphy, predictions, and well results

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, K.E.; Radovich, B.J.; Brett, J.W.

    1995-12-31

    In mid 1991, a team was assembled in Texaco`s Frontier Exploration Department (FED) to define the hydrocarbon potential of the Chaco Basin of Southern Bolivia. The Miraflores No. 1 was drilled in the fall of 1992, for stratigraphic objectives. The well confirmed the predicted stratigraphic trap in the Mid-Devonian, with gas discovered in two highstand and transgressive sands. They are low contrast and low resistivity sands that are found in a deep basin `tight gas` setting. Testing of the gas sands was complicated by drilling fluid interactions at the well bore. Subsequent analysis indicated that the existing porosity and permeability were reduced, such that a realistic test of reservoir capabilities was prevented.

  14. Study of the sealing performance of tubing adapters in gas-tight deep-sea water sampler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haocai; Yuan, Zhouli; Kang, Wuchen; Xue, Zhao; Chen, Xihao; Yang, Canjun; Ye, Yanying; Leng, Jianxing

    2014-09-01

    Tubing adapter is a key connection device in Gas-Tight Deep-Sea Water Sampler (GTWS). The sealing performance of the tubing adapter directly affects the GTWS's overall gas tightness. Tubing adapters with good sealing performance can ensure the transmission of seawater samples without gas leakage and can be repeatedly used. However, the sealing performance of tubing adapters made of different materials was not studied sufficiently. With the research discussed in this paper, the materials match schemes of the tubing adapters were proposed. With non-linear finite element contact analysis and sea trials in the South China Sea, it is expected that the recommended materials match schemes not only meet the requirements of tubing adapters' sealing performance but also provide the feasible options for the following research on tubing adapters in GTWS

  15. 30 CFR 203.49 - May I substitute the deep gas drilling provisions in § 203.0 and §§ 203.40 through 203.47 for the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I substitute the deep gas drilling provisions in § 203.0 and §§ 203.40 through 203.47 for the deep gas royalty relief provided in my lease... Relief for Drilling Deep Gas Wells on Leases Not Subject to Deep Water Royalty Relief § 203.49 May...

  16. Progress Toward a Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical-Biological (THMCB) Experiment in the Homestake Mine Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenthal, E. L.; Maher, K.; Elsworth, D.; Lowell, R. P.; Uzunlar, N.; Mailloux, B. J.; Conrad, M. E.; Olsen, N. J.; Jones, T. L.; Cruz, M. F.; Torchinsky, A.

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of performing a long-term hydrothermal experiment in a deep mine is to gain a scientific understanding of the coupled physical, chemical, and biological processes taking place in fractured rock under the influence of mechanical stress, thermal effects, and fluid flow. Only in a controlled experiment in a well-characterized rock mass, can a fractured rock be probed in 3-D through geophysical imaging, in situ measurements, geochemical/biological sampling, and numerical modeling. Our project is focused on the feasibility of a THMCB experiment in the Homestake Mine, South Dakota to study the long-term evolution (10+ years) of a perturbed heterogeneous rock mass. In addition to the experiment as a laboratory for studying crustal processes, it has direct application to Enhanced Geothermal Systems, carbon sequestration, and contaminant transport. Field activities have focused on fracture and feature mapping, flux measurements from flowing fractures, and collection of water and rock samples for geochemical, biological, and isotopic analyses. Fracture mapping and seepage measurements are being used to develop estimates of permeability and fluxes at different length scales and design the location and orientation of the heater array. Fluxes measured up to several liters/minute indicate localized regions of very high fracture permeability, likely in excess of 10-10 m2. Isotopic measurements indicate heterogeneity in the fracture network on the scale of tens of meters in addition to the large-scale geochemical heterogeneity observed in the mine. New methods for sampling and filtering water samples were developed and tested with the goal of performing radiocarbon analyses in DNA and phospholipid fatty acids. Analytical and numerical models of the thermal perturbation have been used to design the heater orientation and spacing. Reaction path and THC simulations were performed to assess geochemical and porosity/permeability changes as a function of the heat input

  17. First high-temperature applications of anti-gas migration slag cement and settable oil-mud removal spacers in deep south Texas gas wells

    SciTech Connect

    Sweatman, R.E.; Nahm, J.J.; Loeb, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    Applications of a new slag cement and spacer system have reduced the chance of gas channels forming in the cement column during cement hydration in deep, hot south Texas gas wells. These slag cements were formulated with water and conventional cement additives to prevent gas migration and to improve interfacial bonding to oil-wet surfaces. Oil-mud removal spacer fluids (OMRS) were also specially formulated to remove oily residues and improve water-wetting of the oil-wet surfaces. These OMRS can also be designed to develop compressive strength when cementing operations have been completed. Set slag cement provides a tight gas seal with shear-bond healing capacity, as demonstrated by recently developed HTHP shear-bond strength tests. The previously reported phenomenon of healing or regeneration of slag-mix bonds has been reproduced with slag cement. The rapid development of strength at the top of the long cement column and the improved bonding to oil-wet surfaces were the two major improvements provided by the slag cement. OMRS can clean oil-wet surfaces, and then set once the job has been completed. Laboratory tests and field evaluations based on cement bond logs and pressure tests indicated improved bonding and isolation of the gas zones. Field applications of slag cements and OMRS fluids have led to greater primary and plug cementing successes in south Texas gas wells, and well production economics have improved accordingly.

  18. Joint interpretation of high-precision tilt data and mining induced seismic events recorded underground in deep level gold mine in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milev, Alexander; Share, Pieter; Durrheim, Ray; Naoi, Makoto; Nakatani, Masao; Yabe, Yasuo; Ogasawara, Hiroshi

    2013-04-01

    Seismicity associated with deep-level mining has for long been a problem, leading to rockburst and other similar hazards. Several studies have been completed in an attempt to minimize the total amount of seismicity. In this study high resolution measurements of ground tilting in combination with seismic monitoring is used to observe how the rock mass responds to mining. A good correspondence between the coseismic and the aseismic tilt was found. The rate of coseismic and aseismic tilt, as well as seismicity recorded by the mine seismic network, are approximately constant until the daily blasting time, which takes place from about 19:30 until shortly before 21:00. During the blasting time and the subsequent seismic events, the coseismic and aseismic tilt shows a rapid increase. In an attempt to distinguish between the different mechanisms of tilting two types of events were recognized. The "fast" seismic events characterized with sharp increase of the tilt during the seismic rupture and "slow" seismic events characterized by creep type post seismic deformations. Tilt behaviour before and after a seismic event was also analysed. The fact that no recognizable aftertilt was observed for more of the "fast" seismic events means that there is no gradual release of stress and an associated continuous strain rate change afterwards. It can therefore be concluded that a large seismic event causes a rapid change in the state of stress rather than a gradual change in the strain rate. The mechanism of the observed "slow" seismic events is more complicated. Although several explanations have been proposed, a suggestion for further work could be to investigate the presence of "slow" events in or after blasting time more closely. During the monitoring period a seismic event with MW 2.2 occurred in the vicinity of the instrumented site. This event was recorded by both the CSIR integrated monitoring system and JAGUARS acoustic emission network. More than 21,000 AE aftershocks were

  19. Preliminary result of deep-towed resistivity investigation in a potential gas hydrate area off southwest Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, C.; Hsu, S.; Goto, T.; Chen, C.; Chen, S.

    2012-12-01

    Gas hydrate (GH) is thought to be widely distributed within the active accretionary wedges passive continental margins and permafrost regions of the Earth. These deposits were formed in sub-seafloor sediments at relatively high pressure, low temperature conditions and have the potential to become a significant energy resource in the future. Bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs) from marine seismic reflection surveys are generally associated with the occurrence of gas-hydrate-bearing formations. The presence of BSRs could correspond to the base of the phase boundary between free gases and the solid hydrates. A wide-spread distribution of BSRs, high methane concentrations in the bottom water, shallow sulfate/methane interface, submarine mud volcanoes, diapirs and gas seepages significantly indicate a high potential of gas hydrates existence in the offshore area of southwest Taiwan. BSR is an indicative of a GH deposit and is often used to determine the base of gas hydrate stability zone of the solid-gas boundary where the upper bound of the GH in shallow sediments is still uncertain in the potential areas. The marine resistivity techniques are considered as one of powerful geophysical tools to image GH in upper bound of the GH in shallow portion of the seabed. In the study, we have rebuilt our new deep-towed marine resistivity system based on Goto et al. (2008) experiment. The new system is consisted of three components: 1. deep-towed frame, 2. receivers, and 3. side-scan sonar. The transmitter is mounted on the deep-towed frame and a long cable is towed behind the deep-towed frame in length of 240 m. The maximum of output electric current amplitude is up to 50 amperes. A dipole source of 15 m and two Ag-AgCl electric receivers are respectively installed in 210 m, 223 m and 226 m on the cable. Moreover, eight electric receivers (Ag-AgCl) are set from 0 m to 120 m with a dipole length of 15 m on the cable. A side-scan sonar equipment is attached below the system for the

  20. 30 CFR 203.49 - May I substitute the deep gas drilling provisions in § 203.0 and §§ 203.40 through 203.47 for the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May I substitute the deep gas drilling provisions in § 203.0 and §§ 203.40 through 203.47 for the deep gas royalty relief provided in my lease... Oil, Gas, and Sulfur General Royalty Relief for Drilling Deep Gas Wells on Leases Not Subject to...

  1. Inter-disciplinary Interactions in Underground Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. S.; Bettini, A.

    2010-12-01

    Many of underground facilities, ranging from simple cavities to fully equipped laboratories, have been established worldwide (1) to evaluate the impacts of emplacing nuclear wastes in underground research laboratories (URLs) and (2) to measure rare physics events in deep underground laboratories (DULs). In this presentation, we compare similarities and differences between URLs and DULs in focus of site characterization, in quantification of quietness, and in improvement of signal to noise ratios. The nuclear waste URLs are located primarily in geological medium with potentials for slow flow/transport and long isolation. The URL medium include plastic salt, hard rock, soft clay, volcanic tuff, basalt and shale, at over ~500 m where waste repositories are envisioned to be excavated. The majority of URLs are dedicated facilities excavated after extensive site characterization. The focuses are on fracture distributions, heterogeneity, scaling, coupled processes, and other fundamental issues of earth sciences. For the physics DULs, the depth/overburden thickness is the main parameter that determines the damping of cosmic rays, and that, consequently, should be larger than, typically, 800m. Radioactivity from rocks, neutron flux, and radon gas, depending on local rock and ventilation conditions (largely independent of depth), are also characterized at different sites to quantify the background level for physics experiments. DULs have been constructed by excavating dedicated experimental halls and service cavities near to a road tunnel (horizontal access) or in a mine (vertical access). Cavities at shallower depths are suitable for experiments on neutrinos from artificial source, power reactors or accelerators. Rocks stability (depth dependent), safe access, and utility supply are among factors of main concerns for DULs. While the focuses and missions of URLs and DULs are very different, common experience and lessons learned may be useful for ongoing development of new

  2. Generation of 12 fs deep-ultraviolet pulses by four-wave mixing through filamentation in neon gas.

    PubMed

    Fuji, Takao; Horio, Takuya; Suzuki, Toshinori

    2007-09-01

    Generation of deep-ultraviolet femtosecond pulses by four-wave mixing through filamentation in neon gas was demonstrated. Fundamental (omega) and second-harmonic (2omega) pulses of 25 fs Ti:sapphire amplifier output were focused into neon gas, and 20 microJ pulses with the center wavelength of 260 nm were produced by a four-wave mixing process, 2omega+2omega-omega?3omega through an ~15 cm filament. Additionally, pulses with an energy of 2 microJ at 200 nm were generated, probably by a cascaded process, 3omega+2omega-omega?4omega. The 260 nm pulses were compressed by a grating-based compressor and characterized by a dispersion-free transient grating frequency-resolved optical gating. The estimated pulse width was 12 fs. PMID:17767278

  3. Potential for Natural Gas Storage in Deep Basalt Formations at Canoe Ridge, Washington State: A Hydrogeologic Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Steve P.; Spane, Frank A.; Johnson, Vernon G.

    2005-09-24

    Between 1999 and 2002, Pacific Gas Transmission Company (PGT) (now TransCanada Pipeline Company) and AVISTA Corporation, together with technical support provided by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) examined the feasibility of developing a subsurface, natural gas-storage facility in deep, underlying Columbia River basalt in south-central Washington state. As part of this project, the 100 Circles #1 well was drilled and characterized in addition to surface studies. This report provides data and interpretations of the geology and hydrology collected specific to the Canoe Ridge site as part of the U.S. DOE funding to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in support of this project.

  4. Underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. D.; Doherty, T. J.; Kannberg, L. D.

    1984-07-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric energy storage was conceived as a modification of surface pumped storage to eliminate dependence upon fortuitous topography, provide higher hydraulic heads, and reduce environmental concerns. A UPHS plant offers substantial savings in investment cost over coal-fired cycling plants and savings in system production costs over gas turbines. Potential location near load centers lowers transmission costs and line losses. Environmental impact is less than that for a coal-fired cycling plant. The inherent benefits include those of all pumped storage (i.e., rapid load response, emergency capacity, improvement in efficiency as pumps improve, and capacity for voltage regulation). A UPHS plant would be powered by either a coal-fired or nuclear baseload plant. The economic capacity of a UPHS plant would be in the range of 1000 to 3000 MW. This storage level is compatible with the load-velocity requirements of a greater metropolitan area with population of 1 million or more.

  5. Underground Layout Configuration

    SciTech Connect

    A. Linden

    2003-09-25

    The purpose of this analysis was to develop an underground layout to support the license application (LA) design effort. In addition, the analysis will be used as the technical basis for the underground layout general arrangement drawings.

  6. The Henderson Mine as an Underground Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, E. D.

    2006-07-11

    The Henderson Mine, operated by the Climax Molybdenum Company, is one of two sites under consideration by NSF to host a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). Henderson, in the Rocky Mountains west of Denver, is an active molybdenum mine with large access shafts and high rock processing and removal capability.

  7. Simulating Gas-Liquid-Water Partitioning and Fluid Properties of Petroleum under Pressure: Implications for Deep-Sea Blowouts.

    PubMed

    Gros, Jonas; Reddy, Christopher M; Nelson, Robert K; Socolofsky, Scott A; Arey, J Samuel

    2016-07-19

    With the expansion of offshore petroleum extraction, validated models are needed to simulate the behaviors of petroleum compounds released in deep (>100 m) waters. We present a thermodynamic model of the densities, viscosities, and gas-liquid-water partitioning of petroleum mixtures with varying pressure, temperature, and composition based on the Peng-Robinson equation-of-state and the modified Henry's law (Krychevsky-Kasarnovsky equation). The model is applied to Macondo reservoir fluid released during the Deepwater Horizon disaster, represented with 279-280 pseudocomponents, including 131-132 individual compounds. We define >n-C8 pseudocomponents based on comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) measurements, which enable the modeling of aqueous partitioning for n-C8 to n-C26 fractions not quantified individually. Thermodynamic model predictions are tested against available laboratory data on petroleum liquid densities, gas/liquid volume fractions, and liquid viscosities. We find that the emitted petroleum mixture was ∼29-44% gas and ∼56-71% liquid, after cooling to local conditions near the broken Macondo riser stub (∼153 atm and 4.3 °C). High pressure conditions dramatically favor the aqueous dissolution of C1-C4 hydrocarbons and also influence the buoyancies of bubbles and droplets. Additionally, the simulated densities of emitted petroleum fluids affect previous estimates of the volumetric flow rate of dead oil from the emission source. PMID:27117673

  8. Vitrified underground structures

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Mark T.; Buelt, James L.; Stottlemyre, James A.; Tixier, Jr., John S.

    1992-01-01

    A method of making vitrified underground structures in which 1) the vitrification process is started underground, and 2) a thickness dimension is controlled to produce substantially planar vertical and horizontal vitrified underground structures. Structures may be placed around a contaminated waste site to isolate the site or may be used as aquifer dikes.

  9. Physicochemical impacts associated with natural gas development on methanogenesis in deep sand aquifers.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Taiki; Yoshioka, Hideyoshi; Muramoto, Yoshiyuki; Usami, Jun; Fujiwara, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Satoshi; Kamagata, Yoichi; Sakata, Susumu

    2015-02-01

    The Minami-Kanto gas field, where gases are dissolved in formation water, is a potential analogue for a marine gas hydrate area because both areas are characterized by the accumulation of microbial methane in marine turbidite sand layers interbedded with mud layers. This study examined the physicochemical impacts associated with natural gas production and well drilling on the methanogenic activity and composition in this gas field. Twenty-four gas-associated formation water samples were collected from confined sand aquifers through production wells. The stable isotopic compositions of methane in the gases indicated their origin to be biogenic via the carbonate reduction pathway. Consistent with this classification, methanogenic activity measurements using radiotracers, culturing experiments and molecular analysis of formation water samples indicated the predominance of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. The cultivation of water samples amended only with methanogenic substrates resulted in significant increases in microbial cells along with high-yield methane production, indicating the restricted availability of substrates in the aquifers. Hydrogenotrophic methanogenic activity increased with increasing natural gas production from the corresponding wells, suggesting that the flux of substrates from organic-rich mudstones to adjacent sand aquifers is enhanced by the decrease in fluid pressure in sand layers associated with natural gas/water production. The transient predominance of methylotrophic methanogens, observed for a few years after well drilling, also suggested the stimulation of the methanogens by the exposure of unutilized organic matter through well drilling. These results provide an insight into the physicochemical impacts on the methanogenic activity in biogenic gas deposits including marine gas hydrates. PMID:25105906

  10. Physicochemical impacts associated with natural gas development on methanogenesis in deep sand aquifers

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Taiki; Yoshioka, Hideyoshi; Muramoto, Yoshiyuki; Usami, Jun; Fujiwara, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Satoshi; Kamagata, Yoichi; Sakata, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    The Minami-Kanto gas field, where gases are dissolved in formation water, is a potential analogue for a marine gas hydrate area because both areas are characterized by the accumulation of microbial methane in marine turbidite sand layers interbedded with mud layers. This study examined the physicochemical impacts associated with natural gas production and well drilling on the methanogenic activity and composition in this gas field. Twenty-four gas-associated formation water samples were collected from confined sand aquifers through production wells. The stable isotopic compositions of methane in the gases indicated their origin to be biogenic via the carbonate reduction pathway. Consistent with this classification, methanogenic activity measurements using radiotracers, culturing experiments and molecular analysis of formation water samples indicated the predominance of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. The cultivation of water samples amended only with methanogenic substrates resulted in significant increases in microbial cells along with high-yield methane production, indicating the restricted availability of substrates in the aquifers. Hydrogenotrophic methanogenic activity increased with increasing natural gas production from the corresponding wells, suggesting that the flux of substrates from organic-rich mudstones to adjacent sand aquifers is enhanced by the decrease in fluid pressure in sand layers associated with natural gas/water production. The transient predominance of methylotrophic methanogens, observed for a few years after well drilling, also suggested the stimulation of the methanogens by the exposure of unutilized organic matter through well drilling. These results provide an insight into the physicochemical impacts on the methanogenic activity in biogenic gas deposits including marine gas hydrates. PMID:25105906

  11. Deep, water-free gas potential is upside to New Albany shale play

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton-Smith, T.

    1998-02-16

    The New Albany shale of the Illinois basin contains major accumulations of Devonian shale gas, comparable both to the Antrim shale of the Michigan basin and the Ohio shale of the Appalachian basin. The size of the resource originally assessed at 61 tcf has recently been increased to between 323 tcf and 528 tcf. According to the 1995 US Geological Survey appraisal, New Albany shale gas represents 52% of the undiscovered oil and gas reserves of the Illinois basin, with another 45% attributed to coalbed methane. New Albany shale gas has been developed episodically for over 140 years, resulting in production from some 40 fields in western Kentucky, 20 fields in southern Indiana, and at least 1 field in southern Illinois. The paper describes two different plays identified by a GRI study and prospective areas.

  12. Methane Content and Distribution of Natural Gas Hydrate Accumulations in the Deep-Water Basins of the Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, G. A.; Scholl, D. W.; Childs, J. R.

    2005-12-01

    Seismic reflection images from the deep-water (>3500 m) Aleutian and Bowers Basins of the Bering Sea indicate an abundant presence of natural gas and gas hydrate. Distinctive velocity-amplitude anomalies, or VAMPs, stand out as both velocity pseudostructures and gas bright spots within the otherwise horizontal and uniform sedimentary reflection sequences. These are interpreted as methane chimneys overlain by interstitial gas hydrate caps. Hundreds of VAMPs have been imaged throughout the Bering Sea; several thousand are inferred to exist. Ongoing USGS development of an interpretive seismic database presents an opportunity to quantify the hydrate content of individual VAMPs and to explore the distribution of major and minor anomalies relative to basement topography, silica diagenesis features, ancient subduction boundary structures and sediment sources. We present quantitative estimates of the size and methane content of representative large VAMP structures, based on seismic reflection interval-time anomalies. Time-average and frame-component effective medium velocity models are used to relate hydrate concentration to velocity anomaly. For this specific case, differences between the two models are minimal for hydrate concentrations <35% of pore space. To facilitate modeling of sediment dominated by diatomaceous ooze, grain-scale elastic moduli for diatom frustules are back-calculated to be ~5 GPa, assuming shear and bulk modulus are equal. Maximum velocity anomaly observed within the VAMPs is +235 m/s in the hydrate zone, relative to a background P-wave velocity of 1600 m/s. This corresponds to hydrate concentration ~40% of pore space (or ~20% of bulk rock). Hydrate distribution appears to be lithologically controlled within a section of alternating turbidite and diatomaceous sediments. It is preferentially located in a zone ~40 to 90 m above the gas hydrate BSR. Free gas is most concentrated immediately below the hydrate BSR, which lies at ~360 m bsf. Evidence for

  13. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard

    2004-10-28

    The objectives of the study are: to perform resource assessment of the in-place deep (>15,000 ft) natural gas resource of the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas through petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling and to use the petroleum system based resource assessment to estimate the volume of the in-place deep gas resource that is potentially recoverable and to identify those areas in the interior salt basins with high potential to recover commercial quantities of the deep gas resource. The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project is data compilation and petroleum system identification. The research focus for the first nine (9) months of Year 1 is on data compilation and for the remainder of the year the emphasis is on petroleum system identification.

  14. Method for constructing a lined underground cavity by underreaming, grouting, and boring through the grouting

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, W.H.

    1971-02-02

    A method is described for constructing a lined underground cavity. The process includes the steps of securing a casing in a borehole by grouting, underreaming the casing, filling the underreamed region with additional grouting, and then drilling through and underreaming the added grouting, thereby forming a room having a lining formed of the grouting. By using a structurally strong grouting that is impervious to water, the resulting room is waterproof and is suitable for on-site storage of an atomic device and its associated equipment prior to an underground atomic event. Such cavities also have other uses; for example, the cavities may be made very deep and used for storage of various fluids such as natural gas storage. (5 claims)

  15. Deep gas play probed along Rough Creek graben in Kentucky part of southern Illinois basin

    SciTech Connect

    Goetz, L.S.; Tyler, J.G.; Maearevich, R.L.; Brewster, D.; Sonnad, J. )

    1992-09-21

    This paper reports that Conoco Inc. is drilling one of the deepest rank wildcats ever in the southern Illinois basin. The Conoco 1 Turner at Carter Coordinates 21-M-29, is being drilled by Helmerich and Payne International Drilling Co. Rig No. 79 near the town of Livermore. The well will test the up-dip end of a large tilted basement horst block located in McLean County, Ky. The well is permitted to 14,800 ft and will test the Precambrian( )-Cambrian carbonates and clastics infilling the Rough Creek graben, the deep precursor of the Paleozoic Illinois basin. Only seven other tests have been drilled deeply enough to penetrate the top of this sequence in the 7.5 million acre area of the graben. The Rough Creek graben (RCG) is a part of a major Precambrian cratonic transform fault system that forms the southern edge of the Illinois basin and the northern terminus of the Reelfoot rift (Mississippi embayment). Recurrent motion along faults located in southeastern Missouri, southern Illinois, and northwestern Kentucky has produced a very complicated and deep graben with more than 25,000 ft of intriguing stratigraphy.

  16. Underground storage of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Shoichi

    1993-12-31

    Desk studies on underground storage of CO{sub 2} were carried out from 1990 to 1991 fiscal years by two organizations under contract with New Energy and Indestrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). One group put emphasis on application of CO{sub 2} EOR (enhanced oil recovery), and the other covered various aspects of underground storage system. CO{sub 2} EOR is a popular EOR method in U.S. and some oil countries. At present, CO{sub 2} is supplied from natural CO{sub 2} reservoirs. Possible use of CO{sub 2} derived from fixed sources of industries is a main target of the study in order to increase oil recovery and storage CO{sub 2} under ground. The feasibility study of the total system estimates capacity of storage of CO{sub 2} as around 60 Gton CO{sub 2}, if worldwide application are realized. There exist huge volumes of underground aquifers which are not utilized usually because of high salinity. The deep aquifers can contain large amount of CO{sub 2} in form of compressed state, liquefied state or solution to aquifer. A preliminary technical and economical survey on the system suggests favorable results of 320 Gton CO{sub 2} potential. Technical problems are discussed through these studies, and economical aspects are also evaluated.

  17. Βedrock instability of underground storage systems in the Czech Republic, Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novakova, Lucie; Broz, Milan; Zaruba, Jiri; Sosna, Karel; Najser, Jan; Rukavickova, Lenka; Franek, Jan; Rudajev, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Underground storage systems are currently being used worldwide for the geological storage of natural gas (CH4), the geological disposal of CO2, in geothermal energy, or radioactive waste disposal. We introduce a complex approach to the risks posed by induced bedrock instabilities in deep geological underground storage sites. Bedrock instability owing to underground openings has been studied and discussed for many years. The Bohemian Massif in the Czech Republic (Central Europe) is geologically and tectonically complex. However, this setting is ideal for learning about the instability state of rock masses. Longterm geological and mining studies, natural and induced seismicity, radon emanations, and granite properties as potential storage sites for disposal of radioactive waste in the Czech Republic have provided useful information. In addition, the Czech Republic, with an average concentration radon of 140 Bq m-3, has the highest average radon concentrations in the world. Bedrock instabilities might emerge from microscale features, such as grain size and mineral orientation, and microfracturing. Any underground storage facility construction has to consider the stored substance and the geological settings. In the Czech Republic, granites and granitoids are the best underground storage sites. Microcrack networks and migration properties are rock specific and vary considerably. Moreover, the matrix porosity also affects the mechanical properties of the rocks. Any underground storage site has to be selected carefully. The authors suggest to study the complex set of parameters from micro to macroscale for a particular place and type of rock to ensure that the storage remains safe and stable during construction, operation, and after closure.

  18. Efficiency and impacts of hythane (CH4+H2) underground storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sáinz-García, Alvaro; Abarca, Elena; Grandia, Fidel

    2016-04-01

    The foreseen increase share of renewable energy production requires energy storage to mitigate shortage periods of energy supply. Hydrogen is an efficient energy carrier that can be transported and storage. A very promising way to store large amounts of hydrogen is underground geological reservoirs. Hydrogen can be stored, among other options, as a mixture of natural gas and less than 20% of hydrogen (hythane) to avoid damages on the existing infrastructure for gas transport. This technology is known as power-to-gas and is being considered by a number of European countries (Simon et al., 2015). In this study, the feasibility of a deep aquifer to store CH4-H2 mixtures in the Lower Triassic of the Paris Basin is numerically analyzed. The solubility of gas mixture in the groundwater is extremely low (Panfilov, 2015) and, therefore, gas and water are considered immiscible and non-reactive. An immiscible multiphase flow model is developed using the coefficient-form PDE interface of the finite element method code, COMSOL Multiphysics. The modelled domain is a 2D section of 2500 x 290 m resembling the Lower Triassic aquifer of the Paris basin, consisting of 2 layers of sandstone separated by a layer of conglomerates. The domain dips 0.5% from east to west. The top of the aquifer is 500 m-deep and the lateral boundaries are assumed to be open. This case is considered conservative compared to a dome-like geological trap, which could be more favorable to retain higher gas concentration. A number of cycles of gas production and injection were modelled. An automatic shut-down of the pump is implemented in case pressure on the well exceeds an upper or lower threshold. The influence of the position of the well, the uncertain residual gas saturation and the regional flow are studied. The model shows that both gas and aquifer properties have a significant impact on storage. Due to its low viscosity, the mobility of the hythane is quite high and gas expands significantly, reducing

  19. EFFECT OF LASER LIGHT ON MATTER. LASER PLASMAS: Evaporation-capillary instability in a deep vapour-gas cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzoev, F. Kh

    1994-02-01

    A theoretical investigation is made of an instability of a molten metal surface on the walls of a deep vapour—gas cavity or crater when this surface absorbs a uniform flux of the energy of laser radiation. The instability is due to the growth of perturbations on the free surface of the melt. This growth is maintained by an associated space—time modulation of the evaporation pressure. The dispersion equation for weak hydrodynamic perturbations is derived and investigated. This equation allows for the dependence of the instability increment on the laser radiation and phase transition parameters, and also on the material constants of the medium. Quantitative estimates are obtained of the conditions for the realisation of the investigated instability mechanism.

