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Sample records for deep underground high

  1. Three-Dimensional Geologic Modeling of a Prospective Deep Underground Laboratory Site for High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. Y.; Lee, S.; Park, S. U.; Kim, J. M.; Kihm, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    A series of three-dimensional geologic modeling was performed using a geostatistical geologic model GOCAD (ASGA and Paradigm) to characterize quantitatively and to visualize realistically a prospective deep underground laboratory site for high-level radioactive waste disposal in Korea. The necessity of a deep underground laboratory arises from its in-situ conditions for related deep scientific experiments. However, the construction and operation of such a deep underground laboratory take great efforts and expenses owing to its larger depth and thus higher geologic uncertainty. For these reasons, quantitative characterization and realistic visualization of geologic formations and structures of a deep underground laboratory site is crucial before its construction and operation. The study area for the prospective deep underground laboratory site is mainly consists of Precambrian metamorphic rocks as a complex. First, various topographic and geologic data of the study area were collected from literature and boreholes and preliminarily analyzed. Based on the preliminary analysis results, a three-dimensional structural model, which consists of the boundaries between the geologic formations and structures, was established, and a three-dimensional grid model, which consists of hexahedral grid blocks, was produced. Three-dimensional geologic formation model was then established by polymerizing these two models. Finally, a series of three-dimensional lithofacies modeling was performed using the sequential indicator simulation (SIS) and truncated Gaussian simulation (TGS). The volume fractions of metamorphic rocks predicted using the TGS are more similar to the actual data observed in boreholes than those predicted using the SIS. These three-dimensional geologic modeling results can improve a quantitative and realistic understanding of geologic characteristics of the prospective deep underground laboratory site for high-level radioactive waste disposal and thus can provide

  2. North American deep underground laboratories: Soudan Underground Laboratory, SNOLab, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesko, Kevin T.

    2015-08-01

    Over the past several decades, fundamental physics experiments have required access to deep underground laboratories to satisfy the increasingly strict requirements for ultra-low background environments and shielding from cosmic rays. In this presentation, I summarize the existing and anticipated physics programs and laboratory facilities of North America's deep facilities: The Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota, SNOLab in Ontario, Canada, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota.

  3. The world deep underground laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettini, A.

    2012-09-01

    This paper is an introduction to a series of coordinated articles of an EPJ Plus Focus Point on underground physics laboratories, written by the directors of the larger ones and by the coordinators of the principal new projects. The paper is largely based on the text of my lecture Perspectives of underground physics, given at the Enrico Fermi Varenna International School, Course CLXXXII (2011), Neutrino physics and astrophysics, reproduced here by permission of the Italian Physical Society. Underground laboratories provide the low radioactive background environment necessary to explore the highest energy scales that cannot be reached with accelerators, by searching for extremely rare phenomena. Experiments range from the direct search of the dark-matter particles that constitute the largest fraction of matter in the Universe, to the exploration of the properties of the neutrinos, the most elusive of the known particles and which might be particle and antiparticle at the same time, to the investigation on why our universe contains only matter and almost no antimatter, and much more.

  4. Calculation of intensity of high energy muon groups observed deep underground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vavilov, Y. N.; Dedenko, L. G.

    1985-01-01

    The intensity of narrow muon groups observed in Kolar Gold Field (KGF) at the depth of 3375 m.w.e. was calculated in terms of quark-gluon strings model for high energy hadron - air nuclei interactions by the method of direct modeling of nuclear cascade in the air and muon propagation in the ground for normal primary cosmic ray composition. The calculated intensity has been found to be approx. 10 to the 4 times less than one observed experimentally.

  5. Visit to the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2010-01-08

    U.S. Department of Energy scientists and administrators join members of the National Science Foundation and South Dakotas Sanford Underground Laboratory for the deepest journey yet to the proposed site of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL).

  6. Visit to the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-31

    U.S. Department of Energy scientists and administrators join members of the National Science Foundation and South Dakotas Sanford Underground Laboratory for the deepest journey yet to the proposed site of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL).

  7. Visit to the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    U.S. Department of Energy scientists and administrators join members of the National Science Foundation and South Dakotas Sanford Underground Laboratory for the deepest journey yet to the proposed site of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL).

  8. Sidereal variations deep underground in Tasmania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humble, J. E.; Fenton, K. B.; Fenton, A. G.

    1985-01-01

    Data from the deep underground vertically directed muon telescopes at Poatina, Tasmania, have been used since 1972 for a number of investigations, including the daily intensity variations, atmospheric influences, and checking for possible effects due to the interplanetary magnetic field. These telescopes have a total sensitive area of only 3 square meters, with the result that the counting rate is low (about 1680 events per hour) and the statistical errors on the results are rather large. Consequently, it was decided several years ago to construct larger detectors for this station. The first of these telescopes has been in operation for two complete years, and the results from it are presented. Results from the new, more stable equipment at Poatina appear to confirm the existence of a first harmonic in the daily variations in sidereal time reported earlier, and are consistent with small or non-existent first harmonics in solar and anti-sidereal time. All the second harmonics appear to be small, if not zero at these energies.

  9. Low energy neutron background in deep underground laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, Andreas; Görres, Joachim; Junker, Matthias; Kratz, Karl-Ludwig; Laubenstein, Matthias; Long, Alexander; Nisi, Stefano; Smith, Karl; Wiescher, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The natural neutron background influences the maximum achievable sensitivity in most deep underground nuclear, astroparticle and double-beta decay physics experiments. Reliable neutron flux numbers are an important ingredient in the design of the shielding of new large-scale experiments as well as in the analysis of experimental data. Using a portable setup of 3He counters we measured the thermal neutron flux at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility, the Soudan Underground Laboratory, on the 4100 ft and the 4850 ft levels of the Sanford Underground Research Facility, at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. Absolute neutron fluxes at these laboratories are presented.

  10. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, Roger, A.

    2010-02-28

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the world’s first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  11. Deep Secrets of the Neutrino: Physics Underground

    SciTech Connect

    Rowson, P.C.

    2010-03-23

    Among the many beautiful, unexpected and sometimes revolutionary discoveries to emerge from subatomic physics, probably none is more bizarre than an elementary particle known as the 'neutrino'. More than a trillion of these microscopic phantoms pass unnoticed through our bodies every second, and indeed, through the entire Earth - but their properties remain poorly understood. In recent years, exquisitely sensitive experiments, often conducted deep below ground, have brought neutrino physics to the forefront. In this talk, we will explore the neutrino - what we know, what we want to know, and how one experiment in a New Mexico mine is trying to get there.

  12. The Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory at Homestake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesko, Kevin T.

    2008-11-01

    The National Science Foundation and the international underground science community are well into establishing a world-class, multidisciplinary Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) at the former Homestake mine in Lead South Dakota. The NSF's review committee, following the first two NSF solicitations, selected the Homestake Proposal and site as the prime location to be developed into an international research facility. Homestake DUSEL will provide much needed underground research space to help relieve the worldwide shortage, particularly at great depth, and will develop research campuses at several different depths to satisfy the research requirements for the coming decades. The State of South Dakota has demonstrated remarkable support for the project and has secured the site with the transfer from the Homestake Mining Corp. The State, through its Science and Technology Authority with state funds and those of a philanthropic donor has initiated rehabilitation of the surface and underground infrastructure including the Ross and Yates hoists accessing the 4850 Level (feet below ground, 4100 to 4200 mwe). The scientific case for DUSEL and the progress in establishing the preliminary design of the facility and the associated suite of experiments to be funded along with the facility by the NSF are presented.

  13. Laboratory background of an escape-suppressed Clover gamma-ray detector overground, shallow underground, and deep underground

    SciTech Connect

    Szuecs, T.

    2010-03-01

    This study presents the laboratory background measurement of a Clover-type composite gamma-detector equipped with a BGO escape-suppression shield. Recently, such a detector had been used in an in-beam gamma-spectroscopy measurement of the {sup 14}N(p,gamma){sup 15}O reaction deep underground. Here the laboratory gamma-ray background of that detector is studied in three different environments: overground, in a shallow underground laboratory and deep underground. In addition, the effect of the escape-suppression shield on the cosmic-ray induced background has been studied in all three cases. The measurements have been performed at LUNA site in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory, Assergi, Italy (deep underground), at the Felsenkeller Laboratory, Dresden, Germany (shallow underground) and ATOMKI, Debrecen, Hungary (Earth's surface).

  14. Sanford Underground Research Facility - The United State's Deep Underground Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardiman, D.

    2012-12-01

    The 2.5 km deep Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is managed by the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority (SDSTA) at the former Homestake Mine site in Lead, South Dakota. The US Department of Energy currently supports the development of the facility using a phased approach for underground deployment of experiments as they obtain an advanced design stage. The geology of the Sanford Laboratory site has been studied during the 125 years of operations at the Homestake Mine and more recently as part of the preliminary geotechnical site investigations for the NSF's Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory project. The overall geology at DUSEL is a well-defined stratigraphic sequence of schist and phyllites. The three major Proterozoic units encountered in the underground consist of interbedded schist, metasediments, and amphibolite schist which are crosscut by Tertiary rhyolite dikes. Preliminary geotechnical site investigations included drift mapping, borehole drilling, borehole televiewing, in-situ stress analysis, laboratory analysis of core, mapping and laser scanning of new excavations, modeling and analysis of all geotechnical information. The investigation was focused upon the determination if the proposed site rock mass could support the world's largest (66 meter diameter) deep underground excavation. While the DUSEL project has subsequently been significantly modified, these data are still available to provide a baseline of the ground conditions which may be judiciously extrapolated throughout the entire Proterozoic rock assemblage for future excavations. Recommendations for facility instrumentation and monitoring were included in the preliminary design of the DUSEL project design and include; single and multiple point extensometers, tape extensometers and convergence measurements (pins), load cells and pressure cells, smart cables, inclinometers/Tiltmeters, Piezometers, thermistors, seismographs and accelerometers, scanners (laser

  15. Deformation of underground deep cavities in rock salts at their long-term operations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuravleva, T.; Shafarenko, E.

    1995-12-01

    The underground deep cavities are created in rock salts of various morphological types with the purpose of storage of petroleum, gas and nuclear wastes. It is well known that the rock salt has rheological properties, which can result in closure of caverns and loss of their stability. In the evaporitic rocks, especially those containing halite, time-dependent deformation is pronounced even at comparatively low stress levels. At high stress levels this creep becomes a dominant feature of the mechanical behavior of salt rocks. So the knowledge of creep behavior of rock salt is of paramount importance in underground storage application of gas, petroleum products and nuclear wastes.

  16. Sudden stratospheric warmings seen in MINOS deep underground muon data

    SciTech Connect

    Osprey, S.; Barnett, J.; Smith, J.; Adamson, P.; Andreopoulos, C.; Arms, K.E.; Armstrong, R.; Auty, D.J.; Ayres, D.S.; Baller, B.; Barnes, P.D., Jr.; /LLNL, Livermore /Oxford U.

    2009-01-01

    The rate of high energy cosmic ray muons as measured underground is shown to be strongly correlated with upper-air temperatures during short-term atmospheric (10-day) events. The effects are seen by correlating data from the MINOS underground detector and temperatures from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts during the winter periods from 2003-2007. This effect provides an independent technique for the measurement of meteorological conditions and presents a unique opportunity to measure both short and long-term changes in this important part of the atmosphere.

  17. The deep underground science and engineering laboratory at Homestake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesko, Kevin T.

    2009-06-01

    The US National Science Foundation and the US underground science community are well into the campaign to establish a world-class, multi-disciplinary deep underground science and engineering laboratory — DUSEL. The NSF's review committee, following the first two NSF solicitations, selected Homestake as the prime site to be developed into an international, multidisciplinary, world-class research facility. Homestake DUSEL will provide much needed underground research space to help relieve the worldwide shortage, particularly at great depth, and will develop research campuses at different depths to satisfy the research requirements for the coming decades. The State of South Dakota has demonstrated remarkable support for the project and has secured the site with the transfer of the former Homestake Gold Mine and has initiated re-entry and rehabilitation of the facility to host a modest interim science program with state funds and those from a substantial philanthropic donor. I review the scientific case for DUSEL and the progress in developing the preliminary design of DUSEL in Homestake and the initial suite of experiments to be funded along with the facility.

  18. The Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory at Homestake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesko, Kevin T.

    2009-12-01

    The US National Science Foundation and the US underground science community are well into the campaign to establish a world-class, multi-disciplinary deep underground science and engineering laboratory—DUSEL. The NSF's review committee, following the first two NSF solicitations, selected Homestake as the prime site to be developed into an international, multidisciplinary, world-class research facility. Homestake DUSEL will provide much needed underground research space to help relieve the worldwide shortage, particularly at great depth, and will develop research campuses at different depths to satisfy the research requirements for the coming decades. The State of South Dakota demonstrates remarkable support for the project and has secured the site with the transfer of the former Homestake Gold Mine and has initiated re-entry and rehabilitation of the facility to host a modest interim science program with state funds and those from a substantial philanthropic donor. I review the scientific case for DUSEL and the progress in developing the preliminary design of DUSEL in Homestake and the integrated suite of experiments to be funded along with the facility.

  19. 30 CFR 75.804 - Underground high-voltage cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground high-voltage cables. 75.804 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution § 75.804 Underground high-voltage cables. (a) Underground high-voltage cables used in...

  20. The Mile Deep Muon Detector at Sanford Underground Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahan, Margaret; Gabriel, Steve

    2012-03-01

    For educating students and teachers about basic nuclear and particle physics, you can't go wrong with cosmic rays muons as a cheap and reliable source of data. A simple and relatively inexpensive detector gives a myriad of possibilities to cover core material in physical science, chemistry, physics, and statistics and gives students opportunities to design their own investigations. At Sanford Underground Laboratory at Homestake, in Lead, SD, cosmic ray muon detectors are being used to answer the first question always asked by any visitor to the facility, ``Why are you building the lab a mile underground'' A conventional Quarknet-style detector is available in the education facility on the surface, with a much larger companion detector, the Mile Deep Muon Detector, set up 4850 feet below the surface. Using the Quarknet data acquisition board, the data will be made available to students and teachers through the Cosmic Ray E-lab website. The detector was tested and installed as part of a summer program for students beginning their first or second year of college.

  1. Photon detection system designs for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittington, D.

    2016-05-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) will be a premier facility for exploring long-standing questions about the boundaries of the standard model. Acting in concert with the liquid argon time projection chambers underpinning the far detector design, the DUNE photon detection system will capture ultraviolet scintillation light in order to provide valuable timing information for event reconstruction. To maximize the active area while maintaining a small photocathode coverage, the experiment will utilize a design based on plastic light guides coated with a wavelength-shifting compound, along with silicon photomultipliers, to collect and record scintillation light from liquid argon. This report presents recent preliminary performance measurements of this baseline design and several alternative designs which promise significant improvements in sensitivity to low-energy interactions.

  2. Photon Detection System Designs for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Whittington, Denver

    2015-11-19

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) will be a premier facility for exploring long-standing questions about the boundaries of the standard model. Acting in concert with the liquid argon time projection chambers underpinning the far detector design, the DUNE photon detection system will capture ultraviolet scintillation light in order to provide valuable timing information for event reconstruction. To maximize the active area while maintaining a small photocathode coverage, the experiment will utilize a design based on plastic light guides coated with a wavelength-shifting compound, along with silicon photomultipliers, to collect and record scintillation light from liquid argon. This report presents recent preliminary performance measurements of this baseline design and several alternative designs which promise significant improvements in sensitivity to low-energy interactions.

  3. Optimal configurations of the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barger, Vernon; Bhattacharya, Atri; Chatterjee, Animesh; Gandhi, Raj; Marfatia, Danny; Masud, Mehedi

    2016-02-01

    We perform a comprehensive study of the ability of the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) to answer outstanding questions in the neutrino sector. We consider the sensitivities to the mass hierarchy, the octant of θ23 and to CP violation using data from beam and atmospheric neutrinos. We evaluate the dependencies on the precision with which θ13 will be measured by reactor experiments, on the detector size, beam power and exposure time, on detector magnetization, and on the systematic uncertainties achievable with and without a near detector. We find that a 35 kt far detector in DUNE with a near detector will resolve the eightfold degeneracy that is intrinsic to long baseline experiments and will meet the primary goals of oscillation physics that it is designed for.

  4. Measurement techniques for in situ stresses around underground constructions in a deep clay formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstricht, J.; Areias, L.; Bastiaens, W.; Li, X. L.

    2010-06-01

    Disposal in deep underground geological formations is internationally recognized as the most viable option for the long-term management of high-level radioactive waste. In Belgium, the Boom clay formation is extensively studied in this context, in particular at the 225 m deep HADES Underground Research Facility in Mol. A cost-effective design of deep underground structures requires an accurate assessment of the in situ stresses; a good estimation of these stresses is also essential when interpreting in situ experiments regarding the hydro-mechanical behaviour of the host formation. Different measurement techniques are available to provide data on the stress evolution and other mechanical properties of the geological formation. The measurement can be direct (measurement of total pressure), or it can be an indirect technique, deriving the stress from related quantities such as strain (changes) in structural members. Most total stress measurements are performed through permanently installed sensors; also once-only measurements are performed through specific methods (e.g. pressuremeter). Direct measurement of the stress state is challenging due to the complex mechanical behaviour of the clay, and the fact that the sensor installation inevitably disturbs the original stress field. This paper describes ways to deal with these problems and presents the results obtained using different techniques at HADES.

  5. Simultaneous observation of extensive air showers and deep-underground muons at the Gran Sasso Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F.; Caliccio, M.; De Cataldo, G.; De Marzo, C.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Giglietto, N.; Nappi, E.; Spinelli, P. ); Cecchini, S.; Fabbri, M.; Giacomelli, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Matteuzzi, P.; Pal, B.; Patrizii, L.; Predieri, F.; Sanzani, G.L.; Serra, P.; Spurio, M. ); Ahlen, S.; Ficenec, D.; Hazen, E.; Klein, S.; Levin, D.; Marin, A.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Worstell, W. ); Barish, B.; Coutu, S.; Hong, J.; Liu, G.; Peck, C.; Solie, D.; Steele, J. ); Lane, C.; Steinberg, R. ); Battistoni, G.; Bilokon, H.; Bloise, C.; Campana, P.; Chiarella, V.; Forti, C.; Grillo, A.; Iarocci, E.; Marini, A.; Patera, V.; Re; MACRO Collaboration

    1990-09-01

    Combined measurements of extensive air showers at the surface and high-energy muons deep underground have been initiated at the Gran Sasso Laboratory. The underground detector is the first supermodule of MACRO (area=140 m{sup 2}, depth=3100 m of water equivalent , {ital E}{sub {mu}}{gt}1.3 TeV) and the surface detector is the EAS-TOP array (altitude 2000 m above sea level, total enclosed area {ital A}{approximately}10{sup 5} m{sup 2}). We discuss the correlation technique, the comparison between the shower parameters as determined by the two detectors, and some of the characteristics of the reconstructed events.

  6. A Subsurface Explorer for Deep Underground Exploration on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, B. H.; Morgan, A. R.

    2000-01-01

    A subsurface explorer (SSX) is being developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory which is suitable for exploration of the deep underground environments on Mars. The device is a self-contained piledriver which uses a novel 'spinning hammer' technology to convert a small continuous power feed from the surface over a two-wire tether into a large rotational energy of a spinning mass. The rotational energy is converted to translational energy by a novel mechanism described here. The hammer blows propagate as shock waves through a nosepiece, pulverizing the medium ahead of the SSX. A small portion of the pulverized medium is returned to the surface through a hole liner extending behind the SSX. This tube is 'cast in place' from two chemical feedstocks which come down from the surface through passages in the hole liner and which are reacted together to produce new material with which to produce the hole liner. The lined hole does not need to be the full diameter of the SSX: approximately 100 kilograms of liner material can create a tunnel liner with a three millimeter inside diameter and a six millimeter outside diameter with at total length of four kilometers. Thus it is expected that core samples representing an overlapping set of three-millimeter diameter cores extending the entire length of the SSX traverse could be returned to the surface. A pneumatic prototype has been built which penetrated easily to the bottom of an eight meter vertical test facility. An electric prototype is now under construction. It is expected that the SSX will be able to penetrate through sand or mixed regolith, ice, permafrost, or solid rock, such as basalt. For pure or nearly pure ice applications, the device may be augmented with hot water jets to melt the ice and stir any sediment which may build up ahead of the vehicle. It is expected that an SSX approximately one meter long, three to four centimeters in diameter, and with a power budget of approximately 200 Watts will be able to explore

  7. Dynamic Underground Stripping: In situ steam sweeping and electrical heating to remediate a deep hydrocarbon spill

    SciTech Connect

    Yow, J.L. Jr.; Aines, R.D.; Newmark, R.L.; Udell, K.S.; Ziagos, J.P.

    1994-07-01

    Dynamic Underground Stripping is a combination of in situ steam injection, electrical resistance heating, and fluid extraction for rapid removal and recovery of subsurface contaminants such as solvents or fuels. Underground imaging and other measurement techniques monitor the system in situ for process control. Field tests at a deep gasoline spill at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory recovered over 7000 gallons of gasoline during several months of field operations. Preliminary analysis of system cost and performance indicate that Dynamic Underground Stripping compares favorably with conventional pump-and-treat and vacuum extraction schemes for removing non-aqueous phase liquids such as gasoline from deep subsurface plumes.

  8. Joint interpretation of high-precision tilt data and mining induced seismic events recorded underground in deep level gold mine in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milev, Alexander; Share, Pieter; Durrheim, Ray; Naoi, Makoto; Nakatani, Masao; Yabe, Yasuo; Ogasawara, Hiroshi

    2013-04-01

    Seismicity associated with deep-level mining has for long been a problem, leading to rockburst and other similar hazards. Several studies have been completed in an attempt to minimize the total amount of seismicity. In this study high resolution measurements of ground tilting in combination with seismic monitoring is used to observe how the rock mass responds to mining. A good correspondence between the coseismic and the aseismic tilt was found. The rate of coseismic and aseismic tilt, as well as seismicity recorded by the mine seismic network, are approximately constant until the daily blasting time, which takes place from about 19:30 until shortly before 21:00. During the blasting time and the subsequent seismic events, the coseismic and aseismic tilt shows a rapid increase. In an attempt to distinguish between the different mechanisms of tilting two types of events were recognized. The "fast" seismic events characterized with sharp increase of the tilt during the seismic rupture and "slow" seismic events characterized by creep type post seismic deformations. Tilt behaviour before and after a seismic event was also analysed. The fact that no recognizable aftertilt was observed for more of the "fast" seismic events means that there is no gradual release of stress and an associated continuous strain rate change afterwards. It can therefore be concluded that a large seismic event causes a rapid change in the state of stress rather than a gradual change in the strain rate. The mechanism of the observed "slow" seismic events is more complicated. Although several explanations have been proposed, a suggestion for further work could be to investigate the presence of "slow" events in or after blasting time more closely. During the monitoring period a seismic event with MW 2.2 occurred in the vicinity of the instrumented site. This event was recorded by both the CSIR integrated monitoring system and JAGUARS acoustic emission network. More than 21,000 AE aftershocks were

  9. Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity using Abandoned Works (open pits and deep mines)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujades, E.; Willems, T.; Bodeux, S.; Orban, P.; Dassargues, A.

    2015-12-01

    Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (PSH) is a good alternative to increase the efficiency of power plants, which cannot regulate the amount of electricity generated according to the demand (wind, solar or even nuclear power plants). PSH plants, which consist in two reservoirs located at different heights (upper and lower), can store energy during low demand periods (pumping water from the lower to the upper reservoir) and generate electricity during the high demand peaks (falling water from the upper to the lower reservoir). Given that the two reservoirs must be located at different heights, PSH plants cannot be constructed in flat regions. Nevertheless, in these regions, an alternative could be to use abandoned underground works (open pits or deep mines) as lower reservoirs to construct Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants. To select the best place to construct a plant, two considerations must be taken into account regarding the interaction between UPSH plants and groundwater: 1) the alteration of the natural conditions of aquifers and 2), the efficiency of the plant since the electricity generated depends on the hydraulic head inside the underground reservoir. Obviously, a detailed numerical model must be necessary before to select a location. However, a screening methodology to reject the most disadvantageous sites in a short period of time would be useful. Groundwater flow impacts caused by UPSH plants are analyzed numerically and the main variables involved in the groundwater evolution are identified. The most noticeable effect consists in an oscillation of the groundwater. The hydraulic head around which groundwater oscillates, the magnitude of the oscillations and the time to achieve a "dynamic steady state" depend on the boundaries, the parameters of the aquifer and the characteristics of the underground reservoir. A screening methodology is proposed to assess the main impacts caused in aquifers by UPSH plants. Finally, the efficiency

  10. "DIANA" - A New, Deep-Underground Accelerator Facility for Astrophysics Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, M.; Leitner, D.; Lemut, A.; Vetter, P.; Wiescher, M.

    2009-05-28

    The DIANA project (Dakota Ion Accelerators for Nuclear Astrophysics) is a collaboration between the University of Notre Dame, University of North Carolina, Western Michigan University, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to build a nuclear astrophysics accelerator facility 1.4 km below ground. DIANA is part of the US proposal DUSEL (Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory) to establish a cross-disciplinary underground laboratory in the former gold mine of Homestake in South Dakota, USA. DIANA would consist of two high-current accelerators, a 30 to 400 kV variable, high-voltage platform, and a second, dynamitron accelerator with a voltage range of 350 kV to 3 MV. As a unique feature, both accelerators are planned to be equipped with either high-current microwave ion sources or multi-charged ECR ion sources producing ions from protons to oxygen. Electrostatic quadrupole transport elements will be incorporated in the dynamitron high voltage column. Compared to current astrophysics facilities, DIANA could increase the available beam densities on target by magnitudes: up to 100 mA on the low energy accelerator and several mA on the high energy accelerator. An integral part of the DIANA project is the development of a high-density super-sonic gas-jet target which can handle these anticipated beam powers. The paper will explain the main components of the DIANA accelerators and their beam transport lines and will discuss related technical challenges.

  11. 30 CFR 75.804 - Underground high-voltage cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underground high-voltage cables. 75.804 Section... § 75.804 Underground high-voltage cables. (a) Underground high-voltage cables used in resistance... cables shall be adequate for the intended current and voltage. Splices made in such cables shall...

  12. 30 CFR 75.804 - Underground high-voltage cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Underground high-voltage cables. 75.804 Section... § 75.804 Underground high-voltage cables. (a) Underground high-voltage cables used in resistance... cables shall be adequate for the intended current and voltage. Splices made in such cables shall...

  13. 30 CFR 75.804 - Underground high-voltage cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground high-voltage cables. 75.804 Section... § 75.804 Underground high-voltage cables. (a) Underground high-voltage cables used in resistance... cables shall be adequate for the intended current and voltage. Splices made in such cables shall...

  14. A study of the trace 39Ar content in argon from deep underground sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J.; Calaprice, F.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; Guray, G.; Hohman, T.; Holtz, D.; Ianni, An.; Laubenstein, M.; Loer, B.; Love, C.; Martoff, C. J.; Montanari, D.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Nelson, A.; Rountree, S. D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Wright, A.

    2015-06-01

    The discovery of argon from deep underground sources with significantly less 39Ar than atmospheric argon was an important step in the development of direct dark matter detection experiments using argon as the active target. We report on the design and operation of a low-background single-phase liquid argon detector that was built to study the 39Ar content of this underground argon. Underground argon from the Kinder Morgan CO2 plant in Cortez, Colorado was determined to have less than 0.65% of the 39Ar activity in atmospheric argon, or 6.6 mBq/kg specific 39Ar activity.

  15. Underground mining and deep geologic disposal - Two compatible and complementary activities

    SciTech Connect

    Rempe, N.T.

    1995-12-31

    Active and mature underground mining districts offer conditions favorable to deep geologic disposal because their geology is known in more detail, the feasibility of underground excavations has already been demonstrated, mining leaves distinctive footprints and records that alert subsequent generations to the anthropogenic alterations of the underground environment, and subsequent exploration and production proceeds with great care and accuracy to locate and generally to avoid old mine workings. Compatibility of mining with deep geologic waste disposal has been proven by decades of experience with safe storage and disposal in former mines and in the mined-out areas of still active mining operations. Mineral extraction around an intended repository reduces the incentive for future disturbance. Incidental features of mineral exploration and extraction such as lost circulation zones, allochthonous backfill, and permanent surface markers can deter future intrusion into a repository. Thus exploration and production of mineral resources should be compatible with, and complementary to, deep geologic waste disposal.

  16. Selenium redox speciation and coordination in high-burnup UO2 fuel: Consequences for the release of 79Se in a deep underground repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curti, Enzo; Froideval-Zumbiehl, Annick; Günther-Leopold, Ines; Martin, Matthias; Bullemer, Andrej; Linder, Hanspeter; Borca, Camelia N.; Grolimund, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    The chemical state of Se in high-burnup UO2 spent nuclear fuel (SNF) was investigated by micro X-ray absorption near-edge structure (μ-XANES) spectroscopy. The data were first evaluated in terms of linear combination fits of reference compounds. In a second step, the XANES data were fitted to theoretical (ab initio) spectra via geometrical optimization of atomic clusters around a central Se atom, using the FDMNES and FitIt software packages. Best fits were obtained assuming substitution of Se in occupied or vacant oxygen sites within the UO2 lattice, with 20-25% local expansion. Based on these results and chemical arguments we argue that the long-lived fission product 79Se may be stabilized to sparingly soluble Se(-II) in SNF. This would explain the failure to detect dissolved Se in SNF leaching experiments.

  17. Integrated Earth Science Research in Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. S.; Hazen, T. C.; Conrad, M. E.; Johnson, L. R.; Salve, R.

    2004-12-01

    There are three types of sites being considered for deep-underground earth science and physics experiments: (1) abandoned mines (e.g., the Homestake Gold Mine, South Dakota; the Soudan Iron Mine, Minnesota), (2) active mines/facilities (e.g., the Henderson Molybdenum Mine, Colorado; the Kimballton Limestone Mine, Virginia; the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant [in salt], New Mexico), and (3) new tunnels (e.g., Icicle Creek in the Cascades, Washington; Mt. San Jacinto, California). Additional sites have been considered in the geologically unique region of southeastern California and southwestern Nevada, which has both very high mountain peaks and the lowest point in the United States (Death Valley). Telescope Peak (along the western border of Death Valley), Boundary Peak (along the California-Nevada border), Mt. Charleston (outside Las Vegas), and Mt. Tom (along the Pine Creek Valley) all have favorable characteristics for consideration. Telescope Peak can site the deepest laboratory in the United States. The Mt. Charleston tunnel can be a highway extension connecting Las Vegas to Pahrump. The Pine Creek Mine next to Mt. Tom is an abandoned tungsten mine. The lowest levels of the mine are accessible by nearly horizontal tunnels from portals in the mining base camp. Drainage (most noticeable in the springs resulting from snow melt) flows (from the mountain top through upper tunnel complex) out of the access tunnel without the need for pumping. While the underground drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have not yet been considered (since they are relatively shallow for physics experiments), they have undergone extensive earth science research for nearly 10 years, as the site for future storage of nation's spent nuclear fuels. All these underground sites could accommodate different earth science and physics experiments. Most underground physics experiments require depth to reduce the cosmic-ray-induced muon flux from atmospheric sources. Earth science experiments can be

  18. Deep and Ultra-deep Underground Observatory for In Situ Stress, Fluids, and Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutt, D. F.; Wang, H.; Kieft, T. L.

    2008-12-01

    The question 'How deeply does life extend into the Earth?' forms a single, compelling vision for multidisciplinary science opportunities associated with physical and biological processes occurring naturally or in response to construction in the deep and ultra-deep subsurface environment of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) in the former Homestake mine. The scientific opportunity is to understand the interaction between the physical environment and microbial life, specifically, the coupling among (1) stress state and deformation; (2) flow and transport and origin of fluids; and (3) energy and nutrient sources for microbial life; and (4) microbial identity, diversity and activities. DUSEL-Homestake offers the environment in which these questions can be addressed unencumbered by competing human activities. Associated with the interaction among these variables are a number of questions that will be addressed at variety of depths and scales in the facility: What factors control the distribution of life as a function of depth and temperature? What patterns in microbial diversity, microbial activity and nutrients are found along this gradient? How do state variables (stress, strain, temperature, and pore pressure) and constitutive properties (permeability, porosity, modulus, etc.) vary with scale (space, depth, time) in a large 4D heterogeneous system: core - borehole - drift - whole mine - regional? How are fluid flow and stress coupled in a low-permeability, crystalline environment dominated by preferential flow paths? How does this interaction influence the distribution of fluids, solutes, gases, colloids, and biological resources (e.g. energy and nutritive substrates) in the deep continental subsurface? What is the interaction between geomechanics/geohydrology and microbiology (microbial abundance, diversity, distribution, and activities)? Can relationships elucidated within the mechanically and hydrologically altered subsurface habitat

  19. Earth Science Research in DUSEL; a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairhurst, C.; Onstott, T. C.; Tiedje, J. M.; McPherson, B.; Pfiffner, S. M.; Wang, J. S.

    2004-12-01

    A summary of efforts to create one or more Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratories (DUSEL) in the United States is presented. A workshop in Berkeley, August 11-14, 2004, explored the technical requirements of DUSEL for research in basic and applied geological and microbiological sciences, together with elementary particle physics and integrated education and public outreach. The workshop was organized by Bernard Sadoulet, an astrophysicist and the principal investigator (PI) of a community-wide DUSEL program evolving in coordination with the National Science Foundation. The PI team has three physicists (in nuclear science, high-energy physics, and astrophysics) and three earth scientists (in geoscience, biology and engineering). Presentations, working group reports, links to previous workshop/meeting talks, and information about DUSEL candidate sites, are presented in http://neutrino.lbl.gov/DUSELS-1. The Berkeley workshop is a continuation of decades of efforts, the most recent including the 2001 Underground Science Conference's earth science and geomicrobiology workshops, the 2002 International Workshop on Neutrino and Subterranean Science, and the 2003 EarthLab Report. This perspective (from three earth science co-PIs, the lead author of EarthLab report, the lead scientist of education/outreach, and the local earth science organizer) is to inform the community on the status of this national initiative, and to invite their active support. Having a dedicated facility with decades-long, extensive three-dimensional underground access was recognized as the most important single attribute of DUSEL. Many research initiatives were identified and more are expected as the broader community becomes aware of DUSEL. Working groups were organized to evaluate hydrology and coupled processes; geochemistry; rock mechanics/seismology; applications (e.g., homeland security, environment assessment, petroleum recovery, and carbon sequestration); geomicrobiology and

  20. Monitoring underground water quality based on high-density resistivity method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yanyan

    2015-12-01

    Underground water is different from surface water. Once contaminated, underground water is difficult to recover, so it is necessary to give priority to the prevention of the quality of underground water. High-density resistivity method is very important in the environmental engineering geophysical prospecting and it is widely used in mineral resources as well as monitoring the underground-water quality. In the experiment, multi-tools joint inversion is applied to build the model in order to increase the accuracy. In contrast with the pollution-free water model which is owned by the RES2DMOD, the inversion result of underground water quality with the high density resistivity method is useful to monitor the underground water quality, showing that different degree of water pollution depends on the position of abnormal and there is a more significant abnormal value in the vertical direction of the deep abnormal than that of the shallow abnormal, and high and low resistance pollution depends on the different value and forms of abnormal resistance. In conclusion, monitoring the underground water quality by the high density resistivity method is efficient. In the future research, it is necessary to accomplish more precise inversion models combining with field measurements to find out the optimal solution to monitor underwater quality.

  1. A Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) at Kimballton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogelaar, R. Bruce

    2004-11-01

    The National Academy of Science, as well as several long-range plans from the physics communities, have endorsed the need to create a large, multi-disciplinary underground laboratory in the US. Several potential sites have been identified, and the National Science Foundation has begun a solicitation process to help formulate the science program as well as to identify and develop candidate sites. The only site on the East Coast is at Kimballton, near Blacksburg, in western Virginia. Of all the sites, it is the only one located in sedimentary rocks. This makes it an IDEAL and unique location for both physics, geoscience, and engineering studies. Kimballton is also only half an hour from Virginia Tech, the largest university in the state of Virginia. A multi-institution group has been developing this possibility, and will be competing on the national scale to have DUSEL located at Kimballton. One of the assets of this location is a large limestone mine, already at a depth of 2300 ft (1850 mwe), with true drive-in access and extremely large caverns. The DUSEL facility at this location will try to take advantage of the existing infrastructure, while at the same time develop complementary and adjacent facilities down to 7000 ft (6000 mwe) to allow independent operation of the future facility. Since 2003, Virginia Tech and the Naval Research Laboratory have been working to also develop a general low-level facility at this location. The initial program is to help develop extremely low-background germanium and gas proportional counters, and a single super-module of the Low-Energy Neutrino Spectroscopy (LENS) detector -- designed to measure the real-time low-energy neutrino spectrum from the Sun, including the pp-flux. Progress in this program (including seismic imaging), and the proposed overall extensive science program (Phys, Geo, Eng, Bio) which can be addressed at Kimballton will be presented. For further information, see our webpage http://www.phys.vt.edu/ kimballton

  2. Underground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrchota, Janet

    1974-01-01

    At a time when the future of New York's subway system looked bleak, new underground zoning legislation (the first ever) has been enacted. This new law requires buildings constructed near a subway station to provide transit easement space to allow public access to the subway through the building property. (MA)

  3. Countermeasures Planned for Reducing Water Inflow into Deep Shafts at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuji, Masayoshi; Sato, Toshinori; Mikake, Shinichiro; Hara, Nasato; Minamide, Masashi; Sugihara, Kozo

    The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) is currently being constructed. The MIU design consists of two 1,000 m-deep shafts with several research galleries. The goals of the MIU project are to establish techniques for investigation, analysis and assessment of deep geological environments, and to develop a range of engineering expertise for application in deep underground excavations in crystalline rocks such as granite. The diameter of the Main and the Ventilation Shafts are 6.5 m and 4.5 m, respectively. Horizontal tunnels to connect the shafts will be excavated at 100 m depth intervals. The Middle Stage, at about 500 m in depth, and the Main Stage, at about 1,000 m in depth, will be the main locations for scientific investigations. The Main and the Ventilation Shafts were 180 m and 191 m deep, respectively, in November 2006. During construction, water inflow into the shafts has been increasing and affecting the project progress. In order to reduce the water inflow into the shafts, pre- and post-excavation grouting has been planned. A post-excavation grouting test has been undertaken in the Ventilation Shaft and the applicability of several techniques has been evaluated. This paper describes an outline of the MIU project, its work plan and the results of the post-excavation grouting test.

  4. Geoengineering Research for a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory in Sedimentary Rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauldon, M.

    2004-12-01

    A process to identify world-class research for a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) in the USA has been initiated by NSF. While allowing physicists to study, inter alia, dark matter and dark energy, this laboratory will create unprecedented opportunities for biologists to study deep life, geoscientists to study crustal processes and geoengineers to study the behavior of rock, fluids and underground cavities at depth, on time scales of decades. A substantial portion of the nation's future infrastructure is likely to be sited underground because of energy costs, urban crowding and vulnerability of critical surface facilities. Economic and safe development of subsurface space will require an improved ability to engineer the geologic environment. Because of the prevalence of sedimentary rock in the upper continental crust, much of this subterranean infrastructure will be hosted in sedimentary rock. Sedimentary rocks are fundamentally anisotropic due to lithology and bedding, and to discontinuities ranging from microcracks to faults. Fractures, faults and bedding planes create structural defects and hydraulic pathways over a wide range of scales. Through experimentation, observation and monitoring in a sedimentary rock DUSEL, in conjunction with high performance computational models and visualization tools, we will explore the mechanical and hydraulic characteristics of layered rock. DUSEL will permit long-term experiments on 100 m blocks of rock in situ, accessed via peripheral tunnels. Rock volumes will be loaded to failure and monitored for post-peak behavior. The response of large rock bodies to stress relief-driven, time-dependent strain will be monitored over decades. Large block experiments will be aimed at measurement of fluid flow and particle/colloid transport, in situ mining (incl. mining with microbes), remediation technologies, fracture enhancement for resource extraction and large scale long-term rock mass response to induced

  5. Ground movements caused by deep underground mining in Guan-Zhuang iron mine, Luzhong, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wen-Xiu; Wen, Lei; Liu, Xiao-Min

    2010-06-01

    It is difficult to calculate the accurate ground movement due to deep underground mining because of the complexity of the geotechnical environment. Guan-Zhuang iron mine is a pillarless sublevel caving mine operated by Luzhong Metallurgical Mining Company, south-east of Jinan, PR China. It mines the Zhangjiawa Seam at a depth of approximately 520 m. Although the towers are outside the conventional 'angle of draw' subsidence influence criteria, and have seen only negligible vertical displacement as a result of deep mining, there has been widespread evidence of regional horizontal displacement of the land surface, large distances away from the mining area. Possible explanations of these displacements include one or a combination of mechanisms such as pre-mining stress relaxation, regional joint patterns, soft rock strata, displacement toward active goaf areas. Luzhong Metallurgical Mining Company have been making precise measurements of distances near the shaft towers in the Guan-Zhuang iron mine since 2003. The results show horizontal displacements of up to 96 mm occur even when underground mining is about 0.8 km from the survey displacements. From an analysis of these and other survey results it is concluded that mining effects extend a long way from deep mining. The results also show that ground horizontal displacements are typically at least as great as the vertical component, that the maximum horizontal displacement occurs soon after undermining.

  6. Deep underground measurements of 60Co in steel exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb explosion.

    PubMed

    Hult, Mikael; Gasparro, Joël; Vasselli, Roberto; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Arnold, Dirk; Neumaier, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    When using gamma-ray spectrometry performed deep underground, it is possible to measure 60Co activities down to 0.1 mBq in steel samples of some 100 g without any pre-concentration. It is thus still possible to measure 60Co induced by neutrons from the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima in pieces of steel collected at distances up to about 1200 m slant range. The results of non-destructive measurements of eight steel samples are compared with the 1986 Dose Re-Evaluation (DS86) model calculations. PMID:15177340

  7. A STUDY ON APPLICABILITY OF GROUND RESPONSE ACCELERATION METHOD TO DEEP VERTICAL UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Mai; Shiba, Yukio; Watanabe, Kazuaki

    This paper discusses the applicability of ground response acceleration method to seismic analysis for deep vertical underground structures. To examine the applicability, an analysis of relationships between response of ground and the shaft was conducted. It was found from the analysis that vertical axial stress of the shaft was not correspond with shear stress of ground. Accordingly, it was concluded that the axial stress was not evaluated correctly by the existing method. Therefore, to extend the applicability of the method, ground responses correlated with the axial stress were analyzed and a new method using these ground responses was proposed.

  8. Life in Inner Space: Subsurface Microbiology Investigations in Underground Research Laboratories and Deep Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood Lollar, B.; Onstott, T. C.; van Heerden, E.; Kieft, T. L.; Ballentine, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    Chemolithotrophic communities, or microbes drawing their energy for life from geologically produced chemical species rather than from photosynthesis, were discovered in the late 1970's at the mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal vents. This discovery sparked a revolution in our understanding of the range of possible mechanisms for sustaining life and hence in our concept of where on this planet life could be found. Since that time, our understanding that life is not simply a thin veneer on the earth's surface but may permeate deep into the subsurface of this planet has evolved rapidly. Serpentinization of ultramafic rocks and alteration of basaltic ocean floor have been invoked as key mechanisms by which geochemical processes of water-rock interaction may provide energy and reducing power for chemoautotrophic microbial communities on the seafloor. In continental settings, H2-utilizing chemoautotrophic microbial communities have been identified in volcanic hot springs, and research in groundwater aquifers suggests that H2-fueled autotrophic microbial ecosystems might be widespread in continental flood basalts. A major gap remains in our understanding of life in the deep, but not so hot, biosphere. Investigations, particularly in the continental or terrestrial deep subsurface, are recognizing that chemosynthetic communities are not restricted to the high temperature hydrothermal vents and springs, but can be sustained under lower temperature regimes by similar types of water-rock reactions, albeit at slower rates. Dissolved H2 produced via radiolysis and/or serpentinization accumulates in hydrogeologically isolated fractures to concentrations up to 7mM - making these terrestrial environments, like the hydrothermal vents, some of the most H2-rich environments on the planet. The implications of this are profound, as it suggests much larger volumes of the Earth's subsurface may be habitable than previously recognized. These finding have impact on exploration for extant or

  9. 30 CFR 75.822 - Underground high-voltage longwall cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground high-voltage longwall cables. 75... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.822 Underground high-voltage longwall cables. In addition to the...

  10. DUSEL CO2: A deep underground laboratory for geologic carbon sequestration studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, C. A.; Dobson, P. F.; Oldenburg, C. M.; Scherer, G.; Onstott, T. C.; Birkholzer, J. T.; Freifeld, B. M.; Celia, M. A.; Wang, J. S.; Prevost, J.

    2009-12-01

    The objective of geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas mitigation strategy is the long-term containment of CO2 in deep underground formations. To develop a sound understanding of geologic carbon sequestration, we will build a deep underground laboratory to study the processes of storing and trapping CO2, including the risks of unintended leakage. The laboratory will be part of the new DUSEL facility at the Homestake mine in South Dakota. In this presentation, we will highlight the features and capabilities of the planned facility, to be called “DUSEL CO2”. The experimental design exploits the nearly half-kilometer vertical extent of existing “sandline” borings at Homestake. Pipes will be installed within the sandlines to serve as long flow columns. These columns will contain the CO2 and allow experimentation at the same pressure and temperature conditions as in deep subsurface reservoirs. Fill materials will mimic sedimentary layering, as well as cements in plugged wells. Instrumentation will enable detailed monitoring of flow, pressure, temperature, brine composition, geomechanics, and microbial activity. As part of the initial suite of experiments, we plan to simulate a leak in which CO2 changes from a supercritical fluid to a subcritical gas as the pressure drops during upflow over tens to hundreds of meters. We will test for possible acceleration in CO2 flow due to increasing buoyancy. Also, we will examine the interactions of CO2 with caprocks and well cements, and determine whether CO2 will enlarge flow pathways or cause self-sealing. Finally, we will investigate the effects of anaerobic, thermophilic bacteria on CO2 conversion to methane and carbonate. The findings from these unique experiments will advance carbon management technology worldwide and help reduce global greenhouse gas emissions.

  11. Underground storage systems for high-pressure air and gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beam, B. H.; Giovannetti, A.

    1975-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the safety and cost of underground high-pressure air and gas storage systems based on recent experience with a high-pressure air system installed at Moffett Field, California. The system described used threaded and coupled oil well casings installed vertically to a depth of 1200 ft. Maximum pressure was 3000 psi and capacity was 500,000 lb of air. A failure mode analysis is presented, and it is shown that underground storage offers advantages in avoiding catastrophic consequences from pressure vessel failure. Certain problems such as corrosion, fatigue, and electrolysis are discussed in terms of the economic life of such vessels. A cost analysis shows that where favorable drilling conditions exist, the cost of underground high-pressure storage is approximately one-quarter that of equivalent aboveground storage.

  12. Non-standard interactions in propagation at the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coloma, Pilar

    2016-03-01

    We study the sensitivity of current and future long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments to the effects of dimension six operators affecting neutrino propagation through Earth, commonly referred to as Non-Standard Interactions (NSI). All relevant parameters entering the oscillation probabilities (standard and non-standard) are considered at once, in order to take into account possible cancellations and degeneracies between them. We find that the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment will significantly improve over current constraints for most NSI parameters. Most notably, it will be able to rule out the so-called LMA-dark solution, still compatible with current oscillation data, and will be sensitive to off-diagonal NSI parameters at the level of ɛ ˜ {O} (0.05 - 0.5). We also identify two degeneracies among standard and non-standard parameters, which could be partially resolved by combining T2HK and DUNE data.

  13. Non-Standard Interactions in propagation at the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Coloma, Pilar

    2016-03-03

    Here, we study the sensitivity of current and future long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments to the effects of dimension six operators affecting neutrino propagation through Earth, commonly referred to as Non-Standard Interactions (NSI). All relevant parameters entering the oscillation probabilities (standard and non-standard) are considered at once, in order to take into account possible cancellations and degeneracies between them. We find that the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment will significantly improve over current constraints for most NSI parameters. Most notably, it will be able to rule out the so-called LMA-dark solution, still compatible with current oscillation data, and will be sensitive to off-diagonal NSI parameters at the level of ε ~more » $$ \\mathcal{O} $$ (0.05 – 0.5). We also identify two degeneracies among standard and non-standard parameters, which could be partially resolved by combining T2HK and DUNE data.« less

  14. Chemolithotrophy in the continental deep subsurface: Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF), USA

    PubMed Central

    Osburn, Magdalena R.; LaRowe, Douglas E.; Momper, Lily M.; Amend, Jan P.

    2014-01-01

    The deep subsurface is an enormous repository of microbial life. However, the metabolic capabilities of these microorganisms and the degree to which they are dependent on surface processes are largely unknown. Due to the logistical difficulty of sampling and inherent heterogeneity, the microbial populations of the terrestrial subsurface are poorly characterized. In an effort to better understand the biogeochemistry of deep terrestrial habitats, we evaluate the energetic yield of chemolithotrophic metabolisms and microbial diversity in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in the former Homestake Gold Mine, SD, USA. Geochemical data, energetic modeling, and DNA sequencing were combined with principle component analysis to describe this deep (down to 8100 ft below surface), terrestrial environment. SURF provides access into an iron-rich Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary deposit that contains deeply circulating groundwater. Geochemical analyses of subsurface fluids reveal enormous geochemical diversity ranging widely in salinity, oxidation state (ORP 330 to −328 mV), and concentrations of redox sensitive species (e.g., Fe2+ from near 0 to 6.2 mg/L and Σ S2- from 7 to 2778μg/L). As a direct result of this compositional buffet, Gibbs energy calculations reveal an abundance of energy for microorganisms from the oxidation of sulfur, iron, nitrogen, methane, and manganese. Pyrotag DNA sequencing reveals diverse communities of chemolithoautotrophs, thermophiles, aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophs, and numerous uncultivated clades. Extrapolated across the mine footprint, these data suggest a complex spatial mosaic of subsurface primary productivity that is in good agreement with predicted energy yields. Notably, we report Gibbs energy normalized both per mole of reaction and per kg fluid (energy density) and find the later to be more consistent with observed physiologies and environmental conditions. Further application of this approach will significantly

  15. Earth Science Research at the Homestake Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roggenthen, W.; Wang, J.

    2004-12-01

    The Homestake Mine in South Dakota ceased gold production in 2002 and was sealed for entry in 2003. The announcement of mine closure triggered the revival of a national initiative to establish a deep underground facility, currently known as the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). The National Science Foundation announced that solicitations were to be issued in 2004 and 2005, with the first one (known as S-1) issued in June, 2004. The focus of S-1 is on site non-specific technical requirements to define the scientific program at DUSEL. Earth scientists and physicists participated in an S-1 workshop at Berkeley in August, 2004. This abstract presents the prospects of the Homestake Mine to accommodate the earth science scientific programs defined at the S-1 workshop. The Homestake Mine has hundreds of kilometers of drifts over fifty levels accessible (upon mine reopening) for water evaluation, seepage quantification, seismic monitoring, geophysical imaging, geological mapping, mineral sampling, ecology and geo-microbiology. The extensive network of drifts, ramps, and vertical shafts allows installation of 10-kilometer-scale seismograph and electromagnetic networks. Ramps connecting different levels, typically separated by 150 ft, could be instrumented for flow and transport studies, prior to implementation of coupled thermal-hydro-chemical-mechanical-biological processes testing. Numerous large rooms are available for ecological and introduced-material evaluations. Ideas for installing instruments in cubic kilometers of rock mass can be realized over multiple levels. Environmental assessment, petroleum recovery, carbon sequestration were among the applications discussed in the S-1 workshop. If the Homestake Mine can be expediently reopened, earth scientists are ready to perform important tests with a phased approach. The drifts and ramps directly below the large open pit could be the first area for shallow testing. The 4,850 ft level is the

  16. Environmental projects. Volume 13: Underground storage tanks, removal and replacement. Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bengelsdorf, Irv

    1991-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC), located in the Mojave Desert about 40 miles north of Barstow, California, and about 160 miles northeast of Pasadena, is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Deep Space Network, one of the world's largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation networks. Activities at the GDSCC are carried out in support of six large parabolic dish antennas. As a large-scale facility located in a remote, isolated desert region, the GDSCC operations require numerous on-site storage facilities for gasoline, diesel oil, hydraulic oil, and waste oil. These fluids are stored in underground storage tanks (USTs). This present volume describes what happened to the 26 USTs that remained at the GDSCC. Twenty-four of these USTs were constructed of carbon steel without any coating for corrosion protection, and without secondary containment or leak detection. Two remaining USTs were constructed of fiberglass-coated carbon steel but without secondary containment or leak protection. Of the 26 USTs that remained at the GDSCC, 23 were cleaned, removed from the ground, cut up, and hauled away from the GDSCC for environmentally acceptable disposal. Three USTs were permanently closed (abandoned in place).

  17. Relevance of deep-subsurface microbiology for underground gas storage and geothermal energy production.

    PubMed

    Gniese, Claudia; Bombach, Petra; Rakoczy, Jana; Hoth, Nils; Schlömann, Michael; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Krüger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives the reader an introduction into the microbiology of deep geological systems with a special focus on potential geobiotechnological applications and respective risk assessments. It has been known for decades that microbial activity is responsible for the degradation or conversion of hydrocarbons in oil, gas, and coal reservoirs. These processes occur in the absence of oxygen, a typical characteristic of such deep ecosystems. The understanding of the responsible microbial processes and their environmental regulation is not only of great scientific interest. It also has substantial economic and social relevance, inasmuch as these processes directly or indirectly affect the quantity and quality of the stored oil or gas. As outlined in the following chapter, in addition to the conventional hydrocarbons, new interest in such deep subsurface systems is rising for different technological developments. These are introduced together with related geomicrobiological topics. The capture and long-termed storage of large amounts of carbon dioxide, carbon capture and storage (CCS), for example, in depleted oil and gas reservoirs, is considered to be an important options to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and global warming. On the other hand, the increasing contribution of energy from natural and renewable sources, such as wind, solar, geothermal energy, or biogas production leads to an increasing interest in underground storage of renewable energies. Energy carriers, that is, biogas, methane, or hydrogen, are often produced in a nonconstant manner and renewable energy may be produced at some distance from the place where it is needed. Therefore, storing the energy after its conversion to methane or hydrogen in porous reservoirs or salt caverns is extensively discussed. All these developments create new research fields and challenges for microbiologists and geobiotechnologists. As a basis for respective future work, we introduce the three major topics, that is

  18. Viability of underground coal gasification in the 'deep coals' of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    2007-06-15

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the PRB coal geology, hydrology, infrastructure, environmental and permitting requirements and to analyze the possible UCG projects which could be developed in the PRB. Project economics on the possible UCG configurations are presented to evaluate the viability of UCG. There are an estimated 510 billion tons of sub-bituminous coal in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. These coals are found in extremely thick seams that are up to 200 feet thick. The total deep coal resource in the PRB has a contained energy content in excess of twenty times the total world energy consumption in 2002. However, only approximately five percent of the coal resource is at depths less than 500 feet and of adequate thickness to be extracted by open pit mining. The balance is at depths between 500 and 2,000 feet below the surface. These are the PRB 'deep coals' evaluated for UCG in this report. The coal deposits in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming are thick, laterally continuous, and nearly flat lying. These deposits are ideal for development by Underground Coal Gasification. The thick deep coal seams of the PRB can be harvested using UCG and be protective of groundwater, air resources, and with minimum subsidence. Protection of these environmental values requires correct site selection, site characterization, impact definition, and impact mitigation. The operating 'lessons learned' of previous UCG operations, especially the 'Clean Cavity' concepts developed at Rocky Mountain 1, should be incorporated into the future UCG operations. UCG can be conducted in the PRB with acceptable environmental consequences. The report gives the recommended development components for UCG commercialization. 97 refs., 31 figs., 57 tabs., 1 app.

  19. Advances in technology for the construction of deep-underground facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-31

    The workshop was organized in order to address technological issues important to decisions regarding the feasibility of strategic options. The objectives of the workshop were to establish the current technological capabilities for deep-underground construction, to project those capabilities through the compressed schedule proposed for construction, and to identify promising directions for timely allocation of existing research and development resources. The earth has been used as a means of protection and safekeeping for many centuries. Recently, the thickness of the earth cover required for this purpose has been extended to the 2,000- to 3,000-ft range in structures contemplated for nuclear-waste disposal, energy storage, and strategic systems. For defensive missile basing, it is now perceived that the magnitude of the threat has increased through better delivery systems, larger payloads, and variable tactics of attack. Thus, depths of 3,000 to 8,000 ft are being considered seriously for such facilities. Moreover, it appears desirable that the facilities be operational (if not totally complete) for defensive purposes within a five-year construction schedule. Deep excavations such as mines are similar in many respects to nearsurface tunnels and caverns for transit, rail, sewer, water, hydroelectric, and highway projects. But the differences that do exist are significant. Major distinctions between shallow and deep construction derive from the stress fields and behavior of earth materials around the openings. Different methodologies are required to accommodate other variations resulting from increased depth, such as elevated temperatures, reduced capability for site exploration, and limited access during project execution. This report addresses these and other questions devoted to geotechnical characterization, design, construction, and excavation equipment.

  20. Experiments in a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) Hosted in Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbey, T. J.; Kimballton, M. O.; Science Team

    2004-12-01

    Sedimentary-rock environments, particularly those dominated by carbonate rock, provide unique opportunities for geoscientists, geobiologists, and geophysicists, to perform revolutionary experiments aimed at answering fundamental science questions and satisfying our societal demands for resources and environmental stewardship. As part of the National Science Foundation's DUSEL initiative, the selected site should offer structurally and biologically diverse environments. At the same time, the site should offer host rock capable of providing safely engineered hallways and laboratories at depths as great as 2,200 m for numerous deep underground physics, engineering, and earth science experiments. An ideal sedimentary-rock environment offers the prospect of highly folded, thrusted, and fractured rocks that allow opportunities to study the 3-D behavior of thrusts that propagate parallel to bedding as well as those that ramp across bedding. Flow dynamics along and across deeply buried faults is poorly understood. Experiments will be developed at various scales to assess flow and transport processes to better quantify hydrogeological mechanisms influencing flow and possible aquifer compartmentalization. Seismic reflection images, vertical seismic profiles, and tomograms will provide details of the fault properties and geometry, which can be verified in-situ. Repeated overthrusted sequences provide opportunities for geobiologists to investigate how microbes in rocks of similar age are affected by differences in pressure, temperature, and depth. Carbonate rocks provide opportunities to study energy sources and adaptations for nutrient acquisition, reproduction, stability, survival, and repair under extreme conditions. Results from these investigations will permit comparisons with other foreland fold-thrust belts worldwide. Fossil fuels remain the world's main energy resource and the large majority of these are hosted in sedimentary rocks. Improved methods for reservoir

  1. Probabilistic Analysis of Fracture Reactivation Associated with Deep Underground CO2 Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaewon; Min, Ki-Bok; Rutqvist, Jonny

    2013-07-01

    In the context of carbon capture and storage, deep underground injection of CO2 induces the geomechanical changes within and around the injection zone and their impact on CO2 storage security should be evaluated. In this study, we conduct coupled multiphase fluid flow and geomechanical modeling to investigate such geomechanical changes, focusing on probabilistic analysis of injection-induced fracture reactivation (such as shear slip) that could lead to enhanced permeability and CO2 migration across otherwise low-permeability caprock formations. Fracture reactivation in terms of shear slip was analyzed by implicitly considering the fracture orientations generated using the Latin hypercube sampling method, in one case using published fracture statistics from a CO2 storage site. The analysis was conducted by a coupled multiphase fluid flow and geomechanical simulation to first calculate the three-dimensional stress evolution during a hypothetical CO2 injection operation and then evaluate the probability of shear slip considering the statistical fracture distribution and a Coulomb failure analysis. We evaluate the probability of shear slip at different points within the injection zone and in the caprock just above the injection zone and relate this to the potential for opening of new flow paths through the caprock. Our analysis showed that a reverse faulting stress field would be most favorable for avoiding fracture shear reactivation, but site-specific analyses will be required because of strong dependency of the local stress field and fracture orientations.

  2. Validation of Fiber-Optic Strain-Sensing Cable for Deep Underground Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noni, N.; Filler, L.; Maclaughlin, M.; Wang, H. F.

    2010-12-01

    The laboratory tests presented here are in preparation for rock deformation monitoring at the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). These tests validate the strain-sensing capability of fiber optic cable. In contrast to traditional, point-measurement sensors, this Distributed Strain and Temperature (DST) cable provides continuous data along its length, up to several kilometers. The fiber optic cable was subjected to increasing tensile strain in two different test setups. The first setup checked for slip between the glass fiber and the outer layers of the cable. The second setup proved that the experiment design is adequate for comparing recorded strain with analytical strain. The first test setup held a 3.5-meter cable between two clamps with screws that allowed fine increases in cable length. These changes in length were measured with a digital caliper and were used to calculate incremental strain values. The data sets for caliper-measured strain and recorded strain plotted as parallel straight lines, indicating no slip between the fiber and the cable’s outer layers. Our lines also matched the manufacturer’s slope and intercept within 10%. The second test setup approximated an ideally deflected beam. The concrete beam had a 3-meter cable resting on top, attached at each end. An analytical solution provided strain values as a function of beam thickness and radius of curvature. The beam was incrementally bent by placing it on supporting arches of increasing center height. The arches were cut to various radii for center deflections of 0 - 5 inches. For each radius, there was a reasonable comparison between the recorded strain and analytical strain. Ongoing understanding and application of the DST system may improve that comparison. The ultimate goal is to develop a robust and practical attachment method that does not allow slip between the cable and the rock. Continuing lab work will test various methods of attaching the entire cable length

  3. First Microbial Community Assessment of Borehole Fluids from the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, D. P.; Anderson, C.; Bang, S.; Jones, T. L.; Boutt, D.; Kieft, T.; Sherwood Lollar, B.; Murdoch, L. C.; Pfiffner, S. M.; Bruckner, J.; Fisher, J. C.; Newburn, J.; Wheatley, A.; Onstott, T. C.

    2010-12-01

    Fluid and gas samples were collected from two flowing boreholes at the 4100 (1,250 m) and 4850 ft (1478 m) levels of the former Homestake Gold Mine in Lead, South Dakota. Service- and flood water samples were also collected as comparative benchmarks. With a maximum depth of 8,000 ft, (2,438 m), this mine currently hosts the Sanford Laboratory and is the proposed location for the US Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). The uncased 4100L hole is a legacy of mining; whereas, the cased 4850 hole was drilled in 2009 in support of large cavity construction. Both were packered or valved to exclude mine air and sampled anaerobically using aseptic technique. Physical measurements, aquatic and dissolved gas chemistry, cell counts, and microbial community assessments (SSU rRNA libraries) were performed on all samples. This study represents the first at Sanford Lab/DUSEL specifically focused on the deep biosphere rather than mine microbiology. Fluids from the two holes differed markedly, with that from 4100L being characterized by NaHCO3 and 4850 by Na2SO4. pH values of 8.2 vs. 7.5, conductivities (μS) of 1790 vs. 7667 and alkalinities (mg/L) of 767 vs. 187 were obtained from 4100L and 4850, respectively. As expected, the deeper 4850L hole had the higher temperature (38 vs. 30 oC). Neither had measureable nitrate, but both had similar dissolved organic C (DOC) concentrations (0.8 vs. 0.9 mg/L). Sulfate was present at 337 vs. 4,470 mg/L in 4100L and 4850L. Major dissolved gases were N2 (91 and 81 vol%), O2 (12 and 16 vol%) and CH4 (0.07 and 3.35 vol%) in 4100L and 4850L. The δ13C of CH4 was -51 and -56.7 permil in 4100L and 4850, respectively. The uncorrected 14C age of DIC was calculated at 25,310 (+/- 220) and 47,700 (+/-3,100) years for the two fluids. Cell counts were 5.9e3 and 2.01e5 in 4100L and 4850. Microbial community structure was diverse in both holes and distinct from that of service water. A large proportion of rRNA library clones were

  4. Effectiveness evaluation of existing noise controls in a deep shaft underground mine.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Eric A; Reed, Rustin J; Turner, Dylan; Littau, Sally R; Lee, Vivien; Hu, Chengcheng

    2015-01-01

    Noise exposures and hearing loss in the mining industry continue to be a major problem, despite advances in noise control technologies. This study evaluated the effectiveness of engineering, administrative, and personal noise controls using both traditional and in-ear dosimetry by job task, work shift, and five types of earplug. The noise exposures of 22 miners performing deep shaft-sinking tasks were evaluated during 56 rotating shifts in an underground mine. Miners were earplug-insertion trained, earplug fit-tested, and monitored utilizing traditional and in-ear dosimetry. The mean TWA8 noise exposure via traditional dosimetry was 90.1 ± 8.2 dBA, while the mean in-ear TWA8 was 79.6 ± 13.8 dBA. The latter was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) personal exposure limit (PEL) of 90 dBA. Dosimetry mean TWA8 noise exposures for bench blowing (103.5 ± 0.9 dBA), jumbo drill operation (103.0 ± 0.8 dBA), and mucking tasks (99.6 ± 4.7 dBA) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than other tasks. For bench blowing, cable pulling, grinding, and jumbo drill operation tasks, the mean in-ear TWA8 was greater than 85 dBA. Those working swing shift had a significantly higher (p < 0.001) mean TWA8 noise exposure (95.4 ± 7.3 dBA) than those working day shift. For percent difference between traditional vs. in-ear dosimetry, there was no significant difference among types of earplug used. Reflective of occupational hearing loss rate trends across the mining industry, this study found that, despite existing engineering and administrative controls, noise exposure levels exceeded regulatory limits, while the addition of personal hearing protection limited excessive exposures. PMID:25830445

  5. Deep Underground Science and Engineering Lab: S1 Dark Matter Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Akerib, Daniel S.; Aprile, E.; Baltz, E.A.; Dragowsky, M.R.; Gaitskell, R.J.; Gondolo, P.; Hime, A.; Martoff, C.J.; Mei, D.-M.; Nelson, H.; Sadoulet, B.; Schnee, R.W.; Sonnenschein, A.H.; Strigari, L.E.; /UC, Irvine

    2006-06-09

    In this report we have described the broad and compelling range of astrophysical and cosmological evidence that defines the dark matter problem, and the WIMP hypothesis, which offers a solution rooted in applying fundamental physics to the dynamics of the early universe. The WIMP hypothesis is being vigorously pursued, with a steady march of sensitivity improvements coming both from astrophysical searches and laboratory efforts. The connections between these approaches are profound and will reveal new information from physics at the smallest scales to the origin and workings of the entire universe. Direct searches for WIMP dark matter require sensitive detectors that have immunity to electromagnetic backgrounds, and are located in deep underground laboratories to reduce the flux from fast cosmic-ray-muon-induced neutrons which is a common background to all detection methods. With US leadership in dark matter searches and detector R&D, a new national laboratory will lay the foundation of technical support and facilities for the next generation of scientists and experiments in this field, and act as magnet for international cooperation and continued US leadership. The requirements of depth, space and technical support for the laboratory are fairly generic, regardless of the approach. Current experiments and upgraded versions that run within the next few years will probe cross sections on the 10{sup -45}-10{sup -44} cm{sup 2} scale, where depths of 3000-4000 m.w.e. are sufficient to suppress the neutron background. On the longer term, greater depths on the 5000-6000 level are desirable as cross sections down to 10{sup -46} cm{sup 2} are probed, and of course, if WIMPs are discovered then building up a statistical sample free of neutron backgrounds will be essential to extracting model parameters and providing a robust solution to the dark matter problem. While most of the detector technologies are of comparable physical scale, i.e., the various liquid and solid

  6. A communication and monitoring system for an underground coal mine, iron ore mine, and deep underground silver mine. Open file report Jun 73-Mar 78

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, A.A.; Collins, R.L.; Michels, J.L.

    1981-11-01

    Advanced communication and monitoring systems were developed and demonstrated in three underground mines representing different mining techniques, geographical areas, and material mined. The first was a large coal mine in western Pennsylvania using room-and-pillar techniques and continuous mining methods. The system developed provided private telephone channels, environmental monitoring, and control of underground equipment, all on a single coaxial cable, with all system operations under the direction of a minicomputer. The second was a magnetite ore mine in eastern Pennsylvania that used block caving mining techniques. A radio system was developed that provided two-way communications between trackless vehicles and roving personnel. A unique system of uhf-vhf repeaters combined with a 'leaky-feeder' transmission line offered operational and emergency features not previously found in mine communication systems. The third was a deep silver mine in the Cour d'Alene district of Idaho. This system utilizes a single wire pair to provide up to 14 voice channels. A combination of PBX, telephone carrier systems, and intercoms offered private conversations, selective signaling, and emergency backup communications.

