Science.gov

Sample records for deep-sea seamount fisheries

  1. Prokaryote diversity and viral production in deep-sea sediments and seamounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danovaro, Roberto; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Luna, Gian Marco; Magagnini, Mirko; Manini, Elena; Pusceddu, Antonio

    2009-05-01

    Despite the fact that marine prokaryotes and viruses have been increasingly investigated over the last decade, knowledge on prokaryote diversity and viral production in bathyal sediments is limited. We investigated microbial variables in the deep-sea sediments around two seamounts at 3000-m depth in the Tyrrhenian Sea and sediments located at the same depth, but not affected by the presence of the seamounts. We hypothesized that seamounts altered significantly prokaryotes-viruses interactions in surrounding deep-sea sediments. Sediments surrounding seamounts were characterised by prokaryotic abundances significantly higher than those observed in non-seamount sediments. Benthic viral production was about double in sediments close to seamounts than in non-seamount sediments, where virus turnover was up to 3 times lower. Total Bacteria, as assessed by CARD-FISH, dominated prokaryotic community structure, whereas Archaea accounted on average for approximately 10%. The fraction of Crenarchaeota was always higher than Euryarchaeota. Bacterial diversity, estimated using ARISA, was high, with up to 127 different microbial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in a single sample. Archaeal richness (determined using T-RFLP of the 16S rRNA gene) ranged from 12 to 20 OTUs, while Archaeal evenness was comprised between 0.529±0.018 and 0.623±0.08. Results represent a pointer for future investigations dealing with the interactions between viruses and prokaryotes in deep-sea sediments.

  2. 75 FR 7435 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications... Atlantic deep-sea red crab fishery, including a target total allowable catch (TAC) and a fleet-wide days-at-sea (DAS) allocation. The implementing regulations for the Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab...

  3. Deep-sea fish distribution varies between seamounts: results from a seamount complex off New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Tracey, Dianne M; Clark, Malcolm R; Anderson, Owen F; Kim, Susan W

    2012-01-01

    Fish species data from a complex of seamounts off New Zealand termed the "Graveyard Seamount Complex' were analysed to investigate whether fish species composition varied between seamounts. Five seamount features were included in the study, with summit depths ranging from 748-891 m and elevation from 189-352 m. Measures of fish species dominance, rarity, richness, diversity, and similarity were examined. A number of factors were explored to explain variation in species composition, including latitude, water temperature, summit depth, depth at base, elevation, area, slope, and fishing effort. Depth at base and slope relationships were significant with shallow seamounts having high total species richness, and seamounts with a more gradual slope had high mean species richness. Species similarity was modelled and showed that the explanatory variables were driven primarily by summit depth, as well as by the intensity of fishing effort and elevation. The study showed that fish assemblages on seamounts can vary over very small spatial scales, in the order of several km. However, patterns of species similarity and abundance were inconsistent across the seamounts examined, and these results add to a growing literature suggesting that faunal communities on seamounts may be populated from a broad regional species pool, yet show considerable variation on individual seamounts. PMID:22745656

  4. 75 FR 27219 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications...), Commerce. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: NMFS issues final specifications for the 2010 Atlantic deep- sea red... document is also accessible via the Internet at http://www.nefmc.org . NMFS prepared a Final...

  5. 76 FR 36511 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab; Amendment 3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab; Amendment 3 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Fishery Management Council (Council) has submitted Amendment 3 to the Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab...

  6. Meiofauna assemblages of the Condor Seamount (North-East Atlantic Ocean) and adjacent deep-sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeppilli, Daniela; Bongiorni, Lucia; Cattaneo, Antonio; Danovaro, Roberto; Santos, Ricardo Serrão

    2013-12-01

    Seamounts are currently considered hotspots of biodiversity and biomass for macro- and megabenthic taxa, but knowledge of meiofauna is still limited. Studies have revealed the existence of highly diverse meiofauna assemblages; however most data are mainly qualitative or focused only on specific groups, thus preventing comparisons among seamounts and with other deep-sea areas. This study, conducted on Condor Seamount (Azores, North-East Atlantic Ocean), describes variation in abundance, biomass, community structure and biodiversity of benthic meiofauna from five sites located on the Condor Seamount: and one site away from the seamount. While the summit of the seamount hosted the highest alpha biodiversity, the flanks and the bases showed a rich meiofauna assemblage in terms of abundance and biomass. The observed marked differences in grain size composition of sediments reflected the oceanographic conditions impacting different sectors of the Condor seamount, and could play an important role in the spatial distribution of different meiofaunal taxa. Trophic conditions (biochemical composition of organic matter) explained 78% of the variability in the meiofauna biomass pattern while sediment grain influenced the vertical distribution of meiofauna and only partially explained meiofaunal taxa composition. This study provides a further advancement in the knowledge of meiofaunal communities of seamounts. Only a deeper understanding of the whole benthic communities (including meiofauna) will allow to elaborate effective management and conservation tools for seamount ecosystems.

  7. Developing an Algorithm for Finding Deep-Sea Corals on Seamounts Using Bathymetry and Photographic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, D. P.; Adkins, J. F.; Scheirer, D. P.

    2006-12-01

    Over the last three years we have conducted several cruises on seamounts in the North Atlantic to sample and characterize the distribution of deep-sea corals in space and time. Using the deep submergence vehicle Alvin and the ROV Hercules we have spent over 80 hours on the seafloor. With the autonomous vehicle ABE and a towed camera sled, we collected over 10,000 bottom photographs and over 60 hours of micro- bathymetry over 120 km of seafloor. While there are very few living scleractinia (Desmophyllum dianthus, Solenosmilia sp. and, Lophilia sp.), we recovered over 5,000 fossil D. dianthus and over 60 kg of fossil Solenosmilia sp. The large numbers of fossil corals mean that a perceived lack of material does not have to limit the use of this new archive of the deep ocean. However, we need a better strategy for finding and returning samples to the lab. Corals clearly prefer to grow on steep slopes and at the tops of scarps of all scales. They are preferentially found along ridges and on small knolls flanking a larger edifice. There is also a clear preference for D. dianthus to recruit onto carbonate substrate. Overall, our sample collection, bathymetry and bottom photographs allow us to create an algorithm for finding corals based only on knowledge of the seafloor topography. We can test this algorithm against known sampling locations and visual surveys of the seafloor. Similar to the way seismic data are used to locate ideal coring locations, we propose that high-resolution bathymetry can be used to predict the most likely locations for finding fossil deep-sea corals.

  8. 76 FR 39369 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fishery; Amendment 3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ...NMFS proposes regulations to implement Amendment 3 to the Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fishery Management Plan (Red Crab FMP). The New England Fishery Management Council (Council) developed Amendment 3 to bring the Red Crab FMP into compliance with the annual catch limit (ACL) and accountability measure (AM) requirements of the Magnuson- Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act......

  9. Major and minor element geochemistry of deep-sea sediments in the Azores Platform and southern seamount region.

    PubMed

    Palma, Carla; Oliveira, Anabela; Valença, Manuela; Cascalho, João; Pereira, Eduarda; Lillebø, Ana I; Duarte, Armando C; Pinto de Abreu, Manuel

    2013-10-15

    The Azores Platform and the Irving and Great Meteor seamounts south of the archipelago (38°N-29°N) have rarely been studied geochemically, a fact which is surprising given that they represent the south-eastern limit of region V outlined in the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR Convention). The main aim of the present work was therefore to characterise the spatial variability of major and minor elements in deep-sea sediment cores from these two regions. XRD and geochemical analyses revealed that whereas the Azores Platform sediments are composed of a mixture of biogenic and detrital volcanic material, those at the seamounts are characterised by carbonated biogenic remains. The latter sediments were found to contain very low amounts of volcanic or hydrothermal detrital material, being almost entirely comprised of CaCO3 (more than 80%). PMID:23896401

  10. Characteristics of Microbial Communities in Crustal Fluids in a Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Field of the Suiyo Seamount

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Shingo; Nakawake, Michiyuki; Kita, Junko; Yamanaka, Toshiro; Utsumi, Motoo; Okamura, Kei; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Ohkuma, Moriya; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    2013-01-01

    To directly access the sub-seafloor microbial communities, seafloor drilling has been done in a deep-sea hydrothermal field of the Suiyo Seamount, Izu-Bonin Arc, Western Pacific. In the present study, crustal fluids were collected from the boreholes, and the bacterial and archaeal communities in the fluids were investigated by culture-independent molecular analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Bottom seawater, sands, rocks, sulfide mound, and chimneys were also collected around the boreholes and analyzed for comparisons. Comprehensive analysis revealed the characteristics of the microbial community composition in the crustal fluids. Phylotypes closely related to cultured species, e.g., Alteromonas, Halomonas, Marinobacter, were relatively abundant in some crustal fluid samples, whereas the phylotypes related to Pelagibacter and the SUP05-group were relatively abundant in the seawater samples. Phylotypes related to other uncultured environmental clones in Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were relatively abundant in the sand, rock, sulfide mound, and chimney samples. Furthermore, comparative analysis with previous studies of the Suiyo Seamount crustal fluids indicates the change in the microbial community composition for 3 years. Our results provide novel insights into the characteristics of the microbial communities in crustal fluids beneath a deep-sea hydrothermal field. PMID:23626587

  11. Exploring Genomic Diversity Using Metagenomics of Deep-Sea Subsurface Microbes from the Louisville Seamount and the South Pacific Gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tully, B. J.; Sylvan, J. B.; Heidelberg, J. F.; Huber, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    There are many limitations involved with sampling microbial diversity from deep-sea subsurface environments, ranging from physical sample collection, low microbial biomass, culturing at in situ conditions, and inefficient nucleic acid extractions. As such, we are continually modifying our methods to obtain better results and expanding what we know about microbes in these environments. Here we present analysis of metagenomes sequences from samples collected from 120 m within the Louisville Seamount and from the top 5-10cm of the sediment in the center of the south Pacific gyre (SPG). Both systems are low biomass with ~102 and ~104 cells per cm3 for Louisville Seamount samples analyzed and the SPG sediment, respectively. The Louisville Seamount represents the first in situ subseafloor basalt and the SPG sediments represent the first in situ low biomass sediment microbial metagenomes. Both of these environments, subseafloor basalt and sediments underlying oligotrophic ocean gyres, represent large provinces of the seafloor environment that remain understudied. Despite the low biomass and DNA generated from these samples, we have generated 16 near complete genomes (5 from Louisville and 11 from the SPG) from the two metagenomic datasets. These genomes are estimated to be between 51-100% complete and span a range of phylogenetic groups, including the Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, and unclassified bacterial groups. With these genomes, we have assessed potential functional capabilities of these organisms and performed a comparative analysis between the environmental genomes and previously sequenced relatives to determine possible adaptations that may elucidate survival mechanisms for these low energy environments. These methods illustrate a baseline analysis that can be applied to future metagenomic deep-sea subsurface datasets and will help to further our understanding of microbiology within these environments.

  12. 75 FR 17070 - Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Hawaii Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish Fisheries; Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... recommended by the Council, and specified by NMFS, as 254,050 lb (115,235 kg) of Deep 7 bottomfish (74 FR... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 665 RIN 0648-XU60 Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Hawaii Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish Fisheries; Fishery Closure AGENCY: National...

  13. Comparing Molecular Variation to Morphological Species Designations in the Deep-Sea Coral Narella Reveals New Insights into Seamount Coral Ranges

    PubMed Central

    Baco, Amy R.; Cairns, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have countered the paradigm of seamount isolation, confounding conservation efforts at a critical time. Efforts to study deep-sea corals, one of the dominant taxa on seamounts, to understand seamount connectivity, are hampered by a lack of taxonomic keys. A prerequisite for connectivity is species overlap. Attempts to better understand species overlap using DNA barcoding methods suggest coral species are widely distributed on seamounts and nearby features. However, no baseline has been established for variation in these genetic markers relative to morphological species designations for deep-sea octocoral families. Here we assess levels of genetic variation in potential octocoral mitochondrial barcode markers relative to thoroughly examined morphological species in the genus Narella. The combination of six markers used here, approximately 3350 bp of the mitochondrial genome, resolved 83% of the morphological species. Our results show that two of the markers, ND2 and NCR1, are not sufficient to resolve genera within Primnoidae, let alone species. Re-evaluation of previous studies of seamount octocorals based on these results suggest that those studies were looking at distributions at a level higher than species, possibly even genus or subfamily. Results for Narella show that using more markers provides haplotypes with relatively narrow depth ranges on the seamounts studied. Given the lack of 100% resolution of species with such a large portion of the mitochondrial genome, we argue that previous genetic studies have not resolved the degree of species overlap on seamounts and that we may not have the power to even test the hypothesis of seamount isolation using mitochondrial markers, let alone refute it. Thus a precautionary approach is advocated in seamount conservation and management, and the potential for depth structuring should be considered. PMID:23029093

  14. Comparing molecular variation to morphological species designations in the deep-sea coral Narella reveals new insights into seamount coral ranges.

    PubMed

    Baco, Amy R; Cairns, Stephen D

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have countered the paradigm of seamount isolation, confounding conservation efforts at a critical time. Efforts to study deep-sea corals, one of the dominant taxa on seamounts, to understand seamount connectivity, are hampered by a lack of taxonomic keys. A prerequisite for connectivity is species overlap. Attempts to better understand species overlap using DNA barcoding methods suggest coral species are widely distributed on seamounts and nearby features. However, no baseline has been established for variation in these genetic markers relative to morphological species designations for deep-sea octocoral families. Here we assess levels of genetic variation in potential octocoral mitochondrial barcode markers relative to thoroughly examined morphological species in the genus Narella. The combination of six markers used here, approximately 3350 bp of the mitochondrial genome, resolved 83% of the morphological species. Our results show that two of the markers, ND2 and NCR1, are not sufficient to resolve genera within Primnoidae, let alone species. Re-evaluation of previous studies of seamount octocorals based on these results suggest that those studies were looking at distributions at a level higher than species, possibly even genus or subfamily. Results for Narella show that using more markers provides haplotypes with relatively narrow depth ranges on the seamounts studied. Given the lack of 100% resolution of species with such a large portion of the mitochondrial genome, we argue that previous genetic studies have not resolved the degree of species overlap on seamounts and that we may not have the power to even test the hypothesis of seamount isolation using mitochondrial markers, let alone refute it. Thus a precautionary approach is advocated in seamount conservation and management, and the potential for depth structuring should be considered. PMID:23029093

  15. The economic implications of changing regulations for deep sea fishing under the European Common Fisheries Policy: UK case study.

    PubMed

    Mangi, Stephen C; Kenny, Andrew; Readdy, Lisa; Posen, Paulette; Ribeiro-Santos, Ana; Neat, Francis C; Burns, Finlay

    2016-08-15

    Economic impact assessment methodology was applied to UK fisheries data to better understand the implications of European Commission proposal for regulations to fishing for deep-sea stocks in the North-East Atlantic (EC COM 371 Final 2012) under the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP). The aim was to inform the on-going debate to develop the EC proposal, and to assist the UK fishing industry and Government in evaluating the most effective options to manage deep sea fish stocks. Results indicate that enforcing the EC proposal as originally drafted results in a number of implications for the UK fleet. Because of the proposed changes to the list of species defined as being deep sea species, and a new definition of what constitutes a vessel targeting deep sea species, a total of 695 active UK fishing vessels would need a permit to fish for deep sea species. However, due to existing and capped capacity limits many vessels would potentially not be able to obtain such a permit. The economic impact of these changes from the status quo reveals that in the short term, landings would decrease by 6540 tonnes, reducing gross value added by £3.3 million. Alternative options were also assessed that provide mitigation measures to offset the impacts of the proposed regulations whilst at the same time providing more effective protection of deep sea Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VMEs). The options include setting a 400m depth rule that identifies a depth beyond which vessels would potentially be classified as fishing for deep sea species and designating 'core areas' for deep sea fishing at depths>400m to minimise the risk of further impacts of bottom fishing gear on deep sea habitats. Applying a 400m depth limit and 'core fishing' area approach deeper than 400m, the impact of the EC proposal would essentially be reduced to zero, that is, on average no vessels (using the status quo capacity baseline) would be impacted by the proposal. PMID:27100006

  16. 76 FR 10524 - Hawaii Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish Fisheries; Fishery Closure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ...) of Deep 7 bottomfish (75 FR 53606; September 1, 2010). Progress toward the TAC was monitored using... Seamount Groundfish Fisheries; Fishery Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... closing the commercial and non-commercial fisheries in the main Hawaiian Islands ] fishery for...

  17. 50 CFR 665.200 - Hawaii bottomfish and seamount groundfish fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hawaii bottomfish and seamount groundfish fisheries. 665.200 Section 665.200 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.200 Hawaii bottomfish and seamount groundfish fisheries....

  18. 50 CFR 665.200 - Hawaii bottomfish and seamount groundfish fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hawaii bottomfish and seamount groundfish fisheries. 665.200 Section 665.200 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.200 Hawaii bottomfish and seamount groundfish fisheries....

  19. 76 FR 60379 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab; Amendment 3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... measures in Amendment 3 published in the Federal Register on July 6, 2011 (76 FR 39369), with public... Amendment 3 was published in the Federal Register on June 22, 2011 (76 FR 36511), with public comments... United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab; Amendment 3 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  20. 76 FR 15222 - Hawaii Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish Fisheries; Modification of Fishery Closures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... (76 FR 8330). Briefly, reducing the advance notification period for a closure of the Deep 7 bottomfish... Seamount Groundfish Fisheries; Modification of Fishery Closures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... Islands (MHI) Deep-7 bottomfish fishery from 14 to 7 days. The intent of the change is to...

  1. Spatial distribution, diversity and composition of bacterial communities in sub-seafloor fluids at a deep-sea hydrothermal field of the Suiyo Seamount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Shingo; Hara, Kurt; Kasai, Hiroko; Teramura, Takashi; Sunamura, Michinari; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Kakegawa, Takeshi; Yamanaka, Toshiro; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Marumo, Katsumi; Urabe, Tetsuro; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    2009-10-01

    Spatial distribution, diversity, and composition of bacterial communities within the shallow sub-seafloor at the deep-sea hydrothermal field of the Suiyo Seamount, Izu-Bonin Arc, Western Pacific Ocean, were investigated. Fluids were sampled from four boreholes in this area. Each borehole was located near or away from active vents, the distance ranging 2-40 m from active vents. In addition, fluids discharging from a natural vent and ambient seawater were sampled in this area. We extracted DNA from each sample, amplified bacterial 16S rRNA genes by PCR, cloned the PCR products and sequenced. The total number of clones analyzed was 348. Most of the detected phylotypes were affiliated with the phylum Proteobacteria, of which the detection frequency in each clone library ranged from 84.6% to 100%. The bacterial community diversity and composition were different between hydrothermal fluids and seawater, between fluids from the boreholes and the vent, and even among fluids from each borehole. The relative abundances of the phylotypes related to Thiomicrospira, Methylobacterium and Sphingomonas were significantly different among fluids from each borehole. The phylotypes related to Thiomicrospira and Alcanivorax were detected in all of the boreholes and vent samples. Our findings provide insights into bacterial communities in the shallow sub-seafloor environments at active deep-sea hydrothermal vent fields.

  2. 50 CFR 665.200 - Hawaii bottomfish and seamount groundfish fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hawaii bottomfish and seamount groundfish fisheries. 665.200 Section 665.200 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE...

  3. 50 CFR 665.200 - Hawaii bottomfish and seamount groundfish fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hawaii bottomfish and seamount groundfish fisheries. 665.200 Section 665.200 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE...

  4. 50 CFR 665.200 - Hawaii bottomfish and seamount groundfish fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hawaii bottomfish and seamount groundfish fisheries. 665.200 Section 665.200 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE...

  5. 76 FR 8330 - Hawaii Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish Fisheries; Modification to Advance Notification Period...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 665 RIN 0648-BA58 Hawaii Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish Fisheries; Modification to Advance Notification Period for Fishery Closures...

  6. 75 FR 49420 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... establish a target TAC greater than that recommended by the Council, the initial final rule (75 FR 27219... on June 22, 2010 (75 FR 35435), requesting public comment on the revised recommended catch level... (TAC) and corresponding fleet days-at-sea (DAS) allocation for the Atlantic deep- sea red crab...

  7. 75 FR 69015 - Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Hawaii Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish; Measures To Rebuild...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... on August 30, 2010 (75 FR 52921), and is not repeated here. The public comment period for the... Pacific; Hawaii Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish; Measures To Rebuild Overfished Armorhead at Hancock Seamounts AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  8. A deep-sea scoria cone at Lo`ihi Seamount, Hawai`i: the product of "volatile-coupled, water-assisted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schipper, C. I.; White, J. D. L.; Houghton, B. F.; Shimizu, N.; Stewart, R. B.

    2009-04-01

    A wide variety of submarine eruption styles are possible, ranging from lava effusion to explosive caldera-formation. Submarine explosive eruptions have been somewhat inappropriately described according to subaerial classifications originally based on dispersal, but now somewhat modified to reflect ascent and degassing systematics- influential factors determining how a given magma batch will erupt. The common inference is that deep-sea pyroclastic eruptions are "Strombolian," with magmatic volatiles mechanically decoupling from melt as buoyant slugs or collapsing foams to vigorously drive eruptions under high hydrostatic pressure. Fully submarine eruptions have been characterised based on relatively sparse samples- almost exclusively of fine material- that are often of unknown or poorly-constrained origin. Here we present a first-of-its-kind dataset, integrating: quantified vesicle textures in scoriaceous lapilli; volatile (H2O+CO2) contents of matrix glasses and olivine-hosted glass inclusions; and morphological features of fine ash particles, to demonstrate that a small pyroclastic cone at ~1 km depth on Lo`ihi Seamount was formed by an eruption in which exsolved volatiles remained coupled to magma during ascent. Volatile-coupled ascent was accompanied by vesiculation that imparted explosive potential to the magma, but was insufficient to fully fragment the melt. Interaction with seawater provided the extra energy required for wholesale magma fragmentation. This texturally and analytically-defined eruption style, here termed "volatile-coupled, water-assisted" (VOCWA), is specific to deep subaqueous settings. VOCWA eruptions are partially analogous to subaerial "Hawaiian" eruptions, but contrast markedly with the "Strombolian" eruptions widely inferred to be an appropriate analogue for submarine explosive eruptions.

  9. Demography of a deep-sea lantern shark (Etmopterus spinax) caught in trawl fisheries of the northeastern Atlantic: Application of Leslie matrices with incorporated uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, Rui; Alpizar-Jara, Russell; Erzini, Karim

    2015-05-01

    The deep-sea lantern shark Etmopterus spinax occurs in the northeast Atlantic on or near the bottoms of the outer continental shelves and slopes, and is regularly captured as bycatch in deep-water commercial fisheries. Given the lack of knowledge on the impacts of fisheries on this species, a demographic analysis using age-based Leslie matrices was carried out. Given the uncertainties in the mortality estimates and in the available life history parameters, several different scenarios, some incorporating stochasticity in the life history parameters (using Monte Carlo simulation), were analyzed. If only natural mortality were considered, even after introducing uncertainties in all parameters, the estimated population growth rate (λ) suggested an increasing population. However, if fishing mortality from trawl fisheries is considered, the estimates of λ either indicated increasing or declining populations. In these latter cases, the uncertainties in the species reproductive cycle seemed to be particularly relevant, as a 2-year reproductive cycle indicated a stable population, while a longer (3-year cycle) indicated a declining population. The estimated matrix elasticities were in general higher for the survivorship parameters of the younger age classes and tended to decrease for the older ages. This highlights the susceptibility of this deep-sea squaloid to increasing fishing mortality, emphasizing that even though this is a small-sized species, it shows population dynamics patterns more typical of the larger-sized and in general more vulnerable species.

  10. Benthic Assemblages of the Anton Dohrn Seamount (NE Atlantic): Defining Deep-Sea Biotopes to Support Habitat Mapping and Management Efforts with a Focus on Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Davies, Jaime S; Stewart, Heather A; Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E; Jacobs, Colin; Spicer, John; Golding, Neil; Howell, Kerry L

    2015-01-01

    In 2009 the NW and SE flanks of Anton Dohrn Seamount were surveyed using multibeam echosounder and video ground-truthing to characterise megabenthic biological assemblages (biotopes) and assess those which clearly adhere to the definition of Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems, for use in habitat mapping. A combination of multivariate analysis of still imagery and video ground-truthing defined 13 comprehensive descriptions of biotopes that function as mapping units in an applied context. The data reveals that the NW and SE sides of Anton Dohrn Seamount (ADS) are topographically complex and harbour diverse biological assemblages, some of which agree with current definitions of 'listed' habitats of conservation concern. Ten of these biotopes could easily be considered Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems; three coral gardens, four cold-water coral reefs, two xenophyophore communities and one sponge dominated community, with remaining biotopes requiring more detailed assessment. Coral gardens were only found on positive geomorphic features, namely parasitic cones and radial ridges, found both sides of the seamount over a depth of 1311-1740 m. Two cold-water coral reefs (equivalent to summit reef) were mapped on the NW side of the seamount; Lophelia pertusa reef associated with the cliff top mounds at a depth of 747-791 m and Solenosmilia variabilis reef on a radial ridge at a depth of 1318-1351 m. Xenophyophore communities were mapped from both sides of the seamount at a depth of 1099-1770 m and were either associated with geomorphic features or were in close proximity (< 100 m) to them. The sponge dominated community was found on the steep escarpment either side of the seamount over at a depth of 854-1345 m. Multivariate diversity revealed the xenophyophore biotopes to be the least diverse, and a hard substratum biotope characterised by serpulids and the sessile holothurian, Psolus squamatus, as the most diverse. PMID:25992572

  11. Benthic Assemblages of the Anton Dohrn Seamount (NE Atlantic): Defining Deep-Sea Biotopes to Support Habitat Mapping and Management Efforts with a Focus on Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Jaime S.; Stewart, Heather A.; Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E.; Jacobs, Colin; Spicer, John; Golding, Neil; Howell, Kerry L.

    2015-01-01

    In 2009 the NW and SE flanks of Anton Dohrn Seamount were surveyed using multibeam echosounder and video ground-truthing to characterise megabenthic biological assemblages (biotopes) and assess those which clearly adhere to the definition of Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems, for use in habitat mapping. A combination of multivariate analysis of still imagery and video ground-truthing defined 13 comprehensive descriptions of biotopes that function as mapping units in an applied context. The data reveals that the NW and SE sides of Anton Dohrn Seamount (ADS) are topographically complex and harbour diverse biological assemblages, some of which agree with current definitions of ‘listed’ habitats of conservation concern. Ten of these biotopes could easily be considered Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems; three coral gardens, four cold-water coral reefs, two xenophyophore communities and one sponge dominated community, with remaining biotopes requiring more detailed assessment. Coral gardens were only found on positive geomorphic features, namely parasitic cones and radial ridges, found both sides of the seamount over a depth of 1311–1740 m. Two cold-water coral reefs (equivalent to summit reef) were mapped on the NW side of the seamount; Lophelia pertusa reef associated with the cliff top mounds at a depth of 747–791 m and Solenosmilia variabilis reef on a radial ridge at a depth of 1318-1351 m. Xenophyophore communities were mapped from both sides of the seamount at a depth of 1099–1770 m and were either associated with geomorphic features or were in close proximity (< 100 m) to them. The sponge dominated community was found on the steep escarpment either side of the seamount over at a depth of 854-1345 m. Multivariate diversity revealed the xenophyophore biotopes to be the least diverse, and a hard substratum biotope characterised by serpulids and the sessile holothurian, Psolus squamatus, as the most diverse. PMID:25992572

  12. The Census of Marine Life on Seamounts: results from a global science program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocks, K.; Clark, M.; Rowden, A.; Consalvey, M.

    2010-12-01

    , Convention on Biological Diversity, and Regional Fisheries Management Organizations; 5) protocols manuals and guides to facilitate standardization of methodology, including a Wiley Blackwell book, Biological Sampling in the Deep-Sea, due to be published 2011; and 6) SeamountsOnline, a central database of global seamount data (5500 taxa from 258 seamounts) to support research and management (seamounts.sdsc.edu). CenSeam has also had Societal impacts. It has fostered collaborative research to expand global seamount sampling to previously understudied regions. It has increased public awareness of seamounts and the wider deep-sea, for example through expedition web logs to share the experiences of researchers at sea. And CenSeam has provided quality science to inform the management of commercial fisheries and mining, such as a practical seamount classification scheme for protected area planning, and maps of predicted coral habitat suitability.

  13. Man and the Last Great Wilderness: Human Impact on the Deep Sea

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Tyler, Paul A.; Baker, Maria C.; Bergstad, Odd Aksel; Clark, Malcolm R.; Escobar, Elva; Levin, Lisa A.; Menot, Lenaick; Rowden, Ashley A.; Smith, Craig R.; Van Dover, Cindy L.

    2011-01-01

    The deep sea, the largest ecosystem on Earth and one of the least studied, harbours high biodiversity and provides a wealth of resources. Although humans have used the oceans for millennia, technological developments now allow exploitation of fisheries resources, hydrocarbons and minerals below 2000 m depth. The remoteness of the deep seafloor has promoted the disposal of residues and litter. Ocean acidification and climate change now bring a new dimension of global effects. Thus the challenges facing the deep sea are large and accelerating, providing a new imperative for the science community, industry and national and international organizations to work together to develop successful exploitation management and conservation of the deep-sea ecosystem. This paper provides scientific expert judgement and a semi-quantitative analysis of past, present and future impacts of human-related activities on global deep-sea habitats within three categories: disposal, exploitation and climate change. The analysis is the result of a Census of Marine Life – SYNDEEP workshop (September 2008). A detailed review of known impacts and their effects is provided. The analysis shows how, in recent decades, the most significant anthropogenic activities that affect the deep sea have evolved from mainly disposal (past) to exploitation (present). We predict that from now and into the future, increases in atmospheric CO2 and facets and consequences of climate change will have the most impact on deep-sea habitats and their fauna. Synergies between different anthropogenic pressures and associated effects are discussed, indicating that most synergies are related to increased atmospheric CO2 and climate change effects. We identify deep-sea ecosystems we believe are at higher risk from human impacts in the near future: benthic communities on sedimentary upper slopes, cold-water corals, canyon benthic communities and seamount pelagic and benthic communities. We finalise this review with a short

  14. Man and the last great wilderness: human impact on the deep sea.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Tyler, Paul A; Baker, Maria C; Bergstad, Odd Aksel; Clark, Malcolm R; Escobar, Elva; Levin, Lisa A; Menot, Lenaick; Rowden, Ashley A; Smith, Craig R; Van Dover, Cindy L

    2011-01-01

    The deep sea, the largest ecosystem on Earth and one of the least studied, harbours high biodiversity and provides a wealth of resources. Although humans have used the oceans for millennia, technological developments now allow exploitation of fisheries resources, hydrocarbons and minerals below 2000 m depth. The remoteness of the deep seafloor has promoted the disposal of residues and litter. Ocean acidification and climate change now bring a new dimension of global effects. Thus the challenges facing the deep sea are large and accelerating, providing a new imperative for the science community, industry and national and international organizations to work together to develop successful exploitation management and conservation of the deep-sea ecosystem. This paper provides scientific expert judgement and a semi-quantitative analysis of past, present and future impacts of human-related activities on global deep-sea habitats within three categories: disposal, exploitation and climate change. The analysis is the result of a Census of Marine Life--SYNDEEP workshop (September 2008). A detailed review of known impacts and their effects is provided. The analysis shows how, in recent decades, the most significant anthropogenic activities that affect the deep sea have evolved from mainly disposal (past) to exploitation (present). We predict that from now and into the future, increases in atmospheric CO(2) and facets and consequences of climate change will have the most impact on deep-sea habitats and their fauna. Synergies between different anthropogenic pressures and associated effects are discussed, indicating that most synergies are related to increased atmospheric CO(2) and climate change effects. We identify deep-sea ecosystems we believe are at higher risk from human impacts in the near future: benthic communities on sedimentary upper slopes, cold-water corals, canyon benthic communities and seamount pelagic and benthic communities. We finalise this review with a short

  15. Putative fishery-induced changes in biomass and population size structures of demersal deep-sea fishes in ICES Sub-area VII, North East Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godbold, J. A.; Bailey, D. M.; Collins, M. A.; Gordon, J. D. M.; Spallek, W. A.; Priede, I. G.

    2012-08-01

    A time series from 1977-1989 and 2000-2002 of scientific trawl surveys in the Porcupine Seabight and adjacent Abyssal Plain of the NE Atlantic was analysed to assess changes in demersal fish biomass and length frequency. These two periods coincide with the on-set of the commercial deep-water fishery in the late 1970s and the on-set of the regulation of the fishery in the early 2000's and allowed us to investigate changes in the relationship between total demersal fish biomass and depth between the pre- and post commercial fishing periods, changes in the biomass (kg km2) depth distribution and length frequency distribution of the most dominant fish species. Our results show a decline in total demersal fish biomass of 36% within the depth range of the commercial fishery (< 1500 m). Whilst there were significant declines in target (e.g. Coryphaenoides rupestris decreased by 57%) and non-target (e.g. Coryphaenoides guentheri and Antimora rostrata) species, not all species declined significantly. Changes in the overall length-frequency distribution were detected for 2 species (Coryphaenoides armatus, Synaphobranchus kaupii), but only at depths greater than 1800 m (outside the maximum depth for commercial trawling). This suggests that whilst there is evidence for likely fisheries impacts on the biomass distribution of the demersal fish population as a whole, species-specific impacts are highly variable. It is clear that changes in population structure can extend beyond the depth at which fishing takes place, highlighting the importance for also considering the indirect effects on deep-sea fish populations.