  20. Beaufort Sea deep-water gas hydrate recovery from a seafloor mound in a region of widespread BSR occurrence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, Patrick E.; Pohlman, John W.; Lorenson, T.D.; Edwards, Brian D.

    2011-01-01

    Gas hydrate was recovered from the Alaskan Beaufort Sea slope north of Camden Bay in August 2010 during a U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Healy expedition (USCG cruise ID HLY1002) under the direction of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Interpretation of multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection data collected in 1977 by the USGS across the Beaufort Sea continental margin identified a regional bottom simulating reflection (BSR), indicating that a large segment of the Beaufort Sea slope is underlain by gas hydrate. During HLY1002, gas hydrate was sampled by serendipity with a piston core targeting a steep-sided bathymetric high originally thought to be an outcrop of older, exposed strata. The feature cored is an approximately 1100m diameter, 130 m high conical mound, referred to here as the Canning Seafloor Mound (CSM), which overlies the crest of a buried anticline in a region of sub-parallel compressional folds beneath the eastern Beaufort outer slope. An MCS profile shows a prominent BSR upslope and downslope from the mound. The absence of a BSR beneath the CSM and occurrence of gas hydrate near the summit indicates that free gas has migrated via deep-rooted thrust faults or by structural focusing up the flanks of the anticline to the seafloor. Gas hydrate recovered from near the CSM summit at a subbottom depth of about 5.7 meters in a water depth of 2538 m was of nodular and vein-filling morphology. Although the hydrate was not preserved, residual gas from the core liner contained >95% methane by volume when corrected for atmospheric contamination. The presence of trace C4+hydrocarbons (<0.1% by volume) confirms at least a minor thermogenic component. Authigenic carbonates and mollusk shells found throughout the core indicate sustained methane-rich fluid advection and possible sediment extrusion contributing to the development of the mound. Blister-like inflation of the seafloor caused by formation and accumulation of shallow hydrate lenses is also a likely factor in CSM

  1. Deuterium trapping in deep traps of differently oriented pyrolytic graphite exposed to D 2 gas at 1473 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernikov, V. N.; Wampler, W. R.; Zakharov, A. P.; Gorodetsky, A. E.

    1999-01-01

    Due to their importance for tritium inventories in future DT fueled fusion machines, experimental data on H isotope diffusion, absorption and retention in deep traps ( Eb ≅ 4.3 eV) of graphites exposed to hydrogen at elevated temperatures have been reviewed. Deuterium retention was studied in edge- and basal-oriented pyrolytic graphite (PG) and polycrystalline RG-Ti-91 damaged by irradiation with 200 keV carbon ions. Deuterium loading was done by soaking in D 2 gas at 1473 K, and the resulting D retention was measured by nuclear reaction analysis. The microstructure was studied by cross-sectional TEM, SEM and microprofilometry. The concentration of strong traps created by irradiation and estimated by the amount of accumulated deuterium was shown to saturate with the damage above ≈1 dpa at about 1000 appm. In non-damaged and damaged graphites deuterium diffuses via porous grain boundaries and along basal planes within crystallites, while its migration through the graphite lattice along the c direction was found to be negligible. Radiation modifications of PG retard deuterium diffusion and decrease the rate of its chemical erosion by a factor of five. The amount of deuterium accumulated in strong traps in graphites is mainly influenced by their macro- and microstructure, while the degree of graphitization seems to be less important. Derivations are made of the susceptibility of damaged graphites, in particular, CFCs to the retention of hydrogen isotopes in deep traps.

  2. P- and S-wave seismic attenuation for deep natural gas exploration and development

    SciTech Connect

    Walls, Joel; Uden, Richard; Singleton, Scott; Shu, Rone; Mavko, Gary

    2005-04-12

    Using current methods, oil and gas in the subsurface cannot be reliably predicted from seismic data. This causes domestic oil and gas fields to go undiscovered and unexploited, thereby increasing the need to import energy.The general objective of this study was to demonstrate a simple and effective methodology for estimating reservoir properties (gas saturation in particular, but also including lithology, net to gross ratios, and porosity) from seismic attenuation and other attributes using P- and S-waves. Phase I specific technical objectives: Develop Empirical or Theoretical Rock Physics Relations for Qp and Qs; Create P-wave and S-wave Synthetic Seismic Modeling Algorithms with Q; and, Compute P-wave and S-wave Q Attributes from Multi-component Seismic Data. All objectives defined in the Phase I proposal were accomplished. During the course of this project, a new class of seismic analysis was developed based on compressional and shear wave inelastic rock properties (attenuation). This method provides a better link between seismic data and the presence of hydrocarbons. The technique employs both P and S-wave data to better discriminate between attenuation due to hydrocarbons versus energy loss due to other factors such as scattering and geometric spreading. It was demonstrated that P and S attenuation can be computed from well log data and used to generate synthetic seismograms. Rock physics models for P and S attenuation were tested on a well from the Gulf of Mexico. The P- and S-wave Q attributes were computed on multi-component 2D seismic data intersecting this well. These methods generated reasonable results, and most importantly, the Q attributes indicated gas saturation.

  3. Underground Coal Gasification Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-12-01

    CAVSIM is a three-dimensional, axisymmetric model for resource recovery and cavity growth during underground coal gasification (UCG). CAVSIM is capable of following the evolution of the cavity from near startup to exhaustion, and couples explicitly wall and roof surface growth to material and energy balances in the underlying rubble zones. Growth mechanisms are allowed to change smoothly as the system evolves from a small, relatively empty cavity low in the coal seam to a large,more » almost completely rubble-filled cavity extending high into the overburden rock. The model is applicable to nonswelling coals of arbitrary seam thickness and can handle a variety of gas injection flow schedules or compositions. Water influx from the coal aquifer is calculated by a gravity drainage-permeation submodel which is integrated into the general solution. The cavity is considered to consist of up to three distinct rubble zones and a void space at the top. Resistance to gas flow injected from a stationary source at the cavity floor is assumed to be concentrated in the ash pile, which builds up around the source, and also the overburden rubble which accumulates on top of this ash once overburden rock is exposed at the cavity top. Char rubble zones at the cavity side and edges are assumed to be highly permeable. Flow of injected gas through the ash to char rubble piles and the void space is coupled by material and energy balances to cavity growth at the rubble/coal, void/coal and void/rock interfaces. One preprocessor and two postprocessor programs are included - SPALL calculates one-dimensional mean spalling rates of coal or rock surfaces exposed to high temperatures and generates CAVSIM input: TAB reads CAVSIM binary output files and generates ASCII tables of selected data for display; and PLOT produces dot matrix printer or HP printer plots from TAB output.« less

  4. Versatile structure-directing roles of deep-eutectic solvents and their implication in the generation of porosity and open metal sites for gas storage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Wu, Tao; Chen, Shumei; Feng, Pingyun; Bu, Xianhui

    2009-01-01

    Trap it in and burn it out: A deep-eutectic solvent provides a versatile medium for the creation of highly stable porous frameworks encapsulating neutral coordinating ligand molecules, which can escape intact from the pores upon heating to form crystals directly, leaving behind permanent porosity and coordinatively unsaturated metal sites with potential applications in gas storage and catalysis. PMID:19343752

  5. Versatile Structure-directing Roles of Deep Eutectic Solvents and Their Implication in Generation of Porosity and Open Metal Sites for Gas Storage**

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian; Wu, Tao; Chen, Shumei; Feng, Pingyun; Bu, Xianhui

    2009-01-01

    Trap it in and burn it out: the deep eutectic solvent provides a versatile route for the creation of highly stable porous frameworks encapsulating neutral coordinating ligand molecule, which can escape intact from the pore upon heating to directly become crystals, leaving behind permanent porosity and coordinatively unsaturated metal sites with potential applications in gas storage and catalysis. PMID:19343752

  6. Method of estimating the amount of in situ gas hydrates in deep marine sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, M.W.; Hutchinson, D.R.; Dillon, William P.; Miller, J.J.; Agena, W.F.; Swift, B.A.

    1993-01-01

    The bulk volume of gas hydrates in marine sediments can be estimated by measuring interval velocities and amplitude blanking of hydrated zones from true amplitude processed multichannel seismic reflection data. In general, neither velocity nor amplitude information is adequate to independently estimate hydrate concentration. A method is proposed that uses amplitude blanking calibrated by interval velocity information to quantify hydrate concentrations in the Blake Ridge area of the US Atlantic continental margin. On the Blake Ridge, blanking occurs in conjunction with relatively low interval velocities. The model that best explains this relation linearly mixes two end-member sediments: hydrated and unhydrated sediment. Hydrate concentration in the hydrate end-member can be calculated from a weighted equation that uses velocity estimated from the seismic data, known properties of the pure hydrate, and porosity inferred from a velocity-porosity relationship. Amplitude blanking can be predicted as the proportions of hydrated and unhydrated sediment change across a reflection boundary. Our analysis of a small area near DSDP 533 indicates that the amount of gas hydrates is about 6% in total volume when the interval velocity is used as a criterion and about 9.5% when amplitude information is used. This compares with a calculated value of about 8% derived from the only available measurement in DSDP 533. ?? 1993.

  7. RESOURCE ASSESSMENT OF THE IN-PLACE AND POTENTIALLY RECOVERABLE DEEP NATURAL GAS RESOURCE OF THE ONSHORE INTERIOR SALT BASINS, NORTH CENTRAL AND NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2004-04-16

    The University of Alabama and Louisiana State University have undertaken a cooperative 3-year, advanced subsurface methodology resource assessment project, involving petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling, to facilitate exploration for a potential major source of natural gas that is deeply buried (below 15,000 feet) in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas. The project is designed to assist in the formulation of advanced exploration strategies for funding and maximizing the recovery from deep natural gas domestic resources at reduced costs and risks and with minimum impact. The results of the project should serve to enhance exploration efforts by domestic companies in their search for new petroleum resources, especially those deeply buried (below 15,000 feet) natural gas resources, and should support the domestic industry's endeavor to provide an increase in reliable and affordable supplies of fossil fuels. The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project is data compilation and petroleum system identification. The research focus for the first nine (9) months of Year 1 is on data compilation and for the remainder of the year the emphasis is on petroleum system identification. The objectives of the study are: to perform resource assessment of the in-place deep (>15,000 ft) natural gas resource of the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas through petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling and to use the petroleum system based resource assessment to estimate the volume of the in-place deep gas resource that is potentially recoverable and to identify those areas in the interior salt basins with high potential to recover commercial quantities of the deep gas resource. The project objectives will be achieved through a 3-year effort. First, emphasis is on petroleum system identification and characterization in the North

  8. High-temperature quartz cement and the role of stylolites in a deep gas reservoir, Spiro Sandstone, Arkoma Basin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Worden, Richard H.; Morad, Sadoon; Spötl, C.; Houseknecht, D.W.; Riciputi, L.R.

    2000-01-01

    The Spiro Sandstone, a natural gas play in the central Arkoma Basin and the frontal Ouachita Mountains preserves excellent porosity in chloritic channel-fill sandstones despite thermal maturity levels corresponding to incipient metamorphism. Some wells, however, show variable proportions of a late-stage, non-syntaxial quartz cement, which post-dated thermal cracking of liquid hydrocarbons to pyrobitumen plus methane. Temperatures well in excess of 150°C and possibly exceeding 200°C are also suggested by (i) fluid inclusions in associated minerals; (ii) the fact that quartz post-dated high-temperature chlorite polytype IIb; (iii) vitrinite reflectance values of the Spiro that range laterally from 1.9 to ≥ 4%; and (iii) the occurrence of late dickite in these rocks. Oxygen isotope values of quartz cement range from 17.5 to 22.4‰ VSMOW (total range of individual in situ ion microprobe measurements) which are similar to those of quartz cement formed along high-amplitude stylolites (18.4–24.9‰). We favour a model whereby quartz precipitation was controlled primarily by the availability of silica via deep-burial stylolitization within the Spiro Sandstone. Burial-history modelling showed that the basin went from a geopressured to a normally pressured regime within about 10–15 Myr after it reached maximum burial depth. While geopressure and the presence of chlorite coats stabilized the grain framework and inhibited nucleation of secondary quartz, respectively, stylolites formed during the subsequent high-temperature, normal-pressured regime and gave rise to high-temperature quartz precipitation. Authigenic quartz growing along stylolites underscores their role as a significant deep-burial silica source in this sandstone.

  9. Underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.; Kannberg, L.D.

    1984-07-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric energy storage was conceived as a modification of surface pumped storage to eliminate dependence upon fortuitous topography, provide higher hydraulic heads, and reduce environmental concerns. A UPHS plant offers substantial savings in investment cost over coal-fired cycling plants and savings in system production costs over gas turbines. Potential location near load centers lowers transmission costs and line losses. Environmental impact is less than that for a coal-fired cycling plant. The inherent benefits include those of all pumped storage (i.e., rapid load response, emergency capacity, improvement in efficiency as pumps improve, and capacity for voltage regulation). A UPHS plant would be powered by either a coal-fired or nuclear baseload plant. The economic capacity of a UPHS plant would be in the range of 1000 to 3000 MW. This storage level is compatible with the load-leveling requirements of a greater metropolitan area with population of 1 million or more. The technical feasibility of UPHS depends upon excavation of a subterranean powerhouse cavern and reservoir caverns within a competent, impervious rock formation, and upon selection of reliable and efficient turbomachinery - pump-turbines and motor-generators - all remotely operable.

  10. HAWAII UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a point coverage of underground storage tanks(UST) for the state of Hawaii. The original database was developed and is maintained by the State of Hawaii, Dept. of Health. The point locations represent facilities where one or more underground storage tanks occur. Each fa...

  11. Underground structure of terrestrial mud volcanoes and abnormal water pressure formation in Niigata, Central JAPAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, K.; Shinya, T.; Miyata, Y.; Tokuyasu, S.

    2005-12-01

    Activity of mud volcano is thought to be caused by an abnormal water pressure generated in deep underground and make a serious problem for underground constructions such as railway tunnel, underground facility for radwaste and so on. It is important to investigate the underground structure of a mud volcano and the mechanism of abnormal water formation for site selection and safety assessment of such facilities. Serious trouble such as tunnel wall collapse due to the rock swelling has happened 180m deep under mud volcanoes. It took more than 10 years to excavate the section of 150 m long. 4 terrestrial mud volcanoes were found in the Tertiary sedimentary basin in Niigata, central Japan All the mud volcanoes are distributed along the rim of the topographic basin that is located at the NE-SW trending crest of mountainous area and distributed along the wing of anticline. Geological structure inside basin is heavily disturbed. The extinct mud volcano is exposed in the side-slope of newly constructed road and the internal vent structure of mud volcano can be observed. The vent is 30 m in diameter and is consisted of mud breccia and scaly network clay that is thought to be generated by hydro-fracturing and the following water-rock interaction between mudstone and groundwater. Groundwater erupted from mud volcano is highly saline with electric conductivity of 15 mS/cm and high 18 O/16 O isotope ratio of 1.2 parmillage. Also, the vitrinite reflectance is 1.5 to 1.9 % that is not expected in the sedimentary rocks exposed near ground surface. As a result, it is assumed that these erupted materials were introduced from the deep underground about 4000 m deep. CSA-MT geophysical exploration was carried out to survey the underground structure and obtained the profile of electrical resistivity from the surface to 800 m in depth. It is found that the disk-shaped low resistivity zone less than 1 m due to the high salinity content is identified in underground 600 m deep, 200 m thick

  12. Numerical investigations of the fluid flows at deep oceanic and arctic permafrost-associated gas hydrate deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederick, Jennifer Mary

    , allows us a unique opportunity to study the response of methane hydrate deposits to warming. Gas hydrate stability in the Arctic and the permeability of the shelf sediments to gas migration is thought to be closely linked with relict submarine permafrost. Submarine permafrost extent depends on several environmental factors, such as the shelf lithology, sea level variations, mean annual air temperature, ocean bottom water temperature, geothermal heat flux, groundwater hydrology, and the salinity of the pore water. Effects of submarine groundwater discharge, which introduces fresh terrestrial groundwater off-shore, can freshen deep marine sediments and is an important control on the freezing point depression of ice and methane hydrate. While several thermal modeling studies suggest the permafrost layer should still be largely intact near-shore, many recent field studies have reported elevated methane levels in Arctic coastal waters. The permafrost layer is thought to create an impermeable barrier to fluid and gas flow, however, talik formation (unfrozen regions within otherwise continuous permafrost) below paleo-river channels can create permeable pathways for gas migration from depth. This is the first study of its kind to make predictions of the methane gas flux to the water column from the Arctic shelf sediments using a 2D multi-phase fluid flow model. Model results show that the dissociation of methane hydrate deposits through taliks can supersaturate the overlying water column at present-day relative to equilibrium with the atmosphere when taliks are large (> 1 km width) or hydrate saturation is high within hydrate layers (> 50% pore volume). Supersaturated waters likely drive a net flux of methane into the atmosphere, a potent greenhouse gas. Effects of anthropogenic global warming will certainly increase gas venting rates if ocean bottom water temperatures increase, but likely won't have immediately observable impacts due to the long response times.

  13. Funding for NSF underground laboratory is rejected

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, David

    2011-02-15

    The Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL), which proponents hope could provide a niche for the US particle-physics community, faces a shutdown as early as 1 April; the National Science Board (NSB) has rejected $19 million in funding needed to keep the project going through the fall of this year. The lab is housed in a disused gold mine in South Dakota's Black Hills.

  14. 49 CFR 192.325 - Underground clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Underground clearance. 192.325 Section 192.325 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM...

  15. Underground infrastructure damage for a Chicago scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, Thomas N; Bos, Rabdall J

    2011-01-25

    Estimating effects due to an urban IND (improvised nuclear device) on underground structures and underground utilities is a challenging task. Nuclear effects tests performed at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during the era of nuclear weapons testing provides much information on how underground military structures respond. Transferring this knowledge to answer questions about the urban civilian environment is needed to help plan responses to IND scenarios. Explosions just above the ground surface can only couple a small fraction of the blast energy into an underground shock. The various forms of nuclear radiation have limited penetration into the ground. While the shock transmitted into the ground carries only a small fraction of the blast energy, peak stresses are generally higher and peak ground displacement is lower than in the air blast. While underground military structures are often designed to resist stresses substantially higher than due to the overlying rocks and soils (overburden), civilian structures such as subways and tunnels would generally only need to resist overburden conditions with a suitable safety factor. Just as we expect the buildings themselves to channel and shield air blast above ground, basements and other underground openings as well as changes of geology will channel and shield the underground shock wave. While a weaker shock is expected in an urban environment, small displacements on very close-by faults, and more likely, soils being displaced past building foundations where utility lines enter could readily damaged or disable these services. Immediately near an explosion, the blast can 'liquefy' a saturated soil creating a quicksand-like condition for a period of time. We extrapolate the nuclear effects experience to a Chicago-based scenario. We consider the TARP (Tunnel and Reservoir Project) and subway system and the underground lifeline (electric, gas, water, etc) system and provide guidance for planning this scenario.

  16. Correction of aspect ratio dependency in deep silicon etch using SF6/C4F8/Ar gas mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Robert Lee

    The etch rate of deep features in silicon, such as trenches and vias, can vary significantly with the changing Aspect Ratio (AR) of the feature. Developing a better understanding of the complex volumetric and surface chemistry as well as the etching mechanisms controlling the Aspect Ratio Dependent Etch-rate (ARDE) continues to present research opportunities. Recall that ARDE is generally characterized by small AR features etching at faster rates than large AR features. The main causes of ARDE include Knudsen transport of neutrals into and out of the features as well as ion and neutral loss to the walls due to angular spread in the velocity distribution function and differential charging of insulating microstructures. This work focuses on using a continuous plasma process utilizing a gas mixture of SF6/C4F8/Ar to produce trenches of varying widths and depths. The experimental results were obtained using a Plasma-Therm Versaline processing system. Experiments were performed to show that the etch rate of low AR features can be reduced through the deposition of a passivation layer and thereby allow larger AR features to catch up. It is also possible to invert the ARDE in certain circumstances. We will present the insights we have gained into the ARDE process and the solutions we have tested.

  17. Stability of natural gas in the deep subsurface. Technical progress report. [Composition of gases in fluid inclusions from calcite, quartz, anorthosite and olivine

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, C.

    1986-04-30

    Although present gas reserves are adequate for immediate needs, they will eventually be consumed and exploration for additional reserves will have to be pushed steadily deeper. We have continued to try and establish depth limits for commercial gas accumulations in deep reservoirs using a combined theoretical and experimental approach. Theoretical: The computer program, developed over the last few years for calculating the stabilities of natural gas components in reservoirs of various mineralogies, is running routinely. It finds the minimum free energy in multicomponent (up to 70), multiphase (up to 20) systems for conditions corresponding to temperatures and pressure down to 40,000 ft (12 km). The program has been used to calculate gas composition for a wide range of potential reservoir mineralogy. In addition, some preliminary studies have been carried out to make the program compatible with the widely available microcomputers (''PC's''). Analytical: Fluid inclusions have been used to provide uncontaminated samples of deep gas. The fast-scanning, computer-controlled mass spectrometer system available for analyzing gases in individual fluid inclusions separately, has been used to study a wide range of minerals. Currently, up to 225 inclusions can be analyzed in a 10 mg sample with a dynamic range of approximately 1:10,000. Samples analyzed include: (1) calcite cements from deep sedimentary sections (down to 20,000 ft) which are frequently rich in hydrogen sulfide, (2) deep metamorphic quartz (probably > 50,000 ft) which was very rich in methane, (sometimes > 70%), and (3) mid-ocean ridge basalt plagioclase and Hawaiian olivines, which were high in carbon dioxide with minor water and carbon monoxide. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Simulation of Carbon-14 Migration Through a Thick Unsaturated Alluvial Basin Resulting from an Underground Nuclear Explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martian, P.; Larentzos, J.

    2008-12-01

    Yucca Flat is one of several areas on the Nevada Test Site that was used for underground nuclear testing. Extensive testing performed in the unsaturated and saturated zones have resulted in groundwater contamination and surface subsidence craters in the vicinity of the underground test areas. Simulation of multiphase 14C transport through the thick Yucca Flat alluvial basin was performed to estimate the magnitude of radionuclide attenuation occurring within the unsaturated zone. Parameterization of the 14C transport in the multiphase flow and transport simulator (FEHM) was verified with experimental data collected from a large unsaturated soil column experiment. The experimental data included 14C as a radio-labeled bicarbonate solution, SF6 gas, and lithium bromide solution breakthroughs. Two representative simulation cases with working points located at shallow and deep depths relative to the water table were created to investigate the impact of subsidence crater-enhanced recharge, crater-playa areal extent, gas-phase partitioning, solid-phase partitioning, and a reduced permeability/porosity compressed zone created during the explosion on 14C transport. The representative shallow test had a detonation point located 175 m below land surface, and the deep test had a working point 435 m below land surface in a 500 m deep unsaturated zone. Carbon-14 transport is influenced by gas-phase diffusion and sorption within the alluvium. Gas-phase diffusion is an attenuation mechanism that transports 14C gas as 14CO2 throughout the unsaturated zone and exposes it to a large amount of soil moisture, resulting in dilute concentrations. The simulations indicated that the majority of the 14C inventory remains in the unsaturated zone over a 1,000-year time period after detonation because gas-phase diffusion moves the bulk of the 14C away from the higher recharge occurring in crater playas. Retardation also plays a role in slowing advective aqueous phase transport to the water

  19. Potential underground risks associated with CAES.

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, Matthew F.; Webb, Stephen Walter; Broome, Scott Thomas; Pfeifle, Thomas W.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2010-10-01

    CAES in geologic media has been proposed to help 'firm' renewable energy sources (wind and solar) by providing a means to store energy when excess energy was available, and to provide an energy source during non-productive renewable energy time periods. Such a storage media may experience hourly (perhaps small) pressure swings. Salt caverns represent the only proven underground storage used for CAES, but not in a mode where renewable energy sources are supported. Reservoirs, both depleted natural gas and aquifers represent other potential underground storage vessels for CAES, however, neither has yet to be demonstrated as a functional/operational storage media for CAES.

  20. Conservation with underground power lines

    SciTech Connect

    Graneau, P.

    1980-01-01

    The following aspects of underground power transmission lines are discussed: their contribution to area beautification; line losses and their causes; the energy conservation potential of large-conductor underground cables; reliability and outage advantages as compared with overhead lines; the history of underground systems; problems with polyethylene insulation; and the development and performance of sodium conductors for underground cables. (LCL)

  1. Science Goes Underground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Stuart; Keogh, Brenda

    1999-01-01

    Cartoons illustrating scientific concepts were used in the London Underground and informal learning sites to raise adult awareness of science and promote lifelong learning. They are also being used in formal learning situations such as adult-literacy classes. (SK)

  2. Science Center Goes Underground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1977

    1977-01-01

    A unique underground science center at Bluffton College, designed to save energy and preserve trees, rolling landscape, and other environmental features of the campus, is under construction in Bluffton, Ohio. (Author)

  3. Storage of CO2 at low temperature as liquid or solid gas hydrate - Application to the Biscay deep zone in the French EEZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnol, André; Thinon, Isabelle; Audigane, Pascal; Leynet, Aurélien

    2013-04-01

    Amongst the various CO2 geological storage options currently under consideration, the deep saline aquifers (beyond 800-m depth) were considered to present the most interesting storage capacity due to the density of CO2 in its supercritical state. However, at lower temperature, another form of storage is possible, either in the state of CO2 hydrates or liquid CO2 (1, 2). In Alaska, a first demonstrator showed recently the possibility of exchange of CO2 and CH4 in natural gas hydrates. At higher pressures common in deep-sea sediments, liquid CO2 can be denser than the overlying seawater and therefore be trapped in the marine sediments (2). We explored in this work the storage capacity at the Biscay deep zone in the French Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). A local bathymetry of the zone (abyssal plain and continental margin) was used to define a potential interesting zone for the CO2 storage, considering different safety criteria. A sensitivity analysis on the geothermal gradient was carried out using two extreme scenarios (Low and High gradient) based on the available Ocean Drilling Program's data. In both cases, the Negative Buoyancy Zone (NBZ) and the CO2 Hydrate Formation Zone (HFZ) were calculated using the GERG-2008 Equation of State for liquid CO2 and the CSMGem code for CO2 hydrate, respectively. Following this sensitivity analysis, a CO2 injection depth is proposed and the French "deep offshore" storage capacity is quantitatively evaluated and compared to the "onshore" storage capacity in deep saline aquifers. References 1. Le Nindre Y., Allier D., Duchkov A., Altunina L. K., Shvartsev S., Zhelezniak M. and Klerkx J. (2011) Storing CO2 underneath the Siberian Permafrost: A win-win solution for long-term trapping of CO2 and heavy oil upgrading. Energy Procedia4, 5414-5421 2. House K. Z., Schrag D. P., Harvey C. F. and Lackner K. S. (2006) Permanent carbon dioxide storage in deep-sea sediments. PNAS

  4. Underground mine communications: a survey

    SciTech Connect

    Yarkan, S.; Guzelgoz, S.; Arslan, H.; Murphy, R.R.

    2009-07-01

    After a recent series of unfortunate underground mining disasters, the vital importance of communications for underground mining is underlined one more time. Establishing reliable communication is a very difficult task for underground mining due to the extreme environmental conditions. Until now, no single communication system exists which can solve all of the problems and difficulties encountered in underground mine communications. However, combining research with previous experiences might help existing systems improve, if not completely solve all of the problems. In this survey, underground mine communication is investigated. Major issues which underground mine communication systems must take into account are discussed. Communication types, methods, and their significance are presented.

  5. Underground mineral extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface of the Earth. The vehicle hydraulically drills pilot holes during its entrances into the seam, and then directs sideward jets at the seam during its withdrawal from each pilot hole to comminute the mineral surrounding the pilot hole and combine it with water into a slurry, so that the slurried mineral can flow to a location where a pump raises the slurry to the surface.

  6. Leaking underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Dowd, R.M.

    1984-10-01

    The problems associated with leaking underground storage tanks are discussed. An estimated 10-30% of the 3.5 million or more underground tanks now used to store petroleum products and other liquids may be leaking their contents to the surrounding environment. The EPA is initiating a national field survey of tanks used for the storing of engine fuels. The first phase of the survey will cover a representative sample of 1050 facilities and approximately 2800 tanks. EPA will analyze the questionnaires and then select a sub-sample of about 500 tanks to examine leakage problems in more detail. In the absence of specific groundwater protection legislation or regulation, EPA is planning to use the Toxic Substances Control Act to regulate underground tanks.