  7. High temperature underground thermal energy storage system for solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The activities feasibility of high temperature underground thermal storage of energy was investigated. Results indicate that salt cavern storage of hot oil is both technically and economically feasible as a method of storing huge quantities of heat at relatively low cost. One particular system identified utilizes a gravel filled cavern leached within a salt dome. Thermal losses are shown to be less than one percent of cyclically transferred heat. A system like this having a 40 MW sub t transfer rate capability and over eight hours of storage capacity is shown to cost about $13.50 per KWh sub t.

  8. 30 CFR 75.822 - Underground high-voltage longwall cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underground high-voltage longwall cables. 75... Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.822 Underground high-voltage longwall cables. In addition to the high-voltage cable design specifications in § 75.804 of this part, high-voltage cables for use on longwalls...

  9. 30 CFR 75.822 - Underground high-voltage longwall cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Underground high-voltage longwall cables. 75... Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.822 Underground high-voltage longwall cables. In addition to the high-voltage cable design specifications in § 75.804 of this part, high-voltage cables for use on longwalls...

  10. 30 CFR 75.822 - Underground high-voltage longwall cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground high-voltage longwall cables. 75... Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.822 Underground high-voltage longwall cables. In addition to the high-voltage cable design specifications in § 75.804 of this part, high-voltage cables for use on longwalls...

  11. Flux limits for high energy cosmic photinos from underground experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fayet, P.

    1989-03-01

    Underground experiments, which detect the interactions of atmospheric neutrinos, could also be sensitive to photinos. Using data from the Fréjus and Kamiokande detectors we give upper limits on the possible flux of high-energy relativistic photinos incident on the Earth, as functions of the squark or selectron masses. These limits improve considerably the existing ones, by four to nine orders of magnitude or more, especially for very energetic photinos. Although not yet very constraining, they may be used to eliminate the possibility that high-energy cosmic photinos could contribute significantly to the energy density of the Universe. Laboratoire Propre du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, associé à l'École Normale Supérieure et à l'Université de Paris-Sud.

  12. Seismic Response of a Deep Underground Geologic Repository for Nuclear Waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, P.E.

    1998-11-02

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a deep underground nuclear waste repository certified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ,(EPA) to store transuranic defense-related waste contaminated by small amounts of radioactive materials. Located at a depth of about 655 meters below the surface, the facility is sited in southeastern New Mexico, about 40 Department of Energy underground facilities, waste disposal. kilometers east of the city of Carlsbad, New Mexico. The U.S. (DOE) managed the design and construction of the surface and and remains responsible for operation and closure following The managing and operating contractor for the DOE at the WIPP, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, maintains two rechmiant seismic monitoring systems located at the surface and in the underground. This report discusses two earthquakes detected by the seismic monitoring system, one a duratior magnitude 5.0 (Md) event located approximately 60 km east-southeast of the facility, and another a body-wave magnitude 5.6 (rob) event that occurred approximately 260 kilometers to the south-southeast.

  13. 30 CFR 75.811 - High-voltage underground equipment; grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false High-voltage underground equipment; grounding. 75.811 Section 75.811 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Distribution § 75.811 High-voltage underground equipment; grounding. Frames, supporting structures...

  14. 30 CFR 75.811 - High-voltage underground equipment; grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage underground equipment; grounding. 75.811 Section 75.811 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Distribution § 75.811 High-voltage underground equipment; grounding. Frames, supporting structures...

  15. Results and prospects of deep under-ground, under-water and under-ice experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zornoza, J. D.

    2014-04-01

    Astroparticle experiments have provided a long list of achievements both for particle physics and astrophysics. Many of these experiments require to be protected from the background produced by cosmic rays in the atmosphere. The main options for such protection are to build detectors deep under ground (mines, tunnels) or in the deep sea or Antarctic ice. In this proceeding we review the main results shown in the RICAP 2013 conference related with these kind of experiments and the prospects for the future.

  16. 30 CFR 75.802 - Protection of high-voltage circuits extending underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... portable, mobile, or, stationary high-voltage equipment shall contain either a direct or derived neutral... authorized representative may permit ungrounded high-voltage circuits to be extended underground to...

  17. 30 CFR 75.802 - Protection of high-voltage circuits extending underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... portable, mobile, or, stationary high-voltage equipment shall contain either a direct or derived neutral... authorized representative may permit ungrounded high-voltage circuits to be extended underground to...

  18. 30 CFR 75.802 - Protection of high-voltage circuits extending underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... portable, mobile, or, stationary high-voltage equipment shall contain either a direct or derived neutral... authorized representative may permit ungrounded high-voltage circuits to be extended underground to...

  19. 30 CFR 75.802 - Protection of high-voltage circuits extending underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... portable, mobile, or, stationary high-voltage equipment shall contain either a direct or derived neutral... authorized representative may permit ungrounded high-voltage circuits to be extended underground to...

  20. 30 CFR 75.802 - Protection of high-voltage circuits extending underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... portable, mobile, or, stationary high-voltage equipment shall contain either a direct or derived neutral... authorized representative may permit ungrounded high-voltage circuits to be extended underground to...

  1. Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity using abandoned works (deep mines or open pits) and the impact on groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujades, Estanislao; Willems, Thibault; Bodeux, Sarah; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-04-01

    Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants using open-pit or deep mines can be used in flat regions to store the excess of electricity produced during low-demand energy periods. It is essential to consider the interaction between UPSH plants and the surrounding geological media. There has been little work on the assessment of associated groundwater flow impacts. The impacts on groundwater flow are determined numerically using a simplified numerical model which is assumed to be representative of open-pit and deep mines. The main impact consists of oscillation of the piezometric head, and its magnitude depends on the characteristics of the aquifer/geological medium, the mine and the pumping and injection intervals. If an average piezometric head is considered, it drops at early times after the start of the UPSH plant activity and then recovers progressively. The most favorable hydrogeological conditions to minimize impacts are evaluated by comparing several scenarios. The impact magnitude will be lower in geological media with low hydraulic diffusivity; however, the parameter that plays the more important role is the volume of water stored in the mine. Its variation modifies considerably the groundwater flow impacts. Finally, the problem is studied analytically and some solutions are proposed to approximate the impacts, allowing a quick screening of favorable locations for future UPSH plants.

  2. A search for cosmic sources of high energy neutrinos with small underground detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berezinsky, V. S.; Castagnoli, C.; Galeotti, P.

    1985-01-01

    On the basis of standard source calculations of high energy neutrino fluxes, some models of astrophysical object (single stars and binary systems) are discussed from which a detectable muon flux is expected in small underground detectors.

  3. Coincident observation of air [hacek C]erenkov light by a surface array and muon bundles by a deep underground detector

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosio, M.; Antolini, R.; Auriemma, G.; Baker, R.; Baldini, A.; Bam, B.; Barbarino, G.C.; Barish, B.C.; Battistoni, G.; Bellotti, R.; Bemporad, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bilokon, H.; Bisi, V.; Bloise, C.; Bower, C.; Bussino, S.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Campana, D.; Carboni, M.; Corona, A.; Cecchini, S.; Cei, F.; Chiarella, V.; Cormack, R.; Coutu, S.; DeCataldo, G.; Dekhissi, H.; DeMarzo, C.; De Vincenzi, M.; Di Credico, A.; Diehl, E.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Forti, C.; Fusco, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giannini, G.; Giglietto, N.; Grassi, M.; Green, P.; Grillo, A.; Guarino, F.; Guarnaccia, P.; Gustavino, C.; Habig, A.; Heinz, R.; Hong, J.T.; Iarocci, E.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kearns, E.; Kertzman, M.; Kyriazopoulou, S.; Lamanna, E.; Lane, C.; Lee, C.; Levin, D.S.; Lipari, P.; Liu, G.; Liu, R.; Longo, M.J.; Lu, Y.; Ludlam, G.; Mancarella, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta-Neri, A.; Marin, A.; Marini, A.; Martello, D.; Marzari Chiesa, A.; Michael, D.G.; Mikheyev, S.; Miller, L.; Mittlebrunn, M.; Mon

    1994-09-01

    We report on the simultaneous observation of atmospheric [hacek C]erenkov light by a prototype five telescope array, GRACE, (Gran Sasso Air [hacek C]erenkov Experiment) with deep underground muons in the MACRO (Monopole Astrophysics and Cosmic Ray Observatory). The telescope array was deployed at Campo Imperatore above the Gran Sasso Laboratory for a run completed in the fall of 1992. The total live time for the combined surface-underground operation was [similar to]100 h during which more than 300 events were seen in coincidence. The efficacy of this technique to monitor the electromagnetic and penetrating muon components of a cosmic-ray-induced cascade is discussed.

  4. From the Cosmos to the Geosphere: the quest of four European Deep Underground Laboratories originally built for Astroparticle Physics to understand Global Environmental Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrafioti, I.

    2014-12-01

    A number of deep underground laboratories exist around the world, all originally developed to advance our understanding of the Universe. They were built to host 'low-background' Astroparticle Physics experiments, needing to be shielded from interference produced by cosmic radiation. These unique infrastructures show great diversity in terms of depth, size, and geological and environmental characteristics. Over the last decade, the four European deep underground laboratories - LSM in France, LSC in Spain, LNGS in Italy and Boulby in the UK - supported by their funding agencies, have been making great efforts to get integrated into a single distributed research infrastructure. At the same time, they have been asking "how can our facilities, primarily built for Astroparticle Physics, be used to tackle global challenges?". Astroparticle Physicists have wide experience in forming long-term large international collaborations, developing innovative technologies, building unique facilities and organising data handling, reduction, storage and analysis: all of these were put to the disposal of scientists from other disciplines. As a result, a number of very interesting multidisciplinary projects have been hosted in the labs with excellent scientific results: geologists, climatologists, environmental scientists and biologists from academia and public authorities have all used these deep underground environments. Even more recently, the four European labs have decided to go one step further: in order to treat global challenges, global cooperation is necessary, so they are trying to unite the global deep underground science community around these multidisciplinary synergies. The objective of this talk is to present the bottom-up policy adopted by these world-leading European research infrastructures related to global environmental change, including some of the most interesting scientific results received so far (e.g. muon tide detector for continuous, passive monitoring of

  5. First Dark Matter Search Results from a 4-kg CF$_3$I Bubble Chamber Operated in a Deep Underground Site

    SciTech Connect

    Behnke, E.; Behnke, J.; Brice, S.J.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Collar, J.I.; Conner, A.; Cooper, P.S.; Crisler, M.; Dahl, C.E.; Fustin, D.; Grace, E.; /Indiana U., South Bend /Fermilab

    2012-04-01

    New data are reported from the operation of a 4.0 kg CF{sub 3}I bubble chamber in the 6800 foot deep SNOLAB underground laboratory. The effectiveness of ultrasound analysis in discriminating alpha decay background events from single nuclear recoils has been confirmed, with a lower bound of >99.3% rejection of alpha decay events. Twenty single nuclear recoil event candidates and three multiple bubble events were observed during a total exposure of 553 kg-days distributed over three different bubble nucleation thresholds. The effective exposure for single bubble recoil-like events was 437.4 kg-days. A neutron background internal to the apparatus, of known origin, is estimated to account for five single nuclear recoil events and is consistent with the observed rate of multiple bubble events. This observation provides world best direct detection constraints on WIMP-proton spin-dependent scattering for WIMP masses >20 GeV/c{sup 2} and demonstrates significant sensitivity for spin-independent interactions.

  6. Modeling of coulpled deformation and permeability evolution during fault reactivation induced by deep underground injection of CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Cappa, F.; Rutqvist, J.

    2010-06-01

    The interaction between mechanical deformation and fluid flow in fault zones gives rise to a host of coupled hydromechanical processes fundamental to fault instability, induced seismicity, and associated fluid migration. In this paper, we discuss these coupled processes in general and describe three modeling approaches that have been considered to analyze fluid flow and stress coupling in fault-instability processes. First, fault hydromechanical models were tested to investigate fault behavior using different mechanical modeling approaches, including slip interface and finite-thickness elements with isotropic or anisotropic elasto-plastic constitutive models. The results of this investigation showed that fault hydromechanical behavior can be appropriately represented with the least complex alternative, using a finite-thickness element and isotropic plasticity. We utilized this pragmatic approach coupled with a strain-permeability model to study hydromechanical effects on fault instability during deep underground injection of CO{sub 2}. We demonstrated how such a modeling approach can be applied to determine the likelihood of fault reactivation and to estimate the associated loss of CO{sub 2} from the injection zone. It is shown that shear-enhanced permeability initiated where the fault intersects the injection zone plays an important role in propagating fault instability and permeability enhancement through the overlying caprock.

  7. First dark matter search results from a 4-kg CF3I bubble chamber operated in a deep underground site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnke, E.; Behnke, J.; Brice, S. J.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Collar, J. I.; Conner, A.; Cooper, P. S.; Crisler, M.; Dahl, C. E.; Fustin, D.; Grace, E.; Hall, J.; Hu, M.; Levine, I.; Lippincott, W. H.; Moan, T.; Nania, T.; Ramberg, E.; Robinson, A. E.; Sonnenschein, A.; Szydagis, M.; Vázquez-Jáuregui, E.

    2012-09-01

    New data are reported from the operation of a 4.0-kg CF3I bubble chamber in the 6800-foot-deep SNOLAB underground laboratory. The effectiveness of ultrasound analysis in discriminating alpha-decay background events from single nuclear recoils has been confirmed, with a lower bound of >99.3% rejection of alpha-decay events. Twenty single nuclear recoil event candidates and three multiple bubble events were observed during a total exposure of 553 kg-days distributed over three different bubble nucleation thresholds. The effective exposure for single bubble recoil-like events was 437.4 kg-days. A neutron background internal to the apparatus, of known origin, is estimated to account for five single nuclear recoil events and is consistent with the observed rate of multiple bubble events. The remaining excess of single bubble events exhibits characteristics indicating the presence of an additional background. These data provide new direct detection constraints on WIMP-proton spin-dependent scattering for WIMP masses >20GeV/c2 and demonstrate significant sensitivity for spin-independent interactions.

  8. Deep Space C3: High Power Uplinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodis, Mary Anne; Abraham, Douglas S.; Morabito, David D.

    2003-12-01

    The uplink transmitters of the Deep Space Network (DSN) perform three key functions in support of space missions: navigation, command uplink, and emergency recovery. The transmitters range in frequency from S-band to Ka-band, and range in RF transmit power from 200W to 400kW. Future improvements to the uplink transmitters will focus on higher frequency transmitters for high data rate communications, high power X-band uplinks for emergency recovery, and/or in-phase uplink arraying for either application.

  9. Strong ground motion generated by controlled blasting experiments and mining induced seismic events recorded underground at deep level mines in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milev, A.; Selllers, E.; Skorpen, L.; Scheepers, L.; Murphy, S.; Spottiswoode, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    A number of simulated rockbursts were conducted underground at deep level gold mines in South Africa in order to estimate the rock mass response when subjected to strong ground motion. The rockbursts were simulated by means of large blasts detonated in solid rock close to the sidewall of a tunnel. The simulated rockbursts involved the design of the seismic source, seismic observations in the near and far field, high-speed video filming, a study of rock mass conditions such as fractures, joints, rock strength etc. Knowledge of the site conditions before and after the simulated rockbursts was also gained. The numerical models used in the design of the simulated rockbursts were calibrated by small blasts taking place at each experimental site. A dense array of shock type accelerometers was installed along the blasting wall to monitor the attenuation of the strong ground motion as a function of the distance from the source. The attenuation of peak particle velocities, was found to be proportional to R^-1.7. Special investigations were carried out to evaluate the mechanism and the magnitude of damage, as well as the support behaviour under excessive dynamic loading. The strong ground motion generated by mining induced seismic events was studied, as part of this work, not only to characterize the rock mass response, but also to estimate the site effect on the surface of the underground excavations. A stand-alone instrument especially designed for recording strong ground motions was used to create a large database of peak particle velocities measured on stope hangingwalls. A total number of 58 sites located in stopes where the Carbon Leader Reef, Ventersdorp Contact Reef, Vaal Reef and Basal Reef are mined, were monitored. The peak particle velocities were measured at the surface of the excavations to identify the effect of the free surface and the fractures surrounding the underground mining. Based on these measurements the generally accepted velocity criterion of 3 m

  10. Geophysical investigation for the evaluation of the long-time safety of repositories and underground disposals in deep geological formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Just, A.; Salinar Group

    2003-04-01

    The performance assessment of underground disposal facilities is an indispensable premise to ensure that repositories fulfil the requirements for permanent and safe disposal of hazardous waste. The geological barrier is supposed to be a virtually impermeable host formation like rock salt. The efficiency of the barrier is endangered by the presence of risk zones such as faults or fractures particularly with regard to water-bearing host rocks. Thus the evaluation of the long-time safety of the geological barrier has to be carried out with a minimum of invasion of the future host formation and a maximum of spatial coverage and resolution. Especially geophysical methods are suitable to investigate the geological barrier due to their non-destructive character and spatial information content. Three research projects supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) are engaged in the design and enhancement of a complex geophysical measuring and evaluation system for the investigation of problem zones of the geological barrier in rock salt. The benefit of the combination of high-performance geophysical measuring techniques as seismics, DC-geoelectrics, ground penetrating radar (GPR), electromagnetics and sonar together with strong knowledge of regional salt geology is to increase essentially the reliability of the interpretation of underground measurements. The measuring methods and interpretation tools for host rock characterisation were applied, developed and improved in a flat salt seam structure of an inoperative salt mine in the Lower Harz region. The joint interpretation of the underground geophysical measurements revealed a by-then unknown wet zone, which was tectonically affected. With the scope of refining the complex geophysical measuring and evaluation system and transferring the precedingly acquired experiences to another type of host formation, an operating potassium salt mine in the vicinity of Hannover/Germany was chosen as a new

  11. Seismic risk mitigation in deep level South African mines by state of the art underground monitoring - Joint South African and Japanese study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milev, A.; Durrheim, R.; Nakatani, M.; Yabe, Y.; Ogasawara, H.; Naoi, M.

    2012-04-01

    Two underground sites in a deep level gold mine in South Africa were instrumented by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) with tilt meters and seismic monitors. One of the sites was also instrumented by JApanese-German Underground Acoustic emission Research in South Africa (JAGUARS) with a small network, approximately 40m span, of eight Acoustic Emission (AE) sensors. The rate of tilt, defined as quasi-static deformations, and the seismic ground motion, defined as dynamic deformations, were analysed in order to understand the rock mass behavior around deep level mining. In addition the high frequency AE events recorded at hypocentral distances of about 50m located at 3300m below the surface were analysed. A good correspondence between the dynamic and quasi-static deformations was found. The rate of coseismic and aseismic tilt, as well as seismicity recorded by the mine seismic network, are approximately constant until the daily blasting time, which takes place from about 19:30 until shortly before 21:00. During the blasting time and the subsequent seismic events the coseismic and aseismic tilt shows a rapid increase.Much of the quasi-static deformation, however, occurs independently of the seismic events and was described as 'slow' or aseismic events. During the monitoring period a seismic event with MW 2.2 occurred in the vicinity of the instrumented site. This event was recorded by both the CSIR integrated monitoring system and JAGUARS acoustic emotion network. The tilt changes associated with this event showed a well pronounced after-tilt. The aftershock activities were also well recorded by the acoustic emission and the mine seismic networks. More than 21,000 AE aftershocks were located in the first 150 hours after the main event. Using the distribution of the AE events the position of the fault in the source area was successfully delineated. The distribution of the AE events following the main shock was related to after tilt in order to

  12. Analysis of Social Sciences High School Students' Remarks on Underground Resources--Kütahya Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilmi, Sahin Suleyman

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain secondary school students' perceptions of underground resources through metaphors. 154 students studying at Social Sciences High School of Kütahya during 2014-2015 educational year are included in this study. Questions asked in this study are (1) Which metaphors did the secondary school students use in order…

  13. Mechanisms of high-pH and near-neutral-pH SCC of underground pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, J.A.; Harle, B.A.

    1996-12-31

    This paper provides an overview of mechanisms for high-pH and near-neutral-pH stress corrosion cracking of underground pipelines. Characteristics and historical information on both forms of cracking are discussed. This information is then used to support proposed mechanisms for crack initiation and growth.

  14. Medium Deep High Temperature Heat Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bär, Kristian; Rühaak, Wolfram; Schulte, Daniel; Welsch, Bastian; Chauhan, Swarup; Homuth, Sebastian; Sass, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    Heating of buildings requires more than 25 % of the total end energy consumption in Germany. Shallow geothermal systems for indirect use as well as shallow geothermal heat storage systems like aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) or borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) typically provide low exergy heat. The temperature levels and ranges typically require a coupling with heat pumps. By storing hot water from solar panels or thermal power stations with temperatures of up to 110 °C a medium deep high temperature heat storage (MDHTS) can be operated on relatively high temperature levels of more than 45 °C. Storage depths of 500 m to 1,500 m below surface avoid conflicts with groundwater use for drinking water or other purposes. Permeability is typically also decreasing with greater depth; especially in the crystalline basement therefore conduction becomes the dominant heat transport process. Solar-thermal charging of a MDHTS is a very beneficial option for supplying heat in urban and rural systems. Feasibility and design criteria of different system configurations (depth, distance and number of BHE) are discussed. One system is designed to store and supply heat (300 kW) for an office building. The required boreholes are located in granodioritic bedrock. Resulting from this setup several challenges have to be addressed. The drilling and completion has to be planned carefully under consideration of the geological and tectonical situation at the specific site.

  15. Underground laboratories in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-08-17

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  16. Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad: A Drama Workshop for Junior High and High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabone, Carmine; Albrecht, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Claims drama in the classroom offers teachers an opportunity to "bring to life" the challenges and triumphs of African Americans. Describes a drama workshop based on the story of Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad. (NH)

  17. Highly efficient shielding of high-voltage underground power lines by pure iron screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucca, M.; Lorusso, G.; Fiorillo, F.; Roccato, P. E.; Annibale, M.

    Metallic shielding structures are often adopted to mitigate the magnetic fields generated by high-power high-voltage underground power lines. Their design calls for the assessment of the combined influence of their geometrical parameters and the properties of the employed materials. In this paper, we present the study of pure iron shielding of a three-phase power line and the related efficiency. A finite element-boundary element (FE-BE) method is applied to describe the electromagnetic behavior of the cable-enwrapping shield. This is modeled as an indefinitely long cylinder of hexagonal cross-section, obtained by longitudinal juxtaposition of two doubly bent laminations, their thickness ranging between 1 and 10 mm. The magnetic properties of the involved pure iron laminations have been experimentally obtained under three different conditions: as-received, after localized plastic deformation, after stress-relief annealing. A low-carbon steel lamination has also been considered, whose harder magnetic behavior is predicted to lead to inferior shielding properties. The strong increase of iron permeability obtained upon annealing is conducive to improved shielding effectiveness in thin lamination screens, the advantage of the related magnetic softening becoming irrelevant for sheet thickness larger than about 4 mm. Tests performed on a 42 m long archetype three-phase line, endowed with a 4 mm thick annealed pure iron shield, provide figures for the shielding effectiveness that are in close agreement with the FE-BE modeling prediction.

  18. The Henderson Mine as an Underground Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, E. D.

    2006-07-11

    The Henderson Mine, operated by the Climax Molybdenum Company, is one of two sites under consideration by NSF to host a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). Henderson, in the Rocky Mountains west of Denver, is an active molybdenum mine with large access shafts and high rock processing and removal capability.

  19. Structural Stability Monitoring of a Physical Model Test on an Underground Cavern Group during Deep Excavations Using FBG Sensors.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Wang, Hanpeng; Zhu, Weishen; Li, Shucai; Liu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors are comprehensively recognized as a structural stability monitoring device for all kinds of geo-materials by either embedding into or bonding onto the structural entities. The physical model in geotechnical engineering, which could accurately simulate the construction processes and the effects on the stability of underground caverns on the basis of satisfying the similarity principles, is an actual physical entity. Using a physical model test of underground caverns in Shuangjiangkou Hydropower Station, FBG sensors were used to determine how to model the small displacements of some key monitoring points in the large-scale physical model during excavation. In the process of building the test specimen, it is most successful to embed FBG sensors in the physical model through making an opening and adding some quick-set silicon. The experimental results show that the FBG sensor has higher measuring accuracy than other conventional sensors like electrical resistance strain gages and extensometers. The experimental results are also in good agreement with the numerical simulation results. In conclusion, FBG sensors could effectively measure small displacements of monitoring points in the whole process of the physical model test. The experimental results reveal the deformation and failure characteristics of the surrounding rock mass and make some guidance for the in situ engineering construction. PMID:26404287

  20. Structural Stability Monitoring of a Physical Model Test on an Underground Cavern Group during Deep Excavations Using FBG Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong; Wang, Hanpeng; Zhu, Weishen; Li, Shucai; Liu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors are comprehensively recognized as a structural stability monitoring device for all kinds of geo-materials by either embedding into or bonding onto the structural entities. The physical model in geotechnical engineering, which could accurately simulate the construction processes and the effects on the stability of underground caverns on the basis of satisfying the similarity principles, is an actual physical entity. Using a physical model test of underground caverns in Shuangjiangkou Hydropower Station, FBG sensors were used to determine how to model the small displacements of some key monitoring points in the large-scale physical model during excavation. In the process of building the test specimen, it is most successful to embed FBG sensors in the physical model through making an opening and adding some quick-set silicon. The experimental results show that the FBG sensor has higher measuring accuracy than other conventional sensors like electrical resistance strain gages and extensometers. The experimental results are also in good agreement with the numerical simulation results. In conclusion, FBG sensors could effectively measure small displacements of monitoring points in the whole process of the physical model test. The experimental results reveal the deformation and failure characteristics of the surrounding rock mass and make some guidance for the in situ engineering construction. PMID:26404287

  1. Deep Trek High Temperature Electronics Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Ohme

    2007-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative research agreement between Honeywell and U.S. Department of Energy to develop high-temperature electronics. Objects of this development included Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) wafer process development for high temperature, supporting design tools and libraries, and high temperature integrated circuit component development including FPGA, EEPROM, high-resolution A-to-D converter, and a precision amplifier.

  2. Numerical survey of pressure wave propagation around and inside an underground cavity with high order FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esterhazy, Sofi; Schneider, Felix; Schöberl, Joachim; Perugia, Ilaria; Bokelmann, Götz

    2016-04-01

    The research on purely numerical methods for modeling seismic waves has been more and more intensified over last decades. This development is mainly driven by the fact that on the one hand for subsurface models of interest in exploration and global seismology exact analytic solutions do not exist, but, on the other hand, retrieving full seismic waveforms is important to get insides into spectral characteristics and for the interpretation of seismic phases and amplitudes. Furthermore, the computational potential has dramatically increased in the recent past such that it became worthwhile to perform computations for large-scale problems as those arising in the field of computational seismology. Algorithms based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) are becoming increasingly popular for the propagation of acoustic and elastic waves in geophysical models as they provide more geometrical flexibility in terms of complexity as well as heterogeneity of the materials. In particular, we want to demonstrate the benefit of high-order FEMs as they also provide a better control on the accuracy. Our computations are done with the parallel Finite Element Library NGSOLVE ontop of the automatic 2D/3D mesh generator NETGEN (http://sourceforge.net/projects/ngsolve/). Further we are interested in the generation of synthetic seismograms including direct, refracted and converted waves in correlation to the presence of an underground cavity and the detailed simulation of the comprehensive wave field inside and around such a cavity that would have been created by a nuclear explosion. The motivation of this application comes from the need to find evidence of a nuclear test as they are forbidden by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). With this approach it is possible for us to investigate the wave field over a large bandwidth of wave numbers. This again will help to provide a better understanding on the characteristic signatures of an underground cavity, improve the protocols for

  3. Geochemistry research planning for the underground storage of high-level nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Apps, J.A.

    1983-09-01

    This report is a preliminary attempt to plan a comprehensive program of geochemistry research aimed at resolving problems connected with the underground storage of high-level nuclear waste. The problems and research needs were identified in a companion report to this one. The research needs were taken as a point of departure and developed into a series of proposed projects with estimated manpowers and durations. The scope of the proposed research is based on consideration of an underground repository as a multiple barrier system. However, the program logic and organization reflect conventional strategies for resolving technological problems. The projects were scheduled and the duration of the program, critical path projects and distribution of manpower determined for both full and minimal programs. The proposed research was then compared with ongoing research within DOE, NRC and elsewhere to identify omissions in current research. Various options were considered for altering the scope of the program, and hence its cost and effectiveness. Finally, recommendations were made for dealing with omissions and uncertainties arising from program implementation. 11 references, 6 figures, 4 tables.

  4. Partial nitritation treatment of underground brine waste with high ammonium and salt content.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Takehiko; Qiao, Sen; Yamamoto, Taichi; Nishiyama, Takashi; Fujii, Takao; Kaiho, Tatsuo; Bhatti, Zafar; Furukawa, Kenji

    2009-10-01

    Underground brine waste containing high concentrations of ammonium and with a salinity of 3% is usually generated during the production of methane gas and iodine in the gas field of Chiba Prefecture, Japan. In this study, one swim-bed reactor, packed with a novel acrylic fiber biomass carrier (Biofringe), was applied to the partial nitritation treatment of this kind of underground brine waste. A stable nitrite production rate of 1.6 kg NO(2)-N m(-3) d(-1) was obtained under a nitrogen loading rate of 3.0 kg-N m(-3) d(-1), at a pH of 7.5 and a temperature of 25 degrees C. Nitrate production was negligible and the effluent NO(2)-N/NO(x)-N ratio was above 98% due to the successful inhibition of nitrite-oxidizing bacterial activity. Free ammonia was considered to be the main factor for inhibiting the activity of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. A microbial community shift was demonstrated by 16S rRNA analysis, and it was shown that the ammonium-oxidizing bacteria became the predominant species after successful nitrite accumulation was observed. PMID:19716524

  5. Observation of high-energy neutrinos using Cerenkov detectors embedded deep in Antarctic ice.

    PubMed

    Andrés, E; Askebjer, P; Bai, X; Barouch, G; Barwick, S W; Bay, R C; Becker, K H; Bergström, L; Bertrand, D; Bierenbaum, D; Biron, A; Booth, J; Botner, O; Bouchta, A; Boyce, M M; Carius, S; Chen, A; Chirkin, D; Conrad, J; Cooley, J; Costa, C G; Cowen, D F; Dailing, J; Dalberg, E; DeYoung, T; Desiati, P; Dewulf, J P; Doksus, P; Edsjö, J; Ekström, P; Erlandsson, B; Feser, T; Gaug, M; Goldschmidt, A; Goobar, A; Gray, L; Haase, H; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Hardtke, R; He, Y D; Hellwig, M; Heukenkamp, H; Hill, G C; Hulth, P O; Hundertmark, S; Jacobsen, J; Kandhadai, V; Karle, A; Kim, J; Koci, B; Köpke, L; Kowalski, M; Leich, H; Leuthold, M; Lindahl, P; Liubarsky, I; Loaiza, P; Lowder, D M; Ludvig, J; Madsen, J; Marciniewski, P; Matis, H S; Mihalyi, A; Mikolajski, T; Miller, T C; Minaeva, Y; Miocinović, P; Mock, P C; Morse, R; Neunhöffer, T; Newcomer, F M; Niessen, P; Nygren, D R; Ogelman, H; Pérez de los Heros, C; Porrata, R; Price, P B; Rawlins, K; Reed, C; Rhode, W; Richards, A; Richter, S; Martino, J R; Romenesko, P; Ross, D; Rubinstein, H; Sander, H G; Scheider, T; Schmidt, T; Schneider, D; Schneider, E; Schwarz, R; Silvestri, A; Solarz, M; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Starinsky, N; Steele, D; Steffen, P; Stokstad, R G; Streicher, O; Sun, Q; Taboada, I; Thollander, L; Thon, T; Tilav, S; Usechak, N; Vander Donckt, M; Walck, C; Weinheimer, C; Wiebusch, C H; Wischnewski, R; Wissing, H; Woschnagg, K; Wu, W; Yodh, G; Young, S

    2001-03-22

    Neutrinos are elementary particles that carry no electric charge and have little mass. As they interact only weakly with other particles, they can penetrate enormous amounts of matter, and therefore have the potential to directly convey astrophysical information from the edge of the Universe and from deep inside the most cataclysmic high-energy regions. The neutrino's great penetrating power, however, also makes this particle difficult to detect. Underground detectors have observed low-energy neutrinos from the Sun and a nearby supernova, as well as neutrinos generated in the Earth's atmosphere. But the very low fluxes of high-energy neutrinos from cosmic sources can be observed only by much larger, expandable detectors in, for example, deep water or ice. Here we report the detection of upwardly propagating atmospheric neutrinos by the ice-based Antarctic muon and neutrino detector array (AMANDA). These results establish a technology with which to build a kilometre-scale neutrino observatory necessary for astrophysical observations. PMID:11260705

  6. Estimation of loading density of underground well repositories for solid high-level radioactive wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkovsky, V. I.; Pek, A. A.

    2007-06-01

    The convective transfer of radionuclides by subsurface water from a geological repository of solidified high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) is considered. The repository is a cluster of wells of large diameter with HLW disposed of in the lower portions of the wells. The safe distance between wells as a function of rock properties and parameters of well loading with wastes has been estimated from mathematical modeling. A maximum permissible concentration of radionuclides in subsurface water near the ground surface above the repository is regarded as a necessary condition of safety. The estimates obtained show that well repositories allow for a higher density of solid HLW disposal than shaft storage facilities. Advantages and disadvantages of both types of storage facilities are considered in order to estimate the prospects for their use for underground disposal of solid HLW.

  7. High resolution seismic survey of the Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification area

    SciTech Connect

    Youngberg, A.D.; Berkman, E.; Orange, A.

    1982-01-01

    In November 1980 a high resolution seismic survey was conducted at the Department of Energy, Laramie Energy Technology Center's underground coal gasification test site near Hanna, Wyoming. The objectives of the survey were to determine the feasibility of utilizing high resolution seismic technology to locate and characterize underground coal burn zones and to identify shallow geologic faults at the test site. Seismic data acquisition and processing parameters were specifically designed to emphasize reflections at the shallow, 61 to 91 meter (200 to 300 foot) depths of interest. A three-dimensional grid of data was obtained over the Hanna II, Phases 2 and 3 burn zone. Processing included time varying filters, deconvolution, trace composition, and two-dimensional, areal stacking of the data in order to identify burn zone anomalies. An anomaly was clearly discernable resulting from the rubble-collapse void above the burn zone which was studied in detail and compared to synthetic models. It is felt, based on these results, that the seismic method can be used to define similar burns if great care is taken in both acquisition and processing phases of an investigation. The fault studies disclosed faults at the test site of hitherto unsuspected complexity. The fault system was found to be a graben complex with numerous antithetic faults. The antithetic faults also contain folded beds. One of the faults discovered may be responsible for the unexpected problems experienced in some of the early in-situ gasification tests at the site. A series of anomalies were discovered on the northeast end of one of the seismic lines, and these reflections have been identified as adits from the old Hanna No. 1 Coal Mine.

  8. Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Joshua S.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Brady, Patrick Vane; Swift, Peter N.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2009-07-01

    Preliminary evaluation of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel indicates the potential for excellent long-term safety performance at costs competitive with mined repositories. Significant fluid flow through basement rock is prevented, in part, by low permeabilities, poorly connected transport pathways, and overburden self-sealing. Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified. Thermal hydrologic calculations estimate the thermal pulse from emplaced waste to be small (less than 20 C at 10 meters from the borehole, for less than a few hundred years), and to result in maximum total vertical fluid movement of {approx}100 m. Reducing conditions will sharply limit solubilities of most dose-critical radionuclides at depth, and high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. For the bounding analysis of this report, waste is envisioned to be emplaced as fuel assemblies stacked inside drill casing that are lowered, and emplaced using off-the-shelf oilfield and geothermal drilling techniques, into the lower 1-2 km portion of a vertical borehole {approx}45 cm in diameter and 3-5 km deep, followed by borehole sealing. Deep borehole disposal of radioactive waste in the United States would require modifications to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and to applicable regulatory standards for long-term performance set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 191) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR part 60). The performance analysis described here is based on the assumption that long-term standards for deep borehole disposal would be identical in the key regards to those prescribed for existing repositories (40 CFR part 197 and 10 CFR part 63).

  9. DOE Grant to organize "International Symposium on Opportunities in Underground Physics", Asilomar, CA, May 24-27, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, Kaladi S.

    2015-03-16

    The International Symposium in Opportunities in Underground Physics (ISOUP) was held in Asilomar, CA during May 24-27, 2013. The Symposium brought together scientists from the US and abroad for an open discussion on science opportunities provided by the possibility of a new generation of large underground detectors associated with long baseline neutrino beams. The Symposium was highly successful. The main focus of the Symposium was the science goals that could be achieved by placing such a detector deep underground.

  10. Underground storage of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Shoichi

    1993-12-31

    Desk studies on underground storage of CO{sub 2} were carried out from 1990 to 1991 fiscal years by two organizations under contract with New Energy and Indestrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). One group put emphasis on application of CO{sub 2} EOR (enhanced oil recovery), and the other covered various aspects of underground storage system. CO{sub 2} EOR is a popular EOR method in U.S. and some oil countries. At present, CO{sub 2} is supplied from natural CO{sub 2} reservoirs. Possible use of CO{sub 2} derived from fixed sources of industries is a main target of the study in order to increase oil recovery and storage CO{sub 2} under ground. The feasibility study of the total system estimates capacity of storage of CO{sub 2} as around 60 Gton CO{sub 2}, if worldwide application are realized. There exist huge volumes of underground aquifers which are not utilized usually because of high salinity. The deep aquifers can contain large amount of CO{sub 2} in form of compressed state, liquefied state or solution to aquifer. A preliminary technical and economical survey on the system suggests favorable results of 320 Gton CO{sub 2} potential. Technical problems are discussed through these studies, and economical aspects are also evaluated.

  11. Underground physics with DUNE

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.

    2016-01-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a project to design, construct and operate a next-generation long-baseline neutrino detector with a liquid argon (LAr) target capable also of searching for proton decay and supernova neutrinos. It is a merger of previous efforts of the LBNE and LBNO collaborations, as well as other interested parties to pursue a broad programme with a staged 40-kt LAr detector at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) 1300 km from Fermilab. This programme includes studies of neutrino oscillations with a powerful neutrino beam from Fermilab, as well as proton decay and supernova neutrino burst searches. In this study, we will focus on the underground physics with DUNE.

  12. Underground physics with DUNE

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.

    2016-01-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a project to design, construct and operate a next-generation long-baseline neutrino detector with a liquid argon (LAr) target capable also of searching for proton decay and supernova neutrinos. It is a merger of previous efforts of the LBNE and LBNO collaborations, as well as other interested parties to pursue a broad programme with a staged 40-kt LAr detector at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) 1300 km from Fermilab. This programme includes studies of neutrino oscillations with a powerful neutrino beam from Fermilab, as well as proton decay and supernova neutrino burst searches.more » In this study, we will focus on the underground physics with DUNE.« less

  13. Underground physics with DUNE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.; DUNE Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a project to design, construct and operate a next-generation long-baseline neutrino detector with a liquid argon (LAr) target capable also of searching for proton decay and supernova neutrinos. It is a merger of previous efforts of the LBNE and LBNO collaborations, as well as other interested parties to pursue a broad programme with a staged 40-kt LAr detector at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) 1300 km from Fermilab. This programme includes studies of neutrino oscillations with a powerful neutrino beam from Fermilab, as well as proton decay and supernova neutrino burst searches. In this paper we will focus on the underground physics with DUNE.

  14. The use of novel DNA nanotracers to determine groundwater flow paths - a test study at the Grimsel Deep Underground Geothermal (DUG) Laboratory in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittilä, Anniina; Evans, Keith; Puddu, Michela; Mikutis, Gediminas; Grass, Robert N.; Deuber, Claudia; Saar, Martin O.

    2016-04-01

    earlier test. In this study, we present the results of tests of applying novel DNA nanotracers to characterize groundwater flow properties and the flow pathways in a fracture-dominated reservoir in the Deep Underground Geothermal (DUG) Laboratory at the Grimsel Test Site in the Swiss Alps. This study is motivated by subsequent comparisons of similar characterizations of fractured rock masses after hydraulic stimulation. These will take place at the DUG Lab at the end of 2016. The results of the flow-path characterization are also compared with those obtained from classical solute tracer tests.

  15. Polymer mud system maintains high ROP in deep well

    SciTech Connect

    Palm, J.D. )

    1994-10-24

    The use of a polymer mud system with low plastic viscosity helped reduce the drilling time on a deep well in Oklahoma. An aggressive bit program and the special mud system, which kept low-gravity solids to a minimum, kept the rate of penetration (ROP) high in the deeper sections of the well. The Montgomery No. 3-A well, located in section 3-6N-9W in Caddo County, Okla., reached total depth of 18,345 ft in 106 days for less than $1.6 million, which was quicker and less expensive than offset wells. The drilling of this well is detailed.

  16. Filling temporary underground structures and workings at high-head hydro developments

    SciTech Connect

    Ilyushin, V.F.

    1994-12-01

    Examples of backfilling temporary underground structures and workings at hydroelectric stations in Russia are cited. Structures backfilled include temporary tunnels and auxiliary workings (shafts, chambers, etc.). Detail drawings illustrate many of the examples. Examples of backfilling at a number of hydropower plants are given; however, the main emphasis is on construction of Nurek Hydroelectric Station. 8 refs., 11 figs.

  17. 75 FR 20918 - High-Voltage Continuous Mining Machine Standard for Underground Coal Mines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine... Machine Standard for Underground Coal Mines Correction In rule document 2010-7309 beginning on page 17529... MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Appendix I to Subpart D On page 17549, in Appendix I to Subpart D,...

  18. Regulating the underground injection of CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, D.W.; Giardina, J.A.; Morgan, M.G.; Wilson, E.J.

    2005-12-15

    Florida's battles during the last decade over injecting wastewater from sewage treatment plants deep underground offer a lesson for any future US regulation of the underground disposal and sequestration of CO{sub 2}. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Microbial Evolution at High Pressure: Deep Sea and Laboratory Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, D. H.

    2011-12-01

    Elevated hydrostatic pressures are present in deep-sea and deep-Earth environments where this physical parameter has influenced the evolution and characteristics of life. Piezophilic (high-pressure-adapted) microbes have been isolated from diverse deep-sea settings, and would appear likely to occur in deep-subsurface habitats as well. In order to discern the factors enabling life at high pressure my research group has explored these adaptations at various levels, most recently including molecular analyses of deep-sea trench communities, and through the selective evolution of the model microbe Escherichia coli in the laboratory to progressively higher pressures. Much of the field work has focused on the microbes present in the deeper portions of the Puerto Rico Trench (PRT)and in the Peru-Chile Trench (PCT), from 6-8.5 km below the sea surface (~60-85 megapascals pressure). Culture-independent phylogenetic data on the Bacteria and Archaea present on particles or free-living, along with data on the microeukarya present was complemented with genomic analyses and the isolation and characterization of microbes in culture. Metagenomic analyses of the PRT revealed increased genome sizes and an overrepresentation at depth of sulfatases for the breakdown of sulfated polysaccharides and specific categories of transporters, including those associated with the transport of diverse cations or carboxylate ions, or associated with heavy metal resistance. Single-cell genomic studies revealed several linneages which recruited to the PRT metagenome far better than existing marine microbial genome sequences. analyses. Novel high pressure culture approaches have yielded new piezophiles including species preferring very low nutrient levels, those living off of hydrocarbons, and those adapted to various electron donor/electron acceptor combinations. In order to more specifically focus on functions enabling life at increased pressure selective evolution experiments were performed with

  20. Is Centrophorus squamosus a highly migratory deep-water shark?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Cabello, Cristina; Sánchez, Francisco

    2014-10-01

    Deep-water sharks are considered highly vulnerable species due to their life characteristics and very low recovery capacity against overfishing. However, there is still limited information on the ecology or population connectivity of these species. The aim of this study was to investigate if the species Centrophorus squamosus could make long displacements and thus confirm the existence of connectivity between different deep-water areas. In addition, the study was the first attempt to use tagging techniques on deep-water sharks, since it has never been undertaken before. Five C. squamosus were tagged with satellite tags (PAT) in the El Cachucho Marine Protected Area (Le Danois Bank) located in waters of the North of Spain, Cantabrian Sea (NE Atlantic). Data from four of these tags were recovered. One of the sharks travelled approximately 287 nm toward the north east (French continental shelf) hypothetically following the continental slope at a mean depth of 901±109 m for 45 days. Two other sharks spent almost 4 months traveling, in which time they moved 143 and 168 nm, respectively, to the west (Galician coast). Finally, another leafscale gulper shark travelled to the NW (Porcupine Bank) during a period of 3 months at a mean depth of 940±132 m. Depth and temperature preferences for all the sharks are discussed. Minimum and maximum depths recorded were 496 and 1848 m, respectively. The temperature range was between 6.2 and 11.4 °C, but the mean temperature was approximately 9.9±0.7 °C. The sharks made large vertical displacements throughout the water column with a mean daily depth range of 345±27 m. These preliminary results support the suggestion of a whole population in the NE Atlantic and confirm the capacity of this species to travel long distances.

  1. Clustered Desynchronization from High-Frequency Deep Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Dan; Moehlis, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    While high-frequency deep brain stimulation is a well established treatment for Parkinson’s disease, its underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we show that two competing hypotheses, desynchronization and entrainment in a population of model neurons, may not be mutually exclusive. We find that in a noisy group of phase oscillators, high frequency perturbations can separate the population into multiple clusters, each with a nearly identical proportion of the overall population. This phenomenon can be understood by studying maps of the underlying deterministic system and is guaranteed to be observed for small noise strengths. When we apply this framework to populations of Type I and Type II neurons, we observe clustered desynchronization at many pulsing frequencies. PMID:26713619

  2. Springback in Deep Drawn High Purity Niobium for Superconductor Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Ganapati Rao Myneni; Peter Kneisel

    2005-09-01

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities made from deep drawn high-purity niobium have become a popular approach for the design of particle accelerators. A number of current accelerators use this technology and it is a leading candidate for future designs. The development of this technology has required significant advances in many scientific fields including metallurgy, high vacuum physics, surface science, and forming. Recently proposed modifications to the current process for fabrication of these cavities has resulted in increased concern about the distribution of deformation, residual stress patterns, and springback. This presentation will report on the findings of a recently initiated program to study plastic flow and springback in the fabrication of these cavities and the influence of metallurgical variables including grain size and impurity content.

  3. Clustered Desynchronization from High-Frequency Deep Brain Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Dan; Moehlis, Jeff

    2015-12-01

    While high-frequency deep brain stimulation is a well established treatment for Parkinson's disease, its underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we show that two competing hypotheses, desynchronization and entrainment in a population of model neurons, may not be mutually exclusive. We find that in a noisy group of phase oscillators, high frequency perturbations can separate the population into multiple clusters, each with a nearly identical proportion of the overall population. This phenomenon can be understood by studying maps of the underlying deterministic system and is guaranteed to be observed for small noise strengths. When we apply this framework to populations of Type I and Type II neurons, we observe clustered desynchronization at many pulsing frequencies. PMID:26713619

  4. Underground coal gasification field experiment in the high-dipping coal seams

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, L.H.; Liu, S.Q.; Yu, L.; Zhang, W.

    2009-07-01

    In this article the experimental conditions and process of the underground gasification in the Woniushan Mine, Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province are introduced, and the experimental results are analyzed. By adopting the new method of long-channel, big-section, and two-stage underground coal gasification, the daily gas production reaches about 36,000 m{sup 3}, with the maximum output of 103,700 m{sup 3}. The daily average heating value of air gas is 5.04 MJ/m{sup 3}, with 13.57 MJ/m{sup 3} for water gas. In combustible compositions of water gas, H{sub 2} contents stand at over 50%, with both CO and CH{sub 4} contents over 6%. Experimental results show that the counter gasification can form new temperature conditions and increase the gasification efficiency of coal seams.

  5. Metal deep engraving with high average power femtosecond lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faucon, M.; Mincuzzi, G.; Morin, F.; Hönninger, C.; Mottay, E.; Kling, R.

    2015-03-01

    Deep engraving of 3D textures is a very demanding process for the creation of master tool e. g molds, forming tools or coining dies. As these masters are uses for reproduction of 3D patterns the materials for the tools are typically hard and brittle and thus difficult to machine. The new generation of industrial femtosecond lasers provides both high accuracy engraving results and high ablation rates at the same time. Operation at pulse energies of typically 40 μJ and repetition rates in the Mhz range the detrimental effect of heat accumulation has to be avoided. Therefore high scanning speeds are required to reduce the pulse overlap below 90%. As a consequence scan speeds in the range of 25-50 m/s a needed, which is beyond the capability of galvo scanners. In this paper we present results using a combination of a polygon scanner with a high average power femtosecond laser and compare this to results with conventional scanners. The effects of pulse energy and scan speed of the head on geometrical accuracy are discussed. The quality of the obtained structures is analyzed by means of 3D surface metrology microscope as well as SEM images.

  6. Assessment of high-head turbomachinery for underground pumped hydroelectric storage plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, S. W.; Frigo, A. A.; Blomquist, C. A.

    Underground pumped hydroelectric storage (UPHS) plants equipped with advanced reversible pump turbines for operating heads from 500 to 1500 m are discussed in terms of cost efficiency. It is found that the use of advanced machinery shifts the minimum UPHS plant cost to the head range 1200-1500 m. The interactive effects of pump-turbine efficiencies and charge/discharge ratios are examined. It is shown that under certain conditions, a pump-turbine option with a higher charge-discharge ratio at the expense of somewhat lower operating efficiency may be desirable.

  7. Spatial heterogeneity of high-resolution Chalk groundwater geochemistry - Underground quarry at Saint Martin-le-Noeud, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barhoum, S.; Valdès, D.; Guérin, R.; Marlin, C.; Vitale, Q.; Benmamar, J.; Gombert, P.

    2014-11-01

    Chalk groundwater is an important aquifer resource in France because it accounts for a production of 12 million m3 y-1 with a large proportion reserved for drinking water. Processes occurring in the unsaturated zone (UZ) and the overlying superficial formations have a high impact on Chalk groundwater geochemistry and require better understanding. The study site is a former underground Chalk quarry located near Beauvais (France) that extends over 1200 m in length, at a depth ranging from 20 to 30 m. The water table intersects the cavity creating 15 underground “lake” that give access to the Chalk groundwater. Lakes geochemistry has been studied: water samples were collected in July 2013 and major ion concentrations were analyzed. UZ and clay-with-flints thickness above each lake were estimated qualitatively using an electromagnetic sensor (EM31) and Underground GPS. The results unexpectedly showed that groundwater quality varied widely in spatial terms for both allochthonous and autochthonous ions (e.g., HCO3- ranged from 2.03 to 4.43 meq L-1, NO3- ranged from 0.21 to 1.33 meq L-1). Principal component analysis indicated the impact of agricultural land use on water quality, with the intake of NO3- as well as SO42-, Cl- and Ca2+. Chalk groundwater geochemistry is compared with the nature and structure of the UZ. We highlight correlations (1) between thick clay-with-flints layers and the ions Mg2+ and K+, and (2) between UZ thickness and Na+. In conclusion, this paper identifies various ion sources (agriculture, clay-with-flints and Chalk) and demonstrates different processes in the UZ: dissolution, ionic exchange and solute storage.

  8. High energy cosmic ray physics with underground muons in MACRO. I. Analysis methods and experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Castellano, M.; De Cataldo, G.; De Marzo, C.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Fusco, P.; Giglietto, N.; Guarnaccia, P.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Montaruli, T.; Raino, A.; Spinelli, P.; Cecchini, S.; Dekhissi, H.; Fantini, R.; Giacomelli, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta-Neri, A.; Patrizii, L.; Popa, V.; Serra-Lugaresi, P.; Spurio, M.; Togo, V.; Hong, J.T.; Kearns, E.; Okada, C.; Orth, C.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Barish, B.C.; Goretti, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kyriazopoulou, S.; Michael, D.G.; Nolty, R.; Peck, C.W.; Scholberg, K.; Walter, C.W.; Lane, C.; Steinberg, R.; Battistoni, G.; Bilokon, H.; Bloise, C.; Carboni, M.; Chiarella, V.; Forti, C.; Iarocci, E.; Marini, A.; Patera, V.; Ronga, F.; Satta, L.; Sciubba, A.; Spinetti, M.; Valente, V.; Antolini, R.; Bosio, T.; Di Credico, A.; Grillo, A.; Gustavino, C.; Mikheyev, S.; Parlati, S.; Reynoldson, J.; Scapparone, E.; Bower, C.; Habig, A.; Hawthorne, A.; Heinz, R.; Miller, L.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; De Mitri, I.; Monacelli, P.; Bernardini, P.; Mancarella, G.; Martello, D.; Palamara, O.; Petrera, S.; Pistilli, P.; Ricciardi, M.; Surdo, A.; Baker, R.; and others

    1997-08-01

    In this paper, the first of a two-part work, we present the reconstruction and measurement of muon events detected underground by the MACRO experiment at Gran Sasso (E{sub {mu}}{ge} 1.3 TeV in atmosphere). The main aim of this work is to discuss the muon multiplicity distribution as measured in the detector. The data sample analyzed consists of 4.4{times}10{sup 6} muon events, of which {approximately} 263000 are multiple muons, corresponding to a total live time of 5850 h. In this sample, the observed multiplicities extend above N{sub {mu}}=35, with intermuon separations up to 50 m and beyond. Additional complementing measurements, such as the inclusive muon flux, the angular distribution, and the muon separation distribution (decoherence), are also included. The physical interpretation of the results presented here is reported in the following companion paper. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  9. Underground Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadlock, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    The movement of groundwater in underground aquifers is an ideal physical example of many important themes in mathematical modeling, ranging from general principles (like Occam's Razor) to specific techniques (such as geometry, linear equations, and the calculus). This article gives a self-contained introduction to groundwater modeling with…

  10. Development of an underground low background instrument for high sensitivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala, E.; Hahn, I. S.; Kang, W. G.; Kim, G. W.; Kim, Y. D.; Lee, M. H.; Leonard, D. S.; Park, Su Yeon

    2016-05-01

    The Center for Underground Physics has developed in collaboration with CANBERRA a low background instrument composed of 14 HPGe detectors divided in two arrays facing each other. The performance and the background of a single detector of the array have been studied in order to improve the array final configuration. An accurate material selection, through the measurements of building material samples and Monte Carlo simulations based on Geant4, has been performed to reach the lowest possible intrinsic background. Alternative materials and configurations have been considered for the final design of the array simulating the expected intrinsic background of the instrument considering the needed changes. The expected sensitivity of the improved array configuration, concerning the low background material selection for rare events physics experiments, has been evaluated through Monte Carlo simulations considering 232Th concentration in a Copper sample. Since the array can also be used for rare decays searches, the expected sensitivity on the 156Dy resonant double electron capture has thus been calculated.

  11. Application of seismic tomography in underground mining

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, D.F.; Williams, T.J.; Friedel, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    Seismic tomography, as used in mining, is based on the principle that highly stressed rock will demonstrate relatively higher P-wave velocities than rock under less stress. A decrease or increase in stress over time can be verified by comparing successive tomograms. Personnel at the Spokane Research Center have been investigating the use of seismic tomography to identify stress in remnant ore pillars in deep (greater than 1220 in) underground mines. In this process, three-dimensional seismic surveys are conducted in a pillar between mine levels. A sledgehammer is used to generate P-waves, which are recorded by geophones connected to a stacking signal seismograph capable of collecting and storing the P-wave data. Travel times are input into a spreadsheet, and apparent velocities are then generated and merged into imaging software. Mine workings are superimposed over apparent P-wave velocity contours to generate a final tomographic image. Results of a seismic tomographic survey at the Sunshine Mine, Kellogg, ED, indicate that low-velocity areas (low stress) are associated with mine workings and high-velocity areas (higher stress) are associated with areas where no mining has taken place. A high stress gradient was identified in an area where ground failed. From this tomographic survey, as well, as four earlier surveys at other deep underground mines, a method was developed to identify relative stress in remnant ore pillars. This information is useful in making decisions about miner safety when mining such ore pillars.

  12. CASPAR - Nuclear Astrophysics Underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strieder, Frank; Robertson, Daniel; Couder, Manoel; Greife, Uwe; Wells, Doug; Wiescher, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The work of the LUNA Collaboration at the Laboratori Nationali del Gran Sasso demonstrated the research potential of an underground accelerator for the field of nuclear astrophysics. Several key reactions could be studied at LUNA, some directly at the Gamow peak for solar hydrogen burning. The CASPAR (Compact Accelerator System for Performing Astrophysical Research) Collaboration will implement a high intensity 1 MV accelerator at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) and overcome the current limitation at LUNA. The installation of the accelerator in the recently rehabilitated underground cavity at SURF started in Summer 2015 and first beam should be delivered by the end of the year. This project will primarily focus on the neutron sources for the s-process, e.g. 13C(α , n) 16O and 22Ne(α , n) 25Mg , and lead to unprecedented measurements compared to previous studies. A detailed overview of the science goals of CASPAR will be presented.

  13. Outlook for Underground Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowles, Thomas

    2003-04-01

    Nuclear and particle physics has a long history of carrying out experiments deep underground to search for rare processes such as proton decay and double beta decay and to observe neutrinos from a variety of astrophysical sources. This science program has recently resulted in remarkable evidence for neutrino mass as evidenced in atmospheric, solar, and terrestrial neutrino experiments. These discoveries have fueled a renewed effort in the United States to create a National Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (NUSEL) that would provide the basis for an expanded program of science underground. The research issues that would be addressed at a NUSEL include not only nuclear and particle physics, but also a broad range of topics in geology, geoengineering, and geobiology. A NUSEL would also create new resources for applications of interest to industry and national defense as well as providing a significant new opportunity for education and outreach. In this talk I will present an overview of the scientific opportunities that could be addressed at a NUSEL. I will also provide an update on the status of efforts to create a NUSEL at various possible sites in the U.S.

  14. Progress Toward a Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical-Biological (THMCB) Experiment in the Homestake Mine Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenthal, E. L.; Maher, K.; Elsworth, D.; Lowell, R. P.; Uzunlar, N.; Mailloux, B. J.; Conrad, M. E.; Olsen, N. J.; Jones, T. L.; Cruz, M. F.; Torchinsky, A.

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of performing a long-term hydrothermal experiment in a deep mine is to gain a scientific understanding of the coupled physical, chemical, and biological processes taking place in fractured rock under the influence of mechanical stress, thermal effects, and fluid flow. Only in a controlled experiment in a well-characterized rock mass, can a fractured rock be probed in 3-D through geophysical imaging, in situ measurements, geochemical/biological sampling, and numerical modeling. Our project is focused on the feasibility of a THMCB experiment in the Homestake Mine, South Dakota to study the long-term evolution (10+ years) of a perturbed heterogeneous rock mass. In addition to the experiment as a laboratory for studying crustal processes, it has direct application to Enhanced Geothermal Systems, carbon sequestration, and contaminant transport. Field activities have focused on fracture and feature mapping, flux measurements from flowing fractures, and collection of water and rock samples for geochemical, biological, and isotopic analyses. Fracture mapping and seepage measurements are being used to develop estimates of permeability and fluxes at different length scales and design the location and orientation of the heater array. Fluxes measured up to several liters/minute indicate localized regions of very high fracture permeability, likely in excess of 10-10 m2. Isotopic measurements indicate heterogeneity in the fracture network on the scale of tens of meters in addition to the large-scale geochemical heterogeneity observed in the mine. New methods for sampling and filtering water samples were developed and tested with the goal of performing radiocarbon analyses in DNA and phospholipid fatty acids. Analytical and numerical models of the thermal perturbation have been used to design the heater orientation and spacing. Reaction path and THC simulations were performed to assess geochemical and porosity/permeability changes as a function of the heat input

  15. Coupling Between Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer - A Mechanism for Quasi-Periodic Variations in CO2 Discharges from Deep Underground Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruess, K.

    2004-12-01

    Leakage of CO2 from underground sources is of interest in connection with volcanic hazards assessment, and with the integrity and safety of geologic disposal reservoirs for CO2 that have been proposed as a means for mitigating global warming from atmospheric emissions. Underground accumulations of CO2, whether naturally occurring or man-made, store vast amounts of compressional energy. At subsurface temperature and pressure conditions, CO2 is always buoyant relative to aqueous fluids, and its upward migration may conceivably give rise to a self-enhancing runaway release due to decompression and the much lower viscosity as compared to water. Natural occurrences of CO2 have been implicated in hydrothermal eruptions, and may be capable of causing "pneumatic" eruptions that are not powered by thermal energy. We have performed numerical simulations of CO2 release through fracture zones and faults in order to determine under what conditions, if any, a self-enhancing, eruptive release may be possible. Our simulations include coupling between multiphase fluid flow and associated heat transfer effects, and accurately represent the thermophysical properties of CO2 in sub-critical (liquid or gaseous) and supercritical conditions, as well as transitions between different phase compositions, and phase partitioning between CO2-rich and aqueous phases. The behavior of rising CO2 plumes is found to be strongly affected by heat transfer effects. As supercritical CO2 migrates upward it cools due to expansion. Much stronger cooling may arise from boiling of liquid CO2 that may occur after temperatures and pressures drop below critical values (Tcrit = 31.04 deg-C, Pcrit = 73.82 bar). Our simulations of CO2 migration up a fault zone produce quasi-periodic cycling of thermodynamic conditions and substantial variations of CO2 fluxes discharged at the land surface on a time scale of order 1 year. This behavior is explained in terms of an interplay between multiphase flow in the fault zone

  16. Magnetic fields and childhood cancer: an epidemiological investigation of the effects of high-voltage underground cables.

    PubMed

    Bunch, K J; Swanson, J; Vincent, T J; Murphy, M F G

    2015-09-01

    Epidemiological evidence of increased risks for childhood leukaemia from magnetic fields has implicated, as one source of such fields, high-voltage overhead lines. Magnetic fields are not the only factor that varies in their vicinity, complicating interpretation of any associations. Underground cables (UGCs), however, produce magnetic fields but have no other discernible effects in their vicinity. We report here the largest ever epidemiological study of high voltage UGCs, based on 52,525 cases occurring from 1962-2008, with matched birth controls. We calculated the distance of the mother's address at child's birth to the closest 275 or 400 kV ac or high-voltage dc UGC in England and Wales and the resulting magnetic fields. Few people are exposed to magnetic fields from UGCs limiting the statistical power. We found no indications of an association of risk with distance or of trend in risk with increasing magnetic field for leukaemia, and no convincing pattern of risks for any other cancer. Trend estimates for leukaemia as shown by the odds ratio (and 95% confidence interval) per unit increase in exposure were: reciprocal of distance 0.99 (0.95-1.03), magnetic field 1.01 (0.76-1.33). The absence of risk detected in relation to UGCs tends to add to the argument that any risks from overhead lines may not be caused by magnetic fields. PMID:26344172

  17. Pumping carbon out of underground coal deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M.

    1999-07-01

    Thin steam and deep coal deposits are difficult and costly to mine. Underground coal gasification (UCG) with air or oxygen was thought to alleviate this problem. Experimental field tests were conducted in Wyoming and Illinois. Problems were encountered concerning a clear path for the team gasification to take place and removal of gas. The high endothermic heat of reaction requiring large quantities of steam and oxygen makes the process expensive. Safety problems due to incomplete reaction is also of concern. A new approach is proposed which can remedy most of these drawbacks for extracting energy from underground coal deposits. It is proposed to hydrogasify the coal underground with a heated hydrogen gas stream under pressure to produce a methane-rich gas effluent stream. The hydrogasification of coal is essentially exothermic so that no steam or oxygen is required. The gases formed are always in a reducing atmosphere making the process safe. The hydrogen is obtained by thermally decomposing the effluent methane above ground to elemental carbon and hydrogen. The hydrogen is returned underground for further hydrogasification of the coal seam. The small amount of oxygen and sulfur in the coal can be processed out above ground by removal as water and H{sub 2}S. Any CO can be removed by a methanation step returning the methane to process. The ash remains in the ground and the elemental carbon produced is the purest form of coal. The particulate carbon can be slurried with water to produce a fuel stream that can be fed to a turbine for efficient combined cycle power plants with lower CO{sub 2} emissions. Coal cannot be used for combined cycle because of its ash and sulfur content destroys the gas turbine. Depending on its composition of coal seam some excess hydrogen is also produced. Hydrogen is, thus, used to pump pure carbon out of the ground.

  18. Results of study of deep underground structure of mud volcanoes in North-Western Caucasus by means of geological and geophysical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobissevitch, A. L.; Gorbatikov, A. V.; Ovsuychenko, A. N.; Sobissevitch, L. E.; Stepanova, M. Yu.; Morev, B. A.

    2009-04-01

    Results of complementary geological and geophysical studies of mud volcanic phenomena in North-Western Caucasus (Taman mud volcanic province) are presented. New technology for passive subsurface sounding of the Earth's crust has been originally developed at the Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences. Patented since 2005, this technology represents the new kind of seismic survey based on specific features of propagation of the Rayleigh waves. It uses natural background microseismic noise as a sounding signal. By using the method of low-frequency microseismic sounding in the course of field works carried out in 2006 - 2008, there have been obtained three vertical cross-sections for the two mud volcanoes down to the depth of 25 km. For the two different mud volcanoes their deep subsurface structure has been revealed and discussed. The Gora Karabetova mud volcano is one of the most active mud volcanoes in the Taman peninsula with primarily explosive behaviour while the Shugo mud volcano's activity pattern is different, explosive events are rare and both types of phenomena may be explained by the configuration of their feeding systems, tectonic position and deep pathways of migration of fluids. Complementary interpretation of raw data sets delivered form geophysical and geological surveys allows considering principal differences of origin and mechanisms of mud volcanic activity for the Shugo and the Gora Karabetova mud volcanoes.

  19. Low-level measuring techniques for neutrons: High accuracy neutron source strength determination and fluence rate measurement at an underground laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Zimbal, Andreas; Reginatto, Marcel; Schuhmacher, Helmut; Wiegel, Burkhard; Degering, Detlev; Zuber, Kai

    2013-08-08

    We report on measuring techniques for neutrons that have been developed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the German National Metrology Institute. PTB has characterized radioactive sources used in the BOREXINO and XENON100 experiments. For the BOREXINO experiment, a {sup 228}Th gamma radiation source was required which would not emit more than 10 neutrons per second. The determination of the neutron emission rate of this specially designed {sup 228}Th source was challenging due to the low neutron emission rate and because the ratio of neutron to gamma radiation was expected to be extremely low, of the order of 10{sup −6}. For the XENON100 detector, PTB carried out a high accuracy measurement of the neutron emission rate of an AmBe source. PTB has also done measurements in underground laboratories. A two month measurement campaign with a set of {sup 3}He-filled proportional counters was carried out in PTB's former UDO underground laboratory at the Asse salt mine. The aim of the campaign was to determine the intrinsic background of detectors, which is needed for the analysis of data taken in lowintensity neutron fields. At a later time, PTB did a preliminary measurement of the neutron fluence rate at the underground laboratory Felsenkeller operated by VKTA. By taking into account data from UDO, Felsenkeller, and detector calibrations made at the PTB facility, it was possible to estimate the neutron fluence rate at the Felsenkeller underground laboratory.

  20. 75 FR 17529 - High-Voltage Continuous Mining Machine Standard for Underground Coal Mines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... miners by the existing standards. On July 16, 2004, MSHA published a proposal (69 FR 42812) to establish... hearing dates to November 2004 and extending the comment period to December 10, 2004 (69 FR 51787). Based... handling equipment that must be used when handling energized high-voltage trailing cables (71 FR...

  1. High-Redshift Supernovae in the Hubble Deep Field

    SciTech Connect

    Gilliland, R.L.; Nugent, P.E.; Phillips, M.M.

    1999-08-01

    Two supernovae detected in the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) using the original 1995 December epoch and data from a shorter (63,000 s in F814W) 1997 December visit with {ital HST} are discussed. The supernovae (SNe) are both associated with distinct galaxies at redshifts of 0.95 (spectroscopic) from Cohen et al. and 1.32 (photometric) from the work of Fern{acute a}ndez-Soto, Lanzetta, & Yahil. These redshifts are near, in the case of 0.95, and well beyond, for 1.32, the greatest distance reported previously for SNe. We show that our observations are sensitive to supernovae to z{approx_lt}1.8 in either epoch for an event near peak brightness. Detailed simulations are discussed that quantify the level at which false events from our search phase would start to arise and the completeness of our search as a function of both SN brightness and host galaxy redshift. The number of Type Ia and Type II SNe expected as a function of redshift in the two HDF epochs are discussed in relation to several published predictions and our own detailed calculations. A mean detection frequency of one SN per epoch for the small HDF area is consistent with expectations from current theory. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1999.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  2. High-Redshift Supernovae in the Hubble Deep Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliland, Ronald L.; Nugent, Peter E.; Phillips, M. M.