  16. Putative fishery-induced changes in biomass and population size structures of demersal deep-sea fishes in ICES Sub-area VII, Northeast Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godbold, J. A.; Bailey, D. M.; Collins, M. A.; Gordon, J. D. M.; Spallek, W. A.; Priede, I. G.

    2013-01-01

    A time series from 1977-1989 and 2000-2002 of scientific trawl surveys in the Porcupine Seabight and adjacent abyssal plain of the NE Atlantic was analysed to assess changes in demersal fish biomass and length frequency. These two periods coincide with the onset of the commercial deep-water fishery in the late 1970s and the onset of the regulation of the fishery in the early 2000's, which allowed us to investigate changes in the relationship between total demersal fish biomass and depth between the pre- and post commercial fishing periods, as well as changes in the biomass (kg km-2) depth distribution and length frequency distribution of the most dominant fish species. Our results show a decline in total demersal fish biomass of 36% within the depth range of the commercial fishery (< 1500 m). Whilst there were significant declines in target (e.g. Coryphaenoides rupestris decreased by 57%) and non-target (e.g. C. guentheri and Antimora rostrata) species, not all species declined significantly. Changes in the overall length-frequency distribution were detected for 5 out of the 8 dominant species occupying depth ranges both within and outside the maximum depth for commercial trawling. This suggests that whilst there is evidence for likely fishery impacts on the biomass distribution of the demersal fish population as a whole, species-specific impacts are highly variable. It is clear that changes in population structure can extend beyond the depth at which fishing takes place, highlighting the importance for also considering the indirect effects on deep-sea fish populations.

  17. Deep-Sea decapod crustaceans (Caridea, Polychelida, Anomura and Brachyura) collected from the Nikko Seamounts, Mariana Arc, using a remotely operated vehicle "Hyper-Dolphin".

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Tsuchida, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Samples and images of deep-water benthic decapod crustaceans were collected from the Nikko Seamounts, Mariana Arc, at depths of 520-680 m, by using the remotely operate vehicle "Hyper-Dolphin", equipped with a high definition camera, digital camera, manipulators and slurp gun (suction sampler). The following seven species were collected, of which three are new to science: Plesionika unicolor n. sp. (Caridea: Pandalidae), Homeryon armarium Galil, 2000 (Polychelida: Polychelidae), Eumunida nikko n. sp. (Anomura: Eumunididae), Michelopagurus limatulus (Henderson, 1888) (Anomura: Paguridae), Galilia petricola n. sp. (Brachyura: Leucosiidae), Cyrtomaia micronesica Richer de Forges & Ng, 2007 (Brachyura: Inachidae), and Progeryon mus Ng & Guinot, 1999 (Brachyura: Progeryonidae). Affinities of these three new species are discussed. All but H. armarium are recorded from the Japanese Exclusive Economic Zone for the first time. Brief notes on ecology and/or behavior are given for each species. PMID:24870636

  18. A new deep-sea species of the genus Urocaridella (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonidea) from Yap Seamount in the Western Pacific.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Rong; Chan, Tin-Yam; Sha, Zhong-Li

    2015-01-01

    A new species of palaemonid shrimp, Urocaridella liui sp. nov., is discovered from deep waters on the Yap Seamount in the Western Pacific. The new species is unique in the genus by having a pronounced triangular protrusion on the third posterior part of the third pleonal tergite and the almost colorless body, as well as for its occurrence in waters deeper than 250 meters. Other distinct characteristics of this species are the arrangement of dorsal rostral teeth; shorter fingers of the first and second pereiopods and shorter dactyli of the posterior pereiopods; the ratio of the carpus/palm length of the first and second pereiopods; the slender, but not filiform third to fifth pereiopods; and rounded postero-ventrally margin of the fifth abdominal somite. A key to the species of Urocaridella is provided. PMID:26623853

  19. Science Priorities for Seamounts: Research Links to Conservation and Management

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Malcolm R.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Rowden, Ashley A.; Stocks, Karen I.; Consalvey, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    Seamounts shape the topography of all ocean basins and can be hotspots of biological activity in the deep sea. The Census of Marine Life on Seamounts (CenSeam) was a field program that examined seamounts as part of the global Census of Marine Life (CoML) initiative from 2005 to 2010. CenSeam progressed seamount science by collating historical data, collecting new data, undertaking regional and global analyses of seamount biodiversity, mapping species and habitat distributions, challenging established paradigms of seamount ecology, developing new hypotheses, and documenting the impacts of human activities on seamounts. However, because of the large number of seamounts globally, much about the structure, function and connectivity of seamount ecosystems remains unexplored and unknown. Continual, and potentially increasing, threats to seamount resources from fishing and seabed mining are creating a pressing demand for research to inform conservation and management strategies. To meet this need, intensive science effort in the following areas will be needed: 1) Improved physical and biological data; of particular importance is information on seamount location, physical characteristics (e.g. habitat heterogeneity and complexity), more complete and intensive biodiversity inventories, and increased understanding of seamount connectivity and faunal dispersal; 2) New human impact data; these shall encompass better studies on the effects of human activities on seamount ecosystems, as well as monitoring long-term changes in seamount assemblages following impacts (e.g. recovery); 3) Global data repositories; there is a pressing need for more comprehensive fisheries catch and effort data, especially on the high seas, and compilation or maintenance of geological and biodiversity databases that underpin regional and global analyses; 4) Application of support tools in a data-poor environment; conservation and management will have to increasingly rely on predictive modelling

  20. Science priorities for seamounts: research links to conservation and management.

    PubMed

    Clark, Malcolm R; Schlacher, Thomas A; Rowden, Ashley A; Stocks, Karen I; Consalvey, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    Seamounts shape the topography of all ocean basins and can be hotspots of biological activity in the deep sea. The Census of Marine Life on Seamounts (CenSeam) was a field program that examined seamounts as part of the global Census of Marine Life (CoML) initiative from 2005 to 2010. CenSeam progressed seamount science by collating historical data, collecting new data, undertaking regional and global analyses of seamount biodiversity, mapping species and habitat distributions, challenging established paradigms of seamount ecology, developing new hypotheses, and documenting the impacts of human activities on seamounts. However, because of the large number of seamounts globally, much about the structure, function and connectivity of seamount ecosystems remains unexplored and unknown. Continual, and potentially increasing, threats to seamount resources from fishing and seabed mining are creating a pressing demand for research to inform conservation and management strategies. To meet this need, intensive science effort in the following areas will be needed: 1) Improved physical and biological data; of particular importance is information on seamount location, physical characteristics (e.g. habitat heterogeneity and complexity), more complete and intensive biodiversity inventories, and increased understanding of seamount connectivity and faunal dispersal; 2) New human impact data; these shall encompass better studies on the effects of human activities on seamount ecosystems, as well as monitoring long-term changes in seamount assemblages following impacts (e.g. recovery); 3) Global data repositories; there is a pressing need for more comprehensive fisheries catch and effort data, especially on the high seas, and compilation or maintenance of geological and biodiversity databases that underpin regional and global analyses; 4) Application of support tools in a data-poor environment; conservation and management will have to increasingly rely on predictive modelling

  1. Paraphelliactis tangi n. sp. and Phelliactis yapensis n. sp., two new deep-sea species of Hormathiidae (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria) from a seamount in the tropical Western Pacific.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Xu, Kuidong

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of hormathiid actiniarians, Paraphelliactis tangi n. sp. and Phelliactis yapensis n. sp., are described from a seamount near the Yap Trench in the tropical Western Pacific. Paraphelliactis tangi n. sp. has a thick cuticle, a tuberculated column divisible into scapus and scapulus, a complete fifth cycle of mesenteries, an equal number of mesenteries at the margin and at the limbus, and up to 192 tentacles without aboral mesogloeal thickenings that are hexamerously arranged in six cycles. This species differs distinctly from the three known species of Paraphelliactis by the above mentioned features (vs. an incomplete fifth cycle of mesenteries, usually more mesenteries at the margin than at the limbus, and the tentacles with aboral mesogloeal thickenings). So far, it is the only member of the genus Paraphelliactis found in the Western Pacific. Phelliactis yapensis n. sp. has an asymmetric bilobed oral disc and column, tuberculated scapus and scapulus, an incomplete fifth cycle of mesenteries, and up to 162 tentacles with aboral mesogloeal thickenings that are alternately arranged in two cycles. In comparison with other Phelliactis species, the basitrichs of mesenterial filaments of Ph. yapensis are distinctly larger. Phelliactis yapensis n. sp. is the fourth species of Phelliactis found in the Western Pacific. PMID:27395930

  2. Analysis of Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductase and 16S rRNA Gene Fragments from Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Sites of the Suiyo Seamount, Izu-Bonin Arc, Western Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Tatsunori; Ishibashi, Jun-Ichiro; Maruyama, Akihiko; Yamanaka, Toshiro; Morimoto, Yusuke; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Urabe, Tetsuro; Fukui, Manabu

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the occurrence of unique dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) genes at a depth of 1,380 m from the deep-sea hydrothermal vent field at the Suiyo Seamount, Izu-Bonin Arc, Western Pacific, Japan. The DSR genes were obtained from microbes that grew in a catheter-type in situ growth chamber deployed for 3 days on a vent and from the effluent water of drilled holes at 5°C and natural vent fluids at 7°C. DSR clones SUIYOdsr-A and SUIYOdsr-B were not closely related to cultivated species or environmental clones. Moreover, samples of microbial communities were examined by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. The sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments obtained from the vent catheter after a 3-day incubation revealed the occurrence of bacterial DGGE bands affiliated with the Aquificae and γ- and ɛ-Proteobacteria as well as the occurrence of archaeal phylotypes affiliated with the Thermococcales and of a unique archaeon sequence that clustered with “Nanoarchaeota.” The DGGE bands obtained from drilled holes and natural vent fluids from 7 to 300°C were affiliated with the δ-Proteobacteria, genus Thiomicrospira, and Pelodictyon. The dominant DGGE bands retrieved from the effluent water of casing pipes at 3 and 4°C were closely related to phylotypes obtained from the Arctic Ocean. Our results suggest the presence of microorganisms corresponding to a unique DSR lineage not detected previously from other geothermal environments. PMID:14711668

  3. Molecular ecological analysis of the distribution and diversity of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes and microbes in deep-sea hydrothermal sites of the Suiyo Seamount, Izu-Bonin Arc, and the Mariana Arc-Backarc, Western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, A.; Nakagawa, T.; Hase, Y.; Ishibashi, J.; Yamanaka, T.; Morimoto, Y.; Kimura, H.; Urabe, T.; Fukui, M.

    2004-12-01

    The present study describes the distribution and diversity of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes from the deep-sea hydrothermal vent field at the Suiyo Seamount, Izu-Bonin Arc, and the Mariana Arc-Backarc Western Pacific. We used a PCR-based metabolic molecular ecology approach that targets a conserved region of subunit A and B of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) gene and subunit A of the adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (APS) reductase gene. The DSR genes were obtained from microbes that grew in catheter-type in situ growth chamber deployed for three days on a vent, and from the effluent water of drilled holes at 5 degree C and natural vent fluids at 7 degree C in the Suiyo. The DSR clones were not closely related to cultivated species or environmental clones. Similarly, novel APS clones were obtained from the mat developed at hydrothermal sites in the Mariana. Moreover, samples of microbial communities from the Suiyo were examined using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene. The sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments obtained from the vent-catheter after a three-day incubation revealed the occurrence of bacterial DGGE bands affiliated with the Aquificae, gamma-, and epsilon-Proteobacteria as well as the occurrence of archaeal phylotypes affiliated with the Thermococcales and of a unique Archaeon sequence clustered with Nanoarchaeota. The DGGE bands obtained from drilled holes and natural vent fluids from 7 to 300 degree C were affiliated with the delta-Proteobacteria, genus Thiomicrospira and Pelodictyon. The dominant DGGE bands retrieved from the effluent water of casing pipes at 3 and 4 degree C were closely related to phylotypes obtained from the Arctic Ocean. Our results suggest the presence of microorganisms corresponding to a unique DSR and APS lineage not detected previously from other geothermal environments.

  4. Ploughing the deep sea floor.

    PubMed

    Puig, Pere; Canals, Miquel; Company, Joan B; Martín, Jacobo; Amblas, David; Lastras, Galderic; Palanques, Albert

    2012-09-13

    Bottom trawling is a non-selective commercial fishing technique whereby heavy nets and gear are pulled along the sea floor. The direct impact of this technique on fish populations and benthic communities has received much attention, but trawling can also modify the physical properties of seafloor sediments, water–sediment chemical exchanges and sediment fluxes. Most of the studies addressing the physical disturbances of trawl gear on the seabed have been undertaken in coastal and shelf environments, however, where the capacity of trawling to modify the seafloor morphology coexists with high-energy natural processes driving sediment erosion, transport and deposition. Here we show that on upper continental slopes, the reworking of the deep sea floor by trawling gradually modifies the shape of the submarine landscape over large spatial scales. We found that trawling-induced sediment displacement and removal from fishing grounds causes the morphology of the deep sea floor to become smoother over time, reducing its original complexity as shown by high-resolution seafloor relief maps. Our results suggest that in recent decades, following the industrialization of fishing fleets, bottom trawling has become an important driver of deep seascape evolution. Given the global dimension of this type of fishery, we anticipate that the morphology of the upper continental slope in many parts of the world’s oceans could be altered by intensive bottom trawling, producing comparable effects on the deep sea floor to those generated by agricultural ploughing on land. PMID:22951970

  5. Extreme Longevity in Proteinaceous Deep-Sea Corals

    SciTech Connect

    Roark, E B; Guilderson, T P; Dunbar, R B; Fallon, S J; Mucciarone, D A

    2009-02-09

    Deep-sea corals are found on hard substrates on seamounts and continental margins world-wide at depths of 300 to {approx}3000 meters. Deep-sea coral communities are hotspots of deep ocean biomass and biodiversity, providing critical habitat for fish and invertebrates. Newly applied radiocarbon age date from the deep water proteinaceous corals Gerardia sp. and Leiopathes glaberrima show that radial growth rates are as low as 4 to 35 {micro}m yr{sup -1} and that individual colony longevities are on the order of thousands of years. The management and conservation of deep sea coral communities is challenged by their commercial harvest for the jewelry trade and damage caused by deep water fishing practices. In light of their unusual longevity, a better understanding of deep sea coral ecology and their interrelationships with associated benthic communities is needed to inform coherent international conservation strategies for these important deep-sea ecosystems.

  6. INDEX SATAL Expedition 2010, a discovery of deep sea potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirasantosa, S.; Hammond, S. R.; Pandoe, W.; Holden, J. F.; Djamaluddin, R.; Permana, H.; Nganro, N.; Abidin, H.; Shank, T. M.; Priadi, B.; Fryer, P.; Makarim, S.; Sulistiyo, B.; Triarso, E.; Troa, R.; Iswinardi, I.; Potter, J.; Anantasena, Y.; Triyono, T.; Surachman, Y.

    2010-12-01

    A joint Indonesia - U.S. Expedition to Sangihe Talaud waters (INDEX SATAL) in the north area of the North Sulawesi Province has been conducted by the Okeanos Explorer of NOAA and the Baruna Jaya IV of Indonesia during July - August, 2010. The joint expedition was the first of its kind that covered multi aspects of science which aimed at discoveries of deep sea potential resources and processes in the sea of Sangihe Talaud. Considering the advantage of both ship capabilities, the Okeanos Explorer covered the area of larger depths of 2000 metres to 6000 metres, while the Baruna Jaya IV worked the area of less than 2000 metres. Using multibeam equipment, the Okeanos Explorer discovered deep sea features of seamounts and bathymetric pattern of the western Sangihe ridge, Talaud ridge and the northeastern part of the exploration area. Deep sea morphology and bathymetric features of the area show newly discovery of seamounts and other deep sea features. The largest seamount in the explored area, the Kawio Barat seamount, has been discovered as an active submarine volcano showing hydrothermal activities. CTD casts in selected locations indicated the occurence of hydrothermal activities, which were later confirmed by ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicles) equipped with high definition cameras. Chimneys and smokers in the Kawio Barat and their associated deep sea biotas were recorded. Variety of seabed rocks in the dive areas were also recorded. Baruna Jaya IV explored the Sangihe ridge with multibeam and supported by CTD casts and sampling devices. Bathymetric features of less than 2000 metres were recorded and various deep sea biotas were discovered and sampled. Discoveries by INDEX SATAL 2010 has provided an insight into deep sea resources, specific features, volcanic and hydrothermal processes and potentials for further identifications.

  7. Climate Influence on Deep Sea Populations

    PubMed Central

    Company, Joan B.; Puig, Pere; Sardà, Francesc; Palanques, Albert; Latasa, Mikel; Scharek, Renate

    2008-01-01

    Dynamics of biological processes on the deep-sea floor are traditionally thought to be controlled by vertical sinking of particles from the euphotic zone at a seasonal scale. However, little is known about the influence of lateral particle transport from continental margins to deep-sea ecosystems. To address this question, we report here how the formation of dense shelf waters and their subsequent downslope cascade, a climate induced phenomenon, affects the population of the deep-sea shrimp Aristeus antennatus. We found evidence that strong currents associated with intense cascading events correlates with the disappearance of this species from its fishing grounds, producing a temporary fishery collapse. Despite this initial negative effect, landings increase between 3 and 5 years after these major events, preceded by an increase of juveniles. The transport of particulate organic matter associated with cascading appears to enhance the recruitment of this deep-sea living resource, apparently mitigating the general trend of overexploitation. Because cascade of dense water from continental shelves is a global phenomenon, we anticipate that its influence on deep-sea ecosystems and fisheries worldwide should be larger than previously thought. PMID:18197243

  8. The dynamics of biogeographic ranges in the deep sea.

    PubMed

    McClain, Craig R; Hardy, Sarah Mincks

    2010-12-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances such as fishing, mining, oil drilling, bioprospecting, warming, and acidification in the deep sea are increasing, yet generalities about deep-sea biogeography remain elusive. Owing to the lack of perceived environmental variability and geographical barriers, ranges of deep-sea species were traditionally assumed to be exceedingly large. In contrast, seamount and chemosynthetic habitats with reported high endemicity challenge the broad applicability of a single biogeographic paradigm for the deep sea. New research benefiting from higher resolution sampling, molecular methods and public databases can now more rigorously examine dispersal distances and species ranges on the vast ocean floor. Here, we explore the major outstanding questions in deep-sea biogeography. Based on current evidence, many taxa appear broadly distributed across the deep sea, a pattern replicated in both the abyssal plains and specialized environments such as hydrothermal vents. Cold waters may slow larval metabolism and development augmenting the great intrinsic ability for dispersal among many deep-sea species. Currents, environmental shifts, and topography can prove to be dispersal barriers but are often semipermeable. Evidence of historical events such as points of faunal origin and climatic fluctuations are also evident in contemporary biogeographic ranges. Continued synthetic analysis, database construction, theoretical advancement and field sampling will be required to further refine hypotheses regarding deep-sea biogeography. PMID:20667884

  9. The dynamics of biogeographic ranges in the deep sea

    PubMed Central

    McClain, Craig R.; Hardy, Sarah Mincks

    2010-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances such as fishing, mining, oil drilling, bioprospecting, warming, and acidification in the deep sea are increasing, yet generalities about deep-sea biogeography remain elusive. Owing to the lack of perceived environmental variability and geographical barriers, ranges of deep-sea species were traditionally assumed to be exceedingly large. In contrast, seamount and chemosynthetic habitats with reported high endemicity challenge the broad applicability of a single biogeographic paradigm for the deep sea. New research benefiting from higher resolution sampling, molecular methods and public databases can now more rigorously examine dispersal distances and species ranges on the vast ocean floor. Here, we explore the major outstanding questions in deep-sea biogeography. Based on current evidence, many taxa appear broadly distributed across the deep sea, a pattern replicated in both the abyssal plains and specialized environments such as hydrothermal vents. Cold waters may slow larval metabolism and development augmenting the great intrinsic ability for dispersal among many deep-sea species. Currents, environmental shifts, and topography can prove to be dispersal barriers but are often semipermeable. Evidence of historical events such as points of faunal origin and climatic fluctuations are also evident in contemporary biogeographic ranges. Continued synthetic analysis, database construction, theoretical advancement and field sampling will be required to further refine hypotheses regarding deep-sea biogeography. PMID:20667884

  10. 75 FR 51237 - Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Hawaii Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish; Management Measures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This document is also available at www.gpoaccess.gov/fr . Fishing for pelagic... seamounts lie west of 180 W. and north of 28 N., to the northwest of Kure Atoll in the Northwestern...

  11. Extreme longevity in proteinaceous deep-sea corals.

    PubMed

    Roark, E Brendan; Guilderson, Thomas P; Dunbar, Robert B; Fallon, Stewart J; Mucciarone, David A

    2009-03-31

    Deep-sea corals are found on hard substrates on seamounts and continental margins worldwide at depths of 300 to approximately 3,000 m. Deep-sea coral communities are hotspots of deep ocean biomass and biodiversity, providing critical habitat for fish and invertebrates. Newly applied radiocarbon age dates from the deep water proteinaceous corals Gerardia sp. and Leiopathes sp. show that radial growth rates are as low as 4 to 35 mum year(-1) and that individual colony longevities are on the order of thousands of years. The longest-lived Gerardia sp. and Leiopathes sp. specimens were 2,742 years and 4,265 years, respectively. The management and conservation of deep-sea coral communities is challenged by their commercial harvest for the jewelry trade and damage caused by deep-water fishing practices. In light of their unusual longevity, a better understanding of deep-sea coral ecology and their interrelationships with associated benthic communities is needed to inform coherent international conservation strategies for these important deep-sea habitat-forming species. PMID:19307564

  12. 75 FR 45085 - Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish Fisheries; 2010-11 Main...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Federal Register document is available at www.gpoaccess.gov/fr . The bottomfish fishery in Federal waters... the year. For the 2009-10 fishing year, the TAC was 254,050 lb (115,235 kg) (74 FR 48422; September 23..., 2010 (75 FR 17070; April 5, 2010). Subsequent analyses indicated that the 2009-10 bottomfish...

  13. 50 CFR 665.209 - Fishing moratorium at Hancock Seamounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fishing moratorium at Hancock Seamounts... Hawaii Fisheries § 665.209 Fishing moratorium at Hancock Seamounts. Fishing for, and possession of, Hawaii bottomfish and seamount groundfish MUS in the Hancock Seamounts Ecosystem Management Area...

  14. 50 CFR 665.209 - Fishing moratorium at Hancock Seamounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fishing moratorium at Hancock Seamounts... Hawaii Fisheries § 665.209 Fishing moratorium at Hancock Seamounts. Fishing for, and possession of, Hawaii bottomfish and seamount groundfish MUS in the Hancock Seamounts Ecosystem Management Area...

  15. 50 CFR 665.209 - Fishing moratorium on Hancock Seamount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fishing moratorium on Hancock Seamount... Hawaii Fisheries § 665.209 Fishing moratorium on Hancock Seamount. Fishing for Hawaii bottomfish and seamount groundfish MUS on the Hancock Seamount is prohibited through August 31, 2010....

  16. 50 CFR 665.209 - Fishing moratorium at Hancock Seamounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fishing moratorium at Hancock Seamounts... Hawaii Fisheries § 665.209 Fishing moratorium at Hancock Seamounts. Fishing for, and possession of, Hawaii bottomfish and seamount groundfish MUS in the Hancock Seamounts Ecosystem Management Area...

  17. 50 CFR 665.209 - Fishing moratorium at Hancock Seamounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fishing moratorium at Hancock Seamounts... Hawaii Fisheries § 665.209 Fishing moratorium at Hancock Seamounts. Fishing for, and possession of, Hawaii bottomfish and seamount groundfish MUS in the Hancock Seamounts Ecosystem Management Area...

  18. A Deep-Sea Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montes, Georgia E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity that simulates exploration techniques used in deep-sea explorations and teaches students how this technology can be used to take a closer look inside volcanoes, inspect hazardous waste sites such as nuclear reactors, and explore other environments dangerous to humans. (DDR)

  19. Species distribution models of tropical deep-sea snappers.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Céline; Williams, Ashley J; Nicol, Simon J; Mellin, Camille; Loeun, Kim L; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2015-01-01

    Deep-sea fisheries provide an important source of protein to Pacific Island countries and territories that are highly dependent on fish for food security. However, spatial management of these deep-sea habitats is hindered by insufficient data. We developed species distribution models using spatially limited presence data for the main harvested species in the Western Central Pacific Ocean. We used bathymetric and water temperature data to develop presence-only species distribution models for the commercially exploited deep-sea snappers Etelis Cuvier 1828, Pristipomoides Valenciennes 1830, and Aphareus Cuvier 1830. We evaluated the performance of four different algorithms (CTA, GLM, MARS, and MAXENT) within the BIOMOD framework to obtain an ensemble of predicted distributions. We projected these predictions across the Western Central Pacific Ocean to produce maps of potential deep-sea snapper distributions in 32 countries and territories. Depth was consistently the best predictor of presence for all species groups across all models. Bathymetric slope was consistently the poorest predictor. Temperature at depth was a good predictor of presence for GLM only. Model precision was highest for MAXENT and CTA. There were strong regional patterns in predicted distribution of suitable habitat, with the largest areas of suitable habitat (> 35% of the Exclusive Economic Zone) predicted in seven South Pacific countries and territories (Fiji, Matthew & Hunter, Nauru, New Caledonia, Tonga, Vanuatu and Wallis & Futuna). Predicted habitat also varied among species, with the proportion of predicted habitat highest for Aphareus and lowest for Etelis. Despite data paucity, the relationship between deep-sea snapper presence and their environments was sufficiently strong to predict their distribution across a large area of the Pacific Ocean. Our results therefore provide a strong baseline for designing monitoring programs that balance resource exploitation and conservation planning, and

  20. Species Distribution Models of Tropical Deep-Sea Snappers

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Céline; Williams, Ashley J.; Nicol, Simon J.; Mellin, Camille; Loeun, Kim L.; Bradshaw, Corey J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Deep-sea fisheries provide an important source of protein to Pacific Island countries and territories that are highly dependent on fish for food security. However, spatial management of these deep-sea habitats is hindered by insufficient data. We developed species distribution models using spatially limited presence data for the main harvested species in the Western Central Pacific Ocean. We used bathymetric and water temperature data to develop presence-only species distribution models for the commercially exploited deep-sea snappers Etelis Cuvier 1828, Pristipomoides Valenciennes 1830, and Aphareus Cuvier 1830. We evaluated the performance of four different algorithms (CTA, GLM, MARS, and MAXENT) within the BIOMOD framework to obtain an ensemble of predicted distributions. We projected these predictions across the Western Central Pacific Ocean to produce maps of potential deep-sea snapper distributions in 32 countries and territories. Depth was consistently the best predictor of presence for all species groups across all models. Bathymetric slope was consistently the poorest predictor. Temperature at depth was a good predictor of presence for GLM only. Model precision was highest for MAXENT and CTA. There were strong regional patterns in predicted distribution of suitable habitat, with the largest areas of suitable habitat (> 35% of the Exclusive Economic Zone) predicted in seven South Pacific countries and territories (Fiji, Matthew & Hunter, Nauru, New Caledonia, Tonga, Vanuatu and Wallis & Futuna). Predicted habitat also varied among species, with the proportion of predicted habitat highest for Aphareus and lowest for Etelis. Despite data paucity, the relationship between deep-sea snapper presence and their environments was sufficiently strong to predict their distribution across a large area of the Pacific Ocean. Our results therefore provide a strong baseline for designing monitoring programs that balance resource exploitation and conservation planning, and

  1. Ecosystem function and services provided by the deep sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurber, A. R.; Sweetman, A. K.; Narayanaswamy, B. E.; Jones, D. O. B.; Ingels, J.; Hansman, R. L.

    2014-07-01

    The deep sea is often viewed as a vast, dark, remote, and inhospitable environment, yet the deep ocean and seafloor are crucial to our lives through the services that they provide. Our understanding of how the deep sea functions remains limited, but when treated synoptically, a diversity of supporting, provisioning, regulating and cultural services becomes apparent. The biological pump transports carbon from the atmosphere into deep-ocean water masses that are separated over prolonged periods, reducing the impact of anthropogenic carbon release. Microbial oxidation of methane keeps another potent greenhouse gas out of the atmosphere while trapping carbon in authigenic carbonates. Nutrient regeneration by all faunal size classes provides the elements necessary for fueling surface productivity and fisheries, and microbial processes detoxify a diversity of compounds. Each of these processes occur on a very small scale, yet considering the vast area over which they occur they become important for the global functioning of the ocean. The deep sea also provides a wealth of resources, including fish stocks, enormous bioprospecting potential, and elements and energy reserves that are currently being extracted and will be increasingly important in the near future. Society benefits from the intrigue and mystery, the strange life forms, and the great unknown that has acted as a muse for inspiration and imagination since near the beginning of civilization. While many functions occur on the scale of microns to meters and timescales up to years, the derived services that result are only useful after centuries of integrated activity. This vast dark habitat, which covers the majority of the globe, harbors processes that directly impact humans in a variety of ways; however, the same traits that differentiate it from terrestrial or shallow marine systems also result in a greater need for integrated spatial and temporal understanding as it experiences increased use by society. In

  2. Advanced deep sea diving equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danesi, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    Design requirements are generated for a deep sea heavy duty diving system to equip salvage divers with equipment and tools that permit work of the same quality and in times approaching that done on the surface. The system consists of a helmet, a recirculator for removing carbon dioxide, and the diver's dress. The diver controls the inlet flow by the recirculatory control valve and is able to change closed cycle operation to open cycle if malfunction occurs. Proper function of the scrubber in the recirculator minimizes temperature and humidity effects as it filters the returning air.

  3. Exploring deep sea habitats for baseline characterization using NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, L.; Cantwell, K. L.; Kennedy, B. R.; Lobecker, E.; Sowers, D.; Elliott, K.

    2015-12-01

    In 2015, NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer, the only US federal ship dedicated to ocean exploration, systematically explored previously unknown deep sea ecosystems in the Caribbean and remote regions in the vicinity of the Hawaiian Islands. Initial characterization of these areas is essential in order to establish a baseline against which to assess potential future changes due to climate and anthropogenic change. In the Caribbean, over 37,500 sq km of previously unmapped seafloor were mapped with a high resolution multibeam revealing rugged canyons along shelf breaks, intricate incised channels, and complex tectonic features. 12 ROV dives, in the 300-6,000 m depth range, visually explored seamounts, escarpments, submarine canyons, and the water column revealing diverse ecosystems and habitats. Discoveries include large assemblages of deep sea corals, range extensions, and observations of several rare and potentially new organisms - including a seastar that had not been documented since its holotype specimen. In the Pacific, over 50,000 sq km of seafloor were mapped in high-resolution, revealing long linear ridge and tectonic fracture zone features, both peaked and flat-topped seamounts, and numerous features that appear to be volcanic in origin. To better understand ecosystem dynamics in depths greater than 2,000 m, the deepest ever ROV surveys and sampling were conducted in remote Pacific island marine sanctuaries and monuments. Novel observations include range extensions and exploration of dense deep sea coral and sponge habitat. Baseline habitat characterization was also conducted on seamounts within the Prime Crust Zone (PCZ), an area with the highest expected concentration of deep-sea minerals in the Pacific. The Hawaiian operations marked the first ever ROV sampling effort conducted onboard Okeanos, and several geological and biological samples are now available at museums and sample repositories in addition to all digital data available through the National

  4. Deep-sea pleistocene biostratigraphy.

    PubMed

    Lidz, L

    1966-12-16

    The first detailed paleontological analysis of a deep-sea pistoncore from the Caribbean Sea has been completed. The core, P6304-8, was raised from 3927 meters, east of Beata Ridge at 14 degrees 59'N, 69 degrees 20'W. Formerly, stratigraphic works in this area were based on studies of paleotemperature, measured by the oxygen isotope mass spectrometry method, or on micropaleontological analysis by means of rapid or cursory examinations. For core P6304-8, samples for foraminiferal analysis were taken at 10-centimeter intervals and split into smaller samples containing an average of 710 individuals (smallest sample, 517 individuals); all individuals were then identified and counted. By use of data derived from populations of this size, a statistical reliability was insured within a 5 percent limnit. Temperature oscillations, the best method of portraying Pleistocene stratigraphy, were shown by using ratios of the relative abundances of tropical and subtropical planktonic foraminifera to those found in temperate and cooler waters. These ratios correlate well with existing paleotemperature measurements for the same core, obtained by the oxygen isotope mass spectrometry method. PMID:17821563

  5. Virtual Investigations of an Active Deep Sea Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sautter, L.; Taylor, M. M.; Fundis, A.; Kelley, D. S.; Elend, M.

    2013-12-01

    Axial Seamount, located on the Juan de Fuca spreading ridge 300 miles off the Oregon coast, is an active volcano whose summit caldera lies 1500 m beneath the sea surface. Ongoing construction of the Regional Scale Nodes (RSN) cabled observatory by the University of Washington (funded by the NSF Ocean Observatories Initiative) has allowed for exploration of recent lava flows and active hydrothermal vents using HD video mounted on the ROVs, ROPOS and JASON II. College level oceanography/marine geology online laboratory exercises referred to as Online Concept Modules (OCMs) have been created using video and video frame-captured mosaics to promote skill development for characterizing and quantifying deep sea environments. Students proceed at their own pace through a sequence of short movies with which they (a) gain background knowledge, (b) learn skills to identify and classify features or biota within a targeted environment, (c) practice these skills, and (d) use their knowledge and skills to make interpretations regarding the environment. Part (d) serves as the necessary assessment component of the laboratory exercise. Two Axial Seamount-focused OCMs will be presented: 1) Lava Flow Characterization: Identifying a Suitable Cable Route, and 2) Assessing Hydrothermal Vent Communities: Comparisons Among Multiple Sulfide Chimneys.