  7. CASPAR - Nuclear Astrophysics Underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strieder, Frank; Robertson, Daniel; Couder, Manoel; Greife, Uwe; Wells, Doug; Wiescher, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The work of the LUNA Collaboration at the Laboratori Nationali del Gran Sasso demonstrated the research potential of an underground accelerator for the field of nuclear astrophysics. Several key reactions could be studied at LUNA, some directly at the Gamow peak for solar hydrogen burning. The CASPAR (Compact Accelerator System for Performing Astrophysical Research) Collaboration will implement a high intensity 1 MV accelerator at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) and overcome the current limitation at LUNA. The installation of the accelerator in the recently rehabilitated underground cavity at SURF started in Summer 2015 and first beam should be delivered by the end of the year. This project will primarily focus on the neutron sources for the s-process, e.g. 13C(α , n) 16O and 22Ne(α , n) 25Mg , and lead to unprecedented measurements compared to previous studies. A detailed overview of the science goals of CASPAR will be presented.

  8. Background Underground at WIPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esch, Ernst-Ingo; Hime, A.; Bowles, T. J.

    2001-04-01

    Recent interest to establish a dedicated underground laboratory in the United States prompted an experimental program at to quantify the enviromental backgrounds underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. An outline of this program is provided along with recent experimental data on the cosmic ray muon flux at the 650 meter level of WIPP. The implications of the cosmic ray muon and fast neutron background at WIPP will be discussed in the context of new generation, low background experiments envisioned in the future.

  9. Underground radial pipe network

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.L.

    1984-04-24

    The network, useful in conducting fluids to underground sites, is an assembly of flexible pipes or tubes, suspended from and connected to a drill pipe. The flexible pipes, assembled in a bundle, are spring biased to flare outwardly in an arcuate manner when a releasable cap on the distal end of the bundle is removed. The assembled bundle is inserted into and lowered down a bore hole. When the cap is released, the pipes flare radially and outwardly. Fluid, pumped into and through the assembly, can be directed into the underground formation for various purposes.

  10. Significance of diffusion processes during the formation of regional gas-saturation in formation systems and the gas capacity of deep horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Shilov, Y.S.; Makarenko, F.A.

    1982-09-01

    The diffusion dispersal of methane is analyzed according to Fick's Law, and the relative gas-saturation of the formation systems of differing lithologic composition are predicted through the geologic periods. Good agreement between the calculated values of the gas-saturation of the formation systems and the true data enabled us to record the beginning of breakdown of gas pools and the rates of their diminution. From the relationships of the specific losses of gas, expressed in the height of the gas column under the formational conditions, and the amplitudes of the structures, an attempt has been made to assess the commercial gas-capacity in the depths.

  11. ANDES: An Underground Laboratory in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dib, Claudio O.

    ANDES (Agua Negra Deep Experiment Site) is an underground laboratory, proposed to be built inside the Agua Negra road tunnel that will connect Chile (IV Region) with Argentina (San Juan Province) under the Andes Mountains. The Laboratory will be 1750 meters under the rock, becoming the 3rd deepest underground laboratory of this kind in the world, and the first in the Southern Hemisphere. ANDES will be an international Laboratory, managed by a Latin American consortium. The laboratory will host experiments in Particle and Astroparticle Physics, such as Neutrino and Dark Matter searches, Seismology, Geology, Geophysics and Biology. It will also be used for the development of low background instrumentation and related services. Here we present the general features of the proposed laboratory, the current status of the proposal and some of its opportunities for science.

  12. Towards the South African Underground Laboratory (SAUL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyngaardt, S. M.; Newman, R. T.; Lindsay, R.; Buffler, A.; de Meijer, R.; Maleka, P.; Bezuidenhout, J.; Nchodu, R.; van Rooyen, M.; Ndlovu, Z.

    Over the past two years there has been discussion among South African physicists about the possibility of establishing a deep underground physics laboratory to study, amongst others, double beta decay, geoneutrinos, reactor neutrinos and dark matter. As a step towards a full proposal for such a laboratory a number of smaller programmes are currently being performed to investigate feasibility of the Huguenot Tunnel in the Du Toitskloof Mountains near Paarl (Western Cape, South Africa) as a possible sight for the South African Underground Laboratory facility. The programme includes measurements of radon in air (using electret ion chambers and alpha spectroscopy), background gammaray measurements (inside/outside) the tunnel using scintillator (inorganic) detectors, cosmic ray measurements using organic scintillators and radiometric analyses of representative rock samples.

  13. Underground coal gasification using oxygen and steam

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, L.H.; Zhang, X.; Liu, S.

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, through model experiment of the underground coal gasification, the effects of pure oxygen gasification, oxygen-steam gasification, and moving-point gasification methods on the underground gasification process and gas quality were studied. Experiments showed that H{sub 2} and CO volume fraction in product gas during the pure oxygen gasification was 23.63-30.24% and 35.22-46.32%, respectively, with the gas heating value exceeding 11.00 MJ/m{sup 3}; under the oxygen-steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio stood at 2: 1, gas compositions remained virtually stable and CO + H{sub 2} was basically between 61.66 and 71.29%. Moving-point gasification could effectively improve the changes in the cavity in the coal seams or the effects of roof inbreak on gas quality; the ratio of gas flowing quantity to oxygen supplying quantity was between 3.1:1 and 3.5:1 and took on the linear changes; on the basis of the test data, the reasons for gas quality changes under different gasification conditions were analyzed.

  14. A Resource Assessment Of Geothermal Energy Resources For Converting Deep Gas Wells In Carbonate Strata Into Geothermal Extraction Wells: A Permian Basin Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.

    2006-10-12

    Previously conducted preliminary investigations within the deep Delaware and Val Verde sub-basins of the Permian Basin complex documented bottom hole temperatures from oil and gas wells that reach the 120-180C temperature range, and occasionally beyond. With large abundances of subsurface brine water, and known porosity and permeability, the deep carbonate strata of the region possess a good potential for future geothermal power development. This work was designed as a 3-year project to investigate a new, undeveloped geographic region for establishing geothermal energy production focused on electric power generation. Identifying optimum geologic and geographic sites for converting depleted deep gas wells and fields within a carbonate environment into geothermal energy extraction wells was part of the project goals. The importance of this work was to affect the three factors limiting the expansion of geothermal development: distribution, field size and accompanying resource availability, and cost. Historically, power production from geothermal energy has been relegated to shallow heat plumes near active volcanic or geyser activity, or in areas where volcanic rocks still retain heat from their formation. Thus geothermal development is spatially variable and site specific. Additionally, existing geothermal fields are only a few 10’s of square km in size, controlled by the extent of the heat plume and the availability of water for heat movement. This plume radiates heat both vertically as well as laterally into the enclosing country rock. Heat withdrawal at too rapid a rate eventually results in a decrease in electrical power generation as the thermal energy is “mined”. The depletion rate of subsurface heat directly controls the lifetime of geothermal energy production. Finally, the cost of developing deep (greater than 4 km) reservoirs of geothermal energy is perceived as being too costly to justify corporate investment. Thus further development opportunities

  15. Methanogen and bacterial diversity and distribution in deep gas hydrate sediments from the Cascadia Margin as revealed by 16S rRNA molecular analysis.

    PubMed

    Marchesi; Weightman; Cragg; Parkes; Fry

    2001-01-01

    The microbial community of a deep (to 234 m below the sea floor) sediment gas hydrate deposit (Cascadia Margin Ocean Drilling Program Site 889/890, Leg 146) was analysed for the first time by molecular genetic techniques. Both bacterial and methanogen diversity were determined by phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal DNA sequences. High molecular mass DNA, indicative of active bacteria, was present in all of the samples. Ribosomal RNA genes were amplified from extracted DNA extracted from sediment using bacteria, and methanogen specific PCR primers, the latter designed in this study. Phylogenetic analysis of approximately 400 bacterial clones demonstrated that 96% were members of the Proteobacteria. These clones were affiliated with the alpha, beta and gamma subdivisions, with Caulobacter (Zymomonas group), Ralstonia and Pseudomonas phylotypes predominating. The methanogen clones were of low diversity and clustered in three sub-groups. Two of these sub-groups (contained 96% of the 400 clones) were closely related to Methanosarcina mazeii, while the third sub-group clustered in the Methanobacteriales. This analysis of a deep sediment gas hydrate environment shows a bacteria and methanogen community of limited diversity and confirms that the gas hydrate zone is biogeochemically active. These results are consistent with the presence of bacterial populations capable of methanogenesis throughout the core, and suggest that the methane hydrate at this site is at least partially biogenic in origin. PMID:11137602

  16. Underground Tank Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednar, Barbara A.

    1990-01-01

    The harm to human health and our environment caused by leaking underground storage tanks can be devastating. Schools can meet new federal waste management standards by instituting daily inventory monitoring, selecting a reliable volumetric testing company, locating and repairing leaks promptly, and removing and installing tanks appropriately. (MLH)

  17. Underground Coal Mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Computer program models coal-mining production, equipment failure and equipment repair. Underground mine is represented as collection of work stations requiring service by production and repair crews alternately. Model projects equipment availability and productivity, and indicates proper balance of labor and equipment. Program is in FORTRAN IV for batch execution; it has been implemented on UNIVAC 1108.

  18. Mars Underground News.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgett, K.

    Contents: Ten years Underground. Rover roundup (International Conference on Mobile Planetary Robots and Rover Roundup, Santa Monica, CA (USA), 29 Jan - 4 Feb 1997). Reaching the Red. Schedule of missions to Mars (as of April 1, 1997). Mars on the Web.

  19. Collaborations in Underground Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Joseph S. Y.

    2011-04-01

    There are programs between underground physics labs into other studies. The Gran Sasso with large halls and dedicated tunnels in Italy and the Canfranc with newly completed space in Spain have geodynamic experiments (A. Bettini communication, 2011). The Low Noise Underground Lab (LSBB of Rustrel-pays d'Apt) converted a former French missiles launching command center to house a SQUID shielded electromagnetically above 10 Hz for global ionosphere and earthquake observations (G. Waysand et al. 2010). The China JingPing Lab has new physics room and tunnels excavated under 2.5 km overburden with rock mechanic changes evaluated (X. Feng, 2011). These are examples associated with tunnels through mountain ranges. In North America, we have Canada's SNO in an active mine with new space and the U.S. effort for reentry into the abandoned Homestake mine levels for physics and bio-geo-engineering studies. We also have underground research labs dedicated to nuclear waste research in Sweden, Switzerland, France, Germany, and candidate sites in Japan and China. All these underground labs are engaging in international collaborations to develop inter-disciplinary studies. The linkage/networking with International Physics is pursued.

  20. Ultrafine cement grout for sealing underground nuclear waste repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, E.H.; Onofrei, M.

    1996-02-01

    Sealing fractures in nuclear waste repositories concerns all programs investigating deep burial as a means of disposal. Because the most likely mechanism for contaminant migration is by dissolution and movement through groundwater, sealing programs are seeking low-viscosity sealants that are chemically, mineralogically, and physically compatible with their host. This paper presents the results of collaborative work between Whitesell Laboratories, operated by Atomic Energy of Canada, Ltd., and Sandia National Laboratories; the work was undertaken in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This effort addresses the technology associated with long-term isolation of nuclear waste in a natural salt medium. The work presented is part of the plugging and sealing program, specifically the development and optimization of Ultrafine cementitious grout that can be injected to adequately lower excessive, strain-induced permeability in the Distributed Rock Zone (DRZ) surrounding underground excavations. Innovative equipment and procedures employed in the laboratory produced a usable cement-based grout whose particles are 90% smaller than 8 microns and average 4 microns. The process involved simultaneous wet pulverization and mixing. The grout was used for a successful in situ test underground at the WIPP. Injection of grout sealed microfractures as small as 8 microns and lowered the gas permeability of the DRZ by three orders of magnitude. Following the WIPP test, additional work produced an improved version of the grout containing particles 90% smaller than 6 microns and averaging 2 microns. This grout can be produced in the dry form at a competitive cost ready to mix.

  1. Global Pursuits: The Underground Railroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This brief article describes Charles T. Webber's oil on canvas painting, "The Underground Railroad, 1893." The subject of this painting is the Underground Railroad, which today has become an American legend. The Underground Railroad was not a systematic means of transportation, but rather a secretive process that allowed fugitive slaves to escape…

  2. Application of KISOS for the Monitoring Environmental Risks Assessment in Deep-water Gas Hydrate Test Production in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. R.; Chun, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) has developed the KIGAM Seafloor Observation System (KISOS) for the baseline studies in the monitoring gas hydrate test production in the deep-water (>2,000m) Ulleung Basin of the East Sea of Korea. The KISOS consists of an acoustic positioning system (USBL), altimeter, still camera, video camera, water sampler, measuring devices (dissolved methane, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, chlorophyll, and currents) mounted on the unmanned ROV, and a seafloor sediment collecting device. The ultimate goals of the seafloor monitoring are to assess environmental risks (gas leakage and production water/drilling discharge, and so on) which may occur during and after the gas hydrate test production drilling. The KISOS was applied to solely conduct baseline studies during the last three years. We will conduct the KIGAM seafloor monitoring system (KIMOS) of the Korean gas hydrate program in the future. The large scale of environmental monitoring program includes the environmental impact assessments such as seafloor disturbance and subsidence, detection of methane gas leakage around well and cold seep, methane bubbles and dissolved methane, change of marine environments, chemical factor variation of water column and seabed, diffusion of drilling mud and production water, and biological factors of biodiversity and marine habitats before and after production drilling test well and nearby areas. Topics that will cover include:1) configuration of KISOS and general layout/operational design of KIMOS, 2) numerical simulation of gas and materials transport using SIMAP/CHEMMAP + MUDMAP softwares, 3) sensitivity analysis such as gas leakage modeling, operational produced water discharge, and 4) modeling of drilling discharge with cuttings and mud. Key words: gas hydrate, environmental monitoring, KISOS, KIMOS, Ulleung Basin

  3. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2006-04-26

    The principal research effort for the first half of Year 3 of the project has been resource assessment. Emphasis has been on estimating the total volume of hydrocarbons generated and the potential amount of this resource that is classified as deep (>15,000 ft) gas in the North Louisiana Salt Basin, the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, the Manila Subbasin and the Conecuh Subbasin. The amount of this resource that has been expelled, migrated and entrapped is also the focus of the first half of Year 3 of this study.

  4. Disturbance of deep-water reef communities by exploratory oil and gas operations in the Santa Maria basin and Santa Barbara channel. Final report, September 1992-September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Diener, D.; Benech, S.V.; Busnardo, M.; Davis, N.; Evans, J.

    1995-09-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the impacts to deep-water, hard-bottom benthic communities associated with disturbances caused by oil and gas exploratory operations on the Outer Continental Shelf of California. A literature survey compiled a history of exploratory oil and gas development and located wellsites where disturbances due to anchoring or discharges probably impacted hard-bottom communities. A photographic survey of the selected sites collected data for subsequent analyses on the type, distribution, and longevity of anchoring disturbances. Analyses of the field data revealed that less than one percent of hard-bottom habitat within the area of the mooring system was disturbed. The results of the study indicated that hard-bottom epifaunal communities do recover from these disturbances; however, recovery is highly dependent on the type of disturbance.

  5. A NOx and SO2 gas analyzer using deep-UV and violet light-emitting diodes for continuous emissions monitoring systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashi, Ryoichi; Taniguchi, Yu; Akao, Kozo; Koizumi, Kazuhiro; Hirayama, Noritomo; Nakano, Yoshiaki

    2014-02-01

    A nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas analyzer using deep ultraviolet (DUV) and violet light- emitting diodes (LEDs) is developed. The LEDs with wavelengths of 280 nm and 400 nm were alternately turned on to detect SO2 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) absorption. Nitric oxide (NO) was converted to NO2 with an ozonizer. In order to reduce water interference caused by water adsorption onto an inner surface of a gas ow cell, collimating optics reducing re ected lights were designed. As a result, less than 1% by full scale (%F.S.) of uctuation, 2%F.S. of drift and 0.5%F.S. of water interference were achieved in 0-50 ppm concentration range. Conversion efficiency from NO to NO2 was over 95%.

  6. Methane in Columbia River Basalt Aquifers: Isotopic and geohydrologic evidence for a deep coal-bed gas source in the Columbia Basin, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, V.G. ); Graham, D.L. ); Reidel, S.P. )

    1993-07-01

    Methane occurs as a dissolved constituent in groundwater from confined aquifers in the Columbia River Basalt Group, Columbia basin, Washington. Isotopic compositions of methane in groundwater indicate that the methane is a mixture of biogenic ([sigma][sup 13]C-CH[sub 4] to -88% and [sigma][sup 2]H-CH[sub 4] to -265%) and thermogenic ([sigma][sup 13]C-CH[sub 4] to -35%, and [sigma][sup 2]H-CH[sub 4] to -134%) components. Chemical and isotopic data are consistent with entrainment of deep, coal-bed generated methane in upwelling groundwater from below the Columbia River Basalt Group (>4 km) that mixes with near-surface groundwater. The areal distribution pattern of methane suggests that fault intersections are necessary for vertical migration of deep methane through the basalt. This study suggests that deep subbasalt coal-bed methane in the Columbia basin has infiltrated the shallow basalt groundwater system, and isotopic analysis of methane in groundwater from structurally favorable locations can be used to identify potential exploration targets. The wide areal distribution of methane in this large, relatively unexplored frontier province suggests economic gas reserves. 53 refs., 11 figs.

  7. Natural Gas Monthly

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer related activities and underground storage data are also reported.

  8. Leaking underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    McLearn, M.E.; Miller, M.J.; Kostecki, P.T.; Calabrese, E.J.; Presio, L.M.; Suyama, W.; Kucharski, W.A.

    1988-04-01

    Remedial options for leaking underground storage tanks were investigated in a joint project of the Electric Power Research Institute and the Underground Storage Tank Committee of the Utility Solid Waste Activities Group. Both existing and emerging technologies were examined. Thirteen remedial techniques were identified and initially characterized as in situ or non-in situ. In situ methods include volatilization, biodegradation, leaching and chemical reaction, vitrification, passive remediation, and isolation or containment. Non-in situ techniques include land treatment, thermal treatment, asphalt incorporation, solidification and stabilization, groundwater extraction and treatment, chemical extraction, and excavation. Soil and groundwater remediation problems have many site-specific consideration which must be considered in choosing an appropriate remedial option; these include cleanup goals, site and contaminant characteristics, cost, exposures pathways, and others. Appropriate remedial techniques are chosen by assessing technical, implementational, environmental and economic consideration of each available option to achieve the desired cleanup goal at the specified site.

  9. LUNA: Nuclear astrophysics underground

    SciTech Connect

    Best, A.

    2015-02-24

    Underground nuclear astrophysics with LUNA at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso spans a history of 20 years. By using the rock overburden of the Gran Sasso mountain chain as a natural cosmic-ray shield very low signal rates compared to an experiment on the surface can be tolerated. The cross sectons of important astrophysical reactions directly in the stellar energy range have been successfully measured. In this proceeding we give an overview over the key accomplishments of the experiment and an outlook on its future with the expected addition of an additional accelerator to the underground facilities, enabling the coverage of a wider energy range and the measurement of previously inaccessible reactions.

  10. Underground waste barrier structure

    DOEpatents

    Saha, Anuj J.; Grant, David C.

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed is an underground waste barrier structure that consists of waste material, a first container formed of activated carbonaceous material enclosing the waste material, a second container formed of zeolite enclosing the first container, and clay covering the second container. The underground waste barrier structure is constructed by forming a recessed area within the earth, lining the recessed area with a layer of clay, lining the clay with a layer of zeolite, lining the zeolite with a layer of activated carbonaceous material, placing the waste material within the lined recessed area, forming a ceiling over the waste material of a layer of activated carbonaceous material, a layer of zeolite, and a layer of clay, the layers in the ceiling cojoining with the respective layers forming the walls of the structure, and finally, covering the ceiling with earth.

  11. In focus: Underground haulage

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    New ideas to improve mining techniques and equipment play a vital part in achieving the productivity improvements and cost reductions necessary for the profitability, and often in hard times, for the survival of mining operations. This paper reviews the development and design of rubber-tired underground haulage equipment currently used in the US northwest. It then goes on to discuss new developments in communication and computerized control systems for these haulage units.

  12. Underground mining methods handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Hustrulid, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    Sections discuss: mine design considerations; stopes requiring minimum support (includes room-and-pillar mining and sublevel stoping); stopes requiring some additional support other than pillars (includes shrinkage stoping, cut-and-fill stoping, undercut-and-fill mining, timber-supported system, top-slice mining, longwall mining and shortwall mining); caving methods (sublevel and block caving); underground equipment; financial considerations; design; and mine ventilation.

  13. High-volume, high-value usage of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines - Phase I: Laboratory investigations. Quarterly report, October 1993--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This project proposes to use pneumatically or hydraulically emplaced dry-flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products to backfill the adits left by highwall mining. Backfilling highwall mine adits with dry-FGD materials is technically attractive. The use of an active highwall mine would allow the dry-FGD material to be brought in using the same transportation network used to move the coal out, eliminating the need to recreated the transportation infrastructure, thereby saving costs. Activities during the period included the negotiations leading to the final cooperative agreement for the project and the implementation of the necessary instruments at the University of Kentucky to administer the project. Early in the negotiations, a final agreement on a task structure was reached and a milestone plan was filed. A review was initiated of the original laboratory plan as presented in the proposal, and tentative modifications were developed. Selection of a mine site was made early; the Pleasant Valley mine in Greenup County was chosen. Several visits were made to the mine site to begin work on the hydrologic monitoring plan. The investigation of the types of permits needed to conduct the project was initiated. Considerations concerning the acceptance and implementation of technologies led to the choice of circulating fluidized bed ash as the primary material for the study. Finally, the membership of a Technical Advisory Committee for the study was assembled.

  14. Deep Narrow-Band Imaging of M87: a Close Look at the Disk of Ionized Gas Fueling a Massive Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Holland

    1995-07-01

    M87 provides a unique example of a 100 pc scale disk of ionized gasfueling a massive black hole (Ford et al. 1994, Harms et al. 1994).The disk shows tantalizing evidence for spiral structure and a possibleconnection to large scale, wrapped filaments. Sparks, Ford, and Kinney(1993) used observations of dust absorption in the filaments andblueshifted velocities with respect to M87 to conclude that thefilaments are an outflow from the nucleus. If the wrapped filamentsare in fact an outflow, we are witnessing the solution to anoutstanding problem in astrophysics, that of removing angular momentumfrom a disk to allow the gas to flow onto the central massive black hole.We propose to use 6 orbits to take deep, half-pixel stepped,Halpha+[Nii] on-band images to study the morphology in the disk andfilaments. The images will be one magnitude deeper than previousimages and will reach the 0.06'' diffraction limit of the telescopeat Halpha. Our goals are to use the deep, high resolution images to:1) Investigate and understand the apparent connection between thefilaments and the disk.2) Delineate the apparent spiral structure in the disk.3) Confirm the presence of faint Halpha+[Nii] emission associated withthe jet, which could be gas which has been entrained by the jet.

  15. Underground nuclear explosions at Astrakhan, USSR

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, I.Y.

    1982-08-13

    The three underground nuclear explosions recorded in 1980 and 1981 by Hagfors Observatory in Sweden are in the vicinity of Astrakhan on the Caspian Sea. They are believed to be associated with the development of a gas condensate field discovered in 1973. The gas producing horizons are in limestones at 4000 m depth. They are overlain by bedded, Kungarian salts. Salt domes are recognized in the area. Plans to develop the field are contained in the 11th Five Year Plan (1981-82). The USSR has solicited bids from western contractors to build gas separation and gas processing plant with an annual capacity of 6 billion m/sup 3/. Ultimate expansion plans call for three plants with the total capacity of 18 billion m/sup 3/. By analogy with similar peaceful nuclear explosions described in 1975 by the Soviets at another gas condensate field, the underground cavities are probably designed for storage of unstable, sour condensate after initial separation from the gaseous phases in the field. Assuming that the medium surrounding the explosions is salt, the volume of each cavity is on the order of 50,000 m/sup 3/.

  16. High-volume, high-value usage of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines: Phase 1 -- Laboratory investigations. Quarterly report, July--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    Efforts primarily focused on Subtask 2.2, Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization and Subtask 4.3, Selection and Testing of Transport System. As part of Subtask 2.2, samples were collected from the Freeman United Crown Mine III FBC disposal facility representing a verity of ages and weathering. A laboratory scale transport system has been built at the CAER to evaluate the potential of pneumatic transport for flue gas desulfurization material (FGDM) emplacement and to provide essential data for the mine emplacement demonstration as part of the Subtask 4.3 effort. The system is modeled after shotcreting systems and has the advantage that the material can be remotely placed without the need for forms. The test program is focusing on determining the pneumatic conditions necessary to maximize the strength of the emplaced FGDM under anticipated mine curing conditions while minimizing dust formation. Work on Subtask 4.1, Mine Selection, also proceeded during the quarter. A new mine site, located in the south-central section of the Pikeville quadrangle, Pike County, Kentucky, was examined for the field study. The proposed fill site is in the Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation Middle Amburgy coal bed, a coal previously mined by Costain elsewhere on the property. Efforts on Subtask 4.2, Hydrologic Monitoring Plan, focused primarily on theoretical issues concerning the effects of the mining and backfill activity on the ground water and surface water due to uncertainties in the location of the final field site. There are three major concerns about the effects of the mining activity: changes in the ground water flow field, changes in ground water quality, and consequential induced changes on stream flow.

  17. High-volume, high-value usage of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines. Phase 1 -- Laboratory Investigations. Quarterly report, January 1995--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The study of the kinetics of the mineral transformations which take place after the FGD materials are hydrated was continued this quarter (Task 2, Subtask 2.2). Based on X-ray diffraction data, the anhydrite was found to have essentially disappeared by the fifth day of the study, while gypsum was found to maximize in the first 14 days of the study. The relative abundance of ettringite increased throughout the period of observation (40 days). Ettringite was found to nucleate primarily on or near fly ash particles, while gypsum was found to be more mobile, readily filling in cracks and fractures. A second kinetic study was initiated during the period with an experimental setup which is similar to the current effort. The focus of this study will be to determine the effect of moisture conditions on the rate and types of mineralogical reactions which occur. Column leaching studies (Task 2, Subtask 2.4) on the ADM material were initiated during the quarter. Two columns were packed with fly ash and one with bottom ash. One of the columns was blanketed with CO{sub 2} (2.5%) to model the effects of soil gas on the leachate. The samples are being moisturized to model field conditions. Leachate analysis will be available during the next quarter. Work on the field site (Task 6) to establish background data for the demonstration continued. The proposed demonstration site at the Pleasant Valley mine was found to be displaying the effects of severe weathering. An alternate mine site will be explored.

  18. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-09-30

    The objectives of the study were: (1) to perform resource assessment of the thermogenic gas resources in deeply buried (>15,000 ft) natural gas reservoirs of the onshore interior salt basins of the north central and northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas through petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling; and (2) to use the petroleum system based resource assessment to estimate the volume of the deep thermogenic gas resource that is available for potential recovery and to identify those areas in the interior salt basins with high potential for this thermogenic gas resource. Petroleum source rock analysis and petroleum system characterization and modeling, including thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling, have shown that the Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation served as the regional petroleum source rock in the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Thus, the estimates of the total hydrocarbons, oil, and gas generated and expelled are based on the assumption that the Smackover Formation is the main petroleum source rock in these basins and subbasins. The estimate of the total hydrocarbons generated for the North Louisiana Salt Basin in this study using a petroleum system approach compares favorably with the total volume of hydrocarbons generated published by Zimmermann (1999). In this study, the estimate is 2,870 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated using the method of Schmoker (1994), and the estimate is 2,640 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated using the Platte River software application. The estimate of Zimmermann (1999) is 2,000 to 2,500 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated. The estimate of gas generated for this basin is 6,400 TCF using the Platte River software application, and 12,800 TCF using the method of Schmoker (1994). Barnaby (2006) estimated that the total gas volume generated for this basin ranges from 4,000 to 8,000 TCF. Seventy

  19. New underground laboratories: Europe, Asia and the Americas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettini, Alessandro

    2014-09-01

    Deep underground laboratories provide the low radioactive background environment necessary to explore the highest energy scales that cannot be reached with accelerators, by searching for extremely rare phenomena. In addition, these laboratories provide unique opportunities to sectors of other fields: geodynamics, rock mechanics, hydrology and the study of life under extreme conditions. Underground laboratories of different size and depth exist in all the regions. This article is focussed on future perspectives, reviewing the newer facilities, those still under project and the space becoming available at the older laboratories. We shall not discuss the existing or proposed facilities dedicated to detectors of long base line experiment with reactor or accelerator beams.