    1999-08-01

    Two supernovae detected in the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) using the original 1995 December epoch and data from a shorter (63,000 s in F814W) 1997 December visit with HST are discussed. The supernovae (SNe) are both associated with distinct galaxies at redshifts of 0.95 (spectroscopic) from Cohen et al. and 1.32 (photometric) from the work of Fernández-Soto, Lanzetta, & Yahil. These redshifts are near, in the case of 0.95, and well beyond, for 1.32, the greatest distance reported previously for SNe. We show that our observations are sensitive to supernovae to z<~1.8 in either epoch for an event near peak brightness. Detailed simulations are discussed that quantify the level at which false events from our search phase would start to arise and the completeness of our search as a function of both SN brightness and host galaxy redshift. The number of Type Ia and Type II SNe expected as a function of redshift in the two HDF epochs are discussed in relation to several published predictions and our own detailed calculations. A mean detection frequency of one SN per epoch for the small HDF area is consistent with expectations from current theory. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  3. Kimballton Underground Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rountree, Steven Derek

    2014-03-01

    The Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF) is an operating deep underground research facility with six active projects, and greater than 50 trained researchers. KURF is 30 minutes from the Virginia Tech (VT) campus in an operating limestone mine with drive-in access (eg: roll-back truck, motor coach), over 50 miles of drifts (all 40' × 20 +' the current lab is 35' × 22' × 100'), and 1700' of overburden (1450m.w.e.). The laboratory was built in 2007 and offers fiber optic internet, LN2, 480/220/110 V power, ample water, filtered air, 55 F constant temp, low Rn levels, low rock background activity, and a muon flux of only ~0.004 muons per square meter, per second, per steradian. The current users are funded by NSF, DOE, and NNSA. Current user group: 1) mini-LENS (VT, Louisiana State University, BNL); 2) Double Beta Decay to Excited States (Duke University); 3) HPGe Low-Background Screening (University of North Carolina (UNC), VT); 4) MALBEK (UNC); 5&6) Watchman - 5) Radionuclide Detector and 6) MARS detector (LLNL, SNL, UC-Davis, UC-Berkeley, UH, Hawaii Pacific, UC-Irvine, VT).

  4. Installation of two high-sensitivity laser strainmeters in a new underground geodynamical observatory (GEODYN) at Canfranc (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescentini, L.; Botta, V.; Amoruso, A.; Bettini, A.

    2012-04-01

    High-sensitivity wide-band strain measurements allow an advanced study of different geodynamic phenomena, both local and global, in a spectrum ranging from short period seismic waves to tectonic deformation. Among the latest results produced by the few high-sensitivity wide-band laser interferometers operating allover the world, the analysis of the strain recorded by the Gran Sasso (Italy) laser interferometers before and after the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake allowed putting tight constraints on earthquake nucleation processes and other pre-seismic phenomena, and detecting the slow diffusive propagation of an aseismic rupture during the first hours following the main event.The Gran Sasso interferometers are operating since several years, proving their high reliability. An improved version of the Gran Sasso interferometers have been recently installed in the Canfranc (Spain) underground Laboratory (LSC). The LSC is located at depth in one of the most seismically active areas in Western Europe, at the Pyrenean chain that marks the boundary between the European plate and the Iberian microplate. These features make it particularly suitable and interesting for hosting an advanced integrated geodynamic observatory (GEODYN), of which the interferometers are part. The first tests on strain data evidence a much lower noise level with respect that the Gran Sasso installations, expecially in the frequency band 0.0001 to 0.1 Hz, suggesting the capability of producing clear records of low-frequency seismic waves, Earth free oscillations, and possible local aseismic stress release. We will give a technical description of the installation, show some examples of recordings, and discuss the local distortion of the deformation field, as obtained by comparing Earth tide predictions and observations.

  5. Deep Sea Memory of High Atmospheric CO2 Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathesius, Sabine; Hofmann, Matthias; Caldeira, Ken; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2015-04-01

    massive CDR interventions eventually bring down the global mean pH value to the RCP2.6 level, yet cannot restore a similarly homogenous distribution - while the pH of the upper ocean returns to the preindustrial value or even exceed it (in the 180 ppm scenario), the deep ocean remains acidified. The deep ocean is out of contact with the atmosphere and therefore unreachable by atmospheric CDR. Our results suggest that the proposition that the marine consequences of early emissions reductions are comparable to those of delayed reductions plus CDR is delusive and that a policy that allows for emitting CO2 today in the hopes of removing it tomorrow is bound to generate substantial regrets.

  6. Exploitation of deep-sea resources: the urgent need to understand the role of high pressure in the toxicity of chemical pollutants to deep-sea organisms.

    PubMed

    Mestre, Nélia C; Calado, Ricardo; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2014-02-01

    The advent of industrial activities in the deep sea will inevitably expose deep-sea organisms to potentially toxic compounds. Although international regulations require environmental risk assessment prior to exploitation activities, toxicity tests remain focused on shallow-water model species. Moreover, current tests overlook potential synergies that may arise from the interaction of chemicals with natural stressors, such as the high pressures prevailing in the deep sea. As pressure affects chemical reactions and the physiology of marine organisms, it will certainly affect the toxicity of pollutants arising from the exploitation of deep-sea resources. We emphasize the need for environmental risk assessments based on information generated from ecotoxicological trials that mimic, as close as possible, the deep-sea environment, with emphasis to a key environmental factor - high hydrostatic pressure. PMID:24230462

  7. Water underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, Inge

    2015-04-01

    The world's largest assessable source of freshwater is hidden underground, but we do not know what is happening to it yet. In many places of the world groundwater is abstracted at unsustainable rates: more water is used than being recharged, leading to decreasing river discharges and declining groundwater levels. It is predicted that for many regions of the world unsustainable water use will increase, due to increasing human water use under changing climate. It would not be long before shortage causes widespread droughts and the first water war begins. Improving our knowledge about our hidden water is the first step to stop this. The world largest aquifers are mapped, but these maps do not mention how much water they contain or how fast water levels decline. If we can add a third dimension to the aquifer maps, so a thickness, and add geohydrological information we can estimate how much water is stored. Also data on groundwater age and how fast it is refilled is needed to predict the impact of human water use and climate change on the groundwater resource.

  8. Water Underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, I. E. M.

    2014-12-01

    The world's largest accessible source of freshwater is hidden underground. However it remains difficult to estimate its volume, and we still cannot answer the question; will there be enough for everybody? In many places of the world groundwater abstraction is unsustainable: more water is used than refilled, leading to decreasing river discharges and declining groundwater levels. It is predicted that for many regions in the world unsustainable water use will increase in the coming decades, due to rising human water use under a changing climate. It would not take long before water shortage causes widespread droughts and the first water war begins. Improving our knowledge about our hidden water is the first step to prevent such large water conflicts. The world's largest aquifers are mapped, but these maps do not mention how much water these aquifers contain or how fast water levels decline. If we can add thickness and geohydrological information to these aquifer maps, we can estimate how much water is stored and its flow direction. Also, data on groundwater age and how fast the aquifer is refilled is needed to predict the impact of human water use and climate change on the groundwater resource. Ultimately, if we can provide this knowledge water conflicts will focus more on a fair distribution instead of absolute amounts of water.

  9. Benchmarking Deep Learning Frameworks for the Classification of Very High Resolution Satellite Multispectral Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadomanolaki, M.; Vakalopoulou, M.; Zagoruyko, S.; Karantzalos, K.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we evaluated deep-learning frameworks based on Convolutional Neural Networks for the accurate classification of multispectral remote sensing data. Certain state-of-the-art models have been tested on the publicly available SAT-4 and SAT-6 high resolution satellite multispectral datasets. In particular, the performed benchmark included the AlexNet, AlexNet-small and VGG models which had been trained and applied to both datasets exploiting all the available spectral information. Deep Belief Networks, Autoencoders and other semi-supervised frameworks have been, also, compared. The high level features that were calculated from the tested models managed to classify the different land cover classes with significantly high accuracy rates i.e., above 99.9%. The experimental results demonstrate the great potentials of advanced deep-learning frameworks for the supervised classification of high resolution multispectral remote sensing data.

  10. Depleted argon from underground sources

    SciTech Connect

    Back, H.O.; Alton, A.; Calaprice, F.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; Kendziora, C.; Loer, B.; Montanari, D.; Mosteiro, P.; Pordes, S.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Argon is a powerful scintillator and an excellent medium for detection of ionization. Its high discrimination power against minimum ionization tracks, in favor of selection of nuclear recoils, makes it an attractive medium for direct detection of WIMP dark matter. However, cosmogenic {sup 39}Ar contamination in atmospheric argon limits the size of liquid argon dark matter detectors due to pile-up. The cosmic ray shielding by the earth means that Argon from deep underground is depleted in {sup 39}Ar. In Cortez Colorado a CO{sub 2} well has been discovered to contain approximately 500ppm of argon as a contamination in the CO{sub 2}. In order to produce argon for dark matter detectors we first concentrate the argon locally to 3-5% in an Ar, N{sub 2}, and He mixture, from the CO{sub 2} through chromatographic gas separation. The N{sub 2} and He will be removed by continuous cryogenic distillation in the Cryogenic Distillation Column recently built at Fermilab. In this talk we will discuss the entire extraction and purification process; with emphasis on the recent commissioning and initial performance of the cryogenic distillation column purification.

  11. High Power Electric Propulsion for Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, Jay

    2011-01-01

    Slide presentation reviews: (1) An Electric Propulsion Primer (2) The Flexible Path and the Electric Path (2a) A New Plan for Human Exploration (2b)The Role of Electric Propulsion (3) High Power Electric Thrusters (3a)Hall Thrusters (3b) Magnetoplasmadynamic Thrusters (4)Challenges for the Next Generation of Advanced Propulsion Technologist

  12. Sinkhole development induced by underground quarrying, and the related hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parise, M.; Delle Rose, M.

    2009-04-01

    Sinkholes are extremely widespread in Apulia, a very flat and carbonate region, that acted as the foreland during the phases of building up of the Southern Apenninic Chain in Miocene time. This is due to the presence of soluble rocks throughout the region, that highly predispose the area to this very subtle natural hazard. In addition to the natural setting, which favours their development, sinkholes may also be induced by anthropogenic activities. In the latter sense, underground quarrying represents one of the most dangerous activities in karst areas. Apulia has a long history of quarrying. Since the roman time, the local rocks, from the Cretaceous micritic limestones to the Quaternary calcarenites, have been intensely quarried and used as building and ornamental materials. In several settings of the region, the rocks with the best petrographic characteristics are located at depths ranging from a few to some tens of meters. This caused the opening of many underground quarries, and the development of a complex network of subterranean galleries. Underground quarrying had a great impulse at the turn between the XIX and the XX century, when a large number of quarries was opened. Later on, after the Second World War, most of the quarries were progressively abandoned, even because of the first signs of instability, both underground and at the ground surface. With time, the memory of the presence and development of the underground quarries was progressively lost, with severe repercussions on the safety of the land above the excavated areas. Lack of knowledge of the subterranean pattern of galleries, combined with the expansion of the built-up areas at the surface, resulted in increasing significantly the vulnerability of exposed elements at risk. Events such as the 29 March, 2007, at Gallipoli only by chance did not result in any casualties, when a 15-mt wide and 5-mt deep sinkhole opened in a few hours at a road crossing, above the site of an old underground quarry

  13. Enabling Exploration of Deep Space: High Density Storage of Antimatter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Gerald A.; Kramer, Kevin J.

    1999-01-01

    Portable electromagnetic antiproton traps are now in a state of realization. This allows facilities like NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to conduct antimatter research remote to production sites. MSFC is currently developing a trap to store 10(exp 12) antiprotons for a twenty-day half-life period to be used in future experiments including antimatter plasma guns, antimatter-initiated microfusion, and the synthesis of antihydrogen for space propulsion applications. In 1998, issues including design, safety and transportation were considered for the MSFC High Performance Antimatter Trap (HiPAT). Radial diffusion and annihilation losses of antiprotons prompted the use of a 4 Tesla superconducting magnet and a 20 KV electrostatic potential at 10(exp -12) Torr pressure. Cryogenic fluids used to maintain a trap temperature of 4K were sized accordingly to provide twenty days of stand-alone storage time (half-life). Procurement of the superconducting magnet with associated cryostat has been completed. The inner, ultra-high vacuum system with electrode structures has been fabricated, tested and delivered to MSFC along with the magnet and cryostat. Assembly of these systems is currently in progress. Testing under high vacuum conditions, using electrons and hydrogen ions will follow in the months ahead.

  14. High-Pressure Orthorhombic Ferromagnesite as a Potential Deep-Mantle Carbon Carrier

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin; Lin, Jung-Fu; Prakapenka, Vitali B.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of candidate deep-carbon carriers such as ferromagnesite [(Mg,Fe)CO3] at high pressure and temperature of the deep mantle is necessary for our understanding of deep-carbon storage as well as the global carbon cycle of the planet. Previous studies have reported very different scenarios for the (Mg,Fe)CO3 system at deep-mantle conditions including the chemical dissociation to (Mg,Fe)O+CO2, the occurrence of the tetrahedrally-coordinated carbonates based on CO4 structural units, and various high-pressure phase transitions. Here we have studied the phase stability and compressional behavior of (Mg,Fe)CO3 carbonates up to relevant lower-mantle conditions of approximately 120 GPa and 2400 K. Our experimental results show that the rhombohedral siderite (Phase I) transforms to an orthorhombic phase (Phase II with Pmm2 space group) at approximately 50 GPa and 1400 K. The structural transition is likely driven by the spin transition of iron accompanied by a volume collapse in the Fe-rich (Mg,Fe)CO3 phases; the spin transition stabilizes the high-pressure phase II at much lower pressure conditions than its Mg-rich counterpart. It is conceivable that the low-spin ferromagnesite phase II becomes a major deep-carbon carrier at the deeper parts of the lower mantle below 1900 km in depth. PMID:25560542

  15. High-pressure orthorhombic ferromagnesite as a potential deep-mantle carbon carrier

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Jin; Lin, Jung -Fu; Prakapenka, Vitali B.

    2015-01-06

    In this study, knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of candidate deep-carbon carriers such as ferromagnesite [(Mg,Fe)CO3] at high pressure and temperature of the deep mantle is necessary for our understanding of deep-carbon storage as well as the global carbon cycle of the planet. Previous studies have reported very different scenarios for the (Mg,Fe)CO3 system at deep-mantle conditions including the chemical dissociation to (Mg,Fe)O+CO2, the occurrence of the tetrahedrally-coordinated carbonates based on CO4 structural units, and various high-pressure phase transitions. Here we have studied the phase stability and compressional behavior of (Mg,Fe)CO3 carbonates up to relevant lower-mantle conditions ofmore » approximately 120 GPa and 2400 K. Our experimental results show that the rhombohedral siderite (Phase I) transforms to an orthorhombic phase (Phase II with Pmm2 space group) at approximately 50 GPa and 1400 K. The structural transition is likely driven by the spin transition of iron accompanied by a volume collapse in the Fe-rich (Mg,Fe)CO3 phases; the spin transition stabilizes the high-pressure phase II at much lower pressure conditions than its Mg-rich counterpart. It is conceivable that the low-spin ferromagnesite phase II becomes a major deep-carbon carrier at the deeper parts of the lower mantle below 1900 km in depth.« less

  16. MODELING UNDERGROUND STRUCTURE VULNERABILITY IN JOINTED ROCK

    SciTech Connect

    R. SWIFT; D. STEEDMAN

    2001-02-01

    The vulnerability of underground structures and openings in deep jointed rock to ground shock attack is of chief concern to military planning and security. Damage and/or loss of stability to a structure in jointed rock, often manifested as brittle failure and accompanied with block movement, can depend significantly on jointed properties, such as spacing, orientation, strength, and block character. We apply a hybrid Discrete Element Method combined with the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics approach to simulate the MIGHTY NORTH event, a definitive high-explosive test performed on an aluminum lined cylindrical opening in jointed Salem limestone. Representing limestone with discrete elements having elastic-equivalence and explicit brittle tensile behavior and the liner as an elastic-plastic continuum provides good agreement with the experiment and damage obtained with finite-element simulations. Extending the approach to parameter variations shows damage is substantially altered by differences in joint geometry and liner properties.

  17. SUMMARY AND RESULTS LETTER REPORT – INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION OF THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR UNDERGROUND UTILITIES REMOVAL PROJECT, PHASE 3: TRENCHES 2, 3, AND 4 BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY UPTON, NEW YORK

    SciTech Connect

    E.M. Harpenau

    2010-11-15

    5098-LR-02-0 SUMMARY AND RESULTS LETTER REPORT – INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION OF THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR UNDERGROUND UTILITIES REMOVAL PROJECT, PHASE 3 TRENCHES 2, 3, AND 4 BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY

  18. Deep Space One High-Voltage Bus Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rachocki, Ken; Nieraeth, Donald

    1999-01-01

    The design of the High Voltage Power Converter Unit on DS1 allows both the spacecraft avionics and ion propulsion to operate in a stable manner near the PPP of the solar array. This approach relies on a fairly well-defined solar array model to determine the projected PPP. The solar array voltage set-points have to be updated every week to maintain operation near PPP. Stable operation even to the LEFT of the Peak Power Point is achievable so long as you do not change the operating power level of the ion engine. The next step for this technology is to investigate the use of onboard autonomy to determine the optimum SA voltage regulation set-point (i.e. near the PPP); this is for future missions that have one or more ion propulsion subsystems.

  19. The determination of maximum deep space station slew rates for a high Earth orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estefan, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    As developing national and international space ventures, which seek to employ NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) for tracking and data acquisition, evolve, it is essential for navigation and tracking system analysts to evaluate the operational capability of Deep Space Station antennas. To commission the DSN for use in tracking a highly eccentric Earth orbiter could quite possibly yield the greatest challenges in terms of slewing capability; certainly more so than with a deep-space probe. The focus here is on the determination of the maximum slew rates needed to track a specific high Earth orbiter, namely the Japanese MUSES-B spacecraft of the Very Long Baseline Interferometry Space Observatory Program. The results suggest that DSN 34-m antennas are capable of meeting the slew rate requirements for the nominal MUSES-B orbital geometries currently being considered.

  20. A Web-Based GIS for Reporting Water Usage in the High Plains Underground Water Conservation District

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, M.; Deeds, N.; Winckler, M.

    2012-12-01

    The High Plains Underground Water Conservation District (HPWD) is the largest and oldest of the Texas water conservation districts, and oversees approximately 1.7 million irrigated acres. Recent rule changes have motivated HPWD to develop a more automated system to allow owners and operators to report well locations, meter locations, meter readings, the association between meters and wells, and contiguous acres. INTERA, Inc. has developed a web-based interactive system for HPWD water users to report water usage and for the district to better manage its water resources. The HPWD web management system utilizes state-of-the-art GIS techniques, including cloud-based Amazon EC2 virtual machine, ArcGIS Server, ArcSDE and ArcGIS Viewer for Flex, to support web-based water use management. The system enables users to navigate to their area of interest using a well-established base-map and perform a variety of operations and inquiries against their spatial features. The application currently has six components: user privilege management, property management, water meter registration, area registration, meter-well association and water use report. The system is composed of two main databases: spatial database and non-spatial database. With the help of Adobe Flex application at the front end and ArcGIS Server as the middle-ware, the spatial feature geometry and attributes update will be reflected immediately in the back end. As a result, property owners, along with the HPWD staff, collaborate together to weave the fabric of the spatial database. Interactions between the spatial and non-spatial databases are established by Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) services to record water-use report, user-property associations, owner-area associations, as well as meter-well associations. Mobile capabilities will be enabled in the near future for field workers to collect data and synchronize them to the spatial database. The entire solution is built on a highly scalable cloud

  1. Strain engineered high reflectivity DBRs in the deep UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, A.; Hoffmann, M. P.; Hernandez-Balderrama, L.; Kaess, F.; Bryan, I.; Washiyama, S.; Bobea, M.; Tweedie, J.; Kirste, R.; Gerhold, M.; Collazo, R.; Sitar, Z.

    2016-02-01

    The maximum achievable reflectivity of current III-nitride Bragg reflectors in the UV-C spectral range is limited due to plastic relaxation of thick multilayer structures. Cracking due to a large mismatch of the thermal expansion and lattice constants between AlxGa1-xN/AlyGa1-yN alloys of different composition and the substrate at the heterointerface is the common failure mode. Strain engineering and strain relaxation concepts by the growth on a strain reduced Al0.85Ga0.15N template and the implementation of low temperature interlayers is demonstrated. A significant enhancement of the maximum reflectivity above 97% at a resonance wavelength of 270 nm due to an increase of the critical thickness of our AlN/Al0.65Ga0.35N DBRs to 1.45 μm (25.5 pairs) prove their potential. By comparing the growth of identical Bragg reflectors on different pseudo-templates, the accumulated mismatch strain energy in the DBR, not the dislocation density provided by the template/substrate, was identified to limit the critical thickness. To further enhance the reflectivity low temperature interlays were implemented into the DBR to partially relief the misfit strain. Relaxation is enabled by the nucleation of small surface domains facilitating misfit dislocation injection and glide. Detailed structural and optical investigations will be conducted to prove the influence of the LT-AlN interlayers on the strain state, structural integrity and reflectivity properties. Coherent growth and no structural and optical degradation of the Bragg mirror properties was observed proving the fully applicability of the relaxation concept to fabricate thick high reflectivity DBR and vertical cavity laser structures.

  2. An Evaluation of Seismic Decoupling and Underground Nuclear Test Monitoring Using High-Frequency Seismic Data (Paper 5R0913)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evernden, J. F.; Archambeau, C. B.; Cranswick, E.

    1986-05-01

    An effective solution to the problem of the detection and identification of low-yield coupled and fully decoupled underground nuclear explosions appears available via use of high-frequency seismic data ranging up to 30 or 40 Hz. In order to evaluate detection-identification capabilities when using such data, it is necessary to estimate (1) spectral characteristics and relative amplitudes of both P and S waves from explosions and earthquakes over the frequency band from 5 to 40 Hz, (2) signal transmission characteristics over this band through pertinent types of earth structure, and (3) recording system and ground noise characteristics over this frequency band. In this study, each of these topics is considered in turn as they relate to detection and discrimination of the signals from low-yield coupled and decoupled explosions in the regional and teleseismic distance ranges. Estimates of the capabilities of specific hypothetical networks to detect and identify (insofar as signal-to-noise ratio is an important factor in identification) explosions within the USSR are then considered. These estimates of signal detection capability provide the central focus for the study as they serve to translate diverse and rather complex sets of observational data and theory into concrete predictions of monitoring capability. Following the assessment of detection capabilities, the problem of identification of small events is considered, with particular emphasis on discrimination at regional distances where the network is calculated to provide signals of high signal-to-noise ratio. The principal results and conclusions of this study are as follows: (1) seismic system noise can be suppressed to levels well below ground noise at quiet sites up to frequencies at least as high as 30-40 Hz when using presently available hardware; (2) average amplitudes of high-frequency noise in a variety of geological environments are very low and change little with time or season; (3) transmission of high

  3. Critical assessment of seismic and geomechanics literature related to a high-level nuclear waste underground repository

    SciTech Connect

    Kana, D.D.; Vanzant, B.W.; Nair, P.K.; Brady, B.H.G.

    1991-06-01

    A comprehensive literature assessment has been conducted to determine the nature and scope of technical information available to characterize the seismic performance of an underground repository and associated facilities. Significant deficiencies were identified in current practices for prediction of seismic response of underground excavations in jointed rock. Conventional analytical methods are based on a continuum representation of the host rock mass. Field observations and laboratory experiments indicate that, in jointed rock, the behavior of the joints controls the overall performance of underground excavations. Further, under repetitive seismic loading, shear displacement develops progressively at block boundaries. Field observations correlating seismicity and groundwater conditions have provided significant information on hydrological response to seismic events. However, lack of a comprehensive model of geohydrological response to seismicity has limited the transportability conclusions from field observations. Based on the literature study, matters requiring further research in relation to the Yucca Mountain repository are identified. The report focuses on understanding seismic processes in fractured tuff, and provides a basis for work on the geohydrologic response of a seismically disturbed rock mass. 220 refs., 43 figs., 11 tabs.

  4. Underground Layout Configuration

    SciTech Connect

    A. Linden

    2003-09-25

    The purpose of this analysis was to develop an underground layout to support the license application (LA) design effort. In addition, the analysis will be used as the technical basis for the underground layout general arrangement drawings.

  5. Deep brain stimulation and development of a high-grade glioma: incidental or causal association?

    PubMed

    Mindermann, Thomas; Mendelowitsch, Aminadav

    2016-05-01

    We report the case of a patient in whom 8.8 years following the implantation of a bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) into the Vim, a high-grade glioma was diagnosed in close proximity to the two electrode leads. A possible relationship between the permanent DBS and the development of the brain tumour is discussed. PMID:26993141

  6. Distinctive Microbial Community Structure in Highly Stratified Deep-Sea Brine Water Columns

    PubMed Central

    Bougouffa, S.; Yang, J. K.; Lee, O. O.; Wang, Y.; Batang, Z.; Al-Suwailem, A.

    2013-01-01

    Atlantis II and Discovery are two hydrothermal and hypersaline deep-sea pools in the Red Sea rift that are characterized by strong thermohalo-stratification and temperatures steadily peaking near the bottom. We conducted comprehensive vertical profiling of the microbial populations in both pools and highlighted the influential environmental factors. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed shifts in community structures vis-à-vis depth. High diversity and low abundance were features of the deepest convective layers despite the low cell density. Surprisingly, the brine interfaces had significantly higher cell counts than the overlying deep-sea water, yet they were lowest in diversity. Vertical stratification of the bacterial populations was apparent as we moved from the Alphaproteobacteria-dominated deep sea to the Planctomycetaceae- or Deferribacteres-dominated interfaces to the Gammaproteobacteria-dominated brine layers. Archaeal marine group I was dominant in the deep-sea water and interfaces, while several euryarchaeotic groups increased in the brine. Across sites, microbial phylotypes and abundances varied substantially in the brine interface of Discovery compared with Atlantis II, despite the near-identical populations in the overlying deep-sea waters. The lowest convective layers harbored interestingly similar microbial communities, even though temperature and heavy metal concentrations were very different. Multivariate analysis indicated that temperature and salinity were the major influences shaping the communities. The harsh conditions and the low-abundance phylotypes could explain the observed correlation in the brine pools. PMID:23542623

  7. DEEP SPACE: High Resolution VR Platform for Multi-user Interactive Narratives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuka, Daniela; Elias, Oliver; Martins, Ronald; Lindinger, Christopher; Pramböck, Andreas; Jalsovec, Andreas; Maresch, Pascal; Hörtner, Horst; Brandl, Peter

    DEEP SPACE is a large-scale platform for interactive, stereoscopic and high resolution content. The spatial and the system design of DEEP SPACE are facing constraints of CAVETM-like systems in respect to multi-user interactive storytelling. To be used as research platform and as public exhibition space for many people, DEEP SPACE is capable to process interactive, stereoscopic applications on two projection walls with a size of 16 by 9 meters and a resolution of four times 1080p (4K) each. The processed applications are ranging from Virtual Reality (VR)-environments to 3D-movies to computationally intensive 2D-productions. In this paper, we are describing DEEP SPACE as an experimental VR platform for multi-user interactive storytelling. We are focusing on the system design relevant for the platform, including the integration of the Apple iPod Touch technology as VR control, and a special case study that is demonstrating the research efforts in the field of multi-user interactive storytelling. The described case study, entitled "Papyrate's Island", provides a prototypical scenario of how physical drawings may impact on digital narratives. In this special case, DEEP SPACE helps us to explore the hypothesis that drawing, a primordial human creative skill, gives us access to entirely new creative possibilities in the domain of interactive storytelling.

  8. Developing Underground Research at DUSEL: Lessons from Other Laboratories (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doe, T. W.

    2009-12-01

    The Deep Underground and Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) should provide a significant venue for advancing our understanding of groundwater processes in fractured, basement rocks. As the planning for experimentation goes forward, it is important to recognize that underground experimentation has been going through a true golden age stimulated mainly by radioactive waste research, but also by needs in contaminant transport and oil and gas exploration. A complete discussion of the advances of fractured-rock hydrogeology is beyond the scope a short presentation. One area of investigation that has some transfer value from other test facilities is the importance of pressure and flow monitoring in the development of new areas of underground space. Each borehole and underground opening has the potential for changing the flow system. Monitoring and measuring these changes is essential for developing hydrostructural models of the significant conductors and their properties. The employment of multipoint monitoring systems has shown that fractured rock masses may be highly compartmentalized. Results of block-scale experiments at the Kamaishi Mine in Japan and the Äspö hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden have demonstrate that there can be a significant level of isolation between conducting features based on pressure, flow, and geochemical responses. Similar compartmentalization effects are well documented at the USGS’s Mirror Lake facility and the Hungarian research site at Bátaapáti (Üveghuta). The DUSEL site at the Homestake Mine is not well-characterized, other than a recognition that it is largely a dry mine. That said, there has been evidence of large inflows at deep levels that may indicate a level of isolation of the mine from conducting features. The connectivity of the mine to the large flow system will be very important to understanding how mine operations have or have not influenced the hydrogeology of the surrounding rock masses, as some of the most

  9. New mechanism of ultra-deep drilling of solids by high-power lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashov, Sergey I.; Pakhomov, Andrew V.; Allen, Susan D.

    2005-04-01

    A new mechanism of ultra-deep drilling and related molten material expulsion during high-power short-pulse laser ablation of metals, semiconductors and dielectrics is proposed. In this mechanism ultra-deep (multi-micron) heat penetration and melting depths in these materials are assumed to result from their bulk absorption of thermal short-wavelength con-tinuous and characteristic radiation emitted by hot near-surface ablative laser plasmas. Multi-microsecond delays for expulsion of subsonic jets of micron-size droplets and for re-radiation of UV bursts from the irradiated targets are ex-plained by subsurface explosive boiling in bulk of the resulting ultra-deep melt pool.

  10. Searching for exotic particles in high-energy physics with deep learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, P.; Sadowski, P.; Whiteson, D.

    2014-07-01

    Collisions at high-energy particle colliders are a traditionally fruitful source of exotic particle discoveries. Finding these rare particles requires solving difficult signal-versus-background classification problems, hence machine-learning approaches are often used. Standard approaches have relied on ‘shallow’ machine-learning models that have a limited capacity to learn complex nonlinear functions of the inputs, and rely on a painstaking search through manually constructed nonlinear features. Progress on this problem has slowed, as a variety of techniques have shown equivalent performance. Recent advances in the field of deep learning make it possible to learn more complex functions and better discriminate between signal and background classes. Here, using benchmark data sets, we show that deep-learning methods need no manually constructed inputs and yet improve the classification metric by as much as 8% over the best current approaches. This demonstrates that deep-learning approaches can improve the power of collider searches for exotic particles.

  11. Vitrified underground structures

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Mark T.; Buelt, James L.; Stottlemyre, James A.; Tixier, Jr., John S.

    1992-01-01

    A method of making vitrified underground structures in which 1) the vitrification process is started underground, and 2) a thickness dimension is controlled to produce substantially planar vertical and horizontal vitrified underground structures. Structures may be placed around a contaminated waste site to isolate the site or may be used as aquifer dikes.

  12. Reference design and operations for deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Herrick, Courtney Grant; Brady, Patrick Vane; Pye, Steven; Arnold, Bill Walter; Finger, John Travis; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-10-01

    A reference design and operational procedures for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes have been developed and documented. The design and operations are feasible with currently available technology and meet existing safety and anticipated regulatory requirements. Objectives of the reference design include providing a baseline for more detailed technical analyses of system performance and serving as a basis for comparing design alternatives. Numerous factors suggest that deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is inherently safe. Several lines of evidence indicate that groundwater at depths of several kilometers in continental crystalline basement rocks has long residence times and low velocity. High salinity fluids have limited potential for vertical flow because of density stratification and prevent colloidal transport of radionuclides. Geochemically reducing conditions in the deep subsurface limit the solubility and enhance the retardation of key radionuclides. A non-technical advantage that the deep borehole concept may offer over a repository concept is that of facilitating incremental construction and loading at multiple perhaps regional locations. The disposal borehole would be drilled to a depth of 5,000 m using a telescoping design and would be logged and tested prior to waste emplacement. Waste canisters would be constructed of carbon steel, sealed by welds, and connected into canister strings with high-strength connections. Waste canister strings of about 200 m length would be emplaced in the lower 2,000 m of the fully cased borehole and be separated by bridge and cement plugs. Sealing of the upper part of the borehole would be done with a series of compacted bentonite seals, cement plugs, cement seals, cement plus crushed rock backfill, and bridge plugs. Elements of the reference design meet technical requirements defined in the study. Testing and operational safety assurance requirements are also defined. Overall

  13. Effect of strain rate on formability in warm deep drawing of high tensile strength steel sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshihara, Shoichiro; Iwamatsu, Go

    2014-10-01

    In tensile test of the high tensile strength steel, tensile strength isdrastically decreased as the temperature is raised. Then, the strain rate sensitivity exponent of high tensile strength steel (SUS631) in this study is high at 800 degrees especially. Also, elongation is increased as the temperature is raised. In deep drawing, the maximum punch load of the high tensile strength steel is examined on difference punch speed at 600 and 800 degrees. On the other hand, finite element (FE) simulation was used for the possibility to evaluate the forming load on difference punch speed in warm deep drawing. In FE simulation, we have considered both the strain hardening exponent and the strain rate sensitivity exponent (m-value) because we cannot neglect m-value 0.184 at 800 degrees. The tendency of the forming load in the experiments agrees the results in FE simulation.

  14. High-pressure orthorhombic ferromagnesite as a potential deep-mantle carbon carrier

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jin; Lin, Jung -Fu; Prakapenka, Vitali B.

    2015-01-06

    In this study, knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of candidate deep-carbon carriers such as ferromagnesite [(Mg,Fe)CO3] at high pressure and temperature of the deep mantle is necessary for our understanding of deep-carbon storage as well as the global carbon cycle of the planet. Previous studies have reported very different scenarios for the (Mg,Fe)CO3 system at deep-mantle conditions including the chemical dissociation to (Mg,Fe)O+CO2, the occurrence of the tetrahedrally-coordinated carbonates based on CO4 structural units, and various high-pressure phase transitions. Here we have studied the phase stability and compressional behavior of (Mg,Fe)CO3 carbonates up to relevant lower-mantle conditions of approximately 120 GPa and 2400 K. Our experimental results show that the rhombohedral siderite (Phase I) transforms to an orthorhombic phase (Phase II with Pmm2 space group) at approximately 50 GPa and 1400 K. The structural transition is likely driven by the spin transition of iron accompanied by a volume collapse in the Fe-rich (Mg,Fe)CO3 phases; the spin transition stabilizes the high-pressure phase II at much lower pressure conditions than its Mg-rich counterpart. It is conceivable that the low-spin ferromagnesite phase II becomes a major deep-carbon carrier at the deeper parts of the lower mantle below 1900 km in depth.

  15. Multinational underground nuclear parks

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, C.W.; Giraud, K.M.

    2013-07-01

    Newcomer countries expected to develop new nuclear power programs by 2030 are being encouraged by the International Atomic Energy Agency to explore the use of shared facilities for spent fuel storage and geologic disposal. Multinational underground nuclear parks (M-UNPs) are an option for sharing such facilities. Newcomer countries with suitable bedrock conditions could volunteer to host M-UNPs. M-UNPs would include back-end fuel cycle facilities, in open or closed fuel cycle configurations, with sufficient capacity to enable M-UNP host countries to provide for-fee waste management services to partner countries, and to manage waste from the M-UNP power reactors. M-UNP potential advantages include: the option for decades of spent fuel storage; fuel-cycle policy flexibility; increased proliferation resistance; high margin of physical security against attack; and high margin of containment capability in the event of beyond-design-basis accidents, thereby reducing the risk of Fukushima-like radiological contamination of surface lands. A hypothetical M-UNP in crystalline rock with facilities for small modular reactors, spent fuel storage, reprocessing, and geologic disposal is described using a room-and-pillar reference-design cavern. Underground construction cost is judged tractable through use of modern excavation technology and careful site selection. (authors)

  16. Microbial diversity and adaptation to high hydrostatic pressure in deep-sea hydrothermal vents prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Jebbar, Mohamed; Franzetti, Bruno; Girard, Eric; Oger, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Prokaryotes inhabiting in the deep sea vent ecosystem will thus experience harsh conditions of temperature, pH, salinity or high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) stress. Among the fifty-two piezophilic and piezotolerant prokaryotes isolated so far from different deep-sea environments, only fifteen (four Bacteria and eleven Archaea) that are true hyper/thermophiles and piezophiles have been isolated from deep-sea hydrothermal vents; these belong mainly to the Thermococcales order. Different strategies are used by microorganisms to thrive in deep-sea hydrothermal vents in which "extreme" physico-chemical conditions prevail and where non-adapted organisms cannot live, or even survive. HHP is known to impact the structure of several cellular components and functions, such as membrane fluidity, protein activity and structure. Physically the impact of pressure resembles a lowering of temperature, since it reinforces the structure of certain molecules, such as membrane lipids, and an increase in temperature, since it will also destabilize other structures, such as proteins. However, universal molecular signatures of HHP adaptation are not yet known and are still to be deciphered. PMID:26101015

  17. Origin of deep crystal reflections: seismic profiling across high-grade metamorphic terranes in Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, A.; Milkereit, B.; Percival, J.; Davidson, A.; Parrish, R.; Cook, F.; Geis, W.; Cannon, W.; Hutchinson, D.; West, G.; Clowes, R.

    1990-01-01

    In an attempt to better understand the origin of deep crustal reflections LITHOPROBE has sponsored or co-sponsored Seismic reflection surveys across tracts of high-grade metamorphic rock in the Archean Superior craton, the Proterozoic Grenville orogen and the Phanerozoic Cordilleran orogen. Common to these three diverse terranes are near-surface zones of prominent Seismic reflectivity that are typically associated with velocity discontinuities at highly strained contacts between gneissic rocks of varying lithology. At some locations the reflective layering resulted from transposition and rearrangement of previously layered rocks (stratified assemblages, sills, etc.), whereas in other regions it was generated by extreme attenuation, stretching and ductile flow of weakly layered or irregularly organized rocks. It seems likely that compositionally layered gneissic rock is a common source of reflections in the deep crust, with reflections originating at lithological boundaries and zones of mylonite. ?? 1990.

  18. Underground Architecture and Layout for the Belgian High-Level and Long-Lived Intermediate-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility- 12116

    SciTech Connect

    Van Cotthem, Alain; Van Humbeeck, Hughes

    2012-07-01

    The underground architecture and layout of the proposed Belgian high-level (HLW) and long-lived, intermediate-level radioactive wastes (ILW-LL) disposal system (repository) is mainly based on lessons learned during the development and 30-year-long operation of an underground research laboratory (URL) ('HADES') located adjacent to the city of Mol at a depth of 225 m in a 100-m-thick, Tertiary clay formation; the Boom clay. The following main operational and safety challenges are addressed in the proposed architecture and layout: 1. Following excavation, the underground openings needed to be promptly supported to minimize the extent of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ). 2. The size and unsupported stand-up time at tunnel crossings/intersections also needed to be minimized to minimize the extent of the related EDZ. 3. Steel components had to be minimized to limit the related long-term (post-closure) corrosion and hydrogen production. 4. The shafts and all equipment had to go down through a 180-m-thick aquifer and handle up to 65-Ton payloads. 5. The shaft seals had to be placed in the underlying clay layer. The currently proposed layout minimizes the excavated volume based on strict long-term-safety criteria and optimizes operational safety. Operational safety is further enhanced by a remote-controlled waste-package-handling system transporting the waste packages from their respective surface location down to their respective disposal location with no intermediate operation. The related on-site preparation and thenceforth use of cement-based, waste package- transportation containers are integral operational-safety components. In addition to strengthening the waste packages and providing radiation protection, these containers also provide long-term corrosion protection of the internal 'primary' steel packages. (authors)

  19. Underground technology benefits surface operations

    SciTech Connect

    Swaim, M.

    2008-09-15

    Sensitive ground fault relays (GFRs) on high voltage underground electrical equipment have been in used for a number of years to improve mine safety. Advanced GFRs do more than just interrupt fault current flow. They can also reveal linkages as they develop so ground faults are detected before they become critical. 3 figs.

  20. Threaded connection qualification procedures utilized for an ultra-deep, high-pressure gas well

    SciTech Connect

    Minge, J.C.; Pejac, R.D.; Asbill, W.T.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the premium connection qualification program used to qualify three different connections for the production tubular strings used in an ultra-deep, high pressure gas well. A total of eight connection types were tested during the program. Four connections failed to meet the program's acceptance criteria. Full-scale test procedures and the data acquisition system used to collect, store, reduce, and plot strain gauge data while testing are discussed.

  1. Research of narrow pulse width, high repetition rate, high output power fiber lasers for deep space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yan-feng; Li, Hong-zuo; Wang, Yan; Hao, Zi-qiang; Xiao, Dong-Ya

    2013-08-01

    As human beings expand the research in unknown areas constantly, the deep space exploration has become a hot research topic all over the world. According to the long distance and large amount of information transmission characteristics of deep space exploration, the space laser communication is the preferred mode because it has the advantages of concentrated energy, good security, and large information capacity and interference immunity. In a variety of laser source, fibre-optical pulse laser has become an important communication source in deep space laser communication system because of its small size, light weight and large power. For fiber lasers, to solve the contradiction between the high repetition rate and the peak value power is an important scientific problem. General Q technology is difficult to obtain a shorter pulse widths, This paper presents a DFB semiconductor laser integrated with Electro-absorption modulator to realize the narrow pulse width, high repetition rate of the seed source, and then using a two-cascaded high gain fiber amplifier as amplification mean, to realize the fibre-optical pulse laser with pulse width 3ns, pulse frequency 200kHz and peak power 1kW. According to the space laser atmospheric transmission window, the wavelength selects for 1.06um. It is adopted that full fibre technology to make seed source and amplification, pumping source and amplification of free-space coupled into fiber-coupled way. It can overcome that fibre lasers are vulnerable to changes in external conditions such as vibration, temperature drift and other factors affect, improving long-term stability. The fiber lasers can be modulated by PPM mode, to realize high rate modulation, because of its peak power, high transmission rate, narrow pulse width, high frequency stability, all technical indexes meet the requirements of the exploration of deep space communication technology.

  2. High-performance deep ultraviolet photodetectors based on ZnO quantum dot assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xiaoyong; Xu, Chunxiang E-mail: jghu@yzu.edu.cn; Hu, Jingguo E-mail: jghu@yzu.edu.cn

    2014-09-14

    A high-performance ZnO quantum dots (QDs)-based ultraviolet (UV) photodetector has been successfully fabricated via the self-assembly of QDs on the Au interdigital electrode. The broadened band gap in ZnO QDs makes the device has the highly selective response for the deep UV detection. The unique QD-QD junction barriers similar to back-to-back Schottky barriers dominate the conductance of the QD network and the UV light-induced barrier-height modulation plays a crucial role in enhancing the photoresponsivity and the response speed. Typically, the as-fabricated device exhibits the fast response and recovery times of within 1 s, the deep UV selectivity of less than 340 nm, and the stable repeatability with on/off current ratio over 10³, photoresponsivity of 5.04×10²A/W, and photocurrent gain of 1.9×10³, demonstrating that the ZnO QD network is a superior building block for deep UV photodetectors.

  3. High-flow priapism and glans hypervascularization following deep dorsal vein arterialization for vasculogenic impotence.

    PubMed

    Wolf, J S; Lue, T F

    1992-01-01

    Microsurgical penile revascularization is becoming an increasingly applied technique in patients with arteriogenic or mixed arteriogenic and venogenic impotence. Deep dorsal vein arterialization has been used successfully in selected patients. Aside from failure of the procedure and the occasional problems associated with vascular surgery, priapism and glans hypervascularization are specific complications of deep dorsal vein arterialization. Priapism in these cases is 'high-flow'; the functional arterial-cavernous fistula can overcome the maintenance of the flaccid state and cause persistent erection. Glans hypervascularization, a syndrome of glans enlargement, skin changes and pain secondary to excessive retrograde filling of the glans penis and corpus spongiosum, can result in urethral compression and glans ulceration. Along with the presentation of the case of a man who suffered both complications, we discuss their pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment. PMID:1475866

  4. Assessment of groundwater quality impacts due to use of coal combustion byproducts to control subsidence from underground mines.

    PubMed

    Singh, G; Paul, B C

    2001-06-01

    Coal combustion byproducts are to be placed in an underground coal mine to control subsidence. The materials were characterized to determine potential groundwater impacts. No problems were found with respect to heavy or toxic metals. Coal combustion byproduct leachates are high in dissolved solids and sulfates. Chloride and boron from fly ash may also leach in initially high concentrations. Because the demonstration site is located beneath deep tight brine-bearing aquifers, no problems are anticipated at the demonstration site. PMID:11485225

  5. A high-density wireless underground sensor network (WUSN) to quantify hydro-ecological interactions for a UK floodplain; project background and initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhoef, A.; Choudhary, B.; Morris, P. J.; McCann, J.

    2012-04-01

    Floodplain meadows support some of the most diverse vegetation in the UK, and also perform key ecosystem services, such as flood storage and sediment retention. However, the UK now has less than 1500 ha of this unique habitat remaining. In order to conserve and better exploit the services provided by this grassland, an improved understanding of its functioning is essential. Vegetation functioning and species composition are known to be tightly correlated to the hydrological regime, and related temperature and nutrient regime, but the mechanisms controlling these relationships are not well established. The FUSE* project aims to investigate the spatiotemporal variability in vegetation functioning (e.g. photosynthesis and transpiration) and plant community composition in a floodplain meadow near Oxford, UK (Yarnton Mead), and their relationship to key soil physical variables (soil temperature and moisture content), soil nutrient levels and the water- and energy-balance. A distributed high density Wireless Underground Sensor Network (WUSN) is in the process of being established on Yarnton Mead. The majority, or ideally all, of the sensing and transmitting components will be installed below-ground because Yarnton Mead is a SSSI (Site of Special Scientific Interest, due to its unique plant community) and because occasionally sheep or cattle are grazing on it, and that could damage the nodes. This prerequisite has implications for the maximum spacing between UG nodes and their communications technologies; in terms of signal strength, path losses and requirements for battery life. The success of underground wireless communication is highly dependent on the soil type and water content. This floodplain environment is particularly challenging in this context because the soil contains a large amount of clay near the surface and is therefore less favourable to EM wave propagation than sandy soils. Furthermore, due to high relative saturation levels (as a result of high

  6. Trends in underground mining

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-11-01

    This article presents some of the recent equipments developments in underground mining. Recent improvements in the transmission and braking systems of electric load-haul-dumpers are increasing cycle times and lowering maintenance costs. Torque produced by electric motors increases in response to load. This results in very high stall torque and fast cycling machines. Some of the other features becoming available include: improved switch-gear and adjustable solid-state overload relays, the new motor across the line starter device has vacuum contactors, power factor correction capacitors, a DC operating coil to eliminate contact chatter at low voltage, remote radio control of LHDs in mine areas, water-cooled and air cooled engines and hydraulic braking systems. The advantages of hydraulic drifters and roof bolters are presented.

  7. High-speed rupture during the initiation of the 2015 Bonin Islands deep earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Z.; Ye, L.; Shearer, P. M.; Lay, T.; Kanamori, H.

    2015-12-01

    Among the long-standing questions on how deep earthquakes rupture, the nucleation phase of large deep events is one of the most puzzling parts. Resolving the rupture properties of the initiation phase is difficult to achieve with far-field data because of the need for accurate corrections for structural effects on the waveforms (e.g., attenuation, scattering, and site effects) and alignment errors. Here, taking the 2015 Mw 7.9 Bonin Islands earthquake (depth = 678 km) as an example, we jointly invert its far-field P waves at multiple stations for the average rupture speed during the first second of the event. We use waveforms from a closely located aftershock as empirical Green's functions, and correct for possible differences in focal mechanisms and waveform misalignments with an iterative approach. We find that the average initial rupture speed is over 5 km/s, significantly higher than the average rupture speed of 3 km/s later in the event. This contrast suggests that rupture speeds of deep earthquakes can be highly variable during individual events and may define different stages of rupture, potentially with different mechanisms.

  8. Highly Survivable Avionics Systems for Long-Term Deep Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkalai, L.; Chau, S.; Tai, A. T.

    2001-01-01

    The design of highly survivable avionics systems for long-term (> 10 years) exploration of space is an essential technology for all current and future missions in the Outer Planets roadmap. Long-term exposure to extreme environmental conditions such as high radiation and low-temperatures make survivability in space a major challenge. Moreover, current and future missions are increasingly using commercial technology such as deep sub-micron (0.25 microns) fabrication processes with specialized circuit designs, commercial interfaces, processors, memory, and other commercial off the shelf components that were not designed for long-term survivability in space. Therefore, the design of highly reliable, and available systems for the exploration of Europa, Pluto and other destinations in deep-space require a comprehensive and fresh approach to this problem. This paper summarizes work in progress in three different areas: a framework for the design of highly reliable and highly available space avionics systems, distributed reliable computing architecture, and Guarded Software Upgrading (GSU) techniques for software upgrading during long-term missions. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. Unusually high food availability in Kaikoura Canyon linked to distinct deep-sea nematode community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leduc, D.; Rowden, A. A.; Nodder, S. D.; Berkenbusch, K.; Probert, P. K.; Hadfield, M. G.

    2014-06-01

    Kaikoura Canyon, on the eastern New Zealand continental margin, is the most productive, non-chemosynthetic deep-sea habitat described to date, with megafaunal biomass 100-fold higher than those of other deep-sea habitats. The present study, which focused on free-living nematodes, provides the first comparison of faunal community structure and diversity between Kaikoura Canyon and nearby open slope habitats. Results show substantially higher food availability in the canyon relative to open slope sediments, which probably reflects greater levels of primary productivity above the canyon, coupled with downwelling and/or topographically-induced channelling, which serves to concentrate surface-derived organic matter along the canyon axis. This high food availability appears to be responsible for the elevated nematode biomass in Kaikoura Canyon, with values exceeding all published nematode biomass data from canyons elsewhere. There was also markedly lower local species diversity of nematodes inside the canyon relative to the open slope habitat, as well as a distinct community structure. The canyon community was dominated by species, such as Sabateria pulchra, which were absent from the open slope and are typically associated with highly eutrophic and/or disturbed environments. The presence of these taxa, as well as the low observed diversity, is likely to reflect the high food availability, and potentially the high levels of physically and biologically induced disturbance within the canyon. Kaikoura Canyon is a relatively small habitat characterised by different environmental conditions that makes a disproportionate contribution to deep-sea diversity in the region, despite its low species richness.

  10. Experimental Investigation on the Influence of High Pressure and High Temperature on the Mechanical Properties of Deep Reservoir Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Mishra, Brijes; Heasley, Keith A.

    2015-11-01

    Deep and ultra-deep resources extraction has resulted in the challenge of drilling into high-pressure, high-temperature (HPHT) environments. Drilling challenges at such extreme conditions prompted NETL to develop a specialized ultra-deep drilling simulator (UDS) for investigating drill behavior in such conditions. Using the UDS apparatus, complex laboratory tests were performed on Carthage marble (Warsaw limestone) and Crab Orchard sandstone, which represent the rocks in the basins of the Tuscaloosa trend in southern Louisiana and the Arbuckle play in Oklahoma and North Texas. Additionally, numerical models of the UDS were developed for performing parametric analyses that would be impossible with the UDS alone. Subsequently, it was found that the input properties for these two rock types at such extreme pressure and temperature conditions were unavailable. Therefore, a suite of unconfined compressive strength, indirect tensile strength, and triaxial compression tests ( σ 1 > σ 2 = σ 3) were performed on Carthage marble and Crab Orchard sandstone for investigating their behavior in HPHT environments. The HPHT experiments were performed at confining pressures ranging from atmospheric to 200 MPa, and with temperatures ranging from 25 to 180 °C. The influences of confining pressure and temperature on the mechanical properties of two rocks were investigated.

  11. HAWAII UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a point coverage of underground storage tanks(UST) for the state of Hawaii. The original database was developed and is maintained by the State of Hawaii, Dept. of Health. The point locations represent facilities where one or more underground storage tanks occur. Each fa...

  12. Felsenkeller shallow-underground accelerator laboratory for nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemmerer, D.; Cowan, T. E.; Gohl, S.; Ilgner, C.; Junghans, A. R.; Reinhardt, T. P.; Rimarzig, B.; Reinicke, S.; Röder, M.; Schmidt, K.; Schwengner, R.; Stöckel, K.; Szücs, T.; Takács, M.; Wagner, A.; Wagner, L.; Zuber, K.

    2015-05-01

    Favored by the low background in underground laboratories, low-background accelerator-based experiments are an important tool to study nuclear reactions involving stable charged particles. This technique has been used for many years with great success at the 0.4 MV LUNA accelerator in the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, proteced from cosmic rays by 1400 m of rock. However, the nuclear reactions of helium and carbon burning and the neutron source reactions for the astrophysical s-process require higher beam energies than those available at LUNA. Also the study of solar fusion reactions necessitates new data at higher energies. As a result, in the present NuPECC long range plan for nuclear physics in Europe, the installation of one or more higher-energy underground accelerators is strongly recommended. An intercomparison exercise has been carried out using the same HPGe detector in a typical nuclear astrophysics setup at several sites, including the Dresden Felsenkeller underground laboratory. It was found that its rock overburden of 45m rock, together with an active veto against the remaining muon flux, reduces the background to a level that is similar to the deep underground scenario. Based on this finding, a used 5 MV pelletron tandem with 250 μA upcharge current and external sputter ion source has been obtained and transported to Dresden. Work on an additional radio-frequency ion source on the high voltage terminal is underway. The project is now fully funded. The installation of the accelerator in the Felsenkeller is expected for the near future. The status of the project and the planned access possibilities for external users will be reported.

  13. Rigid biodegradable photopolymer structures of high resolution using deep-UV laser photocuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandi, F.; Anjum, F.; Ceseracciu, L.; Barone, A. C.; Athanassiou, A.

    2011-05-01

    Recently there has been increasing effort in using microstereolithography to produce scaffolds of crosslinkable and biodegradable polymers, with desired configurations of high spatial resolution, able to regulate the growth and distribution of cells and consequently the tissue development and engineering on them. The use of deep-UV radiation allows high resolution both in the transversal plane (optical resolution) and in the vertical direction (curing depth) due to the intrinsic large absorption of polymers in this region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Herein we present high-resolution photocrosslinking of the biodegradable poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) and diethyl fumarate (DEF), using pulsed laser light at 248 nm. The curing depth can be modulated between a few hundreds of nanometers (nm) and a few micrometers (µm) by adjusting the energy dose, the number of incident pulses and the weight ratios of PPF, DEF and photoinitiator in the photocrosslinkable mixtures. The lateral resolution is evaluated by projecting a pattern of a grid with a specified line width and line spacing, and is found to be a few µm. Young's modulus of the cured parts is measured and found to be several GPa, high enough to support bone formation. The results presented here demonstrate that the proposed technique is suitable for the fabrication of stiff and biocompatible structures with defined patterns of micrometer resolution in all three spatial dimensions, setting the first step toward deep-UV laser microstereolithography.

  14. Cryogenic, low-noise high electron mobility transistor amplifiers for the Deep Space Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bautista, J. J.

    1993-11-01

    The rapid advances recently achieved by cryogenically cooled high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) low-noise amplifiers (LNA's) in the 1- to 10-GHz range are making them extremely competitive with maser amplifiers. In order to address future spacecraft navigation, telemetry, radar, and radio science needs, the Deep Space Network is investing both maser and HEMT amplifiers for its Ka-band (32-GHz) downlink capability. This article describes the current state cryogenic HEMT LNA development at Ka-band for the DSN. Noise performance results at S-band (2.3 GHz) and X-band (8.5 GHz) for HEMT's and masers are included for completeness.

  15. High-resolution imaging of the Okinawa Trough deep-tow sonar WADATSUMI exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okino, K.; Tokuyama, H.; Takeuchi, A.; Sibuet, J. C.; Lee, C. S.

    2003-04-01

    High-resolution deep-tow side scan sonar data collected in the Okinawa Trough reveal details of the volcanic and tectonic features occurring along an active backarc rift zone, including an active hydrothermal vent site. Our new system, the deep-tow vector sidescan sonar WADATSUMI, is a 100 kHz system, which provides not only high-resolution backscattering images but also phase bathymetry. The system also includes a 3-6 kHz chirp sonar to investigate sub-bottom structure. The swath width for this survey is 1 km for a towing altitude of 100 to 350 m. The pixel size of the collected images is 50 cm. The towfish positioning is based on the ISBL (inverted short baseline) system, in which the signal transmitted from the ship is received at the towfish and all information is sent to the onboard control unit using co-axial cable. Four MAPRs (Miniature Autonomous Plume Recorder / provided by NOAA) were also equipped on the deep-tow system to detect hydrothermal activity using its thermometer and nephelometer. The Okinawa Trough, located between Japan and Taiwan, is an incipient backarc basin formed by extension within continental lithosphere behind the Ryukyu trench-arc system. The continuous formation of new oceanic crust has not yet occurred, however, crustal thinning and rifting is ongoing and many normal faults have developed. The southwestern part of the trough is most active and contains many interesting features, such as numerous volcanoes crossing the rift zone, high heat flow, and active hydrothermal site. The WADATSUMI images revealed the detailed volcanic and tectonic structure of the axial rift and a hydrothermal site. In the western area seafloor is dominated by volcanic construction, including hummocks, sheet flows, and blocky lava terrains. Small volcanic cones with crater pits are aligned along an E-W direction, which may constitute an elongated volcanic ridge within the graben. On the other hand, the eastern part of the survey area is a sedimented, deep

  16. Cryogenic, low-noise high electron mobility transistor amplifiers for the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bautista, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    The rapid advances recently achieved by cryogenically cooled high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) low-noise amplifiers (LNA's) in the 1- to 10-GHz range are making them extremely competitive with maser amplifiers. In order to address future spacecraft navigation, telemetry, radar, and radio science needs, the Deep Space Network is investing both maser and HEMT amplifiers for its Ka-band (32-GHz) downlink capability. This article describes the current state cryogenic HEMT LNA development at Ka-band for the DSN. Noise performance results at S-band (2.3 GHz) and X-band (8.5 GHz) for HEMT's and masers are included for completeness.

  17. Deep-Subwavelength-Scale Directional Sensing Based on Highly Localized Dipolar Mie Resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xuefeng; Liang, Bin; Kan, Weiwei; Peng, Yugui; Cheng, Jianchun

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports the formation of highly localized Mie resonances on a closed metasurface encapsulating a rigid core and the realization of directional sensing at deep-subwavelength scale (diameter ˜λ /8 ) with the proposed physical model. Based on modal-expansion and mode-matching methods, it is theoretically shown that the extremely anisotropic metasurface shell can support varied orders of Mie resonances around the rigid core. We further experimentally demonstrate that the Mie resonance with a dipolelike profile is strongly excited under the illumination of a plane wave at low frequencies, enabling the sensitive directional sensing due to the intensified and azimuthally dependent pressure field.

  18. High-resolution deep-tissue optical imaging using anti-Stokes phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, A. P.; Karmenyan, A. V.; Bykov, A. V.; Khaydukov, E. V.; Nechaev, A. V.; Bibikova, O. A.; Panchenko, V. Y.; Semchishen, V. A.; Seminogov, V. N.; Akhmanov, A. S.; Sokolov, V. I.; Kinnunen, M. T.; Tuchin, V. V.; Zvyagin, A. V.

    2013-06-01

    We report on the high-resolution deep-tissue imaging using novel water-dispersible upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) β-NaYF4:Yb3+:Tm3+. Luminescence from the UCNP embedded into tissue-mimicking phantoms at the depth of 4 mm epi-illuminated with 975-nm laser radiation was detected. Fiber-optic detection shows 2-times better resolution compared with that obtained using CCD-based imaging modality. The conversion efficiency of upconversion particles and their cytotoxicity to HeLa cells were also investigated and reported.

  19. Funding for NSF underground laboratory is rejected

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, David

    2011-02-15

    The Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL), which proponents hope could provide a niche for the US particle-physics community, faces a shutdown as early as 1 April; the National Science Board (NSB) has rejected $19 million in funding needed to keep the project going through the fall of this year. The lab is housed in a disused gold mine in South Dakota's Black Hills.

  20. Deep Seismic Researches Of Seismic-Active Zones With Use Of High-Power Vibrators - Technique, Outcomes, Outlooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloviev, V.; Seleznev, V.; Emanov, A.; Sal`Nikov, A.; Kashun, V.; Glinsky, B.; Kovalevsky, V.; Zhemchugova, I.; Danilov, I.; Liseikin, A.

    2004-12-01

    There are presented the materials of deep vibroseism researches, carried out in seismic active regions of Siberia with use of stationary (100-tos power) and moveable vibration sources (40-60tons power) and mobile digital recording equipment. There are given some examples of unique, have no world analogues, correlograms from high-power vibrators on distances to 400km and more. Using new vibroseismic technology of deep seismic researches, there were got detail deep sections of the Earth's crust and upper mantle, including time-sections of CDP-DSS up to depth of 80km. Materials of vibroseismic investigations on 2500km of seismic profiles in hard-to-reach regions of the Altay-Sayan region, the Baikal rift zone and Okhotsko-Chukotski regions are evidence of high cost efficiency, ecological safety, possibility to be realized in hard-to-reach region and finally of availability of deep seismic investigations with use of high-power vibration sources.

  1. High-density support matrices: Key to the deep borehole disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibb, F. G. F.; McTaggart, N. A.; Travis, K. P.; Burley, D.; Hesketh, K. W.

    2008-03-01

    Deep (4-5 km) boreholes are emerging as a safe, secure, environmentally sound and potentially cost-effective option for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, including plutonium. One reason this option has not been widely accepted for spent fuel is because stacking the containers in a borehole could create load stresses threatening their integrity with potential for releasing highly mobile radionuclides like 129I before the borehole is filled and sealed. This problem can be overcome by using novel high-density support matrices deployed as fine metal shot along with the containers. Temperature distributions in and around the disposal are modelled to show how decay heat from the fuel can melt the shot within weeks of disposal to give a dense liquid in which the containers are almost weightless. Finally, within a few decades, this liquid will cool and solidify, entombing the waste containers in a base metal sarcophagus sealed into the host rock.

  2. miRBase: annotating high confidence microRNAs using deep sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Kozomara, Ana; Griffiths-Jones, Sam

    2014-01-01

    We describe an update of the miRBase database (http://www.mirbase.org/), the primary microRNA sequence repository. The latest miRBase release (v20, June 2013) contains 24 521 microRNA loci from 206 species, processed to produce 30 424 mature microRNA products. The rate of deposition of novel microRNAs and the number of researchers involved in their discovery continue to increase, driven largely by small RNA deep sequencing experiments. In the face of these increases, and a range of microRNA annotation methods and criteria, maintaining the quality of the microRNA sequence data set is a significant challenge. Here, we describe recent developments of the miRBase database to address this issue. In particular, we describe the collation and use of deep sequencing data sets to assign levels of confidence to miRBase entries. We now provide a high confidence subset of miRBase entries, based on the pattern of mapped reads. The high confidence microRNA data set is available alongside the complete microRNA collection at http://www.mirbase.org/. We also describe embedding microRNA-specific Wikipedia pages on the miRBase website to encourage the microRNA community to contribute and share textual and functional information. PMID:24275495

  3. Toward mineralogical interpretation of LLVSP: High-P,T elasticity of deep mantle materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, J.; Tsuchiya, T.

    2010-12-01

    Seismological studies have clarified that although most part of the lower mantle is fairly homogeneous, substantial heterogeneities exist at the bottom a few hundred km. They, in particular low-velocity anomalies observed beneath central-Pacific and Africa often called large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVP), attract great interest, since clarification of their nature is a key to understanding of chemical and dynamical properties of the Earth's mantle. Although they would be produced associated with temperature and/or compositional heterogeneities, details are still largely unknown. Elastic property of possible mantle constituents is one of the most important properties to clarify this issue. So many studies on the high-P,T elasticity of minerals have been performed to date. However, those are still limited for some major phases in the lowermost mantle condition, such as Mg-perovskite, post-perovskite, periclase, and Ca-perovskite. We therefore performed new ab initio simulations on the high-P,T elasticity of some other phases, which are expected not to be abundant in the average silicate mantle but to be substantial when considering differentiated materials. We will discuss possible compositional heterogeneity by constructing mineralogical models of the deep mantle based on the obtained elasticity. Research supported by JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grants 20001005 and 21740379 and the Ehime Univ G-COE program "Deep Earth Mineralogy".

  4. High-Content Analysis of Breast Cancer Using Single-Cell Deep Transfer Learning.

    PubMed

    Kandaswamy, Chetak; Silva, Luís M; Alexandre, Luís A; Santos, Jorge M

    2016-03-01

    High-content analysis has revolutionized cancer drug discovery by identifying substances that alter the phenotype of a cell, which prevents tumor growth and metastasis. The high-resolution biofluorescence images from assays allow precise quantitative measures enabling the distinction of small molecules of a host cell from a tumor. In this work, we are particularly interested in the application of deep neural networks (DNNs), a cutting-edge machine learning method, to the classification of compounds in chemical mechanisms of action (MOAs). Compound classification has been performed using image-based profiling methods sometimes combined with feature reduction methods such as principal component analysis or factor analysis. In this article, we map the input features of each cell to a particular MOA class without using any treatment-level profiles or feature reduction methods. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of DNN in this domain, leveraging single-cell information. Furthermore, we use deep transfer learning (DTL) to alleviate the intensive and computational demanding effort of searching the huge parameter's space of a DNN. Results show that using this approach, we obtain a 30% speedup and a 2% accuracy improvement. PMID:26746583

  5. miRBase: annotating high confidence microRNAs using deep sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Kozomara, Ana; Griffiths-Jones, Sam

    2014-01-01

    We describe an update of the miRBase database (http://www.mirbase.org/), the primary microRNA sequence repository. The latest miRBase release (v20, June 2013) contains 24 521 microRNA loci from 206 species, processed to produce 30 424 mature microRNA products. The rate of deposition of novel microRNAs and the number of researchers involved in their discovery continue to increase, driven largely by small RNA deep sequencing experiments. In the face of these increases, and a range of microRNA annotation methods and criteria, maintaining the quality of the microRNA sequence data set is a significant challenge. Here, we describe recent developments of the miRBase database to address this issue. In particular, we describe the collation and use of deep sequencing data sets to assign levels of confidence to miRBase entries. We now provide a high confidence subset of miRBase entries, based on the pattern of mapped reads. The high confidence microRNA data set is available alongside the complete microRNA collection at http://www.mirbase.org/. We also describe embedding microRNA-specific Wikipedia pages on the miRBase website to encourage the microRNA community to contribute and share textual and functional information. PMID:24275495

  6. High Resolution Images of the Granitic Plutons Along the Iberseis Deep Seismic Reflection Transect: Southwestern Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palomeras, I.; Flecha, I.; Simacas, F.; Gonzalez-Lodeiro, F.; Carbonell, R.

    2006-12-01

    IBERSEIS is a 303 Km long deep seismic profile in the S-W of Iberian Peninsula. The parameters used for the acquisition allow for a high resolution imaging of the shallow subsurface. The deep seismic transect goes across several characteristic granitic plutons. Detailed imaging of these outcropping granites and the neighboring geologic structures has been attempted. The trace of the profile followed roads and paths, resulting in a irregular acquisition geometry. The quality of the final image is improved considerably by using crooked line techniques which took into account the irregular distribution of sources and receivers. The rugged topography which can reach more than 300 m height and the highly heterogeneous surface geology required carefully estimated static corrections. Reliable shallow velocity models were obtained by first arrival travel time tomographic inversions. These velocity models were also used for pre-stack depth migration imaging. The reprocessing improved the seismic reflection images allowing for a better geological interpretation and, in some cases, provide a direct correlation between the surface geology and the imaged features. The imaged structures suggest possible emplacement mechanisms.

  7. Depleted Argon from Underground Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Back, H. O.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; Loer, B.; Montanari, D.; Mosteiro, P.; Alexander, T.; Alton, A.; Rogers, H.; Kendziora, C.; Pordes, S.

    2011-04-27

    Argon is a strong scintillator and an ideal target for Dark Matter detection; however {sup 39}Ar contamination in atmospheric argon from cosmic ray interactions limits the size of liquid argon dark matter detectors due to pile-up. Argon from deep underground is depleted in {sup 39}Ar due to the cosmic ray shielding of the earth. In Cortez, Colorado, a CO{sub 2} well has been discovered to contain approximately 600 ppm of argon as a contamination in the CO{sub 2}. We first concentrate the argon locally to 3% in an Ar, N{sub 2}, and He mixture, from the CO{sub 2} through chromatographic gas separation, and then the N{sub 2} and He will be removed by continuous distillation to purify the argon. We have collected 26 kg of argon from the CO{sub 2} facility and a cryogenic distillation column is under construction at Fermilab to further purify the argon.

  8. New technique for underground homes

    SciTech Connect

    Langa, F.S.

    1983-09-01

    The world's first underground geodesic dome was built in Missoula, Montana. This innovation, which uses an insulation umbrella constructed of interleaved plastic sheeting and polystyrene insulation, holds heat, sheds water, and costs about 35% less than installed cost of a high-tech elastomeric system applied over an equivalent amount of foam insulation. By day and during summer, the earth bubble surrounding the dome is charged with free ambient warmth. By night and during winter, the stored heat returns to warm the house.