  6. Age, growth rates, and paleoclimate studies of deep sea corals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prouty, Nancy G; Roark, E. Brendan; Andrews, Allen; Robinson, Laura; Hill, Tessa; Sherwood, Owen; Williams, Branwen; Guilderson, Thomas P.; Fallon, Stewart

    2015-01-01

    Deep-water corals are some of the slowest growing, longest-lived skeletal accreting marine organisms. These habitat-forming species support diverse faunal assemblages that include commercially and ecologically important organisms. Therefore, effective management and conservation strategies for deep-sea corals can be informed by precise and accurate age, growth rate, and lifespan characteristics for proper assessment of vulnerability and recovery from perturbations. This is especially true for the small number of commercially valuable, and potentially endangered, species that are part of the black and precious coral fisheries (Tsounis et al. 2010). In addition to evaluating time scales of recovery from disturbance or exploitation, accurate age and growth estimates are essential for understanding the life history and ecology of these habitat-forming corals. Given that longevity is a key factor for population maintenance and fishery sustainability, partly due to limited and complex genetic flow among coral populations separated by great distances, accurate age structure for these deep-sea coral communities is essential for proper, long-term resource management.

  7. Temperature impacts on deep-sea biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Danovaro, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Temperature is considered to be a fundamental factor controlling biodiversity in marine ecosystems, but precisely what role temperature plays in modulating diversity is still not clear. The deep ocean, lacking light and in situ photosynthetic primary production, is an ideal model system to test the effects of temperature changes on biodiversity. Here we synthesize current knowledge on temperature-diversity relationships in the deep sea. Our results from both present and past deep-sea assemblages suggest that, when a wide range of deep-sea bottom-water temperatures is considered, a unimodal relationship exists between temperature and diversity (that may be right skewed). It is possible that temperature is important only when at relatively high and low levels but does not play a major role in the intermediate temperature range. Possible mechanisms explaining the temperature-biodiversity relationship include the physiological-tolerance hypothesis, the metabolic hypothesis, island biogeography theory, or some combination of these. The possible unimodal relationship discussed here may allow us to identify tipping points at which on-going global change and deep-water warming may increase or decrease deep-sea biodiversity. Predicted changes in deep-sea temperatures due to human-induced climate change may have more adverse consequences than expected considering the sensitivity of deep-sea ecosystems to temperature changes. PMID:25523624

  8. From principles to practice: a spatial approach to systematic conservation planning in the deep sea

    PubMed Central

    Wedding, L. M.; Friedlander, A. M.; Kittinger, J. N.; Watling, L.; Gaines, S. D.; Bennett, M.; Hardy, S. M.; Smith, C. R.

    2013-01-01

    Increases in the demand and price for industrial metals, combined with advances in technological capabilities have now made deep-sea mining more feasible and economically viable. In order to balance economic interests with the conservation of abyssal plain ecosystems, it is becoming increasingly important to develop a systematic approach to spatial management and zoning of the deep sea. Here, we describe an expert-driven systematic conservation planning process applied to inform science-based recommendations to the International Seabed Authority for a system of deep-sea marine protected areas (MPAs) to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem function in an abyssal Pacific region targeted for nodule mining (e.g. the Clarion–Clipperton fracture zone, CCZ). Our use of geospatial analysis and expert opinion in forming the recommendations allowed us to stratify the proposed network by biophysical gradients, maximize the number of biologically unique seamounts within each subregion, and minimize socioeconomic impacts. The resulting proposal for an MPA network (nine replicate 400 × 400 km MPAs) covers 24% (1 440 000 km2) of the total CCZ planning region and serves as example of swift and pre-emptive conservation planning across an unprecedented area in the deep sea. As pressure from resource extraction increases in the future, the scientific guiding principles outlined in this research can serve as a basis for collaborative international approaches to ocean management. PMID:24197407

  9. From principles to practice: a spatial approach to systematic conservation planning in the deep sea.

    PubMed

    Wedding, L M; Friedlander, A M; Kittinger, J N; Watling, L; Gaines, S D; Bennett, M; Hardy, S M; Smith, C R

    2013-12-22

    Increases in the demand and price for industrial metals, combined with advances in technological capabilities have now made deep-sea mining more feasible and economically viable. In order to balance economic interests with the conservation of abyssal plain ecosystems, it is becoming increasingly important to develop a systematic approach to spatial management and zoning of the deep sea. Here, we describe an expert-driven systematic conservation planning process applied to inform science-based recommendations to the International Seabed Authority for a system of deep-sea marine protected areas (MPAs) to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem function in an abyssal Pacific region targeted for nodule mining (e.g. the Clarion-Clipperton fracture zone, CCZ). Our use of geospatial analysis and expert opinion in forming the recommendations allowed us to stratify the proposed network by biophysical gradients, maximize the number of biologically unique seamounts within each subregion, and minimize socioeconomic impacts. The resulting proposal for an MPA network (nine replicate 400 × 400 km MPAs) covers 24% (1 440 000 km(2)) of the total CCZ planning region and serves as example of swift and pre-emptive conservation planning across an unprecedented area in the deep sea. As pressure from resource extraction increases in the future, the scientific guiding principles outlined in this research can serve as a basis for collaborative international approaches to ocean management. PMID:24197407

  10. Identification of new deep sea sinuous channels in the eastern Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ravi; Pandey, D K; Ramesh, Prerna; Clift, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    Deep sea channel systems are recognized in most submarine fans worldwide as well as in the geological record. The Indus Fan is the second largest modern submarine fan, having a well-developed active canyon and deep sea channel system. Previous studies from the upper Indus Fan have reported several active channel systems. In the present study, deep sea channel systems were identified within the middle Indus Fan using high resolution multibeam bathymetric data. Prominent morphological features within the survey block include the Raman Seamount and Laxmi Ridge. The origin of the newly discovered channels in the middle fan has been inferred using medium resolution satellite bathymetry data. Interpretation of new data shows that the highly sinuous deep sea channel systems also extend to the east of Laxmi Ridge, as well as to the west of Laxmi Ridge, as previously reported. A decrease in sinuosity southward can be attributed to the morphological constraints imposed by the elevated features. These findings have significance in determining the pathways for active sediment transport systems, as well as their source characterization. The geometry suggests a series of punctuated avulsion events leading to the present array of disconnected channels. Such channels have affected the Laxmi Basin since the Pliocene and are responsible for reworking older fan sediments, resulting in loss of the original erosional signature supplied from the river mouth. This implies that distal fan sediments have experienced significant signal shredding and may not represent the erosion and weathering conditions within the onshore basin at the time of sedimentation. PMID:27386293

  11. A Scientific Basis for Regulating Deep-Sea Fishing by Depth.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Jo; Milligan, Rosanna J; Bailey, David M; Neat, Francis C

    2015-09-21

    The deep sea is the world's largest ecosystem, with high levels of biodiversity and many species that exhibit life-history characteristics that make them vulnerable to high levels of exploitation. Many fisheries in the deep sea have a track record of being unsustainable. In the northeast Atlantic, there has been a decline in the abundance of commercial fish species since deep-sea fishing commenced in the 1970s. Current management is by effort restrictions and total allowable catch (TAC), but there remain problems with compliance and high levels of bycatch of vulnerable species such as sharks. The European Union is currently considering new legislation to manage deep-sea fisheries, including the introduction of a depth limit to bottom trawling. However, there is little evidence to suggest an appropriate depth limit. Here we use survey data to show that biodiversity of the demersal fish community, the ratio of discarded to commercial biomass, and the ratio of Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) to commercial biomass significantly increases between 600 and 800 m depth while commercial value decreases. These results suggest that limiting bottom trawling to a maximum depth of 600 m could be an effective management strategy that would fit the needs of European legislations such as the Common Fisheries Policy (EC no. 1380/2013) and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (2008/56/EC). PMID:26320948

  12. Vertical Migrations of a Deep-Sea Fish and Its Prey

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, Pedro; McGinty, Niall; Graça, Gonçalo; Fontes, Jorge; Inácio, Mónica; Totland, Atle; Menezes, Gui

    2014-01-01

    It has been speculated that some deep-sea fishes can display large vertical migrations and likely doing so to explore the full suite of benthopelagic food resources, especially the pelagic organisms of the deep scattering layer (DSL). This would help explain the success of fishes residing at seamounts and the increased biodiversity found in these features of the open ocean. We combined active plus passive acoustic telemetry of blackspot seabream with in situ environmental and biological (backscattering) data collection at a seamount to verify if its behaviour is dominated by vertical movements as a response to temporal changes in environmental conditions and pelagic prey availability. We found that seabream extensively migrate up and down the water column, that these patterns are cyclic both in short-term (tidal, diel) as well as long-term (seasonal) scales, and that they partially match the availability of potential DSL prey components. Furthermore, the emerging pattern points to a more complex spatial behaviour than previously anticipated, suggesting a seasonal switch in the diel behaviour mode (benthic vs. pelagic) of seabream, which may reflect an adaptation to differences in prey availability. This study is the first to document the fine scale three-dimensional behaviour of a deep-sea fish residing at seamounts. PMID:24859231

  13. Vertical migrations of a deep-sea fish and its prey.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Pedro; McGinty, Niall; Graça, Gonçalo; Fontes, Jorge; Inácio, Mónica; Totland, Atle; Menezes, Gui

    2014-01-01

    It has been speculated that some deep-sea fishes can display large vertical migrations and likely doing so to explore the full suite of benthopelagic food resources, especially the pelagic organisms of the deep scattering layer (DSL). This would help explain the success of fishes residing at seamounts and the increased biodiversity found in these features of the open ocean. We combined active plus passive acoustic telemetry of blackspot seabream with in situ environmental and biological (backscattering) data collection at a seamount to verify if its behaviour is dominated by vertical movements as a response to temporal changes in environmental conditions and pelagic prey availability. We found that seabream extensively migrate up and down the water column, that these patterns are cyclic both in short-term (tidal, diel) as well as long-term (seasonal) scales, and that they partially match the availability of potential DSL prey components. Furthermore, the emerging pattern points to a more complex spatial behaviour than previously anticipated, suggesting a seasonal switch in the diel behaviour mode (benthic vs. pelagic) of seabream, which may reflect an adaptation to differences in prey availability. This study is the first to document the fine scale three-dimensional behaviour of a deep-sea fish residing at seamounts. PMID:24859231

  14. Diversity and endemism of the benthic seamount fauna in the southwest Pacific.

    PubMed

    de Forges, B R; Koslow, J A; Poore, G C

    2000-06-22

    Seamounts comprise a unique deep-sea environment, characterized by substantially enhanced currents and a fauna that is dominated by suspension feeders, such as corals. The potential importance of these steep-sided undersea mountains, which are generally of volcanic origin, to ocean biogeography and diversity was recognized over 40 years ago, but this environment has remained very poorly explored. A review of seamount biota and biogeography reported a total of 597 invertebrate species recorded from seamounts worldwide since the Challenger expedition of 1872. Most reports, based on a single taxonomic group, were extremely limited: 5 seamounts of the estimated more than 30,000 seamounts in the world's oceans accounted for 72% of the species recorded. Only 15% of the species occurring on seamounts were considered potential seamount endemics. Here we report the discovery of more than 850 macro- and megafaunal species from seamounts in the Tasman Sea and southeast Coral Sea, of which 29-34% are new to science and potential seamount endemics. Low species overlap between seamounts in different portions of the region indicates that the seamounts in clusters or along ridge systems function as 'island groups' or 'chains' leading to highly localized species distributions and apparent speciation between groups or ridge systems that is exceptional for the deep sea. These results have substantial implications for the conservation of this fauna, which is threatened by fishing activity. PMID:10879534

  15. Deep-Sea Biodiversity in the Mediterranean Sea: The Known, the Unknown, and the Unknowable

    PubMed Central

    Danovaro, Roberto; Company, Joan Batista; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; D'Onghia, Gianfranco; Galil, Bella; Gambi, Cristina; Gooday, Andrew J.; Lampadariou, Nikolaos; Luna, Gian Marco; Morigi, Caterina; Olu, Karine; Polymenakou, Paraskevi; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Sabbatini, Anna; Sardà, Francesc; Sibuet, Myriam; Tselepides, Anastasios

    2010-01-01

    Deep-sea ecosystems represent the largest biome of the global biosphere, but knowledge of their biodiversity is still scant. The Mediterranean basin has been proposed as a hot spot of terrestrial and coastal marine biodiversity but has been supposed to be impoverished of deep-sea species richness. We summarized all available information on benthic biodiversity (Prokaryotes, Foraminifera, Meiofauna, Macrofauna, and Megafauna) in different deep-sea ecosystems of the Mediterranean Sea (200 to more than 4,000 m depth), including open slopes, deep basins, canyons, cold seeps, seamounts, deep-water corals and deep-hypersaline anoxic basins and analyzed overall longitudinal and bathymetric patterns. We show that in contrast to what was expected from the sharp decrease in organic carbon fluxes and reduced faunal abundance, the deep-sea biodiversity of both the eastern and the western basins of the Mediterranean Sea is similarly high. All of the biodiversity components, except Bacteria and Archaea, displayed a decreasing pattern with increasing water depth, but to a different extent for each component. Unlike patterns observed for faunal abundance, highest negative values of the slopes of the biodiversity patterns were observed for Meiofauna, followed by Macrofauna and Megafauna. Comparison of the biodiversity associated with open slopes, deep basins, canyons, and deep-water corals showed that the deep basins were the least diverse. Rarefaction curves allowed us to estimate the expected number of species for each benthic component in different bathymetric ranges. A large fraction of exclusive species was associated with each specific habitat or ecosystem. Thus, each deep-sea ecosystem contributes significantly to overall biodiversity. From theoretical extrapolations we estimate that the overall deep-sea Mediterranean biodiversity (excluding prokaryotes) reaches approximately 2805 species of which about 66% is still undiscovered. Among the biotic components investigated

  16. Deep-sea biodiversity in the Mediterranean Sea: the known, the unknown, and the unknowable.

    PubMed

    Danovaro, Roberto; Company, Joan Batista; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; D'Onghia, Gianfranco; Galil, Bella; Gambi, Cristina; Gooday, Andrew J; Lampadariou, Nikolaos; Luna, Gian Marco; Morigi, Caterina; Olu, Karine; Polymenakou, Paraskevi; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Sabbatini, Anna; Sardà, Francesc; Sibuet, Myriam; Tselepides, Anastasios

    2010-01-01

    Deep-sea ecosystems represent the largest biome of the global biosphere, but knowledge of their biodiversity is still scant. The Mediterranean basin has been proposed as a hot spot of terrestrial and coastal marine biodiversity but has been supposed to be impoverished of deep-sea species richness. We summarized all available information on benthic biodiversity (Prokaryotes, Foraminifera, Meiofauna, Macrofauna, and Megafauna) in different deep-sea ecosystems of the Mediterranean Sea (200 to more than 4,000 m depth), including open slopes, deep basins, canyons, cold seeps, seamounts, deep-water corals and deep-hypersaline anoxic basins and analyzed overall longitudinal and bathymetric patterns. We show that in contrast to what was expected from the sharp decrease in organic carbon fluxes and reduced faunal abundance, the deep-sea biodiversity of both the eastern and the western basins of the Mediterranean Sea is similarly high. All of the biodiversity components, except Bacteria and Archaea, displayed a decreasing pattern with increasing water depth, but to a different extent for each component. Unlike patterns observed for faunal abundance, highest negative values of the slopes of the biodiversity patterns were observed for Meiofauna, followed by Macrofauna and Megafauna. Comparison of the biodiversity associated with open slopes, deep basins, canyons, and deep-water corals showed that the deep basins were the least diverse. Rarefaction curves allowed us to estimate the expected number of species for each benthic component in different bathymetric ranges. A large fraction of exclusive species was associated with each specific habitat or ecosystem. Thus, each deep-sea ecosystem contributes significantly to overall biodiversity. From theoretical extrapolations we estimate that the overall deep-sea Mediterranean biodiversity (excluding prokaryotes) reaches approximately 2805 species of which about 66% is still undiscovered. Among the biotic components investigated

  17. Ecosystem function and services provided by the deep sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurber, A. R.; Sweetman, A. K.; Narayanaswamy, B. E.; Jones, D. O. B.; Ingels, J.; Hansman, R. L.

    2013-11-01

    The deep sea is often viewed as a vast, dark, remote, and inhospitable environment, yet the deep ocean and seafloor are crucial to our lives through the services and provisions that they provide. Our understanding of how the deep sea functions remains limited, but when treated synoptically, a diversity of provisioning, regulating and cultural services become apparent. The biological pump transports carbon from the atmosphere into deep-ocean water masses which are separated over prolonged periods, reducing the impact of anthropogenic carbon release. Microbial oxidation of methane keeps another potent greenhouse gas out of the atmosphere while trapping carbon in authigenic carbonates. Nutrient regeneration by all faunal size classes provides the elements necessary to fuel surface productivity and fisheries, and microbial processes detoxify a diversity of compounds. Each of these processes occur on a very small scale, yet considering the vast area over which they occur they become important for the global functioning of the ocean. The deep sea also provides a diversity of resources, including fish stocks, enormous bioprospecting potential, and elements and energy reserves that are currently being extracted and will be increasingly important in the near future. Society benefits from the intrigue and mystery, the strange life forms, and the great unknown which has acted as a muse for inspiration and imagination since near the beginning of civilization. While many functions occur on the scale of microns to meters and time scales up to years, the derived services that result are only useful after centuries of integrated activity. This vast dark habitat, that covers the majority of the globe, harbors processes that directly impact humans in a diversity of ways, however the same traits that differentiate it from terrestrial or shallow marine systems also result in a greater need for integrated spatial and temporal understanding as it experiences increased use by society.

  18. 50 CFR 660.212 - Fixed gear fishery-prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., subpart C): Thompson Seamount, President Jackson Seamount, Cordell Bank (50-fm (91-m) isobath), Harris... Davidson Seamount area (defined in § 660.75, subpart C). (d) Sablefish fisheries. (1) Take, retain,...

  19. 50 CFR 660.212 - Fixed gear fishery-prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., subpart C): Thompson Seamount, President Jackson Seamount, Cordell Bank (50-fm (91-m) isobath), Harris... Davidson Seamount area (defined in § 660.75, subpart C). (d) Sablefish fisheries. (1) Take, retain,...

  20. In Brief: Deep-sea observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-11-01

    The first deep-sea ocean observatory offshore of the continental United States has begun operating in the waters off central California. The remotely operated Monterey Accelerated Research System (MARS) will allow scientists to monitor the deep sea continuously. Among the first devices to be hooked up to the observatory are instruments to monitor earthquakes, videotape deep-sea animals, and study the effects of acidification on seafloor animals. ``Some day we may look back at the first packets of data streaming in from the MARS observatory as the equivalent of those first words spoken by Alexander Graham Bell: `Watson, come here, I need you!','' commented Marcia McNutt, president and CEO of the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, which coordinated construction of the observatory. For more information, see http://www.mbari.org/news/news_releases/2008/mars-live/mars-live.html.

  1. Measurement of light scattering in deep sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maragos, N.; Balasi, K.; Domvoglou, T.; Kiskiras, I.; Lenis, D.; Maniatis, M.; Stavropoulos, G.

    2016-04-01

    The deep-sea neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea, being prepared by the KM3NET collaboration, will contain thousands of optical sensors to readout. The accurate knowledge of the optical properties of deep-sea water is of great importance for the neutrino event reconstruction process. In this study we describe our progress in designing an experimental setup and studying a method to measure the parameters describing the absorption and scattering characteristics of deep-sea water. Three PMTs will be used to measure in situ the scattered light emitted from six laser diodes in three different wavelengths covering the Cherenkov radiation spectrum. The technique for the evaluation of the parameters is based on Monte Carlo simulations and our results show that we are able to determine these parameters with satisfying precision.

  2. The study of deep-sea cephalopods.

    PubMed

    Hoving, Henk-Jan T; Perez, Jose Angel A; Bolstad, Kathrin S R; Braid, Heather E; Evans, Aaron B; Fuchs, Dirk; Judkins, Heather; Kelly, Jesse T; Marian, José E A R; Nakajima, Ryuta; Piatkowski, Uwe; Reid, Amanda; Vecchione, Michael; Xavier, José C C

    2014-01-01

    "Deep-sea" cephalopods are here defined as cephalopods that spend a significant part of their life cycles outside the euphotic zone. In this chapter, the state of knowledge in several aspects of deep-sea cephalopod research are summarized, including information sources for these animals, diversity and general biogeography and life cycles, including reproduction. Recommendations are made for addressing some of the remaining knowledge deficiencies using a variety of traditional and more recently developed methods. The types of oceanic gear that are suitable for collecting cephalopod specimens and images are reviewed. Many groups of deep-sea cephalopods require taxonomic reviews, ideally based on both morphological and molecular characters. Museum collections play a vital role in these revisions, and novel (molecular) techniques may facilitate new use of old museum specimens. Fundamental life-cycle parameters remain unknown for many species; techniques developed for neritic species that could potentially be applied to deep-sea cephalopods are discussed. Reproductive tactics and strategies in deep-sea cephalopods are very diverse and call for comparative evolutionary and experimental studies, but even in the twenty-first century, mature individuals are still unknown for many species. New insights into diet and trophic position have begun to reveal a more diverse range of feeding strategies than the typically voracious predatory lifestyle known for many cephalopods. Regular standardized deep-sea cephalopod surveys are necessary to provide insight into temporal changes in oceanic cephalopod populations and to forecast, verify and monitor the impacts of global marine changes and human impacts on these populations. PMID:24880796

  3. Deep pockets for deep seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Peter Auster, a fisheries ecologist with the National Undersea Research Center in Connecticut, plans to assess degradation of the deep-shelf seafloor from bottom trawling. Magnus Ngoile, an official with Tanzania's National Environmental Management Council, will work on building capacity of poor villagers to protect their coastline. And Alison Rieser, a lawyer with the University of Maine School of Law, will produce a textbook to educate scientists on how to apply the law for marine conservation.These individuals are among 11 recipients of the Pew Charitable Trust's 10th annual marine conservation fellowships, announced on July 12. With each recipient receiving an award of $150,000, the program is the world's largest award for marine conservationists. Other 1999 recipients will be involved with areas including investigating marine pollution in the Arctic region, examining economic incentives for conservation in Baja, Mexico, and establishing a marine conservation biology training program for minority students.

  4. Experimental investigation of deep sea riser interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Huse, E.

    1996-12-31

    In future deep sea field developments the drag force and corresponding static deflections of the risers due to current can become quite large. The prevention of mechanical contact (collision) between the risers will need more careful evaluation than in moderate water depths. The paper describes a series of model experiments in a Norwegian fjord to determine criteria for on-set of collisions between the risers of a deep sea TLP. The current was modeled using the natural tidal current in the fjord. Results from the tests are summarized and used for verification of numerical calculations of collision criteria.

  5. From nanoparticles via microtemplates and milliparticles to deep-sea nodules: biogenically driven mineral formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Hong; Schloßmacher, Ute; Wang, Shun-Feng; Schröder, Heinz C.; Wiens, Matthias; Batel, Renato; Müller, Werner E. G.

    2012-06-01

    Deep-sea minerals in polymetallic nodules and seamount Co-rich crusts are not only formed by mineralization but also by biologically driven processes involving microorganisms (biomineralization). Within the polymetallic nodules, free-living and biofilm-forming bacteria provide the matrix for manganese deposition, and in seamount Co-rich crusts, coccolithophores represent the dominant organisms that act as bio-seeds for an initial manganese deposition. These (bio)minerals are economically important: manganese is an important alloying component and cobalt forms part of special steels in addition to being used, along with other rare metals, in plasma screens, hard-disk magnets and hybrid car motors. Recent progress in our understanding of the participation of the organic matrices in the enrichment of these metals might provide the basis for feasibility studies of biotechnological applications.

  6. Colonization of the deep sea by fishes.

    PubMed

    Priede, I G; Froese, R

    2013-12-01

    Analysis of maximum depth of occurrence of 11 952 marine fish species shows a global decrease in species number (N) with depth (x; m): log10 N = -0·000422x + 3·610000 (r(2)  = 0·948). The rate of decrease is close to global estimates for change in pelagic and benthic biomass with depth (-0·000430), indicating that species richness of fishes may be limited by food energy availability in the deep sea. The slopes for the Classes Myxini (-0·000488) and Actinopterygii (-0·000413) follow this trend but Chondrichthyes decrease more rapidly (-0·000731) implying deficiency in ability to colonize the deep sea. Maximum depths attained are 2743, 4156 and 8370 m for Myxini, Chondrichthyes and Actinopterygii, respectively. Endemic species occur in abundance at 7-7800 m depth in hadal trenches but appear to be absent from the deepest parts of the oceans, >9000 m deep. There have been six global oceanic anoxic events (OAE) since the origin of the major fish taxa in the Devonian c. 400 million years ago (mya). Colonization of the deep sea has taken place largely since the most recent OAE in the Cretaceous 94 mya when the Atlantic Ocean opened up. Patterns of global oceanic circulation oxygenating the deep ocean basins became established coinciding with a period of teleost diversification and appearance of the Acanthopterygii. Within the Actinopterygii, there is a trend for greater invasion of the deep sea by the lower taxa in accordance with the Andriashev paradigm. Here, 31 deep-sea families of Actinopterygii were identified with mean maximum depth >1000 m and with >10 species. Those with most of their constituent species living shallower than 1000 m are proposed as invasive, with extinctions in the deep being continuously balanced by export of species from shallow seas. Specialized families with most species deeper than 1000 m are termed deep-sea endemics in this study; these appear to persist in the deep by virtue of global distribution enabling recovery

  7. Colonization of the deep sea by fishes

    PubMed Central

    Priede, I G; Froese, R

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of maximum depth of occurrence of 11 952 marine fish species shows a global decrease in species number (N) with depth (x; m): log10N = −0·000422x + 3·610000 (r2 = 0·948). The rate of decrease is close to global estimates for change in pelagic and benthic biomass with depth (−0·000430), indicating that species richness of fishes may be limited by food energy availability in the deep sea. The slopes for the Classes Myxini (−0·000488) and Actinopterygii (−0·000413) follow this trend but Chondrichthyes decrease more rapidly (−0·000731) implying deficiency in ability to colonize the deep sea. Maximum depths attained are 2743, 4156 and 8370 m for Myxini, Chondrichthyes and Actinopterygii, respectively. Endemic species occur in abundance at 7–7800 m depth in hadal trenches but appear to be absent from the deepest parts of the oceans, >9000 m deep. There have been six global oceanic anoxic events (OAE) since the origin of the major fish taxa in the Devonian c. 400 million years ago (mya). Colonization of the deep sea has taken place largely since the most recent OAE in the Cretaceous 94 mya when the Atlantic Ocean opened up. Patterns of global oceanic circulation oxygenating the deep ocean basins became established coinciding with a period of teleost diversification and appearance of the Acanthopterygii. Within the Actinopterygii, there is a trend for greater invasion of the deep sea by the lower taxa in accordance with the Andriashev paradigm. Here, 31 deep-sea families of Actinopterygii were identified with mean maximum depth >1000 m and with >10 species. Those with most of their constituent species living shallower than 1000 m are proposed as invasive, with extinctions in the deep being continuously balanced by export of species from shallow seas. Specialized families with most species deeper than 1000 m are termed deep-sea endemics in this study; these appear to persist in the deep by virtue of global distribution enabling

  8. Autonomous, Retrievable, Deep Sea Microbial Fuel Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, K.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) work by providing bacteria in anaerobic sediments with an electron acceptor (anode) that stimulates metabolism of organic matter. The buried anode is connected via control circuitry to a cathode exposed to oxygen in the overlying water. During metabolism, bacteria release hydrogen ions into the sediment and transfer electrons extra-cellularly to the anode, which eventually reduce dissolved oxygen at the cathode, forming water. The open circuit voltage is approximately 0.8 v. The voltage between electrodes is operationally kept at 0.4 v with a potentiastat. The current is chiefly limited by the rate of microbial metabolism at the anode. The Office of Naval Research has encouraged development of microbial fuel cells in the marine environment at a number of academic and naval institutions. Earlier work in shallow sediments of San Diego Bay showed that the most important environmental parameters that control fuel cell power output in San Diego Bay were total organic carbon in the sediment and seasonal water temperature. Current MFC work at SPAWAR includes extension of microbial fuel cell tests to the deep sea environment (>1000 m) and, in parallel, testing microbial fuel cells in the laboratory under deep sea conditions. One question we are asking is whether MFC power output from deep water sediments repressurized and chilled in the laboratory comparable to those measured in situ. If yes, mapping the power potential of deep sea sediments may be made much easier, requiring sediment grabs and lab tests rather than deployment and retrieval of fuel cells. Another question we are asking is whether in situ temperature and total organic carbon in the deep sea sediment can predict MFC power. If yes, then we can make use of the large collection of publicly available, deep sea oceanographic measurements to make these predictions, foregoing expensive work at sea. These regressions will be compared to those derived from shallow water measurements.

  9. Mass extinctions in the deep sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, E.

    1988-01-01

    The character of mass extinctions can be assessed by studying extinction patterns of organisms, the fabric of the extinction, and assessing the environmental niche and mode of life of survivors. Deep-sea benthic foraminifera have been listed as little affected by the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) mass extinction, but very few quantitative data are available. New data on deep-sea Late Maestrichtian-Eocene benthic foraminifera from Maud Rise (Antractica) indicate that about 10 percent of the species living at depths of 2000 to 2500 m had last appearances within 1 my of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary, versus about 25 percent of species at 1000 to 1500 m. Many survivors from the Cretaceous became extinct in a period of global deep-sea benthic foraminiferal extinction at the end of the Paleocene, a time otherwise marked by very few extinctions. Preliminary conclusions suggest that the deep oceanic environment is essentially decoupled from the shallow marine and terrestrial environment, and that even major disturbances of one of these will not greatly affect the other. This gives deep-sea benthic faunas a good opportunity to recolonize shallow environments from greater depths and vice versa after massive extinctions. The decoupling means that data on deep-sea benthic boundary was caused by the environmental effects of asteriod impact or excessive volcanism. The benthic foraminiferal data strongly suggest, however, that the environmental results were strongest at the Earth's surface, and that there was no major disturbance of the deep ocean; this pattern might result both from excessive volcanism and from an impact on land.

  10. Submarine canyons: hotspots of benthic biomass and productivity in the deep sea.

    PubMed

    De Leo, Fabio C; Smith, Craig R; Rowden, Ashley A; Bowden, David A; Clark, Malcolm R

    2010-09-22

    Submarine canyons are dramatic and widespread topographic features crossing continental and island margins in all oceans. Canyons can be sites of enhanced organic-matter flux and deposition through entrainment of coastal detrital export, dense shelf-water cascade, channelling of resuspended particulate material and focusing of sediment deposition. Despite their unusual ecological characteristics and global distribution along oceanic continental margins, only scattered information is available about the influence of submarine canyons on deep-sea ecosystem structure and productivity. Here, we show that deep-sea canyons such as the Kaikoura Canyon on the eastern New Zealand margin (42 degrees 01' S, 173 degrees 03' E) can sustain enormous biomasses of infaunal megabenthic invertebrates over large areas. Our reported biomass values are 100-fold higher than those previously reported for deep-sea (non-chemosynthetic) habitats below 500 m in the ocean. We also present evidence from deep-sea-towed camera images that areas in the canyon that have the extraordinary benthic biomass also harbour high abundances of macrourid (rattail) fishes likely to be feeding on the macro- and megabenthos. Bottom-trawl catch data also indicate that the Kaikoura Canyon has dramatically higher abundances of benthic-feeding fishes than adjacent slopes. Our results demonstrate that the Kaikoura Canyon is one of the most productive habitats described so far in the deep sea. A new global inventory suggests there are at least 660 submarine canyons worldwide, approximately 100 of which could be biomass hotspots similar to the Kaikoura Canyon. The importance of such deep-sea canyons as potential hotspots of production and commercial fisheries yields merits substantial further study. PMID:20444722

  11. Submarine canyons: hotspots of benthic biomass and productivity in the deep sea

    PubMed Central

    De Leo, Fabio C.; Smith, Craig R.; Rowden, Ashley A.; Bowden, David A.; Clark, Malcolm R.