  20. Application of seismic tomography in underground mining

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, D.F.; Williams, T.J.; Friedel, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    Seismic tomography, as used in mining, is based on the principle that highly stressed rock will demonstrate relatively higher P-wave velocities than rock under less stress. A decrease or increase in stress over time can be verified by comparing successive tomograms. Personnel at the Spokane Research Center have been investigating the use of seismic tomography to identify stress in remnant ore pillars in deep (greater than 1220 in) underground mines. In this process, three-dimensional seismic surveys are conducted in a pillar between mine levels. A sledgehammer is used to generate P-waves, which are recorded by geophones connected to a stacking signal seismograph capable of collecting and storing the P-wave data. Travel times are input into a spreadsheet, and apparent velocities are then generated and merged into imaging software. Mine workings are superimposed over apparent P-wave velocity contours to generate a final tomographic image. Results of a seismic tomographic survey at the Sunshine Mine, Kellogg, ED, indicate that low-velocity areas (low stress) are associated with mine workings and high-velocity areas (higher stress) are associated with areas where no mining has taken place. A high stress gradient was identified in an area where ground failed. From this tomographic survey, as well, as four earlier surveys at other deep underground mines, a method was developed to identify relative stress in remnant ore pillars. This information is useful in making decisions about miner safety when mining such ore pillars.

  1. Biomining goes underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D. Barrie

    2015-03-01

    Ore bodies buried deep in Earth's crust could meet increasing global demands for metals, but mining them would be costly and could damage the environment. Reinventing an ancient technology for bioleaching metals could provide a solution.

  2. Numerical Simulations of Leakage from Underground LPG Storage Caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Hajime; Pruess, Karsten

    2004-09-01

    To secure a stable supply of petroleum gas, underground storage caverns for liquified petroleum gas (LPG) are commonly used in many countries worldwide. Storing LPG in underground caverns requires that the surrounding rock mass remain saturated with groundwater and that the water pressure be higher than the liquid pressure inside the cavern. In previous studies, gas containment criteria for underground gas storage based on hydraulic gradient and pressure have been discussed, but these studies do not consider the physicochemical characteristics and behavior of LPG such as vaporization and dissolution in groundwater. Therefore, while these studies are very useful for designing storage caverns, they do not provide better understanding of the either the environmental effects of gas contamination or the behavior of vaporized LPG. In this study, we have performed three-phase fluid flow simulations of gas leakage from underground LPG storage caverns, using the multiphase multicomponent nonisothermal simulator TMVOC (Pruess and Battistelli, 2002), which is capable of solving the three-phase nonisothermal flow of water, gas, and a multicomponent mixture of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in multidimensional heterogeneous porous media. A two-dimensional cross-sectional model resembling an actual underground LPG facility in Japan was developed, and gas leakage phenomena were simulated for three different permeability models: (1) a homogeneous model, (2) a single-fault model, and (3) a heterogeneous model. In addition, the behavior of stored LPG was studied for the special case of a water curtain suddenly losing its function because of operational problems, or because of long-term effects such as clogging of boreholes. The results of the study indicate the following: (1) The water curtain system is a very powerful means for preventing gas leakage from underground storage facilities. By operating with appropriate pressure and layout, gas containment can be ensured. (2

  3. Geosphere in underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, D.J.; Groenewold, G.H.; Schmit, C.R.; Evans, J.M.

    1988-07-01

    The feasibility of underground coal gasification (UCG), the in-situ conversion of coal to natural gas, has been demonstrated through 28 tests in the US alone, mainly in low-rank coals, since the early 1970s. Further, UCG is currently entering the commercial phase in the US with a planned facility in Wyoming for the production of ammonia-urea from UCG-generated natural gas. Although the UCG process both affects and is affected by the natural setting, the majority of the test efforts have historically been focused on characterizing those aspects of the natural setting with the potential to affect the burn. With the advent of environmental legislation, this focus broadened to include the potential impacts of the process on the environment (e.g., subsidence, degradation of ground water quality). Experience to date has resulted in the growing recognition that consideration of the geosphere is fundamental to the design of efficient, economical, and environmentally acceptable UCG facilities. The ongoing RM-1 test program near Hanna, Wyoming, sponsored by the US Department of Energy and an industry consortium led by the Gas Research Institute, reflects this growing awareness through a multidisciplinary research effort, involving geoscientists and engineers, which includes (1) detailed geological site characterization, (2) geotechnical, hydrogeological, and geochemical characterization and predictive modeling, and (3) a strategy for ground water protection. Continued progress toward commercialization of the UCG process requires the integration of geological and process-test information in order to identify and address the potentially adverse environmental ramifications of the process, while identifying and using site characteristics that have the potential to benefit the process and minimize adverse impacts.

  4. Modulation of Seafloor Seepage by Faulting and Cracking of Deep Water Gas-Hydrate Systems at the Vestnesa Ridge, Fram Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza-Faverola, A. A.; Bunz, S.; Mienert, J.; Johnson, J. E.; Chand, S.; Knies, J.

    2014-12-01

    Seepage of natural gas at the seafloor is a broadly observed phenomenon, associated with hydrate systems and/or with shallow gas accumulations in the sub-surface. Regardless the geological setting, global observations indicate that gas seepage is most often episodic. Seepage episodes may occur with a predictable short-term periodicity (e.g., by seasonal or tidal related pressure and temperature changes) or longer term periodicity (e.g., glacial-interglacial changes). But seepage episodes can be also irregular, modulated for instance, by cracking and faulting. Identifying the processes modulating seepage is fundamental for reconstructing seepage history and for analyzing potential implications of seepage from geological sources on past and present climatic anomalies. We document the overlapping influence of fault reactivation and possibly glacial-interglacial cycles on cracking and seepage evolution within the deep water (1-2 km water depth), > 60 km long, and gas hydrate-charged Vestnesa drift in Fram Strait. The Vestnesa drift consists of a ~125° striking eastern segment with active seepage, and a seemingly inactive ~100° striking western segment. While the eastern segment is vulnerable to deformation at the northward propagating Knipovich oceanic ridge, the westward segment is within the deformation field of the Molloy ridge and the Spitsbergen transform fault zone. High resolution 3D P-Cable seismic data reveal the link between gas chimney distributions and small scale curvilinear, nearly vertical sub-seabed cracks and faults that reflect the influence of regional tectonics on each drift segment. Our observation and analysis can be extrapolated to similar systems where the tectonic history may have implications for modern deformation and fluid flow evolution within sediment ridges, only detectable by high or very high resolution 3D acoustic data.

  5. DOE Grant to organize "International Symposium on Opportunities in Underground Physics", Asilomar, CA, May 24-27, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, Kaladi S.

    2015-03-16

    The International Symposium in Opportunities in Underground Physics (ISOUP) was held in Asilomar, CA during May 24-27, 2013. The Symposium brought together scientists from the US and abroad for an open discussion on science opportunities provided by the possibility of a new generation of large underground detectors associated with long baseline neutrino beams. The Symposium was highly successful. The main focus of the Symposium was the science goals that could be achieved by placing such a detector deep underground.

  6. Initiation of gas-hydrate pockmark in deep-water Nigeria: Geo-mechanical analysis and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riboulot, V.; Sultan, N.; Imbert, P.; Ker, S.

    2016-01-01

    A review of recent literature shows that two geomorphologically different types of pockmarks, contribute to gas seepage at the seafloor. Type-1 pockmarks are defined as seafloor craters associated to fluid seepage and are the most classical type referred to as "pockmarks" in the literature. In contrast, Type-2 pockmarks reveal a complex seafloor morphology that may result from the formation/decomposition of gas hydrates in underlying sedimentary layers. Interpretation of very-high-resolution seismic data, sedimentological analyses and geotechnical measurements acquired from the Eastern Niger Submarine Delta reveal that Type-2 pockmarks are associated to the presence at depth of a conical body of massive gas hydrates. Based on acquired data, theoretical analysis and numerical modelling, it was possible to propose a novel geo-mechanical mechanism controlling the irregular seafloor deformations associated to Type-2 pockmark and to show that pockmark shapes and sizes are directly linked to the initial growth and distribution of sub-seafloor gas hydrates. The study illustrates the role of gas hydrates formation in the fracturation, deformation of the subsurface sediment and the formation of Type-2 pockmarks.

  7. Multicomponent seismic methods for characterizing gas hydrate occurrences and systems in deep-water Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Seth S.; Lee, Myung W.; Collett, Timothy S.; Hardage, Bob A.

    2011-01-01

    In-situ characterization and quantification of natural gas hydrate occurrences remain critical research directions, whether for energy resource, drilling hazard, or climate-related studies. Marine multicomponent seismic data provide the full seismic wavefield including partial redundancy, and provide a promising set of approaches for gas hydrate characterization. Numerous authors have demonstrated the possibilities of multicomponent data at study sites around the world. We expand on this work by investigating the utility of very densely spaced (10’s of meters) multicomponent receivers (ocean-bottom cables, OBC, or ocean-bottom seismometers, OBS) for gas hydrate studies in the Gulf of Mexico and elsewhere. Advanced processing techniques provide high-resolution compressional-wave (PP) and converted shearwave (PS) reflection images of shallow stratigraphy, as well as P-wave and S-wave velocity estimates at each receiver position. Reflection impedance estimates can help constrain velocity and density, and thus gas hydrate saturation. Further constraint on velocity can be determined through identification of the critical angle and associated phase reversal in both PP and PS wideangle data. We demonstrate these concepts with examples from OBC data from the northeast Green Canyon area and numerically simulated OBS data that are based on properties of known gas hydrate occurrences in the southeast (deeper water) Green Canyon area. These multicomponent data capabilities can provide a wealth of characterization and quantification information that is difficult to obtain with other geophysical methods.

  8. 30 CFR 75.343 - Underground shops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground shops. 75.343 Section 75.343... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.343 Underground shops. (a) Underground...-3 through § 75.1107-16, or be enclosed in a noncombustible structure or area. (b) Underground...

  9. An evaluation of the deep reservoir conditions of the Bacon-Manito geothermal field, Philippines using well gas chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    D'Amore, Franco; Maniquis-Buenviaje, Marinela; Solis, Ramonito P.

    1993-01-28

    Gas chemistry from 28 wells complement water chemistry and physical data in developing a reservoir model for the Bacon-Manito geothermal project (BMGP), Philippines. Reservoir temperature, THSH, and steam fraction, y, are calculated or extrapolated from the grid defined by the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) and H2-H2S (HSH) gas equilibria reactions. A correction is made for H2 that is lost due to preferential partitioning into the vapor phase and the reequilibration of H2S after steam loss.

  10. Fundamental Study on the Dynamics of Heterogeneity-Enhanced CO2 Gas Evolution in the Shallow Subsurface During Possible Leakage from Deep Geologic Storage Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plampin, M. R.; Lassen, R. N.; Sakaki, T.; Pawar, R.; Jensen, K.; Illangasekare, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    A concern for geologic carbon sequestration is the potential for CO2 stored in deep geologic formations to leak upward into shallow freshwater aquifers where it can have potentially detrimental impacts to the environment and human health. Understanding the mechanisms of CO2 exsolution, migration and accumulation (collectively referred to as 'gas evolution') in the shallow subsurface is critical to predict and mitigate the environmental impacts. During leakage, CO2 can move either as free-phase or as a dissolved component of formation brine. CO2 dissolved in brine may travel upward into shallow freshwater systems, and the gas may be released from solution. In the shallow aquifer, the exsolved gas may accumulate near interfaces between soil types, and/or create flow paths that allow the gas to escape through the vadose zone to the atmosphere. The process of gas evolution in the shallow subsurface is controlled by various factors, including temperature, dissolved CO2 concentration, water pressure, background water flow rate, and geologic heterogeneity. However, the conditions under which heterogeneity controls gas phase evolution have not yet been precisely defined and can therefore not yet be incorporated into models used for environmental risk assessment. The primary goal of this study is to conduct controlled laboratory experiments to help fill this knowledge gap. With this as a goal, a series of intermediate-scale laboratory experiments were conducted to observe CO2 gas evolution in porous media at multiple scales. Deionized water was saturated with dissolved CO2 gas under a specified pressure (the saturation pressure) before being injected at a constant volumetric flow rate into the bottom of a 1.7 meter-tall by 5.7 centimeter-diameter column or a 2.4 meter-tall by 40 centimeter-wide column that were both filled with sand in various heterogeneous packing configurations. Both test systems were initially saturated with fresh water and instrumented with soil

  11. Multinational underground nuclear parks

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, C.W.; Giraud, K.M.

    2013-07-01

    Newcomer countries expected to develop new nuclear power programs by 2030 are being encouraged by the International Atomic Energy Agency to explore the use of shared facilities for spent fuel storage and geologic disposal. Multinational underground nuclear parks (M-UNPs) are an option for sharing such facilities. Newcomer countries with suitable bedrock conditions could volunteer to host M-UNPs. M-UNPs would include back-end fuel cycle facilities, in open or closed fuel cycle configurations, with sufficient capacity to enable M-UNP host countries to provide for-fee waste management services to partner countries, and to manage waste from the M-UNP power reactors. M-UNP potential advantages include: the option for decades of spent fuel storage; fuel-cycle policy flexibility; increased proliferation resistance; high margin of physical security against attack; and high margin of containment capability in the event of beyond-design-basis accidents, thereby reducing the risk of Fukushima-like radiological contamination of surface lands. A hypothetical M-UNP in crystalline rock with facilities for small modular reactors, spent fuel storage, reprocessing, and geologic disposal is described using a room-and-pillar reference-design cavern. Underground construction cost is judged tractable through use of modern excavation technology and careful site selection. (authors)

  12. H{sub 2}-rich and Hydrocarbon Gas Recovered in a Deep Precambrian Well in Northeastern Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, K. David Doveton, John H.; Merriam, Daniel F.; Lollar, Barbara Sherwood Waggoner, William M. Magnuson, L. Michael

    2007-09-15

    In late 2005 and early 2006, the WTW Operating, LLC (W.T.W. Oil Co., Inc.) no. 1 Wilson well (T.D. = 5772 ft; 1759.3 m) was drilled for 1826 ft (556.6 m) into Precambrian basement underlying the Forest City Basin in northeastern Kansas. Approximately 4500 of the 380,000 wells drilled in Kansas penetrate Precambrian basement. Except for two previous wells drilled into the arkoses and basalts of the 1.1-Ga Midcontinent Rift and another well drilled in 1929 in basement on the Nemaha Uplift east of the Midcontinent Rift, this well represents the deepest penetration into basement rocks in the state to date. Granite is the typical lithology observed in wells that penetrate the Precambrian in the northern Midcontinent. Although no cores were taken to definitively identify lithologies, well cuttings and petrophysical logs indicate that this well encountered basement metamorphic rocks consisting of schist, gneiss, and amphibolitic gneiss, all cut by aplite dikes.The well was cased and perforated in the Precambrian, and then acidized. After several days of swabbing operations, the well produced shows of low-Btu gas, dominated by the non-flammable component gases of nitrogen (20%), carbon dioxide (43%), and helium (1%). Combustible components include methane (26%), hydrogen (10%), and higher molecular-weight hydrocarbons (1%). Although Coveney and others [Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., v. 71, no, 1, p. 39-48, 1987] identified H{sub 2}-rich gas in two wells located close to the Midcontinent Rift in eastern Kansas, this study indicates that high levels of H{sub 2} may be a more widespread phenomenon than previously thought. Unlike previous results, the gases in this study have a significant component of hydrocarbon gas, as well as H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2}. Although redox reactions between iron-bearing minerals and groundwater are a possible source of H{sub 2} in the Precambrian basement rocks, the hydrocarbon gas does not exhibit the characteristics typically

  13. Coal properties and system operating parameters for underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, L.

    2008-07-01

    Through the model experiment for underground coal gasification, the influence of the properties for gasification agent and gasification methods on underground coal gasifier performance were studied. The results showed that pulsating gasification, to some extent, could improve gas quality, whereas steam gasification led to the production of high heating value gas. Oxygen-enriched air and backflow gasification failed to improve the quality of the outlet gas remarkably, but they could heighten the temperature of the gasifier quickly. According to the experiment data, the longitudinal average gasification rate along the direction of the channel in the gasifying seams was 1.212 m/d, with transverse average gasification rate 0.069 m/d. Experiment indicated that, for the oxygen-enriched steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio was 2:1, gas compositions remained stable, with H{sub 2} + CO content virtually standing between 60% and 70% and O{sub 2} content below 0.5%. The general regularities of the development of the temperature field within the underground gasifier and the reasons for the changes of gas quality were also analyzed. The 'autopneumatolysis' and methanization reaction existing in the underground gasification process were first proposed.

  14. Gas hydrates (clathrates) causing pore-water freshening and oxygen isotope fractionation in deep-water sedimentary sections of terrigenous continental margins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hesse, R.; Harrison, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    The occurrence of gas hydrates in deep-water sections of the continental margins predicted from anomalous acoustic reflectors on seismic profiles has been confirmed by recent deep-sea drilling results. On the Pacific continental slope off Guatemala gas hydrates were brought up for the first time from two holes (497, 498A) drilled during Leg 67 of the DSDP in water depths of 2360 and 5500 m, respectively. The hydrates occur in organic matter-rich Pleistocene to Miocene terrigenous sediments. In the hydrate-bearing zone a marked decrease in interstitial water chlorinities was observed starting at about 10-20 m subbottom depth. Pore waters at the bottom of the holes (near 400 m subbottom) have as little as half the chlorinity of seawater (i.e. 9???). Similar, but less pronounced, trends were observed during previous legs of the DSDP in other hydrate-prone segments of the continental margins where recharge of fresh water from the continent can be excluded (e.g. Leg 11). The crystallization of hydrates, like ice, excludes salt ions from the crystal structure. During burial the dissolved salts are separated from the solids. Subsidence results in a downward motion of the solids (including hydrates) relative to the pore fluids. Thawing of hydrates during recovery releases fresh water which is remixed with the pore fluid not involved in hydrate formation. The volume of the latter decreases downhole thus causing downward decreasing salinity (chlorinity). Hydrate formation is responsible for oxygen isotope fractionation with 18O-enrichment in the hydrate explaining increasingly more positive ??18O values in the pore fluids recovered (after hydrate dissociation) with depth. ?? 1981.

  15. 78 FR 79009 - Proposed Information Collection; Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records (Pertains to Underground...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... other underground mining commodities. Radon is radioactive gas. It diffuses into the underground mine atmosphere through the rock and the ground water. Radon decays in a series of steps into other radioactive.... Decay of radon and its daughters results in emissions of alpha energy. Medical doctors and...

  16. HAWAII LEAKING UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Point coverage of leaking underground storage tanks(LUST) for the state of Hawaii. The original database was developed and is maintained by the State of Hawaii, Dept. of Health. The point locations represent facilities where one or more leaking underground storage tank exists. ...

  17. A Case for Underground Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    The underground school offers several advantages. Preliminary studies in Oklahoma have shown that these schools perform exceptionally well as learning environments. The lack of noise and distractions helps teachers keep the attention of their students. Underground structures can protect people against a broad range of natural and man-made…

  18. A Course on Underground Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Clarence A.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses a one-semester course on recovering fossil fuels and minerals from underground formations. Includes course outline and information of its major divisions: (1) Geological Background; (2) Flow, Transport, and Interfacial Phenomena in Porous Media; and (3) Description of Underground Processes. (SK)

  19. Cyclic operation of underground gas store

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanevskaya, R. D.; Lur'e, M. V.; Maksimov, V. M.; Filinov, M. V.

    1983-04-01

    Within the framework of the Buckley-Leverette model, an accurate solution is given for the problem of the combined filtration of two incompressible fluids in the course of successive pumping of one of them alternatively into and out of a porous collector.

  20. Development of GIS-Based Decision Support System for Optimizing Transportation Cost in Underground Limestone Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Sungchan; Park, Jihwan; Suh, Jangwon; Lee, Sangho; Choi, Youngmin

    2014-05-01

    In mining industry, large amount of cost has been invested in early stages of mine development such as prospecting, exploration, and discovery. Recent changes in mining, however, also raised the cost in operation, production, and environmental protection because ore depletion at shallow depth caused large-scale, deep mining. Therefore, many mining facilities are installed or relocated underground to reduce transportation cost as well as environmental pollution. This study presents GIS-based decision support system that optimizes transportation cost from various mining faces to mine facility in underground mines. The development of this system consists of five steps. As a first step, mining maps were collected which contains underground geo-spatial informations. In mine maps, then, mine network and contour data were converted to GIS format in second step for 3D visualization and spatial analysis. In doing so, original tunnel outline data were digitized with ground level, and converted to simplified network format, and surface morphology, contours were converted to digital elevation model (DEM). The next step is to define calculation algorithm of transportation cost. Among the many component of transportation cost, this study focused on the fuel cost because it can be easily estimated if mining maps are available by itself. The cost were calculated by multiplication of the number of blasting, haulage per blasting, distance between mining faces to facility, fuel cost per liter, and two for downhill and uphill, divided by fuel efficiency of mining trucks. Finally, decision support system, SNUTunnel was implemented. For the application of SNUTunnel in actual underground mine, Nammyeong Development Corporation, Korea, was selected as study site. This mine produces limestone with high content of calcite for paper, steel manufacture, or desulfurization, and its development is continuously ongoing to reach down to deeper calcite ore body, so the mine network is expanding

  1. Underground gasification of coal

    DOEpatents

    Pasini, III, Joseph; Overbey, Jr., William K.; Komar, Charles A.

    1976-01-20

    There is disclosed a method for the gasification of coal in situ which comprises drilling at least one well or borehole from the earth's surface so that the well or borehole enters the coalbed or seam horizontally and intersects the coalbed in a direction normal to its major natural fracture system, initiating burning of the coal with the introduction of a combustion-supporting gas such as air to convert the coal in situ to a heating gas of relatively high calorific value and recovering the gas. In a further embodiment the recovered gas may be used to drive one or more generators for the production of electricity.

  2. Trends in underground mining

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-11-01

    This article presents some of the recent equipments developments in underground mining. Recent improvements in the transmission and braking systems of electric load-haul-dumpers are increasing cycle times and lowering maintenance costs. Torque produced by electric motors increases in response to load. This results in very high stall torque and fast cycling machines. Some of the other features becoming available include: improved switch-gear and adjustable solid-state overload relays, the new motor across the line starter device has vacuum contactors, power factor correction capacitors, a DC operating coil to eliminate contact chatter at low voltage, remote radio control of LHDs in mine areas, water-cooled and air cooled engines and hydraulic braking systems. The advantages of hydraulic drifters and roof bolters are presented.

  3. Underground storage of hydrocarbons in Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, T.R.; Manocha, J.

    1995-09-01

    The underground storage of natural gas and liquified petroleum products in geological formations is a provincially significant industry in Ontario with economic, environmental, and safety benefits for the companies and residents of Ontario. There are 21 active natural gas storage pools in Ontario, with a total working storage capacity of approximately 203 bcf (5.76 billion cubic metres). Most of these pools utilize former natural gas-producing Guelph Formation pinnacle reefs. In addition there are seventy-one solution-mined salt caverns utilized for storage capacity of 24 million barrels (3.9 million cubic metres). These caverns are constructed within salt strata of the Salina A-2 Unit and the B Unit. The steadily increasing demand for natural gas in Ontario creates a continuing need for additional storage capacity. Most of the known gas-producing pinnacle reefs in Ontario have already been converted to storage. The potential value of storage rights is a major incentive for continued exploration for undiscovered reefs in this mature play. There are numerous depleted or nearly depleted natural gas reservoirs of other types with potential for use as storage pools. There is also potential for use of solution-mined caverns for natural gas storage in Ontario.

  4. Displacement Parameter Inversion for a Novel Electromagnetic Underground Displacement Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Shentu, Nanying; Li, Qing; Li, Xiong; Tong, Renyuan; Shentu, Nankai; Jiang, Guoqing; Qiu, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor) by combining basic electromagnetic induction principles with modern sensing techniques and established a mutual voltage measurement theoretical model called the Equation-based Equivalent Loop Approach (EELA). Based on that work, this paper presents an underground displacement inversion approach named “EELA forward modeling-approximate inversion method”. Combining the EELA forward simulation approach with the approximate optimization inversion theory, it can deduce the underground horizontal displacement through parameter inversion of the H-type sensor. Comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted between the experimentally measured and theoretically inversed values of horizontal displacement under counterpart conditions. The results show when the measured horizontal displacements are in the 0–100 mm range, the horizontal displacement inversion discrepancy is generally tested to be less than 3 mm under varied tilt angles and initial axial distances conditions, which indicates that our proposed parameter inversion method can predict underground horizontal displacement measurements effectively and robustly for the H-type sensor and the technique is applicable for practical geo-engineering applications. PMID:24858960

  5. Displacement parameter inversion for a novel electromagnetic underground displacement sensor.

    PubMed

    Shentu, Nanying; Li, Qing; Li, Xiong; Tong, Renyuan; Shentu, Nankai; Jiang, Guoqing; Qiu, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor) by combining basic electromagnetic induction principles with modern sensing techniques and established a mutual voltage measurement theoretical model called the Equation-based Equivalent Loop Approach (EELA). Based on that work, this paper presents an underground displacement inversion approach named "EELA forward modeling-approximate inversion method". Combining the EELA forward simulation approach with the approximate optimization inversion theory, it can deduce the underground horizontal displacement through parameter inversion of the H-type sensor. Comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted between the experimentally measured and theoretically inversed values of horizontal displacement under counterpart conditions. The results show when the measured horizontal displacements are in the 0-100 mm range, the horizontal displacement inversion discrepancy is generally tested to be less than 3 mm under varied tilt angles and initial axial distances conditions, which indicates that our proposed parameter inversion method can predict underground horizontal displacement measurements effectively and robustly for the H-type sensor and the technique is applicable for practical geo-engineering applications. PMID:24858960

  6. Waste disposal in underground mines -- A technology partnership to protect the environment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Environmentally compatible disposal sites must be found despite all efforts to avoid and reduce the generation of dangerous waste. Deep geologic disposal provides the logical solution as ever more categories of waste are barred from long-term disposal in near-surface sites through regulation and litigation. Past mining in the US has left in its wake large volumes of suitable underground space. EPA studies and foreign practice have demonstrated deep geologic disposal in mines to be rational and viable. In the US, where much of the mined underground space is located on public lands, disposal in mines would also serve the goal of multiple use. It is only logical to return the residues of materials mined from the underground to their origin. Therefore, disposal of dangerous wastes in mined underground openings constitutes a perfect match between mining and the protection and enhancement of the environment.

  7. Carbon and hydrogen isotopic reversals in deep basin gas: Evidence for limits to the stability of hydrocarbons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burruss, R.C.; Laughrey, C.D.

    2010-01-01

    During studies of unconventional natural gas reservoirs of Silurian and Ordovician age in the northern Appalachian basin we observed complete reversal of the normal trend of carbon isotopic composition, such that ??13C methane (C1) >??13C ethane (C2) >??13C propane (C3). In addition, we have observed isotopic reversals in the ??2H in the deepest samples. Isotopic reversals cannot be explained by current models of hydrocarbon gas generation. Previous observations of partial isotopic reversals have been explained by mixing between gases from different sources and thermal maturities. We have constructed a model which, in addition to mixing, requires Rayleigh fractionation of C2 and C3 to cause enrichment in 13C and create reversals. In the deepest samples, the normal trend of increasing enrichment of 13C and 2H in methane with increasing depth reverses and 2H becomes depleted as 13C becomes enriched. We propose that the reactions that drive Rayleigh fractionation of C2 and C3 involve redox reactions with transition metals and water at late stages of catagenesis at temperatures on the order of 250-300??C. Published ab initio calculated fractionation factors for C-C bond breaking in ethane at these temperatures are consistent with our observations. The reversed trend in ??2H in methane appears to be caused by isotopic exchange with formation water at the same temperatures. Our interpretation that Rayleigh fractionation during redox reactions is causing isotopic reversals has important implications for natural gas resources in deeply buried sedimentary basins. ?? 2010.

  8. Underground coal gasification with integrated carbon dioxide mitigation supports Bulgaria's low carbon energy supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaten, Natalie; Kempka, Thomas; Azzam, Rafig

    2013-04-01

    Underground coal gasification allows for the utilisation of coal reserves that are economically not exploitable due to complex geological boundary conditions. The present study investigates underground coal gasification as a potential economic approach for conversion of deep-seated coals into a high-calorific synthesis gas to support the Bulgarian energy system. Coupling of underground coal gasification providing synthesis gas to fuel a combined cycle gas turbine with carbon capture and storage is considered to provide substantial benefits in supporting the Bulgarian energy system with a competitive source of energy. In addition, underground voids originating from coal consumption increase the potential for geological storage of carbon dioxide resulting from the coupled process of energy production. Cost-effectiveness, energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions of this coupled process are investigated by application of a techno-economic model specifically developed for that purpose. Capital (CAPEX) and operational expenditure (OPEX) are derived from calculations using six dynamic sub-models describing the entire coupled process and aiming at determination of the levelised costs of electricity generation (COE). The techno-economic model is embedded into an energy system-modelling framework to determine the potential integration of the introduced low carbon energy production technology into the Bulgarian energy system and its competitiveness at the energy market. For that purpose, boundary conditions resulting from geological settings as well as those determined by the Bulgarian energy system and its foreseeable future development have to be considered in the energy system-modelling framework. These tasks comprise integration of the present infrastructure of the Bulgarian energy production and transport system. Hereby, the knowledge on the existing power plant stock and its scheduled future development are of uttermost importance, since only phasing-out power

  9. The difficulties in the processing of deep seismic reflection data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.; Gao, R.; Li, Q.; Lu, Z.; Wang, H.