  9. Scalable High Performance Image Registration Framework by Unsupervised Deep Feature Representations Learning

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guorong; Kim, Minjeong; Wang, Qian; Munsell, Brent C.

    2015-01-01

    Feature selection is a critical step in deformable image registration. In particular, selecting the most discriminative features that accurately and concisely describe complex morphological patterns in image patches improves correspondence detection, which in turn improves image registration accuracy. Furthermore, since more and more imaging modalities are being invented to better identify morphological changes in medical imaging data,, the development of deformable image registration method that scales well to new image modalities or new image applications with little to no human intervention would have a significant impact on the medical image analysis community. To address these concerns, a learning-based image registration framework is proposed that uses deep learning to discover compact and highly discriminative features upon observed imaging data. Specifically, the proposed feature selection method uses a convolutional stacked auto-encoder to identify intrinsic deep feature representations in image patches. Since deep learning is an unsupervised learning method, no ground truth label knowledge is required. This makes the proposed feature selection method more flexible to new imaging modalities since feature representations can be directly learned from the observed imaging data in a very short amount of time. Using the LONI and ADNI imaging datasets, image registration performance was compared to two existing state-of-the-art deformable image registration methods that use handcrafted features. To demonstrate the scalability of the proposed image registration framework image registration experiments were conducted on 7.0-tesla brain MR images. In all experiments, the results showed the new image registration framework consistently demonstrated more accurate registration results when compared to state-of-the-art. PMID:26552069

  10. Scalable High-Performance Image Registration Framework by Unsupervised Deep Feature Representations Learning.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guorong; Kim, Minjeong; Wang, Qian; Munsell, Brent C; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-07-01

    Feature selection is a critical step in deformable image registration. In particular, selecting the most discriminative features that accurately and concisely describe complex morphological patterns in image patches improves correspondence detection, which in turn improves image registration accuracy. Furthermore, since more and more imaging modalities are being invented to better identify morphological changes in medical imaging data, the development of deformable image registration method that scales well to new image modalities or new image applications with little to no human intervention would have a significant impact on the medical image analysis community. To address these concerns, a learning-based image registration framework is proposed that uses deep learning to discover compact and highly discriminative features upon observed imaging data. Specifically, the proposed feature selection method uses a convolutional stacked autoencoder to identify intrinsic deep feature representations in image patches. Since deep learning is an unsupervised learning method, no ground truth label knowledge is required. This makes the proposed feature selection method more flexible to new imaging modalities since feature representations can be directly learned from the observed imaging data in a very short amount of time. Using the LONI and ADNI imaging datasets, image registration performance was compared to two existing state-of-the-art deformable image registration methods that use handcrafted features. To demonstrate the scalability of the proposed image registration framework, image registration experiments were conducted on 7.0-T brain MR images. In all experiments, the results showed that the new image registration framework consistently demonstrated more accurate registration results when compared to state of the art. PMID:26552069

  11. Very High Resolution Mapping of Tree Cover Using Scalable Deep Learning Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ganguly, sangram; basu, saikat; nemani, ramakrishna; mukhopadhyay, supratik; michaelis, andrew; votava, petr; saatchi, sassan

    2016-04-01

    Several studies to date have provided an extensive knowledge base for estimating forest aboveground biomass (AGB) and recent advances in space-based modeling of the 3-D canopy structure, combined with canopy reflectance measured by passive optical sensors and radar backscatter, are providing improved satellite-derived AGB density mapping for large scale carbon monitoring applications. A key limitation in forest AGB estimation from remote sensing, however, is the large uncertainty in forest cover estimates from the coarse-to-medium resolution satellite-derived land cover maps (present resolution is limited to 30-m of the USGS NLCD Program). As part of our NASA Carbon Monitoring System Phase II activities, we have demonstrated that uncertainties in forest cover estimates at the Landsat scale result in high uncertainties in AGB estimation, predominantly in heterogeneous forest and urban landscapes. We have successfully tested an approach using scalable deep learning architectures (Feature-enhanced Deep Belief Networks and Semantic Segmentation using Convolutional Neural Networks) and High-Performance Computing with NAIP air-borne imagery data for mapping tree cover at 1-m over California and Maryland. Our first high resolution satellite training label dataset from the NAIP data can be found here at http://csc.lsu.edu/~saikat/deepsat/ . In a comparison with high resolution LiDAR data available over selected regions in the two states, we found our results to be promising both in terms of accuracy as well as our ability to scale nationally. In this project, we propose to estimate very high resolution forest cover for the continental US at spatial resolution of 1-m in support of reducing uncertainties in the AGB estimation. The proposed work will substantially contribute to filling the gaps in ongoing carbon monitoring research and help quantifying the errors and uncertainties in related carbon products.

  12. Extremely deep recreational dives: the risk for carbon dioxide (CO(2)) retention and high pressure neurological syndrome (HPNS).

    PubMed

    Kot, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Clear differences between professional and recreational deep diving are disappearing, at least when taking into account the types of breathing mixtures (oxygen, nitrox, heliox, and trimix) and range of dive parameters (depth and time). Training of recreational deep divers is conducted at depths of 120-150 metres and some divers dive to 180-200 metres using the same diving techniques. Extremely deep recreational divers go to depths of more than 200 metres, at which depths the physical and chemical properties of breathing gases create some physiological restrictions already known from professional deep diving. One risk is carbon dioxide retention due to limitation of lung ventilation caused by the high density of breathing gas mixture at great depths. This effect can be amplified by the introduction of the additional work of breathing if there is significant external resistance caused by a breathing device. The other risk for deep divers is High Pressure Neurological Syndrome (HPNS) caused by a direct compression effect, presumably on the lipid component of cell membranes of the central nervous system. In deep professional diving, divers use a mixture of helium and oxygen to decrease gas density, and nitrogen is used only in some cases for decreasing the signs and symptoms of HPNS. The same approach with decreasing the nitrogen content in the breathing mixture can also be observed nowadays in deep recreational diving. Moreover, in extremely deep professional diving, hydrogen has been used successfully both for decreasing the density of the breathing gas mixture and amelioration of HPNS signs and symptoms. It is fair to assume that the use of hydrogen will be soon "re-invented" by extremely deep recreational divers. So the scope of modern diving medicine for recreational divers should be expanded also to cover these problems, which previously were assigned exclusively to professional and military divers. PMID:22669812

  13. Underground muons from Cygnus X-3

    SciTech Connect

    Price, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    Underground detectors, intended for searches for nucleon decay and other rare processes, have recently begun searching for evidence of astrophysical sources, particularly Cygnus X-3, in the cosmic ray muons they record. Some evidence for signals from Cygnus X-3 has been reported. The underground observations are reported here in the context of previous (surface) observations of the source at high energies. 25 refs., 8 figs.

  14. Easy fabrication of high quality nickel mold for deep polymer microfluidic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Ten It; Limantoro, Julian; Phang Fong, Kin; Tan, Christina Yuan Ling; Quan, Chenggen; Sun, Ling Ling; Zhou, Xiaodong

    2016-06-01

    Mass fabrication of disposable microfluidic chips with hot embossing is a key technology for microfluidic chip based biosensors. In this work, we develop a new method of fabricating high quality and highly durable nickel molds for hot embossing polymer chips. The process involves the addition of a thick, patterned layer of negative photoresist AZ-125nxT to a 4″ silicon wafer, followed by nickel electroplating and delamination of the nickel mold. Our investigations found that compared to a pillar mask, a hole mask can minimize the diffraction effect in photolithography of a thick photoresist, reduce the adhesion of the AZ-125nxT to the photomask in photolithography, and facilitate clean development of the photoresist patterns. By optimizing the hot embossing and chip bonding parameters, microfluidic chips with deep channels are achieved.

  15. The deep atmosphere of Venus revealed by high-resolution nightside spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bezard, Bruno; De Bergh, Catherine; Crisp, David; Maillard, Jean-Pierre

    1990-01-01

    The first high-resolution spectroscopic observations of the night side of Venus obtained in two narrow spectral windows centered at 1.74 and 2.3 microns, where the nightside is anomalously bright, are reported. Absorption features from CO2, CO, H2O, HDO, HCl, HF, and COS are detected, and there are a number of unidentified features. A preliminary analysis indicates that the observed radiation is thermal emission from atmospheric layers in the eight-bar pressure region for the 2.3 micron window and even deeper at 1.7 micron. The derived CO and H2O abundances agree with in situ Pioneer measurements in the deep troposphere and are consistent with the high deuterium enrichment inferred from Pioneer data. The first measurements of HCl and HF below the clouds are reported along with the first firm detection of COS.

  16. Conservation with underground power lines

    SciTech Connect

    Graneau, P.

    1980-01-01

    The following aspects of underground power transmission lines are discussed: their contribution to area beautification; line losses and their causes; the energy conservation potential of large-conductor underground cables; reliability and outage advantages as compared with overhead lines; the history of underground systems; problems with polyethylene insulation; and the development and performance of sodium conductors for underground cables. (LCL)

  17. Science Goes Underground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Stuart; Keogh, Brenda

    1999-01-01

    Cartoons illustrating scientific concepts were used in the London Underground and informal learning sites to raise adult awareness of science and promote lifelong learning. They are also being used in formal learning situations such as adult-literacy classes. (SK)

  18. Science Center Goes Underground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1977

    1977-01-01

    A unique underground science center at Bluffton College, designed to save energy and preserve trees, rolling landscape, and other environmental features of the campus, is under construction in Bluffton, Ohio. (Author)

  19. Photoluminescence of deep defects involving transition metals in silicon -- New insights from highly enriched 28Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steger, Michael

    The fundamental properties of deep luminescence centres in Si associated with transition metals such as Cu, Ag, Au, and Pt have been studied for decades, both as markers for these deleterious contaminants, as well as for the possibility of efficient Si-based light emission. Due to the high diffusivity and solubility of these metals, these are among the most ubiquitous luminescence centres observed in Si, and have thus served as testbeds for elucidating the physics of isoelectronic bound excitons and for testing ab-initio calculations of defect properties. While these deep isoelectronic bound exciton centres have been studied extensively with many different methods, the actual composition of most centres could not be determined with certainty. Only the recent availability of high quality, highly enriched 28Si made it possible to advance the knowledge of the constituents of these complexes. The greatly improved spectral resolution resulting from the elimination of inhomogeneous isotope broadening in isotopically enriched 28Si enabled the extension of the established technique of observing isotope shifts to the measurement of isotopic fingerprints. These isotopic fingerprints reveal not only the presence of a specific element, but also the number of atoms of that element involved in the formation of a given luminescence centre. This technique has revealed that the detailed constituents of all of the centres previously studied had been identified incorrectly. In this work, the results of ultra-high resolution photoluminescence studies of these centres in specially prepared 28Si samples are discussed. In addition, new centres were discovered revealing the existence of several different families of impurity complexes containing either four or five atoms chosen from Li, Cu, Ag, Au, and Pt. The constituents of all these centres have been determined, together with no-phonon transition energies, no-phonon isotope shifts, local vibrational mode energies, and the isotope

  20. A luciferin analogue generating near-infrared bioluminescence achieves highly sensitive deep-tissue imaging.

    PubMed

    Kuchimaru, Takahiro; Iwano, Satoshi; Kiyama, Masahiro; Mitsumata, Shun; Kadonosono, Tetsuya; Niwa, Haruki; Maki, Shojiro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae

    2016-01-01

    In preclinical cancer research, bioluminescence imaging with firefly luciferase and D-luciferin has become a standard to monitor biological processes both in vitro and in vivo. However, the emission maximum (λmax) of bioluminescence produced by D-luciferin is 562 nm where light is not highly penetrable in biological tissues. This emphasizes a need for developing a red-shifted bioluminescence imaging system to improve detection sensitivity of targets in deep tissue. Here we characterize the bioluminescent properties of the newly synthesized luciferin analogue, AkaLumine-HCl. The bioluminescence produced by AkaLumine-HCl in reactions with native firefly luciferase is in the near-infrared wavelength ranges (λmax=677 nm), and yields significantly increased target-detection sensitivity from deep tissues with maximal signals attained at very low concentrations, as compared with D-luciferin and emerging synthetic luciferin CycLuc1. These characteristics offer a more sensitive and accurate method for non-invasive bioluminescence imaging with native firefly luciferase in various animal models. PMID:27297211

  1. A luciferin analogue generating near-infrared bioluminescence achieves highly sensitive deep-tissue imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kuchimaru, Takahiro; Iwano, Satoshi; Kiyama, Masahiro; Mitsumata, Shun; Kadonosono, Tetsuya; Niwa, Haruki; Maki, Shojiro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae

    2016-01-01

    In preclinical cancer research, bioluminescence imaging with firefly luciferase and D-luciferin has become a standard to monitor biological processes both in vitro and in vivo. However, the emission maximum (λmax) of bioluminescence produced by D-luciferin is 562 nm where light is not highly penetrable in biological tissues. This emphasizes a need for developing a red-shifted bioluminescence imaging system to improve detection sensitivity of targets in deep tissue. Here we characterize the bioluminescent properties of the newly synthesized luciferin analogue, AkaLumine-HCl. The bioluminescence produced by AkaLumine-HCl in reactions with native firefly luciferase is in the near-infrared wavelength ranges (λmax=677 nm), and yields significantly increased target-detection sensitivity from deep tissues with maximal signals attained at very low concentrations, as compared with D-luciferin and emerging synthetic luciferin CycLuc1. These characteristics offer a more sensitive and accurate method for non-invasive bioluminescence imaging with native firefly luciferase in various animal models. PMID:27297211

  2. High resolution deep imaging of a bright radio quiet QSO at z ~ 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi-Ping; He, Wei; Yamada, Toru; Tanaka, Ichi; Iye, Masanori; Ji, Tuo

    2015-05-01

    We have obtained deep J and Ks-band images centered on a bright radio quiet QSO UM 402 (zem = 2.856) using the IRCS camera and adaptive optics systems that are part of the Subaru Telescope, as well as retrieved WFC3/F140W archive images of this object. A faint galaxy (mk = 23.32±0.05 in the Vega magnitude system) that lies ~ 2.4″ north of the QSO sightline has been clearly resolved in all three deep high resolution datasets, and appears as an irregular galaxy with two close components in the Ks-band images (separation ~ 0.3″). Given the small impact parameter (b = 19.6 kpc, at zlls = 2.531), as well as the red color of (J - Ks)Vega ~ 1.6, it might be a candidate galaxy giving rise to the Lyman Limit system absorption at zabs = 2.531 seen in the QSO spectrum. After carefully subtracting the point spread function from the QSO images, the host galaxy of this bright radio quiet QSO at z ~ 3 was marginally revealed. We placed a lower limit on the host component of mk ~ 23.3 according to our analyses. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  3. High Biodiversity on a Deep-Water Reef in the Eastern Fram Strait

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Kirstin S.; Soltwedel, Thomas; Bergmann, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    We report on the distribution and abundance of megafauna on a deep-water rocky reef (1796–2373 m) in the Fram Strait, west of Svalbard. Biodiversity and population density are high, with a maximum average of 26.7±0.9 species m−2 and 418.1±49.6 individuals m−2 on the east side of the reef summit. These figures contrast with the surrounding abyssal plain fauna, with an average of only 18.1±1.4 species and 29.4±4.3 individuals m−2 (mean ± standard error). The east side of the reef summit, where the highest richness and density of fauna are found, faces into the predominant bottom current, which likely increases in speed to the summit and serves as a source of particulate food for the numerous suspension feeders present there. We conclude that the observed faunal distribution patterns could be the result of hydrodynamic patterns and food availability above and around the reef. To our knowledge, this study is the first to describe the distribution and diversity of benthic fauna on a rocky reef in deep water. PMID:25153985

  4. Phylogenetic Resolution of Deep Eukaryotic and Fungal Relationships Using Highly Conserved Low-Copy Nuclear Genes.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ren; Sun, Yazhou; Zhao, Yue; Geiser, David; Ma, Hong; Zhou, Xiaofan

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive and reliable eukaryotic tree of life is important for many aspects of biological studies from comparative developmental and physiological analyses to translational medicine and agriculture. Both gene-rich and taxon-rich approaches are effective strategies to improve phylogenetic accuracy and are greatly facilitated by marker genes that are universally distributed, well conserved, and orthologous among divergent eukaryotes. In this article, we report the identification of 943 low-copy eukaryotic genes and we show that many of these genes are promising tools in resolving eukaryotic phylogenies, despite the challenges of determining deep eukaryotic relationships. As a case study, we demonstrate that smaller subsets of ∼20 and 52 genes could resolve controversial relationships among widely divergent taxa and provide strong support for deep relationships such as the monophyly and branching order of several eukaryotic supergroups. In addition, the use of these genes resulted in fungal phylogenies that are congruent with previous phylogenomic studies that used much larger datasets, and successfully resolved several difficult relationships (e.g., forming a highly supported clade with Microsporidia, Mitosporidium and Rozella sister to other fungi). We propose that these genes are excellent for both gene-rich and taxon-rich analyses and can be applied at multiple taxonomic levels and facilitate a more complete understanding of the eukaryotic tree of life. PMID:27604879

  5. High diversity of microplankton surrounds deep-water coral reef in the Norwegian Sea.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Sigmund; Bourne, David G; Hovland, Martin; Murrell, J Colin

    2012-10-01

    Coral reefs that exist in the depths of the oceans are surrounded by Eukarya, Archaea and bacterial communities that may play an important role in the nutrition and health of the reef. The first interdomain community structure of planktonic organisms in seawater from a deep-water coral reef is described. Community profiling and analysis of ribosomal RNA gene sequences from a coral reef system at 350 m depth in the Norwegian Sea revealed a rich diversity of Eukarya and Bacteria and a moderate diversity of Archaea. Most sequences affiliated with marine microplankton from deep-sea to cold-surface regions, with many sequences being similar to those described in studies of mesopelagic and oxygen minimum zones. Dominant phylotypes belonged to the Alveolata (group I, II, dinoflagellates), Stramenopiles (silicoflagellates), Alphaproteobacteria (Pelagibacter ubique), Gammaproteobacteria (ARCTIC96BD-19), Bacteroidetes (Flavobacteria) and mesophilic Crenarchaeota (Nitrosopumilus maritimus). Several rare and novel members of the community fell into distinct phylogenetic groups. The inferred function of dominant community members suggested autotrophs that utilise light, ammonium or sulphide, and lifestyles based on host associations. The high diversity reflected a microplankton community structure, which is significantly different from that of microplankton collected at the same depth at a pelagic station away from reefs. PMID:22571287

  6. Simulation of equatorial and high-latitude jets on Jupiter in a deep convection model.

    PubMed

    Heimpel, Moritz; Aurnou, Jonathan; Wicht, Johannes

    2005-11-10

    The bands of Jupiter represent a global system of powerful winds. Broad eastward equatorial jets are flanked by smaller-scale, higher-latitude jets flowing in alternating directions. Jupiter's large thermal emission suggests that the winds are powered from within, but the zonal flow depth is limited by increasing density and electrical conductivity in the molecular hydrogen-helium atmosphere towards the centre of the planet. Two types of planetary flow models have been explored: shallow-layer models reproduce multiple high-latitude jets, but not the equatorial flow system, and deep convection models only reproduce an eastward equatorial jet with two flanking neighbours. Here we present a numerical model of three-dimensional rotating convection in a relatively thin spherical shell that generates both types of jets. The simulated flow is turbulent and quasi-two-dimensional and, as observed for the jovian jets, simulated jet widths follow Rhines' scaling theory. Our findings imply that Jupiter's latitudinal transition in jet width corresponds to a separation between the bottom-bounded flow structures in higher latitudes and the deep equatorial flows. PMID:16281029

  7. Tropical deep convective life cycle: Cb-anvil cloud microphysics from high-altitude aircraft observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, W.; Borrmann, S.; Fierli, F.; Weigel, R.; Mitev, V.; Matthey, R.; Ravegnani, F.; Sitnikov, N. M.; Ulanovsky, A.; Cairo, F.

    2014-12-01

    The case study presented here focuses on the life cycle of clouds in the anvil region of a tropical deep convective system. During the SCOUT-O3 campaign from Darwin, Northern Australia, the Hector storm system has been probed by the Geophysica high-altitude aircraft. Clouds were observed by in situ particle probes, a backscatter sonde, and a miniature lidar. Additionally, aerosol number concentrations have been measured. On 30 November 2005 a double flight took place and Hector was probed throughout its life cycle in its developing, mature, and dissipating stage. The two flights were four hours apart and focused on the anvil region of Hector in altitudes between 10.5 and 18.8 km (i.e. above 350 K potential temperature). Trajectory calculations, satellite imagery, and ozone measurements have been used to ensure that the same cloud air masses have been probed in both flights. The size distributions derived from the measurements show a change not only with increasing altitude but also with the evolution of Hector. Clearly different cloud to aerosol particle ratios as well as varying ice crystal morphology have been found for the different development stages of Hector, indicating different freezing mechanisms. The development phase exhibits the smallest ice particles (up to 300 μm) with a rather uniform morphology. This is indicative for rapid glaciation during Hector's development. Sizes of ice crystals are largest in the mature stage (larger than 1.6 mm) and even exceed those of some continental tropical deep convective clouds, also in their number concentrations. The backscatter properties and particle images show a change in ice crystal shape from the developing phase to rimed and aggregated particles in the mature and dissipating stages; the specific shape of particles in the developing phase cannot be distinguished from the measurements. Although optically thin, the clouds in the dissipating stage have a large vertical extent (roughly 6 km) and persist for at

  8. Candidate high-redshift and primeval galaxies in Hubble Deep Field South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, D. L.; Eales, S. A.; Baker, A. C.

    1999-09-01

    We present the results of colour selection of candidate high-redshift galaxies in Hubble Deep Field South (HDF-S) using the Lyman dropout scheme. The HDF-S data we discuss were taken in a number of different filters extending from the near-UV (F300W) to the infrared (F222M) in two different fields. This allows us to select candidates with redshifts from z~3 to z~12. We find 15 candidate z~3 objects (F300W dropouts), one candidate z~4 object (F450W dropout) and 16 candidate z~5 objects (F606W dropouts) in the ~4.7-arcmin^2 WFPC-2 field, and four candidate z~6 objects (optical dropouts) and one candidate z~8 object (F110W dropout) in the 0.84-arcmin^2 NICMOS-3 field. No F160W dropouts are found (z~12). We compare our selection technique with existing data for Hubble Deep Field North (HDF-N) and discuss alternative interpretations of the objects. We conclude that there are a number of lower redshift interlopers in the selections, including one previously identified object, and reject those objects most likely to be foreground contaminants. Even after this we conclude that the F606W dropout list is likely to still contain substantial foreground contamination. The lack of candidate very-high-redshift UV-luminous galaxies supports earlier conclusions by Lanzetta et al. We discuss the morphologies and luminosity functions of the high-redshift objects, and their cosmological implications.

  9. Bayesian Analysis of Underground Flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogardi, Istvan; Duckstein, Lucien; Szidarovszky, Ferenc

    1982-08-01

    An event-based stochastic model is used to describe the spatial phenomenon of water inrush into underground works located under a karstic aquifer, and a Bayesian analysis is performed because of high parameter uncertainty. The random variables of the model are inrush yield per event, distance between events, number of events per unit underground space, maximum yield, and total yield over mine lifetime. Physically based hypotheses on the types of distributions are made and reinforced by observations. High parameter uncertainty stems from the random characteristics of karstic limestone and the limited amount of observation data. Thus, during the design stage, only indirect data such as regional information and geological analogies are available; updating of this information should then be done as the construction progresses and inrush events are observed and recorded. A Bayes simulation algorithm is developed and applied to estimate the probability distributions of inrush event characteristics used in the design of water control facilities in underground mining. A real-life example in the Transdanubian region of Hungary is used to illustrate the methodology.

  10. High-resolution crustal structure of the Yinchuan basin revealed by deep seismic reflection profiling: implications for deep processes of basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xingfu; Feng, Shaoying; Gao, Rui; Li, Wenhui

    2016-04-01

    The Yinchuan basin, located on the western margin of the Ordos block, has the characteristics of an active continental rift. A NW-striking deep seismic reflection profile across the center of Yinchuan basin precisely revealed the fine structure of the crust. The images showed that the crust in the Yinchuan basin was characterized by vertical stratifications along a detachment located at a two-way travel time (TWT) of 8.0 s. The most outstanding feature of this seismic profile was the almost flat Mohorovičić discontinuity (Moho) and a high-reflection zone in the lower crust. This sub-horizontal Moho conflicts with the general assumption of an uplifted Moho under sedimentary basins and continental rifts, and may indicate the action of different processes at depth during the evolution of sedimentary basins or rifts. We present a possible interpretation of these deep processes and the sub-horizontal Moho. The high-reflection zone, which consists of sheets of high-density, mantle-derived materials, may have compensated for crustal thinning in the Yinchuan basin, leading to the formation of a sub-horizontal Moho. These high-density materials may have been emplaced by underplating with mantle-sourced magma.

  11. Bacterial Niche-Specific Genome Expansion Is Coupled with Highly Frequent Gene Disruptions in Deep-Sea Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Yang, Jiang Ke; Lee, On On; Li, Tie Gang; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz; Danchin, Antoine; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2011-01-01

    The complexity and dynamics of microbial metagenomes may be evaluated by genome size, gene duplication and the disruption rate between lineages. In this study, we pyrosequenced the metagenomes of microbes obtained from the brine and sediment of a deep-sea brine pool in the Red Sea to explore the possible genomic adaptations of the microbes in response to environmental changes. The microbes from the brine and sediments (both surface and deep layers) of the Atlantis II Deep brine pool had similar communities whereas the effective genome size varied from 7.4 Mb in the brine to more than 9 Mb in the sediment. This genome expansion in the sediment samples was due to gene duplication as evidenced by enrichment of the homologs. The duplicated genes were highly disrupted, on average by 47.6% and 70% for the surface and deep layers of the Atlantis II Deep sediment samples, respectively. The disruptive effects appeared to be mainly due to point mutations and frameshifts. In contrast, the homologs from the Atlantis II Deep brine sample were highly conserved and they maintained relatively small copy numbers. Likely, the adaptation of the microbes in the sediments was coupled with pseudogenizations and possibly functional diversifications of the paralogs in the expanded genomes. The maintenance of the pseudogenes in the large genomes is discussed. PMID:22216192

  12. A simple deep-towed vertical array for high-resolution reflection seismic profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herber, R.; Nuppenau, V.; Weigel, W.; Wong, H. K.

    1986-06-01

    A simple, low cost, deep-towed system for high-resolution reflection seismic profiling is described. It consists of a vertical array with two hydrophones having a separation of 2.2 m and rigidly mounted onto streamlined tow bodies. Improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio is attained by simple stacking of the hydrophone outputs after signal conditioning and travel time corrections. The suppression of side echoes and surface reflections is achieved by an analog procedure which in effect improves the directional characteristics of the array. A circuit for automatic gain control is included to enhance weak signals as well as to suppress ringing. Results in Kiel Bay and over the crest of the Jan Mayen Ridge (northern Atlantic) suggest that this simple vertical array may supplement air gun systems better than conventional, surface pinger-type equipment.

  13. High- and low-frequency phonon modes in dipolar quantum gases trapped in deep lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maluckov, Aleksandra; Gligorić, Goran; Hadžievski, Ljupčo; Malomed, Boris A.; Pfau, Tilman

    2013-02-01

    We study normal modes propagating on top of the stable uniform background in arrays of dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) droplets trapped in a deep optical lattice. Both the on-site mean-field dynamics of the droplets and their displacement due to the repulsive dipole-dipole interactions (DDIs) are taken into account. Dispersion relations for two modes, viz., high- and low- frequency counterparts of optical and acoustic phonon modes in condensed matter, are derived analytically and verified by direct simulations, for both cases of the repulsive and attractive contact interactions. The (counterpart of the) optical-phonon branch does not exist without the DDIs. These results are relevant in the connection to emerging experimental techniques enabling real-time imaging of the condensate dynamics and direct experimental measurement of phonon dispersion relations in BECs.

  14. Breaking the acoustic diffraction limit via nonlinear effect and thermal confinement for potential deep-tissue high-resolution imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Baohong; Pei, Yanbo; Kandukuri, Jayanth

    2013-01-01

    Our recently developed ultrasound-switchable fluorescence (USF) imaging technique showed that it was feasible to conduct high-resolution fluorescence imaging in a centimeter-deep turbid medium. Because the spatial resolution of this technique highly depends on the ultrasound-induced temperature focal size (UTFS), minimization of UTFS becomes important for further improving the spatial resolution USF technique. In this study, we found that UTFS can be significantly reduced below the diffraction-limited acoustic intensity focal size via nonlinear acoustic effects and thermal confinement by appropriately controlling ultrasound power and exposure time, which can be potentially used for deep-tissue high-resolution imaging. PMID:23479498

  15. Muon tracking underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistoni, G.; Campana, P.; Chiarella, V.; Denni, U.; Iarocci, E.

    1986-04-01

    The design and performance of plastic streamer tubes for use in large underground particle-physics experiments such as the muon, astrophysics, and cosmic-ray observatory (MACRO) being developed for Gran Sasso Laboratory are reported. The large (1000 sq m or more) detector area required to achieve high-angular-resolution muon tracking in MACRO is covered by modules with eight 3 x 3-cm-cross section active streamer-tube cells each, similar to those used in the Mt. Blanc Laboratory detector. The MACRO modules have a maximum length of 12 m; and the cells have 60-micron-diameter wires, two conducting graphite sides, and two insulating sides (electrodeless electric-field shaping). The results of performance tests flowing 3:1 He:n-pentane through a tube module are presented graphically. Spatial resolution 1 cm and time resolution 100 ns are obtained, and the ability of the streamer tubes to detect large ionization losses with respect to the minimum is demonstrated.

  16. Modeling of the T S D E Heater Test to Investigate Crushed Salt Reconsolidation and Rock Salt Creep for the Underground Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco Martin, L.; Rutqvist, J.; Birkholzer, J. T.; Wolters, R.; Lux, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    Rock salt is a potential medium for the underground disposal of nuclear waste because it has several assets, in particular its water and gas tightness in the undisturbed state, its ability to heal induced fractures and its high thermal conductivity as compared to other shallow-crustal rocks. In addition, the run-of-mine, granular salt, may be used to backfill the mined open spaces. We present simulation results associated with coupled thermal, hydraulic and mechanical processes in the TSDE (Thermal Simulation for Drift Emplacement) experiment, conducted in the Asse salt mine in Germany [1]. During this unique test, conceived to simulate reference repository conditions for spent nuclear fuel, a significant amount of data (temperature, stress changes and displacements, among others) was measured at 20 cross-sections, distributed in two drifts in which a total of six electrical heaters were emplaced. The drifts were subsequently backfilled with crushed salt. This test has been modeled in three-dimensions, using two sequential simulators for flow (mass and heat) and geomechanics, TOUGH-FLAC and FLAC-TOUGH [2]. These simulators have recently been updated to accommodate large strains and time-dependent rheology. The numerical predictions obtained by the two simulators are compared within the framework of an international benchmark exercise, and also with experimental data. Subsequently, a re-calibration of some parameters has been performed. Modeling coupled processes in saliniferous media for nuclear waste disposal is a novel approach, and in this study it has led to the determination of some creep parameters that are very difficult to assess at the laboratory-scale because they require extremely low strain rates. Moreover, the results from the benchmark are very satisfactory and validate the capabilities of the two simulators used to study coupled thermal, mechanical and hydraulic (multi-component, multi-phase) processes relative to the underground disposal of high

  17. Summary of the LLNL gasoline spill demonstration - dynamic underground stripping project

    SciTech Connect

    Newmark, R.L.; Aines, R.D.

    1995-04-03

    Underground spills of volatile hydrocarbons (solvents or fuels) can be difficult to clean up when the hydrocarbons are present both above and below the water table and are found in relatively impermeable clays. Years of groundwater pumping may not completely remove the contamination. Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the College of Engineering at the University of California at Berkeley (UCB) have collaborated to develop a technique called Dynamic Underground Stripping to remove localized underground spills in a relatively short time. The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management has sponsored a full-scale demonstration of this technique at the LLNL gasoline spill site. When highly concentrated contamination is found above the standing water table, vacuum extraction has been very effective at both removing the contaminant and enhancing biological remediation through the addition of oxygen. Below the water table, however, these advantages cannot be obtained. For such sites where the contamination is too deep for excavation, there are currently no widely applicable cleanup methods. Dynamic Underground Stripping removes separate-phase organic contaminants below the water table by heating the subsurface above the boiling point of water, and then removing both contaminant and water by vacuum extraction. The high temperatures both convert the organic to vapor and enhance other removal paths by increasing diffusion and eliminating sorption. Because this method uses rapid, high-energy techniques in cleaning the soil, it requires an integrated system of underground monitoring and imaging methods to control and evaluate the process in real time.

  18. Trajectories for High Specific Impulse High Specific Power Deep Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polsgrove, T.; Adams, R. B.; Brady, Hugh J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented for two methods to approximate the mission performance of high specific impulse high specific power vehicles. The first method is based on an analytical approximation derived by Williams and Shepherd and can be used to approximate mission performance to outer planets and interstellar space. The second method is based on a parametric analysis of trajectories created using the well known trajectory optimization code, VARITOP. This parametric analysis allows the reader to approximate payload ratios and optimal power requirements for both one-way and round-trip missions. While this second method only addresses missions to and from Jupiter, future work will encompass all of the outer planet destinations and some interstellar precursor missions.

  19. Underground Coal Gasification Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-12-01

    CAVSIM is a three-dimensional, axisymmetric model for resource recovery and cavity growth during underground coal gasification (UCG). CAVSIM is capable of following the evolution of the cavity from near startup to exhaustion, and couples explicitly wall and roof surface growth to material and energy balances in the underlying rubble zones. Growth mechanisms are allowed to change smoothly as the system evolves from a small, relatively empty cavity low in the coal seam to a large,more » almost completely rubble-filled cavity extending high into the overburden rock. The model is applicable to nonswelling coals of arbitrary seam thickness and can handle a variety of gas injection flow schedules or compositions. Water influx from the coal aquifer is calculated by a gravity drainage-permeation submodel which is integrated into the general solution. The cavity is considered to consist of up to three distinct rubble zones and a void space at the top. Resistance to gas flow injected from a stationary source at the cavity floor is assumed to be concentrated in the ash pile, which builds up around the source, and also the overburden rubble which accumulates on top of this ash once overburden rock is exposed at the cavity top. Char rubble zones at the cavity side and edges are assumed to be highly permeable. Flow of injected gas through the ash to char rubble piles and the void space is coupled by material and energy balances to cavity growth at the rubble/coal, void/coal and void/rock interfaces. One preprocessor and two postprocessor programs are included - SPALL calculates one-dimensional mean spalling rates of coal or rock surfaces exposed to high temperatures and generates CAVSIM input: TAB reads CAVSIM binary output files and generates ASCII tables of selected data for display; and PLOT produces dot matrix printer or HP printer plots from TAB output.« less

  20. Current (2004-07) Conditions and Changes in Ground-Water Levels from Predevelopment to 2007, Southern High Plains Aquifer, Southeast New Mexico-Lea County Underground Water Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillery, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The Southern High Plains aquifer is the principal aquifer and primary source of water in southeastern New Mexico. The Lea County portion of the aquifer covers approximately the northern two thirds of the 4,393-square-mile county. Successful water-supply planning for New Mexico's Southern High Plains requires knowledge of the current aquifer conditions and a context from which to estimate future trends given current aquifer-management policy. Maps representing water-level declines, current (2007) water levels, aquifer saturated thickness, and depth to water accompanied by hydrographs from representative wells for the Southern High Plains aquifer in the Lea County Underground Water Basin were prepared in cooperation with the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer. Results of this mapping effort show the water level has declined as much as 97 feet in the Lea County Underground Water Basin from predevelopment (1914-54) to 2007 with rates as high as 0.88 feet per year.

  1. Shearing instabilities accompanying high-pressure phase transformations and the mechanics of deep earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Green, Harry W.

    2007-01-01

    Deep earthquakes have been a paradox since their discovery in the 1920s. The combined increase of pressure and temperature with depth precludes brittle failure or frictional sliding beyond a few tens of kilometers, yet earthquakes occur continually in subduction zones to ≈700 km. The expected healing effects of pressure and temperature and growing amounts of seismic and experimental data suggest that earthquakes at depth probably represent self-organized failure analogous to, but different from, brittle failure. The only high-pressure shearing instabilities identified by experiment require generation in situ of a small fraction of very weak material differing significantly in density from the parent material. This “fluid” spontaneously forms mode I microcracks or microanticracks that self-organize via the elastic strain fields at their tips, leading to shear failure. Growing evidence suggests that the great majority of subduction zone earthquakes shallower than 400 km are initiated by breakdown of hydrous phases and that deeper ones probably initiate as a shearing instability associated with breakdown of metastable olivine to its higher-pressure polymorphs. In either case, fault propagation could be enhanced by shear heating, just as is sometimes the case with frictional sliding in the crust. Extensive seismological interrogation of the region of the Tonga subduction zone in the southwest Pacific Ocean provides evidence suggesting significant metastable olivine, with implication for its presence in other regions of deep seismicity. If metastable olivine is confirmed, either current thermal models of subducting slabs are too warm or published kinetics of olivine breakdown reactions are too fast. PMID:17468397

  2. High Temperature Logging and Monitoring Instruments to Explore and Drill Deep into Hot Oceanic Crust.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denchik, N.; Pezard, P. A.; Ragnar, A.; Jean-Luc, D.; Jan, H.

    2014-12-01

    Drilling an entire section of the oceanic crust and through the Moho has been a goal of the scientific community for more than half of a century. On the basis of ODP and IODP experience and data, this will require instruments and strategies working at temperature far above 200°C (reached, for example, at the bottom of DSDP/ODP Hole 504B), and possibly beyond 300°C. Concerning logging and monitoring instruments, progress were made over the past ten years in the context of the HiTI ("High Temperature Instruments") project funded by the european community for deep drilling in hot Icelandic geothermal holes where supercritical conditions and a highly corrosive environment are expected at depth (with temperatures above 374 °C and pressures exceeding 22 MPa). For example, a slickline tool (memory tool) tolerating up to 400°C and wireline tools up to 300°C were developed and tested in Icelandic high-temperature geothermal fields. The temperature limitation of logging tools was defined to comply with the present limitation in wireline cables (320°C). As part of this new set of downhole tools, temperature, pressure, fluid flow and casing collar location might be measured up to 400°C from a single multisensor tool. Natural gamma radiation spectrum, borehole wall ultrasonic images signal, and fiber optic cables (using distributed temperature sensing methods) were also developed for wireline deployment up to 300°C and tested in the field. A wireline, dual laterolog electrical resistivity tool was also developed but could not be field tested as part of HiTI. This new set of tools constitutes a basis for the deep exploration of the oceanic crust in the future. In addition, new strategies including the real-time integration of drilling parameters with modeling of the thermo-mechanical status of the borehole could be developed, using time-lapse logging of temperature (for heat flow determination) and borehole wall images (for hole stability and in-situ stress determination

  3. Ka-Band High-Rate Telemetry System Upgrade for the NASA Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBelle, Remi; Bernardo, Abner; Bowen, James; Britcliffe, Michael; Bucknam, Neil; Link, Christopher; Long, Ezra; Manalo, Leslie; O'Dea, James A.; Rochblatt, David; Sosnowski, John; Veruttipong, Watt

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) has a new requirement to support high-data-rate Category A (Cat A) missions (within 2 million kilometers of Earth) with simultaneous S-band uplink, S-band downlink and Ka-band downlink. The S-band links are required for traditional TT&C (Telemetry, Tracking, and Command) support to the spacecraft, while the Ka-band link is intended for high-data-rate science returns. The new Ka-band system combines the use of proven DSN cryogenic designs, for low system temperature, and high data rate capability using commercial telemetry receivers. The initial Cat A support is required for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) in 2013 and possibly other missions. The upgrade has been implemented into 3 different 34-meter Beam Waveguide (BWG) antennas in the DSN, one at each of the complexes in Canberra (Australia), Goldstone (California) and Madrid (Spain). System test data is presented to show that the requirements were met and the DSN is ready for Cat A Ka-band operational support.

  4. Proteins responsible for lysogeny of deep-sea thermophilic bacteriophage GVE2 at high temperature.

    PubMed

    Song, Qing; Ye, Ting; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2011-06-15

    The lytic and lysogenic life cycle switch of bacteriophages plays very important roles in virus-host interactions. However, the lysogeny of thermophilic bacteriophage infecting thermophile at high temperatures has not been addressed. In this study, two lysogeny-related genes encoding the CI protein and recombinase of GVE2, a thermophilic bacteriophage obtained from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent, were characterized. Temporal analyses showed that the two genes were expressed at early stages of GVE2 infection. Based on chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), the GVE2 CI protein was bound with only one DNA fragment located at 24264-24036 bp in the GVE2 genome. This location might be the original transcription site and the lysis-lysogeny switch site, which was very different from mesophilic bacteriophages. The GVE2 CI and recombinase proteins could function only at high temperatures. Therefore our study improved our understanding of the lysogeny process of bacteriophages at high temperatures. PMID:21303688

  5. Ka-band high-rate telemetry system upgrade for the NASA deep space network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaBelle, R.; Rochblatt, D.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) has a new requirement to support high-data-rate Category A (Cat A) missions (within 2 million kilometers of the Earth) with simultaneous S-band uplink, S-band downlink and Ka-band downlink. The S-band links are required for traditional telemetry, tracking & command (TT&C) support to the spacecraft, while the Ka-band link is intended for high-data-rate science returns. The new Ka-band system combines the use of proven DSN cryogenic designs, for low system temperature, and high-data-rate capability using commercial telemetry receivers. The initial Cat A support is required for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) in 2014 and possibly other missions. The upgrade has been implemented into 3 different 34-meter Beam Waveguide (BWG) antennas in the DSN, one at each of the complexes in Canberra (Australia), Goldstone (California) and Madrid (Spain). System test data are presented to show that the requirements were met and the DSN is ready for Cat A Ka-band operational support.

  6. High-throughput system for screening of Cephalosporin C high-yield strain by 48-deep-well microtiter plates.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jun; Chu, Ju; Hao, Yuyou; Guo, Yuanxin; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang

    2013-03-01

    Improvement of microbial strains for the high-production of industrial products has been the hallmark of all commercial fermentation processes. Strain improvement has been conventionally achieved through mutation and selection. However, most of the screenings were performed in shake flasks, which made the screening procedure very complex, time-consuming, and inefficient. Most mutant spore suspension had no chance to be screened due to the low-throughput of shake flasks and had to be sacrificed. In this paper, in order to get a Cephalosporin C (CPC) high-yield stain, traditional mutagenesis was employed to obtain the mutant library and gave them the equal screening chance by a novel mixture culture method combined with high-throughput screening method. The good correlation of fermentation results between differing-scale cultivations confirmed the feasibility of utilizing the 48-deep microtiter plates as a scale-down tool instead of shake flasks for culturing high-aerobic microbes with long cultivation period. The microbioassay based on the antibacterial activity of CPC against Alcaligenes faecalis was used to select mutants. As a result, the high-yield strain W-6 was successfully screened out and the CPC titer was nearly 50 % higher than that of the parental strain in the shake flask. The CPC production of strain W-6 was further validated in 50 l bioreactor, and the CPC production reached 32.0 g/l, twofold higher than that of the wild strain. PMID:23334835

  7. Underground mine communications: a survey

    SciTech Connect

    Yarkan, S.; Guzelgoz, S.; Arslan, H.; Murphy, R.R.

    2009-07-01

    After a recent series of unfortunate underground mining disasters, the vital importance of communications for underground mining is underlined one more time. Establishing reliable communication is a very difficult task for underground mining due to the extreme environmental conditions. Until now, no single communication system exists which can solve all of the problems and difficulties encountered in underground mine communications. However, combining research with previous experiences might help existing systems improve, if not completely solve all of the problems. In this survey, underground mine communication is investigated. Major issues which underground mine communication systems must take into account are discussed. Communication types, methods, and their significance are presented.

  8. Monitoring deep twist drilling for a rapid manufacturing of light high-strength parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López de Lacalle, L. N.; Fernández, A.; Olvera, D.; Lamikiz, A.; Olvera, D.; Rodríguez, C.; Elias, A.

    2011-10-01

    In this work the manufacturing of high strength and/or high functional components is presented, using a new technique based on considerably long twist drills, called Deep Twist Drilling (DTD). This technology opens a rapid and economical method to manufacture parts for structural applications. Components made with this technique can reach high mass reduction and better stress distribution in comparison with welding or bolted parts with the same weight. However the application of DTD must be optimized to improve the reliability of the process and to make it economically feasible. In order to reach it, previous optimization by process monitoring was performed in AISI 1045, stainless steels, Ti6Al4V and nodular cat iron GGG70(AISI A536, SAE-ASTM 100-70-03). These materials are commonly used for structural applications in several sectors. Monitoring opened the way to improve cutting conditions and allow the application of the DTD technique focusing on a new design concept. In the same way monitoring makes drilling process reliable enough to be systematically used in industrial applications by a controlled increase of the performance demanded from the tool. In this manner, not only the objective to produce high-strength and light pieces is achieved, but also a high repetitive process is reached. In this research work a case of study is presented. A monolithic satellite-type component, its mass were reduced from 25 to 4.5 kg. The structural behavior of the component was studied under FEM analysis and the results showed high strength to compression and shear forces. During the machining of this element there was a serious risk of drill breakage due to the depth of the holes and crossing points between them; however, the previous process optimization eliminated this drawback. As a matter of fact, this paper brings out a good example where manufacturing technology allows a better performance of mechanical components within the philosophy of "new processes drive to new

  9. Experimental study of effectiveness of four radon mitigation solutions, based on underground depressurization, tested in prototype housing built in a high radon area in Spain.

    PubMed

    Frutos Vázquez, Borja; Olaya Adán, Manuel; Quindós Poncela, Luis Santiago; Sainz Fernandez, Carlos; Fuente Merino, Ismael

    2011-04-01

    The present paper discusses the results of an empirical study of four approaches to reducing indoor radon concentrations based on depressurization techniques in underground sumps. The experiments were conducted in prototype housing built in an area of Spain where the average radon concentration at a depth of 1 m is 250 kBq m(-3). Sump effectiveness was analysed in two locations: underneath the basement, which involved cutting openings into the foundation, ground storey and roof slabs, and outside the basement walls, which entailed digging a pit alongside the building exterior. The effectiveness of both sumps was likewise tested with passive and forced ventilation methods. The systems proved to be highly efficient, lowering radon levels by 91-99%, except in the solution involving passive ventilation and the outside sump, where radon levels were reduced by 53-55%. At wind speeds of over 8 m/s, however, passive ventilation across an outside sump lowered radon levels by 95% due to a Venturi effect induced drop in pressure. PMID:21382656

  10. Underground mineral extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface of the Earth. The vehicle hydraulically drills pilot holes during its entrances into the seam, and then directs sideward jets at the seam during its withdrawal from each pilot hole to comminute the mineral surrounding the pilot hole and combine it with water into a slurry, so that the slurried mineral can flow to a location where a pump raises the slurry to the surface.

  11. Leaking underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Dowd, R.M.

    1984-10-01

    The problems associated with leaking underground storage tanks are discussed. An estimated 10-30% of the 3.5 million or more underground tanks now used to store petroleum products and other liquids may be leaking their contents to the surrounding environment. The EPA is initiating a national field survey of tanks used for the storing of engine fuels. The first phase of the survey will cover a representative sample of 1050 facilities and approximately 2800 tanks. EPA will analyze the questionnaires and then select a sub-sample of about 500 tanks to examine leakage problems in more detail. In the absence of specific groundwater protection legislation or regulation, EPA is planning to use the Toxic Substances Control Act to regulate underground tanks.

  12. High-Redshift Candidates and the Nature of Small Galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storrie-Lombardi, Lisa J.; Weymann, Ray J.; Thompson, Rodger I.

    2003-07-01

    We present results on two related topics: (1) a discussion of high-redshift candidates (z>4.5) and (2) a study of very small galaxies at intermediate redshifts, both sets being detected in the region of the northern Hubble Deep Field (HDF) covered by the deep NICMOS observations at 1.6 and 1.1 μm. The high-redshift candidates are just those with redshift z>4.5 as given in the recent catalog of Thompson, Weymann, and Storrie-Lombardi, while the ``small galaxy'' sample is defined to be those objects with isophotal area <=0.2 arcsec2 and with photometric redshift 1<=z<=4.5. Of the 19 possible high-redshift candidates listed in the Thompson et al. catalog, 11 have (nominal) photometric redshifts less than 5.0. Of these, however, only four are ``robust'' in the sense of yielding high redshifts when the fluxes are randomly perturbed with errors comparable to the estimated measuring error in each wave band. For the eight other objects with nominal photometric redshifts greater than 5.0, one (WFPC2 4-473) has a published spectroscopic redshift. Of the remaining seven, four are robust in the sense indicated above. Two of these form a close pair (NIC 586 and NIC 107). The redshift of the object having formally the highest redshift, at 6.56 (NIC 118=WFPC2 4-601), is problematic, since F606W and F814W flux are clearly present, and the nature of this object poses a dilemma. Previous work by Colley et al. has suggested that compact sources in the WFPC2 HDF images are subgalactic components at redshifts z>0.5 since they are correlated on scales less than 1", corresponding to physical scales of less than 8 kpc (H0=65 km s-1 Mpc-1, q0=0.125). We confirm these correlations in the WFPC2 data. However, we do not detect the correlation of close pairs of galaxies on small scales in the ~0.65 arcmin2 region of the HDF that we surveyed with NICMOS. The smaller area surveyed and lower resolution will make any real correlation more difficult to measure in these data. We have examined

  13. Background Underground at WIPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esch, Ernst-Ingo; Hime, A.; Bowles, T. J.

    2001-04-01

    Recent interest to establish a dedicated underground laboratory in the United States prompted an experimental program at to quantify the enviromental backgrounds underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. An outline of this program is provided along with recent experimental data on the cosmic ray muon flux at the 650 meter level of WIPP. The implications of the cosmic ray muon and fast neutron background at WIPP will be discussed in the context of new generation, low background experiments envisioned in the future.

  14. Underground radial pipe network

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.L.

    1984-04-24

    The network, useful in conducting fluids to underground sites, is an assembly of flexible pipes or tubes, suspended from and connected to a drill pipe. The flexible pipes, assembled in a bundle, are spring biased to flare outwardly in an arcuate manner when a releasable cap on the distal end of the bundle is removed. The assembled bundle is inserted into and lowered down a bore hole. When the cap is released, the pipes flare radially and outwardly. Fluid, pumped into and through the assembly, can be directed into the underground formation for various purposes.

  15. Underground structure of terrestrial mud volcanoes and abnormal water pressure formation in Niigata, Central JAPAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, K.; Shinya, T.; Miyata, Y.; Tokuyasu, S.

    2005-12-01

    Activity of mud volcano is thought to be caused by an abnormal water pressure generated in deep underground and make a serious problem for underground constructions such as railway tunnel, underground facility for radwaste and so on. It is important to investigate the underground structure of a mud volcano and the mechanism of abnormal water formation for site selection and safety assessment of such facilities. Serious trouble such as tunnel wall collapse due to the rock swelling has happened 180m deep under mud volcanoes. It took more than 10 years to excavate the section of 150 m long. 4 terrestrial mud volcanoes were found in the Tertiary sedimentary basin in Niigata, central Japan All the mud volcanoes are distributed along the rim of the topographic basin that is located at the NE-SW trending crest of mountainous area and distributed along the wing of anticline. Geological structure inside basin is heavily disturbed. The extinct mud volcano is exposed in the side-slope of newly constructed road and the internal vent structure of mud volcano can be observed. The vent is 30 m in diameter and is consisted of mud breccia and scaly network clay that is thought to be generated by hydro-fracturing and the following water-rock interaction between mudstone and groundwater. Groundwater erupted from mud volcano is highly saline with electric conductivity of 15 mS/cm and high 18 O/16 O isotope ratio of 1.2 parmillage. Also, the vitrinite reflectance is 1.5 to 1.9 % that is not expected in the sedimentary rocks exposed near ground surface. As a result, it is assumed that these erupted materials were introduced from the deep underground about 4000 m deep. CSA-MT geophysical exploration was carried out to survey the underground structure and obtained the profile of electrical resistivity from the surface to 800 m in depth. It is found that the disk-shaped low resistivity zone less than 1 m due to the high salinity content is identified in underground 600 m deep, 200 m thick

  16. High resolution imaging beyond the acoustic diffraction limit in deep tissue via ultrasound-switchable NIR fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Yanbo; Wei, Ming-Yuan; Cheng, Bingbing; Liu, Yuan; Xie, Zhiwei; Nguyen, Kytai; Yuan, Baohong

    2014-04-01

    Fluorescence imaging in deep tissue with high spatial resolution is highly desirable because it can provide details about tissue's structural, functional, and molecular information. Unfortunately, current fluorescence imaging techniques are limited either in penetration depth (microscopy) or spatial resolution (diffuse light based imaging) as a result of strong light scattering in deep tissue. To overcome this limitation, we developed an ultrasound-switchable fluorescence (USF) imaging technique whereby ultrasound was used to switch on/off the emission of near infrared (NIR) fluorophores. We synthesized and characterized unique NIR USF contrast agents. The excellent switching properties of these agents, combined with the sensitive USF imaging system developed in this study, enabled us to image fluorescent targets in deep tissue with spatial resolution beyond the acoustic diffraction limit.

  17. ANDES: An Underground Laboratory in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dib, Claudio O.

    ANDES (Agua Negra Deep Experiment Site) is an underground laboratory, proposed to be built inside the Agua Negra road tunnel that will connect Chile (IV Region) with Argentina (San Juan Province) under the Andes Mountains. The Laboratory will be 1750 meters under the rock, becoming the 3rd deepest underground laboratory of this kind in the world, and the first in the Southern Hemisphere. ANDES will be an international Laboratory, managed by a Latin American consortium. The laboratory will host experiments in Particle and Astroparticle Physics, such as Neutrino and Dark Matter searches, Seismology, Geology, Geophysics and Biology. It will also be used for the development of low background instrumentation and related services. Here we present the general features of the proposed laboratory, the current status of the proposal and some of its opportunities for science.

  18. Towards the South African Underground Laboratory (SAUL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyngaardt, S. M.; Newman, R. T.; Lindsay, R.; Buffler, A.; de Meijer, R.; Maleka, P.; Bezuidenhout, J.; Nchodu, R.; van Rooyen, M.; Ndlovu, Z.

    Over the past two years there has been discussion among South African physicists about the possibility of establishing a deep underground physics laboratory to study, amongst others, double beta decay, geoneutrinos, reactor neutrinos and dark matter. As a step towards a full proposal for such a laboratory a number of smaller programmes are currently being performed to investigate feasibility of the Huguenot Tunnel in the Du Toitskloof Mountains near Paarl (Western Cape, South Africa) as a possible sight for the South African Underground Laboratory facility. The programme includes measurements of radon in air (using electret ion chambers and alpha spectroscopy), background gammaray measurements (inside/outside) the tunnel using scintillator (inorganic) detectors, cosmic ray measurements using organic scintillators and radiometric analyses of representative rock samples.

  19. In situ bacterial colonization of compacted bentonite under deep geological high-level radioactive waste repository conditions.

    PubMed

    Chi Fru, E; Athar, R

    2008-06-01

    Subsurface microorganisms are expected to invade, colonize, and influence the safety performance of deep geological spent nuclear fuel (SNF) repositories. An understanding of the interactions of subsurface dwelling microbial communities with the storage is thus essential. For this to be achieved, experiments must be conducted under in situ conditions. We investigated the presence of groundwater microorganisms in repository bentonite saturated with groundwater recovered from tests conducted at the Aspö underground Hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden. A 16S ribosomal RNA and dissimilatory bisulfite reductase gene distribution between the bentonite and groundwater samples suggested that the sulfate-reducing bacteria widespread in the aquifers were not common in the clay. Aerophilic bacteria could be cultured from samples run at or=67 degrees C. Generally, the largely gram-negative groundwater microorganisms were poorly represented in the bentonite while the gram-positive bacteria commonly found in the clay predominated. Thus, bentonite compacted to a density of approximately 2 g cm(-3) together with elevated temperatures might discourage the mass introduction of the predominantly mesophilic granitic aquifer bacteria into future SNF repositories in the long run. PMID:18379777

  20. High levels of natural radioactivity in biota from deep-sea hydrothermal vents: a preliminary communication.

    PubMed

    Charmasson, Sabine; Sarradin, Pierre-Marie; Le Faouder, Antoine; Agarande, Michèle; Loyen, Jeanne; Desbruyères, Daniel

    2009-06-01

    Hydrothermal deep-sea vent fauna is naturally exposed to a peculiar environment enriched in potentially toxic species such as sulphides, heavy metals and natural radionuclides. It is now well established that some of the organisms present in such an environment accumulate metals during their lifespan. Though only few radionuclide measurements are available, it seems likely that hydrothermal vent communities are exposed to high natural radiation doses. Various archived biological samples collected on the East Pacific Rise and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in 1996, 2001 and 2002 were analysed by ICP-MS in order to determine their uranium contents ((238)U, (235)U and (234)U). In addition (210)Po-Pb were determined in 2 samples collected in 2002. Vent organisms are characterized by high U, and Po-Pb levels compared to what is generally encountered in organisms from outside hydrothermal vent ecosystems. Though the number of data is low, the results reveal various trends in relation to the site, the location within the mixing zone and/or the organisms' trophic regime. PMID:19362761

  1. Relationship between the geological and working parameters in high productivity longwalls in underground competitive coal mining of very thick seams

    SciTech Connect

    Torano, J.; Rivas, J.M.; Rodriguez, R.; Diego, I.; Pelegry, A.

    2005-07-01

    Carbonar S.A. is using a high productivity long panel to mine a coal seam that is over 4 meters thick in some places. The equipment comprises a double drum shearer and a powered roof support. Seam thickness, close joint state, and roof load over the support were measured, in situ. Data were collected on both cross and longitudinal sections of the panel. The data are interpreted and related to the longwall advance. The data are being processed using fuzzy logic methods. The results will be applied to remote control automation using virtual reality tools. 7 refs., 27 figs.

  2. Tropical deep convective life cycle: Cb-anvil cloud microphysics from high altitude aircraft observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, W.; Borrmann, S.; Fierli, F.; Weigel, R.; Mitev, V.; Matthey, R.; Ravegnani, F.; Sitnikov, N. M.; Ulanovsky, A.; Cairo, F.

    2014-05-01

    The case study presented here focusses on the life cycle of clouds in a tropical deep convective system. During the SCOUT-O3 campaign from Darwin, Northern Australia, the Hector storm system has been probed by the Geophysica high altitude aircraft. Clouds were observed by in situ particle probes, a backscatter sonde, and a miniature lidar. Additionally, aerosol number concentrations have been measured. On 30 November 2005 a double flight took place and Hector was probed throughout its life cycle in its developing, mature, and dissipating stage. The two flights were four hours apart and focussed on the anvil region of Hector in altitudes between 10.5 km and 18.8 km (i.e. above 350 K potential temperature). Trajectory calculations and ozone measurements have been used to identify that the same cloud air masses have been probed in both flights. The size distributions derived from the measurements not only show a change with increasing altitude but also with the evolution of Hector. Clearly different aerosol to cloud particle ratios as well as varying ice crystal morphology have been found for the different development stages of Hector, indicating a change in freezing mechanisms. The development phase exhibits the smallest ice particles (up to 300 μm) with a rather uniform morphology. This is indicative for rapid glaciation during Hector's development. Sizes of ice crystals are largest in the mature stage (larger 1.6 mm) and even exceed those of some continental tropical deep convective clouds, also in their number concentrations. The backscatter properties and particle images show a change from frozen droplets in the developing phase to rimed and aggregated particles. The clouds in the dissipating stage have a large vertical extend (roughly 6 km) though optically thin and persist for at least 6 h. This poses a high potential for affecting the tropical tropopause layer background conditions regarding humidity, e.g. through facilitating subvisible cirrus formation, and

  3. A very high-resolution, deep-towed, multichannel seismic streamer, part I: technical design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialas, J.; Breitzke, M.

    2003-04-01

    In order to allow very high resolution seismic data collection a new deep towed multichannel seismic streamer was developed within the gas hydrate initiative of the "Geotechnologien" program. The essential factor in terms of lateral resolution is determined by the size of the Fresnel zone. Using migration algorithms resolution could be enhanced up to half a wavelength, but this is only valid for the inline direction and will not recognize side effects. As the Fresnel zone is specified by the depth of source and receiver, as well as the velocity and frequency of the acoustic waves a lowering of source and receiver towards the sea floor will increase the lateral resolution. In our case we concentrated on the lowering of the receiver array resulting in hybrid system architecture, still using conventional surface operated airguns. Assuming a working depth of 3000 m and a source signal of 200 Hz the radius will be reduced from 106 m for surface configuration to 26 m for the hybrid case. The digital streamer comprises of single hydrophone nodes, which are coupled by cable sections of individual length. Due to this modular architecture the streamer lay out could be adapted to the source and target requirements. Currently 26 hydrophones are available which are sampled at 0.25 ms using a 24-bit A/D converter. Together with high-resolution data acquisition the request for good positioning is another issue. Therefore three of the hydrophone modules are extended to engineering modules. These nodes include a depth sensor as well as a compass, enabling the online display of a relative positioning of the streamer. Absolute coordinates of the deep towed system are measured through an ultra short baseline (USBL) system. Using a depth sensor within the deployed transponder the position could measured within 1% of the slant range even at very large offsets to the surface vessel. A permanent online connection to the deployed system is provided by a telemetry system, which is capable

  4. Thermal-mechanical modeling of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Bill Walter; Hadgu, Teklu

    2010-12-01

    Disposal of high-level radioactive waste, including spent nuclear fuel, in deep (3 to 5 km) boreholes is a potential option for safely isolating these wastes from the surface and near-surface environment. Existing drilling technology permits reliable and cost-effective construction of such deep boreholes. Conditions favorable for deep borehole disposal in crystalline basement rocks, including low permeability, high salinity, and geochemically reducing conditions, exist at depth in many locations, particularly in geologically stable continental regions. Isolation of waste depends, in part, on the effectiveness of borehole seals and potential alteration of permeability in the disturbed host rock surrounding the borehole. Coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrologic processes induced by heat from the radioactive waste may impact the disturbed zone near the borehole and borehole wall stability. Numerical simulations of the coupled thermal-mechanical response in the host rock surrounding the borehole were conducted with three software codes or combinations of software codes. Software codes used in the simulations were FEHM, JAS3D, Aria, and Adagio. Simulations were conducted for disposal of spent nuclear fuel assemblies and for the higher heat output of vitrified waste from the reprocessing of fuel. Simulations were also conducted for both isotropic and anisotropic ambient horizontal stress in the host rock. Physical, thermal, and mechanical properties representative of granite host rock at a depth of 4 km were used in the models. Simulation results indicate peak temperature increases at the borehole wall of about 30 C and 180 C for disposal of fuel assemblies and vitrified waste, respectively. Peak temperatures near the borehole occur within about 10 years and decline rapidly within a few hundred years and with distance. The host rock near the borehole is placed under additional compression. Peak mechanical stress is increased by about 15 MPa (above the assumed ambient

  5. Thermal-Mechanical Modeling of Deep Borehole Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, B. W.; Clayton, D. J.; Herrick, C. G.; Hadgu, T.

    2010-12-01

    Disposal of high-level radioactive waste, including spent nuclear fuel, in deep (3 to 5 km) boreholes is a potential option for safely isolating these wastes from the surface and near-surface environment. Existing drilling technology permits reliable and cost-effective construction of such deep boreholes. Conditions favorable for deep borehole disposal in crystalline basement rocks, including low permeability, high salinity, and geochemically reducing conditions, exist at depth in many locations, particularly in geologically stable continental regions. Isolation of waste depends, in part, on the effectiveness of borehole seals and potential alteration of permeability in the disturbed host rock surrounding the borehole. Coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrologic processes induced by heat from the radioactive waste may impact the disturbed zone near the borehole and borehole wall stability. Numerical simulations of the coupled thermal-mechanical response in the host rock surrounding the borehole were conducted with three software codes or combinations of software codes. Software codes used in the simulations were FEHM, JAS3D, Aria, and Adagio. Simulations were conducted for disposal of spent nuclear fuel assemblies and for the higher heat output of vitrified waste from the reprocessing of fuel. Simulations were also conducted for both isotropic and anisotropic ambient horizontal stress in the host rock. Physical, thermal, and mechanical properties representative of granite host rock at a depth of 4 km were used in the models. Simulation results indicate peak temperature increases at the borehole wall of about 30 °C and 180 °C for disposal of fuel assemblies and vitrified waste, respectively. Peak temperatures near the borehole occur within about 10 years and decline rapidly within a few hundred years and with distance. The host rock near the borehole is placed under additional compression. Peak mechanical stress is increased by about 15 MPa (above the assumed ambient

  6. Science and Technology Gaps in Underground Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, R; Burton, E; Friedmann, J

    2006-06-27

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is an appropriate technology to economically access the energy resources in deep and/or unmineable coal seams and potentially to extract these reserves through production of synthetic gas (syngas) for power generation, production of synthetic liquid fuels, natural gas, or chemicals. India is a potentially good area for underground coal gasification. India has an estimated amount of about 467 billion British tons (bt) of possible reserves, nearly 66% of which is potential candidate for UCG, located at deep to intermediate depths and are low grade. Furthermore, the coal available in India is of poor quality, with very high ash content and low calorific value. Use of coal gasification has the potential to eliminate the environmental hazards associated with ash, with open pit mining and with greenhouse gas emissions if UCG is combined with re-injection of the CO{sub 2} fraction of the produced gas. With respect to carbon emissions, India's dependence on coal and its projected rapid rise in electricity demand will make it one of the world's largest CO{sub 2} producers in the near future. Underground coal gasification, with separation and reinjection of the CO{sub 2} produced by the process, is one strategy that can decouple rising electricity demand from rising greenhouse gas contributions. UCG is well suited to India's current and emerging energy demands. The syngas produced by UCG can be used to generate electricity through combined cycle. It can also be shifted chemically to produce synthetic natural gas (e.g., Great Plains Gasification Plant in North Dakota). It may also serve as a feedstock for methanol, gasoline, or diesel fuel production and even as a hydrogen supply. Currently, this technology could be deployed in both eastern and western India in highly populated areas, thus reducing overall energy demand. Most importantly, the reduced capital costs and need for better surface facilities provide a platform for rapid

  7. Underground Tank Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednar, Barbara A.

    1990-01-01

    The harm to human health and our environment caused by leaking underground storage tanks can be devastating. Schools can meet new federal waste management standards by instituting daily inventory monitoring, selecting a reliable volumetric testing company, locating and repairing leaks promptly, and removing and installing tanks appropriately. (MLH)

  8. Underground Coal Mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Computer program models coal-mining production, equipment failure and equipment repair. Underground mine is represented as collection of work stations requiring service by production and repair crews alternately. Model projects equipment availability and productivity, and indicates proper balance of labor and equipment. Program is in FORTRAN IV for batch execution; it has been implemented on UNIVAC 1108.

  9. Mars Underground News.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgett, K.

    Contents: Ten years Underground. Rover roundup (International Conference on Mobile Planetary Robots and Rover Roundup, Santa Monica, CA (USA), 29 Jan - 4 Feb 1997). Reaching the Red. Schedule of missions to Mars (as of April 1, 1997). Mars on the Web.

  10. Collaborations in Underground Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Joseph S. Y.

    2011-04-01

    There are programs between underground physics labs into other studies. The Gran Sasso with large halls and dedicated tunnels in Italy and the Canfranc with newly completed space in Spain have geodynamic experiments (A. Bettini communication, 2011). The Low Noise Underground Lab (LSBB of Rustrel-pays d'Apt) converted a former French missiles launching command center to house a SQUID shielded electromagnetically above 10 Hz for global ionosphere and earthquake observations (G. Waysand et al. 2010). The China JingPing Lab has new physics room and tunnels excavated under 2.5 km overburden with rock mechanic changes evaluated (X. Feng, 2011). These are examples associated with tunnels through mountain ranges. In North America, we have Canada's SNO in an active mine with new space and the U.S. effort for reentry into the abandoned Homestake mine levels for physics and bio-geo-engineering studies. We also have underground research labs dedicated to nuclear waste research in Sweden, Switzerland, France, Germany, and candidate sites in Japan and China. All these underground labs are engaging in international collaborations to develop inter-disciplinary studies. The linkage/networking with International Physics is pursued.