    2010-01-01

    Submarine canyons are dramatic and widespread topographic features crossing continental and island margins in all oceans. Canyons can be sites of enhanced organic-matter flux and deposition through entrainment of coastal detrital export, dense shelf-water cascade, channelling of resuspended particulate material and focusing of sediment deposition. Despite their unusual ecological characteristics and global distribution along oceanic continental margins, only scattered information is available about the influence of submarine canyons on deep-sea ecosystem structure and productivity. Here, we show that deep-sea canyons such as the Kaikoura Canyon on the eastern New Zealand margin (42°01′ S, 173°03′ E) can sustain enormous biomasses of infaunal megabenthic invertebrates over large areas. Our reported biomass values are 100-fold higher than those previously reported for deep-sea (non-chemosynthetic) habitats below 500 m in the ocean. We also present evidence from deep-sea-towed camera images that areas in the canyon that have the extraordinary benthic biomass also harbour high abundances of macrourid (rattail) fishes likely to be feeding on the macro- and megabenthos. Bottom-trawl catch data also indicate that the Kaikoura Canyon has dramatically higher abundances of benthic-feeding fishes than adjacent slopes. Our results demonstrate that the Kaikoura Canyon is one of the most productive habitats described so far in the deep sea. A new global inventory suggests there are at least 660 submarine canyons worldwide, approximately 100 of which could be biomass hotspots similar to the Kaikoura Canyon. The importance of such deep-sea canyons as potential hotspots of production and commercial fisheries yields merits substantial further study. PMID:20444722

  12. The past, present and future distribution of a deep-sea shrimp in the Southern Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Shrimps have a widespread distribution across the shelf, slope and seamount regions of the Southern Ocean. Studies of Antarctic organisms have shown that individual species and higher taxa display different degrees of sensitivity and adaptability in response to environmental change. We use species distribution models to predict changes in the geographic range of the deep-sea Antarctic shrimp Nematocarcinus lanceopes under changing climatic conditions from the Last Glacial Maximum to the present and to the year 2100. The present distribution range indicates a pole-ward shift of the shrimp population since the last glaciation. This occurred by colonization of slopes from nearby refugia located around the northern part of Scotia Arc, southern tip of South America, South Georgia, Bouvet Island, southern tip of the Campbell plateau and Kerguelen plateau. By 2100, the shrimp are likely to expand their distribution in east Antarctica but have a continued pole-ward contraction in west Antarctica. The range extension and contraction process followed by the deep-sea shrimp provide a geographic context of how other deep-sea Antarctic species may have survived during the last glaciation and may endure with projected changing climatic conditions in the future. PMID:26925334

  13. The past, present and future distribution of a deep-sea shrimp in the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Basher, Zeenatul; Costello, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Shrimps have a widespread distribution across the shelf, slope and seamount regions of the Southern Ocean. Studies of Antarctic organisms have shown that individual species and higher taxa display different degrees of sensitivity and adaptability in response to environmental change. We use species distribution models to predict changes in the geographic range of the deep-sea Antarctic shrimp Nematocarcinus lanceopes under changing climatic conditions from the Last Glacial Maximum to the present and to the year 2100. The present distribution range indicates a pole-ward shift of the shrimp population since the last glaciation. This occurred by colonization of slopes from nearby refugia located around the northern part of Scotia Arc, southern tip of South America, South Georgia, Bouvet Island, southern tip of the Campbell plateau and Kerguelen plateau. By 2100, the shrimp are likely to expand their distribution in east Antarctica but have a continued pole-ward contraction in west Antarctica. The range extension and contraction process followed by the deep-sea shrimp provide a geographic context of how other deep-sea Antarctic species may have survived during the last glaciation and may endure with projected changing climatic conditions in the future. PMID:26925334

  14. Deep sea tides determination from GEOS-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, G. A.; Yanaway, A.

    1978-01-01

    GEOS 3 altimeter data in a 5 degree X 5 degree square centered at 30 deg N, 70 deg W were analyzed to evaluate deep sea tide determination from a spacecraft. The signal to noise ratio of known tidal variability to altimeter measurement of sea level above the ellipsoid was 0.1. A sample was obtained in a 5 deg x 5 deg area approximately once every four days. The randomly spaced time series was analyzed using two independent least squares techniques.

  15. 50 CFR Table 22 to Part 679 - Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas 22 Table 22 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC... ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 22 Table 22 to Part 679— Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas...

  16. 50 CFR Table 22 to Part 679 - Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas 22 Table 22 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC... ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 22 Table 22 to Part 679— Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas...

  17. 50 CFR Table 22 to Part 679 - Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas 22 Table 22 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC... ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 22 Table 22 to Part 679— Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas...

  18. 50 CFR Table 22 to Part 679 - Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas 22 Table 22 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC... ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 22 Table 22 to Part 679— Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas...

  19. 50 CFR Table 22 to Part 679 - Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas 22 Table 22 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC... ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 22 Table 22 to Part 679— Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas...

  20. Extraordinarily high biomass benthic community on Southern Ocean seamounts.

    PubMed

    Thresher, R E; Adkins, J; Fallon, S J; Gowlett-Holmes, K; Althaus, F; Williams, A

    2011-01-01

    We describe a previously unknown assemblage of seamount-associated megabenthos that has by far the highest peak biomass reported in the deep-sea outside of vent communities. The assemblage was found at depths of 2-2.5 km on rocky geomorphic features off the southeast coast of Australia, in an area near the Sub-Antarctic Zone characterised by high rates of surface productivity and carbon export to the deep-ocean. These conditions, and the taxa in the assemblage, are widely distributed around the Southern mid-latitudes, suggesting the high-biomass assemblage is also likely to be widespread. The role of this assemblage in regional ecosystem and carbon dynamics and its sensitivities to anthropogenic impacts are unknown. The discovery highlights the lack of information on deep-sea biota worldwide and the potential for unanticipated impacts of deep-sea exploitation. PMID:22355636

  1. Extraordinarily high biomass benthic community on Southern Ocean seamounts

    PubMed Central

    Thresher, R. E.; Adkins, J.; Fallon, S. J.; Gowlett-Holmes, K.; Althaus, F.; Williams, A.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a previously unknown assemblage of seamount-associated megabenthos that has by far the highest peak biomass reported in the deep-sea outside of vent communities. The assemblage was found at depths of 2–2.5 km on rocky geomorphic features off the southeast coast of Australia, in an area near the Sub-Antarctic Zone characterised by high rates of surface productivity and carbon export to the deep-ocean. These conditions, and the taxa in the assemblage, are widely distributed around the Southern mid-latitudes, suggesting the high-biomass assemblage is also likely to be widespread. The role of this assemblage in regional ecosystem and carbon dynamics and its sensitivities to anthropogenic impacts are unknown. The discovery highlights the lack of information on deep-sea biota worldwide and the potential for unanticipated impacts of deep-sea exploitation. PMID:22355636

  2. A continuum of life histories in deep-sea demersal fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drazen, Jeffrey C.; Haedrich, Richard L.

    2012-03-01

    It is generally perceived that all deep-sea fishes have great longevity, slow growth, and low reproductive output in comparison to shelf dwelling species. However, such a dichotomy is too simplistic because some fishes living on continental slopes are relatively fecund and fast growing, important considerations in respect to the management of expanding deep-sea fisheries. We tested two hypotheses that might explain variation in life history attributes of commercially exploited demersal fishes: (1) phylogeny best explains the differences because deep-sea species are often in different families from shelf dwelling ones and, alternatively, (2) environmental factors affecting individual life history attributes that change with depth account for the observed variation. Our analysis was based on 40 species from 9 orders, including all major commercially exploited deep-sea fishes and several phylogenetically related shelf species. Depth of occurrence correlated significantly with age at 50% maturity increasing linearly with depth (r2=0.46), while the von Bertalanffy growth coefficient, maximum fecundity and potential rate of population increase declined significantly and exponentially with depth (r2=0.41, 0.25 and 0.53, respectively). These trends were still significant when phylogenetically independent contrasts were applied. The trends were also consistent with similar slopes amongst members of the order Gadiformes and the order Scorpaeniformes. Reduced temperatures, predation pressure, food availability, or metabolic rates may all contribute to such changes with depth. Regardless of the mechanisms, by analyzing a suite of fishes from the shelves to the slope the present analysis has shown that rather than a simple dichotomy between deep-sea fishes and shelf fishes there is a continuum of life history attributes in fishes which correlate strongly with depth of occurrence.

  3. 78 FR 19216 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... of the workshop is to facilitate development of spatial alternatives for deep sea coral protection... address the need for a refined set of deep sea coral protection area options for inclusion in Amendment 16 to the Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fishery Management Plan (Protections for Deep Sea Corals)....

  4. 75 FR 51755 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ...The New England Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold a public hearing to solicit comments on proposals to be included in the Draft Amendment 3 to the Deep Sea Red Crab Fishery Management Plan...

  5. The National Deep-Sea Coral and Sponge Database: A Comprehensive Resource for United States Deep-Sea Coral and Sponge Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dornback, M.; Hourigan, T.; Etnoyer, P.; McGuinn, R.; Cross, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    Research on deep-sea corals has expanded rapidly over the last two decades, as scientists began to realize their value as long-lived structural components of high biodiversity habitats and archives of environmental information. The NOAA Deep Sea Coral Research and Technology Program's National Database for Deep-Sea Corals and Sponges is a comprehensive resource for georeferenced data on these organisms in U.S. waters. The National Database currently includes more than 220,000 deep-sea coral records representing approximately 880 unique species. Database records from museum archives, commercial and scientific bycatch, and from journal publications provide baseline information with relatively coarse spatial resolution dating back as far as 1842. These data are complemented by modern, in-situ submersible observations with high spatial resolution, from surveys conducted by NOAA and NOAA partners. Management of high volumes of modern high-resolution observational data can be challenging. NOAA is working with our data partners to incorporate this occurrence data into the National Database, along with images and associated information related to geoposition, time, biology, taxonomy, environment, provenance, and accuracy. NOAA is also working to link associated datasets collected by our program's research, to properly archive them to the NOAA National Data Centers, to build a robust metadata record, and to establish a standard protocol to simplify the process. Access to the National Database is provided through an online mapping portal. The map displays point based records from the database. Records can be refined by taxon, region, time, and depth. The queries and extent used to view the map can also be used to download subsets of the database. The database, map, and website is already in use by NOAA, regional fishery management councils, and regional ocean planning bodies, but we envision it as a model that can expand to accommodate data on a global scale.

  6. Endemicity, biogeograhy, composition, and community structure on a northeast pacific seamount.

    PubMed

    McClain, Craig R; Lundsten, Lonny; Ream, Micki; Barry, James; DeVogelaere, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The deep ocean greater than 1 km covers the majority of the earth's surface. Interspersed on the abyssal plains and continental slope are an estimated 14000 seamounts, topographic features extending 1000 m off the seafloor. A variety of hypotheses are posited that suggest the ecological, evolutionary, and oceanographic processes on seamounts differ from those governing the surrounding deep sea. The most prominent and oldest of these hypotheses, the seamount endemicity hypothesis (SMEH), states that seamounts possess a set of isolating mechanisms that produce highly endemic faunas. Here, we constructed a faunal inventory for Davidson Seamount, the first bathymetric feature to be characterized as a 'seamount', residing 120 km off the central California coast in approximately 3600 m of water (Fig 1). We find little support for the SMEH among megafauna of a Northeast Pacific seamount; instead, finding an assemblage of species that also occurs on adjacent continental margins. A large percentage of these species are also cosmopolitan with ranges extending over much of the Pacific Ocean Basin. Despite the similarity in composition between the seamount and non-seamount communities, we provide preliminary evidence that seamount communities may be structured differently and potentially serve as source of larvae for suboptimal, non-seamount habitats. PMID:19127302

  7. Mesoscale eddies transport deep-sea sediments

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanwei; Liu, Zhifei; Zhao, Yulong; Wang, Wenguang; Li, Jianru; Xu, Jingping

    2014-01-01

    Mesoscale eddies, which contribute to long-distance water mass transport and biogeochemical budget in the upper ocean, have recently been taken into assessment of the deep-sea hydrodynamic variability. However, how such eddies influence sediment movement in the deepwater environment has not been explored. Here for the first time we observed deep-sea sediment transport processes driven by mesoscale eddies in the northern South China Sea via a full-water column mooring system located at 2100 m water depth. Two southwestward propagating, deep-reaching anticyclonic eddies passed by the study site during January to March 2012 and November 2012 to January 2013, respectively. Our multiple moored instruments recorded simultaneous or lagging enhancement of suspended sediment concentration with full-water column velocity and temperature anomalies. We interpret these suspended sediments to have been trapped and transported from the southwest of Taiwan by the mesoscale eddies. The net near-bottom southwestward sediment transport by the two events is estimated up to one million tons. Our study highlights the significance of surface-generated mesoscale eddies on the deepwater sedimentary dynamic process. PMID:25089558

  8. The NIWA seamount sled: An effective epibenthic sledge for sampling epifauna on seamounts and rough seafloor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Malcolm R.; Stewart, Rob

    2016-02-01

    Epibenthic sleds, sledges and dredges have been widely used for sampling deep-sea macro and megafaunal communities, providing extensive information on benthic biodiversity and distribution patterns. Different countries and institutes have developed a variety of gear types, but these are often unsuitable for sampling rough seafloor, such as seamount and ridge topography. The NIWA seamount sled, a form of epibenthic sledge, is an inexpensive yet robust and versatile sampling device used to obtain invertebrate and rock samples. It incorporates features from a number of existing designs that have produced a versatile sled that can be used on all habitats from mud through to steep and rocky seamounts. It has been used for many research surveys around New Zealand, where it has proven an efficient sampler of target fauna (large macro- and mega-benthic epifauna). Its design has also been adopted by institutes in France and China for surveying seamounts, and it is suggested it could be used as a simple standardised design for sampling seamounts internationally.

  9. The Hawai'i Undersea Research Laboratory: Applying Innovative Deep-sea Technologies Toward Research, Service, and Stewardship in Marine Protected Areas of the Pacific Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Hawai'i Undersea Research Laboratory (HURL) is the only U.S. deep submergence facility in the Pacific Rim tasked with supporting undersea research necessary to fulfill the mission, goals, and objectives of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), along with other national interests of importance. Over 30 years of submersible operations have resulted in nearly 1900 dives representing 9300 hours underwater, and a benthic ecology database derived from in-house video record logging of over 125,000 entries based on 1100 unique deep-sea animal identifications in the Hawaiian Archipelago. As a Regional Center within the Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (OER), HURL conducts undersea research in offshore and nearshore waters of the main and Northwestern Hawaiian Islands and waters of the central, southern, and western Pacific. HURL facilities primarily support marine research projects that require data acquisition at depths greater than wet diving methods. These consist of the research vessel Ka'imikai-o-Kanaloa (KOK), human occupied submersibles Pisces IV and Pisces V (2000 m), a new remotely operated vehicle (6000 m), and a multibeam bathymetric sonar system (11,000 m). In addition, HURL has also supported AAUS compliant wet diving since 2003, including technical mixed gas/rebreather work. While ecosystem studies of island, atoll, and seamount flanks are the largest component of the HURL science program, many other thematic research areas have been targeted including extreme and unique environments, new resources from the sea, episodic events to long term changes, and the development of innovative technologies. Several examples of HURL's contributions to marine protected areas (MPAs) include: (a) A long term presence in the pristine ecosystems of the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Researchers from National Marine Fisheries have used HURL assets to study endangered Hawaiian Monk Seal habitat

  10. The global distribution of seamounts based on 30 arc seconds bathymetry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesson, Chris; Clark, Malcolm R.; Taylor, Michelle L.; Rogers, Alex D.

    2011-04-01

    Seamounts and knolls are 'undersea mountains', the former rising more than 1000 m from the seafloor. These features provide important habitats for aquatic predators, demersal deep-sea fish and benthic invertebrates. However most seamounts have not been surveyed and their numbers and locations are not well known. Previous efforts to locate and quantify seamounts have used relatively coarse bathymetry grids. Here we use global bathymetric data at 30 arc-sec resolution to identify seamounts and knolls. We identify 33,452 seamounts and 138,412 knolls, representing the largest global set of identified seamounts and knolls to date. We compare estimated seamount numbers, locations, and depths with validation sets of seamount data from New Zealand and Azores. This comparison indicates the method we apply finds 94% of seamounts, but may overestimate seamount numbers along ridges and in areas where faulting and seafloor spreading creates highly complex topography. The seamounts and knolls identified herein are significantly geographically biased towards areas surveyed with ship-based soundings. As only 6.5% of the ocean floor has been surveyed with soundings it is likely that new seamounts will be uncovered as surveying improves. Seamount habitats constitute approximately 4.7% of the ocean floor, whilst knolls cover 16.3%. Regional distribution of these features is examined, and we find a disproportionate number of productive knolls, with a summit depth of <1.5 km, located in the Southern Ocean. Less than 2% of seamounts are within marine protected areas and the majority of these are located within exclusive economic zones with few on the High Seas. The database of seamounts and knolls resulting from this study will be a useful resource for researchers and conservation planners.

  11. Platinum group nuggets in deep sea sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brownlee, D. E.; Bates, B. A.; Wheelock, M. M.

    1984-01-01

    The existence of iron meteor oblation spheres in deep sea sediments was known for over a century. These spheres generally were believed to be composed of either pure magnetite and wustite or an oxide shell surrounding a NiFe metal core. A large number of 300 micron to 600 micron spheres found were pure oxide spheres, usually containing a solitary 10 micron platinum group nugget (pgn) composed almost entirely of group VIII metals. Twelve PGN's were analyzed and most had chondritic abundances with some depletions that correlate with element volatility. PGN formation by oxidation of a molten metal sphere entering the atmosphere cannot occur if the oxygen abundance in the atmosphere is less than half of its present value. The first appearance of PGN's in the geological record should mark when, in the Earth's history, oxygen rose to this level.

  12. The Deep Seas--Unexpectedly, An Astounding Variety of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1976

    1976-01-01

    As oceanographic technology advances, the study of deep-sea environments is accelerating. Numerous ecological theories concerning deep-sea food relationships, environmental extremes, and life forms are changing as the environments of the deepest ocean trenches are studied. Thousands of new species are being discovered and studied constantly. (MA)

  13. Adapting to the Deep Sea: A Fun Activity with Bioluminescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rife, Gwynne

    2006-01-01

    Over the past decade, much has been learned about the ocean's secrets and especially about the creatures of the deep sea. The deepest parts of the oceans are currently the focus of many new discoveries in both the physical and biological sciences. Middle school students find the deep sea fascinating and especially seem to enjoy its mysterious and…

  14. Boron isotopes in deep-sea bamboo corals: pH, vital effects and environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, J. R.; Hoenisch, B.; Hill, T. M.; LaVigne, M.; Robinson, L. F.

    2011-12-01

    Deep-sea corals are an intriguing archive for reconstructing deep-ocean environmental conditions, in particular with regard to anthropogenic climate change and ocean acidification. However, previous research in deep-sea aragonitic scleractinian corals observed heterogeneity in their geochemical composition that greatly exceeded the magnitude of variability expected from environmental conditions. Here we investigate the boron isotopic composition (δ11B) and B/Ca ratios of the calcitic gorgonian bamboo coral Keratoisis sp. (family Isididae) as potential indicators of seawater-pH at depth. Initial results from a specimen collected alive on Little Joe Seamount, CA (2136m depth) show that the δ11B of surface calcite is within the expected range of aqueous borate-δ11B, based on seawater pH, temperature, pressure and salinity. A radial cross section through an ~5 cm thick internode reveals largely homogeneous δ11B. However, in the centermost 0.5 cm of calcite growth adjacent to the axial core of the coral, a ~2% increase in δ11B corresponds with disequilibrium depletions in δ13C and δ18O, consistent with hypotheses for different growth modes of central calcite perhaps as a result of active calcite deposition along the axial core. Aside from this central region, the geochemical homogeneity and good agreement between coral surface δ11B and seawater borate δ11B suggests that bamboo corals may record deep-ocean carbon chemistry and thus pH. The cosmopolitan distribution of Keratoisis sp. in both living and fossil deep-sea coral communities thus potentially presents the opportunity to reconstruct recent and Holocene deep-water pH at high resolution.

  15. Benthic Foraminifera, Food in the Deep Sea, and Limits to Bentho-Pelagic Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, E.; Boscolo-Galazzo, F.; Arreguin-Rodrigu, G. J.; Ortiz, S.; Alegret, L.

    2015-12-01

    The deep-sea is the largest habitat on Earth, contains highly diverse biota, but is very little known. Many of its abundant benthic biota (e.g., nematodes) are not preserved in the fossil record. Calcareous and agglutinated benthic foraminifera (unicellular eukaryotes, Rhizaria; efficient dispersers) and ostracodes (Animalia, Crustacea; non-efficient dispersers) are the most common organisms providing a fossil record of deep-sea environments. Very little food is supplied to the deep-sea, because organic matter produced by photosynthesis is largely degraded before it arrives at the seafloor. Only a few % of organic matter is carried to the ocean bottom by 'marine snow', with its particle size and behavior in the water column controlled by surface ecosystem structure, including type of dominant primary producers (diatoms, cyanobacteria). Food supply and its seasonality are generally seen as the dominant control on benthic assemblages (combined with oxygenation), providing bentho-pelagic coupling between primary and benthic productivity. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages (composition and density) thus are used widely to estimate past productivity, especially during episodes of global climate change, ocean acidification, and mass extinction of primary producers. We show that some environmental circumstances may result in interrupting bentho-pelagic coupling, e.g. through lateral supply of organic matter along continental margins (adding more refractory organic matter), through trophic focusing and/or fine particle winnowing on seamounts (giving an advantage to suspension feeders), and through carbonate undersaturation (giving advantage to infaunal over epifaunal calcifyers). In addition, increased remineralization of organic matter combined with increased metabolic rates may cause assemblages to reflect more oligotrophic conditions at stable primary productivity during periods of global warming. As a result, benthic foraminiferal accumulation rates must be carefully

  16. A geochemical characterisation of deep-sea floor sediments of the northern Lord Howe Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radke, L. C.; Heap, A. D.; Douglas, G.; Nichol, S.; Trafford, J.; Li, J.; Przeslawski, R.

    2011-04-01

    This study presents new information on the regional geochemical characteristics of deep-sea floor sediments (1300-2423 m water depth) on the Lord Howe Rise (deep-sea plateau) and Gifford Guyot (seamount/tablemount), remote areas off eastern Australia. The aim was to provide a coherent synthesis for a suite of geochemical data that can be used to make habitat inferences and to develop surrogates of biodiversity. Sediment characteristics analysed were mineralogy, organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations and isotopic compositions, and concentrations of major and trace elements. We also measured parameters that convey information about the reactivity of organic matter and on the bio-availability of bioactive trace elements (e.g., chlorin indices and acid-extractable elements). Surface sediments from the region were calcareous oozes that were carbon-lean (0.26±0.1%) and had moderate to high chlorin indices (0.62 - 0.97). With the exception of arsenic, inorganic element concentrations were generally low by global standards. Statistical and geochemical analyses identified two major dimensions of variation in the elemental composition: (i) the degree of mixing between the detrital sediment and carbonate end-members; and (ii) the concentrations of bio-available bioactive elements. The causes of compositional variation are discussed, and include: (i) a strong latitudinal gradient in detrital atmospheric dust deposition; (ii) size fractionation and cation exchange of dust components during transit (for non-carbonates); (iii) water depth controls on carbonate dissolution; and (iv) topographic/hydrodynamic focussing of reactive organic matter. Reactive organic matter indicators were not well correlated with water depth, and did not reflect the regional ocean productivity pattern. Basalt source signatures were not evident in the mineralogy or geochemistry of sediments overlying the seamount or in the vicinity of volcanoes.

  17. Deep-sea scleractinian coral age and depth distributions in the northwest Atlantic for the last 225,000 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, L.F.; Adkins, J.F.; Scheirer, D.S.; Fernandez, D.P.; Gagnon, A.; Waller, R.G.

    2007-01-01

    Deep-sea corals have grown for over 200,000 yrs on the New England Seamounts in the northwest Atlantic, and this paper describes their distribution both with respect to depth and time. Many thousands of fossil scleractinian corals were collected on a series of cruises from 2003-2005; by contrast, live ones were scarce. On these seamounts, the depth distribution of fossil Desmophyllum dianthus (Esper, 1794) is markedly different to that of the colonial scleractinian corals, extending 750 m deeper in the water column to a distinct cut-off at 2500 m. This cut-off is likely to be controlled by the maximum depth of a notch-shaped feature in the seamount morphology. The ages of D. dianthus corals as determined by U-series measurements range from modern to older than 200,000 yrs. The age distribution is not constant over time, and most corals have ages from the last glacial period. Within the glacial period, increases in coral population density at Muir and Manning Seamounts coincided with times at which large-scale ocean circulation changes have been documented in the deep North Atlantic. Ocean circulation changes have an effect on coral distributions, but the cause of the link is not known. ?? 2007 Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science of the University of Miami.

  18. Deep-Sea Research Submarine 'Ben Franklin'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    This is an aerial view of the deep-sea research submarine 'Ben Franklin' at dock. Named for American patriot and inventor Ben Franklin, who discovered the Gulf Steam, the 50-foot Ben Franklin was built between 1966 and 1968 in Switzerland for deep-ocean explorer Jacques Piccard and the Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation. The submersible made a famous 30-day drift dive off the East Coast of the United States and Canada in 1969 mapping the Gulf Stream's currents and sea life, and also made space exploration history by studying the behavior of aquanauts in a sealed, self-contained, self-sufficient capsule for NASA. On July 14, 1969, the Ben Franklin was towed to the high-velocity center of the Stream off the coast of Palm Beach, Florida. With a NASA observer on board, the sub descended to 1,000 feet off of Riviera Beach, Florida and drifted 1,400 miles north with the current for more than four weeks, reemerging near Maine. During the course of the dive, NASA conducted exhaustive analyses of virtually every aspect of onboard life. They measured sleep quality and patterns, sense of humor and behavioral shifts, physical reflexes, and the effects of a long-term routine on the crew. The submarine's record-shattering dive influenced the design of Apollo and Skylab missions and continued to guide NASA scientists as they devised future marned space-flight missions.

  19. Deep-Sea Submarine 'Ben Franklin'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The deep-sea submarine 'Ben Franklin' is being docked in the harbor. Named for American patriot and inventor Ben Franklin, who discovered the Gulf Steam, the 50-foot Ben Franklin was built between 1966 and 1968 in Switzerland for deep-ocean explorer Jacques Piccard and the Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation. The submersible made a famous 30-day drift dive off the East Coast of the United States and Canada in 1969 mapping the Gulf Stream's currents and sea life. It also made space exploration history by studying the behavior of aquanauts in a sealed, self-contained, self-sufficient capsule for NASA. On July 14, 1969, the Ben Franklin was towed to the high-velocity center of the Stream off the coast of Palm Beach, Florida. With a NASA observer on board, the sub descended to 1,000 feet off of Riviera Beach, Florida and drifted 1,400 miles north with the current for more than four weeks, reemerging near Maine. During the course of the dive, NASA conducted exhaustive analyses of virtually every aspect of onboard life. They measured sleep quality and patterns, sense of humor and behavioral shifts, physical reflexes, and the effect of a long-term routine on the crew. The submarine's record-shattering dive influenced the design of Apollo and Skylab missions and continued to guide NASA scientists as they devised future marned space-flight missions.

  20. A deep-sea sediment transport storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Thomas F.; Williams, A. J.; Newell, A. R. M.

    1988-02-01

    Photographs taken of the sea bottom since the 1960s suggest that sediments at great depth may be actively resuspended and redistributed1. Further, it has been suspected that active resus-pension/transport may be required to maintain elevated concentrations of particles in deep-sea nepheloid layers. But currents with sufficient energy to erode the bottom, and to maintain the particles in suspension, have not been observed concurrently with large concentrations of particles in the deep nepheloid layer2-4. The high-energy benthic boundary-layer experiment (HEBBLE) was designed to test the hypothesis that bed modifications can result from local erosion and deposition as modelled by simple one-dimensional local forcing mechanics5. We observed several 'storms' of high kinetic energy and near-bed flow associated with large concentrations of suspended sediment during the year-long deployments of moored instruments at the HEBBLE study site. These observations, at 4,880 m off the Nova Scotian Rise in the north-west Atlantic, indicate that large episodic events may suspend bottom sediments in areas well removed from coastal and shelf sources.

  1. Geomicrobiology of deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Jannasch, H W; Mottl, M J

    1985-08-23

    During the cycling of seawater through the earth's crust along the mid-ocean ridge system, geothermal energy is transferred into chemical energy in the form of reduced inorganic compounds. These compounds are derived from the reaction of seawater with crustal rocks at high temperatures and are emitted from warm (deep-sea communities are thus maintained primarily by terrestrial rather than by solar energy. Reduced sulfur compounds appear to represent the major electron donors for aerobic microbial metabolism, but methane-, hydrogen-, iron-, and manganese-oxidizing bacteria have also been found. Methanogenic, sulfur-respiring, and extremely thermophilic isolates carry out anaerobic chemosynthesis. Bacteria grow most abundantly in the shallow crust where upwelling hot, reducing hydrothermal fluid mixes with downwelling cold, oxygenated seawater. The predominant production of biomass, however, is the result of symbiotic associations between chemolithotrophic bacteria and certain invertebrates, which have also been found as fossils in Cretaceous sulfide ores of ophiolite deposits. PMID:17841485

  2. Oxygen isotopes in deep sea spherules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayeda, T. K.; Clayton, R. N.; Brownlee, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    The determination of the genetic relationships between the dust and small particles in the solar system, and the meteorites and larger bodies are examined. Oxygen isotopes proved useful in the identification of such relationships between one meteorite group and another. Of the various samples of submillimeter extraterrestrial particles available for laboratory study, only the deep sea spherules are abundant enough for precise oxygen isotope analysis using existing techniques. Complications arise in interpretation of the isotopic data, since these particles were melted during passage through the Earth's atmosphere, and have been in contact with seawater for prolonged periods. Spherules that were originally silicates are considered with the originally metallic ones to deduce their preterrestrial isotopic compositions. The type 1 spherules which enter the atmosphere as metallic particles, contain only atmospheric oxygen. The type S spherules contain a mixture of atmospheric oxygen and their original extraterrestrial oxygen. It is suggested that the Earth's mesosphere is strongly enriched in heavy isotopes of oxygen at altitudes near 90 km at which the iron particles are oxidized. Fractionation due to the combined diffusion of O atoms and O2 molecules may be responsible.

  3. Geomicrobiology of Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannasch, Holger W.; Mottl, Michael J.

    1985-08-01

    During the cycling of seawater through the earth's crust along the midocean ridge system, geothermal energy is transferred into chemical energy in the form of reduced inorganic compounds. These compounds are derived from the reaction of seawater with crustal rocks at high temperatures and are emitted from warm (<= 25 degrees C) and hot (~ 350 degrees C) submarine vents at depths of 2000 to 3000 meters. Chemolithotrophic bacteria use these reduced chemical species as sources of energy for the reduction of carbon dioxide (assimilation) to organic carbon. These bacteria form the base of the food chain, which permits copious populations of certain specifically adapted invertebrates to grow in the immediate vicinity of the vents. Such highly prolific, although narrowly localized, deep-sea communities are thus maintained primarily by terrestrial rather than by solar energy. Reduced sulfur compounds appear to represent the major electron donors for aerobic microbial metabolism, but methane-, hydrogen-, iron-, and manganese-oxidizing bacteria have also been found. Methanogenic, sulfur-respiring, and extremely thermophilic isolates carry out anaerobic chemosynthesis. Bacteria grow most abundantly in the shallow crust where upwelling hot, reducing hydrothermal fluid mixes with downwelling cold, oxygenated seawater. The predominant production of biomass, however, is the result of symbiotic associations between chemolithotrophic bacteria and certain invertebrates, which have also been found as fossils in Cretaceous sulfide ores of ophiolite deposits.

  4. Dispersal of volcaniclasts during deep-sea eruptions: Settling velocities and entrainment in buoyant seawater plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreyre, Thibaut; Soule, S. Adam; Sohn, Robert A.

    2011-08-01

    We use tank experiments to measure settling rates of deep-sea volcaniclastic material recovered from the Arctic (85°E Gakkel Ridge) and Pacific (Juan de Fuca Ridge, Loihi seamount) Oceans. We find that clast size and shape exert a strong influence on settling velocity, with velocities of ~ 30 cm/s for large (~ 8 mm), blocky clasts, compared to velocities of ~ 2.5 cm/s for small (< 0.5 mm), sheet-like clasts. We fit our observations to the generalized model of Ferguson and Church (2004) to establish empirical scaling laws for settling velocity, and then use these results to test the hypothesis that entrainment in a buoyant plume of hot seawater is an important dispersal mechanism for volcaniclastic material in the deep-sea (Clague et al., 2009). We superpose the observed settling rates on velocity fields generated with the Morton et al. (1956) model for turbulent plumes in stratified media to estimate the rise height of the clastic material under water column conditions corresponding to the Gakkel and Juan de Fuca (JdFR) Ridges, and then estimate dispersal distances assuming the grains settle to the seafloor while being advected in lateral currents. Dispersal distances in our model are a function plume strength (i.e., buoyancy flux), lateral current speeds, and clast settling velocity. Our model demonstrates that large (30 GW) eruption 'megaplumes' can loft volcaniclastic material more than a kilometer above the seafloor where entrainment in deep-sea currents can advect dominant clast types (~ 1 mm, blocky grains) up to a few hundred meters from a source vent. Small bubble-wall fragments (e.g., limu o Pele) entrained in a megaplume could be advected as far as a few kilometers from a source region. These results indicate that entrainment in buoyant seawater plumes during an eruption may play an important role in clast dispersal, but it is not clear if this mechanism can explain the distribution of volcaniclastic material at the sites on the Gakkel and Juan de Fuca

  5. Calibration of fossil scleraxonian Southern Ocean deep-sea corals for U-series dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutjahr, M.; Vance, D.; Hoffmann, D.; Hillenbrand, C.; Kuhn, G.