    2011-12-01

    SinoProbe is a Chinese government scientific programme on geosciences and it umbrellas 9 parallel projects. Developing deep-profiling seismic technologies and facilitating scientific data integration is one of the projects. It uses deep seismic reflection as the primary technology, augmented by active-passive seismic source detection systems and other technologies for acquiring the knowledge of crustal, lithosphere, and velocity structures. There are many difficulties in the processing of deep seismic reflection data, which are caused during the data acquisition. Due to most of the acquisition lines are across rough mountain surfaces, it brings serious problems in statics and the attenuations of source energies are very fast. The acquisition lines are very longer than those used in oil and gas exploration for obtaining deep information. It's very common that many kinds of noises have been recorded in the same shot profiles, such as noises from factors, underground mineral exploration, transportation, winds and so on. Sometimes the energies from earthquakes are very stronger than those of reflection signals and cause some shot profiles useless. Different kinds of explosion energies of sources are used during the data acquisition for obtaining the detail structures of different depth, it causes considerable energy differences between some neighbor shot profiles. In order to obtain more information of continental lithosphere, the recording times are long and the reflection energy from the deep are very weak, it causes some difficulties in true amplitude recovery. This paper is talking about those difficulties and looking for proper methods to solve those problems during the processing of deep seismic reflection data in order to obtain the fine structure of continental lithosphere.

  10. Deep He II and C IV Spectroscopy of a Giant Lyα Nebula: Dense Compact Gas Clumps in the Circumgalactic Medium of a z ~ 2 Quasar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrigoni Battaia, Fabrizio; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Cantalupo, Sebastiano

    2015-08-01

    The recent discovery by Cantalupo et al. of the largest (˜500 kpc) luminous (L ≃ 1.43 × 1045 erg s-1) Lyα nebula associated with the quasar UM287 (z = 2.279) poses a great challenge to our current understanding of the astrophysics of the halos hosting massive z ˜ 2 galaxies. Either an enormous reservoir of cool gas is required M ≃ 1012 M⊙, exceeding the expected baryonic mass available, or one must invoke extreme gas clumping factors not present in high-resolution cosmological simulations. However, observations of Lyα emission alone cannot distinguish between these two scenarios. We have obtained the deepest ever spectroscopic integrations in the He ii λ1640 and C iv λ1549 emission lines with the goal of detecting extended line emission, but detect neither line to a 3σ limiting SB ≃ 10-18 erg s-1 cm-2 arcsec-2. We construct simple models of the expected emission spectrum in the highly probable scenario that the nebula is powered by photoionization from the central hyper-luminous quasar. The non-detection of He ii implies that the nebular emission arises from a mass Mc ≲ 6.4 × 1010 M⊙ of cool gas on ˜200 kpc scales, distributed in a population of remarkably dense (nH ≳ 3 cm-3) and compact (R ≲ 20 pc) clouds, which would clearly be unresolved by current cosmological simulations. Given the large gas motions suggested by the Lyα line (v ≃ 500 km s-1), it is unclear how these clouds survive without being disrupted by hydrodynamic instabilities. Our work serves as a benchmark for future deep integrations with current and planned wide-field IFU spectrographs such as MUSE, KCWI, and KMOS. Our observations and models suggest that a ≃10 hr exposure would likely detect ˜10 rest-frame UV/optical emission lines, opening up the possibility of conducting detailed photoionization modeling to infer the physical state of gas in the circumgalactic medium. The data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a

  11. Deep Reaching Gas-permeable Tectonic Faults of the Early Earth as Habitats for the Origin of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, U.; Mayer, C.

    2012-04-01

    The discussion on the origin of life encounters difficulties when it comes to estimate the conditions of the early earth and to define plausible environments for the development of the first complex organic molecules. Until now, the role of the earth's crust has been more or less ignored. First continental crustal cores may have been developed some tens to hundreds of million years after formation of earth. Due to tectonic stress the proto continents were sheared by vertical strike-slip faults at an early stage. These deep-reaching open, interconnected tectonic faults may provide possible reaction habitats ranging from nano- to centimetre and even larger dimensions that sum up to several cubic kilometres for the formation of prebiotic molecules. Their fillings consist of supercritical and subcritical waters and supercritical and subcritical gases. Here, all necessary raw materials including phosphate for the development of prebiotic molecules exist in variable concentrations and in sufficient quantities. Furthermore, there are periodically changing pressure and temperature conditions, varying pH-values, metallic surfaces, clay minerals and a large number of catalysts. While cosmic and UV-radiation are excluded, nuclear radiation intervenes the chemical evolution of the molecules inside the crust. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is of crucial importance. It can be present in an almost pure form as a supercritical fluid (scCO2) in a crustal depth less than 1 km (critical point of pure CO2: 74 bar; 31°C). Inside strike-slip faults, a two-phase system formed by supercritical CO2 in liquid water provides the environment for condensation and polymerisation of hydrogen cyanide, nucleobases, nucleotides and amino acids. ScCO2 is a non-polar solvent that is widely used in "green chemistry" (Anastas and Kirchhoff 2002) and enables the dissolution of non-polar reactants and their reactions normally occurring in the absence of water. Under the influence of periodically changing

  12. The impact of deep overshooting convection on the water vapour and trace gas distribution in the TTL and lower stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, W.; Schofield, R.; Hoor, P. M.; Ravegnani, F.; Ulanovsky, A.; Viciani, S.; D'Amato, F.; Lane, T. P.

    2014-12-01

    Overshooting convection penetrating the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) and the lower stratosphere has a significant impact on the redistribution of water vapour and further trace gases. This is of importance for the stratospheric water vapour budget, which plays a central role in radiative and chemical processes. Modelling studies and in situ measurements show the hydration potential of convective overshooting partly by direct injection of ice particles into the stratosphere and subsequent sublimation. However, processes leading to dehydration of the TTL may also impact the stratospheric humidity by limiting the amount of water vapour carried aloft. While the large scale drives some of the dehydrating processes, others are of convective origin, for example gravity waves and cooling associated with overshooting turrets. Furthermore, downdrafts may transport dry and ozone rich air masses from the stratosphere into the TTL. Improving our understanding of overshooting convection and its influence on TTL water vapour will ultimately place better constraints on the budget of water vapour in the stratosphere.In this study we use three-dimensional cloud resolving (WRF-ARW) simulations of a deep convective thunderstorm (Hector) to study the redistribution of water vapour and trace gases in the upper TTL/lower stratosphere. Passive tracers are initialised to investigate the transport of air masses. The simulations focus on an Hector event that has been probed by aircraft during the SCOUT-O3 field campaign. Observations were performed in and around overshoots that even penetrated the stratosphere. These observations as well as the model simulations show downward transport and mixing of air masses from the stratosphere, though less strong and more localised in the simulation. Furthermore, the simulations shows a layering of hydrated and dehydrated air masses post-convection in the upper TTL and lower stratosphere. Here we use the model to explain the processes causing the

  13. MODELING UNDERGROUND STRUCTURE VULNERABILITY IN JOINTED ROCK

    SciTech Connect

    R. SWIFT; D. STEEDMAN

    2001-02-01

    The vulnerability of underground structures and openings in deep jointed rock to ground shock attack is of chief concern to military planning and security. Damage and/or loss of stability to a structure in jointed rock, often manifested as brittle failure and accompanied with block movement, can depend significantly on jointed properties, such as spacing, orientation, strength, and block character. We apply a hybrid Discrete Element Method combined with the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics approach to simulate the MIGHTY NORTH event, a definitive high-explosive test performed on an aluminum lined cylindrical opening in jointed Salem limestone. Representing limestone with discrete elements having elastic-equivalence and explicit brittle tensile behavior and the liner as an elastic-plastic continuum provides good agreement with the experiment and damage obtained with finite-element simulations. Extending the approach to parameter variations shows damage is substantially altered by differences in joint geometry and liner properties.

  14. A DEEP HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE H-BAND IMAGING SURVEY OF MASSIVE GAS-RICH MERGERS. II. THE QUEST QSOs

    SciTech Connect

    Veilleux, S.; Kim, D.-C.; Rupke, D. S. N. E-mail: ddk3wc@mail.astro.virginia.edu

    2009-08-10

    We report the results from a deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) NICMOS H-band imaging survey of 28 z < 0.3 QSOs from the Palomar-Green (PG) sample. This program is part of QUEST (Quasar/ULIRG Evolution Study) and complements a similar set of data on 26 highly nucleated ULIRGs presented in Paper I. Our analysis indicates that the fraction of QSOs with elliptical hosts is higher among QSOs with undetected far-infrared (FIR) emission, small infrared excess (L {sub IR}/L {sub B} < 10), and luminous hosts. The hosts of FIR-faint QSOs show a tendency to have less pronounced merger-induced morphological anomalies and larger QSO-to-host luminosity ratios on average than the hosts of FIR-bright QSOs, consistent with late-merger evolution from FIR-bright to FIR-faint QSOs. The spheroid sizes ({approx} 0.3-5.5 kpc) and total host luminosities ({approx} 0.6-7.2 L* {sub H}) of the radio-quiet PG QSOs in our sample are statistically indistinguishable from the ULIRG hosts presented in Paper I, while those of radio-loud PG QSOs are systematically larger and more luminous. ULIRGs and PG QSOs with elliptical hosts fall near, but not exactly on, the fundamental plane of inactive spheroids. We confirm the systematic trend noted in Paper I for objects with small ({approx}< 2 kpc) spheroids to be up to {approx} 1 mag brighter than inactive spheroids. The host colors and wavelength dependence of their sizes support the idea that these deviations are at least in part due to non-nuclear star formation. However, the amplitudes of these deviations depend mainly on host sizes, and possibly on infrared excess, but not on merger phase, QSO-to-host luminosity ratio, optical spectral type, active galactic nucleus fractional contribution to the bolometric luminosity, or host R - H color. Taken at face value (i.e., no correction for extinction or the presence of a young stellar population), the H-band spheroid-host luminosities imply black hole masses {approx} (5-200) x 10{sup 7} M {sub sun} and sub

  15. Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-qin; Liu, Jun-hua; Yu, Li

    2002-04-01

    Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification are evaluated. The results showed that through underground coal gasification, gangue discharge is eliminated, sulfur emission is reduced, and the amount of ash, mercury, and tar discharge are decreased. Moreover, effect of underground gasification on underground water is analyzed and CO2 disposal method is put forward. PMID:12046301

  16. Muon tracking underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistoni, G.; Campana, P.; Chiarella, V.; Denni, U.; Iarocci, E.

    1986-04-01

    The design and performance of plastic streamer tubes for use in large underground particle-physics experiments such as the muon, astrophysics, and cosmic-ray observatory (MACRO) being developed for Gran Sasso Laboratory are reported. The large (1000 sq m or more) detector area required to achieve high-angular-resolution muon tracking in MACRO is covered by modules with eight 3 x 3-cm-cross section active streamer-tube cells each, similar to those used in the Mt. Blanc Laboratory detector. The MACRO modules have a maximum length of 12 m; and the cells have 60-micron-diameter wires, two conducting graphite sides, and two insulating sides (electrodeless electric-field shaping). The results of performance tests flowing 3:1 He:n-pentane through a tube module are presented graphically. Spatial resolution 1 cm and time resolution 100 ns are obtained, and the ability of the streamer tubes to detect large ionization losses with respect to the minimum is demonstrated.

  17. Chemical, mineralogical and molecular biological characterization of the rocks and fluids from a natural gas storage deep reservoir as a baseline for the effects of geological hydrogen storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozova, Daria; Kasina, Monika; Weigt, Jennifer; Merten, Dirk; Pudlo, Dieter; Würdemann, Hilke

    2014-05-01

    Planned transition to renewable energy production from nuclear and CO2-emitting power generation brings the necessity for large scale energy storage capacities. One possibility to store excessive energy produced is to transfer it to chemical forms like hydrogen which can be subsequently injected and stored in subsurface porous rock formations like depleted gas reservoirs and presently used gas storage sites. In order to investigate the feasibility of the hydrogen storage in the subsurface, the collaborative project H2STORE ("hydrogen to store") was initiated. In the scope of this project, potential reactions between microorganism, fluids and rocks induced by hydrogen injection are studied. For the long-term experiments, fluids of natural gas storage are incubated together with rock cores in the high pressure vessels under 40 bar pressure and 40° C temperature with an atmosphere containing 5.8% He as a tracer gas, 3.9% H2 and 90.3% N2. The reservoir is located at a depth of about 2 000 m, and is characterized by a salinity of 88.9 g l-1 NaCl and a temperature of 80° C and therefore represents an extreme environment for microbial life. First geochemical analyses showed a relatively high TOC content of the fluids (about 120 mg l-1) that were also rich in sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron. Remarkable amounts of heavy metals like zinc and strontium were also detected. XRD analyses of the reservoir sandstones revealed the major components: quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, anhydrite and analcime. The sandstones were intercalated by mudstones, consisting of quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, analcime, chlorite, mica and carbonates. Genetic profiling of amplified 16S rRNA genes was applied to characterize the microbial community composition by PCR-SSCP (PCR-Single-Strand-Conformation Polymorphism) and DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis). First results indicate the presence of microorganisms belonging to the phylotypes alfa-, beta- and gamma

  18. Stimulation Technologies for Deep Well Completions

    SciTech Connect

    2003-09-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring the Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies is conducting a study to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project is to assess U.S. deep well drilling & stimulation activity, review rock mechanics & fracture growth in deep, high pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. An assessment of historical deep gas well drilling activity and forecast of future trends was completed during the first six months of the project; this segment of the project was covered in Technical Project Report No. 1. The second progress report covers the next six months of the project during which efforts were primarily split between summarizing rock mechanics and fracture growth in deep reservoirs and contacting operators about case studies of deep gas well stimulation.

  19. Variability in gas and solute fluxes through deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystems inhabited by vesicomyid bivalves in the Gulf of Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khripounoff, A.; Caprais, J. C.; Decker, C.; Essirard, M.; Le Bruchec, J.; Noel, P.; Olu, K.

    2015-01-01

    We have studied two species of vesicomyid bivalves inhabiting different areas of sulfide-rich sediments in association with methane seepage at two pockmarks located at about 650 m and 3150 m depth, respectively, along the Gabon-Congo margin, and organic-rich sediments in the deepest zone (4950 m depth) of the Congo deep-sea fan. Benthic chambers Calmar were deployed on three study sites to assess gas and solute exchanges at the water-sediment interface. We recorded in situ measurements of oxygen, total carbon dioxide, ammonium, methane, and sulfide in two clam beds at each site. At all sites, irrespective of which the vesicomyid species are present, oxygen consumption was high and variable (28-433 mmol m-2 d-1) as was total carbon dioxide emission (36-1857 mmol m-2 d-1). Consequently, the respiratory coefficient also varied greatly, ranging from 0.2 to 5.4. The observed gas and solute fluxes were attributed primarily to the respiration of clams, but microbial and geochemical processes in the sediment may be also responsible for some of the variation among sites. Ammonium production (7.5-71.8 mmol m-2 d-1) was associated predominantly with nitrogen excretion resulting from vesicomyid metabolism. The O:N index ranged from 2 to 17 indicating that the vesicomyid clams, living in symbiosis with bacteria, have a protein-based metabolism. The cold-seep and organic-rich sediment ecosystems were fuelled by methane expelled from the sediment; methane emission varied from 1.8 to 139 mmol m-2d-1, independently of bivalve biomass. Significant sulfide emission from the sediment was observed only at the shallowest station (156 mmol m-2 d-1). Our in situ measurements confirm that the vesicomyid bivalves have a high capacity for growth and survival across a large gradient of methane and hydrogen sulfide fluxes that occur at 700 m to 5000 m depth.

  20. Natural gas monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This document highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Data presented include volume and price, production, consumption, underground storage, and interstate pipeline activities.

  1. Underground storage systems for high-pressure air and gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beam, B. H.; Giovannetti, A.

    1975-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the safety and cost of underground high-pressure air and gas storage systems based on recent experience with a high-pressure air system installed at Moffett Field, California. The system described used threaded and coupled oil well casings installed vertically to a depth of 1200 ft. Maximum pressure was 3000 psi and capacity was 500,000 lb of air. A failure mode analysis is presented, and it is shown that underground storage offers advantages in avoiding catastrophic consequences from pressure vessel failure. Certain problems such as corrosion, fatigue, and electrolysis are discussed in terms of the economic life of such vessels. A cost analysis shows that where favorable drilling conditions exist, the cost of underground high-pressure storage is approximately one-quarter that of equivalent aboveground storage.

  2. Identifying crater potential improves shallow gas kick control

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, L.A. ); Bourgoyne, A.T. )

    1993-12-27

    An understanding of sea floor crater mechanisms can help drillers determine whether to divert or shut in a shallow gas kick. Proper well planning that considers potential shallow gas sources can eliminate some of the more common failure situations with both diverting and shutting in of a well. Current well control practice for land and bottom-supported marine rigs usually calls for shutting in the well when a kick is detected, providing sufficient casing has been set to keep any flow underground. The casing and surface equipment must have an adequately high working pressure to ensure that formation fracture occurs before the equipment fails. Even for high shut-in pressures, an underground blowout is preferable to a surface blowout. An operator may choose to divert the flow if the surface casing is not set deep enough to keep the underground flow outside the casing from breaking through the sediments to the surface. Once the flow reaches the surface, a crater may form at the sea bed, possibly sinking or damaging the rig. Craters increase the difficulty and time required to kill a blowout. The paper describes shallow gas environments, the decision to divert or shut in the well, fluid migration, cement bond failure, hydraulic fracture, shear failure, the effect of fault planes, crater mechanisms, formation liquefaction, piping, caving, historical cases, and a deepwater crater.

  3. Quasi in situ Ni K-edge EXAFS investigation of the spent NiMo catalyst from ultra-deep hydrodesulfurization of gas oil in a commercial plant.

    PubMed

    Hamabe, Yusuke; Jung, Sungbong; Suzuki, Hikotaro; Koizumi, Naoto; Yamada, Muneyoshi

    2010-07-01

    Ni species on the spent NiMo catalyst from ultra-deep hydrodesulfurization of gas oil in a commercial plant were studied by Ni K-edge EXAFS and TEM measurement without contact of the catalysts with air. The Ni-Mo coordination shell related to the Ni-Mo-S phase was observed in the spent catalyst by quasi in situ Ni K-edge EXAFS measurement with a newly constructed high-pressure chamber. The coordination number of this shell was almost identical to that obtained by in situ Ni K-edge EXAFS measurement of the fresh catalyst sulfided at 1.1 MPa. On the other hand, large agglomerates of Ni(3)S(2) were observed only in the spent catalyst by quasi in situ TEM/EDX measurement. MoS(2)-like slabs were sintered slightly on the spent catalyst, where they were destacked to form monolayer slabs. These results suggest that the Ni-Mo-S phase is preserved on the spent catalyst and Ni(3)S(2) agglomerates are formed by sintering of Ni(3)S(2) species originally present on the fresh catalyst. PMID:20567086

  4. A DEEP SEARCH FOR MOLECULAR GAS IN TWO MASSIVE LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES AT z = 3 AND 4: VANISHING CO-EMISSION DUE TO LOW METALLICITY?

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Q.; Gao, Y.; Daddi, E.; Sargent, M.; Béthermin, M.; Bournaud, F.; Elbaz, D.; Pannella, M.; Hodge, J.; Walter, F.; Carilli, C.; Owen, F.; Dannerbauer, H.; Dickinson, M.; Morrison, G.; Riechers, D.

    2013-10-20

    We present deep IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer observations, searching for CO-emission toward two massive, non-lensed Lyman break galaxies at z = 3.216 and 4.058. With one low significance CO detection (3.5σ) and one sensitive upper limit, we find that the CO lines are ∼>3-4 times weaker than expected based on the relation between IR and CO luminosities followed by similarly massive galaxies at z = 0-2.5. This is consistent with a scenario in which these galaxies have low metallicity, causing an increased CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor, i.e., weaker CO-emission for a given molecular (H{sub 2}) mass. The required metallicities at z > 3 are lower than predicted by the fundamental metallicity relation at these redshifts, consistent with independent evidence. Unless our galaxies are atypical in this respect, detecting molecular gas in normal galaxies at z > 3 may thus remain challenging even with ALMA.

  5. Nonlinear flow model for well production in an underground formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, J. C.; Nie, R. S.

    2013-05-01

    Fluid flow in underground formations is a nonlinear process. In this article we modelled the nonlinear transient flow behaviour of well production in an underground formation. Based on Darcy's law and material balance equations, we used quadratic pressure gradients to deduce diffusion equations and discuss the origins of nonlinear flow issues. By introducing an effective-well-radius approach that considers skin factor, we established a nonlinear flow model for both gas and liquid (oil or water). The liquid flow model was solved using a semi-analytical method, while the gas flow model was solved using numerical simulations because the diffusion equation of gas flow is a stealth function of pressure. For liquid flow, a series of standard log-log type curves of pressure transients were plotted and nonlinear transient flow characteristics were analyzed. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were used to compare the solutions of the linear and nonlinear models. The effect of nonlinearity upon pressure transients should not be ignored. For gas flow, pressure transients were simulated and compared with oil flow under the same formation and well conditions, resulting in the conclusion that, under the same volume rate production, oil wells demand larger pressure drops than gas wells. Comparisons between theoretical data and field data show that nonlinear models will describe fluid flow in underground formations realistically and accurately.

  6. STIMULATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEEP WELL COMPLETIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Wolhart

    2003-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring a Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies is conducting a project to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project is to assess U.S. deep well drilling & stimulation activity, review rock mechanics & fracture growth in deep, high pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. Phase 1 was recently completed and consisted of assessing deep gas well drilling activity (1995-2007) and an industry survey on deep gas well stimulation practices by region. Of the 29,000 oil, gas and dry holes drilled in 2002, about 300 were drilled in the deep well; 25% were dry, 50% were high temperature/high pressure completions and 25% were simply deep completions. South Texas has about 30% of these wells, Oklahoma 20%, Gulf of Mexico Shelf 15% and the Gulf Coast about 15%. The Rockies represent only 2% of deep drilling. Of the 60 operators who drill deep and HTHP wells, the top 20 drill almost 80% of the wells. Six operators drill half the U.S. deep wells. Deep drilling peaked at 425 wells in 1998 and fell to 250 in 1999. Drilling is expected to rise through 2004 after which drilling should cycle down as overall drilling declines.

  7. Underground test area subproject waste management plan. Revision No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS), located in southern Nevada, was the site of 928 underground nuclear tests conducted between 1951 and 1992. The tests were performed as part of the Atomic Energy Commission and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons testing program. The NTS is managed by the DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV). Of the 928 tests conducted below ground surface at the NTS, approximately 200 were detonated below the water table. As an unavoidable consequence of these testing activities, radionuclides have been introduced into the subsurface environment, impacting groundwater. In the few instances of groundwater sampling, radionuclides have been detected in the groundwater; however, only a very limited investigation of the underground test sites and associated shot cavities has been conducted to date. The Underground Test Area (UGTA) Subproject was established to fill this void and to characterize the risk posed to human health and the environment as a result of underground nuclear testing activities at the NTS. One of its primary objectives is to gather data to characterize the deep aquifer underlying the NTS.

  8. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.; Deo, M.; Eddings, E.; Sarofim, A.; Gueishen, K.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.; Mandalaparty, P.; Zhang, H.

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  9. Twenty Years of Underground Research at Canada's URL

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, N. A.

    2003-02-27

    Construction of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL's) Underground Research Laboratory (URL) began in 1982. The URL was designed to address the needs of the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program. Over the years, a comprehensive program of geologic characterization and underground hydrogeologic, geotechnical and geomechanical projects have been performed, many of which are ongoing. The scientific work at the URL has evolved through a number of different phases to meet the changing needs of Canada's waste management program. The various phases of the URL have included siting, site evaluation, construction and operation. Collaboration with international organizations is encouraged at the URL, with the facility being a centre of excellence in an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) network of underground facilities. One of AECL's major achievements of the past 20 year program has been the preparation and public defense of a ten-volume Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for a conceptual deep geologic repository. Completion of this dissertation on the characterization, construction and performance modeling of a conceptual repository in the granite rock of the Canadian Shield was largely based on work conducted at the URL. Work conducted over the seven years since public defense of the EIS has been directed towards developing those engineering and performance assessment tools that would be required for implementation of a deep geologic repository. The URL continues to be a very active facility with ongoing experiments and demonstrations performed for a variety of Canadian and international radioactive waste management organizations.

  10. Underground tank leak detection methods

    SciTech Connect

    Niaki, Shahzad; Broscious, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    In recent years, the increase in leaks from underground gasoline storage tanks has had a significant adverse environmental impact on the US. Current estimates from government and industry sources are that between 1.5 to 3.5 million underground storage tanks exist in the nation. Estimates of the number of leaking tanks range from 75,000 to 100,000; and 350,000 others may develop leaks within the next five years. The 1983 National Petroleum News Factbook Issue forecasts the existence of approximately 140,000 gasoline service stations in the US at the end of 1983. New York State estimates that 19% of its 83,000 active underground gasoline tanks are now leaking. Maine estimates that 25% of its 1,600 retail gasoline underground tanks are leaking approximately 11 million gallons yearly. In Michigan 39% of ground water contamination incidents are attributed to storage tanks. One of the primary causes of tank leakage is corrosion of the storage tanks. Product loss from leaking tanks may cause an adverse effect on the environment, endanger lives, reduce income, and require the expenditure of millions of dollars for cleanup. To prevent or reduce the adverse effects of gasoline leakage, an accurate method must be used to determine whether or not an underground tank is leaking.

  11. 76 FR 66078 - Notice of Industry Workshop on Technical and Regulatory Challenges in Deep and Ultra-Deep Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... Challenges in Deep and Ultra-Deep Outer Continental Shelf Waters AGENCY: Bureau of Safety and Environmental... environmentally sound offshore oil and gas exploration and production in deep and ultra-deep OCS waters. Through... will offer a structured venue for consultation among offshore deepwater oil and gas industry...

  12. Sinkhole development induced by underground quarrying, and the related hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parise, M.; Delle Rose, M.

    2009-04-01

    Sinkholes are extremely widespread in Apulia, a very flat and carbonate region, that acted as the foreland during the phases of building up of the Southern Apenninic Chain in Miocene time. This is due to the presence of soluble rocks throughout the region, that highly predispose the area to this very subtle natural hazard. In addition to the natural setting, which favours their development, sinkholes may also be induced by anthropogenic activities. In the latter sense, underground quarrying represents one of the most dangerous activities in karst areas. Apulia has a long history of quarrying. Since the roman time, the local rocks, from the Cretaceous micritic limestones to the Quaternary calcarenites, have been intensely quarried and used as building and ornamental materials. In several settings of the region, the rocks with the best petrographic characteristics are located at depths ranging from a few to some tens of meters. This caused the opening of many underground quarries, and the development of a complex network of subterranean galleries. Underground quarrying had a great impulse at the turn between the XIX and the XX century, when a large number of quarries was opened. Later on, after the Second World War, most of the quarries were progressively abandoned, even because of the first signs of instability, both underground and at the ground surface. With time, the memory of the presence and development of the underground quarries was progressively lost, with severe repercussions on the safety of the land above the excavated areas. Lack of knowledge of the subterranean pattern of galleries, combined with the expansion of the built-up areas at the surface, resulted in increasing significantly the vulnerability of exposed elements at risk. Events such as the 29 March, 2007, at Gallipoli only by chance did not result in any casualties, when a 15-mt wide and 5-mt deep sinkhole opened in a few hours at a road crossing, above the site of an old underground quarry

  13. Underground at Black Diamond Mines

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.T.

    1989-10-01

    Although California is noted for its mining history and annually leads the nation in total monetary value of minerals produced, there a few opportunities for the public to tour underground mines. One reason is that nearly all mining in the state today is done above ground in open pits. Another reason is that active underground mines are not commonly favorable to public tours. There is one place, Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve, where the public can safely tour a formerly active underground mine. Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve is a 3,600-acre parkland about 5 miles southwest of Antioch in Contra Costa County. The Preserve was established in the early 1970s and is administered by the East Bay Regional Park District. Black Diamond Mines Preserve is noteworthy for its mining history as well as its natural history, both of which are briefly described here.

  14. Logistics background study: underground mining

    SciTech Connect

    Hanslovan, J. J.; Visovsky, R. G.

    1982-02-01

    Logistical functions that are normally associated with US underground coal mining are investigated and analyzed. These functions imply all activities and services that support the producing sections of the mine. The report provides a better understanding of how these functions impact coal production in terms of time, cost, and safety. Major underground logistics activities are analyzed and include: transportation and personnel, supplies and equipment; transportation of coal and rock; electrical distribution and communications systems; water handling; hydraulics; and ventilation systems. Recommended areas for future research are identified and prioritized.