  11. Preliminary hydrogeologic evaluation of the Cincinnati Arch region for underground high-level radioactive waste disposal, Indiana, Kentucky , and Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lloyd, O.B.; Davis, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary interpretation of available hydrogeologic data suggests that some areas underlying eastern Indiana, north-central Kentucky, and western Ohio might be worthy of further study regarding the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Precambrian crystalline rocks buried beneath Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in the area. The data indicate that (1) largest areas of deepest potential burial and thickest sedimentary rock cover occur in eastern Indiana; (2) highest concentrations of dissolved solids in the basal sandstone aquifer, suggesting the most restricted circulation, are found in the southern part of the area near the Kentucky-Ohio State line and in southeastern Indiana; (3) largest areas of lowest porosity in the basal sandstone aquifer, low porosity taken as an indicator of the lowest groundwater flow velocity and contaminant migration, are found in northeastern Indiana and northwestern Ohio, central and southeastern Indiana, and central Kentucky; (4) the thickest confining units that directly overlie the basal sandstone aquifer are found in central Kentucky and eastern Indiana where their thickness exceeds 500 ft; (5) steeply dipping faults that form potential hydraulic connections between crystalline rock, the basal sandstone aquifer, and the freshwater circulation system occur on the boundaries of the study area mainly in central Kentucky and central Indiana. Collectively, these data indicate that the hydrogeology of the sedimentary rocks in the western part of the study area is more favorably suited than that in the remainder of the area for the application of the buried crystalline-rock concept. (USGS)

  12. High-contrast imaging with Spitzer: deep observations of Vega, Fomalhaut, and ɛ Eridani

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janson, Markus; Quanz, Sascha P.; Carson, Joseph C.; Thalmann, Christian; Lafrenière, David; Amara, Adam

    2015-02-01

    Stars with debris disks are intriguing targets for direct-imaging exoplanet searches, owing both to previous detections of wide planets in debris disk systems, and to commonly existing morphological features in the disks themselves that may be indicative of a planetary influence. Here we present observations of three of the most nearby young stars, which are also known to host massive debris disks: Vega, Fomalhaut, and ɛ Eri. The Spitzer Space Telescope is used at a range of orientation angles for each star to supply a deep contrast through angular differential imaging combined with high-contrast algorithms. The observations provide the opportunity to probe substantially colder bound planets (120-330 K) than is possible with any other technique or instrument. For Vega, some apparently very red candidate point sources detected in the 4.5 μm image remain to be tested for common proper motion. The images are sensitive to ~2 Mjup companions at 150 AU in this system. The observations presented here represent the first search for planets around Vega using Spitzer. The upper 4.5 μm flux limit on Fomalhaut b could be further constrained relative to previous data. In the case of ɛ Eri, planets below both the effective temperature and the mass of Jupiter could be probed from 80 AU and outward, although no such planets were found. The data sensitively probe the regions around the edges of the debris rings in the systems where planets can be expected to reside. These observations validate previous results showing that more than an order of magnitude improvement in performance in the contrast-limited regime can be acquired with respect to conventional methods by applying sophisticated high-contrast techniques to space-based telescopes, thanks to the high degree of PSF stability provided in this environment.

  13. Global Pursuits: The Underground Railroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This brief article describes Charles T. Webber's oil on canvas painting, "The Underground Railroad, 1893." The subject of this painting is the Underground Railroad, which today has become an American legend. The Underground Railroad was not a systematic means of transportation, but rather a secretive process that allowed fugitive slaves to escape…

  14. A programmable high-voltage compliance neural stimulator for deep brain stimulation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gong, Cihun-Siyong Alex; Lai, Hsin-Yi; Huang, Sy-Han; Lo, Yu-Chun; Lee, Nicole; Chen, Pin-Yuan; Tu, Po-Hsun; Yang, Chia-Yen; Lin, James Chang-Chieh; Chen, You-Yin

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is one of the most effective therapies for movement and other disorders. The DBS neurosurgical procedure involves the implantation of a DBS device and a battery-operated neurotransmitter, which delivers electrical impulses to treatment targets through implanted electrodes. The DBS modulates the neuronal activities in the brain nucleus for improving physiological responses as long as an electric discharge above the stimulation threshold can be achieved. In an effort to improve the performance of an implanted DBS device, the device size, implementation cost, and power efficiency are among the most important DBS device design aspects. This study aims to present preliminary research results of an efficient stimulator, with emphasis on conversion efficiency. The prototype stimulator features high-voltage compliance, implemented with only a standard semiconductor process, without the use of extra masks in the foundry through our proposed circuit structure. The results of animal experiments, including evaluation of evoked responses induced by thalamic electrical stimuli with our fabricated chip, were shown to demonstrate the proof of concept of our design. PMID:26029954

  15. Jet substructure classification in high-energy physics with deep neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, Pierre; Bauer, Kevin; Eng, Clara; Sadowski, Peter; Whiteson, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    At the extreme energies of the Large Hadron Collider, massive particles can be produced at such high velocities that their hadronic decays are collimated and the resulting jets overlap. Deducing whether the substructure of an observed jet is due to a low-mass single particle or due to multiple decay objects of a massive particle is an important problem in the analysis of collider data. Traditional approaches have relied on expert features designed to detect energy deposition patterns in the calorimeter, but the complexity of the data make this task an excellent candidate for the application of machine learning tools. The data collected by the detector can be treated as a two-dimensional image, lending itself to the natural application of image classification techniques. In this work, we apply deep neural networks with a mixture of locally connected and fully connected nodes. Our experiments demonstrate that without the aid of expert features, such networks match or modestly outperform the current state-of-the-art approach for discriminating between jets from single hadronic particles and overlapping jets from pairs of collimated hadronic particles, and that such performance gains persist in the presence of pileup interactions.

  16. 3D, high-resolution deep x-ray absorber mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumbravescu, Niculae; Grigore, Luminita

    2000-08-01

    Although, by using gray-tone lithography and common technologies in standard IC fabrication it's easy to obtain an arbitrarily 3-D shaping of positive thick resists, there are some limitations too. E-beam writing implies a maximum of only 200 gray-levels on the project retilce, and the limited focus depth of the projection objective gives a poor lateral resolution. That's why we applied a new approach to enhance the 3-D resolution of gray-tone lithography. By combining gray-tone lithography with binary masking technique, it was possible to obtain a high resolution (vertical and horizontal directions) into thick resist. Considering it as a primary mold, a metallic variable absorber mask for deep X-ray lithography may be processed. Previously, it's necessary to transform the resist surface into a conductive layer as follows: conditioning, nucleation and electroless plating, respectively. After that, a metallic deposit is obtained by electroplating at a desired thickness, resulting in a complementary shape of the mold resist. The original design and fabrication method for the gray-tone test reticle were supported by preliminary experiments showing the main advantage of this new technology: the 3-D structuring of thick resists in a single exposure step and also a very promising aspect ratio obtained of over 9:1.

  17. A Programmable High-Voltage Compliance Neural Stimulator for Deep Brain Stimulation in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Cihun-Siyong Alex; Lai, Hsin-Yi; Huang, Sy-Han; Lo, Yu-Chun; Lee, Nicole; Chen, Pin-Yuan; Tu, Po-Hsun; Yang, Chia-Yen; Lin, James Chang-Chieh; Chen, You-Yin

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is one of the most effective therapies for movement and other disorders. The DBS neurosurgical procedure involves the implantation of a DBS device and a battery-operated neurotransmitter, which delivers electrical impulses to treatment targets through implanted electrodes. The DBS modulates the neuronal activities in the brain nucleus for improving physiological responses as long as an electric discharge above the stimulation threshold can be achieved. In an effort to improve the performance of an implanted DBS device, the device size, implementation cost, and power efficiency are among the most important DBS device design aspects. This study aims to present preliminary research results of an efficient stimulator, with emphasis on conversion efficiency. The prototype stimulator features high-voltage compliance, implemented with only a standard semiconductor process, without the use of extra masks in the foundry through our proposed circuit structure. The results of animal experiments, including evaluation of evoked responses induced by thalamic electrical stimuli with our fabricated chip, were shown to demonstrate the proof of concept of our design. PMID:26029954

  18. Geophysical Exploration Technologies for the Deep Lithosphere Research: An Education Materials for High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, H.; Xu, C.; Luo, S.; Chen, H.; Qin, R.

    2012-12-01

    The science of Geophysics applies the principles of physics to study of the earth. Geophysical exploration technologies include the earthquake seismology, the seismic reflection and refraction methods, the gravity method, the magnetic method and the magnetotelluric method, which are used to measure the interior material distribution, their structure and the tectonics in the lithosphere of the earth. Part of the research project in SinoProbe-02-06 is to develop suitable education materials for carton movies targeting the high school students and public. The carton movies include five parts. The first part includes the structures of the earth's interior and variation in their physical properties that include density, p-wave, s-wave and so on, which are the fundamentals of the geophysical exploration technologies. The second part includes the seismology that uses the propagation of elastic waves through the earth to study the structure and the material distribution of the earth interior. It can be divided into earthquake seismology and artifice seismics commonly using reflection and refraction. The third part includes the magnetic method. Earth's magnetic field (also known as the geomagnetic field)extends from the Earth's inner core to where it meets the solar wind, a stream of energetic particles emanating from the Sun. The aim of magnetic survey is to investigate subsurface geology on the basis of anomalies in the Earth's magnetic field resulting from the magnetic properties of the underlying rocks. The magnetic method in the lithosphere attempts to use magnetic disturbance to analyse the regional geological structure and the magnetic boundaries of the crust. The fourth part includes the gravity method. A gravity anomaly results from the inhomogeneous distribution of density of the Earth. Usually gravity anomalies contain superposed anomalies from several sources. The long wave length anomalies due to deep density contrasts are called regional anomalies. They are

  19. Are high p-wave velocity sediments on thin Tethyan crust, deep-water carbonates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutscher, Marc-Andre; Graindorge, David; Klingelhoefer, Frauke; Dellong, David; Kopp, Heidrun; Sallares, Valenti; Bartolome, Rafael; Gallais, Flora

    2016-04-01

    Seismic reflection profiles from the Central Mediterranean and Gulf of Cadiz regions indicate the widespread presence of a seismic unit, marked by strong continuous reflectors, directly overlying the basement. Seismic velocity analysis from seismic reflection and refraction studies indicate high p-wave velocities of 3.5 - 4.5 km/s in this layer. These same seismic studies image a thin crust, typically 6-9 km thick, in most cases thought to be oceanic in nature and related to the Tethys oceanic domain separating Africa (Gondwana) from Laurussia. We interpret this 2-3 km thick reflective layer to be carbonates, deposited in the late Triassic, Jurassic and early Cretaceous in the Tethys Ocean, in deep marine basins. Few drilling studies have penetrated into this layer. In one case (DSDP site 135, drilled at 4152 m water depth on Coral Patch Ridge in the western Gulf of Cadiz), Aptian (early Cretaceous) marls and limestone were drilled (560-689 m sub-seafloor depth). The Calcite compensation depth during the Jurassic to Early Cretaceous was about 4000 m to 3500 m according to compilations from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans and is consistent with deposition of deep-water carbonates. For the NW Moroccan margin (Mazagan transect near El Jadida) there is a 2 km thick sedimentary layer with p-wave velocities of 4.0 - 4.5 km/s at the base of a 4 - 6 km thick sedimentary section. This layer extends from seafloor thought to be oceanic crust (west of the West African Coast magnetic anomaly) across a domain of thin/transitional crust with abundant Triassic salt diapirs to the foot of the margin. This reflective basal layer is also observed in reflection and refraction profiles from the Seine abyssal plain, below the toe of the Cadiz accretionary wedge (S. Algarve margin), in the Ionian abyssal plain and below the toe of the Calabrian accretionary wedge, all regions floored by this thin Tethyan crust. Work is in progress to determine the exact nature of this crust.

  20. The Stranger Within: Dostoevsky's Underground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In Fyodor Dostoevsky's influential novel "Notes from underground", we find one of the most memorable characters in nineteenth century literature. The Underground Man, around whom everything else in this book revolves, is in some respects utterly repugnant: he is self-centred, obsessive and cruel. Yet he is also highly intelligent,…

  1. High-Resolution Bistatic Radar Imaging With The Deep-Space Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, M.; Benner, L.; Slade, M. A.; Teitelbaum, L.; Brozovic, M.; Nolan, M. C.; Taylor, P. A.; Ghigo, F. D.; Ford, J.

    2014-12-01

    Recent upgrades to the Deep Space Network's Goldstone Solar System Radar allow the transmitted waveform to be modulated at up to 40 MHz, providing resolution as fine as 3.75 m in line-of-sight distance for near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and the Moon. Bistatic observations, transmitting with an antenna at Goldstone and receiving with either another Goldstone antenna or a larger antenna such as the Arecibo Observatory or the Green Bank Telescope, give the highest possible sensitivity combined with high resolution. High-resolution bistatic radar projects have revealed spin state changes and the presence of boulders on many NEAs. Examples include radar imaging campaigns on the NEAs 2005 YU55, Toutatis, 2012 DA14, and 2014 HQ124. In the near future, a new high-resolution transmitter on Goldstone's DSS-13 antenna will be able to transmit a signal modulated at 80 MHz, improving line-of-sight resolution by a factor of two to 1.875 m. This will allow many new projects: seeing previously-invisible surface details; measuring the size distributions of boulders and possibly craters on small NEAs; obtaining better estimates of the masses and densities of asteroids from radiation pressure perturbations to their trajectories; improved trajectory predictions for small spacecraft targets and potential Earth impactors; and possibly imaging the reconfiguration of asteroids' surfaces due to tides during extremely close Earth flybys. Somewhat further into the future, a 1.875-m-resolution transmitter may be installed on a 34-m antenna at the DSN's Canberra complex. This would allow radar imaging of objects in the far southern sky, which current radars cannot see. It would also facilitate rapid follow-up of newly discovered radar targets and before-and-after observations of NEAs making flybys close enough to cause tidal reconfiguration, which move very quickly across the sky at closest approach. As with the current 3.75-m-resolution system, these future high-resolution transmitters will

  2. Investigating the Local and High Redshift Universe With Deep Survey Data and Ground-Based Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Daniel Charles

    Large multiwavelength surveys are now driving the frontiers of astronomical research. I describe results from my work using data from two large astronomical surveys: the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS), which has obtained deep photometric and spectroscopic data on two square degrees of the sky using many of the most powerful telescopes in the world, and the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels (WISP) Survey, which uses the highly sensitive slitless spectroscopic capability of the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 to detect star-forming galaxies over most of the universe's history. First I describe my work on the evolution of the high-redshift quasar luminosity function, an important observational quantity constraining the growth of the supermassive black holes in the early universe. I show that the number density of faint quasars declines rapidly above z ˜ 3. This result is discussed in the context of cosmic reionization and the coevolution of galaxies and their central black holes. Next I present results of a multi-year campaign of near-infrared spectroscopy with FIRE, a world-class near-infrared spectrometer on the Magellan Baade 6.5 meter telescope in Chile, targeting emission-line galaxies at z ˜ 2 discovered with the Hubble Space Telescope. Our results showed that the typical emission-line galaxy at this redshift has low-metallicity, low dust obscuration, high ionization parameter, and little evidence for significant active galactic nucleus (AGN) contribution to the emission lines. We also find evidence that high redshift star-forming galaxies have enhanced nitrogen abundances. This result has interesting implications for the nature of the star formation in such galaxies -- in particular, it could mean that a large fraction of such galaxies harbor substantial populations of Wolf-Rayet stars, which are massive, evolved stars ejecting large amounts of enriched matter into the interstellar medium. Finally, I will discuss the discovery of three

  3. Precision-cut liver slices to investigate responsiveness of deep-sea fish to contaminants at high pressure.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Benjamin; Debier, Cathy; Calderon, Pedro Buc; Thomé, Jean Pierre; Stegeman, John; Mork, Jarle; Rees, Jean François

    2012-09-18

    While deep-sea fish accumulate high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), the toxicity associated with this contamination remains unknown. Indeed, the recurrent collection of moribund individuals precludes experimental studies to investigate POP effects in this fauna. We show that precision-cut liver slices (PCLS), an in vitro tool commonly used in human and rodent toxicology, can overcome such limitation. This technology was applied to individuals of the deep-sea grenadier Coryphaenoides rupestris directly upon retrieval from 530-m depth in Trondheimsfjord (Norway). PCLS remained viable and functional for 15 h when maintained in an appropriate culture media at 4 °C. This allowed experimental exposure of liver slices to the model POP 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC; 25 μM) at levels of hydrostatic pressure mimicking shallow (0.1 megapascal or MPa) and deep-sea (5-15 MPa; representative of 500-1500 m depth) environments. As in shallow water fish, 3-MC induced the transcription of the detoxification enzyme cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A; a biomarker of exposure to POPs). This induction was diminished at elevated pressure, suggesting a limited responsiveness of C. rupestris toward POPs in its native environment. This very first in vitro toxicological investigation on a deep-sea fish opens the route for understanding pollutants effects in this highly exposed fauna. PMID:22900608

  4. Rapid transport and high accumulation of amorphous silica in the Congo deep-sea fan: A preliminary budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimonet, Mélanie; Ragueneau, Olivier; Jacques, Vincent; Corvaisier, Rudolph; Moriceau, Brivaëla; Khripounoff, Alexis; Pozzato, Lara; Rabouille, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms controlling the transfer and retention of silicon (Si) along continental margins are poorly understood, but play a major role in the functioning of coastal ecosystems and the oceanic biological pump of carbon. Deep-sea fans are well recognized as carbon sink spots, but we lack knowledge about the importance of the fans in the global Si cycle. Here, we provide a first estimate of the role played by the Congo deep-sea fan, one of the biggest in the world, in the Si cycle. Sediment cores sampled in the deep-sea fan were analyzed to build a Si mass balance. An exceptionally high accumulation rate of amorphous silica aSiO2 (2.29 ± 0.58 mol Si m- 2 y- 1) was found, due to a high sedimentation rate and the presence of aluminum in the sediments. Although favored by bioirrigation, recycling fluxes remained low (0.3 mol Si m- 2 y- 1) and reconstructed input fluxes could only be explained by lateral inputs coming from the canyon. Preliminary calculations show that the rapid transport of aSiO2 through the canyon and the excellent preservation efficiency in the sediments imply that 50% of aSiO2 river inputs from the Congo River accumulate annually in the deep-sea fan. Si:C ratios in deep-sea fan sediments were very low (0.2) and only three times as high as those measured in the river itself, which suggests that material from the river and the continental shelf was delivered directly through the canyon, with very little time for Si and C cycle decoupling to take place.

  5. Leaking underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    McLearn, M.E.; Miller, M.J.; Kostecki, P.T.; Calabrese, E.J.; Presio, L.M.; Suyama, W.; Kucharski, W.A.

    1988-04-01

    Remedial options for leaking underground storage tanks were investigated in a joint project of the Electric Power Research Institute and the Underground Storage Tank Committee of the Utility Solid Waste Activities Group. Both existing and emerging technologies were examined. Thirteen remedial techniques were identified and initially characterized as in situ or non-in situ. In situ methods include volatilization, biodegradation, leaching and chemical reaction, vitrification, passive remediation, and isolation or containment. Non-in situ techniques include land treatment, thermal treatment, asphalt incorporation, solidification and stabilization, groundwater extraction and treatment, chemical extraction, and excavation. Soil and groundwater remediation problems have many site-specific consideration which must be considered in choosing an appropriate remedial option; these include cleanup goals, site and contaminant characteristics, cost, exposures pathways, and others. Appropriate remedial techniques are chosen by assessing technical, implementational, environmental and economic consideration of each available option to achieve the desired cleanup goal at the specified site.

  6. LUNA: Nuclear astrophysics underground

    SciTech Connect

    Best, A.

    2015-02-24

    Underground nuclear astrophysics with LUNA at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso spans a history of 20 years. By using the rock overburden of the Gran Sasso mountain chain as a natural cosmic-ray shield very low signal rates compared to an experiment on the surface can be tolerated. The cross sectons of important astrophysical reactions directly in the stellar energy range have been successfully measured. In this proceeding we give an overview over the key accomplishments of the experiment and an outlook on its future with the expected addition of an additional accelerator to the underground facilities, enabling the coverage of a wider energy range and the measurement of previously inaccessible reactions.

  7. Underground waste barrier structure

    DOEpatents

    Saha, Anuj J.; Grant, David C.

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed is an underground waste barrier structure that consists of waste material, a first container formed of activated carbonaceous material enclosing the waste material, a second container formed of zeolite enclosing the first container, and clay covering the second container. The underground waste barrier structure is constructed by forming a recessed area within the earth, lining the recessed area with a layer of clay, lining the clay with a layer of zeolite, lining the zeolite with a layer of activated carbonaceous material, placing the waste material within the lined recessed area, forming a ceiling over the waste material of a layer of activated carbonaceous material, a layer of zeolite, and a layer of clay, the layers in the ceiling cojoining with the respective layers forming the walls of the structure, and finally, covering the ceiling with earth.

  8. A large and deep root system underlies high nitrogen-use efficiency in maize production.

    PubMed

    Yu, Peng; Li, Xuexian; White, Philip J; Li, Chunjian

    2015-01-01

    Excessive N fertilization results in low N-use efficiency (NUE) without any yield benefits and can have profound, long-term environmental consequences including soil acidification, N leaching and increased production of greenhouse gases. Improving NUE in crop production has been a longstanding, worldwide challenge. A crucial strategy to improve NUE is to enhance N uptake by roots. Taking maize as a model crop, we have compared root dry weight (RDW), root/shoot biomass ratio (R/S), and NUE of maize grown in the field in China and in western countries using data from 106 studies published since 1959. Detailed analysis revealed that the differences in the RDW and R/S of maize at silking in China and the western countries were not derived from variations in climate, geography, and stress factors. Instead, NUE was positively correlated with R/S and RDW; R/S and NUE of maize varieties grown in western countries were significantly greater than those grown in China. We then testified this conclusion by conducting field trials with representative maize hybrids in China (ZD958 and XY335) and the US (P32D79). We found that US P32D79 had a better root architecture for increased N uptake and removed more mineral N than Chinese cultivars from the 0-60 cm soil profile. Reported data and our field results demonstrate that a large and deep root, with an appropriate architecture and higher stress tolerance (higher plant density, drought and N deficiency), underlies high NUE in maize production. We recommend breeding for these traits to reduce the N-fertilizer use and thus N-leaching in maize production and paying more attention to increase tolerance to stresses in China. PMID:25978356

  9. Transmutation Analysis of Enriched Uranium and Deep Burn High Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Michael A. Pope

    2012-07-01

    High temperature reactors (HTRs) have been under consideration for production of electricity, process heat, and for destruction of transuranics for decades. As part of the transmutation analysis efforts within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) campaign, a need was identified for detailed discharge isotopics from HTRs for use in the VISION code. A conventional HTR using enriched uranium in UCO fuel was modeled having discharge burnup of 120 GWd/MTiHM. Also, a deep burn HTR (DB-HTR) was modeled burning transuranic (TRU)-only TRU-O2 fuel to a discharge burnup of 648 GWd/MTiHM. For each of these cases, unit cell depletion calculations were performed with SCALE/TRITON. Unit cells were used to perform this analysis using SCALE 6.1. Because of the long mean free paths (and migration lengths) of neutrons in HTRs, using a unit cell to represent a whole core can be non-trivial. The sizes of these cells were first set by using Serpent calculations to match a spectral index between unit cell and whole core domains. In the case of the DB-HTR, the unit cell which was arrived at in this way conserved the ratio of fuel to moderator found in a single block of fuel. In the conventional HTR case, a larger moderator-to-fuel ratio than that of a single block was needed to simulate the whole core spectrum. Discharge isotopics (for 500 nuclides) and one-group cross-sections (for 1022 nuclides) were delivered to the transmutation analysis team. This report provides documentation for these calculations. In addition to the discharge isotopics, one-group cross-sections were provided for the full list of 1022 nuclides tracked in the transmutation library.

  10. A High-Dimensional, Deep-Sequencing Study of Lung Adenocarcinoma in Female Never-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Pora; Park, Jehwan; Seo, Jihae; Kim, Jiwoong; Park, Seongjin; Jang, Insu; Kim, Namshin; Yang, Jin Ok; Lee, Byungwook; Rho, Kyoohyoung; Jung, Yeonhwa; Keum, Juhee; Lee, Jinseon; Han, Jungho; Kang, Sangeun; Bae, Sujin; Choi, So-Jung; Kim, Sujin; Lee, Jong-Eun; Kim, Wankyu; Kim, Jhingook; Lee, Sanghyuk

    2013-01-01

    Background Deep sequencing techniques provide a remarkable opportunity for comprehensive understanding of tumorigenesis at the molecular level. As omics studies become popular, integrative approaches need to be developed to move from a simple cataloguing of mutations and changes in gene expression to dissecting the molecular nature of carcinogenesis at the systemic level and understanding the complex networks that lead to cancer development. Results Here, we describe a high-throughput, multi-dimensional sequencing study of primary lung adenocarcinoma tumors and adjacent normal tissues of six Korean female never-smoker patients. Our data encompass results from exome-seq, RNA-seq, small RNA-seq, and MeDIP-seq. We identified and validated novel genetic aberrations, including 47 somatic mutations and 19 fusion transcripts. One of the fusions involves the c-RET gene, which was recently reported to form fusion genes that may function as drivers of carcinogenesis in lung cancer patients. We also characterized gene expression profiles, which we integrated with genomic aberrations and gene regulations into functional networks. The most prominent gene network module that emerged indicates that disturbances in G2/M transition and mitotic progression are causally linked to tumorigenesis in these patients. Also, results from the analysis strongly suggest that several novel microRNA-target interactions represent key regulatory elements of the gene network. Conclusions Our study not only provides an overview of the alterations occurring in lung adenocarcinoma at multiple levels from genome to transcriptome and epigenome, but also offers a model for integrative genomics analysis and proposes potential target pathways for the control of lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:23405175

  11. High resolution sequence stratigraphy of Miocene deep-water clastic outcrops, Taranaki coast, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    King, P.R.; Browne, G.H.; Slatt, R.M.

    1995-08-01

    Approximately 700m of deep water clastic deposits of Mt. Messenger Formation are superbly exposed along the Taranaki coast of North Island, New Zealand. Biostratigraphy indicates the interval was deposited during the time span 10.5-9.2m.y. in water depths grading upward from lower bathyal to middle-upper bathyal. This interval is considered part of a 3rd order depositional sequence deposited under conditions of fluctuating relative sea-level, concomitant with high sedimentation rates. Several 4th order depositional sequences, reflecting successive sea-level falls, are recognized within the interval. Sequence boundaries display a range of erosive morphologies from metre-wide canyons to scours several hundred metres across. All components of a generic lowstand systems tract--basin floor fan, channel-levee complex and progading complex--are present in logical and temporal order. They are repetitive through the interval, with the relatively shallower-water components becoming more prevalent upward. Basin floor fan lithologies are mainly m-thick, massive and convolute-bedded sandstones that alternate with cm- and dm-thick massive, horizontally-stratified and ripple-laminated sandstones and bioturbated mudstones. Channel-levee deposits consist of interleaving packages of thin-bedded, climbing-rippled and parallel-laminated sandstones and millstones; infrequent channels are filled with sandstones and mudstones, and sometimes lined with conglomerate. Thin beds of parallel to convoluted mudstone comprise prograding complex deposits. Similar lowstand systems tracts can be recognized and correlated on subsurface seismic reflection profiles and wireline logs. Such correlation has been aided by a continuous outcrop gamma-ray fog obtained over most of the measured interval. In the adjacent Taranaki peninsula, basin floor fan and channel-levee deposits comprise hydrocarbon reservoir intervals. Outcrop and subsurface reservior sandstones exhibit similar permeabilities.

  12. A Large and Deep Root System Underlies High Nitrogen-Use Efficiency in Maize Production

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Peng; Li, Xuexian; White, Philip J.; Li, Chunjian

    2015-01-01

    Excessive N fertilization results in low N-use efficiency (NUE) without any yield benefits and can have profound, long-term environmental consequences including soil acidification, N leaching and increased production of greenhouse gases. Improving NUE in crop production has been a longstanding, worldwide challenge. A crucial strategy to improve NUE is to enhance N uptake by roots. Taking maize as a model crop, we have compared root dry weight (RDW), root/shoot biomass ratio (R/S), and NUE of maize grown in the field in China and in western countries using data from 106 studies published since 1959. Detailed analysis revealed that the differences in the RDW and R/S of maize at silking in China and the western countries were not derived from variations in climate, geography, and stress factors. Instead, NUE was positively correlated with R/S and RDW; R/S and NUE of maize varieties grown in western countries were significantly greater than those grown in China. We then testified this conclusion by conducting field trials with representative maize hybrids in China (ZD958 and XY335) and the US (P32D79). We found that US P32D79 had a better root architecture for increased N uptake and removed more mineral N than Chinese cultivars from the 0-60 cm soil profile. Reported data and our field results demonstrate that a large and deep root, with an appropriate architecture and higher stress tolerance (higher plant density, drought and N deficiency), underlies high NUE in maize production. We recommend breeding for these traits to reduce the N-fertilizer use and thus N-leaching in maize production and paying more attention to increase tolerance to stresses in China. PMID:25978356

  13. Observations of in situ deep-sea marine bioluminescence with a high-speed, high-resolution sCMOS camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Brennan T.; Gruber, David F.; Vasan, Ganesh; Roman, Christopher N.; Pieribone, Vincent A.; Sparks, John S.

    2016-05-01

    Observing and measuring marine bioluminescence in situ presents unique challenges, characterized by the difficult task of approaching and imaging weakly illuminated bodies in a three-dimensional environment. To address this problem, a scientific complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (sCMOS) microscopy camera was outfitted for deep-sea imaging of marine bioluminescence. This system was deployed on multiple platforms (manned submersible, remotely operated vehicle, and towed body) in three oceanic regions (Western Tropical Pacific, Eastern Equatorial Pacific, and Northwestern Atlantic) to depths up to 2500 m. Using light stimulation, bioluminescent responses were recorded at high frame rates and in high resolution, offering unprecedented low-light imagery of deep-sea bioluminescence in situ. The kinematics of light production in several zooplankton groups was observed, and luminescent responses at different depths were quantified as intensity vs. time. These initial results signify a clear advancement in the bioluminescent imaging methods available for observation and experimentation in the deep-sea.

  14. In focus: Underground haulage

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    New ideas to improve mining techniques and equipment play a vital part in achieving the productivity improvements and cost reductions necessary for the profitability, and often in hard times, for the survival of mining operations. This paper reviews the development and design of rubber-tired underground haulage equipment currently used in the US northwest. It then goes on to discuss new developments in communication and computerized control systems for these haulage units.

  15. Underground mining methods handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Hustrulid, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    Sections discuss: mine design considerations; stopes requiring minimum support (includes room-and-pillar mining and sublevel stoping); stopes requiring some additional support other than pillars (includes shrinkage stoping, cut-and-fill stoping, undercut-and-fill mining, timber-supported system, top-slice mining, longwall mining and shortwall mining); caving methods (sublevel and block caving); underground equipment; financial considerations; design; and mine ventilation.

  16. Clustering at High Redshift: Precise Constraints from a Deep, Wide-Area Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postman, Marc; Lauer, Tod R.; Szapudi, István; Oegerle, William

    1998-10-01

    We present constraints on the evolution of large-scale structure from a catalog of 710,000 galaxies with IAB <= 24 derived from a KPNO 4 m CCD imaging survey of a contiguous 4° × 4° region. The advantage of using large contiguous surveys for measuring clustering properties on even modest angular scales is substantial: the effects of cosmic scatter are strongly suppressed. We provide highly accurate measurements of the two-point angular correlation function, ω(θ), as a function of magnitude on scales up to 1.5d. The amplitude of ω(θ) declines by a factor of ~10 over the range 16 <= I <= 20 but only by a factor of 2-3 over the range 20 < I <= 23. For a redshift dependence of the spatial correlation function, ξ(r), parameterized as ξ(r, z) = (r/r0)-γ(1 + z)-(3+ε), we find r0 = 5.2 +/- 0.4 h-1 Mpc, and ε >~ 0 for I <= 20. This is in good agreement with the results from local redshift surveys. At I > 20, our best-fit values shift toward lower r0 and more negative ε. A strong covariance between r0 and ε prevents us from rejecting ε > 0 even at faint magnitudes, but if ε > 1, we strongly reject r0 <~ 4 h-1 Mpc (comoving). The above expression for ξ(r, z) and our data give a correlation length of r0(z = 0.5) ~ 3.0 +/- 0.4 h-1 Mpc, about a factor of 2 larger than the correlation length at z = 0.5 derived from the Canada-France Redshift Survey (CFRS). The small volume sampled by the CFRS and other deep redshift probes, however, makes these spatial surveys strongly susceptible to cosmic scatter and will tend to bias their derived correlation lengths toward the low end. Our results are consistent with redshift distributions in which ~30%-50% of the galaxies at I = 23 lie at z > 1. The best-fit power-law slope of the correlation function remains independent of I magnitude for I <= 22. At fainter limits, there is a suggestive trend toward flatter slopes that occurs at fluxes consistent with similar trends seen by Neuschaffer & Windhorst and Campos and coworkers

  17. Patchiness of deep-sea benthic Foraminifera across the Southern Ocean: Insights from high-throughput DNA sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejzerowicz, Franck; Esling, Philippe; Pawlowski, Jan

    2014-10-01

    Spatial patchiness is a natural feature that strongly influences the level of species richness we perceive in surface sediments sampled in the deep-sea. Recent environmental DNA (eDNA) surveys of benthic micro- and meiofauna confirmed this exceptional richness. However, it is unknown to which extent the results of these studies, based usually on few grams of sediment, are affected by spatial patchiness of deep-sea benthos. Here, we analyse the eDNA diversity of Foraminifera in 42 deep-sea sediment samples collected across different scales in the Southern Ocean. At three stations, we deployed at least twice the multicorer and from each multicorer cast, we subsampled 3 sediment replicates per core for 2 cores. Using high-throughput sequencing (HTS), we generated over 2.35 million high-quality sequences that we clustered into 451 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The majority of OTUs were assigned to the monothalamous (single-chambered) taxa and environmental clades. On average, a one-gram sediment sample captures 57.9% of the overall OTU diversity found in a single core, while three replicates cover at most 61.9% of the diversity found in a station. The OTUs found in all the replicates of each core gather up to 87.9% of the total sequenced reads, but only represent from 12.2% to 30% of the OTUs found in one core. These OTUs represent the most abundant species, among which dominate environmental lineages. The majority of the OTUs are represented by few sequences comprising several well-known deep-sea morphospecies or remaining unassigned. It is crucial to study wider arrays of sample and PCR replicates as well as RNA together with DNA in order to overcome biases stemming from deep-sea patchiness and molecular methods.

  18. Efficient continuous synthesis of high purity deep eutectic solvents by twin screw extrusion.

    PubMed

    Crawford, D E; Wright, L A; James, S L; Abbott, A P

    2016-03-18

    Mechanochemical synthesis has been applied to the rapid synthesis of Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs), including Reline 200 (choline chloride : urea, 1 : 2), in a continuous flow methodology by Twin Screw Extrusion (TSE). This gave products in higher purity and with Space Time Yields (STYs), four orders of magnitude greater than for batch methods. PMID:26911554

  19. Deep Learning Questions Can Help Selection of High Ability Candidates for Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellanby, Jane; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Stein, John

    2009-01-01

    Selection of students for places at universities mainly depends on GCSE grades and predictions of A-level grades, both of which tend to favour applicants from independent schools. We have therefore developed a new type of test that would measure candidates' "deep learning" approach since this assesses the motivation and creative thinking that we…

  20. New underground laboratories: Europe, Asia and the Americas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettini, Alessandro

    2014-09-01

    Deep underground laboratories provide the low radioactive background environment necessary to explore the highest energy scales that cannot be reached with accelerators, by searching for extremely rare phenomena. In addition, these laboratories provide unique opportunities to sectors of other fields: geodynamics, rock mechanics, hydrology and the study of life under extreme conditions. Underground laboratories of different size and depth exist in all the regions. This article is focussed on future perspectives, reviewing the newer facilities, those still under project and the space becoming available at the older laboratories. We shall not discuss the existing or proposed facilities dedicated to detectors of long base line experiment with reactor or accelerator beams.

  1. Distribution of Linearly Polarized Gluons and Elliptic Azimuthal Anisotropy in Deep Inelastic Scattering Dijet Production at High Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitru, Adrian; Lappi, Tuomas; Skokov, Vladimir

    2015-12-01

    We determine the distribution of linearly polarized gluons of a dense target at small x by solving the Balitsky-Jalilian-Marian-Iancu-McLerran-Weigert-Leonidov-Kovner rapidity evolution equations. From these solutions, we estimate the amplitude of ˜cos 2 ϕ azimuthal asymmetries in deep inelastic scattering dijet production at high energies. We find sizable long-range in rapidity azimuthal asymmetries with a magnitude in the range of v2=⟨cos 2 ϕ ⟩˜10 % .

  2. Recognition of large scale deep-seated landslides in forest areas of Taiwan using high resolution topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ching-Weei; Tseng, Chih-Ming; Tseng, Yi-Hsing; Fei, Li-Yuan; Hsieh, Yu-Chung; Tarolli, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Large deep-seated landslides can be reactivated during intense events, and they can evolve into destructive failures. They are generally difficult to recognize in the field, especially when they develop in densely forested areas. A detailed and constantly updated inventory map of such phenomena, and the recognition of their topographic signatures is absolutely a key tool for landslide risk mitigation. The aim of this work is to test in forested areas, the performance of the new automatic and objective methodology developed by Tarolli et al. (2012) for geomorphic features extraction (landslide crowns) from high resolution topography (LiDAR derived Digital Terrain Models - DTMs). The methodology is based on the detection of landslides through the use of thresholds obtained by the statistical analysis of variability of landform curvature. The study was conducted in a high-risk area located in the central-south Taiwan, where an accurate field survey on landsliding processes and a high-quality set of airborne laser scanner elevation data are available. The area has been chosen because some of the deep-seated landslides are located near human infrastructures and their reactivation is highly dangerous. Thanks to LiDAR's capability to detect the bare ground elevation data in forested areas, it was possible to recognize in detail landslide features also in remote regions difficult to access. The results, if compared with the previous work of Tarolli et al. (2012), mainly focused on shallow landslides, and in a not forested area, indicate that for deep-seated landslides, where the crowns are more evident, and they are present at large scale, the tested methodology performs better (higher quality index). The method can be used to interactively assist the interpreter/user on the task of deep-seated landslide hazard mapping, and risk assessment planning of such regions.

  3. Travel time simulation for radionuclide transport at the Korean underground research facility, KURT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, N.; Hwang, Y.; Jeong, J.; Kim, K.

    2013-12-01

    For the research on the deep geological disposal of radioactive waste, it is necessary to understand the underground environment, including the geology and hydrogeology. In Korea, KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) was constructed in 2006 at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). Geological and hydrogeological field data have been obtained from the facility, and the groundwater flow system was simulated. Based on the data observed and analyzed on a groundwater flow system, the transport of potential radionuclides, which were assumed to be released at the supposed position, was then calculated in order to prepare the fundamental data for a safety assessment of a hypothetical underground repository. Several pathways with highly water-conductive features were selected to evaluate the elapsed times of radionuclide transport. The transport times were calculated using a TDRW (Time-Domain Random Walk) method. The matrix diffusion and sorption mechanisms in the host rock, as well as the advection-dispersion processes, were considered under the KURT field conditions. To reflect the radioactive decay, some decay chains were selected. The simulation results indicate that the main factors for the shapes of the mass discharge of the radionuclides were the half-life and distribution coefficient. This shows that the long-lived radionuclides must be treated accurately at the steps of determining radioactive waste source term as well as considering the transport process, and intensified research is required for the sorption between radionuclides and host rocks for making the safety assessment process more reliable and less uncertain.

  4. Single-crystal elasticity of the deep-mantle magnesite at high pressure and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jing; Mao, Zhu; Lin, Jung-Fu; Prakapenka, Vitali B.

    2014-04-01

    Magnesite (MgCO3) is considered to be a major candidate carbon host in the Earth's mantle, and has been found to exist as an accessory mineral in carbonated peridotite and eclogite. Studying the thermal elastic properties of magnesite under relevant pressure-temperature conditions of the upper mantle is thus important for our understanding of the deep-carbon storage in the Earth's interior. Here we have measured the single-crystal elasticity of a natural magnesite using in situ Brillouin spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell up to 14 GPa at room temperature and up to 750 K at ambient pressure, respectively. Using the third-order Eulerian finite-strain equations to model the elasticity data, we have derived the aggregate adiabatic bulk, KS0, and shear moduli, G0, at ambient conditions: KS0=114.7 (±1.3) GPa and G0=69.9 (±0.6) GPa. The pressure derivatives of the bulk and shear moduli at 300 K are (∂KS/∂P)T=4.82 (±0.10) and (∂G/∂P)T=1.75 (±0.10), respectively, while their temperature derivatives at ambient pressure are (∂Ks/∂T)P=-24.0 (±0.2) MPa/K and (∂G/∂T)P=-14.8 (±0.7) MPa/K. Based on the thermal elastic modeling of the measured elastic constants along an expected normal upper-mantle geotherm and a cold subducting slab, magnesite exhibits compressional wave (VP) anisotropy of approximately 46-49% and shear wave (VS) splitting of 37-41% that are much larger than those of major constituent minerals in the Earth's upper mantle including olivine, pyroxene, and garnet. The modeled aggregate VP and VS velocity in moderately carbonated peridotite and eclogite containing approximately 10 wt.% magnesite (approximately 5 wt.% CO2) show minimal effects of magnesite on the seismic profiles of these rock assemblages at upper mantle conditions, suggesting that the presence of magnesite is likely difficult to be detected seismically. However, due to its unusually high VP and VS anisotropies, magnesite with strong preferred orientations

  5. High-resolution temporal analysis of deep subseafloor microbial communities inhabiting basement fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungbluth, S.; Lin, H. T.; Hsieh, C. C.; Rappe, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The temporal variation in microbial communities inhabiting the anoxic, sediment-covered basaltic ocean basement is largely uncharacterized due to the inaccessible nature of the environment and difficulties associated with collection of samples from low-biomass microbial habitats. Here, a deep sea instrumented platform was employed on the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the summer of 2013 to collect 46 samples of basement fluids from the most recent generation of borehole observatories (U1362A and B), which feature multiple sampling horizons at a single location and fluid delivery lines manufactured using stainless steel or inert polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) parts. Included were three time-series deployments of the GEOmicrobe sled meant to resolve the fine-scale (i.e. hourly) temporal variation within in situ crustal microbial communities. Illumina technology was used to sequence small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene fragments from sediment, seawater, and subseafloor fluids. Similar to has been reported previously, basic differences in the three environments was observed. Fluid samples from depth horizons extending 30, 70, and ~200 meters sub-basement revealed differences in the observed microbial communities, indicating potential depth-specific zonation of microorganisms in the basaltic basement fluids. Extensive overlap between microorganisms collected from a single depth horizon but using two fluid delivery lines manufactured with different materials was observed, though some differences were also noted. Several archaeal (e.g. THSCG, MCG, MBGE, Archaeoglobus) and bacterial (e.g. Nitrospiraceae, OP8, KB1) lineages detected in previous years of basement fluid sampling nearby were found here, which further supports the notion that these microorganisms are stable residents of anoxic basaltic subseafloor fluids. Direct cell enumeration of samples collected from U1362A and U1362B revealed an elevated biomass compared to samples at these locations from previous years

  6. Deep Drawing Simulation Of High And Ultrahigh Strength Steels Under Consideration Of Anisotropic Hardening

    SciTech Connect

    Roll, Karl; Faust, Alexander; Kessler, Lutz

    2007-05-17

    In today's sheet metal forming simulation, most attention is paid to yield loci functions, which describe the anisotropy of the material in yielding. The coefficients, defining the shape of the yield locus in these functions are usually fitted at a certain level of plastic work and are then valid for the whole range of plastic deformation. Modern high and ultrahigh strength steels, especially those with induced plasticity, may often exhibit only a very small anisotropy in yielding, but a severe anisotropy in work hardening for different loading conditions. This behavior can not be described by fitting the yield locus at a specific value of plastic deformation. An approach to take into account the anisotropic hardening of sheet metals is to provide different yield curves for several loading conditions and expand the yield locus dependent on the current form of load. By doing this, one can use a comparatively simple yield locus, like that of Hill from 1948, because all anisotropy is given by the different hardening curves. For the commercial FEM code LS DYNA the material model MATFEM Generalized Yield is available as a user subroutine, which supports this approach. In this paper, forming simulation results of different yield loci are compared with experimental results. The simulations were carried out in LS-DYNA with the Barlat 89 and 2000 yield loci and isotropic hardening and with the GenYld model combining a Hill 48 yield locus and anisotropic hardening. The deep drawing experiments were conducted on a hydraulic press, measuring binder and punch forces. The deformation of the sheet was measured by optical grid analysis. A comparison of the simulated and measured plastic strains shows that using a model including anisotropic hardening can produce better results than the usage of a complex yield locus but isotropic hardening for the examined materials. This might be interesting for e.g. spring back simulations. By combining a simple yield locus with anisotropic

  7. High water level impedes the adaptation of Polygonum hydropiper to deep burial: Responses of biomass allocation and root morphology

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Ying; Xie, Yong H.; Deng, Zheng M.; Tang, Yue; Pan, Dong D.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the individual effects of sedimentation or inundation on the performance of wetland plants, but few have examined the combined influence of these processes. Wetland plants might show greater morphological plasticity in response to inundation than to sedimentation when these processes occur simultaneously since inundation can negate the negative effects of burial on plant growth. Here, we evaluate this hypothesis by assessing growth of the emergent macrophyte Polygonum hydropiper under flooding (0 and 40 cm) and sedimentation (0, 5, and 10 cm), separately and in combination. Deep burial and high water level each led to low oxidation-reduction potential, biomass (except for 5-cm burial), and growth of thick, short roots. These characteristics were generally more significant under high water level than under deep burial conditions. More biomass was allocated to stems in the deep burial treatments, but more to leaves in the high water level treatments. Additionally, biomass accumulation was lower and leaf mass ratio was higher in the 40-cm water level + 10-cm burial depth treatment than both separate effects. Our data indicate that inundation plays a more important role than sedimentation in determining plant morphology, suggesting hierarchical effects of environmental stressors on plant growth. PMID:25002329

  8. Biomining goes underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D. Barrie

    2015-03-01

    Ore bodies buried deep in Earth's crust could meet increasing global demands for metals, but mining them would be costly and could damage the environment. Reinventing an ancient technology for bioleaching metals could provide a solution.

  9. Efficient analysis of deep high-index-contrast gratings under arbitrary illumination.

    PubMed

    Motamedi, Nojan; Shlivinski, Amir; Ford, Joseph E; Lomakin, Vitaliy

    2015-12-28

    An efficient method for computing the problem of an electromagnetic beam transmission through deep periodic dielectric gratings is presented. In this method the beam is decomposed into a spectrum of plane waves, transmission coefficients corresponding to each such plane wave are found via Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis, and the transmitted beam is calculated via inverse Fourier integral. To make the approach efficient for deep gratings the fast variations of the transmission coefficients versus spatial frequency are accounted for analytically by casting the summations and integrals in a form that has explicit rapidly varying exponential terms. The resulting formulation allows computing the transmitted beam with a small number of samples independent of the grating depth. PMID:26832012

  10. 30 CFR 75.343 - Underground shops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground shops. 75.343 Section 75.343... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.343 Underground shops. (a) Underground...-3 through § 75.1107-16, or be enclosed in a noncombustible structure or area. (b) Underground...

  11. Ultra-deep plasma-assisted drilling of solids by high-power nanosecond lasers: experimental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Stanley; Lyon, Kevin; Kudryashov, Sergey I.; Allen, Susan D.

    2006-02-01

    A new mechanism of ultra-deep (up to tens of microns per pulse, sub-mm total hole depths) plasma-assisted ablative drilling of optically opaque and transparent materials by high-power nanosecond lasers proposed by Kudryashov et al. has been studied experimentally using average drilling rate and photoacoustic measurements. In the drilling experiments, average multi-micron crater depth per laser shot and instantaneous recoil pressure of ablated products have been measured as a function of laser energy at constant focusing conditions using optical transmission and contact photo acoustic techniques, respectively. Experimental results of this work support the theoretical explanation of the ultra-deep drilling mechanism as a number of stages including ultra-deep "non-thermal" energy delivery by a short-wavelength radiation of the surface high-temperature ablative plasma, bulk heating and melting of these materials, accompanied by the following subsurface boiling in the melt pool and resulting melt expulsion off of the target.

  12. Final LDRD report : science-based solutions to achieve high-performance deep-UV laser diodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Andrew M.; Miller, Mary A.; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Alessi, Leonard J.; Smith, Michael L.; Henry, Tanya A.; Westlake, Karl R.; Cross, Karen Charlene; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Lee, Stephen Roger

    2011-12-01

    We present the results of a three year LDRD project that has focused on overcoming major materials roadblocks to achieving AlGaN-based deep-UV laser diodes. We describe our growth approach to achieving AlGaN templates with greater than ten times reduction of threading dislocations which resulted in greater than seven times enhancement of AlGaN quantum well photoluminescence and 15 times increase in electroluminescence from LED test structures. We describe the application of deep-level optical spectroscopy to AlGaN epilayers to quantify deep level energies and densities and further correlate defect properties with AlGaN luminescence efficiency. We further review our development of p-type short period superlattice structures as an approach to mitigate the high acceptor activation energies in AlGaN alloys. Finally, we describe our laser diode fabrication process, highlighting the development of highly vertical and smooth etched laser facets, as well as characterization of resulting laser heterostructures.

  13. Comparison of the Highly Reflective Cloud and Outgoing Longwave Radiation datasets for use in estimating tropical deep convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waliser, Duane E.; Graham, Nicholas E.; Gautier, Catherine

    1993-01-01

    Two currently existing long-term satellite-derived data sets (the Highly Reflective Cloud (HRC) and the Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) data sets) were compared for the accuracy in estimating tropical deep convection, in terms of their climatological and frequency-dependent characteristics, their consistency in identifying deep tropical convection, and their relationship to local sea surface temperature (SST). The results reveal some important differences between the HRC and OLR data sets in terms of their temporal and spatial scales of variability, their relationships to other geophysical fields, and the logistics of their use. It was found that, for many applications, the HRC data set represents the characteristics of the cloud cluster-scale tropical convection more accurately than the OLR data set.

  14. Imaging deep skeletal muscle structure using a high-sensitivity ultrathin side-viewing optical coherence tomography needle probe

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaojie; Lorenser, Dirk; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Kirk, Rodney W.; Edmond, Matthew; Simpson, M. Cather; Grounds, Miranda D.; Sampson, David D.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed an extremely miniaturized optical coherence tomography (OCT) needle probe (outer diameter 310 µm) with high sensitivity (108 dB) to enable minimally invasive imaging of cellular structure deep within skeletal muscle. Three-dimensional volumetric images were acquired from ex vivo mouse tissue, examining both healthy and pathological dystrophic muscle. Individual myofibers were visualized as striations in the images. Degradation of cellular structure in necrotic regions was seen as a loss of these striations. Tendon and connective tissue were also visualized. The observed structures were validated against co-registered hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histology sections. These images of internal cellular structure of skeletal muscle acquired with an OCT needle probe demonstrate the potential of this technique to visualize structure at the microscopic level deep in biological tissue in situ. PMID:24466482

  15. High-Resolution Glacial Discharge Records From Deep-Water Tidal Rhythmites in an Alaskan Fjord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackolski, C. L.; Cowan, E. A.; Jaeger, J. M.; Powell, R. D.

    2006-12-01

    In this study we have compiled and analyzed two high-resolution records of deep-water tidal rhythmites derived from glacial discharges. The rhythmites contain an average of 1 cm of sediment thickness per week during the melt-season. Two sediment cores over 17-m-long were collected from Muir Inlet, Glacier Bay National Park, Southeast Alaska, aboard the R/V Maurice Ewing in 2004 (EW0408). One core (core 60JC) was collected just north of the mouth of Wachusett Inlet. The other (core 62JC) was collected 3.8 km due north of 60JC in a separate basin more proximal to Muir and McBride Glaciers. In Glacier Bay, glacial retreat since the Little Ice Age Maximum is well constrained by historical mapping of glacial temini, and local climate records exist as well. The next step after establishing glacial discharge records is to test hypotheses relating glacial discharge to temperature and rainfall. The cores were subsampled with ODP-style u-channels and scanned for magnetic susceptibility and bulk density. X-radiographs of u-channels were collected to observe small-scale (42 microns/pixel) density differences between silt and mud laminae. Spring-neap tidal packages, representing 2-week periods during summer, are visible because of closely-spaced bounding silt laminae. Seasonality is marked by winter gravelly mud (diamicton) beds and/or spring plankton blooms. Spring-neap packages and seasonal markers were considered jointly in order to construct two mostly continuous records of spring-neap packages and melt- season deposits in each core. Secondarily, melt-season duration, which we define as the number of spring- neap packages occurring in a melt-season, was determined. We found that core 60JC extends back 83 years. 75 of those years were identified as having complete, contiguous melt-season deposits that are, on average, 17 cm thick and contain 8.3 spring-neap packages. Core 62JC extends back 62 years. 57 of those years were identified as having complete, contiguous melt

  16. Microbiome composition and geochemical characteristics of deep subsurface high-pressure environment, Pyhäsalmi mine Finland

    PubMed Central

    Miettinen, Hanna; Kietäväinen, Riikka; Sohlberg, Elina; Numminen, Mikko; Ahonen, Lasse; Itävaara, Merja

    2015-01-01

    Pyhäsalmi mine in central Finland provides an excellent opportunity to study microbial and geochemical processes in a deep subsurface crystalline rock environment through near-vertical drill holes that reach to a depth of more than two kilometers below the surface. However, microbial sampling was challenging in this high-pressure environment. Nucleic acid yields obtained were extremely low when compared to the cell counts detected (1.4 × 104 cells mL−1) in water. The water for nucleic acid analysis went through high decompression (60–130 bar) during sampling, whereas water samples for detection of cell counts by microscopy could be collected with slow decompression. No clear cells could be identified in water that went through high decompression. The high-pressure decompression may have damaged part of the cells and the nucleic acids escaped through the filter. The microbial diversity was analyzed from two drill holes by pyrosequencing amplicons of the bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes and from the fungal ITS regions from both DNA and RNA fractions. The identified prokaryotic diversity was low, dominated by Firmicute, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria species that are common in deep subsurface environments. The archaeal diversity consisted mainly of Methanobacteriales. Ascomycota dominated the fungal diversity and fungi were discovered to be active and to produce ribosomes in the deep oligotrophic biosphere. The deep fluids from the Pyhäsalmi mine shared several features with other deep Precambrian continental subsurface environments including saline, Ca-dominated water and stable isotope compositions positioning left from the meteoric water line. The dissolved gas phase was dominated by nitrogen but the gas composition clearly differed from that of atmospheric air. Despite carbon-poor conditions indicated by the lack of carbon-rich fracture fillings and only minor amounts of dissolved carbon detected in formation waters, some methane was found in the drill

  17. Microbiome composition and geochemical characteristics of deep subsurface high-pressure environment, Pyhäsalmi mine Finland.

    PubMed

    Miettinen, Hanna; Kietäväinen, Riikka; Sohlberg, Elina; Numminen, Mikko; Ahonen, Lasse; Itävaara, Merja

    2015-01-01

    Pyhäsalmi mine in central Finland provides an excellent opportunity to study microbial and geochemical processes in a deep subsurface crystalline rock environment through near-vertical drill holes that reach to a depth of more than two kilometers below the surface. However, microbial sampling was challenging in this high-pressure environment. Nucleic acid yields obtained were extremely low when compared to the cell counts detected (1.4 × 10(4) cells mL(-1)) in water. The water for nucleic acid analysis went through high decompression (60-130 bar) during sampling, whereas water samples for detection of cell counts by microscopy could be collected with slow decompression. No clear cells could be identified in water that went through high decompression. The high-pressure decompression may have damaged part of the cells and the nucleic acids escaped through the filter. The microbial diversity was analyzed from two drill holes by pyrosequencing amplicons of the bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes and from the fungal ITS regions from both DNA and RNA fractions. The identified prokaryotic diversity was low, dominated by Firmicute, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria species that are common in deep subsurface environments. The archaeal diversity consisted mainly of Methanobacteriales. Ascomycota dominated the fungal diversity and fungi were discovered to be active and to produce ribosomes in the deep oligotrophic biosphere. The deep fluids from the Pyhäsalmi mine shared several features with other deep Precambrian continental subsurface environments including saline, Ca-dominated water and stable isotope compositions positioning left from the meteoric water line. The dissolved gas phase was dominated by nitrogen but the gas composition clearly differed from that of atmospheric air. Despite carbon-poor conditions indicated by the lack of carbon-rich fracture fillings and only minor amounts of dissolved carbon detected in formation waters, some methane was found in the drill

  18. RESEARCH INTO EVALUATIONS OF UNDERGROUND SPACE ACCORDING TO QOL - CENTERING ON THE NAGOYA UNDERGROUND METRO -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimoto, Naomi; Wake, Tenji; Mita, Takeshi; Wake, Hiromi

    The present research investigates issues concerning space underground and concerns itself with psychological evaluations of comfort in underground railway premises from the perspective of the users of such premises. The actual psychological evaluation was done on the premises of nine Nagoya City underground stations. Four factors were extracted from the results obtained. The first factor is transmission information, the second factor is the comfort of the environment, the third is sense of insecurity, and the fourth, convenience. A covariance structure analysis was carried out to see if there was any relationship between these factors and the research participants' age and frequency of underground usage. It was found from this that the first element is related to the frequency with which the participants in the research use the underground trains. When the frequency of use is high, transmission of information is high. A relationship was also found between aging and factors one and four. The older the person the worse information transmission is and the more dependent they are on convenience, such as, for example, in terms of elevators and escalators.

  19. Deep electronic levels in high-pressure Bridgman Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te

    SciTech Connect

    Szeles, C.; Shan, Y.Y.; Lynn, K.G.; Eissler, E.E.

    1995-12-01

    The behavior of deep electronic levels was studied as a function of Zn concentration in CdZnTe crystals grown by the high-pressure Bridgman technique using thermoelectric effect spectroscopy. A significant increase of the thermal ionization energies of hole traps was observed with the increasing Zn content of the ternary compound. The effect explains the stronger hole trapping and the resulting much shorter hole lifetime usually observed in CdZnTe as compared to CdTe. The behavior also suggests increased carrier recombination and explains the strong deterioration of electron collection in detectors fabricated from CdZnTe of high Zn concentration.

  20. Culturable prokaryotic diversity of deep, gas hydrate sediments: first use of a continuous high-pressure, anaerobic, enrichment and isolation system for subseafloor sediments (DeepIsoBUG)

    PubMed Central

    Parkes, R John; Sellek, Gerard; Webster, Gordon; Martin, Derek; Anders, Erik; Weightman, Andrew J; Sass, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Deep subseafloor sediments may contain depressurization-sensitive, anaerobic, piezophilic prokaryotes. To test this we developed the DeepIsoBUG system, which when coupled with the HYACINTH pressure-retaining drilling and core storage system and the PRESS core cutting and processing system, enables deep sediments to be handled without depressurization (up to 25 MPa) and anaerobic prokaryotic enrichments and isolation to be conducted up to 100 MPa. Here, we describe the system and its first use with subsurface gas hydrate sediments from the Indian Continental Shelf, Cascadia Margin and Gulf of Mexico. Generally, highest cell concentrations in enrichments occurred close to in situ pressures (14 MPa) in a variety of media, although growth continued up to at least 80 MPa. Predominant sequences in enrichments were Carnobacterium, Clostridium, Marinilactibacillus and Pseudomonas, plus Acetobacterium and Bacteroidetes in Indian samples, largely independent of media and pressures. Related 16S rRNA gene sequences for all of these Bacteria have been detected in deep, subsurface environments, although isolated strains were piezotolerant, being able to grow at atmospheric pressure. Only the Clostridium and Acetobacterium were obligate anaerobes. No Archaea were enriched. It may be that these sediment samples were not deep enough (total depth 1126–1527 m) to obtain obligate piezophiles. PMID:19694787

  1. Culturable prokaryotic diversity of deep, gas hydrate sediments: first use of a continuous high-pressure, anaerobic, enrichment and isolation system for subseafloor sediments (DeepIsoBUG).

    PubMed

    Parkes, R John; Sellek, Gerard; Webster, Gordon; Martin, Derek; Anders, Erik; Weightman, Andrew J; Sass, Henrik

    2009-12-01

    Deep subseafloor sediments may contain depressurization-sensitive, anaerobic, piezophilic prokaryotes. To test this we developed the DeepIsoBUG system, which when coupled with the HYACINTH pressure-retaining drilling and core storage system and the PRESS core cutting and processing system, enables deep sediments to be handled without depressurization (up to 25 MPa) and anaerobic prokaryotic enrichments and isolation to be conducted up to 100 MPa. Here, we describe the system and its first use with subsurface gas hydrate sediments from the Indian Continental Shelf, Cascadia Margin and Gulf of Mexico. Generally, highest cell concentrations in enrichments occurred close to in situ pressures (14 MPa) in a variety of media, although growth continued up to at least 80 MPa. Predominant sequences in enrichments were Carnobacterium, Clostridium, Marinilactibacillus and Pseudomonas, plus Acetobacterium and Bacteroidetes in Indian samples, largely independent of media and pressures. Related 16S rRNA gene sequences for all of these Bacteria have been detected in deep, subsurface environments, although isolated strains were piezotolerant, being able to grow at atmospheric pressure. Only the Clostridium and Acetobacterium were obligate anaerobes. No Archaea were enriched. It may be that these sediment samples were not deep enough (total depth 1126-1527 m) to obtain obligate piezophiles. PMID:19694787

  2. The contribution of high-redshift galaxies to cosmic reionization: new results from deep WFC3 imaging of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunker, Andrew J.; Wilkins, Stephen; Ellis, Richard S.; Stark, Daniel P.; Lorenzoni, Silvio; Chiu, Kuenley; Lacy, Mark; Jarvis, Matt J.; Hickey, Samantha

    2010-12-01

    We have searched for star-forming galaxies at z ~ 7-10 by applying the Lyman-break technique to newly released Y-, J- and H-band images (1.1, 1.25 and 1.6μm) from Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope. By comparing these images of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) z'-band (0.85μm) images, we identify objects with red colours, (z' - Y)AB > 1.3, consistent with the Lyman α forest absorption at z ~ 6.7-8.8. We identify 12 of these z'-drops down to a limiting magnitude YAB < 28.5 (equivalent to a star formation rate of 1.3Msolaryr-1 at z = 7.1), all of which are undetected in the other ACS filters. We use the WFC3 J-band image to eliminate contaminant low-mass Galactic stars, which typically have redder colours than z ~ 7 galaxies. One of our z'-drops is probably a T-dwarf star. The z ~ 7z'-drops appear to have much bluer spectral slopes than Lyman-break galaxies at lower redshift. Our brightest z'-drop is not present in the NICMOS J-band image of the same field taken 5 years before, and is a possible transient object. From the 10 remaining z ~ 7 candidates we determine a lower limit on the star formation rate density of 0.0017Msolaryr-1Mpc-3 for a Salpeter initial mass function, which rises to 0.0025-0.004Msolaryr-1Mpc-3 after correction for luminosity bias. The star formation rate density is a factor of ~10 less than that of Lyman-break galaxies at z = 3-4, and is about half the value at z ~ 6. We also present the discovery of seven Y-drop objects with (Y - J)AB > 1.0 and JAB < 28.5 which are candidate star-forming galaxies at higher redshifts (z ~ 8-9). We find no robust J-drop candidates at z ~ 10. While based on a single deep field, our results suggest that this star formation rate density would produce insufficient Lyman continuum photons to reionize the Universe unless the escape fraction of these photons is extremely high (fesc > 0.5), and the clumping factor of the Universe is low. Even then, we need

  3. HAWAII LEAKING UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Point coverage of leaking underground storage tanks(LUST) for the state of Hawaii. The original database was developed and is maintained by the State of Hawaii, Dept. of Health. The point locations represent facilities where one or more leaking underground storage tank exists. ...

  4. A Case for Underground Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    The underground school offers several advantages. Preliminary studies in Oklahoma have shown that these schools perform exceptionally well as learning environments. The lack of noise and distractions helps teachers keep the attention of their students. Underground structures can protect people against a broad range of natural and man-made…

  5. A Course on Underground Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Clarence A.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses a one-semester course on recovering fossil fuels and minerals from underground formations. Includes course outline and information of its major divisions: (1) Geological Background; (2) Flow, Transport, and Interfacial Phenomena in Porous Media; and (3) Description of Underground Processes. (SK)

  6. High-voltage electron microscopy tomography and structome analysis of unique spiral bacteria from the deep sea.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masashi; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Higuchi, Kimitaka; Yamamoto, Yuta; Arai, Shigeo; Murata, Kazuyoshi; Mori, Yuko; Furukawa, Hiromitsu; Uddin, Mohammad Shorif; Chibana, Hiroji

    2016-08-01

    Structome analysis is a useful tool for identification of unknown microorganisms that cannot be cultured. In 2012, we discovered a unique deep-sea microorganism with a cell structure intermediate between those of prokaryotes and eukaryotes and described its features using freeze-substitution electron microscopy and structome analysis (quantitative and three-dimensional structural analysis of a whole cell at the electron microscopic level). We named it Myojin parakaryote Here we describe, using serial ultrathin sectioning and high-voltage electron microscopy tomography of freeze-substituted specimens, the structome analysis and 3D reconstruction of another unique spiral bacteria, found in the deep sea off the coast of Japan. The bacteria, which is named as 'Myojin spiral bacteria' after the discovery location and their morphology, had a total length of 1.768 ± 0.478 µm and a total diameter of 0.445 ± 0.050 µm, and showed either clockwise or counter-clockwise spiral. The cells had a cell surface membrane, thick fibrous layer, ribosomes and inner fibrous structures (most likely DNA). They had no flagella. The bacteria had 322 ± 119 ribosomes per cell. This ribosome number is only 1.2% of that of Escherichia coli and 19.3% of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and may reflect a very slow growth rate of this organism in the deep sea. PMID:27230559

  7. High temperature annealing effects on deep-level defects in a high purity semi-insulating 4H-SiC substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Iwamoto, Naoya Azarov, Alexander; Svensson, Bengt G.; Ohshima, Takeshi; Moe, Anne Marie M.

    2015-07-28

    Effects of high-temperature annealing on deep-level defects in a high-purity semi-insulating 4H silicon carbide substrate have been studied by employing current-voltage, capacitance-voltage, junction spectroscopy, and chemical impurity analysis measurements. Secondary ion mass spectrometry data reveal that the substrate contains boron with concentration in the mid 10{sup 15 }cm{sup −3} range, while other impurities including nitrogen, aluminum, titanium, vanadium and chromium are below their detection limits (typically ∼10{sup 14 }cm{sup −3}). Schottky barrier diodes fabricated on substrates annealed at 1400–1700 °C exhibit metal/p-type semiconductor behavior with a current rectification of up to 8 orders of magnitude at bias voltages of ±3 V. With increasing annealing temperature, the series resistance of the Schottky barrier diodes decreases, and the net acceptor concentration in the substrates increases approaching the chemical boron content. Admittance spectroscopy results unveil the presence of shallow boron acceptors and deep-level defects with levels in lower half of the bandgap. After the 1400 °C annealing, the boron acceptor still remains strongly compensated at room temperature by deep donor-like levels located close to mid-gap. However, the latter decrease in concentration with increasing annealing temperature and after 1700 °C, the boron acceptor is essentially uncompensated. Hence, the deep donors are decisive for the semi-insulating properties of the substrates, and their thermal evolution limits the thermal budget for device processing. The origin of the deep donors is not well-established, but substantial evidence supporting an assignment to carbon vacancies is presented.

  8. High temperature annealing effects on deep-level defects in a high purity semi-insulating 4H-SiC substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, Naoya; Azarov, Alexander; Ohshima, Takeshi; Moe, Anne Marie M.; Svensson, Bengt G.

    2015-07-01

    Effects of high-temperature annealing on deep-level defects in a high-purity semi-insulating 4H silicon carbide substrate have been studied by employing current-voltage, capacitance-voltage, junction spectroscopy, and chemical impurity analysis measurements. Secondary ion mass spectrometry data reveal that the substrate contains boron with concentration in the mid 1015 cm-3 range, while other impurities including nitrogen, aluminum, titanium, vanadium and chromium are below their detection limits (typically ˜1014 cm-3). Schottky barrier diodes fabricated on substrates annealed at 1400-1700 °C exhibit metal/p-type semiconductor behavior with a current rectification of up to 8 orders of magnitude at bias voltages of ±3 V. With increasing annealing temperature, the series resistance of the Schottky barrier diodes decreases, and the net acceptor concentration in the substrates increases approaching the chemical boron content. Admittance spectroscopy results unveil the presence of shallow boron acceptors and deep-level defects with levels in lower half of the bandgap. After the 1400 °C annealing, the boron acceptor still remains strongly compensated at room temperature by deep donor-like levels located close to mid-gap. However, the latter decrease in concentration with increasing annealing temperature and after 1700 °C, the boron acceptor is essentially uncompensated. Hence, the deep donors are decisive for the semi-insulating properties of the substrates, and their thermal evolution limits the thermal budget for device processing. The origin of the deep donors is not well-established, but substantial evidence supporting an assignment to carbon vacancies is presented.