    2008-12-01

    The deep Southern Ocean has been pinpointed as candidate reservoir capable of storing the additional respired carbon that was drawn from the atmosphere during the Last Glacial Maximum compared with the present-day. In this context the determination of deep ocean ventilation ages is a commonly applied tool, potentially identifying radiocarbon depletion in glacial deep water and enhanced ocean stratification. In order to derive deep-sea ventilation ages most studies to date have used either radiocarbon age differences between paired planktic and benthic foraminifera samples or coupled U-Th and radiocarbon dates obtained from aragonitic deep-sea corals. Results from both these approaches are, however, as yet very scarce for the Southern Ocean. We present calendar ages for a set of deep-sea scleraxonian corals from the Marie Byrd Seamounts in the Amundsen Sea sector of the Southern Ocean (~123°W, ~69°S, 2500 m to 1430 m water depth) employing the 230Th/U-dating method. The aim of our study is to evaluate whether these calcitic octocorals can be used for ventilation age determinations. Our corals have significantly lower uranium concentrations than aragonitic deep-sea corals, ranging from 80 to 250 ng/g. Most corals of Holocene age reproduced the present-day seawater 234U/238U. Pre-Holocene corals, however, show a systematic enrichment of 234U, leading to slightly elevated deglacial initial 234U/238U and significantly higher 234U/238U for ~MIS5 sub-samples. These corals also appear to grow very slowly, on the order of only few μm/year, making it essential to sample as little coral material as possible for combined 230Th/U- and radiocarbon dating purposes. One coral, sampled at high-resolution in various sections returned ages that scatter around 10 ka BP and the early deglaciation, though several significantly older ages were obtained as well. The present-day (234U/238U) ACT in different sections of this coral is very homogenous (1.155 ± 0.003) and more or less

  6. Changes in nematode communities in different physiographic sites of the condor seamount (north-East atlantic ocean) and adjacent sediments.

    PubMed

    Zeppilli, Daniela; Bongiorni, Lucia; Serrão Santos, Ricardo; Vanreusel, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Several seamounts are known as 'oases' of high abundances and biomass and hotspots of biodiversity in contrast to the surrounding deep-sea environments. Recent studies have indicated that each single seamount can exhibit a high intricate habitat turnover. Information on alpha and beta diversity of single seamount is needed in order to fully understand seamounts contribution to regional and global biodiversity. However, while most of the seamount research has been focused on summits, studies considering the whole seamount structure are still rather poor. In the present study we analysed abundance, biomass and diversity of nematodes collected in distinct physiographic sites and surrounding sediments of the Condor Seamount (Azores, North-East Atlantic Ocean). Our study revealed higher nematode biomass in the seamount bases and values 10 times higher in the Condor sediments than in the far-field site. Although biodiversity indices did not showed significant differences comparing seamount sites and far-field sites, significant differences were observed in term of nematode composition. The Condor summit harboured a completely different nematode community when compared to the other seamount sites, with a high number of exclusive species and important differences in term of nematode trophic diversity. The oceanographic conditions observed around the Condor Seamount and the associated sediment mixing, together with the high quality of food resources available in seamount base could explain the observed patterns. Our results support the hypothesis that seamounts maintain high biodiversity through heightened beta diversity and showed that not only summits but also seamount bases can support rich benthic community in terms of standing stocks and diversity. Furthermore functional diversity of nematodes strongly depends on environmental conditions link to the local setting and seamount structure. This finding should be considered in future studies on seamounts, especially in

  7. Changes in Nematode Communities in Different Physiographic Sites of the Condor Seamount (North-East Atlantic Ocean) and Adjacent Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Zeppilli, Daniela; Bongiorni, Lucia; Serrão Santos, Ricardo; Vanreusel, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Several seamounts are known as ‘oases’ of high abundances and biomass and hotspots of biodiversity in contrast to the surrounding deep-sea environments. Recent studies have indicated that each single seamount can exhibit a high intricate habitat turnover. Information on alpha and beta diversity of single seamount is needed in order to fully understand seamounts contribution to regional and global biodiversity. However, while most of the seamount research has been focused on summits, studies considering the whole seamount structure are still rather poor. In the present study we analysed abundance, biomass and diversity of nematodes collected in distinct physiographic sites and surrounding sediments of the Condor Seamount (Azores, North-East Atlantic Ocean). Our study revealed higher nematode biomass in the seamount bases and values 10 times higher in the Condor sediments than in the far-field site. Although biodiversity indices did not showed significant differences comparing seamount sites and far-field sites, significant differences were observed in term of nematode composition. The Condor summit harboured a completely different nematode community when compared to the other seamount sites, with a high number of exclusive species and important differences in term of nematode trophic diversity. The oceanographic conditions observed around the Condor Seamount and the associated sediment mixing, together with the high quality of food resources available in seamount base could explain the observed patterns. Our results support the hypothesis that seamounts maintain high biodiversity through heightened beta diversity and showed that not only summits but also seamount bases can support rich benthic community in terms of standing stocks and diversity. Furthermore functional diversity of nematodes strongly depends on environmental conditions link to the local setting and seamount structure. This finding should be considered in future studies on seamounts, especially in

  8. Patterns of Deep-Sea Genetic Connectivity in the New Zealand Region: Implications for Management of Benthic Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Bors, Eleanor K.; Rowden, Ashley A.; Maas, Elizabeth W.; Clark, Malcolm R.; Shank, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    Patterns of genetic connectivity are increasingly considered in the design of marine protected areas (MPAs) in both shallow and deep water. In the New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), deep-sea communities at upper bathyal depths (<2000 m) are vulnerable to anthropogenic disturbance from fishing and potential mining operations. Currently, patterns of genetic connectivity among deep-sea populations throughout New Zealand’s EEZ are not well understood. Using the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I and 16S rRNA genes as genetic markers, this study aimed to elucidate patterns of genetic connectivity among populations of two common benthic invertebrates with contrasting life history strategies. Populations of the squat lobster Munida gracilis and the polychaete Hyalinoecia longibranchiata were sampled from continental slope, seamount, and offshore rise habitats on the Chatham Rise, Hikurangi Margin, and Challenger Plateau. For the polychaete, significant population structure was detected among distinct populations on the Chatham Rise, the Hikurangi Margin, and the Challenger Plateau. Significant genetic differences existed between slope and seamount populations on the Hikurangi Margin, as did evidence of population differentiation between the northeast and southwest parts of the Chatham Rise. In contrast, no significant population structure was detected across the study area for the squat lobster. Patterns of genetic connectivity in Hyalinoecia longibranchiata are likely influenced by a number of factors including current regimes that operate on varying spatial and temporal scales to produce potential barriers to dispersal. The striking difference in population structure between species can be attributed to differences in life history strategies. The results of this study are discussed in the context of existing conservation areas that are intended to manage anthropogenic threats to deep-sea benthic communities in the New Zealand region. PMID:23185341

  9. Food web structure and vulnerability of a deep-sea ecosystem in the NW Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tecchio, Samuele; Coll, Marta; Christensen, Villy; Company, Joan B.; Ramírez-Llodra, Eva; Sardà, Francisco

    2013-05-01

    There is increasing fishing pressure on the continental margins of the oceans, and this raises concerns about the vulnerability of the ecosystems thriving there. The current knowledge of the biology of deep-water fish species identifies potential reduced resilience to anthropogenic disturbance. However, there are extreme difficulties in sampling the deep sea, resulting in poorly resolved and indirectly obtained food-web relationships. Here, we modelled the flows and biomasses of a Mediterranean deep-sea ecosystem, the Catalan Sea continental slope at depths of 1000-1400 m. This is the first model of a deep-water ecosystem in the Mediterranean Sea. The objectives were to (a) quantitatively describe the food web structure of the ecosystem, (b) examine the role of key species in the ecosystem, and (c) explore the vulnerability of this deep-sea ecosystem to potential future fishing exploitation. We used the Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) modelling approach and software to model the ecosystem. The trophic model included 18 consumers, a marine snow group, and a sediment detritus group. Trophic network analysis identified low levels of consumer biomass cycling and low system omnivory index when compared with expected values of marine ecosystems, and higher cycling and omnivory when compared with available EwE models of shallower areas of the Mediterranean Sea. The majority of flows in the ecosystem were concentrated at the trophic level of first-order consumers (TL 2). Benthic invertebrates and demersal sharks were identified to have key ecological roles in the ecosystem. We used the dynamic temporal model Ecosim to simulate expansion of the red-shrimp benthic trawl fishery that currently operates at shallower depths, down to 800 m depth. The simulations showed reductions in fish biomass and that the state of the deep continental slope ecosystem in the western Mediterranean seems to be the result of a long-term succession process, which has reached ecological stability, and is

  10. The MEUST deep sea infrastructure in the Toulon site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamare, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The MEUST infrastructure (Mediterranean Eurocentre for Underwater Sciences and Technologies) is a permanent deep sea cabled infrastructure currently being deployed off shore of Toulon, France. The design and the status of the infrastructure are presented.

  11. Challenging the paradigms of deep-sea ecology.

    PubMed

    Danovaro, Roberto; Snelgrove, Paul V R; Tyler, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Deep-sea ecosystems represent Earth's major ecological research frontier. Focusing on seafloor ecosystems, we demonstrate how new technologies underpin discoveries that challenge major ecological hypotheses and paradigms, illuminating new deep-sea geosphere-biosphere interactions. We now recognize greater habitat complexity, new ecological interactions and the importance of 'dark energy', and chemosynthetic production in fuelling biodiversity. We also acknowledge functional hotspots that contradict a food-poor, metabolically inactive, and minor component of global carbon cycles. Symbioses appear widespread, revealing novel adaptations. Populations show complex spatial structure and evolutionary histories. These new findings redefine deep-sea ecology and the role of Earth's largest biome in global biosphere functioning. Indeed, deep-sea exploration can open new perspectives in ecological research to help mitigate exploitation impacts. PMID:25001598

  12. Small-scale patterns of deep-sea fish distributions and assemblages of the Grand Banks, Newfoundland continental slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Krista D.; Haedrich, Richard L.; Snelgrove, Paul V. R.; Wareham, Vonda E.; Edinger, Evan N.; Gilkinson, Kent D.

    Deep-sea fishes are the target of directed fisheries and are considered a conservation concern. Yet, we still know little about the factors that affect deep-sea fish distributions and assemblage patterns on relatively small spatial scales. We used results from remotely operated vehicle surveys that observed 105 km (˜346 960 m2) of seafloor over a depth range of 351-2245 m in three canyons off Newfoundland to examine the occurrence, behavior, habitat specificity, and regional assemblage patterns of deep-sea fishes in this region. We found distinct assemblages based on both depth and habitat classifications. The most obvious unique assemblage was that associated with outcrops, which served as habitat for relatively rare species such as Neocyttus helgae, Hoplostethus atlanticus, and Lepidion eques. Several coral habitats hosted distinct assemblages when compared to other habitats with low or medium structural complexity. Our results illustrate that any program targeted at protecting deep-sea ecosystems must protect a wide-range of habitats and depths to conserve a variety of fish species and assemblages.

  13. Erbium-doped fiber lasers as deep-sea hydrophones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnoli, P. E.; Beverini, N.; Bouhadef, B.; Castorina, E.; Falchini, E.; Falciai, R.; Flaminio, V.; Maccioni, E.; Morganti, M.; Sorrentino, F.; Stefani, F.; Trono, C.

    2006-11-01

    The present work describes the development of a hydrophone prototype for deep-sea acoustic detection. The base-sensitive element is a single-mode erbium-doped fiber laser. The high sensitivity of these sensors makes them particularly suitable for a wide range of deep-sea acoustic applications, including geological and marine mammals surveys and above all as acoustic detectors in under-water telescopes for high-energy neutrinos.

  14. Two major Cenozoic episodes of phosphogenesis recorded in equatorial Pacific seamount deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, J.R.; Hsueh-Wen, Yeh; Gunn, S.H.; Sliter, W.V.; Benninger, L.M.; Chung-Ho, Wang

    1993-01-01

    The phosphorites occur in a wide variety of forms, but most commonly carbonate fluorapatite (CFA) replaced middle Eocene and older carbonate sediment in a deep water environment (>1000 m). Element ratios distinguish seamount phosphorites from continental margin, plateau, and insular phosphorites. Uranium and thorium contents are low and total rare earch element (REE) contents are generally high. The paleoceanographic conditions initiated and sustained development of phosphorite by accumulation of dissolved phosphorus in the deep sea during relatively stable climatic conditions when oceanic circulation was sluggish. Fluctuations in climate, sealevel, and upwelling that accompanied the climate transitions may have driven cycles of enrichment and depletion of the deep-sea phosphorus reservoir. -from Authors

  15. Deep-Sea Hydrothermal-Vent Sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto E.; Venkateswaran, Kasthur; Matthews, Jaret B.

    2008-01-01

    An apparatus is being developed for sampling water for signs of microbial life in an ocean hydrothermal vent at a depth of as much as 6.5 km. Heretofore, evidence of microbial life in deep-sea hydrothermal vents has been elusive and difficult to validate. Because of the extreme conditions in these environments (high pressures and temperatures often in excess of 300 C), deep-sea hydrothermal- vent samplers must be robust. Because of the presumed low density of biomass of these environments, samplers must be capable of collecting water samples of significant volume. It is also essential to prevent contamination of samples by microbes entrained from surrounding waters. Prior to the development of the present apparatus, no sampling device was capable of satisfying these requirements. The apparatus (see figure) includes an intake equipped with a temperature probe, plus several other temperature probes located away from the intake. The readings from the temperature probes are utilized in conjunction with readings from flowmeters to determine the position of the intake relative to the hydrothermal plume and, thereby, to position the intake to sample directly from the plume. Because it is necessary to collect large samples of water in order to obtain sufficient microbial biomass but it is not practical to retain all the water from the samples, four filter arrays are used to concentrate the microbial biomass (which is assumed to consist of particles larger than 0.2 m) into smaller volumes. The apparatus can collect multiple samples per dive and is designed to process a total volume of 10 L of vent fluid, of which most passes through the filters, leaving a total possibly-microbe-containing sample volume of 200 mL remaining in filters. A rigid titanium nose at the intake is used for cooling the sample water before it enters a flexible inlet hose connected to a pump. As the water passes through the titanium nose, it must be cooled to a temperature that is above a mineral

  16. Strain-level genomic variation in natural populations of Lebetimonas from an erupting deep-sea volcano

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Julie L; Huber, Julie A

    2014-01-01

    Chemolithoautotrophic Epsilonproteobacteria are ubiquitous in sulfidic, oxygen-poor habitats, including hydrothermal vents, marine oxygen minimum zones, marine sediments and sulfidic caves and have a significant role in cycling carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur in these environments. The isolation of diverse strains of Epsilonproteobacteria and the sequencing of their genomes have revealed that this group has the metabolic potential to occupy a wide range of niches, particularly at dynamic deep-sea hydrothermal vents. We expand on this body of work by examining the population genomics of six strains of Lebetimonas, a vent-endemic, thermophilic, hydrogen-oxidizing Epsilonproteobacterium, from a single seamount in the Mariana Arc. Using Lebetimonas as a model for anaerobic, moderately thermophilic organisms in the warm, anoxic subseafloor environment, we show that genomic content is highly conserved and that recombination is limited between closely related strains. The Lebetimonas genomes are shaped by mobile genetic elements and gene loss as well as the acquisition of novel functional genes by horizontal gene transfer, which provide the potential for adaptation and microbial speciation in the deep sea. In addition, these Lebetimonas genomes contain two operons of nitrogenase genes with different evolutionary origins. Lebetimonas expressed nifH during growth with nitrogen gas as the sole nitrogen source, thus providing the first evidence of nitrogen fixation in any Epsilonproteobacteria from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. In this study, we provide a comparative overview of the genomic potential within the Nautiliaceae as well as among more distantly related hydrothermal vent Epsilonproteobacteria to broaden our understanding of microbial adaptation and diversity in the deep sea. PMID:24257443

  17. Ectoparasitism on deep-sea fishes in the western North Atlantic: In situ observations from ROV surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quattrini, Andrea; Demopoulos, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    A complete understanding of how parasites influence marine ecosystem functioning requires characterizing a broad range of parasite-host interactions while determining the effects of parasitism in a variety of habitats. In deep-sea fishes, the prevalence of parasitism remains poorly understood. Knowledge of ectoparasitism, in particular, is limited because collection methods often cause dislodgment of ectoparasites from their hosts. High-definition video collected during 43 remotely operated vehicle surveys (2013–2014) provided the opportunity to examine ectoparasitism on fishes across habitats (open slope, canyon, seamount, cold seep) and depths (494–4689 m) off the northeastern U.S., while providing high-resolution images and valuable observations of fish behavior. Only 9% (n = 125 individuals) of all observed fishes (25 species) were confirmed with ectoparasites, but higher percentages (∼33%) were observed for some of the most abundant fish species (e.g., Antimora rostrata). Ectoparasites included two copepod families (Lernaeopodidae, Sphyriidae) that infected four host species, two isopod families (Cymothoidae, Aegidae) that infected three host species, and one isopod family (Gnathiidae) that infected 19 host species. Hyperparasitism was also observed. As host diversity declined with depth, ectoparasite diversity declined; only gnathiids were observed at depths down to 3260 m. Thus, gnathiids appear to be the most successful group to infect a diversity of fishes across a broad depth range in the deep sea. For three dominant fishes (A. rostrata, Nezumia bairdii, Synaphobranchus spp.), the abundance and intensity of ectoparasitism peaked in different depths and habitats depending on the host species examined. Notably, gnathiid infections were most intense on A. rostrata, particularly in submarine canyons, suggesting that these habitats may increase ectoparasite infections. Although ectoparasitism is often overlooked in deep-sea benthic communities

  18. Ectoparasitism on deep-sea fishes in the western North Atlantic: In situ observations from ROV surveys.

    PubMed

    Quattrini, Andrea M; Demopoulos, Amanda W J

    2016-12-01

    A complete understanding of how parasites influence marine ecosystem functioning requires characterizing a broad range of parasite-host interactions while determining the effects of parasitism in a variety of habitats. In deep-sea fishes, the prevalence of parasitism remains poorly understood. Knowledge of ectoparasitism, in particular, is limited because collection methods often cause dislodgment of ectoparasites from their hosts. High-definition video collected during 43 remotely operated vehicle surveys (2013-2014) provided the opportunity to examine ectoparasitism on fishes across habitats (open slope, canyon, seamount, cold seep) and depths (494-4689 m) off the northeastern U.S., while providing high-resolution images and valuable observations of fish behavior. Only 9% (n = 125 individuals) of all observed fishes (25 species) were confirmed with ectoparasites, but higher percentages (∼33%) were observed for some of the most abundant fish species (e.g., Antimora rostrata). Ectoparasites included two copepod families (Lernaeopodidae, Sphyriidae) that infected four host species, two isopod families (Cymothoidae, Aegidae) that infected three host species, and one isopod family (Gnathiidae) that infected 19 host species. Hyperparasitism was also observed. As host diversity declined with depth, ectoparasite diversity declined; only gnathiids were observed at depths down to 3260 m. Thus, gnathiids appear to be the most successful group to infect a diversity of fishes across a broad depth range in the deep sea. For three dominant fishes (A. rostrata, Nezumia bairdii, Synaphobranchus spp.), the abundance and intensity of ectoparasitism peaked in different depths and habitats depending on the host species examined. Notably, gnathiid infections were most intense on A. rostrata, particularly in submarine canyons, suggesting that these habitats may increase ectoparasite infections. Although ectoparasitism is often overlooked in deep-sea benthic communities, our

  19. Challenging Oil Bioremediation at Deep-Sea Hydrostatic Pressure.

    PubMed

    Scoma, Alberto; Yakimov, Michail M; Boon, Nico

    2016-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon accident has brought oil contamination of deep-sea environments to worldwide attention. The risk for new deep-sea spills is not expected to decrease in the future, as political pressure mounts to access deep-water fossil reserves, and poorly tested technologies are used to access oil. This also applies to the response to oil-contamination events, with bioremediation the only (bio)technology presently available to combat deep-sea spills. Many questions about the fate of petroleum-hydrocarbons within deep-sea environments remain unanswered, as well as the main constraints limiting bioremediation under increased hydrostatic pressures and low temperatures. The microbial pathways fueling oil bioassimilation are unclear, and the mild upregulation observed for beta-oxidation-related genes in both water and sediments contrasts with the high amount of alkanes present in the spilled oil. The fate of solid alkanes (tar), hydrocarbon degradation rates and the reason why the most predominant hydrocarbonoclastic genera were not enriched at deep-sea despite being present at hydrocarbon seeps at the Gulf of Mexico have been largely overlooked. This mini-review aims at highlighting the missing information in the field, proposing a holistic approach where in situ and ex situ studies are integrated to reveal the principal mechanisms accounting for deep-sea oil bioremediation. PMID:27536290

  20. Challenging Oil Bioremediation at Deep-Sea Hydrostatic Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Scoma, Alberto; Yakimov, Michail M.; Boon, Nico

    2016-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon accident has brought oil contamination of deep-sea environments to worldwide attention. The risk for new deep-sea spills is not expected to decrease in the future, as political pressure mounts to access deep-water fossil reserves, and poorly tested technologies are used to access oil. This also applies to the response to oil-contamination events, with bioremediation the only (bio)technology presently available to combat deep-sea spills. Many questions about the fate of petroleum-hydrocarbons within deep-sea environments remain unanswered, as well as the main constraints limiting bioremediation under increased hydrostatic pressures and low temperatures. The microbial pathways fueling oil bioassimilation are unclear, and the mild upregulation observed for beta-oxidation-related genes in both water and sediments contrasts with the high amount of alkanes present in the spilled oil. The fate of solid alkanes (tar), hydrocarbon degradation rates and the reason why the most predominant hydrocarbonoclastic genera were not enriched at deep-sea despite being present at hydrocarbon seeps at the Gulf of Mexico have been largely overlooked. This mini-review aims at highlighting the missing information in the field, proposing a holistic approach where in situ and ex situ studies are integrated to reveal the principal mechanisms accounting for deep-sea oil bioremediation. PMID:27536290

  1. 46 CFR 167.40-20 - Deep-sea sounding apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SHIPS Certain Equipment Requirements § 167.40-20 Deep-sea sounding apparatus. Nautical school ships shall be equipped with an efficient or electronic deep-sea sounding apparatus. The electronic deep-sea... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Deep-sea sounding apparatus. 167.40-20 Section...

  2. 46 CFR 167.40-20 - Deep-sea sounding apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SHIPS Certain Equipment Requirements § 167.40-20 Deep-sea sounding apparatus. Nautical school ships shall be equipped with an efficient or electronic deep-sea sounding apparatus. The electronic deep-sea... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deep-sea sounding apparatus. 167.40-20 Section...

  3. Abundance of litter on Condor seamount (Azores, Portugal, Northeast Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, C. K.; Gomes-Pereira, J. N.; Isidro, E. J.; Santos, R. S.; Morato, T.

    2013-12-01

    Marine litter is an emerging problem for the world's ocean health but little is known on its distribution and abundance on seamounts and how it affects deep-sea ecosystems. The scientific underwater laboratory set up on Condor seamount offered an ideal case study for the first documentation of litter distribution on a shallow seamount with historical fishing. A total of 48 video transects deployed on the summit (n=45) and the northern flank (n=3) covered an area of 0.031 and 0.025km2, respectively, revealing 55 litter items. Litter density on the summit was 1439 litter items km-2, whilst on the deeper northern flank, estimates indicate densities of 397 litter items km-2. Lost fishing line was the dominant litter item encountered on both areas (73% of total litter on the summit and 50% on northern flank), all being entirely or partly entangled in the locally abundant gorgonians Dentomuricea cf. meteor and Viminella flagellum. Other items included lost weights, anchors and glass bottles. The predominance of lost fishing gear identifies the source of litter on Condor seamount as exclusively ocean-based and related to fishing activities. Abundance of litter on the Condor seamount was much lower than that reported from other locations closer to populated areas.

  4. Microdiversity of Deep-Sea Bacillales Isolated from Tyrrhenian Sea Sediments as Revealed by ARISA, 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing and BOX-PCR Fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Ettoumi, Besma; Guesmi, Amel; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Borin, Sara; Najjari, Afef; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Cherif, Ameur

    2013-01-01

    With respect to their terrestrial relatives, marine Bacillales have not been sufficiently investigated. In this report, the diversity of deep-sea Bacillales, isolated from seamount and non-seamount stations at 3,425 to 3,580 m depth in the Tyrrhenian Sea, was investigated using PCR fingerprinting and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The isolate collection (n=120) was de-replicated by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA), and phylogenetic diversity was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of representatives of each ARISA haplotype (n=37). Phylogenetic analysis of isolates showed their affiliation to six different genera of low G+C% content Gram-positive Bacillales: Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Exiguobacterium, Paenibacillus, Lysinibacillus and Terribacillus. Bacillus was the dominant genus represented by the species B. licheniformis, B. pumilus, B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens and B. firmus, typically isolated from marine sediments. The most abundant species in the collection was B. licheniformis (n=85), which showed seven distinct ARISA haplotypes with haplotype H8 being the most dominant since it was identified by 63 isolates. The application of BOX-PCR fingerprinting to the B. licheniformis sub-collection allowed their separation into five distinct BOX genotypes, suggesting a high level of intraspecies diversity among marine B. licheniformis strains. This species also exhibited distinct strain distribution between seamount and non-seamount stations and was shown to be highly prevalent in non-seamount stations. This study revealed the great microdiversity of marine Bacillales and contributes to understanding the biogeographic distribution of marine bacteria in deep-sea sediments. PMID:24005887

  5. Microdiversity of deep-sea Bacillales isolated from Tyrrhenian sea sediments as revealed by ARISA, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and BOX-PCR fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Ettoumi, Besma; Guesmi, Amel; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Borin, Sara; Najjari, Afef; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Cherif, Ameur

    2013-01-01

    With respect to their terrestrial relatives, marine Bacillales have not been sufficiently investigated. In this report, the diversity of deep-sea Bacillales, isolated from seamount and non-seamount stations at 3,425 to 3,580 m depth in the Tyrrhenian Sea, was investigated using PCR fingerprinting and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The isolate collection (n=120) was de-replicated by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA), and phylogenetic diversity was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of representatives of each ARISA haplotype (n=37). Phylogenetic analysis of isolates showed their affiliation to six different genera of low G+C% content Gram-positive Bacillales: Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Exiguobacterium, Paenibacillus, Lysinibacillus and Terribacillus. Bacillus was the dominant genus represented by the species B. licheniformis, B. pumilus, B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens and B. firmus, typically isolated from marine sediments. The most abundant species in the collection was B. licheniformis (n=85), which showed seven distinct ARISA haplotypes with haplotype H8 being the most dominant since it was identified by 63 isolates. The application of BOX-PCR fingerprinting to the B. licheniformis sub-collection allowed their separation into five distinct BOX genotypes, suggesting a high level of intraspecies diversity among marine B. licheniformis strains. This species also exhibited distinct strain distribution between seamount and non-seamount stations and was shown to be highly prevalent in non-seamount stations. This study revealed the great microdiversity of marine Bacillales and contributes to understanding the biogeographic distribution of marine bacteria in deep-sea sediments. PMID:24005887

  6. A ubiquitous thermoacidophilic archaeon from deep-sea hydrothermal vents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reysenbach, A.-L.; Liu, Yajing; Banta, A.B.; Beveridge, T.J.; Kirshtein, J.D.; Schouten, S.; Tivey, M.K.; Von Damm, K. L.; Voytek, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are important in global biogeochemical cycles, providing biological oases at the sea floor that are supported by the thermal and chemical flux from the Earth's interior. As hot, acidic and reduced hydrothermal fluids mix with cold, alkaline and oxygenated sea water, minerals precipitate to form porous sulphide-sulphate deposits. These structures provide microhabitats for a diversity of prokaryotes that exploit the geochemical and physical gradients in this dynamic ecosystem. It has been proposed that fluid pH in the actively venting sulphide structures is generally low (pH < 4.5), yet no extreme thermoacidophile has been isolated from vent deposits. Culture-independent surveys based on ribosomal RNA genes from deep-sea hydrothermal deposits have identified a widespread euryarchaeotal lineage, DHVE2 (deep-sea hydrothermal vent euryarchaeotic 2). Despite the ubiquity and apparent deep-sea endemism of DHVE2, cultivation of this group has been unsuccessful and thus its metabolism remains a mystery. Here we report the isolation and cultivation of a member of the DHVE2 group, which is an obligate thermoacidophilic sulphur- or iron-reducing heterotroph capable of growing from pH 3.3 to 5.8 and between 55 and 75??C. In addition, we demonstrate that this isolate constitutes up to 15% of the archaeal population, providing evidence that thermoacidophiles may be key players in the sulphur and iron cycling at deep-sea vents. ?? 2006 Nature Publishing Group.

  7. Species-specific bioluminescence facilitates speciation in the deep sea.

    PubMed

    Davis, Matthew P; Holcroft, Nancy I; Wiley, Edward O; Sparks, John S; Leo Smith, W

    2014-01-01

    The vast darkness of the deep sea is an environment with few obvious genetic isolating barriers, and little is known regarding the macroevolutionary processes that have shaped present-day biodiversity in this habitat. Bioluminescence, the production and emission of light from a living organism through a chemical reaction, is thought to occur in approximately 80 % of the eukaryotic life that inhabits the deep sea (water depth greater than 200 m). In this study, we show, for the first time, that deep-sea fishes that possess species-specific bioluminescent structures (e.g., lanternfishes, dragonfishes) are diversifying into new species at a more rapid rate than deep-sea fishes that utilize bioluminescence in ways that would not promote isolation of populations (e.g., camouflage, predation). This work adds to our understanding of how life thrives and evolution shaped present-day biodiversity in the deep sea, the largest and arguably least explored habitat on earth. PMID:24771948

  8. A ubiquitous thermoacidophilic archaeon from deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Reysenbach, Anna-Louise; Liu, Yitai; Banta, Amy B; Beveridge, Terry J; Kirshtein, Julie D; Schouten, Stefan; Tivey, Margaret K; Von Damm, Karen L; Voytek, Mary A

    2006-07-27

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are important in global biogeochemical cycles, providing biological oases at the sea floor that are supported by the thermal and chemical flux from the Earth's interior. As hot, acidic and reduced hydrothermal fluids mix with cold, alkaline and oxygenated sea water, minerals precipitate to form porous sulphide-sulphate deposits. These structures provide microhabitats for a diversity of prokaryotes that exploit the geochemical and physical gradients in this dynamic ecosystem. It has been proposed that fluid pH in the actively venting sulphide structures is generally low (pH < 4.5), yet no extreme thermoacidophile has been isolated from vent deposits. Culture-independent surveys based on ribosomal RNA genes from deep-sea hydrothermal deposits have identified a widespread euryarchaeotal lineage, DHVE2 (deep-sea hydrothermal vent euryarchaeotic 2). Despite the ubiquity and apparent deep-sea endemism of DHVE2, cultivation of this group has been unsuccessful and thus its metabolism remains a mystery. Here we report the isolation and cultivation of a member of the DHVE2 group, which is an obligate thermoacidophilic sulphur- or iron-reducing heterotroph capable of growing from pH 3.3 to 5.8 and between 55 and 75 degrees C. In addition, we demonstrate that this isolate constitutes up to 15% of the archaeal population, providing evidence that thermoacidophiles may be key players in the sulphur and iron cycling at deep-sea vents. PMID:16871216

  9. Orbital forcing of deep-sea benthic species diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, T. M.; Raymo, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    Explanations for the temporal and spatial patterns of species biodiversity focus on stability-time, disturbance-mosaic (biogenic microhabitat heterogeneity) and competition-predation (biotic interactions) hypotheses. The stability-time hypothesis holds that high species diversity in the deep sea and in the tropics reflects long-term climatic stability. But the influence of climate change on deep-sea diversity has not been studied and recent evidence suggests that deep-sea environments undergo changes in climatically driven temperature and flux of nutrients and organic-carbon during glacial-interglacial cycles. Here we show that Pliocene (2.85-2.40 Myr) deep-sea North Atlantic benthic ostracod (Crustacea) species diversity is related to solar insolation changes caused by 41,000-yr cycles of Earth's obliquity (tilt). Temporal changes in diversity, as measured by the Shannon- Weiner index, H(S), correlate with independent climate indicators of benthic foraminiferal oxygen-isotope ratios (mainly ice volume) and ostracod Mg:Ca ratios (bottomwater temperature). During glacial periods, H(S) = 0.2-0.6, whereas during interglacials, H(S) = 1.2-1.6, which is three to four times as high. The control of deep-sea benthic diversity by cyclic climate change at timescales of 103-104 yr does not support the stability-time hypothesis because it shows that the deep sea is a temporally dynamic environment. Diversity oscillations reflect large-scale response of the benthic community to climatically driven changes in either thermohaline circulation, bottom temperature (or temperature-related factors) and food, and a coupling of benthic diversity to surface productivity.

  10. Iron oxidation and biomineralization by Mariprofundus ferrooxydans, a deep-sea microaerophilic lithoautotroph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, C. S.; Emerson, D.; Fakra, S.; Edwards, K. J.