  15. Light weight underground pipe or cable installing device

    SciTech Connect

    Schosek, W. O.

    1985-01-08

    This invention pertains to a light weight underground pipe or cable installing device adapted for use in a narrow and deep operating trench. More particularly this underground pipe installing device employs a pair of laterally movable gates positioned adjacent the bottom of the operating trench where the earth is more solid to securely clamp the device in the operating trench to enable it to withstand the forces exerted as the actuating rod is forced through the earth from the so-called operating trench to the target trench. To accommodate the laterally movable gates positioned adjacent the bottom of the narrow pipe installing device, a pair of top operated double-acting rod clamping jaws, operated by a hydraulic cylinder positioned above the actuating rod are employed.

  16. Microbial production and oxidation of methane in deep subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotelnikova, Svetlana

    2002-10-01

    microbially to carbon dioxide. Microbial methane oxidation is a biogeochemical process that limits the release of methane, a greenhouse gas from anaerobic environments. Anaerobic methane oxidation plays an important role in marine sediments. Similar processes may take place in deep subsurface and thus fuel the deep microbial community. Organisms or consortia responsible for anaerobic methane oxidation have not yet been cultured, although diverse aerobic methanotrophs have been isolated from a variety of underground niches. The presence of aerobic methanotrophs in the anoxic subsurface remains to be explained. The presence of methane in the deep subsurface have been shown all over the world. The flux of gases between the deep subsurface and the atmosphere is driven by the concentration gradient from depth to the atmosphere. However, methane is consumed by methanotrophs on the way of its evolution in oxidized environments and is transformed to organic form, available for further microbial processing. When the impact of subsurface environments to global warming is estimated, it is necessary to take into account the activity of methane-producing Archaea and methane-oxidizing biofilters in groundwater. Microbial production and oxidation of methane is involved in the carbon cycle in the deep subsurface environments.

  17. Combustion front propagation in underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbs, R.L. II; Krantz, W.B.

    1990-10-01

    Reverse Combustion (RC) enhances coal seam permeability prior to Underground Coal Gasification. Understanding RC is necessary to improve its reliability and economics. A curved RC front propagation model is developed, then solved by high activation energy asymptotics. It explicitly incorporates extinction (stoichiometric and thermal) and tangential heat transport (THT) (convection and conduction). THT arises from variation in combustion front temperature caused by tangential variation in the oxidant gas flux to the channel surface. Front temperature depends only weakly on THT; front velocity is strongly affected, with heat loss slowing propagation. The front propagation speed displays a maximum with respect to gas flux. Combustion promoters speed front propagation; inhibitors slow front propagation. The propagation model is incorporated into 2-D simulations of RC channel evolution utilizing the boundary element method with cubic hermetian elements to solve the flow from gas injection wells through the coal to the convoluted, temporally evolving, channel surface, and through the channel to a gas production well. RC channel propagation is studied using 17 cm diameter subbituminous horizontally drilled coal cores. Sixteen experiments at pressures between 2000 and 3600 kPa, injected gas oxygen contents between 21% and 75%, and flows between 1 and 4 standard liters per minute are described. Similarity analysis led to scaling-down of large RC ({approx}1 m) to laboratory scale ({approx}5 cm). Propagation velocity shows a strong synergistic increase at high levels of oxygen, pressure, and gas flow. Char combustion is observed, leaving ash-filled, irregularly shaped channels. Cracks are observed to penetrate the char zone surrounding the channel cores. 69 refs., 54 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Monitoring underground water quality based on high-density resistivity method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yanyan

    2015-12-01

    Underground water is different from surface water. Once contaminated, underground water is difficult to recover, so it is necessary to give priority to the prevention of the quality of underground water. High-density resistivity method is very important in the environmental engineering geophysical prospecting and it is widely used in mineral resources as well as monitoring the underground-water quality. In the experiment, multi-tools joint inversion is applied to build the model in order to increase the accuracy. In contrast with the pollution-free water model which is owned by the RES2DMOD, the inversion result of underground water quality with the high density resistivity method is useful to monitor the underground water quality, showing that different degree of water pollution depends on the position of abnormal and there is a more significant abnormal value in the vertical direction of the deep abnormal than that of the shallow abnormal, and high and low resistance pollution depends on the different value and forms of abnormal resistance. In conclusion, monitoring the underground water quality by the high density resistivity method is efficient. In the future research, it is necessary to accomplish more precise inversion models combining with field measurements to find out the optimal solution to monitor underwater quality.

  19. CALIFORNIA LEAKING UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Points represent Leaking Underground Storage Tanks (LUST) for the State of California. This database was developed and is maintained by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). Point locations represent tanks where leak events have occurred. Tank latitude-long...

  20. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, Roger, A.

    2010-02-28

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the world’s first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  1. Underground technology benefits surface operations

    SciTech Connect

    Swaim, M.

    2008-09-15

    Sensitive ground fault relays (GFRs) on high voltage underground electrical equipment have been in used for a number of years to improve mine safety. Advanced GFRs do more than just interrupt fault current flow. They can also reveal linkages as they develop so ground faults are detected before they become critical. 3 figs.

  2. Slavery and the Underground Railroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Nancy Comfort

    2000-01-01

    Presents a bibliography of sources to help children understand slavery and the Underground Railroad and recommends a combination of fiction and nonfiction for a better understanding. Includes picture books, biographies of people who played prominent roles during the time of slavery, nonfiction books for older readers, and videotape. (LRW)

  3. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, H.R.; Stephenson, D.E.; Zandt, G.; Bouchon, M.; Hustrulid, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    In order to assess the seismic risk for an underground facility, a data base was established and analyzed to evaluate the potential for seismic disturbance. Substantial damage to underground facilities is usually the result of displacements primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures, or at the surface entrance to these facilities. Evidence of this comes from both earthquakes and large explosions. Therefore, the displacement due to earthquakes as a function of depth is important in the evaluation of the hazard to underground facilities. To evaluate potential displacements due to seismic effects of block motions along pre-existing or induced fractures, the displacement fields surrounding two types of faults were investigated. Analytical models were used to determine relative displacements of shafts and near-surface displacement of large rock masses. Numerical methods were used to determine the displacement fields associated with pure strike-slip and vertical normal faults. Results are presented as displacements for various fault lengths as a function of depth and distance. This provides input to determine potential displacements in terms of depth and distance for underground facilities, important for assessing potential sites and design parameters.

  4. A New Application of Photogrammetry in the Underground Pipe Network Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Feng, Q.; Zhang, N.; Tian, H.; Yang, Y.; Jin, J.; Li, Y.; Zhang, L.

    2016-06-01

    This paper mainly introduces a device that can be used for underground pipeline survey task. Through the cameras installed on the device, we can obtain stereo synchronous shooting images, and then use the method of close range photogrammetry to investigate and measure underground objects. During working process, the staff put the camera into the well and to control camera shooting from the ground. Greatly improve work efficiency, at the same time to avoid the underground toxis gas damage to people. The main content of this paper includes three parts: hardware design, software development and test production.

  5. 49 CFR 192.325 - Underground clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Underground clearance. 192.325 Section 192.325... Lines and Mains § 192.325 Underground clearance. (a) Each transmission line must be installed with at least 12 inches (305 millimeters) of clearance from any other underground structure not associated...

  6. 30 CFR 57.4761 - Underground shops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground shops. 57.4761 Section 57.4761... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Ventilation Control Measures § 57.4761 Underground shops. To confine or prevent the spread...

  7. Numerical study on convection diffusion for gasification agent in underground coal gasification. Part I: establishment of mathematical models and solving method

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, L.H.; Ding, Y.M.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss the distribution law of the gasification agent concentration in a deep-going way during underground coal gasification and the new method of solving the problem for the convection diffusion of the gas. In this paper, the basic features of convection diffusion for the gas produced in underground coal gasification are studied. On the basis of the model experiment, through the analysis of the distribution and patterns of variation for the fluid concentration field in the process of the combustion and gasification of the coal seams within the gasifier, the 3-D non-linear unstable mathematical models on the convection diffusion for oxygen are established. In order to curb such pseudo-physical effects as numerical oscillation and surfeit which frequently occurred in the solution of the complex mathematical models, the novel finite unit algorithm, the upstream weighted multi-cell balance method is advanced in this article, and its main derivation process is introduced.

  8. Cosmic ray sun shadow in Soudan 2 underground muon flux.

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, W. W. M.; Alner, G. J.; Ayres, D. S.; Barrett, W. L.; Bode, C.; Fields, T. H.; Goodman, M. C.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Price, L. E.; Seidlein, R.; Soudan 2 Collaboration; Thron, J. L.

    1999-06-23

    The absorption of cosmic rays by the sun produces a shadow at the earth. The angular offset and broadening of the shadow are determined by the magnitude and structure of the interplanetary magnetic field (IPMF) in the inner solar system. The authors report the first measurement of the solar cosmic ray shadow by detection of deep underground muon flux in observations made during the entire ten-year interval 1989 to 1998. The sun shadow varies significantly during this time, with a 3.3{sigma} shadow observed during the years 1995 to 1998.

  9. Stimulation Technologies for Deep Well Completions

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Wolhart

    2005-06-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring the Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies conducted a study to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project was to review U.S. deep well drilling and stimulation activity, review rock mechanics and fracture growth in deep, high-pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. This report documents results from this project.

  10. Deep Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Cliff

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes research to find the nature of deep earthquakes occurring hundreds of kilometers down in the earth's mantle. Describes further research problems in this area. Presents several illustrations and four references. (YP)

  11. Discovery of a rich proto-cluster at z = 2.9 and associated diffuse cold gas in the VIMOS Ultra-Deep Survey (VUDS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucciati, O.; Zamorani, G.; Lemaux, B. C.; Bardelli, S.; Cimatti, A.; Le Fèvre, O.; Cassata, P.; Garilli, B.; Le Brun, V.; Maccagni, D.; Pentericci, L.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Thomas, R.; Vanzella, E.; Zucca, E.; Amorin, R.; Capak, P.; Cassarà, L. P.; Castellano, M.; Cuby, J. G.; de la Torre, S.; Durkalec, A.; Fontana, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Grazian, A.; Hathi, N. P.; Ilbert, O.; Moreau, C.; Paltani, S.; Ribeiro, B.; Salvato, M.; Schaerer, D.; Scodeggio, M.; Sommariva, V.; Talia, M.; Taniguchi, Y.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Wang, P. W.; Charlot, S.; Contini, T.; Fotopoulou, S.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Mellier, Y.; Scoville, N.

    2014-10-01

    High-density environments are crucial places for studying the link between hierarchical structure formation and stellar mass growth in galaxies. In this work, we characterise a massive proto-cluster at z = 2.895 that we found in the COSMOS field using the spectroscopic sample of the VIMOS Ultra-Deep Survey (VUDS). This is one of the rare structures at z ~ 3 not identified around an active galactic nucleus (AGN) or a radio galaxy, thus it represents an ideal laboratory for investigating the formation of galaxies in dense environments. The structure comprises 12 galaxies with secure spectroscopic redshift in an area of ~ 7' × 8', in a total z range of Δz = 0.016. The measured galaxy number overdensity is δg = 12 ± 2. This overdensity has a total mass of M ~ 8.1 × 1014 M⊙ in a volume of 13 × 15 × 17 Mpc3. Simulations indicate that such an overdensity at z ~ 2.9 is a proto-cluster, which will collapse in a cluster of total mass Mz = 0 ~ 2.5 × 1015 M⊙ at z = 0, i.e. a massive cluster in the local Universe. We analysed the properties of the galaxies within the overdensity, and we compared them with acontrol sample at the same redshift but outside the overdensity. We could not find any statistically significant difference between the properties (stellar mass, star formation rate, specific star formation rate, NUV-r and r - K colours) of the galaxies inside and outside the overdensity, but this result might be due to the lack of statistics or possibly to the specific galaxy population sampled by VUDS, which could be less affected by environment than the other populations not probed by the survey. The stacked spectrum of galaxies in the background of the overdensity shows a significant absorption feature at the wavelength of Lyα redshifted at z = 2.895 (λ = 4736 Å), with a rest frame equivalent width (EW) of 4 ± 1.4 Å. Stacking only background galaxies without intervening sources at z ~ 2.9 along their line of sight, we find that this absorption feature has

  12. New technique for underground homes

    SciTech Connect

    Langa, F.S.

    1983-09-01

    The world's first underground geodesic dome was built in Missoula, Montana. This innovation, which uses an insulation umbrella constructed of interleaved plastic sheeting and polystyrene insulation, holds heat, sheds water, and costs about 35% less than installed cost of a high-tech elastomeric system applied over an equivalent amount of foam insulation. By day and during summer, the earth bubble surrounding the dome is charged with free ambient warmth. By night and during winter, the stored heat returns to warm the house.

  13. Radionuclides in an underground environment

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.L.

    1996-08-01

    In the 100 years since Becquerel recognized radioactivity, mankind has been very successful in producing large amounts of radioactive materials. We have been less successful in reaching a consensus on how to dispose of the billions of curies of fission products and transuranics resulting from nuclear weapons testing, electrical power generation, medical research, and a variety of other human endeavors. Many countries, including the United States, favor underground burial as a means of disposing of radioactive wastes. There are, however, serious questions about how such buried wastes may behave in the underground environment and particularly how they might eventually contaminate water, air and soil resources on which we are dependent. This paper describes research done in the United States in the state of Nevada on the behavior of radioactive materials placed underground. During the last thirty years, a series of ``experiments`` conducted for other purposes (testing of nuclear weapons) have resulted in a wide variety of fission products and actinides being injected in rock strata both above and below the water table. Variables which seem to control the movement of these radionuclides include the physical form (occlusion versus surface deposition), the chemical oxidation state, sorption by mineral phases of the host rock, and the hydrologic properties of the medium. The information gained from these studies should be relevant to planning for remediation of nuclear facilities elsewhere in the world and for long-term storage of nuclear wastes.

  14. Bayesian Analysis of Underground Flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogardi, Istvan; Duckstein, Lucien; Szidarovszky, Ferenc

    1982-08-01

    An event-based stochastic model is used to describe the spatial phenomenon of water inrush into underground works located under a karstic aquifer, and a Bayesian analysis is performed because of high parameter uncertainty. The random variables of the model are inrush yield per event, distance between events, number of events per unit underground space, maximum yield, and total yield over mine lifetime. Physically based hypotheses on the types of distributions are made and reinforced by observations. High parameter uncertainty stems from the random characteristics of karstic limestone and the limited amount of observation data. Thus, during the design stage, only indirect data such as regional information and geological analogies are available; updating of this information should then be done as the construction progresses and inrush events are observed and recorded. A Bayes simulation algorithm is developed and applied to estimate the probability distributions of inrush event characteristics used in the design of water control facilities in underground mining. A real-life example in the Transdanubian region of Hungary is used to illustrate the methodology.

  15. The stress and underground environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chama, A.

    2009-04-01

    Currently,the program of prevention in occupational health needs mainly to identify occupational hazards and strategy of their prevention.Among these risks,the stress represents an important psycho-social hazard in mental health,which unfortunately does not spare no occupation.My Paper attempts to highlight and to develop this hazard in its different aspects even its regulatory side in underground environment as occupational environment.In the interest of better prevention ,we consider "the information" about the impact of stress as the second prevention efficient and no expensive to speleologists,hygienists and workers in the underground areas. In this occasion of this event in Vienna,we also highlight the scientific works on the stress of the famous viennese physician and endocrinologist Doctor Hans Selye (1907-1982),nicknamed "the father of stress" and note on relation between biological rhythms in this underground area and psychological troubles (temporal isolation) (Jurgen Aschoff’s works and experiences out-of time).

  16. Trunkline preserves indian artifacts while developing gas storage field

    SciTech Connect

    Clausing, R.G.

    1981-10-01

    Not only is Poverty Point, La, a potential underground gas storage field, but it also is the site of the earliest Indian society yet discovered in the Lower Mississippi Valley. The report, recounts Trunkline Gas Company's experience in studying and preserving archeological data in an area it proposed for an underground gas storage facility.

  17. GOING UNDERGROUND IN FINLAND: DESIGN OF ONKALO IN PROGRESS

    SciTech Connect

    Dikds, T.; Ikonen, A.; Niiranen, S.; Hansen, J.

    2003-02-27

    The long-term program aimed at selection of a site for a deep repository was initiated in Finland in 1983. This program has come to end in 2001 and a new phase aimed at implementation of the geological disposal of spent fuel has been started. In this new phase the first milestone is the application for a construction license for the disposal facility around 2010. To fulfill the needs for detailed design of the disposal system, an underground rock characterization facility (URCF) will be constructed at the representative depth at Olkiluoto. The excavation of this facility will start the work for underground characterization, testing and demonstration, which is planned to be a continuous activity throughout the whole life cycle of the deep repository. The overall objectives for the underground site characterization are (1) verification of the present conclusions on site suitability, (2) definition and identification of suitable rock volumes for repository space and (3) characterization of planned host rock for detailed design, safety assessment and construction planning. The objective for verification aims at assessing that the Olkiluoto site meets the basic criteria for long-term safety and as well the basic requirements for construction and thus justifies the site selection. The two other main objectives are closely related to design of the repository and assessing the long-term safety of the site-specific disposal system. The most important objective of ONKALO should allow an in-depth investigation of the geological environment and to provide the opportunity to allow validation of models at more appropriate scales and conditions than can be achieved from the surface. In some areas, such as in demonstrating operational safety, in acquiring geological information at a repository scale and in constructional and operational feasibility, the ONKALO will provide the only reliable source of in situ data. The depth range envisaged for URCF called ONKALO is between 400 and

  18. Review: Impact of underground structures on the flow of urban groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attard, Guillaume; Winiarski, Thierry; Rossier, Yvan; Eisenlohr, Laurent

    2016-02-01

    Property economics favours the vertical development of cities but flow of groundwater can be affected by the use of underground space in them. This review article presents the state of the art regarding the impact of disturbances caused by underground structures (tunnels, basements of buildings, deep foundations, etc.) on the groundwater flow in urban aquifers. The structures built in the underground levels of urban areas are presented and organised in terms of their impact on flow: obstacle to the flow or disturbance of the groundwater budget of the flow system. These two types of disturbance are described in relation to the structure area and the urban area. The work reviewed shows, on one hand, the individual impacts of different urban underground structures, and on the other, their cumulative impacts on flow, using real case studies. Lastly, the works are placed in perspective regarding the integration of underground structures with the aim of operational management of an urban aquifer. The literature presents deterministic numerical modelling as a tool capable of contributing to this aim, in that it helps to quantify the effect of an underground infrastructure project on groundwater flow, which is crucial for decision-making processes. It can also be an operational decision-aid tool for choosing construction techniques or for formulating strategies to manage the water resource.

  19. Natural Gas Monthly, October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-10

    The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature articles are: US Production of Natural Gas from Tight Reservoirs: and Expanding Rule of Underground Storage.

  20. Morphology of Gas Release in Physical Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Richard C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Crawford, Amanda D.; Hylden, Laura R.; Bryan, Samuel A.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.

    2014-07-03

    This report documents testing activities conducted as part of the Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Project (DSGREP). The testing described in this report focused on evaluating the potential retention and release mechanisms of hydrogen bubbles in underground radioactive waste storage tanks at Hanford. The goal of the testing was to evaluate the rate, extent, and morphology of gas release events in simulant materials. Previous, undocumented scoping tests have evidenced dramatically different gas release behavior from simulants with similar physical properties. Specifically, previous gas release tests have evaluated the extent of release of 30 Pa kaolin and 30 Pa bentonite clay slurries. While both materials are clays and both have equivalent material shear strength using a shear vane, it was found that upon stirring, gas was released immediately and completely from bentonite clay slurry while little if any gas was released from the kaolin slurry. The motivation for the current work is to replicate these tests in a controlled quality test environment and to evaluate the release behavior for another simulant used in DSGREP testing. Three simulant materials were evaluated: 1) a 30 Pa kaolin clay slurry, 2) a 30 Pa bentonite clay slurry, and 3) Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) Simulant (a simulant designed to support DSGREP RT instability testing. Entrained gas was generated in these simulant materials using two methods: 1) application of vacuum over about a 1-minute period to nucleate dissolved gas within the simulant and 2) addition of hydrogen peroxide to generate gas by peroxide decomposition in the simulants over about a 16-hour period. Bubble release was effected by vibrating the test material using an external vibrating table. When testing with hydrogen peroxide, gas release was also accomplished by stirring of the simulant.

  1. Felsenkeller shallow-underground accelerator laboratory for nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemmerer, D.; Cowan, T. E.; Gohl, S.; Ilgner, C.; Junghans, A. R.; Reinhardt, T. P.; Rimarzig, B.; Reinicke, S.; Röder, M.; Schmidt, K.; Schwengner, R.; Stöckel, K.; Szücs, T.; Takács, M.; Wagner, A.; Wagner, L.; Zuber, K.

    2015-05-01

    Favored by the low background in underground laboratories, low-background accelerator-based experiments are an important tool to study nuclear reactions involving stable charged particles. This technique has been used for many years with great success at the 0.4 MV LUNA accelerator in the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, proteced from cosmic rays by 1400 m of rock. However, the nuclear reactions of helium and carbon burning and the neutron source reactions for the astrophysical s-process require higher beam energies than those available at LUNA. Also the study of solar fusion reactions necessitates new data at higher energies. As a result, in the present NuPECC long range plan for nuclear physics in Europe, the installation of one or more higher-energy underground accelerators is strongly recommended. An intercomparison exercise has been carried out using the same HPGe detector in a typical nuclear astrophysics setup at several sites, including the Dresden Felsenkeller underground laboratory. It was found that its rock overburden of 45m rock, together with an active veto against the remaining muon flux, reduces the background to a level that is similar to the deep underground scenario. Based on this finding, a used 5 MV pelletron tandem with 250 μA upcharge current and external sputter ion source has been obtained and transported to Dresden. Work on an additional radio-frequency ion source on the high voltage terminal is underway. The project is now fully funded. The installation of the accelerator in the Felsenkeller is expected for the near future. The status of the project and the planned access possibilities for external users will be reported.

  2. Underground coal gasification: a brief review of current status

    SciTech Connect

    Shafirovich, E.; Varma, A.

    2009-09-15

    Coal gasification is a promising option for the future use of coal. Similarly to gasification in industrial reactors, underground coal gasification (UCG) produces syngas, which can be used for power generation or for the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels and other valuable chemical products. As compared with conventional mining and surface gasification, UCG promises lower capital/operating costs and also has other advantages, such as no human labor underground. In addition, UCG has the potential to be linked with carbon capture and sequestration. The increasing demand for energy, depletion of oil and gas resources, and threat of global climate change lead to growing interest in UCG throughout the world. In this article, we review the current status of this technology, focusing on recent developments in various countries.

  3. Deep learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecun, Yann; Bengio, Yoshua; Hinton, Geoffrey

    2015-05-01

    Deep learning allows computational models that are composed of multiple processing layers to learn representations of data with multiple levels of abstraction. These methods have dramatically improved the state-of-the-art in speech recognition, visual object recognition, object detection and many other domains such as drug discovery and genomics. Deep learning discovers intricate structure in large data sets by using the backpropagation algorithm to indicate how a machine should change its internal parameters that are used to compute the representation in each layer from the representation in the previous layer. Deep convolutional nets have brought about breakthroughs in processing images, video, speech and audio, whereas recurrent nets have shone light on sequential data such as text and speech.

  4. Deep learning.

    PubMed

    LeCun, Yann; Bengio, Yoshua; Hinton, Geoffrey

    2015-05-28

    Deep learning allows computational models that are composed of multiple processing layers to learn representations of data with multiple levels of abstraction. These methods have dramatically improved the state-of-the-art in speech recognition, visual object recognition, object detection and many other domains such as drug discovery and genomics. Deep learning discovers intricate structure in large data sets by using the backpropagation algorithm to indicate how a machine should change its internal parameters that are used to compute the representation in each layer from the representation in the previous layer. Deep convolutional nets have brought about breakthroughs in processing images, video, speech and audio, whereas recurrent nets have shone light on sequential data such as text and speech. PMID:26017442

  5. Evaluation of Gas Retention in Waste Simulants: Tall Column Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Powell, Michael R.; Boeringa, Gregory K.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Karri, Naveen K.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Tran, Diana N.; Sande, Susan; Heldebrant, David J.; Meacham, Joseph E.; Smet, Dave; Bryan, Wesley E.; Calmus, Ronald B.

    2014-05-16

    Gas generation in Hanford’s underground waste storage tanks can lead to gas accumulation within the layer of settled solids (sludge) at the tank bottom. The gas, which typically has hydrogen as the major component together with other flammable species, is formed principally by radiation-driven chemical reactions. Accumulation of these gases within the sludge in a waste tank is undesirable and limits the amount of tank volume for waste storage. Further, accumulation of large amounts of gas in the sludge may potentially result in an unacceptable release of the accumulated gas if the sludge-layer density is reduced to less than that of the overlying sludge or that of the supernatant liquid. Rapid release of large amounts of flammable gases could endanger personnel and equipment near the tank. For this reason, a thorough understanding of the circumstances that can lead to a potentially problematic gas accumulation in sludge layers is needed. To respond to this need, the Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Program (DSGREP) was commissioned to examine gas release behavior in sludges.

  6. A Shallow Underground Laboratory for Low-Background Radiation Measurements and Materials Development

    SciTech Connect

    Aalseth, Craig E.; Bonicalzi, Ricco; Cantaloub, Michael G.; Day, Anthony R.; Erikson, Luke E.; Fast, James E.; Forrester, Joel B.; Fuller, Erin S.; Glasgow, Brian D.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Hyronimus, Brian J.; Keillor, Martin E.; Mace, Emily K.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Merriman, Jason H.; Myers, Allan W.; Overman, Cory T.; Overman, Nicole R.; Panisko, Mark E.; Seifert, Allen; Warren, Glen A.; Runkle, Robert C.

    2012-11-08

    Abstract: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory recently commissioned a new shallow underground laboratory, located at a depth of approximately 30 meters water-equivalent. This new addition to the small class of radiation measurement laboratories located at modest underground depths worldwide houses the latest generation of custom-made, high-efficiency, low-background gamma-ray spectrometers and gas proportional counters. This manuscript describes the unique capabilities present in the shallow underground laboratory; these include large-scale ultra-pure materials production and a suite of radiation detection systems. Reported data characterize the degree of background reduction achieved through a combination of underground location, graded shielding, and rejection of cosmic-ray events. We conclude by presenting measurement targets and future opportunities.

  7. A shallow underground laboratory for low-background radiation measurements and materials development

    SciTech Connect

    Aalseth, C. E.; Bonicalzi, R. M.; Cantaloub, M. G.; Day, A. R.; Erikson, L. E.; Fast, J.; Forrester, J. B.; Fuller, E. S.; Glasgow, B. D.; Greenwood, L. R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Hossbach, T. W.; Hyronimus, B. J.; Keillor, M. E.; Mace, E. K.; McIntyre, J. I.; Merriman, J. H.; Myers, A. W.; Overman, C. T.; Overman, N. R.; and others

    2012-11-15

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory recently commissioned a new shallow underground laboratory, located at a depth of approximately 30 meters-water-equivalent. This new addition to the small class of radiation measurement laboratories located at modest underground depths houses the latest generation of custom-made, high-efficiency, low-background gamma-ray spectrometers and gas proportional counters. This paper describes the unique capabilities present in the shallow underground laboratory; these include large-scale ultra-pure materials production and a suite of radiation detection systems. Reported data characterize the degree of background reduction achieved through a combination of underground location, graded shielding, and rejection of cosmic-ray events. We conclude by presenting measurement targets and future opportunities.

  8. A shallow underground laboratory for low-background radiation measurements and materials development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalseth, C. E.; Bonicalzi, R. M.; Cantaloub, M. G.; Day, A. R.; Erikson, L. E.; Fast, J.; Forrester, J. B.; Fuller, E. S.; Glasgow, B. D.; Greenwood, L. R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Hossbach, T. W.; Hyronimus, B. J.; Keillor, M. E.; Mace, E. K.; McIntyre, J. I.; Merriman, J. H.; Myers, A. W.; Overman, C. T.; Overman, N. R.; Panisko, M. E.; Seifert, A.; Warren, G. A.; Runkle, R. C.

    2012-11-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory recently commissioned a new shallow underground laboratory, located at a depth of approximately 30 meters-water-equivalent. This new addition to the small class of radiation measurement laboratories located at modest underground depths houses the latest generation of custom-made, high-efficiency, low-background gamma-ray spectrometers and gas proportional counters. This paper describes the unique capabilities present in the shallow underground laboratory; these include large-scale ultra-pure materials production and a suite of radiation detection systems. Reported data characterize the degree of background reduction achieved through a combination of underground location, graded shielding, and rejection of cosmic-ray events. We conclude by presenting measurement targets and future opportunities.