  9. A very high-resolution, deep-towed, multichannel seismic streamer, part II: aspects of data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitzke, M.; Bialas, J.

    2003-04-01

    A deep-towed, multichannel seismic streamer has been developed within the INGGAS project of the german gas hydrate initiative of the GEOTECHNOLOGIEN program (BMBF) to collect marine seismic data with a very high lateral resolution particularly in regions of special interest for gas hydrate research. As seismic source conventional surface-towed GI-, water- or airguns with small chamber volume are used to generate high-frequency signals which provide a high vertical resolution as well. The deep-towed streamer consists of 26 digital nodes which house a single hydrophone and are connected by interchangeable cables of 1 or 6.5 m length (cf. part I by Bialas and Breitzke). Compared to formerly used deep-towed systems the determination of the position and depth of the streamer is significantly improved by two components: (1) The ultra-short base line (USBL) system POSIDONIA which maps the track and depth of a side scan sonar tow fish. (2) Three engineering nodes located at the beginning, middle and end of the streamer which monitor the heading and depth variations by a compass and pressure sensor. By interpolation of these values depth and geographical coordinates of each streamer node can be computed in a first geometry processing step. Subsequent high-resolution multichannel data processsing has to consider the asymmetric source-receiver geometry of the hybrid system which causes subsurface reflection points not to lie on a vertical line any more but on a hyperbola, even in case of a plane-layered subsurface. Hence, mainly two data processing steps are necessary: (1) A wavefield continuation algorithm applies 'static' corrections to each streamer node and computes the wavefield in a constant reference depth. (2) A pre-stack migration algorithm sorts and stacks the deep tow multichannel data with respect to common reflection points (instead of common mid points in conventional CDP processing) and thus provides a very high-resolution image of the subsurface with a very

  10. Application of high stability oscillators to radio science experiments using deep space probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kursinski, Emil R.

    1990-01-01

    The microwave telecommunication links between the earth and deep space probes have long been used to conduct radio science experiments which take advantage of the phase coherency and stability of these links. These experiments measure changes in the phase delay of the signals to infer electrical, magnetic and gravitational properties of the solar system environment and beyond through which the spacecraft and radio signals pass. The precision oscillators, from which the phase of the microwave signals are derived, play a key role in the stability of these links and therefore the sensitivity of these measurements. These experiments have become a driving force behind recent and future improvements in the Deep Space Network and spacecraft oscillators and frequency and time distribution systems. Three such experiments which are key to these improvements are briefly discussed and relationship between their sensitivity and the signal phase stability is described. The first is the remote sensing of planetary atmospheres by occultation in which the radio signal passes through the atmosphere and is refracted causing the signal pathlength to change from which the pressure and the temperature of the atmosphere can be derived. The second experiment is determination of the opacity of planetary rings by passage of the radio signals through the rings. The third experiment is the research for very low frequency gravitational radiation. The fractional frequency variation of the signal is comparable to the spatial strain amplitude the system is capable of detecting. A summary of past results and future possibilities for these experiments are presented.

  11. Deep Neural Networks for Above-Ground Detection in Very High Spatial Resolution Digital Elevation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmanis, D.; Adam, F.; Datcu, M.; Esch, T.; Stilla, U.

    2015-03-01

    Deep Learning techniques have lately received increased attention for achieving state-of-the-art results in many classification problems, including various vision tasks. In this work, we implement a Deep Learning technique for classifying above-ground objects within urban environments by using a Multilayer Perceptron model and VHSR DEM data. In this context, we propose a novel method called M-ramp which significantly improves the classifier's estimations by neglecting artefacts, minimizing convergence time and improving overall accuracy. We support the importance of using the M-ramp model in DEM classification by conducting a set of experiments with both quantitative and qualitative results. Precisely, we initially train our algorithm with random DEM tiles and their respective point-labels, considering less than 0.1% over the test area, depicting the city center of Munich (25 km2). Furthermore with no additional training, we classify two much larger unseen extents of the greater Munich area (424 km2) and Dongying city, China (257 km2) and evaluate their respective results for proving knowledge-transferability. Through the use of M-ramp, we were able to accelerate the convergence by a magnitude of 8 and achieve a decrease in above-ground relative error by 24.8% and 5.5% over the different datasets.

  12. Underground reactor containments: An option for the future?

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Kress, T.

    1997-02-18

    Changing world conditions and changing technologies suggest that serious consideration should be given to siting of nuclear power plants underground. Underground siting is not a new concept. Multiple research reactors, several weapons production reactors, and one power reactor have been built underground. What is new are the technologies and incentives that may now make underground siting a preferred option. The conditions and technologies, along with their implications, are discussed herein. Underground containments can be constructed in mined cavities or pits that are then backfilled with thick layers of rock and soil. Conventional above-ground containments resist assaults and accidents because of the strength of their construction materials and the effectiveness of their safety features that are engineered to reduce loads. However, underground containments can provide even more resistance to assaults and accidents because of the inertia of the mass of materials over the reactor. High-technology weapons or some internal accidents can cause existing strong-material containments to fail, but only very-high energy releases can move large inertial masses associated with underground containments. New methods of isolation may provide a higher confidence in isolation that is independent of operator action.

  13. Underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. D.; Doherty, T. J.; Kannberg, L. D.

    1984-07-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric energy storage was conceived as a modification of surface pumped storage to eliminate dependence upon fortuitous topography, provide higher hydraulic heads, and reduce environmental concerns. A UPHS plant offers substantial savings in investment cost over coal-fired cycling plants and savings in system production costs over gas turbines. Potential location near load centers lowers transmission costs and line losses. Environmental impact is less than that for a coal-fired cycling plant. The inherent benefits include those of all pumped storage (i.e., rapid load response, emergency capacity, improvement in efficiency as pumps improve, and capacity for voltage regulation). A UPHS plant would be powered by either a coal-fired or nuclear baseload plant. The economic capacity of a UPHS plant would be in the range of 1000 to 3000 MW. This storage level is compatible with the load-velocity requirements of a greater metropolitan area with population of 1 million or more.

  14. Displacement Parameter Inversion for a Novel Electromagnetic Underground Displacement Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Shentu, Nanying; Li, Qing; Li, Xiong; Tong, Renyuan; Shentu, Nankai; Jiang, Guoqing; Qiu, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor) by combining basic electromagnetic induction principles with modern sensing techniques and established a mutual voltage measurement theoretical model called the Equation-based Equivalent Loop Approach (EELA). Based on that work, this paper presents an underground displacement inversion approach named “EELA forward modeling-approximate inversion method”. Combining the EELA forward simulation approach with the approximate optimization inversion theory, it can deduce the underground horizontal displacement through parameter inversion of the H-type sensor. Comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted between the experimentally measured and theoretically inversed values of horizontal displacement under counterpart conditions. The results show when the measured horizontal displacements are in the 0–100 mm range, the horizontal displacement inversion discrepancy is generally tested to be less than 3 mm under varied tilt angles and initial axial distances conditions, which indicates that our proposed parameter inversion method can predict underground horizontal displacement measurements effectively and robustly for the H-type sensor and the technique is applicable for practical geo-engineering applications. PMID:24858960

  15. Displacement parameter inversion for a novel electromagnetic underground displacement sensor.

    PubMed

    Shentu, Nanying; Li, Qing; Li, Xiong; Tong, Renyuan; Shentu, Nankai; Jiang, Guoqing; Qiu, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor) by combining basic electromagnetic induction principles with modern sensing techniques and established a mutual voltage measurement theoretical model called the Equation-based Equivalent Loop Approach (EELA). Based on that work, this paper presents an underground displacement inversion approach named "EELA forward modeling-approximate inversion method". Combining the EELA forward simulation approach with the approximate optimization inversion theory, it can deduce the underground horizontal displacement through parameter inversion of the H-type sensor. Comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted between the experimentally measured and theoretically inversed values of horizontal displacement under counterpart conditions. The results show when the measured horizontal displacements are in the 0-100 mm range, the horizontal displacement inversion discrepancy is generally tested to be less than 3 mm under varied tilt angles and initial axial distances conditions, which indicates that our proposed parameter inversion method can predict underground horizontal displacement measurements effectively and robustly for the H-type sensor and the technique is applicable for practical geo-engineering applications. PMID:24858960

  16. Natural variation in Brachypodium disctachyon: Deep Sequencing of Highly Diverse Natural Accessions (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Sean

    2013-03-01

    Sean Gordon of the USDA on "Natural variation in Brachypodium disctachyon: Deep Sequencing of Highly Diverse Natural Accessions" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  17. Waste disposal in underground mines -- A technology partnership to protect the environment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Environmentally compatible disposal sites must be found despite all efforts to avoid and reduce the generation of dangerous waste. Deep geologic disposal provides the logical solution as ever more categories of waste are barred from long-term disposal in near-surface sites through regulation and litigation. Past mining in the US has left in its wake large volumes of suitable underground space. EPA studies and foreign practice have demonstrated deep geologic disposal in mines to be rational and viable. In the US, where much of the mined underground space is located on public lands, disposal in mines would also serve the goal of multiple use. It is only logical to return the residues of materials mined from the underground to their origin. Therefore, disposal of dangerous wastes in mined underground openings constitutes a perfect match between mining and the protection and enhancement of the environment.

  18. Deep subwavelength fourfold rotationally symmetric split-ring-resonator metamaterials for highly sensitive and robust biosensing platform

    PubMed Central

    Tobing, Landobasa Y. M.; Tjahjana, Liliana; Zhang, Dao Hua; Zhang, Qing; Xiong, Qihua

    2013-01-01

    Metamaterials provide a good platform for biochemical sensing due to its strong field localization at nanoscale. In this work, we show that electric and magnetic resonant modes in split-ring-resonator (SRR) can be efficiently excited under unpolarized light illumination when the SRRs are arranged in fourfold rotationally symmetric lattice configuration. The fabrication and characterization of deep subwavelength (~λ/15) gold-based SRR structures with resonator size as small as ~ 60 nm are reported with magnetic resonances in Vis-NIR spectrum range. The feasibility for sensing is demonstrated with refractive index sensitivity as high as ~ 636 nm/RIU. PMID:23942416

  19. Applications of TIERRAS for underground particle cascade simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Tueros, M. J.

    2010-11-24

    In this communication we present some example applications of TIERRAS, a software package for the simulation of High Energy particle cascades underground and underwater. The examples illustrate how this package can be used to study the phenomenology of particle cascades from Extended Air Showers propagated several meters underground, including the effect of the surface ''albedo'' particles that are generated when a cascade reaches ground level. These up-going particles can have a measurable effect on surface or shallow underground detectors. Finally, to show the package ability ro perform simulations of particle cascades in ice, an application for neutrino radio detection is briefly introduced.

  20. High volume - high value usage of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The amount of dry FGD materials produced in the U.S. has not been increasing at the high rate originally anticipated. This has been due to a number of economic factors affecting the utility industry. Technologies for the disposal of large amounts of materials are not going to be implemented in the near term. In light of this development the target application for this project is being changed from highwall adit filling to the filling of auger holes to allow for highwall mining. This application focuses on using the dry FGD material to recover coal isolated by excessive augering. It produces 10 or more times the amount of coal per ton of dry FGD utilized than the originally proposed methodology. It also does not require extensive equipment development and, if applied to abandoned mine lands, may have substantially more significant environmental benefit. We also propose to use a spray dryer material for the demonstration instead of the fluidized bed material originally proposed. The spray dryer material is already slacked eliminating problems associated with heat generation at the mine site. Auger hole grouting with FGD material is also best performed by hydraulic emplacement methods.

  1. VLA high resolution observations of weak Leiden-Berkeley Deep-Survey (LBDS) sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oort, M. J. A.; Katgert, P.; Steeman, F. W. M.; Windhorst, R. A.

    1987-06-01

    The majority of the 1-arcsec resolution snapshot maps of 133 radio sources presented from the Leiden-Berkeley Deep Survey (LBDS) indicate that the sources have flux densities in the 1-100 mJy range at 1.4 GHz, with a median flux density of 5 mJy. A combination of all radio-morphological data available for the LBDS, the median angular size of a complete radio sample is found to decrease with decreasing flux density to a value as low as about 2 arcsec between 1 and 10 mJy. Definite indications are found for a decrease of intrinsic size with increasing redshift, with a relation that results in a size decrease of factor 4 with respect to the local value at the same radio power.

  2. Estimating Trans-Seasonal Variability in Water Column Biomass for a Highly Migratory, Deep Diving Predator

    PubMed Central

    O'Toole, Malcolm D.; Lea, Mary-Anne; Guinet, Christophe; Hindell, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The deployment of animal-borne electronic tags is revolutionizing our understanding of how pelagic species respond to their environment by providing in situ oceanographic information such as temperature, salinity, and light measurements. These tags, deployed on pelagic animals, provide data that can be used to study the ecological context of their foraging behaviour and surrounding environment. Satellite-derived measures of ocean colour reveal temporal and spatial variability of surface chlorophyll-a (a useful proxy for phytoplankton distribution). However, this information can be patchy in space and time resulting in poor correspondence with marine animal behaviour. Alternatively, light data collected by animal-borne tag sensors can be used to estimate chlorophyll-a distribution. Here, we use light level and depth data to generate a phytoplankton index that matches daily seal movements. Time-depth-light recorders (TDLRs) were deployed on 89 southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) over a period of 6 years (1999–2005). TDLR data were used to calculate integrated light attenuation of the top 250 m of the water column (LA250), which provided an index of phytoplankton density at the daily scale that was concurrent with the movement and behaviour of seals throughout their entire foraging trip. These index values were consistent with typical seasonal chl-a patterns as measured from 8-daySea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFs) images. The availability of data recorded by the TDLRs was far greater than concurrent remotely sensed chl-a at higher latitudes and during winter months. Improving the spatial and temporal availability of phytoplankton information concurrent with animal behaviour has ecological implications for understanding the movement of deep diving predators in relation to lower trophic levels in the Southern Ocean. Light attenuation profiles recorded by animal-borne electronic tags can be used more broadly and routinely to estimate lower trophic

  3. Estimating trans-seasonal variability in water column biomass for a highly migratory, deep diving predator.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Malcolm D; Lea, Mary-Anne; Guinet, Christophe; Hindell, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    The deployment of animal-borne electronic tags is revolutionizing our understanding of how pelagic species respond to their environment by providing in situ oceanographic information such as temperature, salinity, and light measurements. These tags, deployed on pelagic animals, provide data that can be used to study the ecological context of their foraging behaviour and surrounding environment. Satellite-derived measures of ocean colour reveal temporal and spatial variability of surface chlorophyll-a (a useful proxy for phytoplankton distribution). However, this information can be patchy in space and time resulting in poor correspondence with marine animal behaviour. Alternatively, light data collected by animal-borne tag sensors can be used to estimate chlorophyll-a distribution. Here, we use light level and depth data to generate a phytoplankton index that matches daily seal movements. Time-depth-light recorders (TDLRs) were deployed on 89 southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) over a period of 6 years (1999-2005). TDLR data were used to calculate integrated light attenuation of the top 250 m of the water column (LA(250)), which provided an index of phytoplankton density at the daily scale that was concurrent with the movement and behaviour of seals throughout their entire foraging trip. These index values were consistent with typical seasonal chl-a patterns as measured from 8-daySea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFs) images. The availability of data recorded by the TDLRs was far greater than concurrent remotely sensed chl-a at higher latitudes and during winter months. Improving the spatial and temporal availability of phytoplankton information concurrent with animal behaviour has ecological implications for understanding the movement of deep diving predators in relation to lower trophic levels in the Southern Ocean. Light attenuation profiles recorded by animal-borne electronic tags can be used more broadly and routinely to estimate lower trophic

  4. Numerical study of baroclinic instability associated with thermobaric deep convection at high latitudes: Idealized cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akitomo, Kazunori

    2005-06-01

    Numerical experiments with a three-dimensional nonhydrostatic model in a rotating frame have been executed to investigate baroclinic instability associated with thermobaric deep convection in weakly stratified polar oceans and its role in the transport processes. The model ocean has a two-layered structure with the cold, fresh mixed layer overlying the warm, saline deep water cell, as in the Weddell Sea. In contrast with a scenario based on the linear equation of state, thermobaric overturning of the water column enhances the horizontal density gradient (baroclinicity) through nonlinearity of the equation of state. If temperature controls water density (TEM cases), baroclinicity is intensified at the bottom of the overturned layer while at the surface if salinity does (SAL cases). Such intensification causes further development of baroclinic instability or baroclinic destabilization and more effective vertical heat transport. In the post-overturning stage, on the other hand, surface cooling (convective motion) has two oppositely operating effects on baroclinic instability and the associated heat transport. One is that horizontal convergence due to convective motion enhances baroclinic instability in the surface layer, as in previous studies focusing on strongly stratified oceans. This is observed in SAL cases with weak cooling, but not in TEM cases. The other is that strong cooling suppresses baroclinic instability by homogenizing the overturned layer vertically. This effect has not been found in the strongly stratified oceans. As a result, the vertical heat transport is most effective at low cooling rates (˜125Wm-2) in SAL cases while it monotonically decreases with cooling rate in TEM cases. When baroclinicity is initially weak as in the Weddell Sea, the most effective transport occurs with the cooling rate of 25Wm-2 which is a possible value under sea-ice cover in the actual situation.

  5. The middle-aged universe: Results from high-z supernovae and the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coil, Alison Laurel

    2004-12-01

    This thesis presents observational results detailing the state of the Universe ~5-9 billion years ago, focusing primarily on the spatial distribution and clustering of galaxies. We first present optical spectra, obtained with the Keck 10-m telescope, of two high-redshift type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) at maximum light, discovered by the High-z Supernova Search Team: SN 1999ff at z = 0.455 and SN 1999fv at z ~= 1.2. We compare our high- z spectra with low- z normal and peculiar SNe Ia as well as with SNe Ic, Ib, and II and find that are no significant differences between SN 1999ff and SN1999fv and normal SNe la at low redshift. This solidifies the use of type Ia SNe as standard candles at cosmological distances. We then develop and test mock galaxy catalogs to be used for the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey, which will obtain redshifts for ~50,000 galaxies between 0.7 < z < 1.5, mapping the galaxy distribution in a comoving volume of roughly 7 x 10 6 Mpc 3 h -3 . Using data from the first observing season of the DEEP2 Redshift Survey, we measure the amplitude of galaxy clustering using the two-point correlation function, x( r ), for a sample of 2219 galaxies between 0.7 < z < 1.35. We find that galaxies are significantly less clustered at z ~ 1 relative to z ~ 0; r 0 ~ 3.0-3.5 h -1 Mpc (comoving). We find that red, absorption-dominated, passively-evolving galaxies have a larger clustering scale length than blue, emission-line, actively star-forming galaxies. Intrinsically brighter galaxies also cluster more strongly than fainter galaxies at z ~= 1. Our results imply that the DEEP2 galaxies have an effective bias b ~ 1.0-1.2, lower than what is predicted by semi-analytic simulations at z ~= 1, which may be the result of our R -band target selection. Our results demonstrate that galaxy clustering properties as a function of color, spectral type and luminosity seen in the local Universe were largely in place by z ~= 1. We also present measurements of the projected angular

  6. High level science products from deep ACS and WFC3/IR imaging over the CDF-S/GOODS-S region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illingworth, Garth

    2013-10-01

    The CDF-S, with its extensive datasets that include the well-known HUDF, GOODS and CANDELS fields, is a remarkable resource for studying distant galaxies. CDF-S is a unique region in the sky. An astonishing 6 Msec of Hubble data {nearly 2600 orbits of WFC3 and ACS data alone}, 6 Msec of Spitzer IRAC images, and 4 Msec of Chandra data, plus ground-based spectra, imaging and, now, ALMA observations, make this one of Hubble's key legacy areas. Remarkably, while the major areas, HUDF, GOODS and CANDELS are available as high-level data products, over 40% { 1000 orbits} of HST data are unavailable to the community as high-level science products and catalogs in MAST. This includes several deep fields, including the parallel field HUDF09-2 which reaches as deep in ACS { 400 orbits} as the HUDF. We propose to use our extensive experience processing and delivering HST ACS and WFC3/IR datasets to STScI MAST to now deliver a complete processed and aligned dataset of all deep fields and the deeper, but as-yet-unused, SNe follow-up and parallel datasets across the CDF-S. The same will be done for the much smaller but similar dataset on the HDF-N region. These data products will add substantially to our understanding of the build up of galaxies to z 6 in the first Gyr during reionization, and their impact on reionization, the development of galaxies over the subsequent Gyr to to the peak of the star formation rate in the universe around 2-3 Gyr after the Big Bang at z 2-3, and the transition of early star-forming galaxies to the full splendor of the Hubble sequence since z 2. These Hubble Legacy Field datasets will be of great value as the Frontier Fields are used by the community.

  7. Deep Drawing for high LDR by a new Hydro-rim Forming Process with Differential Temperature- Analysis and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Y. Ben; Tirosh, J.; Rubinski, Ludmila

    2005-08-05

    The purpose of this study is to analyze and test a possible increase of the Limit Drawing Ratio (LDR) in Deep Drawing by Hydro-rim process (a certain subset of the classical Hydroforming) which includes the newly differential temperature effect. The idea is to facilitate the plastic flow by local heating along the flange and to cool the area where strength is needed. The suggested analysis is based on the dual bounds approach (upper and lower bounds simultaneously) using the highly versatile Johnson-Cook constitutive material model. The advantage of combined high hydraulic pressure (about 1000 bar) with relatively high blank temperature (with magnitude of about one third the melting temperature of the considered material) in the same operation is discussed. Emphasis is given to the rule of blank temperature difference (between the flange and the wall of the product) conjugate with optimal hydro rim pressure in increasing the limit drawing ratio of the products (Aluminum, Copper and various Steels)

  8. Deep Drawing for high LDR by a new Hydro-rim Forming Process with Differential Temperature- Analysis and Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Y. Ben; Tirosh, J.; Rubinski, Ludmila

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze and test a possible increase of the Limit Drawing Ratio (LDR) in Deep Drawing by Hydro-rim process (a certain subset of the classical Hydroforming) which includes the newly differential temperature effect. The idea is to facilitate the plastic flow by local heating along the flange and to cool the area where strength is needed. The suggested analysis is based on the dual bounds approach (upper and lower bounds simultaneously) using the highly versatile Johnson-Cook constitutive material model. The advantage of combined high hydraulic pressure (about 1000 bar) with relatively high blank temperature (with magnitude of about one third the melting temperature of the considered material) in the same operation is discussed. Emphasis is given to the rule of blank temperature difference (between the flange and the wall of the product) conjugate with optimal hydro rim pressure in increasing the limit drawing ratio of the products (Aluminum, Copper and various Steels).

  9. High power multi-color OPCPA source with simultaneous femtosecond deep-UV to mid-IR outputs.

    PubMed

    Baudisch, M; Wolter, B; Pullen, M; Hemmer, M; Biegert, J

    2016-08-01

    Many experimental investigations demand synchronized pulses at various wavelengths, ideally with very short pulse duration and high repetition rate. Here we describe a femtosecond multi-color optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier (OPCPA) with simultaneous outputs from the deep-UV to the mid-IR with optical synchronization. The high repetition rate of 160 kHz is well suited to compensate for low interaction probability or low cross section in strong-field interactions. Our source features high peak powers in the tens to hundreds of MW regime with pulse durations below 110 fs, which is ideal for pump-probe experiments of nonlinear and strong-field physics. We demonstrate its utility by strong-field ionization experiments of xenon in the near- to mid-IR. PMID:27472624

  10. A deep, unusual over-contact binary system with high rate of mass transfer: LP Ursa Major

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Wen-Ping; Qian, Sheng-Bang; Zhao, Er-Gang; Li, Lin-Jia

    2015-06-01

    We observed the well-known unusual deep over-contact binary in 2012 and 2013. A new set of light curves and eight new observed times of light minima were derived. A total of 130 available CCD times of light minima were analyzed. The highest rate of long-term period increase in W UMa stars (+10.21 s century-1) was confirmed. The rapid period increase implies that the primary is accreting mass from the secondary at a high rate of {M} = 5.3 × 10^{-6} M_{⊙}yr-1. The asymmetric light curves (i.e., the O'Connell effect) were analyzed with the Wilson-Devinney Code. It was found that the spotted photometric solution with the third light is the best one for fitting the light curves. The main photometric results confirmed that LP UMa is an unusual W UMa system with a high mass ratio (q = 0.823 ± 0.003), deep-contact configuration (f = 66.6% ± 3.1%), and a temperature difference of Δ T = 700 K. The period increase in LP UMa may be a part of a long-period cyclic change because of the large third light contributions to the total system (61.52% in V, 61.39% in R, and 61.36% in I). All of these quite different properties make LP UMa a very interesting system to study. The possible evolutionary stage is also discussed.

  11. Bucking the trend: genetic analysis reveals high diversity, large population size and low differentiation in a deep ocean cetacean.

    PubMed

    Thompson, K F; Patel, S; Baker, C S; Constantine, R; Millar, C D

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the genetic structure of a population is essential to its conservation and management. We report the level of genetic diversity and determine the population structure of a cryptic deep ocean cetacean, the Gray's beaked whale (Mesoplodon grayi). We analysed 530 bp of mitochondrial control region and 12 microsatellite loci from 94 individuals stranded around New Zealand and Australia. The samples cover a large area of the species distribution (~6000 km) and were collected over a 22-year period. We show high genetic diversity (h=0.933-0.987, π=0.763-0.996% and Rs=4.22-4.37, He=0.624-0.675), and, in contrast to other cetaceans, we found a complete lack of genetic structure in both maternally and biparentally inherited markers. The oceanic habitats around New Zealand are diverse with extremely deep waters, seamounts and submarine canyons that are suitable for Gray's beaked whales and their prey. We propose that the abundance of this rich habitat has promoted genetic homogeneity in this species. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the lack of beaked whale sightings is the result of their low abundance, but this is in contrast to our estimates of female effective population size based on mitochondrial data. In conclusion, the high diversity and lack of genetic structure can be explained by a historically large population size, in combination with no known exploitation, few apparent behavioural barriers and abundant habitat. PMID:26626574

  12. High Acidification Rate of Norwegian Sea Revealed by Boron Isotopes in the Deep-Sea Coral Madrepora Oculata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, C.; Douville, E.; Hall-Spencer, J.; Montagna, P.; Louvat, P.; Gaillardet, J.; Frank, N.; Bordier, L.; Juillet-Leclerc, A.

    2012-12-01

    Ocean acidification and global warming due to the increase of anthropogenic CO2 are major threats for marine calcifying organisms, such as deep-sea corals, particularly in high-latitude regions. In order to evaluate the current anthropogenic perturbation and to properly assess the impacts and responses of calcifiers to previous changes in pH it is critical to investigate past changes of the seawater carbonate system. Unfortunately, current instrumental records of oceanic pH are limited, covering only a few decades. Scleractinian coral skeletons record chemical parameters of the seawater in which they grow. However, pH variability over multidecadal timescales remains largely unknown in intermediate and deep seawater masses. Here we present a study that highlights the potential of deep-sea-corals to overcome the lack of long-term pH records and that emphasizes a rapid acidification of high latitude subsurface waters of Norwegian Sea during the past decades. We have reconstructed seawater pH and temperature from a well dated deep-sea coral specimen Madrepora oculata collected alive from Røst reef in Norwegian Sea (67°N, 9°E, 340 m depth). This large branching framework forming coral species grew its skeleton over more than four decades determined using AMS 14C and 210Pb dating (Sabatier et al. 2012). B-isotopes and Li/Mg ratios yield an acidification rate of about -0.0030±0.0008 pH-unit.year-1 and a warming of 0.3°C during the past four decades (1967-2007). Overall our reconstruction technique agrees well with previous pH calculations (Hönisch et al., 2007 vs. Trotter et al., 2011 and McCulloch et al., 2012, i.e. the iterative method), but additional corrections are here applied using stable isotope correlations (O, C, B) to properly address kinetic fractionation of boron isotopes used for pH reconstruction. The resulting pH curve strongly anti-correlates with the annual NAO index, which further strengthens our evidence for the ocean acidification rate

  13. High-energy multiple muons and heavy primary cosmic-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizutani, K.; Sato, T.; Takahashi, T.; Higashi, S.

    1985-01-01

    Three-dimensional simulations were carried out on high-energy multiple muons. On the lateral spread, the comparison with the deep underground observations indicates that the primary cosmic rays include heavy nuclei of high content. A method to determine the average mass number of primary particles in the energy around 10 to the 15th power eV is suggested.

  14. Understanding fast neutrons utilizing a water Cherenkov detector and a gas-filled detector at the soudan underground laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, Chiranjibi

    Many experiments are currently searching for Weakly Interactive Massive Particles (WIMPs), a well-motivated class of hypothetical dark matter candidates. These direct dark matter detection experiments are located in deep underground to shield from cosmic-ray muons and the fast neutrons they produce. Fast neutrons are particularly dangerous to WIMP detectors because they can penetrate a WIMP-search experiment's neutron shielding. Once inside, these fast neutrons can interact with high-Z material near the WIMP detector, producing slower neutrons capable of mimicking the expected WIMP signal. My research uses two detectors located in Soudan Underground Laboratory to understand fast neutron production by muons in an underground environment: a water-Cherenkov detector sensitive to fast neutrons; and a gas-filled detector sensitive to charged particles like muons. The different kinds of selection criterion and their efficiencies are reported in this thesis. This thesis estimate the number of high energy neutron-like candidates associated with a nearby muon by using data from both detector systems.

  15. Southern Ocean Deep-Convection as a Driver of Centennial-to-Millennial-Scale Climate Variability at Southern High Latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedro, J. B.; Martin, T.; Steig, E. J.; Jochum, M.; Park, W.; Rasmussen, S.

    2014-12-01

    Antarctic Isotope Maxima (AIM) are centennial-to-millennial scale warming events observed in Antarctic ice core records from the last glacial period and deglaciation. Mounting evidence links AIM events to parallel variations in atmospheric CO2, Southern Ocean (SO) sea surface temperatures and Antarctic Bottom Water production. According to the prevailing view, AIM events are forced from the North Atlantic by melt-water discharge from ice sheets suppressing the production of North Atlantic Deep Water and associated northward heat transport in the Atlantic. However observations and model studies increasingly suggest that melt-water fluxes have the wrong timing to be invoked as such a trigger. Here, drawing on results form the Kiel Climate Model, we present an alternative hypothesis in which AIM events are forced via internal oscillations in SO deep-convection. The quasi-periodic timescale of deep-convection events is set by heat (buoyancy) accumulation at SO intermediate depths and stochastic variability in sea ice conditions and freshening at the surface. Massive heat release from the SO convective zone drives Antarctic and large-scale southern hemisphere warming via a two-stage process involving changes in the location of Southern Ocean fronts, in the strength and intensity of the Westerlies and in meridional ocean and atmospheric heat flux anomalies. The potential for AIM events to be driven by internal Southern Ocean processes and the identification of time-lags internal to the southern high latitudes challenges conventional views on the North Atlantic as the pacemaker of millennial-scale climate variability.

  16. Evaluation of high-perimeter electrode designs for deep brain stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Bryan; Grill, Warren M.

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for movement disorders and a promising therapy for treating epilepsy and psychiatric disorders. Despite its clinical success, complications including infections and mis-programing following surgical replacement of the battery-powered implantable pulse generator adversely impact the safety profile of this therapy. We sought to decrease power consumption and extend battery life by modifying the electrode geometry to increase stimulation efficiency. The specific goal of this study was to determine whether electrode contact perimeter or area had a greater effect on increasing stimulation efficiency. Approach. Finite-element method (FEM) models of eight prototype electrode designs were used to calculate the electrode access resistance, and the FEM models were coupled with cable models of passing axons to quantify stimulation efficiency. We also measured in vitro the electrical properties of the prototype electrode designs and measured in vivo the stimulation efficiency following acute implantation in anesthetized cats. Main results. Area had a greater effect than perimeter on altering the electrode access resistance; electrode (access or dynamic) resistance alone did not predict stimulation efficiency because efficiency was dependent on the shape of the potential distribution in the tissue; and, quantitative assessment of stimulation efficiency required consideration of the effects of the electrode-tissue interface impedance. Significance. These results advance understanding of the features of electrode geometry that are important for designing the next generation of efficient DBS electrodes.

  17. Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-qin; Liu, Jun-hua; Yu, Li

    2002-04-01

    Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification are evaluated. The results showed that through underground coal gasification, gangue discharge is eliminated, sulfur emission is reduced, and the amount of ash, mercury, and tar discharge are decreased. Moreover, effect of underground gasification on underground water is analyzed and CO2 disposal method is put forward. PMID:12046301

  18. Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments; Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Arnis Judzis; Alan Black; Homer Robertson

    2006-03-01

    The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high rotational speeds (greater than 10,000 rpm). The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill ''faster and deeper'' possibly with smaller, more mobile rigs. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The significance of the ultra-high rotary speed drilling system is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling and coring today run less than 10,000 rpm--usually well below 5,000 rpm. This document details the progress to date on the program entitled ''Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments: Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling'' for the period starting 1 October 2004 through 30 September 2005. Additionally, research activity from 1 October 2005 through 28 February 2006 is included in this report: (1) TerraTek reviewed applicable literature and documentation and convened a project kick-off meeting with Industry Advisors in attendance. (2) TerraTek designed and planned Phase I bench scale experiments. Some difficulties continue in obtaining ultra-high speed motors. Improvements have been made to the loading mechanism and the rotational speed monitoring instrumentation. New drill bit designs have been provided to vendors for production. A more consistent product is required to minimize the differences in bit performance. A test matrix for the final core bit testing program has been

  19. Underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.; Kannberg, L.D.

    1984-07-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric energy storage was conceived as a modification of surface pumped storage to eliminate dependence upon fortuitous topography, provide higher hydraulic heads, and reduce environmental concerns. A UPHS plant offers substantial savings in investment cost over coal-fired cycling plants and savings in system production costs over gas turbines. Potential location near load centers lowers transmission costs and line losses. Environmental impact is less than that for a coal-fired cycling plant. The inherent benefits include those of all pumped storage (i.e., rapid load response, emergency capacity, improvement in efficiency as pumps improve, and capacity for voltage regulation). A UPHS plant would be powered by either a coal-fired or nuclear baseload plant. The economic capacity of a UPHS plant would be in the range of 1000 to 3000 MW. This storage level is compatible with the load-leveling requirements of a greater metropolitan area with population of 1 million or more. The technical feasibility of UPHS depends upon excavation of a subterranean powerhouse cavern and reservoir caverns within a competent, impervious rock formation, and upon selection of reliable and efficient turbomachinery - pump-turbines and motor-generators - all remotely operable.

  20. Underground caverns for hydrocarbon storage

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, T.F.

    1998-12-31

    Large, international gas processing projects and growing LPG imports in developing countries are driving the need to store large quantities of hydrocarbon liquids. Even though underground storage is common in the US, many people outside the domestic industry are not familiar with the technology and the benefits underground storage can offer. The latter include lower construction and operating costs than surface storage, added safety, security and greater environmental acceptance.

  1. Study - Radiation Shielding Effectiveness of the Prototyped High Temperature Superconductivity (HTS) 'Artificial' Magnetosphere for Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denkins, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    The high temperature superconductor (HTS) is being used to develop the magnets for the Variable Specific Impulse Magneto-plasma Rocket (VASIMR ) propulsion system and may provide lightweight magnetic radiation shielding to protect spacecraft crews from radiation caused by GCR and SPEs on missions to Mars. A study is being planned to assess the radiation shielding effectiveness of the artificial magnetosphere produced by the HTS magnet. VASIMR is an advanced technology propulsion engine which is being touted as enabling one way transit to Mars in 90 days or less. This is extremely important to NASA. This technology would enable a significant reduction in the number of days in transit to and from Mars and significantly reduce the astronauts exposure to a major threat - high energy particles from solar storms and GCR during long term deep space missions. This paper summarizes the plans for the study and the subsequent testing of the VASIMR technology onboard the ISS slated for 2013.

  2. Restoration of Images of Comet 9P/Tempel 1 Taken with the Deep Impact High Resolution Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindler, D.; Busko, I.; A'Hearn, M. F.; White, R. L.

    2007-04-01

    In 2005 July, the NASA Deep Impact mission successfully completed a flyby of comet 9P/Tempel 1. A flaw in the prelaunch calibration system resulted in an inability to accurately focus the telescope's High Resolution Instrument, resulting in a significant loss of resolution. However, because of the nature of the blurring process, much of the high-frequency information is retained and can be recovered using deconvolution. We discuss the data-processing requirements and noise modeling needed prior to deconvolution and compare a few popular deconvolution algorithms. All of the algorithms give very similar results. More importantly, we find that none of the algorithms correctly handle the errors resulting from the data compression used on board the spacecraft to compress the 16 bit CCD data to 8 bits prior to transmission of the image to the ground. We present a modification to the Richardson-Lucy deconvolution algorithm that we have successfully used to account for these compression errors.

  3. A case of hereditary protein S deficiency presenting with cerebral sinus venous thrombosis and deep vein thrombosis at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Nair, Velu; Mohapatro, A K; Sreedhar, M; Indrajeet, I K; Tewari, A K; Anand, A C; Mathew, O P

    2008-01-01

    A 35-year-old healthy male with no history of any past medical illness developed severe headache, vomiting and drowsiness while at high altitude (4,572 m) in the eastern Himalayan ranges. He was evacuated to a tertiary-care hospital where he was diagnosed to have cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (CSVT) on magnetic resonance imaging, with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of his right popliteo-femoral vein on color Doppler study. Investigation for thrombophilia revealed protein S (PS) deficiency in this patient. Family screening revealed low levels of PS in two elder brothers. One brother had a history of 'stroke in young' at the age of 20 years with the other being asymptomatic. This established the hereditary nature of PS deficiency. We are not aware of any previously published report on hereditary PS deficiency combined with CSVT and DVT occurring at high altitude. However, 1 case of protein C deficiency with CSVT has been reported previously. PMID:18434709

  4. Non-invasive Parenchymal, Vascular and Metabolic High-frequency Ultrasound and Photoacoustic Rat Deep Brain Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Giustetto, Pierangela; Filippi, Miriam; Castano, Mauro; Terreno, Enzo

    2015-01-01

    Photoacoustics and high frequency ultrasound stands out as powerful tools for neurobiological applications enabling high-resolution imaging on the central nervous system of small animals. However, transdermal and transcranial neuroimaging is frequently affected by low sensitivity, image aberrations and loss of space resolution, requiring scalp or even skull removal before imaging. To overcome this challenge, a new protocol is presented to gain significant insights in brain hemodynamics by photoacoustic and high-frequency ultrasounds imaging with the animal skin and skull intact. The procedure relies on the passage of ultrasound (US) waves and laser directly through the fissures that are naturally present on the animal cranium. By juxtaposing the imaging transducer device exactly in correspondence to these selected areas where the skull has a reduced thickness or is totally absent, one can acquire high quality deep images and explore internal brain regions that are usually difficult to anatomically or functionally describe without an invasive approach. By applying this experimental procedure, significant data can be collected in both sonic and optoacoustic modalities, enabling to image the parenchymal and the vascular anatomy far below the head surface. Deep brain features such as parenchymal convolutions and fissures separating the lobes were clearly visible. Moreover, the configuration of large and small blood vessels was imaged at several millimeters of depth, and precise information were collected about blood fluxes, vascular stream velocities and the hemoglobin chemical state. This repertoire of data could be crucial in several research contests, ranging from brain vascular disease studies to experimental techniques involving the systemic administration of exogenous chemicals or other objects endowed with imaging contrast enhancement properties. In conclusion, thanks to the presented protocol, the US and PA techniques become an attractive noninvasive

  5. High-temperature quartz cement and the role of stylolites in a deep gas reservoir, Spiro Sandstone, Arkoma Basin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Worden, Richard H.; Morad, Sadoon; Spötl, C.; Houseknecht, D.W.; Riciputi, L.R.

    2000-01-01

    The Spiro Sandstone, a natural gas play in the central Arkoma Basin and the frontal Ouachita Mountains preserves excellent porosity in chloritic channel-fill sandstones despite thermal maturity levels corresponding to incipient metamorphism. Some wells, however, show variable proportions of a late-stage, non-syntaxial quartz cement, which post-dated thermal cracking of liquid hydrocarbons to pyrobitumen plus methane. Temperatures well in excess of 150°C and possibly exceeding 200°C are also suggested by (i) fluid inclusions in associated minerals; (ii) the fact that quartz post-dated high-temperature chlorite polytype IIb; (iii) vitrinite reflectance values of the Spiro that range laterally from 1.9 to ≥ 4%; and (iii) the occurrence of late dickite in these rocks. Oxygen isotope values of quartz cement range from 17.5 to 22.4‰ VSMOW (total range of individual in situ ion microprobe measurements) which are similar to those of quartz cement formed along high-amplitude stylolites (18.4–24.9‰). We favour a model whereby quartz precipitation was controlled primarily by the availability of silica via deep-burial stylolitization within the Spiro Sandstone. Burial-history modelling showed that the basin went from a geopressured to a normally pressured regime within about 10–15 Myr after it reached maximum burial depth. While geopressure and the presence of chlorite coats stabilized the grain framework and inhibited nucleation of secondary quartz, respectively, stylolites formed during the subsequent high-temperature, normal-pressured regime and gave rise to high-temperature quartz precipitation. Authigenic quartz growing along stylolites underscores their role as a significant deep-burial silica source in this sandstone.

  6. Non-invasive parenchymal, vascular and metabolic high-frequency ultrasound and photoacoustic rat deep brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Giustetto, Pierangela; Filippi, Miriam; Castano, Mauro; Terreno, Enzo

    2015-01-01

    Photoacoustics and high frequency ultrasound stands out as powerful tools for neurobiological applications enabling high-resolution imaging on the central nervous system of small animals. However, transdermal and transcranial neuroimaging is frequently affected by low sensitivity, image aberrations and loss of space resolution, requiring scalp or even skull removal before imaging. To overcome this challenge, a new protocol is presented to gain significant insights in brain hemodynamics by photoacoustic and high-frequency ultrasounds imaging with the animal skin and skull intact. The procedure relies on the passage of ultrasound (US) waves and laser directly through the fissures that are naturally present on the animal cranium. By juxtaposing the imaging transducer device exactly in correspondence to these selected areas where the skull has a reduced thickness or is totally absent, one can acquire high quality deep images and explore internal brain regions that are usually difficult to anatomically or functionally describe without an invasive approach. By applying this experimental procedure, significant data can be collected in both sonic and optoacoustic modalities, enabling to image the parenchymal and the vascular anatomy far below the head surface. Deep brain features such as parenchymal convolutions and fissures separating the lobes were clearly visible. Moreover, the configuration of large and small blood vessels was imaged at several millimeters of depth, and precise information were collected about blood fluxes, vascular stream velocities and the hemoglobin chemical state. This repertoire of data could be crucial in several research contests, ranging from brain vascular disease studies to experimental techniques involving the systemic administration of exogenous chemicals or other objects endowed with imaging contrast enhancement properties. In conclusion, thanks to the presented protocol, the US and PA techniques become an attractive noninvasive

  7. Underground storage tanks: The environmental health role

    SciTech Connect

    Henke, S. )

    1994-04-01

    Petroleum contamination of shallow aquifers resulting from antiquated underground petroleum storage systems has had a significant economical, as well as environmental impact on the nation's urban and rural communities. The cost for assessment and clean-up of a service station petroleum leak in Caliente, Nevada (population: 1,111) may go as high as $3 million. Whereas in a more urban area such as Las Vegas, Nevada, 317 petroleum clean-up operations of leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) have been initiated in a three-year period between October 1990 and October 1993. The leaking UST problem, brought to national attention during the late 1970s and early 1980s, has had such an impact that the EPA has enlisted state and local environmental and health agencies to take an important lead role to find, mitigate, and prevent petroleum leaks into the unseen subsurface environment. The 1990s will witness a national amelioration of shallow aquifers.

  8. High Frequency Acoustic Response Characterization and Analysis of the Deep Throttling Common Extensible Cryogenic Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casiano, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    The Common Extensive Cryogenic Engine program demonstrated the operation of a deep throttling engine design. The program, spanning five years from August 2005 to July 2010, funded testing through four separate engine demonstration test series. Along with successful completion of multiple objectives, a discrete response of approximately 4000 Hz was discovered and explored throughout the program. The typical low-amplitude acoustic response was evident in the chamber measurement through almost every operating condition; however, at certain off-nominal operating conditions, the response became discrete with higher amplitude. This paper summarizes the data reduction, characterization, and analysis of the 4,000 Hz response for the entire program duration, using the large amount of data collected. Upon first encountering the response, new objectives and instrumentation were incorporated in future test series to specifically collect 4,000 Hz data. The 4,000 Hz response was identified as being related to the first tangential acoustic mode by means of frequency estimation and spatial decomposition. The latter approach showed that the effective node line of the mode was aligned with the manifold propellant inlets with standing waves and quasi-standing waves present at various times. Contour maps that contain instantaneous frequency and amplitude trackings of the response were generated as a significant improvement to historical manual approaches of data reduction presentation. Signal analysis and dynamic data reduction also uncovered several other features of the response including a stable limit cycle, the progressive engagement of subsequent harmonics, the U-shaped time history, an intermittent response near the test-based neutral stability region, other acoustic modes, and indications of modulation with a separate subsynchronous response. Although no engine damage related to the acoustic mode was noted, the peak-to-peak fluctuating pressure amplitude achieved 12.1% of the

  9. A high power EMI sensor for detecting and classifying small and deep targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubitidze, F.; Barrowes, B. E.; Wang, Yinlin; Shamatava, Irma; Sigman, J. B.; O'Neil, K.; Steinhurst, Daniel A.

    2016-05-01

    Detecting and classifying small (i.e., with calibers ranging from 20 to 60 mm) and deep targets (burial depth more than 11 times targets diameter) is still a challenging problem using current advanced EMI sensors and signal processing approaches. In order to overcome this problem, the standard time-domain NRL TEMTADS 2x2 electromagnetic induction (EMI) instrument is updated. Namely, the NRL TEMTADS 2x2 system's transmitter electronics is modified to increase transmitter (Tx) currents from 6 Amperes to 14 Amperes. The instrument has a Tx array with four coplanar square coils, together with four tri-axial receivers (Rx) placed at the center of each Tx. Each Rx cube contains three orthogonal coils and thus registers all three vector components of the impinging signals. The Tx coils, with transmitter currents of ~14 A, illuminate a buried target, and the target responses are collected with a 500 kHz sample rate after turn off of the excitation pulse. The system operates in both static (cued) and dynamic modes. For cued mode, the raw decay measurements are grouped into 121 logarithmically-spaced "gates" whose center times range from 25 μs to 24.35 ms with 5% widths. The sensor is placed on a cart which provides a sensor-to-ground offset of 20 cm or less. In this paper, studies for APG Calibration, Blind, and Small Munitions Grids are presented and analyzed. The areas are arranged in grids of test cells and the cell center positions are known. Each target position is flagged with a non-metallic pin flag using cm-level GPS. The sensor is positioned over each target in turn. With the system positioned over the target, each Tx is activated sequentially and during off the Tx current, all four Rx record data. The capabilities of this sensor platform is rigorously investigated for UXO classification at APG blind and small munitions grids.

  10. High contents of trimethylamine oxide correlating with depth in deep-sea teleost fishes, skates, and decapod crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Kelly, R H; Yancey, P H

    1999-02-01

    In muscles of shallow-living marine animals, the osmolyte trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is reportedly found (in millimoles of TMAO per kilogram of tissue wet weight) at 30-90 in shrimp, 5-50 in crabs, 61-181 in skates, and 10-70 in most teleost fish. Recently our laboratory reported higher levels (83-211 mmol/kg), correlating with habitat depth, in deep-sea gadiform teleosts. We now report the same trend in muscles of other animals, collected off the coast of Oregon from bathyal (1800-2000 m) and abyssal plain (2850 m) sites. TMAO contents (mmol/kg +/- SD) were as follows: zoarcid teleosts, 103 +/- 9 (bathyal) and 197 +/- 2 (abyssal); scorpaenid teleosts, 32 +/- 0 (shallow) and 141 +/- 16 (bathyal); rajid skates, 215 +/- 13 (bathyal) and 244 +/- 23 (abyssal); caridean shrimp, 76 +/- 16 (shallow), 203 +/- 35 (bathyal), and 299 +/- 28 (abyssal); Chionoecetes crabs, 22 +/- 2 (shallow) and 164 +/- 15 (bathyal). Deep squid, clams, and anemones also had higher contents than shallow species. Osmoconformers showed compensation between TMAO and other osmolytes. Urea contents (typically 300 mmol/kg in shallow elasmobranchs) in skates were 214 +/- 5 (bathyal) and 136 +/- 9 (abyssal). Glycine contents in shrimp were 188 +/- 17 (shallow) and 52 +/- 20 (abyssal). High TMAO contents may reflect diet, reduce osmoregulatory costs, increase buoyancy, or counteract destabilization of proteins by pressure. PMID:25575382

  11. Pressure measurements and high speed visualizations of the cavitation phenomena at deep part load condition in a Francis turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, K.; Müller, A.; Favrel, A.; Landry, C.; Avellan, F.

    2014-03-01

    In a hydraulic power plant, it is essential to provide a reliable, sustainable and flexible energy supply. In recent years, in order to cover the variations of the renewable electricity production, hydraulic power plants are demanded to operate with more extended operating range. Under these off-design conditions, a hydraulic turbine is subject to cavitating swirl flow at the runner outlet. It is well-known that the helically/symmetrically shaped cavitation develops at the runner outlet in part load/full load condition, and it gives severe damage to the hydraulic systems under certain conditions. Although there have been many studies about partial and full load conditions, contributions reporting the deep part load condition are limited, and the cavitation behaviour at this condition is not yet understood. This study aims to unveil the cavitation phenomena at deep part load condition by high speed visualizations focusing on the draft tube cone as well as the runner blade channel, and pressure fluctuations associated with the phenomena were also investigated.

  12. Report on technical feasibility of underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, T. J.

    1982-03-01

    The technical and economic aspects of constructing a very high head underground hydroelectric pumped storage were examined at a prefeasibility level. Excavation of existing caverns in the West Rutland Vermont marble quarry would be used to construct the underground space. A plant capacity of 1200 MW and 12 h of continuous capacity were chosen as plant operating conditions. The site geology, plant design, and electrical and mechanical equipment required were considered. It was concluded that the cost of the 1200 MW underground pumped storage hydro electric project at this site, even with the proposed savings from marketable material, amount to between $581 and $595 per kilowatt of installed capacity on a January 1982 pricing level. It was concluded that the West Rutland underground pumped storage facility is uneconomic at this time.

  13. Inter-disciplinary Interactions in Underground Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. S.; Bettini, A.

    2010-12-01

    Many of underground facilities, ranging from simple cavities to fully equipped laboratories, have been established worldwide (1) to evaluate the impacts of emplacing nuclear wastes in underground research laboratories (URLs) and (2) to measure rare physics events in deep underground laboratories (DULs). In this presentation, we compare similarities and differences between URLs and DULs in focus of site characterization, in quantification of quietness, and in improvement of signal to noise ratios. The nuclear waste URLs are located primarily in geological medium with potentials for slow flow/transport and long isolation. The URL medium include plastic salt, hard rock, soft clay, volcanic tuff, basalt and shale, at over ~500 m where waste repositories are envisioned to be excavated. The majority of URLs are dedicated facilities excavated after extensive site characterization. The focuses are on fracture distributions, heterogeneity, scaling, coupled processes, and other fundamental issues of earth sciences. For the physics DULs, the depth/overburden thickness is the main parameter that determines the damping of cosmic rays, and that, consequently, should be larger than, typically, 800m. Radioactivity from rocks, neutron flux, and radon gas, depending on local rock and ventilation conditions (largely independent of depth), are also characterized at different sites to quantify the background level for physics experiments. DULs have been constructed by excavating dedicated experimental halls and service cavities near to a road tunnel (horizontal access) or in a mine (vertical access). Cavities at shallower depths are suitable for experiments on neutrinos from artificial source, power reactors or accelerators. Rocks stability (depth dependent), safe access, and utility supply are among factors of main concerns for DULs. While the focuses and missions of URLs and DULs are very different, common experience and lessons learned may be useful for ongoing development of new

  14. Utility of deep sea CO2 release experiments in understanding the biology of a high-CO2 ocean: Effects of hypercapnia on deep sea meiofauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, James P.; Buck, Kurt R.; Lovera, Chris; Kuhnz, Linda; Whaling, Patrick J.

    2005-09-01

    Oceanic CO2 levels are expected to rise during the next 2 centuries to levels not seen for 10-150 million years by the uptake of atmospheric CO2 in surface waters or potentially through the disposal of waste CO2 in the deep sea. Changes in ocean chemistry caused by CO2 influx may have broad impacts on ocean ecosystems. Physiological processes animals use to cope with CO2-related stress are known, but the range of sensitivities and effects of changes in ocean chemistry on most ocean life remain unclear. We evaluate the effectiveness of various designs for in situ CO2 release experiments in producing stable perturbations in seawater chemistry over experimental seafloor plots, as is desirable for evaluating the CO2 sensitivities of deep sea animals. We also discuss results from a subset of these experiments on the impacts of hypercapnia on deep sea meiofauna, in the context of experimental designs. Five experiments off central California show that pH perturbations were greatest for experiments using "point source" CO2 pools surrounded by experimental plots. CO2 enclosure experiments with experimental plots positioned within a circular arrangement of CO2 pools had more moderate pH variation. The concentration of dissolution plumes from CO2 pools were related to the speed and turbulence of near-bottom currents, which influence CO2 dissolution and advection. Survival of meiofauna (nematodes, amoebae, euglenoid flagellates) was low after episodic severe hypercapnia but lower and variable where pH changes ranged from 0 to 0.2 pH units below normal.

  15. SMALLER FOOTPRINT DRILLING SYSTEM FOR DEEP AND HARD ROCK ENVIRONMENTS; FEASIBILITY OF ULTRA-HIGH SPEED DIAMOND DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2004-10-01

    The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high (greater than 10,000 rpm) rotational speeds. The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development and test results that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill ''faster and deeper'' possibly with rigs having a smaller footprint to be more mobile. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The project draws on TerraTek results submitted to NASA's ''Drilling on Mars'' program. The objective of that program was to demonstrate miniaturization of a robust and mobile drilling system that expends small amounts of energy. TerraTek successfully tested ultrahigh speed ({approx}40,000 rpm) small kerf diamond coring. Adaptation to the oilfield will require innovative bit designs for full hole drilling or continuous coring and the eventual development of downhole ultra-high speed drives. For domestic operations involving hard rock and deep oil and gas plays, improvements in penetration rates is an opportunity to reduce well costs and make viable certain field developments. An estimate of North American hard rock drilling costs is in excess of $1,200 MM. Thus potential savings of $200 MM to $600 MM are possible if drilling rates are doubled [assuming bit life is reasonable]. The net result for operators is improved profit margin as well as an improved position on reserves. The significance of the ''ultra-high rotary speed drilling system'' is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling

  16. SMALLER FOOTPRINT DRILLING SYSTEM FOR DEEP AND HARD ROCK ENVIRONMENTS; FEASIBILITY OF ULTRA-HIGH SPEED DIAMOND DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2004-10-01

    The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high (greater than 10,000 rpm) rotational speeds. The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development and test results that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill ''faster and deeper'' possibly with rigs having a smaller footprint to be more mobile. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The project draws on TerraTek results submitted to NASA's ''Drilling on Mars'' program. The objective of that program was to demonstrate miniaturization of a robust and mobile drilling system that expends small amounts of energy. TerraTek successfully tested ultrahigh speed ({approx}40,000 rpm) small kerf diamond coring. Adaptation to the oilfield will require innovative bit designs for full hole drilling or continuous coring and the eventual development of downhole ultra-high speed drives. For domestic operations involving hard rock and deep oil and gas plays, improvements in penetration rates is an opportunity to reduce well costs and make viable certain field developments. An estimate of North American hard rock drilling costs is in excess of $1,200 MM. Thus potential savings of $200 MM to $600 MM are possible if drilling rates are doubled [assuming bit life is reasonable]. The net result for operators is improved profit margin as well as an improved position on reserves. The significance of the ''ultra-high rotary speed drilling system'' is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling

  17. Coring in deep hardrock formations

    SciTech Connect

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1988-08-01

    The United States Department of Energy is involved in a variety of scientific and engineering feasibility studies requiring extensive drilling in hard crystalline rock. In many cases well depths extend from 6000 to 20,000 feet in high-temperature, granitic formations. Examples of such projects are the Hot Dry Rock well system at Fenton Hill, New Mexico and the planned exploratory magma well near Mammoth Lakes, California. In addition to these programs, there is also continuing interest in supporting programs to reduce drilling costs associated with the production of geothermal energy from underground sources such as the Geysers area near San Francisco, California. The overall progression in these efforts is to drill deeper holes in higher temperature, harder formations. In conjunction with this trend is a desire to improve the capability to recover geological information. Spot coring and continuous coring are important elements in this effort. It is the purpose of this report to examine the current methods used to obtain core from deep wells and to suggest projects which will improve existing capabilities. 28 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Probing the oxidation state of iron in the deep mantle using high P,T Mössbauer spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCammon, C. A.; Kupenko, I.; Sinmyo, R.; Cerantola, V.; Potapkin, V.; Chumakov, A. I.; Kantor, A.; Rüffer, R.; Dubrovinsky, L. S.

    2014-12-01

    The bulk of the Earth's interior is not directly accessible, yet redox processes occurring deep within drive many of the events observed at its surface. Laboratory studies of the relevant minerals at the appropriate pressure and temperature conditions have been pivotal in advancing our understanding of the Earth's interior. Iron plays an important role because it is the only major element with multiple electronic configurations (oxidation and spin state); however most of our knowledge regarding the oxidation state of iron in deep mantle phases is based on measurements of samples quenched from high temperature and sometimes also from high pressure. Mössbauer spectroscopy has been a key player in such studies and results on quenched samples have shown that the oxidation state of iron varies considerably through the mantle, from predominantly ferrous iron in upper mantle and transition zone phases to roughly 50% ferric iron in silicate perovskite (bridgmanite) due to the strong affinity of ferric iron for that phase in the presence of trivalent aluminium. Mössbauer measurements at pressures and temperatures along the geotherm are impractical using conventional radioactive sources due to their low brightness and the extremely limited possibilities for focusing in a laboratory setting. To address these limitations, we have developed an energy domain Synchrotron Mössbauer Source (SMS) on beamline ID18 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility that enables rapid collection of high quality energy domain Mössbauer spectra, and coupled with a portable double-sided laser heating system, SMS spectra can be collected on iron-containing mantle phases at pressures and temperatures up to those near the Earth's core in only a few hours (or less). The presentation will showcase recent results documenting in situ determination of iron oxidation state in lower mantle phases and discuss their implications for redox sensitive processes taking place throughout the Earth

  19. Convective transport of highly plasma protein bound drugs facilitates direct penetration into deep tissues after topical application

    PubMed Central

    Dancik, Yuri; Anissimov, Yuri G; Jepps, Owen G; Roberts, Michael S

    2012-01-01

    AIMS To relate the varying dermal, subcutaneous and muscle microdialysate concentrations found in man after topical application to the nature of the drug applied and to the underlying physiology. METHODS We developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model in which transport to deeper tissues was determined by tissue diffusion, blood, lymphatic and intersitial flow transport and drug properties. The model was applied to interpret published human microdialysis data, estimated in vitro dermal diffusion and protein binding affinity of drugs that have been previously applied topically in vivo and measured in deep cutaneous tissues over time. RESULTS Deeper tissue microdialysis concentrations for various drugs in vivo vary widely. Here, we show that carriage by the blood to the deeper tissues below topical application sites facilitates the transport of highly plasma protein bound drugs that penetrate the skin, leading to rapid and significant concentrations in those tissues. Hence, the fractional concentration for the highly plasma protein bound diclofenac in deeper tissues is 0.79 times that in a probe 4.5 mm below a superficial probe whereas the corresponding fractional concentration for the poorly protein bound nicotine is 0.02. Their corresponding estimated in vivo lag times for appearance of the drugs in the deeper probes were 1.1 min for diclofenac and 30 min for nicotine. CONCLUSIONS Poorly plasma protein bound drugs are mainly transported to deeper tissues after topical application by tissue diffusion whereas the transport of highly plasma protein bound drugs is additionally facilitated by convective blood, lymphatic and interstitial transport to deep tissues. PMID:21999217

  20. High precision time calibration of the Permian-Triassic boundary mass extinction event in a deep marine context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baresel, Björn; Bucher, Hugo; Brosse, Morgane; Bagherpour, Borhan; Schaltegger, Urs

    2015-04-01

    To construct a revised and high resolution calibrated time scale for the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) we use (1) high-precision U-Pb zircon age determinations of a unique succession of volcanic ash layers interbedded with deep water fossiliferous sediments in the Nanpanjiang Basin (South China) combined with (2) accurate quantitative biochronology based on ammonoids, conodonts, radiolarians, and foraminifera and (3) tracers of marine bioproductivity (carbon isotopes) across the PTB. The unprecedented precision of the single grain chemical abrasion isotope-dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (CA-ID-TIMS) dating technique at sub-per mil level (radio-isotopic calibration of the PTB at the <100 ka level) now allows calibrating magmatic and biological timescales at resolution adequate for both groups of processes. Using these alignments allows (1) positioning the PTB in different depositional setting and (2) solving the age contradictions generated by the misleading use of the first occurrence (FO) of the conodont Hindeodus parvus, whose diachronous first occurrences are arbitrarily used for placing the base of the Triassic. This new age framework provides the basis for a combined calibration of chemostratigraphic records with high-resolution biochronozones of the Late Permian and Early Triassic. Here, we present new single grain U-Pb zircon data of volcanic ash layers from two deep marine sections (Dongpan and Penglaitan) revealing stratigraphic consistent dates over several volcanic ash layers bracketing the PTB. These analyses define weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 251.956±0.033 Ma (Dongpan) and 252.062±0.043 Ma (Penglaitan) for the last Permian ash bed. By calibration with detailed litho- and biostratigraphy new U-Pb ages of 251.953±0.038 Ma (Dongpan) and 251.907±0.033 Ma (Penglaitan) are established for the onset of the Triassic.

  1. Radiometric surveys in underground environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochiolo, Massimo; Chiozzi, Paolo; Verdoya, Massimo; Pasquale, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    Due to their ability to travel through the air for several metres, gamma-rays emitted from natural radioactive elements can be successfully used in surveys carried out both with airborne and ground equipments. Besides the concentration of the radio-elements contained in rocks and soils and the intrinsic characteristics of the gamma-ray detector, the detected count rate depends on the solid angle around the spectrometer. On a flat outcrop, ground spectrometry detects the radiation ideally produced by a cylindrical mass of rock of about two metres in diameter and thickness of about half a meter. Under these geometrical conditions, the natural radioactivity can be easily evaluated. With operating conditions different from the standard ones, such as at the edge of an escarpment, the count rate halves because of the missing material, whereas in the vicinity of a rock wall the count rate will increase. In underground environment, the recorded count rate may even double and the in situ assessment of the concentration of radio-elements may be rather difficult, even if the ratios between the different radio-elements may not be affected. We tested the applicability of gamma-ray spectrometry for rapid assessment of the potential hazard levels related to radon and radiation dose rate in underground environment. A mine shaft, located in a zone of uranium enrichment in Liguria (Italy), has been investigated. A preliminary ground radiometric survey was carried out to define the extent of the ore deposit. Then, the radiometric investigation was focussed on the mine shaft. Due to rock mass above the shaft vault, the background gamma radiation can be considered of negligible influence on measurements. In underground surveys, besides deviations from a flat geometry, factors controlling radon exhalation, emanation and stagnation, such as fractures, water leakage and the presence of ventilation, should be carefully examined. We attempted to evaluate these control factors and collected

  2. Hydraulic tomography in fractured granite: Mizunami Underground Research site, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illman, Walter A.; Liu, Xiaoyi; Takeuchi, Shinji; Yeh, Tian-Chyi Jim; Ando, Kenichi; Saegusa, Hiromitsu

    2009-01-01

    Two large-scale cross-hole pumping tests were conducted at depths of 191-226 m and 662-706 m in deep boreholes at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) construction site in central Japan. During these two tests, induced groundwater responses were monitored at many observation intervals at various depths in different boreholes at the site. We analyze the two cross-hole pumping tests using transient hydraulic tomography (THT) based on an efficient sequential successive linear estimator to compute the hydraulic conductivity (K) and specific storage (Ss) tomograms, as well as their uncertainties in three dimensions. The equivalent K and Ss estimates obtained using asymptotic analysis treating the medium to be homogeneous served as the mean parameter estimates for the 3-D stochastic inverse modeling effort. Results show several, distinct, high K and low Ss zones that are continuous over hundreds of meters, which appear to delineate fault zones and their connectivity. The THT analysis of the tests also identified a low K zone which corresponds with a known fault zone trending NNW and has been found to compartmentalize groundwater flow at the site. These results corroborate well with observed water level records, available fault information, and coseismic groundwater level responses during several large earthquakes. The successful application of THT to cross-hole pumping tests conducted in fractured granite at this site suggests that THT is a promising approach to delineate large-scale K and Ss heterogeneities, fracture connectivity, and to quantify uncertainty of the estimated fields.

  3. High detectivity solar-blind high-temperature deep-ultraviolet photodetector based on multi-layered (l00) facet-oriented β-Ga₂O₃ nanobelts.

    PubMed

    Zou, Rujia; Zhang, Zhenyu; Liu, Qian; Hu, Junqing; Sang, Liwen; Liao, Meiyong; Zhang, Wenjun

    2014-05-14

    Fabrication of a high-temperature deep-ultraviolet photodetector working in the solar-blind spectrum range (190-280 nm) is a challenge due to the degradation in the dark current and photoresponse properties. Herein, β-Ga2O3 multi-layered nanobelts with (l00) facet-oriented were synthesized, and were demonstrated for the first time to possess excellent mechanical, electrical properties and stability at a high temperature inside a TEM studies. As-fabricated DUV solar-blind photodetectors using (l00) facet-oriented β-Ga2O3 multi-layered nanobelts demonstrated enhanced photodetective performances, that is, high sensitivity, high signal-to-noise ratio, high spectral selectivity, high speed, and high stability, importantly, at a temperature as high as 433 K, which are comparable to other reported semiconducting nanomaterial photodetectors. In particular, the characteristics of the photoresponsivity of the β-Ga2O3 nanobelt devices include a high photoexcited current (>21 nA), an ultralow dark current (below the detection limit of 10(-14) A), a fast time response (<0.3 s), a high R(λ) (≈851 A/W), and a high EQE (~4.2 × 10(3)). The present fabricated facet-oriented β-Ga2O3 multi-layered nanobelt based devices will find practical applications in photodetectors or optical switches for high-temperature environment. PMID:24520013

  4. Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments; Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    TerraTek, A Schlumberger Company

    2008-12-31

    The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high rotational speeds (greater than 10,000 rpm). The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill 'faster and deeper' possibly with smaller, more mobile rigs. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The significance of the 'ultra-high rotary speed drilling system' is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling and coring today run less than 10,000 rpm - usually well below 5,000 rpm. This document provides the progress through two phases of the program entitled 'Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments: Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling' for the period starting 30 June 2003 and concluding 31 March 2009. The accomplishments of Phases 1 and 2 are summarized as follows: (1) TerraTek reviewed applicable literature and documentation and convened a project kick-off meeting with Industry Advisors in attendance (see Black and Judzis); (2) TerraTek designed and planned Phase I bench scale experiments (See Black and Judzis). Improvements were made to the loading mechanism and the rotational speed monitoring instrumentation. New drill bit designs were developed to provided a more consistent product with consistent performance. A test matrix for the final core bit testing program was completed; (3) TerraTek concluded small-scale cutting performance tests; (4) Analysis of Phase 1 data

  5. ANNs pinpoint underground distribution faults

    SciTech Connect

    Glinkowski, M.T.; Wang, N.C.

    1995-10-01

    Many offline fault location techniques in power distribution circuits involve patrolling along the lines or cables. In overhead distribution lines, most of the failures can be located quickly by visual inspection without the aid of special equipment. However, locating a fault in underground cable systems is more difficult. It involves additional equipment (e.g., thumpers, radars, etc.) to transform the invisibility of the cable into other forms of signals, such as acoustic sound and electromagnetic pulses. Trained operators must carry the equipment above the ground, follow the path of the signal, and draw lines on their maps in order to locate the fault. Sometimes, even smelling the burnt cable faults is a way of detecting the problem. These techniques are time consuming, not always reliable, and, as in the case of high-voltage dc thumpers, can cause additional damage to the healthy parts of the cable circuit. Online fault location in power networks that involve interconnected lines (cables) and multiterminal sources continues receiving great attention, with limited success in techniques that would provide simple and practical solutions. This article features a new online fault location technique that: uses the pattern recognition feature of artificial neural networks (ANNs); utilizes new capabilities of modern protective relaying hardware. The output of the neural network can be graphically displayed as a simple three-dimensional (3-D) chart that can provide an operator with an instantaneous indication of the location of the fault.