    2007-12-01

    The ocean crust contains a large reservoir of reduced iron, available for microbial energy generation. Some of this ferrous iron is mobilized by fluids in hydrothermal fields at seamounts and mid-ocean ridges. A microaerophilic iron oxidizer, Mariprofundus ferrooxydans has been identified (by molecular methods and microscopy) at various sites, and appears to be a key iron-oxidizing bacterium (FeOB) in the deep sea. Originally isolated from microbial mats near vents at the Loihi Seamount in Hawaii, Mariprofundus is distinctive because it forms an extracellular iron-mineralized stalk-like structure. We aim to understand its metabolism and mineral formation using a multidisciplinary approach, including electron microscopy, x-ray spectroscopy, time-lapse light microscopic imaging of live cells, and genomic and biochemical analyses. Microscopy and spectroscopy work shows that as the cells grow, they excretes iron and organic-rich fibrils that make up the stalk, at a rate of ~2 microns/hr. Stalk growth appears to be parallel to the direction of Fe and oxygen gradients. The Mariprofundus genome contains several terminal oxidases/peroxidases, including two cbb3-type cytochrome oxidases with a high affinity for oxygen, consistent with the microaerophilic lifestyle of these organisms. However, we have not identified genes for metabolisms other than aerobic iron oxidation, nor have we found any genes similar to known or suspected iron oxidases, though the genome (2.87 Mb) is rich in cytochromes (32 of 2922 genes). Thus, we are performing experiments to extract and analyze proteins from both cultured and environmental samples in order to find ones that will oxidize iron. UV-Vis spectra of extracts suggest that c-type cytochromes are particularly abundant, so these are candidates for further investigation. In combination with the microscopy and spectroscopy studies, these are the first steps towards understanding the complete pathway of iron from uptake through mineral

  11. Characterization of Deep Sea Fish Gut Bacteria with Antagonistic Potential, from Centroscyllium fabricii (Deep Sea Shark).

    PubMed

    Bindiya, E S; Tina, K J; Raghul, Subin S; Bhat, Sarita G

    2015-06-01

    The bacterial isolates from Centroscyllium fabricii (deep sea shark) gut were screened for antagonistic activity by cross-streak method and disc diffusion assay. This study focuses on strain BTSS-3, which showed antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria including Salmonella Typhimurium, Proteus vulgaris, Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus macerans and Bacillus pumilus. BTSS3 was subjected to phenotypic characterization using biochemical tests, SEM imaging, exoenzyme profiling and antibiotic susceptibility tests. Comparative 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis indicated that this strain belonged to the genus Bacillus, with high (98%) similarity to 16S rDNA sequences of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The chemical nature of the antibacterial substance was identified by treatment with proteolytic enzymes. The antibacterial activity was reduced by the action of these enzymes pointing out its peptide nature. It was observed from the growth and production kinetics that the bacteriocin was produced in the eighth hour of incubation, i.e., during the mid-log growth phase of the bacteria. PMID:25740801

  12. Light and vision in the deep-sea benthos: II. Vision in deep-sea crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Frank, Tamara M; Johnsen, Sönke; Cronin, Thomas W

    2012-10-01

    Using new collecting techniques with the Johnson-Sea-Link submersible, eight species of deep-sea benthic crustaceans were collected with intact visual systems. Their spectral sensitivities and temporal resolutions were determined shipboard using electroretinography. Useable spectral sensitivity data were obtained from seven species, and in the dark-adapted eyes, the spectral sensitivity peaks were in the blue region of the visible spectrum, ranging from 470 to 497 nm. Under blue chromatic adaptation, a secondary sensitivity peak in the UV portion of the spectrum appeared for two species of anomuran crabs: Eumunida picta (λ(max)363 nm) and Gastroptychus spinifer (λ(max)383 nm). Wavelength-specific differences in response waveforms under blue chromatic adaptation in these two species suggest that two populations of photoreceptor cells are present. Temporal resolution was determined in all eight species using the maximum critical flicker frequency (CFF(max)). The CFF(max) for the isopod Booralana tricarinata of 4 Hz proved to be the lowest ever measured using this technique, and suggests that this species is not able to track even slow-moving prey. Both the putative dual visual pigment system in the crabs and the extremely slow eye of the isopod may be adaptations for seeing bioluminescence in the benthic environment. PMID:22956247

  13. The deep sea is a major sink for microplastic debris

    PubMed Central

    Woodall, Lucy C.; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Canals, Miquel; Paterson, Gordon L.J.; Coppock, Rachel; Sleight, Victoria; Calafat, Antonio; Rogers, Alex D.; Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E.; Thompson, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    Marine debris, mostly consisting of plastic, is a global problem, negatively impacting wildlife, tourism and shipping. However, despite the durability of plastic, and the exponential increase in its production, monitoring data show limited evidence of concomitant increasing concentrations in marine habitats. There appears to be a considerable proportion of the manufactured plastic that is unaccounted for in surveys tracking the fate of environmental plastics. Even the discovery of widespread accumulation of microscopic fragments (microplastics) in oceanic gyres and shallow water sediments is unable to explain the missing fraction. Here, we show that deep-sea sediments are a likely sink for microplastics. Microplastic, in the form of fibres, was up to four orders of magnitude more abundant (per unit volume) in deep-sea sediments from the Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and Indian Ocean than in contaminated sea-surface waters. Our results show evidence for a large and hitherto unknown repository of microplastics. The dominance of microfibres points to a previously underreported and unsampled plastic fraction. Given the vastness of the deep sea and the prevalence of microplastics at all sites we investigated, the deep-sea floor appears to provide an answer to the question—where is all the plastic? PMID:26064573

  14. Using near infrared light for deep sea mining observation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Huimin; Li, Yujie; Li, Xin; Yang, Jianmin; Serikawa, Seiichi

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we design a novel deep-sea near infrared light based imaging equipment for deep-sea mining observation systems. The spectral sensitivity peaks are in the red region of the invisible spectrum, ranging from 750nm to 900nm. In addition, we propose a novel underwater imaging model that compensates for the attenuation discrepancy along the propagation path. The proposed model fully considered the effects of absorption, scattering and refraction. We also develop a locally adaptive Laplacian filtering for enhancing underwater transmission map after underwater dark channel prior estimation. Furthermore, we propose a spectral characteristic-based color correction algorithm to recover the distorted color. In water tank experiments, we made a linear scale of eight turbidity steps ranging from clean to heavily scattered by adding deep sea soil to the seawater (from 500 to 2000 mg/L). We compared the results of different turbidity underwater scene, illuminated alternately with near infrared light vs. white light. Experiments demonstrate that the enhanced NIR images have a reasonable noise level after the illumination compensation in the dark regions and demonstrates an improved global contrast by which the finest details and edges are significantly enhanced. We also demonstrate that the effective distance of the designed imaging system is about 1.5 meters, which can meet the requirement of micro-terrain observation around the deep-sea mining systems. Remotely Operated Underwater Vehicle (ROV)-based experiments also certified the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. The deep sea is a major sink for microplastic debris.

    PubMed

    Woodall, Lucy C; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Canals, Miquel; Paterson, Gordon L J; Coppock, Rachel; Sleight, Victoria; Calafat, Antonio; Rogers, Alex D; Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E; Thompson, Richard C

    2014-12-01

    Marine debris, mostly consisting of plastic, is a global problem, negatively impacting wildlife, tourism and shipping. However, despite the durability of plastic, and the exponential increase in its production, monitoring data show limited evidence of concomitant increasing concentrations in marine habitats. There appears to be a considerable proportion of the manufactured plastic that is unaccounted for in surveys tracking the fate of environmental plastics. Even the discovery of widespread accumulation of microscopic fragments (microplastics) in oceanic gyres and shallow water sediments is unable to explain the missing fraction. Here, we show that deep-sea sediments are a likely sink for microplastics. Microplastic, in the form of fibres, was up to four orders of magnitude more abundant (per unit volume) in deep-sea sediments from the Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and Indian Ocean than in contaminated sea-surface waters. Our results show evidence for a large and hitherto unknown repository of microplastics. The dominance of microfibres points to a previously underreported and unsampled plastic fraction. Given the vastness of the deep sea and the prevalence of microplastics at all sites we investigated, the deep-sea floor appears to provide an answer to the question-where is all the plastic? PMID:26064573

  16. Microhabitats of benthic foraminifera within deep-sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corliss, Bruce H.

    1985-04-01

    Benthic foraminifera are protozoans found throughout the deep-sea environment, secreting a test of calcium carbonate or constructing a test of cemented sediment particles (agglutinated or arenaceous foraminifera). In typical deep-sea sediments, the organic cement of agglutinated taxa degrades upon burial in the sediment and, consequently, few specimens survive in the fossil record. In contrast, calcareous species are well preserved in most oceanic sediments, except at abyssal depths where most carbonate sediment is dissolved because of high levels of carbonate under-saturation of the bottom waters. Although benthic foraminifera have been widely used in studies of Cenozoic palaeoceanography, little is known about the ecology of deep-sea species. I present here an analysis of living (stained) benthic foraminifera within the upper 15 cm of deep-sea sediments, which reveals species-specific microhabitat preferences, with distinct morphological features found with epifaunal and infaunal species. The existence of infaunal habitats suggests that the distribution of certain foraminifera is not directly controlled by overlying bottom-water conditions, but by physicochemical conditions within the sediments. The microhabitat preferences may also explain interspecific carbon isotope differences, as existing data show that infaunal foraminifera generally have lower δ13C isotope values than epifaunal species.

  17. Spatial and temporal patterns of genetic variation in the widespread antitropical deep-sea coral Paragorgia arborea.

    PubMed

    Herrera, S; Shank, T M; Sánchez, J A

    2012-12-01

    Numerous deep-sea species have apparent widespread and discontinuous distributions. Many of these are important foundation species, structuring hard-bottom benthic ecosystems. Theoretically, differences in the genetic composition of their populations vary geographically and with depth. Previous studies have examined the genetic diversity of some of these taxa in a regional context, suggesting that genetic differentiation does not occur at scales of discrete features such as seamounts or canyons, but at larger scales (e.g. ocean basins). However, to date, few studies have evaluated such diversity throughout the known distribution of a putative deep-sea species. We utilized sequences from seven mitochondrial gene regions and nuclear genetic variants of the deep-sea coral Paragorgia arborea in a phylogeographic context to examine the global patterns of genetic variation and their possible correlation with the spatial variables of geographic position and depth. We also examined the compatibility of this morphospecies with the genealogical-phylospecies concept by examining specimens collected worldwide. We show that the morphospecies P. arborea can be defined as a genealogical-phylospecies, in contrast to the hypothesis that P. arborea represents a cryptic species complex. Genetic variation is correlated with geographic location at the basin-scale level, but not with depth. Additionally, we present a phylogeographic hypothesis in which P. arborea originates from the North Pacific, followed by colonization of the Southern Hemisphere prior to migration to the North Atlantic. This hypothesis is consistent with the latest ocean circulation model for the Miocene. PMID:23094936

  18. Potential biomass in deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, K.; Takai, K.

    2012-12-01

    Since the first discovery of black smoker vents hosting chemosynthetic macrofaunal communities (Spiess et al., 1980), submarine hydrothermal systems and associated biota have attracted interest of many researchers (e.g., Humphris et al., 1995; Van Dover, 2000; Wilcock et al., 2004). In the past couple of decades, particular attention has been paid to chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms that sustain the hydrothermal vent-endemic animal communities as the primary producer. This type of microorganisms obtains energy from inorganic substances (e.g., sulfur, hydrogen, and methane) derived from hydrothermal vent fluids, and is often considered as an important modern analogue to the early ecosystems of the Earth as well as the extraterrestrial life in other planets and moons (e.g., Jannasch and Mottl, 1985; Nealson et al., 2005; Takai et al., 2006). Even today, however, the size of this type of chemosynthetic deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem is largely unknown. Here, we present geophysical and geochemical constraints on potential biomass in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem. The estimation of the potential biomass in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem is based on hydrothermal fluid flux calculated from heat flux (Elderfield and Schltz, 1996), maximum chemical energy available from metabolic reactions during mixing between hydrothermal vent fluids and seawater (McCollom, 2007), and maintenance energy requirements of the chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms (Hoehler, 2004). The result shows that the most of metabolic energy sustaining the deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem is produced by oxidation reaction of reduced sulfur, although some parts of the energy are derived from hydrogenotrophic and methanotrophic reactions. The overall total of the potential biomass in deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem is calculated to be much smaller than that in terrestrial ecosystems including terrestrial plants. The big difference in biomass between the

  19. Structure, functioning, and cumulative stressors of Mediterranean deep-sea ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tecchio, Samuele; Coll, Marta; Sardà, Francisco

    2015-06-01

    Environmental stressors, such as climate fluctuations, and anthropogenic stressors, such as fishing, are of major concern for the management of deep-sea ecosystems. Deep-water habitats are limited by primary productivity and are mainly dependent on the vertical input of organic matter from the surface. Global change over the latest decades is imparting variations in primary productivity levels across oceans, and thus it has an impact on the amount of organic matter landing on the deep seafloor. In addition, anthropogenic impacts are now reaching the deep ocean. The Mediterranean Sea, the largest enclosed basin on the planet, is not an exception. However, ecosystem-level studies of response to varying food input and anthropogenic stressors on deep-sea ecosystems are still scant. We present here a comparative ecological network analysis of three food webs of the deep Mediterranean Sea, with contrasting trophic structure. After modelling the flows of these food webs with the Ecopath with Ecosim approach, we compared indicators of network structure and functioning. We then developed temporal dynamic simulations varying the organic matter input to evaluate its potential effect. Results show that, following the west-to-east gradient in the Mediterranean Sea of marine snow input, organic matter recycling increases, net production decreases to negative values and trophic organisation is overall reduced. The levels of food-web activity followed the gradient of organic matter availability at the seafloor, confirming that deep-water ecosystems directly depend on marine snow and are therefore influenced by variations of energy input, such as climate-driven changes. In addition, simulations of varying marine snow arrival at the seafloor, combined with the hypothesis of a possible fishery expansion on the lower continental slope in the western basin, evidence that the trawling fishery may pose an impact which could be an order of magnitude stronger than a climate

  20. Deep-sea diversity patterns are shaped by energy availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolley, Skipton N. C.; Tittensor, Derek P.; Dunstan, Piers K.; Guillera-Arroita, Gurutzeta; Lahoz-Monfort, José J.; Wintle, Brendan A.; Worm, Boris; O’Hara, Timothy D.

    2016-05-01

    The deep ocean is the largest and least-explored ecosystem on Earth, and a uniquely energy-poor environment. The distribution, drivers and origins of deep-sea biodiversity remain unknown at global scales. Here we analyse a database of more than 165,000 distribution records of Ophiuroidea (brittle stars), a dominant component of sea-floor fauna, and find patterns of biodiversity unlike known terrestrial or coastal marine realms. Both patterns and environmental predictors of deep-sea (2,000–6,500 m) species richness fundamentally differ from those found in coastal (0–20 m), continental shelf (20–200 m), and upper-slope (200–2,000 m) waters. Continental shelf to upper-slope richness consistently peaks in tropical Indo-west Pacific and Caribbean (0–30°) latitudes, and is well explained by variations in water temperature. In contrast, deep-sea species show maximum richness at higher latitudes (30–50°), concentrated in areas of high carbon export flux and regions close to continental margins. We reconcile this structuring of oceanic biodiversity using a species–energy framework, with kinetic energy predicting shallow-water richness, while chemical energy (export productivity) and proximity to slope habitats drive deep-sea diversity. Our findings provide a global baseline for conservation efforts across the sea floor, and demonstrate that deep-sea ecosystems show a biodiversity pattern consistent with ecological theory, despite being different from other planetary-scale habitats.

  1. Deep-sea diversity patterns are shaped by energy availability.

    PubMed

    Woolley, Skipton N C; Tittensor, Derek P; Dunstan, Piers K; Guillera-Arroita, Gurutzeta; Lahoz-Monfort, José J; Wintle, Brendan A; Worm, Boris; O'Hara, Timothy D

    2016-05-19

    The deep ocean is the largest and least-explored ecosystem on Earth, and a uniquely energy-poor environment. The distribution, drivers and origins of deep-sea biodiversity remain unknown at global scales. Here we analyse a database of more than 165,000 distribution records of Ophiuroidea (brittle stars), a dominant component of sea-floor fauna, and find patterns of biodiversity unlike known terrestrial or coastal marine realms. Both patterns and environmental predictors of deep-sea (2,000-6,500 m) species richness fundamentally differ from those found in coastal (0-20 m), continental shelf (20-200 m), and upper-slope (200-2,000 m) waters. Continental shelf to upper-slope richness consistently peaks in tropical Indo-west Pacific and Caribbean (0-30°) latitudes, and is well explained by variations in water temperature. In contrast, deep-sea species show maximum richness at higher latitudes (30-50°), concentrated in areas of high carbon export flux and regions close to continental margins. We reconcile this structuring of oceanic biodiversity using a species-energy framework, with kinetic energy predicting shallow-water richness, while chemical energy (export productivity) and proximity to slope habitats drive deep-sea diversity. Our findings provide a global baseline for conservation efforts across the sea floor, and demonstrate that deep-sea ecosystems show a biodiversity pattern consistent with ecological theory, despite being different from other planetary-scale habitats. PMID:27193685

  2. 47 CFR 32.6424 - Submarine and deep sea cable expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Submarine and deep sea cable expense. 32.6424... Submarine and deep sea cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with submarine and deep sea cable. (b) Subsidiary record categories shall be maintained as provided in § 32.2424....

  3. 47 CFR 32.6424 - Submarine and deep sea cable expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Submarine and deep sea cable expense. 32.6424... Submarine and deep sea cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with submarine and deep sea cable. (b) Subsidiary record categories shall be maintained as provided in § 32.2424....

  4. 47 CFR 32.6424 - Submarine and deep sea cable expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Submarine and deep sea cable expense. 32.6424... Submarine and deep sea cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with submarine and deep sea cable. (b) Subsidiary record categories shall be maintained as provided in § 32.2424....

  5. 46 CFR 167.40-20 - Deep-sea sounding apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Deep-sea sounding apparatus. 167.40-20 Section 167.40-20... SHIPS Certain Equipment Requirements § 167.40-20 Deep-sea sounding apparatus. Nautical school ships shall be equipped with an efficient or electronic deep-sea sounding apparatus. The electronic...

  6. 47 CFR 32.6424 - Submarine and deep sea cable expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Submarine and deep sea cable expense. 32.6424... Submarine and deep sea cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with submarine and deep sea cable. (b) Subsidiary record categories shall be maintained as provided in § 32.2424....

  7. 46 CFR 167.40-20 - Deep-sea sounding apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Deep-sea sounding apparatus. 167.40-20 Section 167.40-20... SHIPS Certain Equipment Requirements § 167.40-20 Deep-sea sounding apparatus. Nautical school ships shall be equipped with an efficient or electronic deep-sea sounding apparatus. The electronic...

  8. 46 CFR 167.40-20 - Deep-sea sounding apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Deep-sea sounding apparatus. 167.40-20 Section 167.40-20... SHIPS Certain Equipment Requirements § 167.40-20 Deep-sea sounding apparatus. Nautical school ships shall be equipped with an efficient or electronic deep-sea sounding apparatus. The electronic...

  9. 47 CFR 32.6424 - Submarine and deep sea cable expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Submarine and deep sea cable expense. 32.6424... Submarine and deep sea cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with submarine and deep sea cable. (b) Subsidiary record categories shall be maintained as provided in § 32.2424....

  10. The deep-sea hub of the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghinolfi, M.; Calzas, A.; Dinkespiler, B.; Cuneo, S.; Favard, S.; Hallewell, G.; Jaquet, M.; Musumeci, M.; Papaleo, R.; Raia, G.; Valdy, P.; Vernin, P.

    2006-11-01

    The ANTARES neutrino telescope, currently under construction at 2500 m depth off the French Mediterranean coast, will contain 12 detection lines, powered and read out through a deep-sea junction box (JB) hub. Electrical energy from the shore station is distributed through a transformer with multiple secondary windings and a plugboard with 16 deep sea-mateable electro-optic connectors. Connections are made to the JB outputs using manned or remotely operated submersible vehicles. The triply redundant power management and slow control system is based on two identical AC-powered systems, communicating with the shore through 160 Mb/s fibre G-links and a third battery-powered system using a slower link. We describe the power and slow control systems of the underwater hub.

  11. Recent advances in deep-sea natural products.

    PubMed

    Skropeta, Danielle; Wei, Liangqian

    2014-08-01

    Covering: 2009 to 2013. This review covers the 188 novel marine natural products described since 2008, from deep-water (50->5000 m) marine fauna including bryozoa, chordata, cnidaria, echinodermata, microorganisms, mollusca and porifera. The structures of the new compounds and details of the source organism, depth of collection and country of origin are presented, along with any relevant biological activities of the metabolites. Where reported, synthetic studies on the deep-sea natural products have also been included. Most strikingly, 75% of the compounds were reported to possess bioactivity, with almost half exhibiting low micromolar cytotoxicity towards a range of human cancer cell lines, along with a significant increase in the number of microbial deep-sea natural products reported. PMID:24871201

  12. Recent results from the ANTARES deep sea neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coyle, Paschal

    2013-02-01

    The ANTARES deep sea neutrino telescope has acquired over four years of high quality data. This data has been used to measure the oscillation parameters of atmospheric neutrinos and also to search for neutrinos of a nonterrestrial origin. Competitive upper limits on the fluxes of neutrinos from dark matter annihilation in the Sun, a variety of Galactic and extra-galactic sources, both steady and transient, are presented.

  13. Antarctic Marine Biodiversity and Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents

    PubMed Central

    Chown, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of many marine benthic groups is unlike that of most other taxa. Rather than declining from the tropics to the poles, much of the benthos shows high diversity in the Southern Ocean. Moreover, many species are unique to the Antarctic region. Recent work has shown that this is also true of the communities of Antarctic deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Vent ecosystems have been documented from many sites across the globe, associated with the thermally and chemically variable habitats found around these, typically high temperature, streams that are rich in reduced compounds and polymetallic sulphides. The animal communities of the East Scotia Ridge vent ecosystems are very different to those elsewhere, though the microbiota, which form the basis of vent food webs, show less differentiation. Much of the biological significance of deep-sea hydrothermal vents lies in their biodiversity, the diverse biochemistry of their bacteria, the remarkable symbioses among many of the marine animals and these bacteria, and the prospects that investigations of these systems hold for understanding the conditions that may have led to the first appearance of life. The discovery of diverse and unusual Antarctic hydrothermal vent ecosystems provides opportunities for new understanding in these fields. Moreover, the Antarctic vents south of 60°S benefit from automatic conservation under the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources and the Antarctic Treaty. Other deep-sea hydrothermal vents located in international waters are not protected and may be threatened by growing interests in deep-sea mining. PMID:22235192

  14. Chemosynthesis in the deep-sea: life without the sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C.

    2012-12-01

    Chemosynthetic communities in the deep-sea can be found at hydrothermal vents, cold seeps, whale falls and wood falls. While these communities have been suggested to exist in isolation from solar energy, much of the life associated with them relies either directly or indirectly on photosynthesis in the surface waters of the oceans. The sun indirectly provides oxygen, a byproduct of photosynthesis, which aerobic chemosynthetic microorganisms require to synthesize organic carbon from CO2. Planktonic life stages of many vent and cold seep invertebrates also directly feed on photosynthetically produced organic matter as they disperse to new vent and seep systems. While a large portion of the life at deep-sea chemosynthetic habitats can be linked to the sun and so could not survive without it, a small portion of anaerobically chemosynthetic microorganisms can persist in its absence. These small and exotic organisms have developed a way of life in the deep-sea which involves the use of resources originating in their entirety from terrestrial sources.

  15. How Deep-Sea Wood Falls Sustain Chemosynthetic Life

    PubMed Central

    Bienhold, Christina; Pop Ristova, Petra; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Dittmar, Thorsten; Boetius, Antje

    2013-01-01

    Large organic food falls to the deep sea – such as whale carcasses and wood logs – are known to serve as stepping stones for the dispersal of highly adapted chemosynthetic organisms inhabiting hot vents and cold seeps. Here we investigated the biogeochemical and microbiological processes leading to the development of sulfidic niches by deploying wood colonization experiments at a depth of 1690 m in the Eastern Mediterranean for one year. Wood-boring bivalves of the genus Xylophaga played a key role in the degradation of the wood logs, facilitating the development of anoxic zones and anaerobic microbial processes such as sulfate reduction. Fauna and bacteria associated with the wood included types reported from other deep-sea habitats including chemosynthetic ecosystems, confirming the potential role of large organic food falls as biodiversity hot spots and stepping stones for vent and seep communities. Specific bacterial communities developed on and around the wood falls within one year and were distinct from freshly submerged wood and background sediments. These included sulfate-reducing and cellulolytic bacterial taxa, which are likely to play an important role in the utilization of wood by chemosynthetic life and other deep-sea animals. PMID:23301092

  16. How deep-sea wood falls sustain chemosynthetic life.

    PubMed

    Bienhold, Christina; Pop Ristova, Petra; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Dittmar, Thorsten; Boetius, Antje

    2013-01-01

    Large organic food falls to the deep sea--such as whale carcasses and wood logs--are known to serve as stepping stones for the dispersal of highly adapted chemosynthetic organisms inhabiting hot vents and cold seeps. Here we investigated the biogeochemical and microbiological processes leading to the development of sulfidic niches by deploying wood colonization experiments at a depth of 1690 m in the Eastern Mediterranean for one year. Wood-boring bivalves of the genus Xylophaga played a key role in the degradation of the wood logs, facilitating the development of anoxic zones and anaerobic microbial processes such as sulfate reduction. Fauna and bacteria associated with the wood included types reported from other deep-sea habitats including chemosynthetic ecosystems, confirming the potential role of large organic food falls as biodiversity hot spots and stepping stones for vent and seep communities. Specific bacterial communities developed on and around the wood falls within one year and were distinct from freshly submerged wood and background sediments. These included sulfate-reducing and cellulolytic bacterial taxa, which are likely to play an important role in the utilization of wood by chemosynthetic life and other deep-sea animals. PMID:23301092

  17. Deep-sea smokers: windows to a subsurface biosphere?

    PubMed

    Deming, J W; Baross, J A

    1993-07-01

    Since the discovery of hyperthermophilic microbial activity in hydrothermal fluids recovered from "smoker" vents on the East Pacific Rise, the widely accepted upper temperature limit for life (based on pure culture data) has risen from below the boiling point of water at atmospheric pressure to approximately 115 degrees C. Many microbiologists seem willing to speculate that the maximum may be closer to 150 degrees C. We have postulated not only higher temperatures than these (under deep-sea hydrostatic pressures), but also the existence of a biosphere subsurface to accessible seafloor vents. New geochemical information from the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge indicative of subsurface organic material caused us to re-examine both the literature on hyperthermophilic microorganisms cultured from deep-sea smoker environments and recent results of microbial sampling efforts at actively discharging smokers on the Endeavour Segment. Here we offer the case for a subsurface biosphere based on an interdisciplinary view of microbial and geochemical analyses of Endeavour smoker fluids, a case in keeping with rapidly evolving geophysical understanding of organic stability under deep-sea hydrothermal conditions. PMID:11538298

  18. Late Eocene impact events recorded in deep-sea sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, B. P.

    1988-01-01

    Raup and Sepkoski proposed that mass extinctions have occurred every 26 Myr during the last 250 Myr. In order to explain this 26 Myr periodicity, it was proposed that the mass extinctions were caused by periodic increases in cometary impacts. One method to test this hypothesis is to determine if there were periodic increases in impact events (based on crater ages) that correlate with mass extinctions. A way to test the hypothesis that mass extinctions were caused by periodic increases in impact cratering is to look for evidence of impact events in deep-sea deposits. This method allows direct observation of the temporal relationship between impact events and extinctions as recorded in the sedimentary record. There is evidence in the deep-sea record for two (possibly three) impact events in the late Eocene. The younger event, represented by the North American microtektite layer, is not associated with an Ir anomaly. The older event, defined by the cpx spherule layer, is associated with an Ir anomaly. However, neither of the two impact events recorded in late Eocene deposits appears to be associated with an unusual number of extinctions. Thus there is little evidence in the deep-sea record for an impact-related mass extinction in the late Eocene.

  19. Abrupt climate change and collapse of deep-sea ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Cronin, T. M.; Demenocal, P.B.; Okahashi, H.; Linsley, B.K.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the deep-sea fossil record of benthic ostracodes during periods of rapid climate and oceanographic change over the past 20,000 years in a core from intermediate depth in the northwestern Atlantic. Results show that deep-sea benthic community "collapses" occur with faunal turnover of up to 50% during major climatically driven oceanographic changes. Species diversity as measured by the Shannon-Wiener index falls from 3 to as low as 1.6 during these events. Major disruptions in the benthic communities commenced with Heinrich Event 1, the Inter-Aller??d Cold Period (IACP: 13.1 ka), the Younger Dryas (YD: 12.9-11.5 ka), and several Holocene Bond events when changes in deep-water circulation occurred. The largest collapse is associated with the YD/IACP and is characterized by an abrupt two-step decrease in both the upper North Atlantic Deep Water assemblage and species diversity at 13.1 ka and at 12.2 ka. The ostracode fauna at this site did not fully recover until ???8 ka, with the establishment of Labrador Sea Water ventilation. Ecologically opportunistic slope species prospered during this community collapse. Other abrupt community collapses during the past 20 ka generally correspond to millennial climate events. These results indicate that deep-sea ecosystems are not immune to the effects of rapid climate changes occurring over centuries or less. ?? 2008 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  20. Russian deep-sea investigations of Antarctic fauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyutina, Marina

    2004-07-01

    A review of the Russian deep-sea investigation of Antarctic fauna beginning from the first scientific collection of Soviet whaling fleet expeditions 1946-1952 is presented. The paper deals with the following expeditions, their main tasks and results. These expeditions include three cruises of research vessel (R.V.) Ob in the Indian sector of the Antarctic and in the Southern Pacific (1955-1958); 11 cruises of the R.V. Akademik Kurchatov in the southern Atlantic (November-December 1971); 16 cruises of the R.V. Dmitriy Mendeleev in the Australia-New Zealand area and adjacent water of the Antarctic (December 1975-March 1976); 43 cruises of the R.V. Akademik Kurchatov in the southern Atlantic (October 1985-February 1986); and 43 cruises of the R.V. Dmitriy Mendeleev in the Atlantic sector of the South Ocean (January-May 1989). A list of the main publications on the benthic taxa collected during these expeditions with data of their distribution is presented. The results of Russian explorations of the Antarctic fauna are presented as theoretical conclusions in the following topics: (1) Vertical zonation in the distribution of the Antarctic deep-sea fauna; (2) Biogeographic division of the abyssal and hadal zones; (3) Origin of the Antarctic deep-sea fauna; (4) Distributional pathways of the Antarctic abyssal fauna through the World Ocean.

  1. Slope and deep-sea abundance across scales: Southern Ocean isopods show how complex the deep sea can be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Stefanie; Barnes, David K. A.; Brandt, Angelika

    2007-08-01

    How animals are distributed in the world's largest surface environment, the deep sea, is poorly understood. The ANDEEP (ANtarctic benthic DEEP-sea biodiversity, colonisation history and recent community patterns) III cruise probed richness and abundance of one group, peracarid crustaceans (isopods, amphipods, cumaceans, tanaidaceans, mysidaceans), as a model of deep-sea fauna across Southern Ocean (SO) sites. Analysis of samples from the ANDEEP cruises reveals SO isopods to be highly abundant, rich and endemic as many other taxa in the region are known to be. Samples taken across three spatial scales include sites tens, hundreds and thousands of kilometers apart, sites stretching from the Southern Cape Basin (South Atlantic) to continental Antarctica and including depths from 1030 to 5000 m. Across these spatial scales we investigated ecological success (abundance) of peracarids at order, family, and species levels. Remarkably no significant relationship was found between abundance and spatial scale at any taxonomic level. That is, the variability in abundance at major regional scale is no different to that across just tens of kilometres. Most taxa were represented in only a few samples, but we suggest most inhabitants of the deep Weddell Sea environment to be very patchy rather than rare. Separate plots of family, genus, and species abundance by sample number revealed this to be true—nearly all genera and species are an order of magnitude more abundant than 'background' levels in just one or two samples. Our isopod and amphipod samples reveal the Atlantic sector of the SO, one of the most dynamic and important regions influencing the global deep-sea environment, to be highly complex. Our study suggests that, at least with regard to the study taxa and area, the typical comparisons of regions that are made by ecologists miss the scale at which crucial ecological variability happens. Even without ice scours creating topographical complexity (as on the shelf) the

  2. Seqestration of dissolved organic carbon in the deep sea

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel J. Repeta

    2006-03-01

    There are 600 GT of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) sequestered in seawater. The marine inventory of DOC is set by its concentration in the deep sea, which is nearly constant at 35+2µM C, irrespective of sample location or depth. Isotopic measurements show deep sea DOC to be depleted in radiocarbon, with an apparent radiocarbon age of between 4000ybp (Atlantic) and 6000ybp (Pacific). From the radiocarbon data, we can infer that deep sea DOC is inert and does not cycle on less than millennial time scales. However, high precision DOC measurements show deep sea concentrations are variable at the + 1-2µM DOC level, suggesting a fraction of deep sea DOC, equivalent to 15-30Gt C, is cycling on short time scales, acting as a sink for new, atmospheric carbon. This project is designed to identify and quantify the biological and physical processes that sequester DOM in the deep sea by making compound specific radiocarbon measurements on sugars and proteins extracted from deep sea DOC. Our Hawaii surface seawater sample has a DIC Δ14C value of 72 + 7 ‰ and shows the influence of bomb radiocarbon on surface water DIC values. HMWDOC Δ14C is 10 ‰, significantly depleted in radiocarbon relative to DIC. Purification of HMWDOC by reverse phase HPLC yields seven neutral sugars with radiocarbon values of 47 – 67‰. Assuming the radiocarbon determinations of individual sugars in HMWDOC serve as replicates, then the average Δ14C for neutral sugars in HMWDOC is 57 + 6 ‰(1 SD, n=11), only slightly depleted in 14C relative to DIC. There has been a sharp decrease in radiocarbon values for DIC in the North Pacific Ocean over the past few decades. If neutral sugars cycle more slowly than DIC, we would expect them to have correspondingly higher radiocarbon values. Previous studies have modeled upper ocean DOC as a two component mixture of newly synthesized DOC with a radiocarbon value equal to DIC, and an old component with a radiocarbon value equal to deep sea DO14C. In order to

  3. Deep Sea Benthic Foraminifera: Love Cold, Fear Warm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, E.

    2007-12-01

    The fossil record provides understanding of possible linkages between long-term environmental changes and evolution of assemblages and morphological species of deep-sea benthic foraminifera, of which the phylogeny is still little known. Deep-sea benthic foraminifera have long morphological species lives and do not commonly suffer massive extinctions: they live in the largest habitat on earth, species have large geographic ranges or are cosmopolitan, and they use motile propagules to rapidly re-populate regions where populations have been destroyed. Extinction occurs only when rapid and severe environmental change affects such a large part of the deep ocean that no refugia exist, even for common species. Deep-sea benthic foraminifera reacted to global cooling (in the earliest Oligocene, middle Miocene and middle Pleistocene) not by extinction, but by a gradual turnover of species. The most extensive turnover occurred in the late Eocene through earliest Oligocene, when some presently important ecological niches were first filled. In contrast, deep-sea benthic foraminifera suffered severe extinction (30-50% of species, including common, cosmopolitan, long-lived species) during the rapid global warming of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), a time of high CO2 levels and potential ocean acidification. The extinction was followed by slow recovery of faunas, but diversity never returned to pre-extinction levels. The PETM and later, less severe short-term periods of global warming (hyperthermals ETM1 and ETM2) were characterized by low diversity faunas dominated by small, thin-walled individuals. No significant net extinction occurred during the later hyperthermals. Such faunas might reflect dissolution, low oxygen conditions, or blooming of opportunistic species after environmental disturbance. Most commonly cited causes of the PETM extinction are: 1. low oxygen concentrations, 2. acidification of the oceans, 3. increase or decrease in oceanic productivity and

  4. Exploitation of deep-sea resources: the urgent need to understand the role of high pressure in the toxicity of chemical pollutants to deep-sea organisms.