  9. Might underground waste repositories blow up?

    SciTech Connect

    Hippel, F. von

    1996-03-01

    Some writers have presented possible scenarios in which a subcritical underground deposit of plutonium or other fissile material might be changed into a critical configuration. The underground criticalities that occurred in Gabon some 1.7 billion years ago in deposits of natural uranium is cited. Other scientists assert that it is virtually impossible that such a configuration could develop in an underground repository. The author presents the pros and cons of these views. 5 refs.

  10. Deep Lysimeter

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    2004-06-01

    A deep lysimeter including a hollow vessel having a chamber, a fill conduit extending into the chamber through apertures, a semi-permeable member mounted on the vessel and in fluid communication with the fill conduit, and a line connection for retrieving the lysimeter.

  11. Natural gas monthly, December 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  12. Natural gas monthly, February 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  13. Natural gas monthly, January 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  14. Natural gas monthly, November 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  15. 30 CFR 57.8519 - Underground main fan controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground main fan controls. 57.8519 Section... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Ventilation Surface and Underground § 57.8519 Underground main fan controls. All underground main fans...

  16. 30 CFR 75.804 - Underground high-voltage cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground high-voltage cables. 75.804 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution § 75.804 Underground high-voltage cables. (a) Underground high-voltage cables used in...

  17. Massive gas hydrate occurrences in fractured systems: Combined observations from deep drilling campaigns at the Cascadia margin, Krishna-Godhavari Basin, and Ulleung Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, M.; Collett, T. S.; Park, K.

    2008-12-01

    Natural gas hydrates are observed in various forms, such as (1) disseminated in the pores of sediments, (2) as small nodules or veins within fine-grained sediments, and (3) as a massive unit composed mainly of solid gas hydrate with minor amounts of sediment. The more massive occurrences are mainly associated with cold vents or fractured systems and gas hydrate can occur near or at the seafloor. Over the past decade several prominent marine cold vent settings have been drilled as part of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Legs 164 (Site 996, Blake Ridge) and Leg 204 (Sites 1249 and 1250) at the southern Cascadia Margin, Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 311 (Site U1328) off Vancouver Island on the northern Cascadia Margin, as well as the India National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Expedition 01 (Site NGHP-01-10) within the Krishna-Godavari Basin, and the Korea Ulleung Basin Gas Hydrate (UBGH) Expedition 01 (Site UBGH-01-9, and -10) in the East Sea. In all these settings, the drilling campaigns provided a vast amount of Logging-while drilling (LWD) and wire-line log data together with conventional and pressure core data. Common observations at all cold vents visited are the unique abundance of fracture-control on the gas hydrate formation and an extreme degree of heterogeneity of the gas hydrate abundance across the area affected by the cold vents. The high abundance of massive gas hydrate in cold vents makes core-recovery with conventional tools challenging and sometimes even a safety hazard, resulting in significantly degraded sample quality if sediments can be recovered at all. Results of adjacent boreholes cannot easily be correlated laterally, making volumetric assessments of gas hydrate concentrations difficult. Volumetric assessments are further challenged by the unique seismic character of the cold vents, which often are seismically transparent, which is why these vents are often described as blank or wash-out zones. Electrical resistivity log

  18. Underground storage tank management plan

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Management Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems in operation at the facility, to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks, and to establish a program for the removal of unnecessary UST systems and upgrade of UST systems that continue to be needed. The program implements an integrated approach to the management of UST systems, with each system evaluated against the same requirements and regulations. A common approach is employed, in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance, when corrective action is mandated. This Management Plan outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed by the UST Management Program, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Management Plan provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. (There are no underground radioactive waste UST systems located at Y-12.) The plan is divided into four major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) implementation requirements, (3) Y-12 Plant UST Program inventory sites, and (4) UST waste management practices. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Management Program, and the procedures and guidance used for compliance with applicable regulations.

  19. An underground characterization program for a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault in plutonic rock

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, P.M.; Everitt, R.A.

    1993-12-31

    The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program (CNFWMP) is developing a concept for disposing of nuclear fuel waste that involves placing and sealing it in a disposal vault excavated 500 to 1,000 m deep in the stable plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. In this concept, engineered and natural barriers serve to isolate the waste from the biosphere. Since 1983, underground characterization and testing in support of the CNFWMP has been ongoing at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in southeastern Manitoba. This paper draws on experience gained at the URL to recommend an approach to underground characterization that would provide the necessary information to make design decisions for a disposal vault in plutonic rock.

  20. 30 CFR 57.20031 - Blasting underground in hazardous areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting underground in hazardous areas. 57... MINES Miscellaneous § 57.20031 Blasting underground in hazardous areas. In underground areas where... removed to safe places before blasting....

  1. 29 CFR 1926.800 - Underground construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Underground construction. 1926.800 Section 1926.800 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Underground Construction, Caissons, Cofferdams and Compressed Air §...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.800 - Underground construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underground construction. 1926.800 Section 1926.800 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Underground Construction, Caissons, Cofferdams and Compressed Air §...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.956 - Underground lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground lines. 1926.956 Section 1926.956 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Power Transmission and Distribution § 1926.956 Underground lines. (a) Guarding...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.956 - Underground lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Underground lines. (a) Guarding and ventilating street opening used for access to underground lines or... hazards involved. (2) Before an employee enters a street opening, such as a manhole or an unvented vault... work is to be performed in a manhole or unvented vault: (i) No entry shall be permitted unless...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.956 - Underground lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Underground lines. (a) Guarding and ventilating street opening used for access to underground lines or... hazards involved. (2) Before an employee enters a street opening, such as a manhole or an unvented vault... work is to be performed in a manhole or unvented vault: (i) No entry shall be permitted unless...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.956 - Underground lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Underground lines. (a) Guarding and ventilating street opening used for access to underground lines or... hazards involved. (2) Before an employee enters a street opening, such as a manhole or an unvented vault... work is to be performed in a manhole or unvented vault: (i) No entry shall be permitted unless...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.956 - Underground lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Underground lines. (a) Guarding and ventilating street opening used for access to underground lines or... hazards involved. (2) Before an employee enters a street opening, such as a manhole or an unvented vault... work is to be performed in a manhole or unvented vault: (i) No entry shall be permitted unless...

  8. Resource Recovery from Flooded Underground Mines

    EPA Science Inventory

    Butte, Montana has been the site of hard rock mining activities for over a century. Over 400 hundred underground mines were developed and over 10,000 miles of underground mine workings were created. During active mining, groundwater was removed from the workings by large-scale pu...

  9. Resource Recovery of Flooded Underground Mine Workings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Butte, Montana has been the site of hard rock mining activities for over a century. Over 400 hundred underground mines were developed and over 10,000 miles of underground mine workings were created. During active mining, groundwater was removed from the workings by large-scale pu...

  10. DEEP CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF A2199: THE INTERPLAY BETWEEN MERGER-INDUCED GAS MOTIONS AND NUCLEAR OUTBURSTS IN A COOL CORE CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Nulsen, Paul E. J.; Li, Zhiyuan; Forman, William R.; Kraft, Ralph P.; Lal, Dharam V.; Jones, Christine; Murray, Stephen S.; Zhuravleva, Irina; Churazov, Eugene; Sanders, Jeremy S.; Fabian, Andrew C.; Johnson, Ryan E.

    2013-10-01

    We present new Chandra observations of A2199 that show evidence of gas sloshing due to a minor merger, as well as impacts of the radio source, 3C 338, hosted by the central galaxy, NGC 6166, on the intracluster gas. The new data are consistent with previous evidence of a Mach ≅ 1.46 shock 100'' from the cluster center, although there is still no convincing evidence for the expected temperature jump. Other interpretations of this feature are possible, but none is fully satisfactory. Large scale asymmetries, including enhanced X-ray emission 200'' southwest of the cluster center and a plume of low entropy, enriched gas reaching 50'' to the north of the center, are signatures of gas sloshing induced by core passage of a merging subcluster about 400 Myr ago. An association between the unusual radio ridge and low entropy gas are consistent with this feature being the remnant of a former radio jet that was swept away from the active galactic nucleus by gas sloshing. A large discrepancy between the energy required to produce the 100'' shock and the enthalpy of the outer radio lobes of 3C 338 suggests that the lobes were formed by a more recent, less powerful radio outburst. The lack of evidence for shocks in the central 10'' indicates that the power of the jet now is some two orders of magnitude smaller than when the 100'' shock was formed.

  11. Underground structure characterization using motor vehicles as passive seismic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzma, H. A.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Rector, J.; Vaidya, S.

    2009-12-01

    The ability to detect and characterize underground voids will be critical to the success of On-Site Inspections (OSI) as mandated by the nuclear Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). OSIs may be conducted in order to successfully locate the Ground Zero of underground tests as well as infrastructure related to testing. Recently, our team has shown the potential of a new technique to detect underground objects using the amplitude of seismic surface waves generated by motor vehicles. In an experiment conducted in June, 2009 we were able to detect an abandoned railroad tunnel by recognizing a clear pattern in the surface waves scattered by the tunnel, using a signal generated by driving a car on a dirt road across the tunnel. Synthetic experiments conducted using physically realistic wave-equation models further suggest that the technique can be readily applied to detecting underground features: it may be possible to image structures of importance to OSI simply by laying out an array of geophones (or using an array already in place for passive listening for event aftershocks) and driving vehicles around the site. We present evidence from a set of field experiments and from synthetic modeling and inversion studies to illustrate adaptations of the technique for OSI. Signature of an abandoned underground railroad tunnel at Donner Summit, CA. To produce this image, a line of geophones was placed along a dirt road perpendicular to the tunnel (black box) and a single car was driven along the road. A normalized mean power-spectrum is displayed on a log scale as a function of meters from the center of the tunnel. The top of the tunnel was 18m below ground surface. The tunnel anomaly is made up of a shadow (light) directly above the tunnel and amplitude build-up (dark) on either side of the tunnel. The size of the anomaly (6 orders of magnitude) suggests that the method can be extended to find deep structures at greater distances from the source and receivers.

  12. Underground coal mining section data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabrill, C. P.; Urie, J. T.

    1981-01-01

    A set of tables which display the allocation of time for ten personnel and eight pieces of underground coal mining equipment to ten function categories is provided. Data from 125 full shift time studies contained in the KETRON database was utilized as the primary source data. The KETRON activity and delay codes were mapped onto JPL equipment, personnel and function categories. Computer processing was then performed to aggregate the shift level data and generate the matrices. Additional, documented time study data were analyzed and used to supplement the KETRON databased. The source data including the number of shifts are described. Specific parameters of the mines from which there data were extracted are presented. The result of the data processing including the required JPL matrices is presented. A brief comparison with a time study analysis of continuous mining systems is presented. The procedures used for processing the source data are described.

  13. Waves from an underground explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krymskii, A. V.; Lyakhov, G. M.

    1984-05-01

    The problem of the propagation of a spherical detonation wave in water-saturated soil was solved in [1, 2] by using a model of a liquid porous multicomponent medium with bulk viscosity. Experiments show that soils which are not water saturated are solid porous multicomponent media having a viscosity, nonlinear bulk compression limit diagrams, and irreversible deformations. Taking account of these properties, and using the model in [2], we have solved the problem of the propagation of a spherical detonation wave from an underground explosion. The solution was obtained by computer, using the finite difference method [3]. The basic wave parameters were determined at various distances from the site of the explosion. The values obtained are in good agreement with experiment. Models of soils as viscous media which take account of the dependence of deformations on the rate of loading were proposed in [4 7] also. In [8] a model was proposed corresponding to a liquid multicomponent medium with a variable viscosity.

  14. Underground Nuclear Astrophysics at LUNA

    SciTech Connect

    Junker, Matthias

    2008-01-24

    Nuclear cross sections play a key role in understanding stellar evolution and elemental synthesis. Also in the field of astroparticle physics precise knowledge on thermonuclear cross sections is needed to extract the particle properties from the experimental data. While it is desirable to directly measure the relevant cross sections in the energy range of interest for the specific stellar environment this proves to be difficult, if not impossible, due to the effect of the Coulomb barrier, which causes an exponential drop of the cross sections at stellar energies. Consequently direct measurements are hampered by low counting rates and background caused by cosmic rays and environmental radioactivity. In addition background induced by the beam or the target itself can disturb the measurements.In this contribution I will discuss some of the reactions studied by LUNA in the past years to illustrate important aspects underground nuclear astrophysics.

  15. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.; Lemm, M.; Popplesdorf, N.; Ryan, T.; Saban, C.; Cohen, J.; Smith, C.; Ciminesi, F.

    1982-09-01

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards.

  16. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON DIFFICULTY OF EVACUATION FROM UNDERGROUND SPACES UNDER INUNDATED SITUATIONS USING REAL SCALE MODELS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Yasuyuki; Ishigaki, Taisuke; Toda, Keiichi; Nakagawa, Hajime

    Many urbanized cities in Japan are located in alluvial plains, and the vulnerability of urbanized areas to flood disaster is highlighted by flood attacks due to heavy rain fall or typhoons. Underground spaces located in the urbanized area are flood-prone areas, and the intrusion of flood watar into underground space inflicted severe damages on urban functions and infrastructures. In a similar way, low-lying areas like "bowl-shaped" depression and underpasses under highway and railroad bridges are also prone to floods. The underpasses are common sites of accidents of submerged vehicles, and severe damage including human damage occasionally occurs under flooding conditions. To reduce the damage due to inundation in underground space, needless to say, early evacuation is one of the most important countermeasures. This paper shows some experimental results of evacuation tests from underground spaces under inundated situations. The difficulities of the evacuation from underground space has been investigated by using real scale models (door, staircase and vehicle), and the limit for safety evacuation is discussed. From the results, it is found that water depth of 0.3 - 0.4m would be a critical situation for the evacuation from underground space through staircases and door and that 0.7 - 0.8m deep on the ground would be also a critical situation for safety evacuation though the doors of the vehicle. These criteria have some possibility to vary according to different inundated situations, and they are also influenced by the individual variation like the difference of physical strength. This means that these criteria requires cautious stance to use although they show a sort of an index of the limitation for saftty evacuation from underground space.

  17. A review of the factors influencing the physicochemical characteristics of underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, L.H.

    2008-07-01

    In this article, the physicochemical characteristics of the oxidation zone, the reduction zone, and the destructive distillation and dry zone in the process of underground coal gasification (UCG) were explained. The effect of such major factors as temperature, coal type, water-inrush or -intake rate, the quantity and quality of wind blasting, the thickness of coal seams, operational pressure, the length, and the section of gasification gallery on the quality of the underground gas and their interrelationship were discussed. Research showed that the temperature conditions determined the underground gas compositions; the appropriate water-inrush or -intake rate was conducive to the improvement in gas heat value; the properties of the gasification agent had an obvious effect on the compositions and heat value of the product gas. Under the cyclically changing pressure, heat losses decreased by 60%, with the heat efficiency and gasification efficiency being 1.4 times and 2 times those of constant pressure, respectively. The test research further proved that the underground gasifier with a long channel and a big cross-section, to a large extent, improved the combustion-gasification conditions.

  18. Deep smarts.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Dorothy; Swap, Walter

    2004-09-01

    When a person sizes up a complex situation and rapidly comes to a decision that proves to be not just good but brilliant, you think, "That was smart." After you watch him do this a few times, you realize you're in the presence of something special. It's not raw brainpower, though that helps. It's not emotional intelligence, either, though that, too, is often involved. It's deep smarts. Deep smarts are not philosophical--they're not"wisdom" in that sense, but they're as close to wisdom as business gets. You see them in the manager who understands when and how to move into a new international market, in the executive who knows just what kind of talk to give when her organization is in crisis, in the technician who can track a product failure back to an interaction between independently produced elements. These are people whose knowledge would be hard to purchase on the open market. Their insight is based on know-how more than on know-what; it comprises a system view as well as expertise in individual areas. Because deep smarts are experienced based and often context specific, they can't be produced overnight or readily imported into an organization. It takes years for an individual to develop them--and no time at all for an organization to lose them when a valued veteran walks out the door. They can be taught, however, with the right techniques. Drawing on their forthcoming book Deep Smarts, Dorothy Leonard and Walter Swap say the best way to transfer such expertise to novices--and, on a larger scale, to make individual knowledge institutional--isn't through PowerPoint slides, a Web site of best practices, online training, project reports, or lectures. Rather, the sage needs to teach the neophyte individually how to draw wisdom from experience. Companies have to be willing to dedicate time and effort to such extensive training, but the investment more than pays for itself. PMID:15449858

  19. Stimulation Technologies for Deep Well Completions

    SciTech Connect

    2004-03-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring the Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies is conducting a study to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project is to assess U.S. deep well drilling and stimulation activity, review rock mechanics and fracture growth in deep, high-pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. An assessment of historical deep gas well drilling activity and forecast of future trends was completed during the first six months of the project; this segment of the project was covered in Technical Progress Report No. 1. During the next six months, efforts were primarily split between summarizing rock mechanics and fracture growth in deep reservoirs and contacting operators about case studies of deep gas well stimulation as documented in Technical Progress Report No. 2. This report details work done with Anadarko and ChevronTexaco in the Table Rock Field in Wyoming.

  20. Underground coal gasification field experiment in the high-dipping coal seams

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, L.H.; Liu, S.Q.; Yu, L.; Zhang, W.

    2009-07-01

    In this article the experimental conditions and process of the underground gasification in the Woniushan Mine, Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province are introduced, and the experimental results are analyzed. By adopting the new method of long-channel, big-section, and two-stage underground coal gasification, the daily gas production reaches about 36,000 m{sup 3}, with the maximum output of 103,700 m{sup 3}. The daily average heating value of air gas is 5.04 MJ/m{sup 3}, with 13.57 MJ/m{sup 3} for water gas. In combustible compositions of water gas, H{sub 2} contents stand at over 50%, with both CO and CH{sub 4} contents over 6%. Experimental results show that the counter gasification can form new temperature conditions and increase the gasification efficiency of coal seams.

  1. Assessing the acoustical climate of underground stations.

    PubMed

    Nowicka, Elzbieta

    2007-01-01

    Designing a proper acoustical environment--indispensable to speech recognition--in long enclosures is difficult. Although there is some literature on the acoustical conditions in underground stations, there is still little information about methods that make estimation of correct reverberation conditions possible. This paper discusses the assessment of the reverberation conditions of underground stations. A comparison of the measurements of reverberation time in Warsaw's underground stations with calculated data proves there are divergences between measured and calculated early decay time values, especially for long source-receiver distances. Rapid speech transmission index values for measured stations are also presented. PMID:18082025

  2. How Deep is the Critical Zone: A Scientific Question with Potential Impact For Decision-makers in Areas of Shale-Gas Development and Hydraulic Fracturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brantley, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    Citizens living in areas of shale-gas development such as the Marcellus gas play in Pennsylvania and surrounding states are cognizant of the possibility that drilling and production of natural gas -- including hydraulic fracturing -- may have environmental impacts on their water. The Critical Zone is defined as the zone from vegetation canopy to the lower limits of groundwater. This definition is nebulous in terms of the lower limit, and yet, defining the bottom of the Critical Zone is important if citizens are to embrace shale-gas development. This is because, although no peer-reviewed study has been presented that documents a case where hydraulic fracturing or formation fluids have migrated upwards from fracturing depths to drinking water resources, a few cases of such leakage have been alleged. On the other hand, many cases of methane migration into aquifers have been documented to occur and some have been attributed to shale-gas development. The Critical Zone science community has a role to play in understanding such contamination problems, how they unfold, and how they should be ameliorated. For example, one big effort of the Critical Zone science community is to promote sharing of data describing the environment. This data effort has been extended to provide data for citizens to understand water quality by a team known as the Shale Network. As scientists learn to publish data online, these efforts must also be made accessible to non-scientists. As citizens access the data, the demand for data will grow and all branches of government will eventually respond by providing more accessible data that will help the public and policy-makers make decisions.

  3. Seismic velocity increase and deep-sea gas hydrate concentration above a bottom-simulating reflector on the northern Cascadia continental slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, T.; Hyndman, R. D.; Spence, G. D.; Desmons, B.

    1996-06-01

    The amount of gas hydrates in the accretionary wedge sediments of the northern Cascadia subduction zone off Vancouver Island has been estimated from multichannel seismic (MCS) and Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) data. Detailed semblance velocity analyses and full waveform inversion of MCS data, combined with previously published ODP Sites 889/890 sonic log and vertical seismic profile (VSP) data, show that sediment velocities increase downward more rapidly than the no-hydrate/no-gas reference profile from about 1500 m/s near the seafloor to a maximum of 1900 m/s just above the bottom-simulating reflector (BSR) at a subbottom depth of 224 m. Immediately below the BSR, the MCS velocities drop to ˜1700 m/s. A low velocity of ˜1500 m/s from the VSP data probably represents a thin layer, ˜20 m, containing free gas. The difference between the reference and observed velocities is used to estimate hydrate concentration, which reaches a maximum of 20-30% of the pore space above the BSR. A simple interpretation of the drill core chlorinity dilution data at the ODP site yields a similar hydrate concentration of 35%. The estimated hydrate concentration with subbottom depth represents about 7 m3 of hydrate per square meter of seafloor. The total methane gas at STP, including hydrate above the BSR and the small amount of free gas below, is about 800 m3 per square meter of seafloor, or 200 TCF (trillion cubic feet) on the Vancouver Island continental slope. Application of the same method in the Blake-Bahama region of the eastern U.S. margin indicates that the velocity enhancement and inferred hydrate concentration are very similar.

  4. Radiometric surveys in underground environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochiolo, Massimo; Chiozzi, Paolo; Verdoya, Massimo; Pasquale, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    Due to their ability to travel through the air for several metres, gamma-rays emitted from natural radioactive elements can be successfully used in surveys carried out both with airborne and ground equipments. Besides the concentration of the radio-elements contained in rocks and soils and the intrinsic characteristics of the gamma-ray detector, the detected count rate depends on the solid angle around the spectrometer. On a flat outcrop, ground spectrometry detects the radiation ideally produced by a cylindrical mass of rock of about two metres in diameter and thickness of about half a meter. Under these geometrical conditions, the natural radioactivity can be easily evaluated. With operating conditions different from the standard ones, such as at the edge of an escarpment, the count rate halves because of the missing material, whereas in the vicinity of a rock wall the count rate will increase. In underground environment, the recorded count rate may even double and the in situ assessment of the concentration of radio-elements may be rather difficult, even if the ratios between the different radio-elements may not be affected. We tested the applicability of gamma-ray spectrometry for rapid assessment of the potential hazard levels related to radon and radiation dose rate in underground environment. A mine shaft, located in a zone of uranium enrichment in Liguria (Italy), has been investigated. A preliminary ground radiometric survey was carried out to define the extent of the ore deposit. Then, the radiometric investigation was focussed on the mine shaft. Due to rock mass above the shaft vault, the background gamma radiation can be considered of negligible influence on measurements. In underground surveys, besides deviations from a flat geometry, factors controlling radon exhalation, emanation and stagnation, such as fractures, water leakage and the presence of ventilation, should be carefully examined. We attempted to evaluate these control factors and collected

  5. 30 CFR 75.1106-4 - Use of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1106-4 Use of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders... compressed gas unit, consisting of one oxygen cylinder and one additional gas cylinder, shall be used...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1106-4 - Use of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1106-4 Use of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders... compressed gas unit, consisting of one oxygen cylinder and one additional gas cylinder, shall be used...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1106-4 - Use of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1106-4 Use of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders... compressed gas unit, consisting of one oxygen cylinder and one additional gas cylinder, shall be used...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1106-4 - Use of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1106-4 Use of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders... compressed gas unit, consisting of one oxygen cylinder and one additional gas cylinder, shall be used...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1106-4 - Use of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1106-4 Use of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders... compressed gas unit, consisting of one oxygen cylinder and one additional gas cylinder, shall be used...

  10. A study of leakage rates through mine seals in underground coal mines

    PubMed Central

    Schatzel, Steven J.; Krog, Robert B.; Mazzella, Andrew; Hollerich, Cynthia; Rubinstein, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conducted a study on leakage rates through underground coal mine seals. Leakage rates of coal bed gas into active workings have not been well established. New seal construction standards have exacerbated the knowledge gap in our understanding of how well these seals isolate active workings near a seal line. At a western US underground coal mine, we determined seal leakage rates ranged from about 0 to 0.036 m3/s for seven 340 kPa seals. The seal leakage rate varied in essentially a linear manner with variations in head pressure at the mine seals. PMID:26322119

  11. Impact of the underground injection control program on energy resource development

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, E.P.

    1983-10-01

    Part C of the Safe Drinking Water Act requires that underground sources of drinking water be protected from endangerment by well injection. The Act, as amended through 1980, and the resultant Underground Injection Control (UIC) program regulations and guidance describe minimum requirements for achieving this protection. Injection wells used in the development of energy resources, for example, those related to oil and natural gas production, and the solution mining of uranium, are regulated under the UIC program. The major features of the program requirements that affect such energy related wells are considered here from the Federal-Regional perspective.

  12. Natural gas monthly, April 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-27

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 31 tabs.

  13. Natural Gas Monthly, March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  14. Natural gas monthly: December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. Articles are included which are designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  15. Natural gas monthly, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-22

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  16. Natural gas monthly, November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-29

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground state data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  17. Natural gas monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-24

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  18. Natural gas monthly, June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  19. Natural gas monthly, July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  20. Natural gas monthly, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-26

    The National Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  1. Natural gas monthly, July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-27

    The Natural Gas Monthly NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  2. Natural gas monthly, June 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  3. Natural gas monthly, May 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  4. 30 CFR 57.4057 - Underground trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground trailing cables. 57.4057 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control § 57.4057 Underground trailing cables. Underground trailing cables shall be accepted...

  5. Establishing sustainable strategies in urban underground engineering.

    PubMed

    Curiel-Esparza, Jorge; Canto-Perello, Julian; Calvo, Maria A

    2004-07-01

    Growth of urban areas, the corresponding increased demand for utility services and the possibility of new types of utility systems are overcrowding near surface underground space with urban utilities. Available subsurface space will continue to diminish to the point where utilidors (utility tunnels) may become inevitable. Establishing future sustainable strategies in urban underground engineering consists of the ability to lessen the use of traditional trenching. There is an increasing interest in utility tunnels for urban areas as a sustainable technique to avoid congestion of the subsurface. One of the principal advantages of utility tunnels is the substantially lower environmental impact compared with common trenches. Implementing these underground facilities is retarded most by the initial cost and management procedures. The habitual procedure is to meet problems as they arise in current practice. The moral imperative of sustainable strategies fails to confront the economic and political conflicts of interest. Municipal engineers should act as a key enabler in urban underground sustainable development. PMID:15362708

  6. The First Great Migration: The Underground Railroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodstein, Carol

    1990-01-01

    Describes the Underground Railroad, a loosely organized system used by runaway Southern slaves to reach freedom in the North. Discusses the role of "conductors," who acted as guides and offered shelter along the route. (FMW)

  7. The Black Underground: Fugitives from Slavery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quarles, Benjamin

    1969-01-01

    A brief account of the activities prior to the American Civil War of those who assisted black slaves in their flight from the South to the Northern States and Canada by an underground railroad movement. (RJ)

  8. ANNs pinpoint underground distribution faults

    SciTech Connect

    Glinkowski, M.T.; Wang, N.C.

    1995-10-01

    Many offline fault location techniques in power distribution circuits involve patrolling along the lines or cables. In overhead distribution lines, most of the failures can be located quickly by visual inspection without the aid of special equipment. However, locating a fault in underground cable systems is more difficult. It involves additional equipment (e.g., thumpers, radars, etc.) to transform the invisibility of the cable into other forms of signals, such as acoustic sound and electromagnetic pulses. Trained operators must carry the equipment above the ground, follow the path of the signal, and draw lines on their maps in order to locate the fault. Sometimes, even smelling the burnt cable faults is a way of detecting the problem. These techniques are time consuming, not always reliable, and, as in the case of high-voltage dc thumpers, can cause additional damage to the healthy parts of the cable circuit. Online fault location in power networks that involve interconnected lines (cables) and multiterminal sources continues receiving great attention, with limited success in techniques that would provide simple and practical solutions. This article features a new online fault location technique that: uses the pattern recognition feature of artificial neural networks (ANNs); utilizes new capabilities of modern protective relaying hardware. The output of the neural network can be graphically displayed as a simple three-dimensional (3-D) chart that can provide an operator with an instantaneous indication of the location of the fault.