  6. Seismic performance of underground facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Marine, I W

    1982-01-01

    A workshop was held in Augusta, GA, February 11-13, 1981 to review and assess the state-of-the-art for determining and predicting earthquake damage to underground facilities. The papers presented related to data collection and analysis, modeling, and repository design. Discussion groups addressed seismology, rock mechanics and hydrology, modeling, design, and licensing, siting, and tectonics. Most scientists in attendance believed that enough was known to proceed with site selection, design, and licensing of a waste repository. However, there was recognition of several items of research that would enhance understanding of the subsurface effects of seismicity. In general, the subsurface effects of earthquakes are substantially less than their surface effects. This conclusion is supported by both observation and by modeling studies. The absence of wave reflections, the absence of high flexural stresses, and the absence of poor soil conditions contribute to the improved seismic performance of subsurface facilities. Seismic considerations for geologic disposal of nuclear waste vary with the phase of operation. During construction and waste loading, the primary concern is for the safety of onsite personnel. However, during long-term waste storage, the principal interest is in the migration of contaminants due to seismic cracking and enhancement of permeability. Backfilling the storage facility will mitigate this effect.

  7. High-power metal halide vapour lasers oscillating in deep ultraviolet, visible and middle infrared spectral ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temelkov, K. A.; Slaveeva, S. I.; Kirilov, V. I.; Kostadinov, I. K.; Vuchkov, N. K.

    2012-05-01

    Middle infrared and deep ultraviolet high-power high-beam-quality stable-operating He-SrBr2 and Cu+ Ne-CuBr lasers excited in nanosecond pulsed longitudinal discharge are developed, patented and studied. Optimal discharge conditions, such as active zone diameter, vapour pressure, buffer-gas pressure, electrical excitation scheme parameters, average input power and pulse repetition frequency, are found. The highest output laser parameters are obtained for the Sr atom and Cu+ lasers, respectively. These lasers equipped with optical systems for the control of laser radiation parameters are used in a large variety of applications, such as precise material microprocessing, including biological tissues, determination of linear optical properties of different newly developed materials, laser-induced modification of conductive polymers and laser-induced fluorescence in wide-gap semiconductors, instead of free electron and excimer lasers, respectively. A master oscillator-power amplifier system, which is based on a high-beam-quality high-power CuBr vapour laser and is equipped with an optic system for laser beam control and with the X-Y stage controlled by adequate software as well, is developed and used in high-precision micromachining of samples made of nickel and tool steel.

  8. Fabrication of PbS thin films composed of highly (200)-oriented nano-/micro-rods in deep eutectic solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Zhang, Jianjun; Xu, Huifang; Ouyang, Yan; Zhan, Funan; Li, Qiang

    2015-08-01

    PbS thin films composed of highly (200)-oriented shuttle-like nano-/micro-rods were successfully fabricated on glass substrates by the environment friendly ionothermal method at 140 °C in deep eutectic solvent (DES). The as-prepared products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra, respectively. The possible mechanism of the oriented growth of PbS nano-/micro-rods was discussed. The PbS thin films composed of shuttle-like nano-/micro-rods exhibited a large absorbance property in the wavelength range of 350-1100 nm, and moreover, the PL spectrum had a broad emission band centered at 490 nm. The shuttle-like PbS nano-/micro-rods-based thin films might have potential application in solar cells.

  9. Deep levels in high resistivity GaN detected by thermally stimulated luminescence and first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Yanqin; Li, Jingbo; Hou, Qifeng; Wang, Xiaoliang; Xiao, Hongling; Wang, Cuimei; Li, Jinmin

    2009-08-01

    Thermally stimulated luminescence spectroscopy has been applied to study the deep centres in unintentionally doped high resistivity GaN epilayers grown by the metal organic chemical vapour deposition method on c-sapphire substrates. Two trap states with activation energies of 0.12 and 0.62 eV are evaluated from two luminescence peaks at 141.9 and 294.7 K in the luminescence curve. Our spectroscopy measurement, in combination with more accurate first-principles studies, provided insights into the microscopic origin of these levels. Our investigations suggest that the lower level at 0.12 eV might originate from CN, which behaves as a hole trap state; the deeper level at 0.62 eV can be correlated with VGa that corresponds to the yellow luminescence band observed in low-temperature photoluminescence spectra.

  10. High Temperature Reactor (HTR) Deep Burn Core and Fuel Analysis: Design Selection for the Prismatic Block Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Francesco Venneri; Chang-Keun Jo; Jae-Man Noh; Yonghee Kim; Claudio Filippone; Jonghwa Chang; Chris Hamilton; Young-Min Kim; Ji-Su Jun; Moon-Sung Cho; Hong-Sik Lim; MIchael A. Pope; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Vincent Descotes; Brian Boer

    2010-09-01

    The Deep Burn (DB) Project is a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored feasibility study of Transuranic Management using high burnup fuel in the high temperature helium cooled reactor (HTR). The DB Project consists of seven tasks: project management, core and fuel analysis, spent fuel management, fuel cycle integration, TRU fuel modeling, TRU fuel qualification, and HTR fuel recycle. In the Phase II of the Project, we conducted nuclear analysis of TRU destruction/utilization in the HTR prismatic block design (Task 2.1), deep burn fuel/TRISO microanalysis (Task 2.3), and synergy with fast reactors (Task 4.2). The Task 2.1 covers the core physics design, thermo-hydraulic CFD analysis, and the thermofluid and safety analysis (low pressure conduction cooling, LPCC) of the HTR prismatic block design. The Task 2.3 covers the analysis of the structural behavior of TRISO fuel containing TRU at very high burnup level, i.e. exceeding 50% of FIMA. The Task 4.2 includes the self-cleaning HTR based on recycle of HTR-generated TRU in the same HTR. Chapter IV contains the design and analysis results of the 600MWth DB-HTR core physics with the cycle length, the average discharged burnup, heavy metal and plutonium consumptions, radial and axial power distributions, temperature reactivity coefficients. Also, it contains the analysis results of the 450MWth DB-HTR core physics and the analysis of the decay heat of a TRU loaded DB-HTR core. The evaluation of the hot spot fuel temperature of the fuel block in the DB-HTR (Deep-Burn High Temperature Reactor) core under full operating power conditions are described in Chapter V. The investigated designs are the 600MWth and 460MWth DB-HTRs. In Chapter VI, the thermo-fluid and safety of the 600MWth DB-HTRs has been analyzed to investigate a thermal-fluid design performance at the steady state and a passive safety performance during an LPCC event. Chapter VII describes the analysis results of the TRISO fuel microanalysis of the 600MWth and 450

  11. Underground communications and tracking technology advances

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2007-03-15

    As the June 2009 deadline set by the MINER Act grows near, several technologies have emerged as possible options for communicating and tracking underground coal miners in the event of an emergency or disaster. NIOSH is currently deciding how best to invest $10 million assigned by Congress under an Emergency Supplementary Appropriations Act (ESA) to research and develop mine safety technology. Medium and ultra high frequency (UHF) systems seem to be leading the pack with radio frequency identification (RFID) tags serving as the tracking system. Wireless mesh systems can serve as a communications infrastructure and they can do much more. Even more technologies continue to emerge, such as inertial navigation tracking systems. Mines are discovering the wonders of modern voice and data communications underground. Still no one know if it is economically practical to design a system that will function after a coal mine explosion. From the nineteen systems submitted to MSHA's request for information (RFI), six systems were selected that represented most of the technologies that had been proposed: the Rajant Breadcrumb, Innovative Wireless, Concurrent Technologies/Time Domain, Transtek, Gamma Services, and the Kutta Consulting systems. They were tested at CONSOL Energy's McElroy mine in April 2006. MSHA felt that all of those systems needed a significant amount of work before they were ready for use in a underground coal mining environment. The agency continues to work with these, and other manufacturers, to assist in arranging for field demonstration and then to gain MSHA approval.

  12. Remedial technologies for leaking underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The electric utility industry owns and operates many underground and aboveground storage tanks as well as other facilities for using, storing, or transferring petroleum products, primarily motor and heating fuels. The prevention, detection, and correction of leakage of these products from underground storage tanks (UST) has gained high priority in the utility industry and within the regulatory agencies. The 1984 amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCTA) require the US EPA to develop new Federal regulations for reducing and controlling environmental damage from underground storage tank leakage. This report presents a summary description and evaluation of 13 remedial methods for soil and groundwater cleanup: in situ technologies - volatilization, biodegradation, leaching and chemical reaction, vitrification, passive remediation, and isolation/containment; and non-in situ technologies - land treatment, thermal treatment, asphalt incorporation, solidification/stabilization, groundwater extraction and treatment, chemical extraction, excavation. The information in this report is organized in terms of four major considerations in evaluating the relative feasibility of each method: technical feasibility, implementation feasibility, environmental feasibility, and economic feasibility.

  13. Development of GIS-Based Decision Support System for Optimizing Transportation Cost in Underground Limestone Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Sungchan; Park, Jihwan; Suh, Jangwon; Lee, Sangho; Choi, Youngmin

    2014-05-01

    In mining industry, large amount of cost has been invested in early stages of mine development such as prospecting, exploration, and discovery. Recent changes in mining, however, also raised the cost in operation, production, and environmental protection because ore depletion at shallow depth caused large-scale, deep mining. Therefore, many mining facilities are installed or relocated underground to reduce transportation cost as well as environmental pollution. This study presents GIS-based decision support system that optimizes transportation cost from various mining faces to mine facility in underground mines. The development of this system consists of five steps. As a first step, mining maps were collected which contains underground geo-spatial informations. In mine maps, then, mine network and contour data were converted to GIS format in second step for 3D visualization and spatial analysis. In doing so, original tunnel outline data were digitized with ground level, and converted to simplified network format, and surface morphology, contours were converted to digital elevation model (DEM). The next step is to define calculation algorithm of transportation cost. Among the many component of transportation cost, this study focused on the fuel cost because it can be easily estimated if mining maps are available by itself. The cost were calculated by multiplication of the number of blasting, haulage per blasting, distance between mining faces to facility, fuel cost per liter, and two for downhill and uphill, divided by fuel efficiency of mining trucks. Finally, decision support system, SNUTunnel was implemented. For the application of SNUTunnel in actual underground mine, Nammyeong Development Corporation, Korea, was selected as study site. This mine produces limestone with high content of calcite for paper, steel manufacture, or desulfurization, and its development is continuously ongoing to reach down to deeper calcite ore body, so the mine network is expanding

  14. Characteristics of Deep Tropical and Subtropical Convection from Nadir-Viewing High-Altitude Airborne Doppler Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Tian, Lin; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Li, Lihua; Guimond, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents observations of deep convection characteristics in the tropics and subtropics that have been classified into four categories: tropical cyclone, oceanic, land, and sea breeze. Vertical velocities in the convection were derived from Doppler radar measurements collected during several NASA field experiments from the nadir-viewing high-altitude ER-2 Doppler radar (EDOP). Emphasis is placed on the vertical structure of the convection from the surface to cloud top (sometimes reaching 18-km altitude). This unique look at convection is not possible from other approaches such as ground-based or lower-altitude airborne scanning radars. The vertical motions from the radar measurements are derived using new relationships between radar reflectivity and hydrometeor fall speed. Various convective properties, such as the peak updraft and downdraft velocities and their corresponding altitude, heights of reflectivity levels, and widths of reflectivity cores, are estimated. The most significant findings are the following: 1) strong updrafts that mostly exceed 15 m/s, with a few exceeding 30 m/s, are found in all the deep convection cases, whether over land or ocean; 2) peak updrafts were almost always above the 10-km level and, in the case of tropical cyclones, were closer to the 12-km level; and 3) land-based and sea-breeze convection had higher reflectivities and wider convective cores than oceanic and tropical cyclone convection. In addition, the high-resolution EDOP data were used to examine the connection between reflectivity and vertical velocity, for which only weak linear relationships were found. The results are discussed in terms of dynamical and microphysical implications for numerical models and future remote sensors.

  15. High connectivity across the fragmented chemosynthetic ecosystems of the deep Atlantic Equatorial Belt: efficient dispersal mechanisms or questionable endemism?

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Sara; Olu, Karine; Decker, Carole; Cunha, Regina L; Fuchs, Sandra; Hourdez, Stéphane; Serrão, Ester A; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie

    2013-09-01

    Chemosynthetic ecosystems are distributed worldwide in fragmented habitats harbouring seemingly highly specialized communities. Yet, shared taxa have been reported from highly distant chemosynthetic communities. These habitats are distributed in distinct biogeographical regions, one of these being the so-called Atlantic Equatorial Belt (AEB). Here, we combined genetic data (COI) from several taxa to assess the possible existence of cryptic or synonymous species and to detect the possible occurrence of contemporary gene flow among populations of chemosynthetic species located on both sides of the Atlantic. Several Evolutionary Significant Units (ESUs) of Alvinocarididae shrimp and Vesicomyidae bivalves were found to be shared across seeps of the AEB. Some were also common to hydrothermal vent communities of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), encompassing taxa morphologically described as distinct species or even genera. The hypothesis of current or very recent large-scale gene flow among seeps and vents was supported by microsatellite analysis of the shrimp species Alvinocaris muricola/Alvinocaris markensis across the AEB and MAR. Two nonmutually exclusive hypotheses may explain these findings. The dispersion of larvae or adults following strong deep-sea currents, possibly combined with biochemical cues influencing the duration of larval development and timing of metamorphosis, may result in large-scale effective migration among distant spots scattered on the oceanic seafloor. Alternatively, these results may arise from the prevailing lack of knowledge on the ocean seabed, apart from emblematic ecosystems (chemosynthetic ecosystems, coral reefs or seamounts), where the widespread classification of endemism associated with many chemosynthetic taxa might hide wider distributions in overlooked parts of the deep sea. PMID:23927457

  16. FIRST RESULTS FROM Pan-STARRS1: FAINT, HIGH PROPER MOTION WHITE DWARFS IN THE MEDIUM-DEEP FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Tonry, J. L.; Flewelling, H. A.; Deacon, N. R.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Hodapp, K. W.; Magnier, E. A.; Morgan, J. S.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Stubbs, C. W.; Kilic, M.; Chornock, R.; Berger, E.; Price, P. A.

    2012-01-20

    The Pan-STARRS1 survey has obtained multi-epoch imaging in five bands (Pan-STARRS1 g{sub P1}, r{sub P1}, i{sub P1}, z{sub P1}, and y{sub P1}) on 12 'Medium-Deep fields', each of which spans a 3.{sup 0}3 circle. For the period between 2009 April and 2011 April these fields were observed 50-200 times. Using a reduced proper motion diagram, we have extracted a list of 47 white dwarf (WD) candidates whose Pan-STARRS1 astrometry indicates a non-zero proper motion at the 6{sigma} level, with a typical 1{sigma} proper motion uncertainty of 10 mas yr{sup -1}. We also used astrometry from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (when available) and USNO-B to assess our proper motion fits. None of the WD candidates exhibits evidence of statistically significant parallaxes, with a typical 1{sigma} uncertainty of 8 mas. Twelve of these candidates are known WDs, including the high proper motion (1.''7 yr{sup -1}) WD LHS 291. We confirm seven more objects as WDs through optical spectroscopy. Based on the Pan-STARRS1 colors, ten of the stars are likely to be cool WDs with 4170 K Deep Field Survey and the 3{pi} survey, Pan-STARRS1 should find many more high proper motion WDs that are part of the old thick disk and halo.

  17. Underground test area subproject waste management plan. Revision No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS), located in southern Nevada, was the site of 928 underground nuclear tests conducted between 1951 and 1992. The tests were performed as part of the Atomic Energy Commission and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons testing program. The NTS is managed by the DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV). Of the 928 tests conducted below ground surface at the NTS, approximately 200 were detonated below the water table. As an unavoidable consequence of these testing activities, radionuclides have been introduced into the subsurface environment, impacting groundwater. In the few instances of groundwater sampling, radionuclides have been detected in the groundwater; however, only a very limited investigation of the underground test sites and associated shot cavities has been conducted to date. The Underground Test Area (UGTA) Subproject was established to fill this void and to characterize the risk posed to human health and the environment as a result of underground nuclear testing activities at the NTS. One of its primary objectives is to gather data to characterize the deep aquifer underlying the NTS.

  18. High pressure experimental constraints on the fate of water during subduction of oceanic crustal material into the deep mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenthal, Anja; Frost, Daniel J.

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge of the abundance and distribution of H2O in the Earth's deep mantle remains highly controversial. The chief means of replenishment of the Earth's interior with volatiles over much of geological time is subduction, but constraints are very poor as natural samples from the deep Earth's interior subduction zones are inaccessible. High pressure experimental investigations can overcome that problem by simulating deep mantle conditions and processes. We aim to experimentally determine the maximum storage capacity, substitution mechanism and behaviour of H2O in hydrous and nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) during subduction of hydrated oceanic crustal material into the deep upper mantle. A particular interest is to determine the H2O content of NAMs at the conditions where nominally hydrous phases (such as phengite) are breaking down to release H2O that would then leave the slab. By applying a novel experimental approach formerly used for peridotite mantle compositions [1, 2], small amounts of H2O in eclogitic NAMs such as garnet, clinopyroxene, coesite/stishovite etc. will be determined for the first time in high pressure experiments as a function of pressure, temperature and bulk composition by using interlayers of the NAMs and volatile-rich oceanic crustal material of MORB composition. Here we present the first results of experimentally determined melting and phase relations of an altered oceanic basalt composition GA1 [3] containing varying amounts of H2O (up to 7wt.%) at varying temperatures (sub-solidus to near solidus) and pressures (6-10 GPa; i.e. from ~200 to ~330 km depth) using multi anvil apparatuses at University of Bayreuth, Germany. Experiments yield well-crystallised assemblages of garnet ± clinopyroxene ± coesite/stishovite ± rutile ± phengite ± vapour. Similar to previous studies [e.g. 4-8], the stability of phengite varies as a function of pressure, temperature, buffering mineral paragenesis and bulk H2O concentration. In addition, K2O

  19. Constraining the source location of the 30 May 2015 (Mw 7.9) Bonin deep-focus earthquake using seismogram envelopes of high-frequency P waveforms: Occurrence of deep-focus earthquake at the bottom of a subducting slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemura, Shunsuke; Maeda, Takuto; Furumura, Takashi; Obara, Kazushige

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the source location of the 30 May 2015 (Mw 7.9) deep-focus Bonin earthquake was constrained using P wave seismograms recorded across Japan. We focus on propagation characteristics of high-frequency P wave. Deep-focus intraslab earthquakes typically show spindle-shaped seismogram envelopes with peak delays of several seconds and subsequent long-duration coda waves; however, both the main shock and aftershock of the 2015 Bonin event exhibited pulse-like P wave propagations with high apparent velocities (~12.2 km/s). Such P wave propagation features were reproduced by finite-difference method simulations of seismic wave propagation in the case of slab-bottom source. The pulse-like P wave seismogram envelopes observed from the 2015 Bonin earthquake show that its source was located at the bottom of the Pacific slab at a depth of ~680 km, rather than within its middle or upper regions.

  20. Beauty of lotus is more than skin deep: highly buoyant superhydrophobic films.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yuri; Brugarolas, Teresa; Kang, Sung-Min; Park, Bum Jun; Kim, Byeong-Su; Lee, Chang-Soo; Lee, Daeyeon

    2014-05-28

    We develop highly buoyant superhydrophobic films that mimic the three-dimensional structure of lotus leaves. The high buoyancy of these structure stems from mechanically robust bubbles that significantly reduce the density of the superhydrophobic films. These highly buoyant superhydrophobic films stay afloat on water surface while carrying a load that is more than 200 times their own weight. In addition to imparting high buoyancy, the incorporation of robust hydrophilic bubbles enables the formation of free-standing structures that mimic the water-collection properties of Namib Desert beetle. We believe the incorporation of robust bubbles is a general method that opens up numerous possibilities in imparting high buoyancy to different structures that needs to stay afloat on water surfaces and can potentially be used for the fabrication of lightweight materials. (Image on the upper left reproduced with permission from Yong, J.; Yang, Q.; Chen, F.; Zhang, D.; Du, G.; Si, J.; Yun, F.; Hou, X. A Bioinspired Planar Superhydrophobic Microboat. J. Micromech. Microeng. 2014, 24, 035006). PMID:24801001

  1. Twenty Years of Underground Research at Canada's URL

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, N. A.

    2003-02-27

    Construction of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL's) Underground Research Laboratory (URL) began in 1982. The URL was designed to address the needs of the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program. Over the years, a comprehensive program of geologic characterization and underground hydrogeologic, geotechnical and geomechanical projects have been performed, many of which are ongoing. The scientific work at the URL has evolved through a number of different phases to meet the changing needs of Canada's waste management program. The various phases of the URL have included siting, site evaluation, construction and operation. Collaboration with international organizations is encouraged at the URL, with the facility being a centre of excellence in an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) network of underground facilities. One of AECL's major achievements of the past 20 year program has been the preparation and public defense of a ten-volume Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for a conceptual deep geologic repository. Completion of this dissertation on the characterization, construction and performance modeling of a conceptual repository in the granite rock of the Canadian Shield was largely based on work conducted at the URL. Work conducted over the seven years since public defense of the EIS has been directed towards developing those engineering and performance assessment tools that would be required for implementation of a deep geologic repository. The URL continues to be a very active facility with ongoing experiments and demonstrations performed for a variety of Canadian and international radioactive waste management organizations.

  2. Underground tank leak detection methods

    SciTech Connect

    Niaki, Shahzad; Broscious, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    In recent years, the increase in leaks from underground gasoline storage tanks has had a significant adverse environmental impact on the US. Current estimates from government and industry sources are that between 1.5 to 3.5 million underground storage tanks exist in the nation. Estimates of the number of leaking tanks range from 75,000 to 100,000; and 350,000 others may develop leaks within the next five years. The 1983 National Petroleum News Factbook Issue forecasts the existence of approximately 140,000 gasoline service stations in the US at the end of 1983. New York State estimates that 19% of its 83,000 active underground gasoline tanks are now leaking. Maine estimates that 25% of its 1,600 retail gasoline underground tanks are leaking approximately 11 million gallons yearly. In Michigan 39% of ground water contamination incidents are attributed to storage tanks. One of the primary causes of tank leakage is corrosion of the storage tanks. Product loss from leaking tanks may cause an adverse effect on the environment, endanger lives, reduce income, and require the expenditure of millions of dollars for cleanup. To prevent or reduce the adverse effects of gasoline leakage, an accurate method must be used to determine whether or not an underground tank is leaking.

  3. Bacterial adaptation to high pressure: a respiratory system in the deep-sea bacterium Shewanella violacea DSS12.

    PubMed

    Chikuma, Sayaka; Kasahara, Ryota; Kato, Chiaki; Tamegai, Hideyuki

    2007-02-01

    Shewanella violacea DSS12 is a psychrophilic facultative piezophile isolated from the deep sea. In a previous study, we have shown that the bacterium adapted its respiratory components to alteration in growth pressure. This appears to be one of the bacterial adaptation mechanisms to high pressures. In this study, we measured the respiratory activities of S. violacea grown under various pressures. There was no significant difference between the cells grown under atmospheric pressure and a high pressure of 50 MPa relative to oxygen consumption of the cell-free extracts and inhibition patterns in the presence of KCN and antimycin A. Antimycin A did not inhibit the activity completely regardless of growth pressure, suggesting that there were complex III-containing and -eliminating pathways operating in parallel. On the other hand, there was a difference in the terminal oxidase activities. Our results showed that an inhibitor- and pressure-resistant terminal oxidase was expressed in the cells grown under high pressure. This property should contribute to the high-pressure adaptation mechanisms of S. violacea. PMID:17166225

  4. Rotation-and-scale-invariant airplane detection in high-resolution satellite images based on deep-Hough-forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yongtao; Guan, Haiyan; Zai, Dawei; Ji, Zheng

    2016-02-01

    This paper proposes a rotation-and-scale-invariant method for detecting airplanes from high-resolution satellite images. To improve feature representation capability, a multi-layer feature generation model is created to produce high-order feature representations for local image patches through deep learning techniques. To effectively estimate airplane centroids, a Hough forest model is trained to learn mappings from high-order patch features to the probabilities of an airplane being present at specific locations. To handle airplanes with varying orientations, patch orientation is defined and integrated into the Hough forest to augment Hough voting. The scale invariance is achieved by using a set of scale factors embedded in the Hough forest. Quantitative evaluations on the images collected from Google Earth service show that the proposed method achieves a completeness, correctness, quality, and F1-measure of 0.968, 0.972, 0.942, and 0.970, respectively, in detecting airplanes with arbitrary orientations and sizes. Comparative studies also demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the other three existing methods in accurately and completely detecting airplanes in high-resolution remotely sensed images.

  5. Standard high-reliability integrated circuit logic packaging. [for deep space tracking stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaughter, D. W.

    1977-01-01

    A family of standard, high-reliability hardware used for packaging digital integrated circuits is described. The design transition from early prototypes to production hardware is covered and future plans are discussed. Interconnections techniques are described as well as connectors and related hardware available at both the microcircuit packaging and main-frame level. General applications information is also provided.

  6. All-photonic drying and sintering process via flash white light combined with deep-UV and near-infrared irradiation for highly conductive copper nano-ink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Hyun-Jun; Oh, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2016-01-01

    We developed an ultra-high speed photonic sintering method involving flash white light (FWL) combined with near infrared (NIR) and deep UV light irradiation to produce highly conductive copper nano-ink film. Flash white light irradiation energy and the power of NIR/deep UV were optimized to obtain high conductivity Cu films. Several microscopic and spectroscopic characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), a x-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were employed to characterize the Cu nano-films. Optimally sintered Cu nano-ink films produced using a deep UV-assisted flash white light sintering technique had the lowest resistivity (7.62 μΩ·cm), which was only 4.5-fold higher than that of bulk Cu film (1.68 μΩ•cm).

  7. Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) of High Aspect Ratio SiC Microstructures using a Time-Multiplexed Etch-Passivate Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Laura J.; Beheim, Glenn M.

    2006-01-01

    High aspect ratio silicon carbide (SiC) microstructures are needed for microengines and other harsh environment micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). Previously, deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) of low aspect ratio (AR less than or = 1) deep (greater than 100 micron) trenches in SiC has been reported. However, existing DRIE processes for SiC are not well-suited for definition of high aspect ratio features because such simple etch-only processes provide insufficient control over sidewall roughness and slope. Therefore, we have investigated the use of a time-multiplexed etch-passivate (TMEP) process, which alternates etching with polymer passivation of the etch sidewalls. An optimized TMEP process was used to etch high aspect ratio (AR greater than 5) deep (less than 100 micron) trenches in 6H-SiC. Power MEMS structures (micro turbine blades) in 6H-SiC were also fabricated.

  8. All-photonic drying and sintering process via flash white light combined with deep-UV and near-infrared irradiation for highly conductive copper nano-ink

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Hyun-Jun; Oh, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2016-01-01

    We developed an ultra-high speed photonic sintering method involving flash white light (FWL) combined with near infrared (NIR) and deep UV light irradiation to produce highly conductive copper nano-ink film. Flash white light irradiation energy and the power of NIR/deep UV were optimized to obtain high conductivity Cu films. Several microscopic and spectroscopic characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), a x-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were employed to characterize the Cu nano-films. Optimally sintered Cu nano-ink films produced using a deep UV-assisted flash white light sintering technique had the lowest resistivity (7.62 μΩ·cm), which was only 4.5-fold higher than that of bulk Cu film (1.68 μΩ•cm). PMID:26806215

  9. Detrital zircons of deep-sea sediments of the Arctic ocean - key to the understanding of High Polar Arctic tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokalsky, S.; Morozov, A.; Petrov, O.; Belyatsky, B.; Rekant, P.; Shevchenko, S.; Sergeev, S.

    2012-04-01

    appreciably different for Polar sample (200-450 Ma) and Geophysicists Spur (200, 300, 400-600 Ma). It is known, that formation of modern deep-sea sediments takes place mainly due to fluvial discharge (ca 90%), erosion of oceanic bedrocks and coastal beaches. Wind-borne component and extraterraneous dust are not significant (<1%). Transportation of continental material by icebergs (ice-rafted debris) is added to these sources in polar areas. Well-known Permian-Triassic sandstones of Arctic coast (including polar islands) are defined by the presence of Grenvillian age zircons - Canadian Arctic, Alaska, Greenland (Miller et al., 2006), while Jurassic-Cretaceous sandstones of the South Anjui Zone, Chukotka and New Siberian Islands of Russian Arctic (Miller et al., 2008) have clastic zircon with ages very similar to the obtained by us for deep-sea sediments. We suppose that modern deep-sea sediments were formed either due to ablation of these sandstones with distal transportation of detritus (highly unlikely), or due to weathering of similar rock of oceanic highs of Lomonosov Ridge. The last is more realistic because the similarity of the Lomonosov Ridge and north-east continental Arctic is proved by geophysical data (Jokat et al., 1992).

  10. Underground Energy Storage Program. 1984 annual summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kannberg, L.D.

    1985-06-01

    Underground Energy Storage (UES) Program activities during the period from April 1984 through March 1985 are briefly described. Primary activities in seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) involved field testing of high-temperature (>100/sup 0/C (212/sup 0/F)) aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) at St. Paul, laboratory studies of geochemical issues associated with high-temperatures ATES, monitoring of chill ATES facilities in Tuscaloosa, and STES linked with solar energy collection. The scope of international activities in STES is briefly discussed.

  11. Deep coupling of star tracker and MEMS-gyro data under highly dynamic and long exposure conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ting; Xing, Fei; You, Zheng; Wang, Xiaochu; Li, Bin

    2014-08-01

    Star trackers and gyroscopes are the two most widely used attitude measurement devices in spacecrafts. The star tracker is supposed to have the highest accuracy in stable conditions among different types of attitude measurement devices. In general, to detect faint stars and reduce the size of the star tracker, a method with long exposure time method is usually used. Thus, under dynamic conditions, smearing of the star image may appear and result in decreased accuracy or even failed extraction of the star spot. This may cause inaccuracies in attitude measurement. Gyros have relatively good dynamic performance and are usually used in combination with star trackers. However, current combination methods focus mainly on the data fusion of the output attitude data levels, which are inadequate for utilizing and processing internal blurred star image information. A method for tracking deep coupling stars and MEMS-gyro data is proposed in this work. The method achieves deep fusion at the star image level. First, dynamic star image processing is performed based on the angular velocity information of the MEMS-gyro. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the star spot could be improved, and extraction is achieved more effectively. Then, a prediction model for optimal estimation of the star spot position is obtained through the MEMS-gyro, and an extended Kalman filter is introduced. Meanwhile, the MEMS-gyro drift can be estimated and compensated though the proposed method. These enable the star tracker to achieve high star centroid determination accuracy under dynamic conditions. The MEMS-gyro drift can be corrected even when attitude data of the star tracker are unable to be solved and only one navigation star is captured in the field of view. Laboratory experiments were performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method and the whole system.

  12. A high performance fiber optic pressure penetrator for use in the deep ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowen, S. J.

    1981-02-01

    This report describes results obtained in an FY 80 developmental program carried out at the Naval Ocean System Center, San Diego, under Independent Exploratory Development funding. The objective was to develop a robust, fully-demountable, high pressure penetrator design suitable for coupling light signals transmitted by optical fiber elements in an undersea cable operated at high ambient hydrostatic pressure into an electronics package or manned space. The feasibility of constructing such penetrators utilizing Graded Refractive Index (GRIN) rod lenses as combination pressure barriers and imaging devices has been demonstrated. Prototype realizations have exhibited excellent optical throughput performance and readily survive in excess of 10,000 psi pressure differential as well as tolerating a wide temperature range. The design lends itself to hermetic construction for applications requiring no vapor diffusion over long mission durations. Such devices exhibit excellent potential for satisfying SUBSAFE requirements for manned submarine applications.

  13. Underground at Black Diamond Mines

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.T.

    1989-10-01

    Although California is noted for its mining history and annually leads the nation in total monetary value of minerals produced, there a few opportunities for the public to tour underground mines. One reason is that nearly all mining in the state today is done above ground in open pits. Another reason is that active underground mines are not commonly favorable to public tours. There is one place, Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve, where the public can safely tour a formerly active underground mine. Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve is a 3,600-acre parkland about 5 miles southwest of Antioch in Contra Costa County. The Preserve was established in the early 1970s and is administered by the East Bay Regional Park District. Black Diamond Mines Preserve is noteworthy for its mining history as well as its natural history, both of which are briefly described here.

  14. A deep survey of the Galactic plane at very high energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Yeuk Chun

    The Cygnus region of the Galactic plane contains many known supernova remnants, pulsars, X-Ray sources and GeV emitters which makes it a prime candidate for a Very High Energy (VHE) survey study in the Northern Hemisphere. VERITAS, an array of atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes located in southern Arizona, USA, is the most sensitive very high energy gamma-ray telescope in operation today. Between April 2007 and Fall 2009, VERITAS carried out an extensive survey of the Cygnus region between 67 and 82 degrees in Galactic longitude and between -1 and 4 degrees in Galactic latitude. The survey, comprising more than 140 hours of observations, reached an average VHE flux sensitivity of better than 5% of the Crab Nebula flux at energies above 200 GeV, making it the most sensitive VHE gamma-ray survey ever done in the northern Hemisphere. The survey data set revealed two highly probable gamma-ray sources in the region. A detailed description of the observational strategy and analysis methodology of the survey are given and a discussion of the scientific implications resulting from the survey is provided.

  15. Current (2004-07) Conditions and Changes in Ground-Water Levels from Predevelopment to 2007, Southern High Plains Aquifer, East-Central New Mexico-Curry County, Portales, and Causey Lingo Underground Water Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillery, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The Southern High Plains aquifer is the principal aquifer in Curry and Roosevelt Counties, N. Mex., and primary source of water in southeastern New Mexico. Successful water-supply planning for New Mexico's Southern High Plains requires knowledge of the current aquifer conditions and a context to estimate future trends given current aquifer-management policy. This report provides a summary of the current (2007) water-level status of the Southern High Plains aquifer in New Mexico, including a basis for estimating future trends by comparison with historical conditions. This report includes estimates of the extent of ground-water level declines in the Curry County, Portales, and Causey-Lingo Ground-water Management Area parts of the High Plains Aquifer in eastern New Mexico since predevelopment. Maps representing 2007 water levels, water-level declines, aquifer saturated thickness, and depth to water accompanied by hydrographs from representative wells for the Southern High Plains aquifer in the Curry County, Portales, and Causey Lingo Underground Water Basins were prepared in cooperation with the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer. The results of this mapping show the water level declined as much as 175 feet in the study area at rates as high as 1.76 feet per year.

  16. Detection of lower limb deep venous thrombosis in asymptomatic high risk patients using a new radiolabelled thrombus specific agent

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, S.P.; Rahman, T.; Boyd S.J.

    1995-05-01

    Deep venous thrombosis is a serious consequence of major orthopaedic surgery and non invasive screening with either venous ultrasound or impedance plethysmography is unreliable for detecting or excluding DVT in this group. A new method of thrombus detection has been devised using Tc-99m labelled inhibited recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. The accuracy of scanning with this new radiopharmaceutical in asymptomatic high risk patients was evaluated using venography as the gold standard. 36 consecutive asymptomatic high risk patients (17 total hip, 19 total knee replacements) underwent both a contrast venogram on the operated leg and scintigraphic scan 7 days following operation. Scintigraphic imaging was performed at 4 hours post injection. For the purpose of this analysis, each venogram was divided into a proximal and a distal segment. Venograms were interpreted as being positive, negative or uninterpretable in each segment. Similar analysis of the scintigraphic scans was performed except that all segments were considered to be of diagnostic quality. 57 segments were able to be analysed. Of the 13 thrombosed segments (1 proximal, 12 calf), 12 had positive scans; in the 44 non thrombosed segments, 40 had negative scans. Thus in detecting lower limb thrombosis, scanning had a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 91%. Scintigraphic scanning with this new radiopharmaceutical permits accurate detection of thrombus in high risk patients.

  17. Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments; Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Arnis Judzis; Homer Robertson; Alan Black

    2006-06-22

    The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high rotational speeds (greater than 10,000 rpm). The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill ''faster and deeper'' possibly with smaller, more mobile rigs. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The significance of the ''ultra-high rotary speed drilling system'' is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling and coring today run less than 10,000 rpm-usually well below 5,000 rpm. This document details the progress at the end of Phase 1 on the program entitled ''Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments: Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling'' for the period starting 1 March 2006 and concluding 30 June 2006. (Note: Results from 1 September 2005 through 28 February 2006 were included in the previous report (see Judzis, Black, and Robertson)). Summarizing the accomplished during Phase 1: {lg_bullet} TerraTek reviewed applicable literature and documentation and convened a project kickoff meeting with Industry Advisors in attendance (see Black and Judzis). {lg_bullet} TerraTek designed and planned Phase I bench scale experiments (See Black and Judzis). Some difficulties continued in obtaining ultra-high speed motors. Improvements were made to the loading mechanism and the rotational speed monitoring instrumentation. New drill bit designs were developed to provided a more consistent

  18. Desalinated underground seawater of Jeju Island (Korea) improves lipid metabolism in mice fed diets containing high fat and increases antioxidant potential in t-BHP treated HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Jung-Ran; Gang, Gil-Tae; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Yang, Keum-Jin; Lee, Chul-Ho; Na, O-Su; Kim, Gi-Ju; Oh, Won-Keun

    2010-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of desalinated underground seawater (named as 'magma seawater', MSW) of Jeju Island in Korea on lipid metabolism and antioxidant activity. MSW was collected from underground of Han-Dong in Jeju Island, and freely given to high fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6 mice for 10 weeks. Although there were no significant differences in the body weight changes and plasma lipid levels, hepatic triglyceride levels were significantly lower in the MSW group than in the normal tap water (TW)-drunken control group. Furthermore, the activity of fatty acid synthase (FAS) was significantly decreased and carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) activity was increased in MSW group compared to TW group. Similarly, real-time PCR analysis revealed that mRNA expressions of lipogenic genes were lowered in MSW groups compared to the control group. In a morphometric observation on the liver tissue, accumulation of fats was remarkably reduced in MSW group. Meanwhile, in vitro assay, free radical scavenging activity measured by using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was increased in MSW group. The 2'-7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA) staining followed with fluorescent microscopy showed a low intensity of fluorescence in MSW-treated HepG2 cells, compared to TW-treated HepG2 cells, which indicated that the production of reactive oxygen species by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) in HepG2 cells was decreased by MSW treatment. The antioxidant effect of MSW on t-BHP-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells was supported by the increased activities of intracellular antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and glutathione reductase. From these results, we speculate that MSW has an inhibitory effect on lipogenesis in liver and might play a protective role against cell damage by t-BHP-induced oxidative stress. PMID:20198202

  19. Deep Burn Develpment of Transuranic Fuel for High-Temperature Helium-Cooled Reactors - July 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Snead, Lance Lewis; Besmann, Theodore M; Collins, Emory D; Bell, Gary L

    2010-08-01

    The DB Program Quarterly Progress Report for April - June 2010, ORNL/TM/2010/140, was distributed to program participants on August 4. This report discusses the following: (1) TRU (transuranic elements) HTR (high temperature helium-cooled reactor) Fuel Modeling - (a) Thermochemical Modeling, (b) 5.3 Radiation Damage and Properties; (2) TRU HTR Fuel Qualification - (a) TRU Kernel Development, (b) Coating Development, (c) ZrC Properties and Handbook; and (3) HTR Fuel Recycle - (a) Recycle Processes, (b) Graphite Recycle, (c) Pyrochemical Reprocessing - METROX (metal recovery from oxide fuel) Process Development.

  20. High-output-power deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode assembly using direct bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, Masatsugu; Fujioka, Akira; Kosugi, Takao; Endo, Shinya; Sagawa, Harunobu; Tamaki, Hiroto; Mukai, Takashi; Uomoto, Miyuki; Shimatsu, Takehito

    2016-07-01

    We fabricated high-output-power 255 and 280 nm light-emitting diodes (LEDs) using direct bonding. The LED chips were bonded to sapphire lenses at room temperature using either atomic diffusion bonding or surface-activated bonding. The LEDs with lenses had a higher light extraction efficiency than conventionally structured LEDs. As a result, at a forward current of 350 mA, the output power of the 255 nm LED increased by a factor of 2.8, reaching 73.6 mW, while that of the 280 nm LED increased by a factor of 2.3, reaching 153 mW.

  1. Deep Dive Topic: State of understanding of capsule modeling in context of high-foot

    SciTech Connect

    Hurricane, O. A.; Clark, D. S.

    2015-07-14

    The work is summarized from several perspectives: 1D simulation perspective: Post-shot models agree with yield data to within a factor of ~2 at low implosion velocities, but the models diverge from the data as the velocity and convergence ratio increase. 2D simulation perspective: Integrated hohlraum-capsule post-shot models agree with primary data for most implosions, but overpredict yield and DSR for a few of the highest velocity implosions. High-resolution 3D post-shot capsule-only modeling captures much of the delivered performance of the one shot currently simulated.

  2. Logistics background study: underground mining

    SciTech Connect

    Hanslovan, J. J.; Visovsky, R. G.

    1982-02-01

    Logistical functions that are normally associated with US underground coal mining are investigated and analyzed. These functions imply all activities and services that support the producing sections of the mine. The report provides a better understanding of how these functions impact coal production in terms of time, cost, and safety. Major underground logistics activities are analyzed and include: transportation and personnel, supplies and equipment; transportation of coal and rock; electrical distribution and communications systems; water handling; hydraulics; and ventilation systems. Recommended areas for future research are identified and prioritized.

  3. Fossilized high pressure from the Earth's deep interior: The coesite-in-diamond barometer

    PubMed Central

    Sobolev, Nikolai V.; Fursenko, Boris A.; Goryainov, Sergei V.; Shu, Jinfu; Hemley, Russell J.; Mao, Ho-kwang; Boyd, Francis R.

    2000-01-01

    Mineral inclusions in diamonds provide an important source of information about the composition of the continental lithosphere at depths exceeding 120–150 km, i.e., within the diamond stability field. Fossilized high pressures in coesite inclusions from a Venezuela diamond have been identified and measured by using laser Raman and synchrotron x-ray microanalytical techniques. Micro-Raman measurements on an intact inclusion of remnant vibrational band shifts give a high confining pressure of 3.62 (±0.18) GPa. Synchrotron single-crystal diffraction measurements of the volume compression are in accord with the Raman results and also revealed direct structural information on the state of the inclusion. In contrast to olivine and garnet inclusions, the thermoelasticity of coesite favors accurate identification of pressure preservation. Owing to the unique combination of physical properties of coesite and diamond, this “coesite-in-diamond” geobarometer is virtually independent of temperature, allowing an estimation of the initial pressure of Venezuela diamond formation of 5.5 (±0.5) GPa. PMID:11035808

  4. Fossilized high pressure from the Earth's deep interior: the coesite-in-diamond barometer.

    PubMed

    Sobolev, N V; Fursenko, B A; Goryainov, S V; Shu, J; Hemley, R J; Mao, A; Boyd, F R

    2000-10-24

    Mineral inclusions in diamonds provide an important source of information about the composition of the continental lithosphere at depths exceeding 120-150 km, i.e., within the diamond stability field. Fossilized high pressures in coesite inclusions from a Venezuela diamond have been identified and measured by using laser Raman and synchrotron x-ray microanalytical techniques. Micro-Raman measurements on an intact inclusion of remnant vibrational band shifts give a high confining pressure of 3.62 (+/-0.18) GPa. Synchrotron single-crystal diffraction measurements of the volume compression are in accord with the Raman results and also revealed direct structural information on the state of the inclusion. In contrast to olivine and garnet inclusions, the thermoelasticity of coesite favors accurate identification of pressure preservation. Owing to the unique combination of physical properties of coesite and diamond, this "coesite-in-diamond" geobarometer is virtually independent of temperature, allowing an estimation of the initial pressure of Venezuela diamond formation of 5.5 (+/-0.5) GPa. PMID:11035808

  5. Simulation of the deep-sea biosphere by a continuous high-pressure bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Maignien, L.; Verstraete, W.; Henriet, J.-P.; Boon, N.

    2009-04-01

    In ocean system Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane (AOM) followed by carbonate precipitation has a significant effect on the climate regulation, since this process avoids large methane emissions to the atmosphere and fixes carbon dioxide into carbonate structures. However the main difficulty to study AOM is that the consortia involved have extremely long doubling time (2-7 months) at ambient or low pressures. To simulate the in situ condition better and obtain a faster growth, we designed and constructed a unique continuous high-pressure bioreactor. The reactor can reach pressure up to 100 bars, representing a depth of 1000m below sea level; it can be operated in continuous or non-continuous style, simulating the different types of methane resource. By the help of this high pressure bioreactor system, we are also able to study the effect of environmental factors on AOM activity and on microbial community. Captain Arutyunov Mud Volcano (Gulf of Cadiz) sediment has been used as biomass resource and different molecular techniques (DGGE, cloning library, FISH) have been applied to examine the microbial community structure. By increasing methane partial pressure, an immediate increase of AOM activity has been observed before significant enrichment of biomass. A continuous methane flux is necessary to obtain optimal AOM activity. Bacterial community is more sensitive to the change of pressure compared with archaeal community.

  6. Light weight underground pipe or cable installing device

    SciTech Connect

    Schosek, W. O.

    1985-01-08

    This invention pertains to a light weight underground pipe or cable installing device adapted for use in a narrow and deep operating trench. More particularly this underground pipe installing device employs a pair of laterally movable gates positioned adjacent the bottom of the operating trench where the earth is more solid to securely clamp the device in the operating trench to enable it to withstand the forces exerted as the actuating rod is forced through the earth from the so-called operating trench to the target trench. To accommodate the laterally movable gates positioned adjacent the bottom of the narrow pipe installing device, a pair of top operated double-acting rod clamping jaws, operated by a hydraulic cylinder positioned above the actuating rod are employed.

  7. Characterization of High-Speed IF Digitizers for Use by NASA Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundert, Kara; Navarro, Robert; Soriano, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    My project primarily focused on the evaluation of several candidate converters to determine which provides the best overall performance for the needs of the DSCC Downlink Array (DDA). Of particular concern was the flatness of the gain and group delay of the converter over the Intermediate Frequency (IF) bandwidth, as excessive variation interferes with the beam forming that occurs when combining the signals from many antennas. In addition, converter nonlinearity and noise were evaluated as these could limit the DDA's ability to resolve weak signals, particularly in the presence of large interferers. The sensitivity of the noise at the output of the converters due to noise in the power supplies and jitter in the analog-to-digital converters (ADC) and the reference clock were also evaluated. Specifically, I worked with various high speed (1280 to 2000 megahertz sampling clock) ADCs.

  8. Using GeoMapApp to access and interpret high-resolution bathymetric data collected with deep submergence vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrini, V.; Carbotte, S. M.; Ryan, W. B.; O'hara, S. H.; Bonczkowski, J.; Arko, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    Bathymetric data products generated with deep submergence technology can be of meter to sub-meter resolution, providing an unprecedented view of seafloor features. Data at this resolution provide near photo-quality information that can be used to not only quantify morphologic features and create geologic maps, but can also be used to develop and refine remote seafloor characterization techniques. Nesting these data within regional lower resolution data, and supplementing them with ground-truth photos and observations from seafloor samples is often the key to understanding the geologic features revealed in bathymetric data. Through the efforts of the Ridge 2000 Program and the Ridge 2000 Data Portal, many of these data have been acquired, assembled, spatially co-registered, and made directly accessible through a variety of programmatic interfaces. The Data Portal provides direct downloads of raw and processed data files with full attribution to contributing scientists and links to publications. In addition, GeoMapApp, a free Java-based visualization and analysis tool, provides quantitative access to several high-resolution bathymetry data sets within the context of important complementary data. The default basemap in GeoMapApp is the Global Multi-Resolution Topography (GMRT) Synthesis, which includes ship-based bathymetry data from over 500 research cruises as well as contributed regional grids, providing resolution of 100 m or better in many areas. GeoMapApp provides quantitative access to the GMRT, which can be used to understand the regional context of localized high-resolution bathymetry data. Other related data directly accessible through GeoMapApp include sidescan data, sample positions and descriptions, and bottom photos acquired with National Deep Submergence Facility assets and the WHOI TowCam System. Quantitative tools for interrogating and interpreting the data (e.g. profiling, changing sun-illumination and color scale) are provided within GeoMapApp to

  9. Evidence for deep regulatory similarities in early developmental programs across highly diverged insects.

    PubMed

    Kazemian, Majid; Suryamohan, Kushal; Chen, Jia-Yu; Zhang, Yinan; Samee, Md Abul Hassan; Halfon, Marc S; Sinha, Saurabh

    2014-09-01

    Many genes familiar from Drosophila development, such as the so-called gap, pair-rule, and segment polarity genes, play important roles in the development of other insects and in many cases appear to be deployed in a similar fashion, despite the fact that Drosophila-like "long germband" development is highly derived and confined to a subset of insect families. Whether or not these similarities extend to the regulatory level is unknown. Identification of regulatory regions beyond the well-studied Drosophila has been challenging as even within the Diptera (flies, including mosquitoes) regulatory sequences have diverged past the point of recognition by standard alignment methods. Here, we demonstrate that methods we previously developed for computational cis-regulatory module (CRM) discovery in Drosophila can be used effectively in highly diverged (250-350 Myr) insect species including Anopheles gambiae, Tribolium castaneum, Apis mellifera, and Nasonia vitripennis. In Drosophila, we have successfully used small sets of known CRMs as "training data" to guide the search for other CRMs with related function. We show here that although species-specific CRM training data do not exist, training sets from Drosophila can facilitate CRM discovery in diverged insects. We validate in vivo over a dozen new CRMs, roughly doubling the number of known CRMs in the four non-Drosophila species. Given the growing wealth of Drosophila CRM annotation, these results suggest that extensive regulatory sequence annotation will be possible in newly sequenced insects without recourse to costly and labor-intensive genome-scale experiments. We develop a new method, Regulus, which computes a probabilistic score of similarity based on binding site composition (despite the absence of nucleotide-level sequence alignment), and demonstrate similarity between functionally related CRMs from orthologous loci. Our work represents an important step toward being able to trace the evolutionary history of gene

  10. Evidence for Deep Regulatory Similarities in Early Developmental Programs across Highly Diverged Insects

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yinan; Samee, Md. Abul Hassan; Halfon, Marc S.; Sinha, Saurabh

    2014-01-01

    Many genes familiar from Drosophila development, such as the so-called gap, pair-rule, and segment polarity genes, play important roles in the development of other insects and in many cases appear to be deployed in a similar fashion, despite the fact that Drosophila-like “long germband” development is highly derived and confined to a subset of insect families. Whether or not these similarities extend to the regulatory level is unknown. Identification of regulatory regions beyond the well-studied Drosophila has been challenging as even within the Diptera (flies, including mosquitoes) regulatory sequences have diverged past the point of recognition by standard alignment methods. Here, we demonstrate that methods we previously developed for computational cis-regulatory module (CRM) discovery in Drosophila can be used effectively in highly diverged (250–350 Myr) insect species including Anopheles gambiae, Tribolium castaneum, Apis mellifera, and Nasonia vitripennis. In Drosophila, we have successfully used small sets of known CRMs as “training data” to guide the search for other CRMs with related function. We show here that although species-specific CRM training data do not exist, training sets from Drosophila can facilitate CRM discovery in diverged insects. We validate in vivo over a dozen new CRMs, roughly doubling the number of known CRMs in the four non-Drosophila species. Given the growing wealth of Drosophila CRM annotation, these results suggest that extensive regulatory sequence annotation will be possible in newly sequenced insects without recourse to costly and labor-intensive genome-scale experiments. We develop a new method, Regulus, which computes a probabilistic score of similarity based on binding site composition (despite the absence of nucleotide-level sequence alignment), and demonstrate similarity between functionally related CRMs from orthologous loci. Our work represents an important step toward being able to trace the evolutionary

  11. 2-(2-Hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole-based four-coordinate boron-containing materials with highly efficient deep-blue photoluminescence and electroluminescence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Houyu; Jiao, Chuanjun; Ye, Kaiqi; Zhang, Hongyu; Zhang, Jingying; Wang, Yue

    2015-03-16

    Two novel four-coordinate boron-containing emitters 1 and 2 with deep-blue emissions were synthesized by refluxing a 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole ligand with triphenylborane or bromodibenzoborole. The boron chelation produced a new π-conjugated skeleton, which rendered the synthesized boron materials with intense fluorescence, good thermal stability, and high carrier mobility. Both compounds displayed deep-blue emissions in solutions with very high fluorescence quantum yields (over 0.70). More importantly, the samples showed identical fluorescence in the solution and solid states, and the efficiency was maintained at a high level (approximately 0.50) because of the bulky substituents between the boron atom and the benzimidazole unit, which can effectively separate the flat luminescent units. In addition, neat thin films composed of 1 or 2 exhibited high electron and hole mobility in the same order of magnitude 10(-4), as determined by time-of-flight. The fabricated electroluminescent devices that employed 1 or 2 as emitting materials showed high-performance deep-blue emissions with Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (X = 0.15, Y = 0.09) and (X = 0.16, Y = 0.08), respectively. Thus, the synthesized boron-containing materials are ideal candidates for fabricating high-performance deep-blue organic light-emitting diodes. PMID:25714777

  12. Out of Their Depth? Isolated Deep Populations of the Cosmopolitan Coral Desmophyllum dianthus May Be Highly Vulnerable to Environmental Change

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Karen J.; Rowden, Ashley A.; Williams, Alan; Häussermann, Vreni

    2011-01-01

    Deep sea scleractinian corals will be particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, facing loss of up to 70% of their habitat as the Aragonite Saturation Horizon (below which corals are unable to form calcium carbonate skeletons) rises. Persistence of deep sea scleractinian corals will therefore rely on the ability of larvae to disperse to, and colonise, suitable shallow-water habitat. We used DNA sequence data of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), the mitochondrial ribosomal subunit (16S) and mitochondrial control region (MtC) to determine levels of gene flow both within and among populations of the deep sea coral Desmophyllum dianthus in SE Australia, New Zealand and Chile to assess the ability of corals to disperse into different regions and habitats. We found significant genetic subdivision among the three widely separated geographic regions consistent with isolation and limited contemporary gene flow. Furthermore, corals from different depth strata (shallow <600 m, mid 1000–1500 m, deep >1500 m) even on the same or nearby seamounts were strongly differentiated, indicating limited vertical larval dispersal. Genetic differentiation with depth is consistent with the stratification of the Subantarctic Mode Water, Antarctic Intermediate Water, the Circumpolar Deep and North Pacific Deep Waters in the Southern Ocean, and we propose that coral larvae will be retained within, and rarely migrate among, these water masses. The apparent absence of vertical larval dispersal suggests deep populations of D. dianthus are unlikely to colonise shallow water as the aragonite saturation horizon rises and deep waters become uninhabitable. Similarly, assumptions that deep populations will act as refuges for shallow populations that are impacted by activities such as fishing or mining are also unlikely to hold true. Clearly future environmental management strategies must consider both regional and depth-related isolation of deep-sea coral populations. PMID

  13. Out of their depth? Isolated deep populations of the cosmopolitan coral Desmophyllum dianthus may be highly vulnerable to environmental change.

    PubMed

    Miller, Karen J; Rowden, Ashley A; Williams, Alan; Häussermann, Vreni

    2011-01-01

    Deep sea scleractinian corals will be particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, facing loss of up to 70% of their habitat as the Aragonite Saturation Horizon (below which corals are unable to form calcium carbonate skeletons) rises. Persistence of deep sea scleractinian corals will therefore rely on the ability of larvae to disperse to, and colonise, suitable shallow-water habitat. We used DNA sequence data of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), the mitochondrial ribosomal subunit (16S) and mitochondrial control region (MtC) to determine levels of gene flow both within and among populations of the deep sea coral Desmophyllum dianthus in SE Australia, New Zealand and Chile to assess the ability of corals to disperse into different regions and habitats. We found significant genetic subdivision among the three widely separated geographic regions consistent with isolation and limited contemporary gene flow. Furthermore, corals from different depth strata (shallow <600 m, mid 1000-1500 m, deep >1500 m) even on the same or nearby seamounts were strongly differentiated, indicating limited vertical larval dispersal. Genetic differentiation with depth is consistent with the stratification of the Subantarctic Mode Water, Antarctic Intermediate Water, the Circumpolar Deep and North Pacific Deep Waters in the Southern Ocean, and we propose that coral larvae will be retained within, and rarely migrate among, these water masses. The apparent absence of vertical larval dispersal suggests deep populations of D. dianthus are unlikely to colonise shallow water as the aragonite saturation horizon rises and deep waters become uninhabitable. Similarly, assumptions that deep populations will act as refuges for shallow populations that are impacted by activities such as fishing or mining are also unlikely to hold true. Clearly future environmental management strategies must consider both regional and depth-related isolation of deep-sea coral populations. PMID:21611159

  14. Ultra-low noise high electron mobility transistors for high-impedance and low-frequency deep cryogenic readout electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Q.; Liang, Y. X.; Ferry, D.; Cavanna, A.; Gennser, U.; Couraud, L.; Jin, Y.

    2014-07-07

    We report on the results obtained from specially designed high electron mobility transistors at 4.2 K: the gate leakage current can be limited lower than 1 aA, and the equivalent input noise-voltage and noise-current at 1 Hz can reach 6.3 nV/Hz{sup 1∕2} and 20 aA/Hz{sup 1∕2}, respectively. These results open the way to realize high performance low-frequency readout electronics under very low-temperature conditions.

  15. Ultra-low noise high electron mobility transistors for high-impedance and low-frequency deep cryogenic readout electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Q.; Liang, Y. X.; Ferry, D.; Cavanna, A.; Gennser, U.; Couraud, L.; Jin, Y.

    2014-07-01

    We report on the results obtained from specially designed high electron mobility transistors at 4.2 K: the gate leakage current can be limited lower than 1 aA, and the equivalent input noise-voltage and noise-current at 1 Hz can reach 6.3 nV/Hz1/2 and 20 aA/Hz1/2, respectively. These results open the way to realize high performance low-frequency readout electronics under very low-temperature conditions.

  16. Deep-sea hydrothermal vent animals seek cool fluids in a highly variable thermal environment.

    PubMed

    Bates, Amanda E; Lee, Raymond W; Tunnicliffe, Verena; Lamare, Miles D

    2010-01-01

    The thermal characteristics of an organism's environment affect a multitude of parameters, from biochemical to evolutionary processes. Hydrothermal vents on mid-ocean ridges are created when warm hydrothermal fluids are ejected from the seafloor and mixed with cold bottom seawater; many animals thrive along these steep temperature and chemical gradients. Two-dimensional temperature maps at vent sites have demonstrated order of magnitude thermal changes over centimetre distances and at time intervals from minutes to hours. To investigate whether animals adapt to this extreme level of environmental variability, we examined differences in the thermal behaviour of mobile invertebrates from aquatic habitats that vary in thermal regime. Vent animals were highly responsive to heat and preferred much cooler fluids than their upper thermal limits, whereas invertebrates from other aquatic environments risked exposure to warmer temperatures. Avoidance of temperatures well within their tolerated range may allow vent animals to maintain a safety margin against rapid temperature fluctuations and concomitant toxicity of hydrothermal fluids. PMID:20975681

  17. Denoising DNA deep sequencing data—high-throughput sequencing errors and their correction

    PubMed Central

    Laehnemann, David; Borkhardt, Arndt

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing the errors generated by common high-throughput sequencing platforms and telling true genetic variation from technical artefacts are two interdependent steps, essential to many analyses such as single nucleotide variant calling, haplotype inference, sequence assembly and evolutionary studies. Both random and systematic errors can show a specific occurrence profile for each of the six prominent sequencing platforms surveyed here: 454 pyrosequencing, Complete Genomics DNA nanoball sequencing, Illumina sequencing by synthesis, Ion Torrent semiconductor sequencing, Pacific Biosciences single-molecule real-time sequencing and Oxford Nanopore sequencing. There is a large variety of programs available for error removal in sequencing read data, which differ in the error models and statistical techniques they use, the features of the data they analyse, the parameters they determine from them and the data structures and algorithms they use. We highlight the assumptions they make and for which data types these hold, providing guidance which tools to consider for benchmarking with regard to the data properties. While no benchmarking results are included here, such specific benchmarks would greatly inform tool choices and future software development. The development of stand-alone error correctors, as well as single nucleotide variant and haplotype callers, could also benefit from using more of the knowledge about error profiles and from (re)combining ideas from the existing approaches presented here. PMID:26026159

  18. Water in the deep atmosphere of Venus from high-resolution spectra of the night side

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Bergh, C.; Bezard, B.; Crisp, D.; Maillard, J. P.; Owen, T.; Pollack, J.; Grinspoon, D.

    1995-01-01

    High-resolution, near-infrared (1.09 to 2.5 micrometers) spectra of the night side of Venus have been obtained in 1990 and 1991 using the Fourier Transform Spectrometer at the 3.6-m Canada-France-Hawaii telescope. Absorptions due to H2O were detected in spectral windows near 2.3, 1.74, and 1.18 micrometers. Our analysis of these absorptions constrains the abundance of water vapor in three different altitude ranges located between the clouds and the surface: 30-40 km, 15-25 km and 0-15 km. A constant water vapor mixing ratio of 30 +/- 15 ppm below the clouds can fit the observations. These values are consistent with recent near-infrared studies of the night side of Venus at lower spectral resolution. The atmosphere of Venus appears to be dryer than originally suggested by the in-situ measurements made by the Pioneer Venus and Venera mass-spectrometers and gas-chromatographs.

  19. Molecular beam epitaxy growth of high electron mobility InAs/AlSb deep quantum well structure

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Juan; Wang Guowei; Xu Yingqiang; Xing Junliang; Xiang Wei; Tang Bao; Zhu Yan; Ren Zhengwei; He Zhenhong; Niu Zhichuan

    2013-07-07

    InAs/AlSb deep quantum well (QW) structures with high electron mobility were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on semi-insulating GaAs substrates. AlSb and Al{sub 0.75}Ga{sub 0.25}Sb buffer layers were grown to accommodate the lattice mismatch (7%) between the InAs/AlSb QW active region and GaAs substrate. Transmission electron microscopy shows abrupt interface and atomic force microscopy measurements display smooth surface morphology. Growth conditions of AlSb and Al{sub 0.75}Ga{sub 0.25}Sb buffer were optimized. Al{sub 0.75}Ga{sub 0.25}Sb is better than AlSb as a buffer layer as indicated. The sample with optimal Al{sub 0.75}Ga{sub 0.25}Sb buffer layer shows a smooth surface morphology with root-mean-square roughness of 6.67 A. The electron mobility has reached as high as 27 000 cm{sup 2}/Vs with a sheet density of 4.54 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11}/cm{sup 2} at room temperature.

  20. Metrology study of high precision mm parts made by the deep x-ray lithography (LIGA) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäder, Olaf; Meyer, Pascal; Saile, Volker; Schulz, Joachim

    2009-02-01

    Microcomponents are increasingly applied in industrial products, e.g. smallest gears, springs or the watch industry. Apart from their small dimensions, such components are characterized by a high contour accuracy. Industry requires the tolerances to be in the µm range. Measurement of lateral dimensions in the mm range with submicrometer accuracy and precision, however, results in high requirements on measurement technology. The relevance of this problem is illustrated by the fact that the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) has launched the Collaborative Research Center 1159 on 'New Strategies of Measurement and Inspection for the Production of Microsystems and Nanostructures'. The Institut für Mikrostrukturtechnik, Karlsruhe (Institute of Microstructure Technology, Karlsruhe), produces microstructures by means of the LIG(A) technique (German acronym for lithography, electrodeposition, molding). Presently, a coordinate measurement machine equipped with an optical fiber probe to measure these microstructures is being tested. This paper will particularly focus on the precision and accuracy of the machine. The rules of measurement system analysis will be applied for this purpose. Following the elimination of the systematic error, reproducibility of deep-etch x-ray lithography will be highlighted using the LIGA production of gold gears as an example.

  1. Three-Photon Luminescence of Gold Nanorods and Its Applications for High Contrast Tissue and Deep In Vivo Brain Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaowei; Xi, Wang; Cai, Fuhong; Zhao, Xinyuan; Xu, Zhengping; Qian, Jun; He, Sailing

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles can be used as contrast agents for bio-imaging applications. Here we studied multi-photon luminescence (MPL) of gold nanorods (GNRs), under the excitation of femtosecond (fs) lasers. GNRs functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules have high chemical and optical stability, and can be used as multi-photon luminescent nanoprobes for deep in vivo imaging of live animals. We have found that the depth of in vivo imaging is dependent upon the transmission and focal capability of the excitation light interacting with the GNRs. Our study focused on the comparison of MPL from GNRs with two different aspect ratios, as well as their ex vivo and in vivo imaging effects under 760 nm and 1000 nm excitation, respectively. Both of these wavelengths were located at an optically transparent window of biological tissue (700-1000 nm). PEGylated GNRs, which were intravenously injected into mice via the tail vein and accumulated in major organs and tumor tissue, showed high image contrast due to distinct three-photon luminescence (3PL) signals upon irradiation of a 1000 nm fs laser. Concerning in vivo mouse brain imaging, the 3PL imaging depth of GNRs under 1000 nm fs excitation could reach 600 μm, which was approximately 170 μm deeper than the two-photon luminescence (2PL) imaging depth of GNRs with a fs excitation of 760 nm. PMID:25553113

  2. Designing high-performance cost-efficient embedded SRAM in deep-submicron era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobozeva, Olga; Venkatraman, Ramnath; Castagnetti, Ruggero; Duan, Franklin; Kamath, Arvind; Ramesh, Shiva

    2004-05-01

    We have previously presented the smallest and fastest 6 Transistor (6T)-Static Random Access Memories (SRAM) bitcells for System-on-Chip (SoC) high-density (HD) memories in 0.18 μm and 0.13 μm technologies. Our 1.87 μm2 6TSRAM bitcell with cell current of 47 μA and industry lowest soft error rate (0.35 FIT/Kbit) is used to assemble memory blocks embedded into SoC designs in 0.13 μm process technology. Excellent performance is achieved at a low overall cost, as our bitcells are based on standard CMOS process and demonstrate high yields in manufacturing. This paper discusses our methodology of embedded SRAM bitcell design. The key aspects of our approach are: 1) judicious selection of tightest achievable yet manufacturable design rules to build the cell; 2) compatibility with standard Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) flow; 3) use of parametric testing and yield analysis to achieve excellent design robustness and manufacturability. A thorough understanding of process limitations, particularly those related to photolithography was critical to the successful design and manufacturing of our aggressive, yet robust SRAM bitcells. The patterning of critical layers, such as diffusion, poly gate, contact and metal 1 has profound implications on functionality, electrical performance and manufacturability of memories. We have conducted the development of SRAM bitcells using two approaches for OPC: a) "manual" OPC, wherein the bitcell layout of each of the critical layers is achieved using iterative improvement of layout & aerial image simulation and b) automated OPC-compatible design, wherein the drawn bitcell layout becomes a subject of a full chip OPC. While manual-OPC remains a popular option, automated OPC-compatible bitcell design is very attractive, as it does not require additional development costs to achieve fab-to-fab portability. In both cases we have obtained good results with respect to patterning of the critical layers, electrical performance of the bitcell

  3. Climbing plants in a temperate rainforest understorey: searching for high light or coping with deep shade?

    PubMed Central

    Valladares, Fernando; Gianoli, Ernesto; Saldaña, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims While the climbing habit allows vines to reach well-lit canopy areas with a minimum investment in support biomass, many of them have to survive under the dim understorey light during certain stages of their life cycle. But, if the growth/survival trade-off widely reported for trees hold for climbing plants, they cannot maximize both light-interception efficiency and shade avoidance (i.e. escaping from the understorey). The seven most important woody climbers occurring in a Chilean temperate evergreen rainforest were studied with the hypothesis that light-capture efficiency of climbers would be positively associated with their abundance in the understorey. Methods Species abundance in the understorey was quantified from their relative frequency and density in field plots, the light environment was quantified by hemispherical photography, the photosynthetic response to light was measured with portable gas-exchange analyser, and the whole shoot light-interception efficiency and carbon gain was estimated with the 3-D computer model Y-plant. Key Results Species differed in specific leaf area, leaf mass fraction, above ground leaf area ratio, light-interception efficiency and potential carbon gain. Abundance of species in the understorey was related to whole shoot features but not to leaf level features such as specific leaf area. Potential carbon gain was inversely related to light-interception efficiency. Mutual shading among leaves within a shoot was very low (<20 %). Conclusions The abundance of climbing plants in this southern rainforest understorey was directly related to their capacity to intercept light efficiently but not to their potential carbon gain. The most abundant climbers in this ecosystem match well with a shade-tolerance syndrome in contrast to the pioneer-like nature of climbers observed in tropical studies. The climbers studied seem to sacrifice high-light searching for coping with the dim understorey light. PMID:21685433

  4. Deep high-resolution fluorescence microscopy of full organs: the benefit of ultraminiature confocal miniprobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, France; Le Nevez, Arnaud; Genet, Magalie; Osdoit, Anne; Lacombe, François

    2009-02-01

    Background: Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy (CLE) based on ultraminiature miniprobes (Cellvizio®, Mauna Kea Technologies, Paris, France) is able to image the inner microstructure of retroperitoneal full organs punctured during EUS-FNA procedures, such as pancreas, liver or lymph nodes. Therefore, pCLE can provide an easy-to-use and precise adjunct tool to ultrasonographic interventions in order to target suspicious areas for biopsies in EUS-FNA. Material and Methods: Probe-based CLE (pCLE) was performed on ex-vivo surgically resected specimens after topical application of fluorophores in standard 19G and 22G needles. Two prototype miniprobes ("S-probe" 300 microns diameter, field of view 400*280 microns, and "S-probe" 650 microns diameter, field of view 500*600 microns) were then inserted into the needles and enabled visualization of the inner microstructures of uterus, lung, kidney, stomach and esophagus, in both healthy and cancerous conditions. Then, pCLE was performed in-vivo on four pigs during three NOTES and one EUS-FNA procedures after intravenous injection of 2-7mL fluorescein 1-10% using the prototype "S-probe" 350 microns diameter inserted in 19G FNA needles. Liver, pancreas and spleen were imaged. Results: During the ex-vivo experiments, pCLE made it possible to distinguish microstructures, such as alveoli and macrophages in the lungs. During the in-vivo experiments, Cellvizio® video sequences showed hepatic lobules and the portal vein in the liver, and red and white pulp in the spleen. Conclusion: pCLE provides in vivo cellular information about full organs. It has the potential to help target biopsies during EUSFNA, which suffers from a high rate of false negatives, thus increasing its sensitivity.