    PubMed

    Mestre, Nélia C; Calado, Ricardo; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2014-02-01

    The advent of industrial activities in the deep sea will inevitably expose deep-sea organisms to potentially toxic compounds. Although international regulations require environmental risk assessment prior to exploitation activities, toxicity tests remain focused on shallow-water model species. Moreover, current tests overlook potential synergies that may arise from the interaction of chemicals with natural stressors, such as the high pressures prevailing in the deep sea. As pressure affects chemical reactions and the physiology of marine organisms, it will certainly affect the toxicity of pollutants arising from the exploitation of deep-sea resources. We emphasize the need for environmental risk assessments based on information generated from ecotoxicological trials that mimic, as close as possible, the deep-sea environment, with emphasis to a key environmental factor - high hydrostatic pressure. PMID:24230462

  5. First glimpse into Lower Jurassic deep-sea biodiversity: in situ diversification and resilience against extinction

    PubMed Central

    Thuy, Ben; Kiel, Steffen; Dulai, Alfréd; Gale, Andy S.; Kroh, Andreas; Lord, Alan R.; Numberger-Thuy, Lea D.; Stöhr, Sabine; Wisshak, Max

    2014-01-01

    Owing to the assumed lack of deep-sea macrofossils older than the Late Cretaceous, very little is known about the geological history of deep-sea communities, and most inference-based hypotheses argue for repeated recolonizations of the deep sea from shelf habitats following major palaeoceanographic perturbations. We present a fossil deep-sea assemblage of echinoderms, gastropods, brachiopods and ostracods, from the Early Jurassic of the Glasenbach Gorge, Austria, which includes the oldest known representatives of a number of extant deep-sea groups, and thus implies that in situ diversification, in contrast to immigration from shelf habitats, played a much greater role in shaping modern deep-sea biodiversity than previously thought. A comparison with coeval shelf assemblages reveals that, at least in some of the analysed groups, significantly more extant families/superfamilies have endured in the deep sea since the Early Jurassic than in the shelf seas, which suggests that deep-sea biota are more resilient against extinction than shallow-water ones. In addition, a number of extant deep-sea families/superfamilies found in the Glasenbach assemblage lack post-Jurassic shelf occurrences, implying that if there was a complete extinction of the deep-sea fauna followed by replacement from the shelf, it must have happened before the Late Jurassic. PMID:24850917

  6. Radiocarbon Based Ages and Growth Rates: Hawaiian Deep Sea Corals

    SciTech Connect

    Roark, E B; Guilderson, T P; Dunbar, R B; Ingram, B L

    2006-01-13

    The radial growth rates and ages of three different groups of Hawaiian deep-sea 'corals' were determined using radiocarbon measurements. Specimens of Corallium secundum, Gerardia sp., and Leiopathes glaberrima, were collected from 450 {+-} 40 m at the Makapuu deep-sea coral bed using a submersible (PISCES V). Specimens of Antipathes dichotoma were collected at 50 m off Lahaina, Maui. The primary source of carbon to the calcitic C. secundum skeleton is in situ dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Using bomb {sup 14}C time markers we calculate radial growth rates of {approx} 170 {micro}m y{sup -1} and ages of 68-75 years on specimens as tall as 28 cm of C. secundum. Gerardia sp., A. dichotoma, and L. glaberrima have proteinaceous skeletons and labile particulate organic carbon (POC) is their primary source of architectural carbon. Using {sup 14}C we calculate a radial growth rate of 15 {micro}m y{sup -1} and an age of 807 {+-} 30 years for a live collected Gerardia sp., showing that these organisms are extremely long lived. Inner and outer {sup 14}C measurements on four sub-fossil Gerardia spp. samples produce similar growth rate estimates (range 14-45 {micro}m y{sup -1}) and ages (range 450-2742 years) as observed for the live collected sample. Similarly, with a growth rate of < 10 {micro}m y{sup -1} and an age of {approx}2377 years, L. glaberrima at the Makapuu coral bed, is also extremely long lived. In contrast, the shallow-collected A. dichotoma samples yield growth rates ranging from 130 to 1,140 {micro}m y{sup -1}. These results show that Hawaiian deep-sea corals grow more slowly and are older than previously thought.

  7. Deep-Sea Benthic Footprint of the Deepwater Horizon Blowout

    PubMed Central

    Montagna, Paul A.; Baguley, Jeffrey G.; Cooksey, Cynthia; Hartwell, Ian; Hyde, Larry J.; Hyland, Jeffrey L.; Kalke, Richard D.; Kracker, Laura M.; Reuscher, Michael; Rhodes, Adelaide C. E.

    2013-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) accident in the northern Gulf of Mexico occurred on April 20, 2010 at a water depth of 1525 meters, and a deep-sea plume was detected within one month. Oil contacted and persisted in parts of the bottom of the deep-sea in the Gulf of Mexico. As part of the response to the accident, monitoring cruises were deployed in fall 2010 to measure potential impacts on the two main soft-bottom benthic invertebrate groups: macrofauna and meiofauna. Sediment was collected using a multicorer so that samples for chemical, physical and biological analyses could be taken simultaneously and analyzed using multivariate methods. The footprint of the oil spill was identified by creating a new variable with principal components analysis where the first factor was indicative of the oil spill impacts and this new variable mapped in a geographic information system to identify the area of the oil spill footprint. The most severe relative reduction of faunal abundance and diversity extended to 3 km from the wellhead in all directions covering an area about 24 km2. Moderate impacts were observed up to 17 km towards the southwest and 8.5 km towards the northeast of the wellhead, covering an area 148 km2. Benthic effects were correlated to total petroleum hydrocarbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and barium concentrations, and distance to the wellhead; but not distance to hydrocarbon seeps. Thus, benthic effects are more likely due to the oil spill, and not natural hydrocarbon seepage. Recovery rates in the deep sea are likely to be slow, on the order of decades or longer. PMID:23950956

  8. Deep-sea Lebensspuren of the Australian continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przeslawski, Rachel; Dundas, Kate; Radke, Lynda; Anderson, Tara J.

    Much of the deep sea comprises soft-sediment habitats dominated by comparatively low abundances of species-rich macrofauna and meiofauna. Although often not observed, these animals bioturbate the sediment during feeding and burrowing, leaving signs of their activities called Lebensspuren ('life traces'). In this study, we use still images to quantify Lebensspuren from the eastern (1921 images, 13 stations, 1300-2200 m depth) and western (1008 images, 11 stations, 1500-4400 m depth) Australian margins using a univariate measure of trace richness and a multivariate measure of Lebensspuren assemblages. A total of 46 Lebensspuren types were identified, including those matching named trace fossils and modern Lebensspuren found elsewhere in the world. Most traces could be associated with waste, crawling, dwellings, organism tests, feeding, or resting, but the origin of 15% of trace types remains unknown. Assemblages were significantly different between the two regions and depth profiles, with five Lebensspuren types accounting for over 95% of the differentiation (ovoid pinnate trace, crater row, spider trace, matchstick trace, mesh trace). Lebensspuren richness showed no strong relationships with depth, total organic carbon, or mud, although there was a positive correlation to chlorin index (i.e., organic freshness) in the eastern margin, with richness increasing with organic freshness. Lebensspuren richness was not related to epifauna either, indicating that epifauna may not be the primary source of Lebensspuren. Despite the abundance and distinctiveness of several traces both in the current and previous studies (e.g., ovoid pinnate, mesh, spider), their origin and distribution remains a mystery. We discuss this and several other considerations in the identification and quantification of Lebensspuren. This study represents the first comprehensive catalogue of deep-sea Lebensspuren in Australian waters and highlights the potential of Lebensspuren as valuable and often

  9. Deep-sea benthic footprint of the deepwater horizon blowout.

    PubMed

    Montagna, Paul A; Baguley, Jeffrey G; Cooksey, Cynthia; Hartwell, Ian; Hyde, Larry J; Hyland, Jeffrey L; Kalke, Richard D; Kracker, Laura M; Reuscher, Michael; Rhodes, Adelaide C E

    2013-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) accident in the northern Gulf of Mexico occurred on April 20, 2010 at a water depth of 1525 meters, and a deep-sea plume was detected within one month. Oil contacted and persisted in parts of the bottom of the deep-sea in the Gulf of Mexico. As part of the response to the accident, monitoring cruises were deployed in fall 2010 to measure potential impacts on the two main soft-bottom benthic invertebrate groups: macrofauna and meiofauna. Sediment was collected using a multicorer so that samples for chemical, physical and biological analyses could be taken simultaneously and analyzed using multivariate methods. The footprint of the oil spill was identified by creating a new variable with principal components analysis where the first factor was indicative of the oil spill impacts and this new variable mapped in a geographic information system to identify the area of the oil spill footprint. The most severe relative reduction of faunal abundance and diversity extended to 3 km from the wellhead in all directions covering an area about 24 km(2). Moderate impacts were observed up to 17 km towards the southwest and 8.5 km towards the northeast of the wellhead, covering an area 148 km(2). Benthic effects were correlated to total petroleum hydrocarbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and barium concentrations, and distance to the wellhead; but not distance to hydrocarbon seeps. Thus, benthic effects are more likely due to the oil spill, and not natural hydrocarbon seepage. Recovery rates in the deep sea are likely to be slow, on the order of decades or longer. PMID:23950956

  10. Igneous rocks of Arctic Ocean deep sea ridges: new data on petrology, geochemistry and geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Oleg; Morozov, Andrey; Shokalsky, Sergey; Sobolev, Nikolay; Kashubin, Sergey; Shevchenko, Sergey; Sergeev, Sergey; Belyatsky, Boris; Shatov, Vitaly; Petrov, Eugeny

    2015-04-01

    The aggregate results of studies of igneous rocks, collected from the central part of the Arctic Ocean during scientific marine expeditions «Arctic-2000, 2005, 2007 and 2012» are presented and discussed in the frame of modern understanding of High Polar Arctic tectonic constraint. Petrological, geochemical and isotope-geochronological studies of more than 500 samples have shown that the sedimentary rocks are of dominated population among the rock fragments dredged from deep-sea bottom, and represented by metamorphosed dolomite and quartz sandstone, limestone, sometimes with the Devonian - Permian fauna. Igneous rocks are 10-15% only (Archean and Paleoproterozoic gneissouse granites and gabbro, Neoproterozoic dolerite) and metamorphic rocks (green shales, metabasites, gneisses). Apparently, these rocks are part of the acoustic basement underlying the Late Mesozoic - Cenozoic layered loose sediments. In addition to the dredged fragments of the ancient mafic rocks, some samples were taken as a core during deep-water drilling in the northern and southern slopes of the Mendeleev Ridge and represented by trachybasalts, marking the border of Late-Cenozoic deposit cover and acoustic basement and quite similar in composition to those of Early-Late Cretaceous basalts form northward of the Chukchi Plateau seamounts, Alpha Ridge, Franz Josef Land, De Long islands and other parts of the large igneous province of the High Arctic (HALIP). Video-filming of Mendeleev Ridge escarps proofs the existing of rock outcrops and supports local origin of most of the rock fragments found in the sampling areas. Thus the continental type of the earth's crust of the Central Arctic Ridges basement is based on all obtained results of our study of sea-bottom excavated rock material.

  11. The role of the oceanic oxygen minima in generating biodiversity in the deep sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Alex D.

    2000-01-01

    Many studies on the deep-sea benthic biota have shown that the most species-rich areas lie on the continental margins between 500 and 2500 m, which coincides with the present oxygen-minimum in the world's oceans. Some species have adapted to hypoxic conditions in oxygen-minimum zones, and some can even fulfil all their energy requirements through anaerobic metabolism for at least short periods of time. It is, however, apparent that the geographic and vertical distribution of many species is restricted by the presence of oxygen-minimum zones. Historically, cycles of global warming and cooling have led to periods of expansion and contraction of oxygen-minimum layers throughout the world's oceans. Such shifts in the global distribution of oxygen-minimum zones have presented many opportunities for allopatric speciation in organisms inhabiting slope habitats associated with continental margins, oceanic islands and seamounts. On a smaller scale, oxygen-minimum zones can be seen today as providing a barrier to gene-flow between allopatric populations. Recent studies of the Arabian Sea and in other regions of upwelling also have shown that the presence of an oxygen-minimum layer creates a strong vertical gradient in physical and biological parameters. The reduced utilisation of the downward flux of organic material in the oxygen-minimum zone results in an abundant supply of food for organisms immediately below it. The occupation of this area by species exploiting abundant food supplies may lead to strong vertical gradients in selective pressures for optimal rates of growth, modes of reproduction and development and in other aspects of species biology. The presence of such strong selective gradients may have led to an increase in habitat specialisation in the lower reaches of oxygen-minimum zones and an increased rate of speciation.

  12. Stable isotopic composition of deep sea gorgonian corals (Primnoa spp.): a new archive of surface processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, O A; Heikoop, J M; Scott, D B; Risk, M J; Guilderson, T P; McKinney, R A

    2005-02-03

    The deep-sea gorgonian coral Primnoa spp. lives in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans at depths of 65-3200 m. This coral has an arborescent growth form with a skeletal axis composed of annual rings made from calcite and gorgonin. It has a lifespan of at least several hundred years. It has been suggested that isotopic profiles from the gorgonin fraction of the skeleton could be used to reconstruct long-term, annual-scale variations in surface productivity. We tested assumptions about the trophic level, intra-colony isotopic reproducibility, and preservation of isotopic signatures in a suite of modern and fossil specimens. Measurements of gorgonin {Delta}{sup 14}C and {delta}{sup 15}N indicate that Primnoa spp. feed mainly on zooplankton and/or sinking particulate organic matter (POM{sub SINK}), and not on suspended POM (POM{sub SUSP}) or dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Gorgonin {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N in specimens from NE Pacific shelf waters, NW Atlantic slope waters, the Sea of Japan, and a South Pacific (Southern Ocean sector) seamount were strongly correlated with Levitus 1994 surface apparent oxygen utilization (AOU; the best available measure of surface productivity), demonstrating coupling between skeletal isotopic ratios and biophysical processes in surface water. Time-series isotopic profiles from different sections along the same colony were identical for {delta}{sup 13}C, while {delta}{sup 15}N profiles became more dissimilar with increasing separation along the colony axis. Similarity in C:N, {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N between modern and fossil specimens suggest that isotopic signatures are preserved over millennial timescales. Finally, the utility of this new archive was demonstrated by reconstruction of 20th century bomb radiocarbon.

  13. Deep-Sea Mining: Integrating Geology, Oceanography, and Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, F. Michael; Halbach, Peter E.; Martens, Peer N.; Hein, James R.; Scott, Steve

    2008-09-01

    Shaping the Future: Deep-Sea Minerals and Mining Congress; Aachen, Germany, 9-13 March 2008; A strong increase in the global demand for metallic raw materials, coupled with rising market prices, has heightened interest in marine seabed mineral deposits and the feasibility of their extraction for many marine scientists, engineers, and mining companies. This interest focuses not only on base and precious metals but also on strategically important elements needed for high-technology applications, such as cobalt, nickel, molybdenum, titanium, gallium, selenium, telurium, indium, and the rare earth elements.

  14. Paleoceanographic implications of Miocene deep-sea hiatuses.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keller, G.; Barron, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Miocene paleoceanographic evolution exhibits major changes resulting from the opening and closing of passages, the subsequent changes in oceanic circulation, and development of major Antarctic glaciation. The consequences and timing of these events can be observed in variations in the distribution of deep-sea hiatuses, sedimentation patterns, and biogeographic distribution of planktic organisms. The main aspects of the present oceanic circulation system and sediment distribution pattern were established by 13.5 to 12.5 Ma (hiatus NH 3), coincident with the establishment of a major East Antarctic ice cap. -from Authors

  15. Pressure laboratories for parameter controlled experimentation of deep sea environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, H.; Holscher, B.; Gust, G.; Thomsen, L.

    2003-04-01

    The in-situ examination of deep sea environments poses many challenges and cannot always be optimised which places the researcher at a disadvantage upon encountering high costs, few possibilities of controlling the naturally given parameters such as temperature, pressure or hydrodynamic conditions, and weather conditions while at sea. To overcome these limitations, pressure laboratories are emerging tools for biological, chemical and geological studies. The Department of Ocean Engineering 1 of the Technical University Hamburg-Harburg has been developing different types of pressure laboratories to meet the needs of the natural sciences. Three types of experimental settings were identified for examination and manipulation: experiments with artificial samples, natural samples that have been decompressed during recovery and re-pressurised, and, finally, natural samples in their original, undamaged state. We concentrate on the latter type of settings. For the laboratory simulations, different transfer units are needed for the decompression-free transfer from field site to laboratory, depending on sample type consisting of either fluids, solid-liquid suspensions including small particles and living organisms, or sediment cores. The pressure labs are thus linked to the in-situ site through special sample and transfer units which collect the undisturbed deep sea samples. As a result, laboratory investigation, after sample transfer, is very similar to in-situ analysis, but with the advantage of perfect control of the sample's environment and condition including the hydrodynamics at the sea bed. Two pressure laboratories that accomplish the given investigation tasks with different types of samples for depths down to 5500 m will be presented together with the related technology for sample acquisition. The latest system will be mobile, fully modular, and container based. Examples of experiments, some completed and some in progress, will be shown: Biological experiments include

  16. Meteoroid ablation spheres from deep-sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, M. B.; Brownlee, D. E.; Bunch, T. E.; Hodge, P. W.; Kyte, F. T.

    1980-01-01

    The paper deals with an examination of spheres that are magnetically extracted from mid-Pacific abyssal clays that are up to half a million years old. The spheres are divided into three groups using their dominant mineralogy - namely, iron, glassy, and silicate. Most spheres were formed from particles that completely melted as they separated from their parent meteoroids during the ablation process. It is concluded that the mineralogy and composition of the deep-sea spheres are identical in many respects to the meteorite fusion crusts, laboratory-created ablation debris, and the ablated interplanetary dust particles in the stratospheric collection.

  17. Space Suit Technologies Protect Deep-Sea Divers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Working on NASA missions allows engineers and scientists to hone their skills. Creating devices for the high-stress rigors of space travel pushes designers to their limits, and the results often far exceed the original concepts. The technologies developed for the extreme environment of space are often applicable here on Earth. Some of these NASA technologies, for example, have been applied to the breathing apparatuses worn by firefighters, the fire-resistant suits worn by racecar crews, and, most recently, the deep-sea gear worn by U.S. Navy divers.

  18. Deep sea AUV navigation using multiple acoustic beacons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Da-xiong; Song, Wei; Zhao, Hong-yu; Liu, Jian

    2016-04-01

    Navigation is a critical requirement for the operation of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs). To estimate the vehicle position, we present an algorithm using an extended Kalman filter (EKF) to integrate dead-reckoning position with acoustic ranges from multiple beacons pre-deployed in the operating environment. Owing to high latency, variable sound speed multipath transmissions and unreliability in acoustic measurements, outlier recognition techniques are proposed as well. The navigation algorithm has been tested by the recorded data of deep sea AUV during field operations in a variety of environments. Our results show the improved performance over prior techniques based on position computation.

  19. Patterns of Macro-invertebrate Biodiversity on Seamounts in the New Zealand Region: are Seamounts What we Think They are?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowden, A. A.; Clark, M. R.

    2006-12-01

    Seamounts are prominent and widely distributed features of the New Zealand marine environment, and also the focus of important commercial fisheries and some exploratory mineral mining. Ten seamount-specific voyages were conducted between 1999 and 2004 to sample and characterize the macro-invertebrate assemblages, and their habitat, of forty seamounts throughout the New Zealand region. Samples were taken with the same type of gear at over 200 stations in water depths of ~200 to 3000 m. Over a 1000 benthic macro- invertebrate taxa were recorded. The preliminary results of an analysis of data from this regional sampling will be presented and discussed with respect to ecological theory and the observed patterns of biodiversity. These patterns include those observed for assemblage composition within and between seamounts (including between isolated, clusters and chains of seamounts); measures of taxonomic distinctness for taxon groups with different life history characteristics; and estimated species richness and environmental heterogeneity. Some of these patterns do not appear to conform to ecological theory as currently applied to seamount habitats.

  20. Deep-sea Hexactinellida (Porifera) of the Weddell Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janussen, Dorte; Tabachnick, Konstantin R.; Tendal, Ole S.

    2004-07-01

    New Hexactinellida from the deep Weddel Sea are described. This moderately diverse hexactinellid fauna includes 14 species belonging to 12 genera, of which five species and one subgenus are new to science: Periphragella antarctica n. sp., Holascus pseudostellatus n. sp., Caulophacus (Caulophacus) discohexactinus n. sp., C. ( Caulodiscus) brandti n. sp., C. ( Oxydiscus) weddelli n. sp., and C. ( Oxydiscus) n. subgen. So far, 20 hexactinellid species have been reported from the deep Weddell Sea, 15 are known from the northern part and 10 only from here, while 10 came from the southern area, and five of these only from there. However, this apparent high "endemism" of Antarctic hexactinellid sponges is most likely the result of severe undersampling of the deep-sea fauna. We find no reason to believe that a division between an oceanic and a more continental group of species exists. The current poor database indicates that a substantial part of the deep hexactinellid fauna of the Weddell Sea is shared with other deep-sea regions, but it does not indicate a special biogeographic relationship with any other ocean.

  1. Rhone deep-sea fan: morphostructure and growth pattern

    SciTech Connect

    Droz, L.; Bellaiche, G.

    1985-03-01

    A detailed bathymetric survey of the Rhone deep-sea fan and its feeder canyon using Sea-Beam, reveals morphologic features such as very tight meanders of the canyon and channel courses, cutoff meanders, and downslope narrowing of the inner channel floor. Striking similarities exist between these deep-sea features and some continental landforms, especially in alluvial plain areas or desert environments. Sea-Beam also reveals evidence of huge slump scars affecting the slope and fan. The superficial structure of the Rhone Fan results from the stacking of numerous lenticular acoustic units displaying specific seismic characters in which the authors recognized channel and levee facies. Except in the upper fan area, these units have not been constant; they have generally migrated, owing to shifting of the channel throughout fan evolution. Construction of the fan probably began as early as the early Pliocene and continued to the close of the Wurmian (late Wisconsinian). The fan's growth pattern could be associated with climatic fluctuations. The principal sedimentary mechanism responsible for the growth of the fan appears to be turbidity currents, but mass gravity flows have also been an important factor in building the fan by occasionally blocking the main channel and forcing it to migrate.

  2. Deep sea mega-geomorphology: Progress and problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, W. B.

    1985-01-01

    Historically, marine geologists have always worked with mega-scale morphology. This is a consequence both of the scale of the ocean basins and of the low resolution of the observational remote sensing tools available until very recently. In fact, studies of deep sea morphology have suffered from a serious gap in observational scale. Traditional wide-beam echo sounding gave images on a scale of miles, while deep sea photography has been limited to scales of a few tens of meters. Recent development of modern narrow-beam echo sounding coupled with computer-controlled swath mapping systems, and development of high-resolution deep-towed side-scan sonar, are rapidly filling in the scale gap. These technologies also can resolve morphologic detail on a scale of a few meters or less. As has also been true in planetary imaging projects, the ability to observe phenomena over a range of scales has proved very effective in both defining processes and in placing them in proper context.

  3. [Some peculiarities of brain phospholipids in deep sea fishes].

    PubMed

    Pomazanskaia, L F; Pravdina, N I; Chirkovskaia, E V

    1975-01-01

    Total phospholipids (PL) as well as the content of various phospholipid classes and their fatty acid composition have been investigated in the brain of mesopelagic and abyssal marine teleosts. These species were compared to shallow water ones. The brain of deep sea fishes was found to be very poor in PL as compared to the brain of mesopelagic ans surface water species. No differences concerning the brain PL content were revealed between the two last mentioned groups. The relative content of separate PL classes was very similar in all the species studied irrespectively of the depth of their habitat. Peculiarities were found in fatty acid composition of individual PL from deep sea species as compared to surface ones. The deeper the habitat, the lower the content of saturated fatty acids, especially of the stearic acid. The lowest content of saturated fatty acids, maximum level of polyenoic fatty acids as well as some peculiarities in the relative content of particular fatty acids were found in the brain of ultraabyssal (6, 000 m) Leucicorus sp. PMID:1217333

  4. Global ocean conveyor lowers extinction risk in the deep sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Lea-Anne; Frank, Norbert; Hebbeln, Dierk; Wienberg, Claudia; Robinson, Laura; van de Flierdt, Tina; Dahl, Mikael; Douarin, Mélanie; Morrison, Cheryl L.; López Correa, Matthias; Rogers, Alex D.; Ruckelshausen, Mario; Roberts, J. Murray

    2014-06-01

    General paradigms of species extinction risk are urgently needed as global habitat loss and rapid climate change threaten Earth with what could be its sixth mass extinction. Using the stony coral Lophelia pertusa as a model organism with the potential for wide larval dispersal, we investigated how the global ocean conveyor drove an unprecedented post-glacial range expansion in Earth's largest biome, the deep sea. We compiled a unique ocean-scale dataset of published radiocarbon and uranium-series dates of fossil corals, the sedimentary protactinium-thorium record of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) strength, authigenic neodymium and lead isotopic ratios of circulation pathways, and coral biogeography, and integrated new Bayesian estimates of historic gene flow. Our compilation shows how the export of Southern Ocean and Mediterranean waters after the Younger Dryas 11.6 kyr ago simultaneously triggered two dispersal events in the western and eastern Atlantic respectively. Each pathway injected larvae from refugia into ocean currents powered by a re-invigorated AMOC that led to the fastest postglacial range expansion ever recorded, covering 7500 km in under 400 years. In addition to its role in modulating global climate, our study illuminates how the ocean conveyor creates broad geographic ranges that lower extinction risk in the deep sea.

  5. Observed deep energetic eddies by seamount wake.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gengxin; Wang, Dongxiao; Dong, Changming; Zu, Tingting; Xue, Huijie; Shu, Yeqiang; Chu, Xiaoqing; Qi, Yiquan; Chen, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous surface eddies are observed in the ocean, deep eddies (a type of eddies which have no footprints at the sea surface) are much less reported in the literature due to the scarcity of their observation. In this letter, from recently collected current and temperature data by mooring arrays, a deep energetic and baroclinic eddy is detected in the northwestern South China Sea (SCS) with its intensity, size, polarity and structure being characterized. It remarkably deepens isotherm at deep layers by the amplitude of ~120 m and induces a maximal velocity amplitude about 0.18 m/s, which is far larger than the median velocity (0.02 m/s). The deep eddy is generated in a wake when a steering flow in the upper layer passes a seamount, induced by a surface cyclonic eddy. More observations suggest that the deep eddy should not be an episode in the area. Deep eddies significantly increase the velocity intensity and enhance the mixing in the deep ocean, also have potential implication for deep-sea sediments transport. PMID:26617343

  6. Observed deep energetic eddies by seamount wake

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gengxin; Wang, Dongxiao; Dong, Changming; Zu, Tingting; Xue, Huijie; Shu, Yeqiang; Chu, Xiaoqing; Qi, Yiquan; Chen, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous surface eddies are observed in the ocean, deep eddies (a type of eddies which have no footprints at the sea surface) are much less reported in the literature due to the scarcity of their observation. In this letter, from recently collected current and temperature data by mooring arrays, a deep energetic and baroclinic eddy is detected in the northwestern South China Sea (SCS) with its intensity, size, polarity and structure being characterized. It remarkably deepens isotherm at deep layers by the amplitude of ~120 m and induces a maximal velocity amplitude about 0.18 m/s, which is far larger than the median velocity (0.02 m/s). The deep eddy is generated in a wake when a steering flow in the upper layer passes a seamount, induced by a surface cyclonic eddy. More observations suggest that the deep eddy should not be an episode in the area. Deep eddies significantly increase the velocity intensity and enhance the mixing in the deep ocean, also have potential implication for deep-sea sediments transport. PMID:26617343

  7. Observed deep energetic eddies by seamount wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gengxin; Wang, Dongxiao; Dong, Changming; Zu, Tingting; Xue, Huijie; Shu, Yeqiang; Chu, Xiaoqing; Qi, Yiquan; Chen, Hui

    2015-11-01

    Despite numerous surface eddies are observed in the ocean, deep eddies (a type of eddies which have no footprints at the sea surface) are much less reported in the literature due to the scarcity of their observation. In this letter, from recently collected current and temperature data by mooring arrays, a deep energetic and baroclinic eddy is detected in the northwestern South China Sea (SCS) with its intensity, size, polarity and structure being characterized. It remarkably deepens isotherm at deep layers by the amplitude of ~120 m and induces a maximal velocity amplitude about 0.18 m/s, which is far larger than the median velocity (0.02 m/s). The deep eddy is generated in a wake when a steering flow in the upper layer passes a seamount, induced by a surface cyclonic eddy. More observations suggest that the deep eddy should not be an episode in the area. Deep eddies significantly increase the velocity intensity and enhance the mixing in the deep ocean, also have potential implication for deep-sea sediments transport.

  8. Enhanced bioaccumulation of mercury in deep-sea fauna from the Bay of Biscay (north-east Atlantic) in relation to trophic positions identified by analysis of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouvelon, T.; Spitz, J.; Caurant, F.; Mèndez-Fernandez, P.; Autier, J.; Lassus-Débat, A.; Chappuis, A.; Bustamante, P.

    The Bay of Biscay (north-east Atlantic) is an open marine ecosystem of particular concern in current European environmental policies. Indeed, it supports both a high biological diversity and numerous anthropogenic activities such as important fisheries. For the first time, stable isotope analyses (SIA) of carbon and nitrogen and analysis of total mercury (T-Hg) concentrations in the muscle (edible flesh) were performed on adult stages of a wide range of species (i.e., 120 species) from various taxa and various habitats of this ecosystem. Concentrations of this non-essential metal, toxic to all living organisms, ranged from 39 to 5074 ng g-1 dry weight. Calculations of species' trophic positions (TPs) through SIA revealed a limited effect of TP in explaining Hg bioaccumulation by high trophic level consumers in particular. On the contrary, our results suggest an important role of habitat and/or feeding zone, which strongly influence muscle Hg bioaccumulation. Deep-sea fish species effectively presented the highest Hg concentrations. Possible interactions between biological factors (e.g., age of deep-sea organisms) and bioavailability of the metal in the deep-sea environment are discussed to explain such enhanced bioaccumulation of Hg by deep-sea fauna in the Bay of Biscay. This study also highlights a potential risk for human health when deep-sea fish are consumed frequently.

  9. Automated Video Quality Assessment for Deep-Sea Video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirenne, B.; Hoeberechts, M.; Kalmbach, A.; Sadhu, T.; Branzan Albu, A.; Glotin, H.; Jeffries, M. A.; Bui, A. O. V.