  9. Seismic performance of underground facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Marine, I W

    1982-01-01

    A workshop was held in Augusta, GA, February 11-13, 1981 to review and assess the state-of-the-art for determining and predicting earthquake damage to underground facilities. The papers presented related to data collection and analysis, modeling, and repository design. Discussion groups addressed seismology, rock mechanics and hydrology, modeling, design, and licensing, siting, and tectonics. Most scientists in attendance believed that enough was known to proceed with site selection, design, and licensing of a waste repository. However, there was recognition of several items of research that would enhance understanding of the subsurface effects of seismicity. In general, the subsurface effects of earthquakes are substantially less than their surface effects. This conclusion is supported by both observation and by modeling studies. The absence of wave reflections, the absence of high flexural stresses, and the absence of poor soil conditions contribute to the improved seismic performance of subsurface facilities. Seismic considerations for geologic disposal of nuclear waste vary with the phase of operation. During construction and waste loading, the primary concern is for the safety of onsite personnel. However, during long-term waste storage, the principal interest is in the migration of contaminants due to seismic cracking and enhancement of permeability. Backfilling the storage facility will mitigate this effect.

  10. Detection of underground structures and tunnels

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, J.M.; Moses, R.W.; Kelly, R.E.; Flynn, E.R.; Kraus, R.H.; Cogbill, A.H.; Stolarczyk, L.G.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a one year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development project at Los Alamos National Laboratory. There is a continuing need in the United States defense and drug interdiction for effective over, convert, and standoff means of detecting underground tunnels, structures, and objects. This project sought to begin an assessment of electromagnetic and gravitational gradient detection approaches to the detection of underground structures and tunnels.

  11. Underground muons from Cygnus X-3

    SciTech Connect

    Price, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    Underground detectors, intended for searches for nucleon decay and other rare processes, have recently begun searching for evidence of astrophysical sources, particularly Cygnus X-3, in the cosmic ray muons they record. Some evidence for signals from Cygnus X-3 has been reported. The underground observations are reported here in the context of previous (surface) observations of the source at high energies. 25 refs., 8 figs.

  12. System for remote control of underground device

    DOEpatents

    Brumleve, T.D.; Hicks, M.G.; Jones, M.O.

    1975-10-21

    A system is described for remote control of an underground device, particularly a nuclear explosive. The system includes means at the surface of the ground for transmitting a seismic signal sequence through the earth having controlled and predetermined signal characteristics for initiating a selected action in the device. Additional apparatus, located with or adjacent to the underground device, produces electrical signals in response to the seismic signals received and compares these electrical signals with the predetermined signal characteristics.

  13. Salinity of deep groundwater in California: Water quantity, quality, and protection.

    PubMed

    Kang, Mary; Jackson, Robert B

    2016-07-12

    Deep groundwater aquifers are poorly characterized but could yield important sources of water in California and elsewhere. Deep aquifers have been developed for oil and gas extraction, and this activity has created both valuable data and risks to groundwater quality. Assessing groundwater quantity and quality requires baseline data and a monitoring framework for evaluating impacts. We analyze 938 chemical, geological, and depth data points from 360 oil/gas fields across eight counties in California and depth data from 34,392 oil and gas wells. By expanding previous groundwater volume estimates from depths of 305 m to 3,000 m in California's Central Valley, an important agricultural region with growing groundwater demands, fresh [<3,000 ppm total dissolved solids (TDS)] groundwater volume is almost tripled to 2,700 km(3), most of it found shallower than 1,000 m. The 3,000-m depth zone also provides 3,900 km(3) of fresh and saline water, not previously estimated, that can be categorized as underground sources of drinking water (USDWs; <10,000 ppm TDS). Up to 19% and 35% of oil/gas activities have occurred directly in freshwater zones and USDWs, respectively, in the eight counties. Deeper activities, such as wastewater injection, may also pose a potential threat to groundwater, especially USDWs. Our findings indicate that California's Central Valley alone has close to three times the volume of fresh groundwater and four times the volume of USDWs than previous estimates suggest. Therefore, efforts to monitor and protect deeper, saline groundwater resources are needed in California and beyond. PMID:27354527

  14. Salinity of deep groundwater in California: Water quantity, quality, and protection

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Mary; Jackson, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    Deep groundwater aquifers are poorly characterized but could yield important sources of water in California and elsewhere. Deep aquifers have been developed for oil and gas extraction, and this activity has created both valuable data and risks to groundwater quality. Assessing groundwater quantity and quality requires baseline data and a monitoring framework for evaluating impacts. We analyze 938 chemical, geological, and depth data points from 360 oil/gas fields across eight counties in California and depth data from 34,392 oil and gas wells. By expanding previous groundwater volume estimates from depths of 305 m to 3,000 m in California’s Central Valley, an important agricultural region with growing groundwater demands, fresh [<3,000 ppm total dissolved solids (TDS)] groundwater volume is almost tripled to 2,700 km3, most of it found shallower than 1,000 m. The 3,000-m depth zone also provides 3,900 km3 of fresh and saline water, not previously estimated, that can be categorized as underground sources of drinking water (USDWs; <10,000 ppm TDS). Up to 19% and 35% of oil/gas activities have occurred directly in freshwater zones and USDWs, respectively, in the eight counties. Deeper activities, such as wastewater injection, may also pose a potential threat to groundwater, especially USDWs. Our findings indicate that California’s Central Valley alone has close to three times the volume of fresh groundwater and four times the volume of USDWs than previous estimates suggest. Therefore, efforts to monitor and protect deeper, saline groundwater resources are needed in California and beyond. PMID:27354527

  15. Moomba Lower Daralingie Beds (LDB) gas storage project: Reservoir management using a novel numerical simulation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Jamal, F.G.

    1994-12-31

    Engineers managing underground gas storage projects are often faced with challenges involving gas migration, inventory variance, gas quality and inventory-pressures. This paper discusses a unique underground gas storage project where sales gas and ethane are stored in two different but communicating regions of the same reservoir. A commercially available reservoir simulator was used to model the fluid flow behavior in this reservoir, hence, providing a tool for better management and use of the existing gas storage facilities.

  16. Natural gas monthly, July 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-03

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary is included. 7 figs., 33 tabs.

  17. Natural gas monthly, August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-05

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector oganizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 33 tabs.

  18. Natural gas monthly, December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This document highlights activities, events, and analysis of interest to the public and private sector associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also included.

  19. 40 CFR 280.220 - Ownership of an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system or facility or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ownership of an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system or facility or property on which an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system is located. 280.220 Section 280.220 Protection of Environment...

  20. Deep pockets for deep seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Peter Auster, a fisheries ecologist with the National Undersea Research Center in Connecticut, plans to assess degradation of the deep-shelf seafloor from bottom trawling. Magnus Ngoile, an official with Tanzania's National Environmental Management Council, will work on building capacity of poor villagers to protect their coastline. And Alison Rieser, a lawyer with the University of Maine School of Law, will produce a textbook to educate scientists on how to apply the law for marine conservation.These individuals are among 11 recipients of the Pew Charitable Trust's 10th annual marine conservation fellowships, announced on July 12. With each recipient receiving an award of $150,000, the program is the world's largest award for marine conservationists. Other 1999 recipients will be involved with areas including investigating marine pollution in the Arctic region, examining economic incentives for conservation in Baja, Mexico, and establishing a marine conservation biology training program for minority students.

  1. Underground Habitats in the Río Tinto Basin: A Model for Subsurface Life Habitats on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Remolar, David C.; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Rodríguez, Nuria; Gómez, Felipe; Amils, Ricardo; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Stoker, Carol R.

    2008-10-01

    A search for evidence of cryptic life in the subsurface region of a fractured Paleozoic volcanosedimentary deposit near the source waters of the Río Tinto River (Iberian pyrite belt, southwest Spain) was carried out by Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) project investigators in 2003 and 2004. This conventional deep-drilling experiment is referred to as the MARTE ground truth drilling project. Boreholes were drilled at three sites, and samples from extracted cores were analyzed with light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Core leachates were analyzed with ion chromatography, and borehole fluids were analyzed with ion and gas chromatography. Key variables of the groundwater system (e.g. , pO2, pH, and salinity) exhibit huge ranges probably due to surficial oxygenation of overall reducing waters, physical mixing of waters, and biologically mediated water-rock interactions. Mineral distribution is mainly driven by the pH of subsurface solutions, which range from highly acidic to neutral. Borehole fluids contain dissolved gases such as CO2, CH4, and H2. SEM-EDS analyses of core samples revealed evidence of microbes attacking pyrite. The Río Tinto alteration mechanisms may be similar to subsurface weathering of the martian crust and provide insights into the possible (bio)geochemical cycles that may have accompanied underground habitats in extensive early Mars volcanic regions and associated sulfide ores.

  2. Models for electromagnetic coupling of lightning onto multiconductor cables in underground cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Matthew Benjamin

    This dissertation documents the measurements, analytical modeling, and numerical modeling of electromagnetic transfer functions to quantify the ability of cloud-to-ground lightning strokes (including horizontal arc-channel components) to couple electromagnetic energy onto multiconductor cables in an underground cavity. Measurements were performed at the Sago coal mine located near Buckhannon, WV. These transfer functions, coupled with mathematical representations of lightning strokes, are then used to predict electric fields within the mine and induced voltages on a cable that was left abandoned in the sealed area of the Sago mine. If voltages reached high enough levels, electrical arcing could have occurred from the abandoned cable. Electrical arcing is known to be an effective ignition source for explosive gas mixtures. Two coupling mechanisms were measured: direct and indirect drive. Direct coupling results from the injection or induction of lightning current onto metallic conductors such as the conveyors, rails, trolley communications cable, and AC power shields that connect from the outside of the mine to locations deep within the mine. Indirect coupling results from electromagnetic field propagation through the earth as a result of a cloud-to-ground lightning stroke or a long, low-altitude horizontal current channel from a cloud-to-ground stroke. Unlike direct coupling, indirect coupling does not require metallic conductors in a continuous path from the surface to areas internal to the mine. Results from the indirect coupling measurements and analysis are of great concern. The field measurements, modeling, and analysis indicate that significant energy can be coupled directly into the sealed area of the mine. Due to the relatively low frequency content of lightning (< 100 kHz), electromagnetic energy can readily propagate through hundreds of feet of earth. Indirect transfer function measurements compare extremely well with analytical and computational models

  3. H.R. 1282: A Bill to provide enhanced energy security through incentives to explore and develop frontier areas of the Outer Continental Shelf and to enhance production of the domestic oil and gas resources in deep water areas of the Outer Continental Shelf. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session, March 10, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The report H.R. 1282 is a bill to provide enhanced energy security through incentives to explore and develop frontier areas of the Outer Continental Shelf and to enhance production of the domestic oil and gas resources in deep water areas. The proposed legislative text is included.

  4. Assessment of a 40-kilowatt stirling engine for underground mining applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cairelli, J.E.; Kelm, G.G.; Slaby, J.G.

    1982-06-01

    An assessment of alternative power souces for underground mining applications was performed. A 40-kW Stirling research engine was tested to evaluate its performance and emission characteristics when operated with helium working gas and diesel fuel. The engine, the test facility, and the test procedures are described. Performance and emission data for the engine operating with helium working gas and diesel fuel are reported and compared with data obtained with hydrogen working gas and unleaded gasoline fuel. Helium diesel test results are compared with the characteristics of current diesel engines and other Stirling engines. External surface temperature data are also presented. Emission and temperature results are compared with the Federal requirements for diesel underground mine engines. The durability potential of Stirling engines is discussed on the basis of the experience gaind during the engine tests.

  5. Assessment of a 40-kilowatt stirling engine for underground mining applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairelli, J. E.; Kelm, G. G.; Slaby, J. G.

    1982-01-01

    An assessment of alternative power souces for underground mining applications was performed. A 40-kW Stirling research engine was tested to evaluate its performance and emission characteristics when operated with helium working gas and diesel fuel. The engine, the test facility, and the test procedures are described. Performance and emission data for the engine operating with helium working gas and diesel fuel are reported and compared with data obtained with hydrogen working gas and unleaded gasoline fuel. Helium diesel test results are compared with the characteristics of current diesel engines and other Stirling engines. External surface temperature data are also presented. Emission and temperature results are compared with the Federal requirements for diesel underground mine engines. The durability potential of Stirling engines is discussed on the basis of the experience gaind during the engine tests.

  6. Methanohalophilus levihalophilus sp. nov., a slightly halophilic, methylotrophic methanogen isolated from natural gas-bearing deep aquifers, and emended description of the genus Methanohalophilus.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Taiki; Yoshioka, Hideyoshi; Mochimaru, Hanako; Meng, Xian-Ying; Muramoto, Yoshiyuki; Usami, Jun; Ikeda, Hidefumi; Kamagata, Yoichi; Sakata, Susumu

    2014-06-01

    A mesophilic, slightly halophilic, obligately methylotrophic, methanogenic archaeon, designated strain GTA13(T), was isolated from natural gas-bearing confined aquifers in the Minami-Kanto gas field, Japan. The cells were non-motile, slightly irregular cocci, 0.7-1.0 µm in diameter and occurred singly, in pairs or as small aggregates. The cells grew with tri- or dimethylamine but not with H2/CO2, formate, acetate, methanol or dimethyl sulphide. Vitamins, sodium and magnesium were required for growth. Optimal growth occurred at pH 7.0-7.5, 35 °C, 0.35-0.40 M NaCl and 15-50 mM MgCl2. The NaCl range for growth was 0.2-1.3 M. The DNA G+C content was 43.7 mol%. Strain GTA13(T) showed highest levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Methanohalophilus portucalensis FDF-1(T) (96.4% sequence similarity) and Methanohalophilus halophilus DSM 3094(T) (96.0%). On the basis of physiological and phylogenetic features, strain GTA13(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Methanohalophilus, for which the name Methanohalophilus levihalophilus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GTA13(T) ( = NBRC 110099(T) = DSM 28452(T)). An emended description of the genus Methanohalophilus is also proposed. PMID:24670897

  7. Effect of gas pressure on the sealing efficiency of compacted bentonite-sand plugs.

    PubMed

    Liu, J F; Davy, C A; Talandier, J; Skoczylas, F

    2014-12-01

    This research relates to the assessment of the sealing ability of bentonite/sand plugs when swollen in presence of both water and gas pressures, in the context of deep underground radioactive waste storage. Compacted bentonite/sand plugs are placed inside a constant volume cell, and subjected to swelling in presence of both water and gas: swelling kinetics and effective swelling pressure Pswell are identified. Secondly, the gas breakthrough (GB) characteristics of swollen plugs are assessed to determine their ability for gas migration, which has to be minimal for sealing radioactive waste repositories. We show that gas pressure Pg does not affect significantly Pswell until a threshold Pg>2MPa. When swelling occurs inside a tube with a smooth (turned) inner surface, continuous GB occurs when Pg is equivalent to the effective Pswell (obtained without gas pressure, at 7.32MPa±0.11). When the plug swells inside a grooved tube, continuous GB does not occur up to Pg≥10.5MPa: smooth interfaces are a preferential gas migration pathway rather than grooved interfaces, and rather than water-saturated bentonite-sand plugs. With smooth tubes, in presence of Pg≥2MPa, although Pswell is not affected, gas passes through the sample at significantly lower values than Pswell, due to partial sample saturation. It is concluded that GB pressure is a more accurate indicator of partial sample saturation than swelling pressure Pswell alone. PMID:25305640

  8. A servo controlled gradient loading triaxial model test system for deep-buried cavern.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu-guang; Zhang, Qiang-yong; Li, Shu-cai

    2015-10-01

    A servo controlled gradient loading model test system is developed to simulate the gradient geostress in deep-buried cavern. This system consists of the gradient loading apparatus, the digital servo control device, and the measurement system. Among them, the gradient loading apparatus is the main component which is used for exerting load onto the model. This loading apparatus is placed inside the counterforce wall/beam and is divided to several different loading zones, with each loading zone independently controlled. This design enables the gradient loading. Hence, the "real" geostress field surrounding the deep-buried cavern can be simulated. The loading or unloading process can be controlled by the human-computer interaction machines, i.e., the digital servo control system. It realizes the automation and visualization of model loading/unloading. In addition, this digital servo could control and regulate hydraulic loading instantaneously, which stabilizes the geostress onto the model over a long term. During the loading procedure, the collision between two adjacent loading platens is also eliminated by developing a guide frame. This collision phenomenon is induced by the volume shrinkage of the model when compressed in true 3D state. In addition, several accurate measurements, including the optical and grating-based method, are adopted to monitor the small deformation of the model. Hence, the distortion of the model could be accurately measured. In order to validate the performance of this innovative model test system, a 3D geomechanical test was conducted on a simulated deep-buried underground reservoir. The result shows that the radial convergence increases rapidly with the release of the stress in the reservoir. Moreover, the deformation increases with the increase of the gas production rate. This observation is consistence with field observation in petroleum engineering. The system is therefore capable of testing deep-buried engineering structures. PMID

  9. A servo controlled gradient loading triaxial model test system for deep-buried cavern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xu-guang; Zhang, Qiang-yong; Li, Shu-cai

    2015-10-01

    A servo controlled gradient loading model test system is developed to simulate the gradient geostress in deep-buried cavern. This system consists of the gradient loading apparatus, the digital servo control device, and the measurement system. Among them, the gradient loading apparatus is the main component which is used for exerting load onto the model. This loading apparatus is placed inside the counterforce wall/beam and is divided to several different loading zones, with each loading zone independently controlled. This design enables the gradient loading. Hence, the "real" geostress field surrounding the deep-buried cavern can be simulated. The loading or unloading process can be controlled by the human-computer interaction machines, i.e., the digital servo control system. It realizes the automation and visualization of model loading/unloading. In addition, this digital servo could control and regulate hydraulic loading instantaneously, which stabilizes the geostress onto the model over a long term. During the loading procedure, the collision between two adjacent loading platens is also eliminated by developing a guide frame. This collision phenomenon is induced by the volume shrinkage of the model when compressed in true 3D state. In addition, several accurate measurements, including the optical and grating-based method, are adopted to monitor the small deformation of the model. Hence, the distortion of the model could be accurately measured. In order to validate the performance of this innovative model test system, a 3D geomechanical test was conducted on a simulated deep-buried underground reservoir. The result shows that the radial convergence increases rapidly with the release of the stress in the reservoir. Moreover, the deformation increases with the increase of the gas production rate. This observation is consistence with field observation in petroleum engineering. The system is therefore capable of testing deep-buried engineering structures.

  10. A servo controlled gradient loading triaxial model test system for deep-buried cavern

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xu-guang; Zhang, Qiang-yong; Li, Shu-cai

    2015-10-15

    A servo controlled gradient loading model test system is developed to simulate the gradient geostress in deep-buried cavern. This system consists of the gradient loading apparatus, the digital servo control device, and the measurement system. Among them, the gradient loading apparatus is the main component which is used for exerting load onto the model. This loading apparatus is placed inside the counterforce wall/beam and is divided to several different loading zones, with each loading zone independently controlled. This design enables the gradient loading. Hence, the “real” geostress field surrounding the deep-buried cavern can be simulated. The loading or unloading process can be controlled by the human-computer interaction machines, i.e., the digital servo control system. It realizes the automation and visualization of model loading/unloading. In addition, this digital servo could control and regulate hydraulic loading instantaneously, which stabilizes the geostress onto the model over a long term. During the loading procedure, the collision between two adjacent loading platens is also eliminated by developing a guide frame. This collision phenomenon is induced by the volume shrinkage of the model when compressed in true 3D state. In addition, several accurate measurements, including the optical and grating-based method, are adopted to monitor the small deformation of the model. Hence, the distortion of the model could be accurately measured. In order to validate the performance of this innovative model test system, a 3D geomechanical test was conducted on a simulated deep-buried underground reservoir. The result shows that the radial convergence increases rapidly with the release of the stress in the reservoir. Moreover, the deformation increases with the increase of the gas production rate. This observation is consistence with field observation in petroleum engineering. The system is therefore capable of testing deep-buried engineering structures.

  11. 30 CFR 72.630 - Drill dust control at underground areas of underground mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... dust control at underground areas of underground mines. (a) Dust resulting from drilling in rock shall... condition. Dust collectors approved under Part 33—Dust Collectors for Use in Connection with Rock Drilling... the purpose of this section. (c) Water control. Water used to control dust from drilling rock shall...

  12. 30 CFR 72.630 - Drill dust control at underground areas of underground mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... dust control at underground areas of underground mines. (a) Dust resulting from drilling in rock shall... condition. Dust collectors approved under Part 33—Dust Collectors for Use in Connection with Rock Drilling... the purpose of this section. (c) Water control. Water used to control dust from drilling rock shall...

  13. Insect food for astronauts: gas exchange in silkworms fed on mulberry and lettuce and the nutritional value of these insects for human consumption during deep space flights.

    PubMed

    Tong, L; Yu, X; Liu, H

    2011-10-01

    In this study, silkworm moth (Bombyx mori L.) larvae were regarded as an animal protein source for astronauts in the bioregenerative life support system during long-term deep space exploration in the future. They were fed with mulberry and stem lettuce leaves during the first three instars and the last two instars, respectively. In addition, this kind of environmental approach, which utilised inedible biomass of plants to produce animal protein of high quality, can likewise be applied terrestrially to provide food for people living in extreme environments and/or impoverished agro-ecosystems, such as in polar regions, isolated military bases, ships, submarines, etc. Respiration characteristics of the larvae during development under two main physiological conditions, namely eating and not-eating of leaves, were studied. Nutrient compositions of silkworm powder (SP), ground and freeze-dried silkworms on the 3rd day of the 5th instar larvae, including protein, fat, vitamins, minerals and fatty acids, were measured using international standard methods. Silkworms' respiration rates, measured when larvae were eating mulberry leaves, were higher than those of similar larvae that hadn't eaten such leaves. There was a significant difference between silkworms fed on mulberry leaves and those fed on stem lettuce in the 4th and 5th instars (P<0.01). Amounts of CO2 exhaled by the silkworms under the two physiological regimes differed from each other (P<0.01). There was also a significant difference between the amount of O2 inhaled when the insects were under the two physiological statuses (P<0.01). Moreover, silkworms' respiration quotient under the eating regime was larger than when under the not-eating regime. The SP was found to be rich in protein and amino acids in total; 12 essential vitamins, nine minerals and twelve fatty acids were detected. Moreover, 359 kcal could be generated per 100 gram of SP (dry weight). PMID:21554801

  14. Gas-Recovery System

    DOEpatents

    Heckman, R. A.

    1971-12-14

    Nuclear explosions have been proposed as a means for recovering gas from underground gas-bearing rock formations. In present practice, the nuclear device is positioned at the end of a long pipe which is subsequently filled with grout or concrete. After the device is exploded, the grout is drilled through to provide a flow path for the released gas to the ground surface. As settled grout is brittle, often the compressive shock of the explosion fractures the grout and deforms the pipe so that it may not be removed nor reused. In addition, the pipe is sometimes pinched off completely and the gas flow is totally obstructed. (2 claims)

  15. Gas-recovery system

    DOEpatents

    Heckman, R.A.

    1971-12-14

    Nuclear explosions have been proposed as a means for recovering gas from underground gas-bearing rock formations. In present practice, the nuclear device is positioned at the end of a long pipe which is subsequently filled with grout or concrete. After the device is exploded, the grout is drilled through to provide a flow path for the released gas to the ground surface. As settled grout is brittle, often the compressive shock of the explosion fractures the grout and deforms the pipe so that it may not be removed nor reused. In addition, the pipe is sometimes pinched off completely and the gas flow is totally obstructed. (2 claims)

  16. Noblegas Radionuclide (KR-85, AR-39, KR-81) Concentrations in Deep Fracture Waters of the Withwatersrand Basin South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purtschert, R.; Onstott, T. C.; Jiang, W.; Lu, Z.; Müller, P.; van Heerden, E.; Erasmus, M.; Borgonie, G.; Linage, B.; Kuloyo, O.; Kipfer, R.; Brennwald, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    81Kr has been proposed since many years an ideal tracer for dating subsurface fluids on timescales up to 2 million years. However, only recently the method became practicable for real case investigations due to significant analytical improvements [1]. In this study radioactive noble gas isotopes (81Kr, 85Kr and 39Ar) were applied for the characterisation of fracture waters in the deep gold mines of the Witwatersrand Basin, South Africa [2]. Those waters catalyzed interest because of deep microbial communities that persists to depths of over 3 km [3]. The key objective of the present study is to further constrain the origin of the fluids, to determine the timing of deep subsurface life and to test the 81Kr method in all kinds of environments. In contrast to expectations [4] we discovered that underground production of 81Kr is a significant process in the rocks of the Withwatersrand and Ventersdorp Supergroups. All measured 81Kr activities from fracture water were significantly higher than in atmospheric equilibrium. This is most likely related to elevated U/Th concentrations in the rock strata. Radiometric decay dating is complicated in such cases. [1].W. Jiang et al., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 91, 1 (2012). [2].T. C. Onstott et al., Geomicrobiology J. 26, 269 (2009). [3].G. Borgonie et al., Nature 474, 79. [4]. B. Lehmann et al, WRR. 29, 2027 (1993).

  17. Weight-of-evidence environmental risk assessment of dumped chemical weapons after WWII along the Nord-Stream gas pipeline in the Bornholm Deep.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik; Thomsen, Marianne; Larsen, Jørn Bo

    2012-05-15

    In connection with installation of two natural gas pipelines through the Baltic Sea between Russia and Germany, there has been concern regarding potential re-suspension of historically dumped chemical warfare agents (CWA) in a nearby dump site and the potential environmental risks associated. 192 sediment and 11 porewater samples were analyzed for CWA residues, both parent and metabolites in 2008 and 2010 along the pipeline corridor next to the dump site. Macrozoobenthos and background variables were also collected and compared to the observed CWA levels and predicted potential risks. Detection frequencies and levels of intact CWA found were low, whereas CWA metabolites were more frequently found. Re-suspension of CWA residue-containing sediment from installation of the pipelines contributes marginally to the overall background CWA residue exposure and risk along the pipeline route. The multivariate weight-of-evidence analysis showed that physical and background parameters of the sediment were of higher importance for the biota than observed CWA levels. PMID:22440539

  18. Underground tank vitrification: Engineering-scale test results

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, B.E.; Timmerman, C.L.; Bonner, W.F.

    1990-06-01

    Contamination associated with underground tanks at US Department of Energy sites and other sites may be effectively remediated by application of in situ vitrification (ISV) technology. In situ vitrification converts contaminated soil and buried wastes such as underground tanks into a glass and crystalline block, similar to obsidian with crystalline phases. A radioactive engineering-scale test performed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory in September 1989 demonstrated the feasibility of using ISV for this application. A 30-cm-diameter (12-in.-diameter) buried steel and concrete tank containing simulated tank sludge was vitrified, producing a solid block. The tank sludge used in the test simulated materials in tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hazardous components of the tank sludge were immobilized or removed and captured in the off-gas treatment system. The steel tank was converted to ingots near the bottom of the block and the concrete walls were dissolved into the resulting glass and crystalline block. Although one of the four moving electrodes froze'' in place about halfway into the test, operations were able to continue. The test was successfully completed and all the tank sludge was vitrified. 7 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Chemical tailoring of steam to remediate underground mixed waste contaminents

    DOEpatents

    Aines, Roger D.; Udell, Kent S.; Bruton, Carol J.; Carrigan, Charles R.

    1999-01-01

    A method to simultaneously remediate mixed-waste underground contamination, such as organic liquids, metals, and radionuclides involves chemical tailoring of steam for underground injection. Gases or chemicals are injected into a high pressure steam flow being injected via one or more injection wells to contaminated soil located beyond a depth where excavation is possible. The injection of the steam with gases or chemicals mobilizes contaminants, such as metals and organics, as the steam pushes the waste through the ground toward an extraction well having subatmospheric pressure (vacuum). The steam and mobilized contaminants are drawn in a substantially horizontal direction to the extraction well and withdrawn to a treatment point above ground. The heat and boiling action of the front of the steam flow enhance the mobilizing effects of the chemical or gas additives. The method may also be utilized for immobilization of metals by using an additive in the steam which causes precipitation of the metals into clusters large enough to limit their future migration, while removing any organic contaminants.

  20. Underground Nuclear Explosions and Release of Radioactive Noble Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubasov, Yuri V.

    2010-05-01

    Over a period in 1961-1990 496 underground nuclear tests and explosions of different purpose and in different rocks were conducted in the Soviet Union at Semipalatinsk and anovaya Zemlya Test Sites. A total of 340 underground nuclear tests were conducted at the Semipalatinsk Test Site. One hundred seventy-nine explosions (52.6%) among them were classified as these of complete containment, 145 explosions (42.6%) as explosions with weak release of radioactive noble gases (RNG), 12 explosions (3.5%) as explosions with nonstandard radiation situation, and four excavation explosions with ground ejection (1.1%). Thirty-nine nuclear tests had been conducted at the Novaya Zemlya Test Site; six of them - in shafts. In 14 tests (36%) there were no RNG release. Twenty-three tests have been accompanied by RNG release into the atmosphere without sedimental contamination. Nonstandard radiation situation occurred in two tests. In incomplete containment explosions both early-time RNG release (up to ~1 h) and late-time release from 1 to 28 h after the explosion were observed. Sometimes gas release took place for several days, and it occurred either through tunnel portal or epicentral zone, depending on atmospheric air temperature.