  5. High frequency of phylogenetically diverse reductive dehalogenase-homologous genes in deep subseafloor sedimentary metagenomes

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Mikihiko; Futagami, Taiki; Toyoda, Atsushi; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Nishi, Shinro; Hori, Sayaka; Arai, Wataru; Tsubouchi, Taishi; Morono, Yuki; Uchiyama, Ikuo; Ito, Takehiko; Fujiyama, Asao; Inagaki, Fumio; Takami, Hideto

    2014-01-01

    Marine subsurface sediments on the Pacific margin harbor diverse microbial communities even at depths of several hundreds meters below the seafloor (mbsf) or more. Previous PCR-based molecular analysis showed the presence of diverse reductive dehalogenase gene (rdhA) homologs in marine subsurface sediment, suggesting that anaerobic respiration of organohalides is one of the possible energy-yielding pathways in the organic-rich sedimentary habitat. However, primer-independent molecular characterization of rdhA has remained to be demonstrated. Here, we studied the diversity and frequency of rdhA homologs by metagenomic analysis of five different depth horizons (0.8, 5.1, 18.6, 48.5, and 107.0 mbsf) at Site C9001 off the Shimokita Peninsula of Japan. From all metagenomic pools, remarkably diverse rdhA-homologous sequences, some of which are affiliated with novel clusters, were observed with high frequency. As a comparison, we also examined frequency of dissimilatory sulfite reductase genes (dsrAB), key functional genes for microbial sulfate reduction. The dsrAB were also widely observed in the metagenomic pools whereas the frequency of dsrAB genes was generally smaller than that of rdhA-homologous genes. The phylogenetic composition of rdhA-homologous genes was similar among the five depth horizons. Our metagenomic data revealed that subseafloor rdhA homologs are more diverse than previously identified from PCR-based molecular studies. Spatial distribution of similar rdhA homologs across wide depositional ages indicates that the heterotrophic metabolic processes mediated by the genes can be ecologically important, functioning in the organic-rich subseafloor sedimentary biosphere. PMID:24624126

  6. High frequency of phylogenetically diverse reductive dehalogenase-homologous genes in deep subseafloor sedimentary metagenomes.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Mikihiko; Futagami, Taiki; Toyoda, Atsushi; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Nishi, Shinro; Hori, Sayaka; Arai, Wataru; Tsubouchi, Taishi; Morono, Yuki; Uchiyama, Ikuo; Ito, Takehiko; Fujiyama, Asao; Inagaki, Fumio; Takami, Hideto

    2014-01-01

    Marine subsurface sediments on the Pacific margin harbor diverse microbial communities even at depths of several hundreds meters below the seafloor (mbsf) or more. Previous PCR-based molecular analysis showed the presence of diverse reductive dehalogenase gene (rdhA) homologs in marine subsurface sediment, suggesting that anaerobic respiration of organohalides is one of the possible energy-yielding pathways in the organic-rich sedimentary habitat. However, primer-independent molecular characterization of rdhA has remained to be demonstrated. Here, we studied the diversity and frequency of rdhA homologs by metagenomic analysis of five different depth horizons (0.8, 5.1, 18.6, 48.5, and 107.0 mbsf) at Site C9001 off the Shimokita Peninsula of Japan. From all metagenomic pools, remarkably diverse rdhA-homologous sequences, some of which are affiliated with novel clusters, were observed with high frequency. As a comparison, we also examined frequency of dissimilatory sulfite reductase genes (dsrAB), key functional genes for microbial sulfate reduction. The dsrAB were also widely observed in the metagenomic pools whereas the frequency of dsrAB genes was generally smaller than that of rdhA-homologous genes. The phylogenetic composition of rdhA-homologous genes was similar among the five depth horizons. Our metagenomic data revealed that subseafloor rdhA homologs are more diverse than previously identified from PCR-based molecular studies. Spatial distribution of similar rdhA homologs across wide depositional ages indicates that the heterotrophic metabolic processes mediated by the genes can be ecologically important, functioning in the organic-rich subseafloor sedimentary biosphere. PMID:24624126

  7. CALIFORNIA LEAKING UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Points represent Leaking Underground Storage Tanks (LUST) for the State of California. This database was developed and is maintained by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). Point locations represent tanks where leak events have occurred. Tank latitude-long...

  8. Slavery and the Underground Railroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Nancy Comfort

    2000-01-01

    Presents a bibliography of sources to help children understand slavery and the Underground Railroad and recommends a combination of fiction and nonfiction for a better understanding. Includes picture books, biographies of people who played prominent roles during the time of slavery, nonfiction books for older readers, and videotape. (LRW)

  9. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, H.R.; Stephenson, D.E.; Zandt, G.; Bouchon, M.; Hustrulid, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    In order to assess the seismic risk for an underground facility, a data base was established and analyzed to evaluate the potential for seismic disturbance. Substantial damage to underground facilities is usually the result of displacements primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures, or at the surface entrance to these facilities. Evidence of this comes from both earthquakes and large explosions. Therefore, the displacement due to earthquakes as a function of depth is important in the evaluation of the hazard to underground facilities. To evaluate potential displacements due to seismic effects of block motions along pre-existing or induced fractures, the displacement fields surrounding two types of faults were investigated. Analytical models were used to determine relative displacements of shafts and near-surface displacement of large rock masses. Numerical methods were used to determine the displacement fields associated with pure strike-slip and vertical normal faults. Results are presented as displacements for various fault lengths as a function of depth and distance. This provides input to determine potential displacements in terms of depth and distance for underground facilities, important for assessing potential sites and design parameters.

  10. The incidence of deep venous thrombosis in high-risk Indian neurosurgical patients: Need for early chemoprophylaxis?

    PubMed Central

    George, Ajith John; Nair, Shalini; Karthic, Jayanthi Chinnaiya; Joseph, Mathew

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is thought to be less common in Asians than in Caucasian population. The incidence of DVT in high-risk groups, especially the neurosurgical (NS) patients, has not been well studied. This leaves no firm basis for the start of early prophylactic anticoagulation within first 5 postoperative days in Indian NS patients. This is a prospective observational study to determine the early occurrence of DVT in the NS patients. Patients and Methods: We screened 137 consecutive high-risk NS patients based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The femoral veins were screened using Doppler ultrasound on day 1, 3, and 5 of admission into the NS Intensive Care Unit (ICU) at tertiary center from South India. Results: Among 2887 admissions to NICU 147 patients met inclusion criteria. One hundred thirty seven were screened for DVT. There was a 4.3% (6/137) incidence of DVT with none of the six patients having signs or symptoms of pulmonary embolism. Among the risk factors studied, there was a significant association with femoral catheterization and a probable association with weakness/paraparesis/paraplegia. The mortality in the study group was 10.8% with none attributable to DVT or pulmonary embolism. Conclusion: There is a low incidence of DVT among the high risk neurosurgical population evaluated within the first 5 days of admission to NICU, limiting the need for early chemical thrombo-prophylaxis in these patients. With strict protocols for mechanical prophylaxis with passive leg exercise, early mobilization and serial femoral Doppler screening, heparin anticoagulation can be restricted within the first 5 days of ICU admission in high risk patients. PMID:27555696

  11. Are high 3He/4He ratios in oceanic basalts an indicator of deep-mantle plume components?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meibom, A.; Anderson, D.L.; Sleep, N.H.; Frei, R.; Chamberlain, C.P.; Hren, M.T.; Wooden, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    The existence of a primordial, undegassed lower mantle reservoir characterized by high concentration of 3He and high 3He/4He ratios is a cornerstone assumption in modern geochemistry. It has become standard practice to interpret high 3He/4He ratios in oceanic basalts as a signature of deep-rooted plumes. The unfiltered He isotope data set for oceanic spreading centers displays a wide, nearly Gaussian, distribution qualitatively similar to the Os isotope (187Os/188 Os) distribution of mantle-derived Os-rich alloys. We propose that both distributions are produced by shallow mantle processes involving mixing between different proportions of recycled, variably aged radiogenic and unradiogenic domains under varying degrees of partial melting. In the case of the Re-Os isotopic system, radiogenic mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB)-rich and unradiogenic (depleted mantle residue) endmembers are constantly produced during partial melting events. In the case of the (U+Th)-He isotope system, effective capture of He-rich bubbles during growth of phenocryst olivine in crystallizing magma chambers provides one mechanism for 'freezing in' unradiogenic (i.e. high 3He/4He) He isotope ratios, while the higher than chondritic (U+Th)/He elemental ratio in the evolving and partially degassed MORB melt provides the radiogenic (i.e. low 3He/4He) endmember. If this scenario is correct, the use of He isotopic signatures as a fingerprint of plume components in oceanic basalts is not justified. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  12. Conditions of deep magma chamber beneath Fuji volcano estimated from high- P experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, K.; Takahashi, E.; Hamada, M.; Ushioda, M.; Suzuki, T.

    2012-12-01

    Fuji volcano, the largest in volume and eruption rate in Japan, is located at the center of Honshu, where North America, Eurasia and Philippine Sea plates meets. Because of the significance of Fuji volcano both in tectonic settings and potential volcanic hazard (particularly after the M9 earthquake in 2011), precise knowledge on its magma feeding system is essentially important. Composition of magma erupted from Fuji volcano in the last 100ky is predominantly basalt (SiO2=50-52wt%, FeO/MgO=1.5-3.0). Total lack of silica-rich magma (basaltic andesite and andesite) which are always present in other nearby volcanoes (e.g., Hakone, Izu-Oshima, see Fig.1) is an important petrologic feature of Fuji volcano. Purpose of this study is to constrain the depth of magma chamber of Fuji volcano and explain its silica-nonenrichment trend. High pressure melting experiments were carried out using two IHPVs at the Magma Factory, Tokyo Institute of Technology (SMC-5000 and SMC-8600, Tomiya et al., 2010). Basalt scoria Tr-1 which represents the final ejecta of Hoei eruption in AD1707, was adopted as a starting material. At 4kbar, temperature conditions were 1050, 1100 and 1150C, and H2O contents were 1.3, 2.7 and 4.7 wt.%, respectively. At 7kbar, temperature conditions were 1075, 1100 and 1125C, and H2O contents were 1.0, 1.1, 3.6 and 6.3wt.%, respectively. The fO2 was controlled at NNO buffer. At 4kbar, crystallization sequence at 3 wt% H2O is magnetite, plagioclase, clinopyroxene and finally orthopyroxene. At 7 kbar, and ~3 wt% H2O, the three minerals (opx, cpx, pl) appears simultaneously near the liquidus. Compositional trend of melt at 4 kbar and 7 kbar are shown with arrows in Fig.1. Because of the dominant crystallization of silica-rich opx at 7 kbar, composition of melt stays in the range SiO2=50-52wt% as predicted by Fujii (2007). Absence of silica-rich rocks in Fuji volcano may be explained by the tectonic setting of the volcano. Because Fuji volcano locates on the plate

  13. 49 CFR 192.325 - Underground clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Underground clearance. 192.325 Section 192.325... Lines and Mains § 192.325 Underground clearance. (a) Each transmission line must be installed with at least 12 inches (305 millimeters) of clearance from any other underground structure not associated...

  14. 30 CFR 57.4761 - Underground shops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground shops. 57.4761 Section 57.4761... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Ventilation Control Measures § 57.4761 Underground shops. To confine or prevent the spread...

  15. Molecular data reveal a highly diverse species flock within the munnopsoid deep-sea isopod Betamorpha fusiformis (Barnard, 1920) (Crustacea: Isopoda: Asellota) in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raupach, Michael J.; Malyutina, Marina; Brandt, Angelika; Wägele, Johann-Wolfgang

    2007-08-01

    Based on our current knowledge about population genetics, phylogeography and speciation, we begin to understand that the deep sea harbours more species than suggested in the past. Deep-sea soft-sediment environment in particular hosts a diverse and highly endemic invertebrate fauna. Very little is known about evolutionary processes that generate this remarkable species richness, the genetic variability and spatial distribution of deep-sea animals. In this study, phylogeographic patterns and the genetic variability among eight populations of the abundant and widespread deep-sea isopod morphospecies Betamorpha fusiformis [Barnard, K.H., 1920. Contributions to the crustacean fauna of South Africa. 6. Further additions to the list of marine isopods. Annals of the South African Museum 17, 319-438] were examined. A fragment of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene of 50 specimens and the complete nuclear 18S rRNA gene of 7 specimens were sequenced. The molecular data reveal high levels of genetic variability of both genes between populations, giving evidence for distinct monophyletic groups of haplotypes with average p-distances ranging from 0.0470 to 0.1440 ( d-distances: 0.0592-0.2850) of the 16S rDNA, and 18S rDNA p-distances ranging between 0.0032 and 0.0174 ( d-distances: 0.0033-0.0195). Intermediate values are absent. Our results show that widely distributed benthic deep-sea organisms of a homogeneous phenotype can be differentiated into genetically highly divergent populations. Sympatry of some genotypes indicates the existence of cryptic speciation. Flocks of closely related but genetically distinct species probably exist in other widespread benthic deep-sea asellotes and other Peracarida. Based on existing data we hypothesize that many widespread morphospecies are complexes of cryptic biological species (patchwork hypothesis).

  16. Probing new physics with underground accelerators and radioactive sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izaguirre, Eder; Krnjaic, Gordan; Pospelov, Maxim

    2015-01-01

    New light, weakly coupled particles can be efficiently produced at existing and future high-intensity accelerators and radioactive sources in deep underground laboratories. Once produced, these particles can scatter or decay in large neutrino detectors (e.g. Super-K and Borexino) housed in the same facilities. We discuss the production of weakly coupled scalars ϕ via nuclear de-excitation of an excited element into the ground state in two viable concrete reactions: the decay of the 0+ excited state of 16O populated via a (p , α) reaction on fluorine and from radioactive 144Ce decay where the scalar is produced in the de-excitation of 144Nd*, which occurs along the decay chain. Subsequent scattering on electrons, e (ϕ , γ) e, yields a mono-energetic signal that is observable in neutrino detectors. We show that this proposed experimental setup can cover new territory for masses 250 keV ≤mϕ ≤ 2me and couplings to protons and electrons, 10-11 ≤gegp ≤10-7. This parameter space is motivated by explanations of the 'proton charge radius puzzle', thus this strategy adds a viable new physics component to the neutrino and nuclear astrophysics programs at underground facilities. For the LUNA-type setup, we show that such light particles can be efficiently produced by populating the first excited 6.05 MeV 0+ state of 16O in (p , α) reactions on fluorine. For the SOX-type setup we find similarly powerful sensitivity from the 144Ce-144Pr (νbare) radioactive source, which can produce a scalar with 2.19 or 1.49 MeV energies from the Nd144* de-excitation that occurs along the decay chain. The subsequent detection of a mono-energetic release in a Borexino-type detector with 6.05, 2.19, or 1.49 MeV will be free from substantial environmental backgrounds. The strategy proposed in this Letter is capable of advancing the sensitivity to such states by many orders of magnitude, completely covering the parameter space relevant for the rp puzzle.

  17. A Study of Highly Qualified Science Teachers' Career Trajectory in the Deep, Rural South: Examining a Link between Deprofessionalization and Teacher Dissatisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Georgia W.; Tippins, Deborah; Oliver, J. Steve

    2013-01-01

    Science teacher retention, attrition, and migration continue to perplex educational scholars, political entities, as well as the general public. This study utilized an interpretive methodological design to generate assertions regarding career choice made by highly qualified science teachers in the deep, rural South through analysis of documents,…

  18. Electrochemically shape-controlled synthesis in deep eutectic solvents: triambic icosahedral platinum nanocrystals with high-index facets and their enhanced catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lu; Zhou, Zhi-You; Chen, Sheng-Pei; Xu, Chang-Deng; Su, Dangsheng; Schuster, Manfred Erwin; Sun, Shi-Gang

    2013-12-11

    Pt triambic icosahedral nanocrystals (TIH NCs) enclosed by {771} high-index facets were successfully synthesized electrochemically, for the first time, in ChCl-urea based deep eutectic solvents, and exhibited higher electrocatalytic activity and stability towards ethanol electrooxidation than a commercial Pt black catalyst. PMID:24084858

  19. RF and Optical Communications: A Comparison of High Data Rate Returns From Deep Space in the 2020 Timeframe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, W. Dan; Collins, Michael; Boroson, Don M.; Lesh, James; Biswas, Abihijit; Orr, Richard; Schuchman, Leonard; Sands, O. Scott

    2007-01-01

    As NASA proceeds with plans for increased science data return and higher data transfer capacity for science missions, both RF and optical communications are viable candidates for significantly higher-rate communications from deep space to Earth. With the inherent advantages, smaller apertures and larger bandwidths, of optical communications, it is reasonable to expect that at some point in time and combination of increasing distance and data rate, the rapidly emerging optical capabilities would become more advantageous than the more mature and evolving RF techniques. This paper presents a comparison of the burden to a spacecraft by both RF and optical communications systems for data rates of 10, 100, and 1000 Mbps and large distances. Advanced technology for RF and optical communication systems have been considered for projecting capabilities in the 2020 timeframe. For the comparisons drawn, the optical and RF ground terminals were selected to be similar in cost. The RF system selected is composed of forty-five 12-meter antennas, whereas the selected optical system is equivalent to a 10-meter optical telescope. Potential differences in availability are disregarded since the focus of this study is on spacecraft mass and power burden for high-rate mission data, under the assumption that essential communications will be provided by low-rate, high availability RF. For both the RF and optical systems, the required EIRP, for a given data rate and a given distance, was achieved by a design that realized the lowest possible communications subsystem mass (power + aperture) consistent with achieving the lowest technology risk. A key conclusion of this paper is that optical communications has great potential for high data rates and distances of 2.67 AU and beyond, but requires R&D and flight demonstrations to prove out technologies.

  20. High-resolution seismic-reflection images across the ICDP-USGS Eyreville deep drilling site, Chesapeake Bay impact structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powars, David S.; Catchings, Rufus D.; Goldman, Mark R.; Gohn, Gregory S.; Horton, J. Wright, Jr.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Rymer, Michael J.; Gandhok, Gini

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) acquired two 1.4-km-long, high-resolution (~5 m vertical resolution) seismic-reflection lines in 2006 that cross near the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP)-USGS Eyreville deep drilling site located above the late Eocene Chesapeake Bay impact structure in Virginia, USA. Five-meter spacing of seismic sources and geophones produced high-resolution images of the subsurface adjacent to the 1766-m-depth Eyreville core holes. Analysis of these lines, in the context of the core hole stratigraphy, shows that moderate-amplitude, discontinuous, dipping reflections below ~527 m correlate with a variety of Chesapeake Bay impact structure sediment and rock breccias recovered in the cores. High-amplitude, continuous, subhorizontal reflections above ~527 m depth correlate with the uppermost part of the Chesapeake Bay impact structure crater-fill sediments and postimpact Eocene to Pleistocene sediments. Reflections with ~20-30 m of relief in the uppermost part of the crater-fill and lowermost part of the postimpact section suggest differential compaction of the crater-fill materials during early postimpact time. The top of the crater-fill section also shows ~20 m of relief that appears to represent an original synimpact surface. Truncation surfaces, locally dipping reflections, and depth variations in reflection amplitudes generally correlate with the lithostrati-graphic and sequence-stratigraphic units and contacts in the core. Seismic images show apparent postimpact paleochannels that include the first possible Miocene paleochannels in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. Broad downwarping in the postim-pact section unrelated to structures in the crater fill indicates postimpact sediment compaction.

  1. Deep mantle mineralogy and novel materials synthesis using multianvil high-pressure technology (Robert Wilhelm Bunsen Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetsuo, Irifune

    2016-04-01

    Phase relations in mantle and slab materials have been studied using Kawai-type multianvil apparatus (KMA) under pressure and temperature conditions of the mantle transition region and the uppermost lower mantle of the Earth. The associated density and sound velocity changes of these materials have also been determined using the KMA technology combined with synchrotron in situ X-ray and ultrasonic interferometry measurements. The results show that the mantle transition region is made of a pyrolitic composition, while the presence of a harzburgite-rich layer is suggested in the lower parts of this region. Use of sintered diamond anvils for KMA has allowed expansion of these measurements toward deeper region of the lower mantle. Our preliminary results of such measurements indicate that at least upper part of the lower mantle is made of the pyrolitic composition contrary to a recent study based on Brillouin scattering measurements in diamond anvil cell, which concluded a more Si-rich lower mantle. On the other hand, we have been applying KMA technology to synthesis of novel functional materials utilizing its capability of producing very high static pressures and homogeneous temperatures in relatively large sample volumes. These include ultrahard nano-polycrystalline diamond (NPD) directly converted from graphite, which is now being used for applications to abrasive and cutting tools as well as for some scientific applications such as anvils for some high-pressure devices. Another example of such a novel material is hard and tough nano-polycrystalline stishovite (NPS), which is also potentially important for some industrial applications. Moreover, we recently succeeded in making highly transparent nano-polycrystalline garnet (NPG), which is ideal for the measurements of sound velocities by various methods, such as Brillouin scattering and GHz ultrasonic interferometry. Thus, the KMA technology opens the door to the synthesis of transparent nano

  2. Brianyoungite/Graphene Oxide Coordination Composites for High-Performance Cu(2+) Adsorption and Tunable Deep-Red Photoluminescence.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaobin; Shan, Yun; Xiong, Shijie; Shen, Jiancang; Wu, Xinglong

    2016-06-22

    Graphene oxide (GO) is a good adsorbent for heavy-metal ions because the oxygen functional groups offer active adsorption sites, but a small-size GO with dense oxygen-containing groups has high water solubility causing difficulty in separation. Herein, GO is bound to large brianyoungite (BY) by Zn-O coordination via a hydrothermal reaction that produces BY-GO composites with hollow spherical and flakelike morphologies that are easy to remove. By producing abundant oxygen-containing groups on GO, the Cu(2+) adsorption capacity increases to 1724.1 mg/g, which is the highest value in graphene-related materials. The experimental and theoretical analysis clearly shows that the infrared spectral shifts toward the low-frequency side of C-O-H and O═C-O bending vibrations in the BY-GO composites stem from the Zn(2+) (or Cu(2+)) coordination with O atoms in GO. The BY-GO also exhibits tunable deep-red photoluminescence up to 750 nm with a quantum yield of about 1%, which may be useful in infrared optoelectronic devices and solar energy exploitation. The photoluminescence which is different from that previously reported from chemically derived GO can be attributed to the optical transition in the disorder-induced localized states of the carbon-oxygen functional groups. PMID:27258793

  3. High frequency activation data used to validate localization of cortical electrodes during surgery for deep brain stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Kondylis, Efstathios D.; Randazzo, Michael J.; Alhourani, Ahmad; Wozny, Thomas A.; Lipski, Witold J.; Crammond, Donald J.; Richardson, R. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Movement related synchronization of high frequency activity (HFA, 76–100 Hz) is a somatotopic process with spectral power changes occurring during movement in the sensorimotor cortex (Miller et al., 2007) [1]. These features allowed movement-related changes in HFA to be used to functionally validate the estimations of subdural electrode locations, which may be placed temporarily for research in deep brain stimulation surgery, using the novel tool described in Randazzo et al. (2015) [2]. We recorded electrocorticography (ECoG) signals and localized electrodes in the region of the sensorimotor cortex during an externally cued hand grip task in 8 subjects. Movement related HFA was determined for each trial by comparing HFA spectral power during movement epochs to pre-movement baseline epochs. Significant movement related HFA was found to be focal in time and space, occurring only during movement and only in a subset of electrodes localized to the pre- and post-central gyri near the hand knob. To further demonstrate the use of movement related HFA to aid electrode localization, we provide a sample of the electrode localization tool, with data loaded to allow readers to map movement related HFA onto the cortical surface of a sample patient. PMID:26862560

  4. Acoustic detection of biosonar activity of deep diving odontocetes at Josephine Seamount High Seas Marine Protected Area.

    PubMed

    Giorli, Giacomo; Au, Whitlow W L; Ou, Hui; Jarvis, Susan; Morrissey, Ronald; Moretti, David

    2015-05-01

    The temporal occurrence of deep diving cetaceans in the Josephine Seamount High Seas Marine Protected Area (JSHSMPA), south-west Portugal, was monitored using a passive acoustic recorder. The recorder was deployed on 13 May 2010 at a depth of 814 m during the North Atlantic Treaty Organization Centre for Maritime Research and Experimentation cruise "Sirena10" and recovered on 6 June 2010. The recorder was programmed to record 40 s of data every 2 min. Acoustic data analysis, for the detection and classification of echolocation clicks, was performed using automatic detector/classification systems: M3R (Marine Mammal Monitoring on Navy Ranges), a custom matlab program, and an operator-supervised custom matlab program to assess the classification performance of the detector/classification systems. M3R CS-SVM algorithm contains templates to detect beaked whales, sperm whales, blackfish (pilot and false killer whales), and Risso's dolphins. The detections of each group of odontocetes was monitored as a function of time. Blackfish and Risso's dolphins were detected every day, while beaked whales and sperm whales were detected almost every day. The hourly distribution of detections reveals that blackfish and Risso's dolphins were more active at night, while beaked whales and sperm whales were more active during daylight hours. PMID:25994682

  5. Evaluating Deep Updraft Formulation in NCAR CAM3 with High-Resolution WRF Simulations During ARM TWP-ICE

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weiguo; Liu, Xiaohong

    2009-02-19

    The updraft formulation used in NCAR CAM3 deep convection parameterization assumes that the fractional entrainment rate for a single updraft is height-independent and the updraft mass flux increases monotonically with height to updraft top. These assumptions are evaluated against three-dimensional high-resolution simulations from the weather research and forecast (WRF) model during the monsoon period of the DOE ARM Tropical Warm Pool -- International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE). Analyses of the WRF-generated updrafts suggest that the fractional entrainment rate for a single updraft decreases with height and the updraft mass flux increases with height below the top of the conditionally unstable layer but decreases above. It is suggested that the assumed updraft mass flux profile in CAM3 might be unrealistic in many cases because the updraft acceleration is affected by other drag processes in addition to entrainment. Total convective cloud mass flux and detrainment rate over the TWP-ICE domain diagnosed from the CAM3 parameterization driven by WRF meteorological fields are smaller than those derived from WRF simulations. The total entrainment rate of CAM3 is smaller than that of WRF in the lower part of cloud and larger in the upper part of cloud. Compared with WRF simulations, the CAM3-parameterized convection is too active and, as a result, excess moisture and heat may be transported to the upper troposphere by the parameterized convection. Future improvement is envisioned.

  6. Method for high-precision multi-layered thin film deposition for deep and extreme ultraviolet mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Ruffner, J.A.

    1999-06-15

    A method for coating (flat or non-flat) optical substrates with high-reflectivity multi-layer coatings for use at Deep Ultra-Violet (DUV) and Extreme Ultra-Violet (EUV) wavelengths. The method results in a product with minimum feature sizes of less than 0.10 [micro]m for the shortest wavelength (13.4 nm). The present invention employs a computer-based modeling and deposition method to enable lateral and vertical thickness control by scanning the position of the substrate with respect to the sputter target during deposition. The thickness profile of the sputter targets is modeled before deposition and then an appropriate scanning algorithm is implemented to produce any desired, radially-symmetric thickness profile. The present invention offers the ability to predict and achieve a wide range of thickness profiles on flat or figured substrates, i.e., account for 1/R[sup 2] factor in a model, and the ability to predict and accommodate changes in deposition rate as a result of plasma geometry, i.e., over figured substrates. 15 figs.

  7. Method for high-precision multi-layered thin film deposition for deep and extreme ultraviolet mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Ruffner, Judith Alison

    1999-01-01

    A method for coating (flat or non-flat) optical substrates with high-reflectivity multi-layer coatings for use at Deep Ultra-Violet ("DUV") and Extreme Ultra-Violet ("EUV") wavelengths. The method results in a product with minimum feature sizes of less than 0.10-.mu.m for the shortest wavelength (13.4-nm). The present invention employs a computer-based modeling and deposition method to enable lateral and vertical thickness control by scanning the position of the substrate with respect to the sputter target during deposition. The thickness profile of the sputter targets is modeled before deposition and then an appropriate scanning algorithm is implemented to produce any desired, radially-symmetric thickness profile. The present invention offers the ability to predict and achieve a wide range of thickness profiles on flat or figured substrates, i.e., account for 1/R.sup.2 factor in a model, and the ability to predict and accommodate changes in deposition rate as a result of plasma geometry, i.e., over figured substrates.

  8. Highly efficient extraction of anthocyanins from grape skin using deep eutectic solvents as green and tunable media.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyung Min; Zhao, Jing; Jin, Yan; Heo, Seong Rok; Han, Se Young; Yoo, Da Eun; Lee, Jeongmi

    2015-12-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were investigated as tunable, environmentally benign, yet superior extraction media to enhance the extraction of anthocyanins from grape skin, which is usually discarded as waste. Ten DESs containing choline chloride as hydrogen bond acceptor combined with different hydrogen bond donors were screened for high extraction efficiencies based on the anthocyanin extraction yields. As a result, citric acid, D-(+)-maltose, and fructose were selected as the effective DES components, and the newly designed DES, CM-6 that is composed of citric acid and D-(+)-maltose at 4:1 molar ratio, exhibited significantly higher levels of anthocyanin extraction yields than conventional extraction solvents such as 80% aqueous methanol. The final extraction method was established based on the ultrasound-assisted extraction under conditions optimized using response surface methodology. Its extraction yields were double or even higher than those of conventional methods that are time-consuming and use volatile organic solvents. Our method is truly a green method for anthocyanin extraction with great extraction efficiency using a minimal amount of time and solvent. Moreover, this study suggested that grape skin, the by-products of grape juice processing, could serve as a valuable source for safe, natural colorants or antioxidants by use of the eco-friendly extraction solvent, CM-6. PMID:26534763

  9. Deep-branching Novel Lineages and High Diversity of Haptophytes in the Skagerrak (Norway) Uncovered by 454 Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Egge, Elianne S; Eikrem, Wenche; Edvardsen, Bente

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae in the division Haptophyta may be difficult to identify to species by microscopy because they are small and fragile. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing to explore the diversity of haptophytes in outer Oslofjorden, Skagerrak, and supplemented this with electron microscopy. Nano- and picoplanktonic subsurface samples were collected monthly for 2 yr, and the haptophytes were targeted by amplification of RNA/cDNA with Haptophyta-specific 18S ribosomal DNA V4 primers. Pyrosequencing revealed higher species richness of haptophytes than previously observed in the Skagerrak by microscopy. From ca. 400,000 reads we obtained 156 haptophyte operational taxonomic units (OTUs) after rigorous filtering and 99.5% clustering. The majority (84%) of the OTUs matched environmental sequences not linked to a morphological species, most of which were affiliated with the order Prymnesiales. Phylogenetic analyses including Oslofjorden OTUs and available cultured and environmental haptophyte sequences showed that several of the OTUs matched sequences forming deep-branching lineages, potentially representing novel haptophyte classes. Pyrosequencing also retrieved cultured species not previously reported by microscopy in the Skagerrak. Electron microscopy revealed species not yet genetically characterised and some potentially novel taxa. This study contributes to linking genotype to phenotype within this ubiquitous and ecologically important protist group, and reveals great, unknown diversity. PMID:25099994

  10. A biosphere modeling methodology for dose assessments of the potential Yucca Mountain deep geological high level radioactive waste repository.

    PubMed

    Watkins, B M; Smith, G M; Little, R H; Kessler, J

    1999-04-01

    Recent developments in performance standards for proposed high level radioactive waste disposal at Yucca Mountain suggest that health risk or dose rate limits will likely be part of future standards. Approaches to the development of biosphere modeling and dose assessments for Yucca Mountain have been relatively lacking in previous performance assessments due to the absence of such a requirement. This paper describes a practical methodology used to develop a biosphere model appropriate for calculating doses from use of well water by hypothetical individuals due to discharges of contaminated groundwater into a deep well. The biosphere model methodology, developed in parallel with the BIOMOVS II international study, allows a transparent recording of the decisions at each step, from the specification of the biosphere assessment context through to model development and analysis of results. A list of features, events, and processes relevant to Yucca Mountain was recorded and an interaction matrix developed to help identify relationships between them. Special consideration was given to critical/potential exposure group issues and approaches. The conceptual model of the biosphere system was then developed, based on the interaction matrix, to show how radionuclides migrate and accumulate in the biosphere media and result in potential exposure pathways. A mathematical dose assessment model was specified using the flexible AMBER software application, which allows users to construct their own compartment models. The starting point for the biosphere calculations was a unit flux of each radionuclide from the groundwater in the geosphere into the drinking water in the well. For each of the 26 radionuclides considered, the most significant exposure pathways for hypothetical individuals were identified. For 14 of the radionuclides, the primary exposure pathways were identified as consumption of various crops and animal products following assumed agricultural use of the contaminated

  11. High resolution trace element records from the deep sea hydrocoral Stylaster venustus: Implications for stylasterids as a paleoceanographic archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranha, R. S.; Layne, G. D.; Edinger, E.; Piercey, G.

    2009-12-01

    Stylasterids are one of the lesser known groups of deep sea corals, but appear to have potential to serve as viable geochemical archives for reconstructing temperature, salinity and nutrient regimes in the deep ocean. This group of hydrocorals are present in most, if not all of the world’s major oceans. Stylasterid species dominantly have aragonitic skeletons, with a small percentage of species having calcitic skeletons (1). A recent study on the biomineralization of a deep sea stylasterid (Errina dabneyi) has revealed that during the organism’s growth, a steady dissolution and reprecipitation of skeletal material occurs in the central canals of the skeleton. This skeletal modification likely alters the stable isotope and/or trace element profiles of these corals, making them potentially less reliable as geochemical archives, depending on the scale of sampling (2). Recent specimens of Stylaster venustus were collected in July, 2008 from the Olympic Coast National Marine sanctuary off the coast of Washington at depths of 200 - 350 m. We used a Cameca IMS 4f Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer (SIMS) to perform high spatial resolution (<25 µm) spot analyses of Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca and Na/Ca in detailed traverses across the basal cross-sections from three of these specimens. We identified the remineralized material by remnant porous texture and/or a substantially different trace element composition. Spot analyses corresponding to the remineralized material were eliminated from the dataset. In all three specimens we observed a pronounced inverse correlation (r = -0.36) of Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca profiles throughout the length of the transects . A positive correlation (r =0.46) between Na/Ca and Mg/Ca profiles was also noted in two of the specimens analyzed. These correlations strongly imply that the coral skeleton is recording either cyclical or episodic variations in temperature, with possible overprinting from other environmental variation. The exact relationship between the

  12. Cosmic ray sun shadow in Soudan 2 underground muon flux.

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, W. W. M.; Alner, G. J.; Ayres, D. S.; Barrett, W. L.; Bode, C.; Fields, T. H.; Goodman, M. C.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Price, L. E.; Seidlein, R.; Soudan 2 Collaboration; Thron, J. L.

    1999-06-23

    The absorption of cosmic rays by the sun produces a shadow at the earth. The angular offset and broadening of the shadow are determined by the magnitude and structure of the interplanetary magnetic field (IPMF) in the inner solar system. The authors report the first measurement of the solar cosmic ray shadow by detection of deep underground muon flux in observations made during the entire ten-year interval 1989 to 1998. The sun shadow varies significantly during this time, with a 3.3{sigma} shadow observed during the years 1995 to 1998.

  13. Assessment of high resolution digital elevation model for deep humus-rich sediments delineation at a plot scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penížek, Vít; Zádorová, Tereza

    2014-05-01

    Resolution and quality of digital elevation models is a key factor in erosion modeling. Spatial estimates of erosion and sedimentation rates are important for soil organic carbon stocks prediction or delineation of newly formed soil cover by degradation and sedimentation of soil material. Such analysis can be sensitive to DEM vertical accuracy and horizontal resolution. LIDAR data can provide very precise DEMs with very high resolution. In our study we used ground based LIDAR data with 10cm pixel. At such resolution, not only naturally formed terrain features are observed, but also anthropogenic features are depicted. Anthropogenic features are represented by more significant objects like hedges or ditches that can significantly influence the water and sediment movement in the landscape on one hand, on the other hand less significant anthropogenic impact can influence the terrain surface. Plot management forms a regular network consisting of parallel linear features given by plowing operations. At our research plot, such features depicted by DEM form specific flow direction (drainage) pattern over the area comparing to coarser resolution DEMs. We focused on comparison of differently preprocessed DEMs for deep humus-rich sediments depth prediction. We compared success rate of prediction models based on original DEM, DEMs with different resampling (resolution) and modeling of original DEM adding random noise given by size of plowing based terrain pattern. The study showed that original high resolution DEM significantly decreases the possibility of soil depth prediction. The actual very precise surface description is not very relevant for GIS modeling due to sensitivity of the models. DEMs depicting the wider constellations of the terrain were more successful in the prediction. The study was supported by grant nr. 13-07516P of the Czech science foundation and by grant nr. QJ1230319 of the Ministry of Agriculture.

  14. Deep Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Cliff

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes research to find the nature of deep earthquakes occurring hundreds of kilometers down in the earth's mantle. Describes further research problems in this area. Presents several illustrations and four references. (YP)

  15. A very high-resolution, deep-towed, multichannel seismic survey of gas, gas hydrates and gas hydrate-related features in marine sediments off Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitzke, M.; Bialas, J.

    2003-04-01

    A very high-resolution, deep-towed, multichannel seismic survey was carried out in the Yaquina Basin off Peru in 2002 (RV Sonne cruise SO162) in order (1) to test the newly developed deep tow system and verify the lateral and vertical resolution of the recorded data and (2) to image small-scale features related to the occurrence of gas, gas hydrates and fluid flow in the finely layered hemipelagic sediments of the Yaquina Basin. The deep tow streamer configuration used for this survey had an overall length of 75 m and consisted of a 50 m lead-in cable and 26 digital nodes separated by 1 m long cables. As seismic sources a conventional GI-gun of 0.7 l volume and a Prakla-type air gun of 1.6 l volume were used and excited frequencies between about 20 - 300 Hz, leading to an average vertical resolution of 2.5 - 5 m. A towing depth of 100 m above sea floor allowed to obtain data with a lateral resolution that is about 3 times higher in 1000 m water depth than can be achieved with a conventional surface-towed system due to the reduction of the size of the Fresnel zone by the hybrid, deep-towed system. Two completely different areas were studied in the Yaquina Basin. The first area is located on the Peruvian continental margin in about 1000 m water depth. Here, the deep tow seismic line crosses a formerly recorded MCS line (RV Sonne cruise SO146, 2000) along which a weak BSR was observed. In the newly acquired deep tow data several very small-scale normal faults, which might act as pathways for fluid flow, could be resolved in addition to the BSR. In the second area a small 3D grid of closely spaced parallel profile lines covers an area where some chemoherms were already found on the sea floor in about 1000 m water depth during the former RV Sonne cruise SO146, too. An analysis of the newly acquired deep tow data shows these outcropping chemoherms and several additional buried chemoherms and their internal structures in great detail. Furthermore, the surrounding finely

  16. Efficiency and impacts of hythane (CH4+H2) underground storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sáinz-García, Alvaro; Abarca, Elena; Grandia, Fidel

    2016-04-01

    The foreseen increase share of renewable energy production requires energy storage to mitigate shortage periods of energy supply. Hydrogen is an efficient energy carrier that can be transported and storage. A very promising way to store large amounts of hydrogen is underground geological reservoirs. Hydrogen can be stored, among other options, as a mixture of natural gas and less than 20% of hydrogen (hythane) to avoid damages on the existing infrastructure for gas transport. This technology is known as power-to-gas and is being considered by a number of European countries (Simon et al., 2015). In this study, the feasibility of a deep aquifer to store CH4-H2 mixtures in the Lower Triassic of the Paris Basin is numerically analyzed. The solubility of gas mixture in the groundwater is extremely low (Panfilov, 2015) and, therefore, gas and water are considered immiscible and non-reactive. An immiscible multiphase flow model is developed using the coefficient-form PDE interface of the finite element method code, COMSOL Multiphysics. The modelled domain is a 2D section of 2500 x 290 m resembling the Lower Triassic aquifer of the Paris basin, consisting of 2 layers of sandstone separated by a layer of conglomerates. The domain dips 0.5% from east to west. The top of the aquifer is 500 m-deep and the lateral boundaries are assumed to be open. This case is considered conservative compared to a dome-like geological trap, which could be more favorable to retain higher gas concentration. A number of cycles of gas production and injection were modelled. An automatic shut-down of the pump is implemented in case pressure on the well exceeds an upper or lower threshold. The influence of the position of the well, the uncertain residual gas saturation and the regional flow are studied. The model shows that both gas and aquifer properties have a significant impact on storage. Due to its low viscosity, the mobility of the hythane is quite high and gas expands significantly, reducing

  17. Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Deep Burn Core and Fuel Analysis -- Complete Design Selection for the Pebble Bed Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    B. Boer; A. M. Ougouag

    2010-09-01

    The Deep-Burn (DB) concept focuses on the destruction of transuranic nuclides from used light water reactor fuel. These transuranic nuclides are incorporated into TRISO coated fuel particles and used in gas-cooled reactors with the aim of a fractional fuel burnup of 60 to 70% in fissions per initial metal atom (FIMA). This high performance is expected through the use of multiple recirculation passes of the fuel in pebble form without any physical or chemical changes between passes. In particular, the concept does not call for reprocessing of the fuel between passes. In principle, the DB pebble bed concept employs the same reactor designs as the presently envisioned low-enriched uranium core designs, such as the 400 MWth Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR-400). Although it has been shown in the previous Fiscal Year (2009) that a PuO2 fueled pebble bed reactor concept is viable, achieving a high fuel burnup, while remaining within safety-imposed prescribed operational limits for fuel temperature, power peaking and temperature reactivity feedback coefficients for the entire temperature range, is challenging. The presence of the isotopes 239-Pu, 240-Pu and 241-Pu that have resonances in the thermal energy range significantly modifies the neutron thermal energy spectrum as compared to a ”standard,” UO2-fueled core. Therefore, the DB pebble bed core exhibits a relatively hard neutron energy spectrum. However, regions within the pebble bed that are near the graphite reflectors experience a locally softer spectrum. This can lead to power and temperature peaking in these regions. Furthermore, a shift of the thermal energy spectrum with increasing temperature can lead to increased absorption in the resonances of the fissile Pu isotopes. This can lead to a positive temperature reactivity coefficient for the graphite moderator under certain operating conditions. The effort of this task in FY 2010 has focused on the optimization of the core to maximize the pebble discharge

  18. Deep GPR investigations on a karst zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senechal, G.; Carriere, S.; Konstantinos, C.

    2012-12-01

    Enhance characterization of karst environment is a current challenge firstly in order to better understand water infiltration and flows within the unsaturated zone of karst aquifers and secondly because such geological context is considered as an analog of several carbonate oil reservoir. Karst's structural complexity requires adequate geophysical tools providing high spatial resolution and being particularly sensitive to water contain. Thus GPR is one of the most widely used geophysical techniques. GPR is currently applied on a long term interdisciplinary study of a wide karst hydrosystem located in Provence (France). On this area, investigations can be performed from the surface and within an underground tunnel (LSBB). This unique configuration enables "deep" investigations, especially considering the physical properties of the limestone. This particularly favorable context encouraged us to optimize each parameter which can allow improving data quality and signal penetration. We used unshielded 50 MHz and shielded 100 MHz antennas, the size of this last one requiring a detailed cleaning of the ground surface conditions. Moreover, increasing of the depth penetration has been obtained rising drastically the "stack parameter" from the commonly used level of 32 up to 8192. Such a high level of stacks slows down recording and acquisitions have been performed using a winch coupled to the acquisition system. In return, comparison from sections obtained with low and high level of stack clearly shows an increase of the penetration depth. The very specific context of our study area, with the tunnel located 30 meters deep, allow us to display two GPR sections one over the other, each of one displaying more than 20 meters of penetration. From such data, detailed description of the structural context can be performed, while enjoying the high resolution of GPR which is according to the karst size related heterogeneities.

  19. Underground gasification of coal

    DOEpatents

    Pasini, III, Joseph; Overbey, Jr., William K.; Komar, Charles A.

    1976-01-20

    There is disclosed a method for the gasification of coal in situ which comprises drilling at least one well or borehole from the earth's surface so that the well or borehole enters the coalbed or seam horizontally and intersects the coalbed in a direction normal to its major natural fracture system, initiating burning of the coal with the introduction of a combustion-supporting gas such as air to convert the coal in situ to a heating gas of relatively high calorific value and recovering the gas. In a further embodiment the recovered gas may be used to drive one or more generators for the production of electricity.

  20. Radionuclides in an underground environment

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.L.

    1996-08-01

    In the 100 years since Becquerel recognized radioactivity, mankind has been very successful in producing large amounts of radioactive materials. We have been less successful in reaching a consensus on how to dispose of the billions of curies of fission products and transuranics resulting from nuclear weapons testing, electrical power generation, medical research, and a variety of other human endeavors. Many countries, including the United States, favor underground burial as a means of disposing of radioactive wastes. There are, however, serious questions about how such buried wastes may behave in the underground environment and particularly how they might eventually contaminate water, air and soil resources on which we are dependent. This paper describes research done in the United States in the state of Nevada on the behavior of radioactive materials placed underground. During the last thirty years, a series of ``experiments`` conducted for other purposes (testing of nuclear weapons) have resulted in a wide variety of fission products and actinides being injected in rock strata both above and below the water table. Variables which seem to control the movement of these radionuclides include the physical form (occlusion versus surface deposition), the chemical oxidation state, sorption by mineral phases of the host rock, and the hydrologic properties of the medium. The information gained from these studies should be relevant to planning for remediation of nuclear facilities elsewhere in the world and for long-term storage of nuclear wastes.

  1. The stress and underground environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chama, A.

    2009-04-01

    Currently,the program of prevention in occupational health needs mainly to identify occupational hazards and strategy of their prevention.Among these risks,the stress represents an important psycho-social hazard in mental health,which unfortunately does not spare no occupation.My Paper attempts to highlight and to develop this hazard in its different aspects even its regulatory side in underground environment as occupational environment.In the interest of better prevention ,we consider "the information" about the impact of stress as the second prevention efficient and no expensive to speleologists,hygienists and workers in the underground areas. In this occasion of this event in Vienna,we also highlight the scientific works on the stress of the famous viennese physician and endocrinologist Doctor Hans Selye (1907-1982),nicknamed "the father of stress" and note on relation between biological rhythms in this underground area and psychological troubles (temporal isolation) (Jurgen Aschoff’s works and experiences out-of time).

  2. Discrete Wavelet Transform for Fault Locations in Underground Distribution System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apisit, C.; Ngaopitakkul, A.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, a technique for detecting faults in underground distribution system is presented. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) based on traveling wave is employed in order to detect the high frequency components and to identify fault locations in the underground distribution system. The first peak time obtained from the faulty bus is employed for calculating the distance of fault from sending end. The validity of the proposed technique is tested with various fault inception angles, fault locations and faulty phases. The result is found that the proposed technique provides satisfactory result and will be very useful in the development of power systems protection scheme.

  3. Micro-seismicity at high pressure and temperature: Developing a system for generating and detecting deep earthquakes in the lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Officer, T.; Secco, R.

    2013-05-01

    In subduction zones, deep earthquakes are thought to be associated with faulting that arises from phase transformations (Green et al., 1992, Dobson et al, 2002). In order to test this mechanism experimentally, it is necessary to make micro-seismic measurements while the mineral under investigation is subjected to the pressure and temperature (P,T) environment at depth. We are developing a system capable of making in situ acoustic emission (AE) measurements on samples under P,T conditions representative of the upper mantle and transition zone. Experiments are performed in a 3000 ton multi-anvil press with 6 piezoelectric transducers mounted on the rear side of the anvils. Full waveforms of AE events are collected on six channels of an AE measurement system capable of 40 MHz sampling rate. By employing multiple transducers distributed in a micro-seismic array, it is possible to obtain the source location of a particular AE event using triangulation techniques. An additional benefit of the system is the ability to measure phase transformations using two distinct methods: 1) volume changes that accompany the transformation leads to the generation of acoustic energy associated with rapid readjustment of the pressure cell (de Ronde and Dobson, 2008) and 2) sending pulsed signals to measure the contrast in travel time between distinct mineral phases. Elements such as Hg and Sn experience solid-liquid transformations with large volume change leading to well defined velocity differences. Results on Hg clearly demonstrate an observable velocity contrast and Sn is expected to behave similarly. Future work is planned for silicate minerals. 1. Green II, H.W. et al., Geophys. Res. Lets, 1992, 19, p. 789-792 2. Dobson, D.P. et al., Science, 2002, 298, p. 1407-1410 3. de Ronde, Almar A. et al., High Pressure Research, 2008, 28, p. 9-17

  4. Tuning of deep level emission in highly oriented electrodeposited ZnO nanorods by post growth annealing treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simimol, A.; Manikandanath, N. T.; Anappara, Aji A.; Chowdhury, Prasanta; Barshilia, Harish C.

    2014-08-01

    Highly dense and c-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods with hexagonal wurtzite facets were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrates by a simple and cost-effective electrodeposition method at low bath temperature (80 °C). The as-grown samples were then annealed at various temperatures (TA = 100-500 °C) in different environments (e.g., zinc, oxygen, air, and vacuum) to understand their photoluminescence (PL) behavior in the ultra-violet (UV) and the visible regions. The PL results revealed that the as-deposited ZnO nanorods consisted of oxygen vacancy (VO), zinc interstitial (Zni), and oxygen interstitial (Oi) defects and these can be reduced significantly by annealing in different environments at optimal annealing temperatures. However, the intensity of deep level emission increased for TA greater than the optimized values for the respective environments due to the introduction of various defect centers. For example, for TA ≥ 450 °C in the oxygen and air environments, the density of Oi defects increased, whereas, the green emission associated with VO is dominant in the vacuum annealed (TA = 500 °C) ZnO nanorods. The UV peak red shifted after the post-growth annealing treatments in all the environments and the vacuum annealed sample exhibited highest UV peak intensity. The observations from the PL data are supported by the micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present study gives new insight into the origin of different defects that exist in the electrodeposited ZnO nanorods and how these defects can be precisely controlled in order to get the desired emissions for the opto-electronic applications.

  5. Tuning of deep level emission in highly oriented electrodeposited ZnO nanorods by post growth annealing treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Simimol, A.; Manikandanath, N. T.; Chowdhury, Prasanta; Barshilia, Harish C.; Anappara, Aji A.

    2014-08-21

    Highly dense and c-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods with hexagonal wurtzite facets were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrates by a simple and cost-effective electrodeposition method at low bath temperature (80 °C). The as-grown samples were then annealed at various temperatures (T{sub A} = 100–500 °C) in different environments (e.g., zinc, oxygen, air, and vacuum) to understand their photoluminescence (PL) behavior in the ultra-violet (UV) and the visible regions. The PL results revealed that the as-deposited ZnO nanorods consisted of oxygen vacancy (V{sub O}), zinc interstitial (Zn{sub i}), and oxygen interstitial (O{sub i}) defects and these can be reduced significantly by annealing in different environments at optimal annealing temperatures. However, the intensity of deep level emission increased for T{sub A} greater than the optimized values for the respective environments due to the introduction of various defect centers. For example, for T{sub A} ≥ 450 °C in the oxygen and air environments, the density of O{sub i} defects increased, whereas, the green emission associated with V{sub O} is dominant in the vacuum annealed (T{sub A} = 500 °C) ZnO nanorods. The UV peak red shifted after the post-growth annealing treatments in all the environments and the vacuum annealed sample exhibited highest UV peak intensity. The observations from the PL data are supported by the micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present study gives new insight into the origin of different defects that exist in the electrodeposited ZnO nanorods and how these defects can be precisely controlled in order to get the desired emissions for the opto-electronic applications.

  6. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.; Deo, M.; Eddings, E.; Sarofim, A.; Gueishen, K.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.; Mandalaparty, P.; Zhang, H.

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  7. New technological methods for protecting underground waters from agricultural pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavlyanov, Gani

    2015-04-01

    The agricultural production on the irrigated grounds can not carry on without mineral fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. Especially it is shown in Uzbekistan, in cultivation of cotton. There is an increase in mineralization, rigidity, quantity of heavy metals, phenols and other pollutions in the cotton fields. Thus there is an exhaustion of stocks of fresh underground waters. In the year 2003 we were offered to create the ecological board to prevent pollution to get up to a level of subsoil waters in the top 30 centimeter layer of the ground. We carried out an accumulation and pollution processing. This layer possesses a high adsorbing ability for heavy metals, mineral oil, mineral fertilizers remnants, defoliants and pesticides. In order to remediate a biological pollution treatment processing should be take into account. The idea is consisted in the following. The adsorption properties of coal is all well-known that the Angren coal washing factories in Tashkent area have collected more than 10 million tons of the coal dust to mix with clays. We have picked up association of anaerobic microorganisms which, using for development, destroys nutrients of coal waste pollutions to a harmless content for people. Coal waste inoculation also are scattered by these microorganisms on the field before plowing. Deep (up to 30 cm) plowing brings them on depth from 5 up to 30 cm. Is created by a plough a layer with necessary protective properties. The norm of entering depends on the structure of ground and the intensity of pollutions. Laboratory experiments have shown that 50% of pollutions can be treated by the ecological board and are processed up to safe limit.

  8. Some logistical considerations in designing a system of deep boreholes for disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Genetha Anne; Brady, Patrick Vane; Arnold, Bill Walter

    2012-09-01

    Deep boreholes could be a relatively inexpensive, safe, and rapidly deployable strategy for disposing Americas nuclear waste. To study this approach, Sandia invested in a three year LDRD project entitled %E2%80%9CRadionuclide Transport from Deep Boreholes.%E2%80%9D In the first two years, the borehole reference design and backfill analysis were completed and the supporting modeling of borehole temperature and fluid transport profiles were done. In the third year, some of the logistics of implementing a deep borehole waste disposal system were considered. This report describes what was learned in the third year of the study and draws some conclusions about the potential bottlenecks of system implementation.

  9. GOING UNDERGROUND IN FINLAND: DESIGN OF ONKALO IN PROGRESS

    SciTech Connect

    Dikds, T.; Ikonen, A.; Niiranen, S.; Hansen, J.

    2003-02-27

    The long-term program aimed at selection of a site for a deep repository was initiated in Finland in 1983. This program has come to end in 2001 and a new phase aimed at implementation of the geological disposal of spent fuel has been started. In this new phase the first milestone is the application for a construction license for the disposal facility around 2010. To fulfill the needs for detailed design of the disposal system, an underground rock characterization facility (URCF) will be constructed at the representative depth at Olkiluoto. The excavation of this facility will start the work for underground characterization, testing and demonstration, which is planned to be a continuous activity throughout the whole life cycle of the deep repository. The overall objectives for the underground site characterization are (1) verification of the present conclusions on site suitability, (2) definition and identification of suitable rock volumes for repository space and (3) characterization of planned host rock for detailed design, safety assessment and construction planning. The objective for verification aims at assessing that the Olkiluoto site meets the basic criteria for long-term safety and as well the basic requirements for construction and thus justifies the site selection. The two other main objectives are closely related to design of the repository and assessing the long-term safety of the site-specific disposal system. The most important objective of ONKALO should allow an in-depth investigation of the geological environment and to provide the opportunity to allow validation of models at more appropriate scales and conditions than can be achieved from the surface. In some areas, such as in demonstrating operational safety, in acquiring geological information at a repository scale and in constructional and operational feasibility, the ONKALO will provide the only reliable source of in situ data. The depth range envisaged for URCF called ONKALO is between 400 and

  10. Center for Theoretical Underground Physics and Related Areas - CETUP*2013 Summer Program

    SciTech Connect

    Szczerbinska, Barbara

    2014-06-01

    In response to an increasing interest in experiments conducted at deep underground facilities around the world, in 2010 the theory community has proposed a new initiative - a Center for Theoretical Underground Physics and Related Areas (CETUP*). The main goal of CETUP* is to bring together people with different talents and skills to address the most exciting questions in particle and nuclear physics, astrophysics, geosciences, and geomicrobiology. Scientists invited to participate in the program do not only provide theoretical support to the underground science, they also examine underlying universal questions of the 21st century including: What is dark matter?, What are the masses of neutrinos?, How have neutrinos shaped the evolution of the universe?, How were the elements from iron to uranium made?, What is the origin and thermal history of the Earth? The mission of the CETUP* is to promote an organized research in physics, astrophysics, geoscience, geomicrobiology and other fields related to the underground science via individual and collaborative research in dynamic atmosphere of intense scientific interactions. Our main goal is to bring together scientists scattered around the world, promote the deep underground science and provide a stimulating environment for creative thinking and open communication between researches of varying ages and nationalities. CETUP*2014 included 5 week long program (June 24 – July 26, 2013) covering various theoretical and experimental aspects of Dark Matter, Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics. Two week long session focused on Dark Matter (June 24-July 6) was followed by two week long program on Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics (July 15-26). The VIIth International Conference on Interconnections between Particle Physics and Cosmology (PPC) was sandwiched between these sessions (July 8-13) covering the subjects of dark matter, neutrino physics, gravitational waves, collider physics and other from both theoretical end experimental

  11. Review: Impact of underground structures on the flow of urban groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attard, Guillaume; Winiarski, Thierry; Rossier, Yvan; Eisenlohr, Laurent

    2016-02-01

    Property economics favours the vertical development of cities but flow of groundwater can be affected by the use of underground space in them. This review article presents the state of the art regarding the impact of disturbances caused by underground structures (tunnels, basements of buildings, deep foundations, etc.) on the groundwater flow in urban aquifers. The structures built in the underground levels of urban areas are presented and organised in terms of their impact on flow: obstacle to the flow or disturbance of the groundwater budget of the flow system. These two types of disturbance are described in relation to the structure area and the urban area. The work reviewed shows, on one hand, the individual impacts of different urban underground structures, and on the other, their cumulative impacts on flow, using real case studies. Lastly, the works are placed in perspective regarding the integration of underground structures with the aim of operational management of an urban aquifer. The literature presents deterministic numerical modelling as a tool capable of contributing to this aim, in that it helps to quantify the effect of an underground infrastructure project on groundwater flow, which is crucial for decision-making processes. It can also be an operational decision-aid tool for choosing construction techniques or for formulating strategies to manage the water resource.

  12. Deep subsurface microbial processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovley, D.R.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1995-01-01

    Information on the microbiology of the deep subsurface is necessary in order to understand the factors controlling the rate and extent of the microbially catalyzed redox reactions that influence the geophysical properties of these environments. Furthermore, there is an increasing threat that deep aquifers, an important drinking water resource, may be contaminated by man's activities, and there is a need to predict the extent to which microbial activity may remediate such contamination. Metabolically active microorganisms can be recovered from a diversity of deep subsurface environments. The available evidence suggests that these microorganisms are responsible for catalyzing the oxidation of organic matter coupled to a variety of electron acceptors just as microorganisms do in surface sediments, but at much slower rates. The technical difficulties in aseptically sampling deep subsurface sediments and the fact that microbial processes in laboratory incubations of deep subsurface material often do not mimic in situ processes frequently necessitate that microbial activity in the deep subsurface be inferred through nonmicrobiological analyses of ground water. These approaches include measurements of dissolved H2, which can predict the predominant microbially catalyzed redox reactions in aquifers, as well as geochemical and groundwater flow modeling, which can be used to estimate the rates of microbial processes. Microorganisms recovered from the deep subsurface have the potential to affect the fate of toxic organics and inorganic contaminants in groundwater. Microbial activity also greatly influences 1 the chemistry of many pristine groundwaters and contributes to such phenomena as porosity development in carbonate aquifers, accumulation of undesirably high concentrations of dissolved iron, and production of methane and hydrogen sulfide. Although the last decade has seen a dramatic increase in interest in deep subsurface microbiology, in comparison with the study of

  13. 12. Credit BG. Typical view down one of the underground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Credit BG. Typical view down one of the underground tunnels connecting the Control and Recording Center with all the JPL Edwards Facility test stands. In addition to personnel traffic, the tunnel system carried electrical power cables, instrumentation and control circuits, and high pressure helium and nitrogen lines. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Control & Recording Center, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  14. Picos de Europa National and Regional parks (Northern Spain): the karst underground landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros, Daniel; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Laura; José Domínguez-Cuesta, María; Meléndez-Asensio, Mónica; García-Sansegundo, Joaquín

    2015-04-01

    Karst caves represent an environmental with a high value from the Geoheritage and Geodiversity points of view given by hidden underground landscape practically reserved to the speleologists. Nevertheless, cave surveys, 3d models of caves and DEMs, and pictures can be used to approach the endokarst geoheritage characterization. The Picos de Europa National and Regional parks include the 14% of World's Deepest Caves (>1 km depth); moreover these parks shows a high environmental value related with seven protection figures: Biosphere Reserve, Special Protection Area, the Site of Community Importance, and four Natural Monument. The aim of this work is to present the Geoheritage values of the underground landscape of the Picos de Europa National and Regional parks. These parks involve several alpine karst massifs up to 700 km2 and 2,600 m asl, as the Picos de Europa mountains (declared Global Geosite by its geomorphological interest), the Mampodre Massif, and the Peñas Pintas and Yordas peaks (sited in Riaño dam area). The alpine karst involves a large underground landscape formed by more than 3,700 epigenic caves with 403 km of conduits. The 95 % of the cave conduits are located in the Picos de Europa mountains and correspond to caves up to 18.9 km length and 1.6 km depth; the 5 % of cave conduits are sited in other small karst areas and include caves up to 1.5 km length and 200 m depth. The karst caves present high natural, scientific and cultural values. The natural value corresponds to the singularity and the spectacular vertical development of the caves and a very high Geodiversity of cave features. The karst shows a high concentration of deep caves (81 caves deeper than 500 m) that is twice higher than the concentration of other karst areas, as Arabika Massif (Western Caucasus). The natural value is mainly related to the presence of geomorphological and hydrogeological features, highlighting high vadose canyons and shafts, old phreatic and epiphreatic conduits

  15. Deep learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecun, Yann; Bengio, Yoshua; Hinton, Geoffrey

    2015-05-01

    Deep learning allows computational models that are composed of multiple processing layers to learn representations of data with multiple levels of abstraction. These methods have dramatically improved the state-of-the-art in speech recognition, visual object recognition, object detection and many other domains such as drug discovery and genomics. Deep learning discovers intricate structure in large data sets by using the backpropagation algorithm to indicate how a machine should change its internal parameters that are used to compute the representation in each layer from the representation in the previous layer. Deep convolutional nets have brought about breakthroughs in processing images, video, speech and audio, whereas recurrent nets have shone light on sequential data such as text and speech.

  16. Deep learning.

    PubMed

    LeCun, Yann; Bengio, Yoshua; Hinton, Geoffrey

    2015-05-28

    Deep learning allows computational models that are composed of multiple processing layers to learn representations of data with multiple levels of abstraction. These methods have dramatically improved the state-of-the-art in speech recognition, visual object recognition, object detection and many other domains such as drug discovery and genomics. Deep learning discovers intricate structure in large data sets by using the backpropagation algorithm to indicate how a machine should change its internal parameters that are used to compute the representation in each layer from the representation in the previous layer. Deep convolutional nets have brought about breakthroughs in processing images, video, speech and audio, whereas recurrent nets have shone light on sequential data such as text and speech. PMID:26017442

  17. TOWARD END-TO-END MODELING FOR NUCLEAR EXPLOSION MONITORING: SIMULATION OF UNDERGROUND NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS AND EARTHQUAKES USING HYDRODYNAMIC AND ANELASTIC SIMULATIONS, HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL EARTH MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, A; Vorobiev, O; Petersson, A; Sjogreen, B

    2009-07-06

    This paper describes new research being performed to improve understanding of seismic waves generated by underground nuclear explosions (UNE) by using full waveform simulation, high-performance computing and three-dimensional (3D) earth models. The goal of this effort is to develop an end-to-end modeling capability to cover the range of wave propagation required for nuclear explosion monitoring (NEM) from the buried nuclear device to the seismic sensor. The goal of this work is to improve understanding of the physical basis and prediction capabilities of seismic observables for NEM including source and path-propagation effects. We are pursuing research along three main thrusts. Firstly, we are modeling the non-linear hydrodynamic response of geologic materials to underground explosions in order to better understand how source emplacement conditions impact the seismic waves that emerge from the source region and are ultimately observed hundreds or thousands of kilometers away. Empirical evidence shows that the amplitudes and frequency content of seismic waves at all distances are strongly impacted by the physical properties of the source region (e.g. density, strength, porosity). To model the near-source shock-wave motions of an UNE, we use GEODYN, an Eulerian Godunov (finite volume) code incorporating thermodynamically consistent non-linear constitutive relations, including cavity formation, yielding, porous compaction, tensile failure, bulking and damage. In order to propagate motions to seismic distances we are developing a one-way coupling method to pass motions to WPP (a Cartesian anelastic finite difference code). Preliminary investigations of UNE's in canonical materials (granite, tuff and alluvium) confirm that emplacement conditions have a strong effect on seismic amplitudes and the generation of shear waves. Specifically, we find that motions from an explosion in high-strength, low-porosity granite have high compressional wave amplitudes and weak shear

  18. Might underground waste repositories blow up?

    SciTech Connect

    Hippel, F. von

    1996-03-01

    Some writers have presented possible scenarios in which a subcritical underground deposit of plutonium or other fissile material might be changed into a critical configuration. The underground criticalities that occurred in Gabon some 1.7 billion years ago in deposits of natural uranium is cited. Other scientists assert that it is virtually impossible that such a configuration could develop in an underground repository. The author presents the pros and cons of these views. 5 refs.

  19. Current challenges for high-resolution monitoring of deep geological repository boreholes using terrestrial laser scanner and photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrea, Dario; Savunen, Johanna; Abellan, Antonio; Derron, Marc-Henri; Mattila, Jussi; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2015-04-01

    The Onkalo site has been selected as final deep geological repository for the disposal of nuclear waste in Finland. Several exploratory boreholes, similar to those that will host the nuclear waste, are currently under construction in order to analyse various technical aspects of the disposal. Among them, an accurate monitoring of the deformation of each borehole is required. The present study aims at finding the most suitable technique for measuring and monitoring small scale (below mm) deformations of these boreholes with high confidence and accuracy. Two different close-range monitoring techniques are compared here: a phase-shift terrestrial laser scanning (Z+F 5006i) and photogrammetry (Canon EOS 6D&EF20mm + Adamtech 3DM Mine Mapping Suite 2.5). Both techniques are applied using multi temporal acquisitions. As for the data acquired by the terrestrial laser scanner, our study has revealed that parts of the 3D datasets are affected by an artificial distortion, with a maximum shift up to 6 mm, which is clearly below the required accuracy. The origin of this artifact is related with the data acquisition strategy: since the accuracy of the laser measurement is affected by the incidence angle, we observed that when the incidence angle is higher than 45°, the range is unsatisfactorily underestimated. Furthermore, we found another issue in the influence of the surface condition on range measurement, such as wet versus dry, or dark versus light colored rock surface. As for the photogrammetric data, we observed that, when compared to a theoretical cylinder, the 3D point cloud was affected by a sub-millimetric distortion. This distortion is due to the construction and georeferencing of the final 3D model. The error can reach up to +/- 0.8 mm in the border areas of the picture, which is significant value as a millimetric deformation should be detected. Up to now, the photogrammetric acquisitions have provided more accurate results than the laser scanning, but there is a

  20. Deep Lysimeter

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    2004-06-01

    A deep lysimeter including a hollow vessel having a chamber, a fill conduit extending into the chamber through apertures, a semi-permeable member mounted on the vessel and in fluid communication with the fill conduit, and a line connection for retrieving the lysimeter.