    2015-12-01

    Video provides a rich source of data for geophysical analysis, often supplying detailed information about the environment when other instruments may not. This is especially true of deep-sea environments, where direct visual observations cannot be made. As computer vision techniques improve and volumes of video data increase, automated video analysis is emerging as a practical alternative to labor-intensive manual analysis. Automated techniques can be much more sensitive to video quality than their manual counterparts, so performing quality assessment before doing full analysis is critical to producing valid results.Ocean Networks Canada (ONC), an initiative of the University of Victoria, operates cabled ocean observatories that supply continuous power and Internet connectivity to a broad suite of subsea instruments from the coast to the deep sea, including video and still cameras. This network of ocean observatories has produced almost 20,000 hours of video (about 38 hours are recorded each day) and an additional 8,000 hours of logs from remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives. We begin by surveying some ways in which deep-sea video poses challenges for automated analysis, including: 1. Non-uniform lighting: Single, directional, light sources produce uneven luminance distributions and shadows; remotely operated lighting equipment are also susceptible to technical failures. 2. Particulate noise: Turbidity and marine snow are often present in underwater video; particles in the water column can have sharper focus and higher contrast than the objects of interest due to their proximity to the light source and can also influence the camera's autofocus and auto white-balance routines. 3. Color distortion (low contrast): The rate of absorption of light in water varies by wavelength, and is higher overall than in air, altering apparent colors and lowering the contrast of objects at a distance.We also describe measures under development at ONC for detecting and mitigating

  10. Phosphorus Speciation in Skeletal Aragonite of Deep Sea Corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, H. E.; Montagna, P.; Phillips, B. L.

    2007-12-01

    Phosphorus plays an important role in the world oceans as a limiting nutrient and can serve as an indicator of productivity. This link to bioactivity also relates P concentration to changes in atmospheric CO2 through biotic sequestration. The P concentration of ocean water is also connected to changes in deep sea ocean circulation that are also vehicles for global climate change. A paleoproxy for oceanic P concentration recently has been developed based on the P content in skeletal aragonite of deep-sea corals. The P-content of the septa record the ambient ocean P concentration at the time the time of deposition, which can be measured at high spatial resolution by methods such as ICP-MS. Although the correlation of P content of coral aragonite and ambient seawater suggests that phosphate is incorporated into the aragonite structure during crystal growth, the P speciation in the skeletal aragonite is unknown. We have studied P speciation in deep-sea coral aragonite collected from various localities using P-31 single pulse (SP) and cross polarization magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic techniques. Spectra of all samples contain a broad peak (>6 ppm full width at half maximum; FWHM) at a chemical shift of 3.0 to 3.5 ppm which is tentatively assigned to phosphate defects in the aragonite structure. Variable contact time CP/MAS NMR spectra indicates that the broad peak at 3.0 to 3.5 ppm is enhanced at short CP contact times, suggesting that H bearing species are important for accommodating phosphate in the aragonite structure. A subset of the samples gives spectra containing an additional, narrow peak (~ 1.5 ppm FWHM) at a chemical shift of 2.6 ppm. The spectral characteristics of this narrow peak, including both chemical shift and CP dynamics, are similar those of hydroxyl-containing apatite phases. On this basis and the small width of the peak it is assigned to crystalline apatite inclusions. These inclusions account for up to

  11. Deep-sea seabed habitats: Do they support distinct mega-epifaunal communities that have different vulnerabilities to anthropogenic disturbance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, David A.; Rowden, Ashley A.; Leduc, Daniel; Beaumont, Jennifer; Clark, Malcolm R.

    2016-01-01

    Growing economic interest in seabed resources in the deep-sea highlights the need for information about the spatial distribution and vulnerability to disturbance of benthic habitats and fauna. Categorisation of seabed habitats for management is often based on topographic features such as canyons and seamounts that can be distinguished using regional bathymetry ('mega-habitats'). This is practical but because such habitats are contiguous with others, there is potential for overlap in the communities associated with them. Because concepts of habitat and community vulnerability are based on the traits of individual taxa, the nature and extent of differences between communities have implications for strategies to manage the environmental effects of resource use. Using towed video camera transects, we surveyed mega-epifaunal communities of three topographically-defined habitats (canyon, seamount or knoll, and continental slope) and two physico-chemically defined meso-scale habitats (cold seep and hydrothermal vent) in two regions off New Zealand to assess whether each supports a distinct type of community. Cold seep and hydrothermal vent communities were strongly distinct from those in other habitats. Across the other habitats, however, distinctions between communities were often weak and were not consistent between regions. Dissimilarities among communities across all habitats were stronger and the density of filter-feeding taxa was higher in the Bay of Plenty than on the Hikurangi Margin, whereas densities of predatory and scavenging taxa were higher on the Hikurangi Margin. Substratum diversity at small spatial scales (<1 km) and trawl history were significantly correlated with community composition in both regions. We conclude that, (1) a lack of consistent distinction between communities raises questions about the general utility of topographically-defined mega-habitats in environmental management, (2) fine-scale survey of individual features is necessary to

  12. Power, fresh water, and food from cold, deep sea water.

    PubMed

    Othmer, D F; Roels, O A

    1973-10-12

    Many times more solar heat energy accumulates in the vast volume of warm tropic seas than that produced by all of our power plants. The looming energy crisis causes a renewal of interest in utilizing this stored solar heat to give, in addition to electric power, vast quantities of fresh water. Warm surface water, when evaporated, generates steam, to power a turbine, then fresh water when the steam is condensed by the cold water. A great increase in revenues over that from power and fresh water is shown by a substantial mariculture pilot plant. Deep sea water contains large quantities of nutrients. These feed algae which feed shellfish, ultimately shrimps and lobsters, in shallow ponds. Wastes grow seaweed of value; and combined revenues from desalination, power generation, and mariculture will give substantial profit. PMID:17777883

  13. Alchemy or Science? Compromising Archaeology in the Deep Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Jonathan

    2007-06-01

    In the torrid debate between archaeology and treasure hunting, compromise is often suggested as the pragmatic solution, especially for archaeology carried out either in deep water or beyond the constraints that commonly regulate such activities in territorial seas. Both the wisdom and the need for such compromise have even been advocated by some archaeologists, particularly in forums such as the internet and conferences. This paper argues that such a compromise is impossible, not in order to fuel confrontation but simply because of the nature of any academic discipline. We can define what archaeology is in terms of its aims, theories, methods and ethics, so combining it with an activity founded on opposing principles must transform it into something else. The way forward for archaeology in the deep sea does not lie in a contradictory realignment of archaeology’s goals but in collaborative research designed to mesh with emerging national and regional research and management plans.

  14. Catalysis of carbon monoxide methanation by deep sea manganate minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrera, A. L.; Maple, M. B.; Arrhenius, G.

    1990-01-01

    The catalytic activity of deep sea manganese nodule minerals for the methanation of carbon monoxide was measured with a microcatalytic technique between 200 and 460 degrees C. The manganate minerals were activated at 248 degrees C by immersion into a stream of hydrogen in which pulses of carbon monoxide were injected. Activation energies for the methanation reaction and hydrogen desorption from the manganate minerals were obtained and compared with those of pure nickel. Similar energy values indicate that the activity of the nodule materials for the reaction appears to be related to the amount of reducible transition metals present in the samples (ca. 11 wt.-%). Since the activity of the nodule minerals per gram is comparable to that of pure nickel, most of the transition metal ions located between manganese oxide layers appear to be exposed and available to catalyze the reaction.

  15. 77 FR 35850 - Safety Zone; F/V Deep Sea, Penn Cove, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; F/V Deep Sea, Penn Cove, WA AGENCY: Coast... the Fishing Vessel (F/V) Deep Sea, located in Penn Cove, WA. This action is necessary to ensure...

  16. Permanent carbon dioxide storage in deep-sea sediments.

    PubMed

    House, Kurt Zenz; Schrag, Daniel P; Harvey, Charles F; Lackner, Klaus S

    2006-08-15

    Stabilizing the concentration of atmospheric CO(2) may require storing enormous quantities of captured anthropogenic CO(2) in near-permanent geologic reservoirs. Because of the subsurface temperature profile of terrestrial storage sites, CO(2) stored in these reservoirs is buoyant. As a result, a portion of the injected CO(2) can escape if the reservoir is not appropriately sealed. We show that injecting CO(2) into deep-sea sediments below [corrected] 3,000-m water depth and a few hundred meters of sediment provides permanent geologic storage even with large geomechanical perturbations. At the high pressures and low temperatures common in deep-sea sediments, CO(2) resides in its liquid phase and can be denser than the overlying pore fluid, causing the injected CO(2) to be gravitationally stable. Additionally, CO(2) hydrate formation will impede the flow of CO(2)(l) and serve as a second cap on the system. The evolution of the CO(2) plume is described qualitatively from the injection to the formation of CO(2) hydrates and finally to the dilution of the CO(2)(aq) solution by diffusion. If calcareous sediments are chosen, then the dissolution of carbonate host rock by the CO(2)(aq) solution will slightly increase porosity, which may cause large increases in permeability. Karst formation, however, is unlikely because total dissolution is limited to only a few percent of the rock volume. The total CO(2) storage capacity within the 200-mile economic zone of the U.S. coastline is enormous, capable of storing thousands of years of current U.S. CO(2) emissions. PMID:16894174

  17. Temporal latitudinal-gradient dynamics and tropical instability of deep-sea species diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Hunt, G.; Cronin, T. M.; Okahashi, H.

    2009-01-01

    A benthic microfaunal record from the equatorial Atlantic Ocean over the past four glacial-interglacial cycles was investigated to understand temporal dynamics of deep-sea latitudinal species diversity gradients (LSDGs). The results demonstrate unexpected instability and high amplitude fluctuations of species diversity in the tropical deep ocean that are correlated with orbital-scale oscillations in global climate: Species diversity is low during glacial and high during interglacial periods. This implies that climate severely influences deep-sea diversity, even at tropical latitudes, and that deep-sea LSDGs, while generally present for the last 36 million years, were weakened or absent during glacial periods. Temporally dynamic LSDGs and unstable tropical diversity require reconsideration of current ecological hypotheses about the generation and maintenance of biodiversity as they apply to the deep sea, and underscore the potential vulnerability and conservation importance of tropical deep-sea ecosystems.

  18. Beta-diversity on deep-sea wood falls reflects gradients in energy availability

    PubMed Central

    McClain, Craig; Barry, James

    2014-01-01

    Wood falls on the deep-sea floor represent a significant source of energy into the food-limited deep sea. Unique communities of primarily wood- and sulfide-obligate species form on these wood falls. However, little is known regarding patterns and drivers of variation in the composition of wood fall communities through space and time, and thus, how wood falls contribute to deep-sea biodiversity. Eighteen Acacia logs varying in size were placed and retrieved after five years at a 3200 m site in the Pacific Ocean. We found that the taxonomic composition and structure of deep-sea wood fall communities varied considerably and equated with considerable differences in energy usage and availability. Our findings suggest that natural variability in wood falls may contribute significantly to deep-sea diversity. PMID:24718094

  19. Telopathes magna gen. nov., spec. nov. (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Antipatharia: Schizopathidae) from deep waters off Atlantic Canada and the first molecular phylogeny of the deep-sea family Schizopathidae.

    PubMed

    Macisaac, K G; Best, M; Brugler, M R; Kenchington, E L R; Anstey, L J; Jordan, T

    2013-01-01

    A new genus and species of deep-sea antipatharian, Telopathes magna gen. nov., spec. nov., is described from the western North Atlantic off the coast of Canada. Five additional paratypes, consisting ofjuvenile to adult forms, are reported from the New England and Corner Rise Seamounts (NW Atlantic). Preliminary sequencing of a subsection of the nuclear ribosomal cistron confirmed the phylogenetic affinity of T. magna to the order Antipatharia, and in particular the family Schizopathidae. Subsequent sequencing of three mitochondrial DNA segments from nine of the 11 currently-recognized genera within the Schizopathidae revealed a well-supported phylogenetic relationship between T. magna and Stauropathes. This is the first study to use molecular techniques to elucidate the evolutionary relationships of the Schizopathidae, a family of black corals almost exclusively found in the deep sea (depths > 200 m). Telopathes is distinguished from other genera within the family Schizopathidae by its largely pinnulated stalk, sparse branching pattern to the second degree that is not restricted to a single plane, two anterolateral rows of long, simple primary pinnules, arranged alternately to sub-opposite, and colony with an adhesive base. This record of T. magna brings the total number of nominal species of Antipatharia reported to occur off eastern Canada to 12 and represents the third new genus added to the Schizopathidae since a critical review of the family by Dennis Opresko in 2002. PMID:26106725

  20. Quantifying the direct use value of Condor seamount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ressurreição, Adriana; Giacomello, Eva

    2013-12-01

    Seamounts often satisfy numerous uses and interests. Multiple uses can generate multiple benefits but also conflicts and impacts, calling, therefore, for integrated and sustainable management. To assist in developing comprehensive management strategies, policymakers recognise the need to include measures of socioeconomic analysis alongside ecological data so that practical compromises can be made. This study assessed the direct output impact (DOI) of the relevant marine activities operating at Condor seamount (Azores, central northeast Atlantic) as proxies of the direct use values provided by the resource system. Results demonstrated that Condor seamount supported a wide range of uses yielding distinct economic outputs. Demersal fisheries, scientific research and shark diving were the top-three activities generating the highest revenues, while tuna fisheries, whale watching and scuba-diving had marginal economic significance. Results also indicated that the economic importance of non-extractive uses of Condor is considerable, highlighting the importance of these uses as alternative income-generating opportunities for local communities. It is hoped that quantifying the direct use values provided by Condor seamount will contribute to the decision making process towards its long-term conservation and sustainable use.

  1. Coupled RNA-SIP and metatranscriptomics of active chemolithoautotrophic communities at a deep-sea hydrothermal vent.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, Caroline S; Huber, Julie A

    2016-08-01

    The chemolithoautotrophic microbial community of the rocky subseafloor potentially provides a large amount of organic carbon to the deep ocean, yet our understanding of the activity and metabolic complexity of subseafloor organisms remains poorly described. A combination of metagenomic, metatranscriptomic, and RNA stable isotope probing (RNA-SIP) analyses were used to identify the metabolic potential, expression patterns, and active autotrophic bacteria and archaea and their pathways present in low-temperature hydrothermal fluids from Axial Seamount, an active submarine volcano. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic results showed the presence of genes and transcripts for sulfur, hydrogen, and ammonium oxidation, oxygen respiration, denitrification, and methanogenesis, as well as multiple carbon fixation pathways. In RNA-SIP experiments across a range of temperatures under reducing conditions, the enriched (13)C fractions showed differences in taxonomic and functional diversity. At 30 °C and 55 °C, Epsilonproteobacteria were dominant, oxidizing hydrogen and primarily reducing nitrate. Methanogenic archaea were also present at 55 °C, and were the only autotrophs present at 80 °C. Correspondingly, the predominant CO2 fixation pathways changed from the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle to the reductive acetyl-CoA pathway with increasing temperature. By coupling RNA-SIP with meta-omics, this study demonstrates the presence and activity of distinct chemolithoautotrophic communities across a thermal gradient of a deep-sea hydrothermal vent. PMID:26872039

  2. Cloning and characterization of a new cold-active lipase from a deep-sea sediment metagenome.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jeong Ho; Kim, Jun-Tae; Kim, Yun Jae; Kim, Hyung-Kwoun; Lee, Hyun Sook; Kang, Sung Gyun; Kim, Sang-Jin; Lee, Jung-Hyun

    2009-01-01

    To search for new cold-active lipases, a metagenomic library was constructed using cold-sea sediment samples at Edison Seamount and was screened for lipolytic activities by plating on a tricaprylin medium. Subsequently, a fosmid clone was selected, and the whole sequence of 36 kb insert of the fosmid clone was determined by shotgun sequencing. The sequence analysis revealed the presence of 25 open reading frames (ORF), and ORF20 (EML1) showed similarities to lipases. Phylogenetic analysis of EML1 suggested that the protein belonged to a new family of esterase/lipase together with LipG. The EML1 gene was expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified by metal-chelating chromatography. The optimum activity of the purified EML1 (rEML1) occurred at pH 8.0 and 25 degrees C, respectively, and rEML1 displayed more than 50% activity at 5 degrees C. The activation energy for the hydrolysis of olive oil was determined to be 3.28 kcal/mol, indicating that EML1 is a cold-active lipase. rEML1 preferentially hydrolyzed triacylglycerols acyl-group chains with long chain lengths of > or = 8 carbon atoms and displayed hydrolyzing activities toward various natural oil substrates. rEML1 was resistant to various detergents such as Triton X-100 and Tween 80. This study represents an example which developed a new cold-active lipase from a deep-sea sediment metagenome. PMID:18773201

  3. Seamount acoustic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehlert, George W.

    The cover of the March 1 issue of Eos showed a time series of acoustic scattering above Southeast Hancock Seamount (29°48‧N, 178°05‧E) on July 17-18, 1984. In a comment on that cover Martin Hovland (Eos, August 2, p. 760) argued that gas or “other far reaching causes” may be involved in the observed acoustic signals. He favors a hypothesis that acoustic scattering observed above a seeping pockmark in the North Sea is a combination of bubbles, stable microbubbles, and pelagic organisms and infers that this may be a more general phenomenon and indeed plays a role in the attraction of organisms to seamounts

  4. Linking microbial ultrastructure and physiology to iron depositional processes in deep sea hydrothermal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, C. S.; Fleming, E. J.; Emerson, D.; Edwards, K. J.

    2008-12-01

    Clara S. Chan, Emily Fleming, David Emerson, Katrina J. Edwards Iron microbial mats have been discovered in a variety of deep-sea hydrothermal environments and are increasingly being recognized as more seafloor is explored. The predominant structures found in many of these mats are iron oxyhydroxide-rich filaments. One of the most common structures is a helical stalk bearing a resemblance to the twisted stalk of the terrestrial iron-oxidizing microbe, Gallionella ferruginea. While Gallionella has not been detected in, or isolated from, these mats microaerophilic iron-oxidizing, a stalk- forming bacterium, Mariprofundus ferrooxydans (PV-1 and related strains) has been isolated from mats at the Loihi seamount in Hawaii (Emerson et al. 2007, PLoS One 2(8): e667). Fossilized aggregates of iron filaments have been observed in the rock record (e.g. Little et al. 2004, Geomicrobiol. J. 21:415), and may represent ancient versions of these microbial mats. If this is shown to be true, such filaments would represent one of the few microfossil morphologies that can be linked to a specific microbial metabolism. We have used a combination of test tube culturing, microslide culturing, time lapse microscopy, and electron microscopy to study Mariprofundus stalk morphology and genesis and link these details to physiological responses to environmental chemistry. The goals include determining specific attributes of stalk morphology that can be used to determine the biogenicity of putative iron microfossils, and interpret the conditions of the depositional environment. Light microscopic observation of microslide cultures over the course of several days allowed for determination of bacterial response to developing oxygen and Fe(II) gradients. Once gradients have been established, given an abundant supply of oxygen, cells congregate in a band perpendicular to the gradient and stalks are formed, growing in the direction of increasing oxygen (and decreasing Fe) concentration. This

  5. Microbial Evolution at High Pressure: Deep Sea and Laboratory Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, D. H.

    2011-12-01

    Elevated hydrostatic pressures are present in deep-sea and deep-Earth environments where this physical parameter has influenced the evolution and characteristics of life. Piezophilic (high-pressure-adapted) microbes have been isolated from diverse deep-sea settings, and would appear likely to occur in deep-subsurface habitats as well. In order to discern the factors enabling life at high pressure my research group has explored these adaptations at various levels, most recently including molecular analyses of deep-sea trench communities, and through the selective evolution of the model microbe Escherichia coli in the laboratory to progressively higher pressures. Much of the field work has focused on the microbes present in the deeper portions of the Puerto Rico Trench (PRT)and in the Peru-Chile Trench (PCT), from 6-8.5 km below the sea surface (~60-85 megapascals pressure). Culture-independent phylogenetic data on the Bacteria and Archaea present on particles or free-living, along with data on the microeukarya present was complemented with genomic analyses and the isolation and characterization of microbes in culture. Metagenomic analyses of the PRT revealed increased genome sizes and an overrepresentation at depth of sulfatases for the breakdown of sulfated polysaccharides and specific categories of transporters, including those associated with the transport of diverse cations or carboxylate ions, or associated with heavy metal resistance. Single-cell genomic studies revealed several linneages which recruited to the PRT metagenome far better than existing marine microbial genome sequences. analyses. Novel high pressure culture approaches have yielded new piezophiles including species preferring very low nutrient levels, those living off of hydrocarbons, and those adapted to various electron donor/electron acceptor combinations. In order to more specifically focus on functions enabling life at increased pressure selective evolution experiments were performed with

  6. Multiple origins of deep-sea Asellota (Crustacea: Isopoda) from shallow waters revealed by molecular data

    PubMed Central

    Raupach, Michael J.; Mayer, Christoph; Malyutina, Marina; Wägele, Johann-Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    The Asellota are a highly variable group of Isopoda with many species in freshwater and marine shallow-water environments. However, in the deep sea, they show their most impressive radiation with a broad range of astonishing morphological adaptations and bizarre body forms. Nevertheless, the evolution and phylogeny of the deep-sea Asellota are poorly known because of difficulties in scoring morphological characters. In this study, the molecular phylogeny of the Asellota is evaluated for 15 marine shallow-water species and 101 deep-sea species, using complete 18S and partial 28S rDNA gene sequences. Our molecular data support the monophyly of most deep-sea families and give evidence for a multiple colonization of the deep sea by at least four major lineages of asellote isopods. According to our molecular data, one of these lineages indicates an impressive radiation in the deep sea. Furthermore, the present study rejects the monophyly of the family Janiridae, a group of plesiomorphic shallow-water Asellota, and several shallow-water and deep-sea genera (Acanthaspidia, Ianthopsis, Haploniscus, Echinozone, Eurycope, Munnopsurus and Syneurycope). PMID:19033145

  7. Adaptation to deep-sea methane seeps from Cretaceous shallow-water black shale environments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiel, Steffen; Wiese, Frank; Titus, Alan

    2013-04-01

    Sulfide-enriched environments in shallow water were considered as sites where animals acquire pre-adaptations enabling them to colonize deep-sea hydrothermal vents and seeps or where they survived extinction events in their deep-sea habitats. Here we present upper Cenomanian (early Late Cretaceous) shallow-water seep communities from the Tropic Shale in the Western Interior Seaway, USA, that lived during a time of extremely warm deep-water temperatures, which supposedly facilitates adaptations to the deep sea, and time-equivalent with a period of widespread oceanic and photic zone anoxia (OAE 2) that supposedly extinguished deep-water vent and seep faunas. Contrary to the expectation, the taxa inhabiting the Tropic Shale seeps were not found at any coeval or younger deep-water seep or vent deposit. This suggests that (i) pre-adaptations for living at deep-sea vents and seeps do not evolve at shallow-water methane seeps, and probably also not in sulfide-rich shallow-water environments in general; (ii) a low temperature gradient from shallow to deep water does not facilitate onshore-offshore adaptations to deep-sea vents and seeps; and (iii) shallow-water seeps did not act as refuges for deep-sea vent and seep animals. We hypothesize that the vast majority of adaptations to successfully colonize deep-sea vents and seeps are acquired below the photic zone.

  8. Fluidal deep-sea volcanic ash as an indicator of explosive volcanism (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clague, D. A.; Portner, R. A.; Paduan, J. B.; Dreyer, B. M.

    2013-12-01

    Fluidal glassy lava fragments are now known to be abundant at sites of submarine eruptions including the mid-ocean ridge system, near-ridge seamount chains, mid-plate volcanoes and the submarine rifts of ocean islands, deep-sea (4200m) alkalic lava fields, back-arc spreading centers, and arc volcanoes. Fluidal fragments at these diverse settings have compositions including basanite, tholeiite, boninite, andesite, dacite, and rhyolite. Fragments include straight, bent, curved, and coiled Pele's hair; flat, curved, twisted, folded, bent, or keeled ribbons; and flat, curved, or intensely folded limu o Pele. Most of these morphologies attach to blocky glass fragments. The fluidal fragments from different settings and depths are strikingly similar in morphology with variable vesicularity and particle thickness. They have been sampled flat and steep, rocky to sediment-covered substrates. Two different mechanisms are proposed to explain their origin: magmatic-volatile fragmentation during eruption and sea floor lava-water interactions. Volatiles in the melts and ambient water are present in all submarine volcanic settings, making it difficult to separate their role in forming the fragments. Submarine bubble-burst (strombolian) activity has been observed in situ at an active vent at -1200m on West Mata Volcano. However, lava-water interaction at elevated pressure has not been observed to make such fluidal fragments except in laboratory simulations. Lava-water interaction models suggest that pore water in sediment trapped beneath advancing lava flows migrates into the overlying flow where it expands to steam, and the expanding steam bubble escapes explosively through the flow top to form the fluidal fragments. This is different from the hollow (water-filled) pillars that form in inflating flows as trapped water escapes. Pillars grow upwards at contacts between flow lobes, thus the water exiting through pillars never enters (or exits) the molten lava flow interior. Another

  9. Biodiversity Science In The Deep Sea: The ESF EuroDEEP Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonckheere, I. G.

    2007-12-01

    What little we know of deep-sea ecosystems indicates that they host one of the highest biodiversities on the planet as well as important mineral and biological resources, which are increasingly being exploited. Understanding deep-sea biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, from viruses to megafauna, is essential to assess the impact of natural and anthropogenic factors and provide management options. The aim of the multidisciplinary ESF EUROCORES Programme EuroDEEP, Ecosystem Functioning and Biodiversity in Deep Sea, is to further explore and identify the different deep-sea habitats, assessing both the abiotic and biotic processes that sustain and maintain deep-sea communities. The scope is to interpret variations of biodiversity within and between deep-sea habitats, and the interactions of the biota with the ecosystems in which they live. The resulting scientific data are a prerequisite for the sustainable use and the development of management and conservation options aiming at the sustainable use of marine resources that will benefit society as a whole. The Programme aims at providing the necessary framework and funding for the development of top-quality deep- sea research at the European level in a global context (Census of Marine Life and SCOR/IGBP). In particular, it builds on sharing of national large-scale resources, which are essential for deep-sea research (i.e. ships, ROVs, submersibles, AUVs, deep-towed vehicles, deep-sea sampling equipment, new sensors, etc.) as well as the coordination of efforts amongst scientists and laboratories from the countries involved and links with ongoing projects. EuroDEEP will participate in the development of new technologies as well as data management, analysis and modelling. Most of all, EuroDEEP will catalyse excellent research on what biodiversity exists in the deep sea, how it is generated and maintained by abiotic and biotic processes, and what the role of the deep-sea is in the biogeochemical processes affecting the

  10. An abyssal mobilome: viruses, plasmids and vesicles from deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Lossouarn, Julien; Dupont, Samuel; Gorlas, Aurore; Mercier, Coraline; Bienvenu, Nadege; Marguet, Evelyne; Forterre, Patrick; Geslin, Claire

    2015-12-01

    Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) such as viruses, plasmids, vesicles, gene transfer agents (GTAs), transposons and transpovirions, which collectively represent the mobilome, interact with cellular organisms from all three domains of life, including those thriving in the most extreme environments. While efforts have been made to better understand deep-sea vent microbial ecology, our knowledge of the mobilome associated with prokaryotes inhabiting deep-sea hydrothermal vents remains limited. Here we focus on the abyssal mobilome by reviewing accumulating data on viruses, plasmids and vesicles associated with thermophilic and hyperthermophilic Bacteria and Archaea present in deep-sea hydrothermal vents. PMID:25911507

  11. Devosia pacifica sp. nov., isolated from deep-sea sediment.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yan-Yu; Sun, Cong; Pan, Jie; Zhang, Wei-Yan; Zhang, Xin-Qi; Huo, Ying-Yi; Zhu, Xu-Fen; Wu, Min

    2014-08-01

    A novel bacterial strain, NH131(T), was isolated from deep-sea sediment of South China Sea. Cells were strictly aerobic, Gram-stain negative, short rod-shaped and motile with a single lateral flagellum. Strain NH131(T) grew optimally at pH 6.5-7.0 and 25-30 °C. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain NH131(T) belonged to the genus Devosia, sharing the highest sequence similarity with the type strain, Devosia geojensis BD-c194(T) (96.2%). The predominant fatty acids were C(18 : 1)ω7c, 11-methyl C(18 : 1)ω7c, C(18 : 0) and C(16 : 0). Ubiquinone 10 was the predominant ubiquinone. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phospholipid, three glycolipids and two unknown lipids. The DNA G+C content of strain NH131(T) was 63.0 mol%. On the basis of the results of polyphasic identification, it is suggested that strain NH131(T) represents a novel species of the genus Devosia for which the name Devosia pacifica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NH131(T) ( = JCM 19305(T) = KCTC 32437(T)). PMID:24827705

  12. Factors controlling ebro deep-sea fan growth, Mediterranean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.H.; Maldonado, A.; Alonso, B.; Palanques, A.; Ryan, W.B.F.; Kastens, K.; O'Connel, S.

    1985-01-01

    Tectonic, sediment-source and sea-level factors control depositional patterns of the Ebro deep-sea fan system. In unstable, steep continental slope terrain, mass movement of material results in wide gullied canyons and formation of non-channelized debris aprons. These fan channels develop low sinuosity and generally traverse the continental rise without feeding into depositional lobes because of steep gradients (1:50 to 1:100) and sediment draining into the subsiding Valencia Valley graben. An abundance of sediment input points from mass failure and many river-fed canyons contributes to a depositional pattern of side-by-side debris aprons and separate channel-levee complexes. When a large sediment supply feeds a channel for a relatively long period 1) fan valley sinuosity increases: 2) channel walls are modified through undercutting, slumping, and crevasse splays: 3) channel bifurcation occurs: 4) incipient depositional lobe formation begins. Lowering of sea levels in Late Pleistocene time permitted the access of coarse river sediment to slope valleys and promoted deposition of numerous turbidites and active growth of the fan. During the Holocene, when sea levels have been high, a regime of hemipelagic sedimentation, mass movement, and debris apron sedimentation has dominated.

  13. Density estimates for deep-sea gastropod assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rex, Michael A.; Etter, Ron J.; Nimeskern, Phillip W.

    1990-04-01

    Extensive boxcore sampling in the Atlantic Continental Slope and Rise study permitted the first precise measurement of gastropod density in the bathyal region of the deep sea. Gastropod density decreases significantly and exponentially with depth (250-3494 m), and density-depth regression lines do not differ significantly in either slope or elevatiob over horizontal scales of approximately 1000 km. The subclasses Prosobranchia and Opisthobranchia both show significant decreases in density with depth. Predatory taxa (neogastropods and opisthobranchs) exhibit significantly steeper declines in density with depth than do taxa dominated by deposit feeders (archaeogastropods and mesogastropods). Members of upper trophic levels may be more sensitive to the reduction in nutrient input with increased depth because of the energy loss between trophic levels in the food chain. A comparison of density estimates of gastropods from boxcore, grab and anchor-dredge samples taken in the same region revealed no significant differences in density-depth relationships among the sampling methods. A synthesis of data from 777 boxcore samples collected from the Atlantic, Caribbean and Pacific over a depth range of 250-7298 m indicates that the decline in gastropod density with depth is a global trend with only moderate inter-regional variation.

  14. Adaptive radiation of chemosymbiotic deep-sea mussels

    PubMed Central

    Lorion, Julien; Kiel, Steffen; Faure, Baptiste; Kawato, Masaru; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Marshall, Bruce; Tsuchida, Shinji; Miyazaki, Jun-Ichi; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive radiations present fascinating opportunities for studying the evolutionary process. Most cases come from isolated lakes or islands, where unoccupied ecological space is filled through novel adaptations. Here, we describe an unusual example of an adaptive radiation: symbiotic mussels that colonized island-like chemosynthetic environments such as hydrothermal vents, cold seeps and sunken organic substrates on the vast deep-sea floor. Our time-calibrated molecular phylogeny suggests that the group originated and acquired sulfur-oxidizing symbionts in the Late Cretaceous, possibly while inhabiting organic substrates and long before its major radiation in the Middle Eocene to Early Oligocene. The first appearance of intracellular and methanotrophic symbionts was detected only after this major radiation. Thus, contrary to expectations, the major radiation may have not been triggered by the evolution of novel types of symbioses. We hypothesize that environmental factors, such as increased habitat availability and/or increased dispersal capabilities, sparked the radiation. Intracellular and methanotrophic symbionts were acquired in several independent lineages and marked the onset of a second wave of diversification at vents and seeps. Changes in habitat type resulted in adaptive trends in shell lengths (related to the availability of space and energy, and physiological trade-offs) and in the successive colonization of greater water depths. PMID:24048154

  15. Deep sea hydrothermal plumes and their interaction with oscillatory flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guangyu; di Iorio, Daniela

    2012-09-01

    The acoustic scintillation method is applied to the investigation and monitoring of a vigorous hydrothermal plume from Dante within the Main Endeavour vent field (MEF) in the Endeavour Ridge segment. A 40 day time series of the plume's vertical velocity and temperature fluctuations provides a unique opportunity to study deep sea plume dynamics in a tidally varying horizontal cross flow. An integral plume model that takes into account ambient stratification and horizontal cross flows is established from the conservation equations of mass, momentum and density deficit. Using a linear additive entrainment velocity in the model (E = αUm + βU⊥) that is a function of both the plume relative axial velocity (Um) and the relative ambient flow perpendicular to the plume (U⊥) gives consistent results to the experimental data, suggesting entrainment coefficients α = 0.1 and β = 0.6. Also from the integral model, the plume height in a horizontal cross flow (Ua) is shown to scale as 1.8B1/3Ua-1/3N-2/3 for 0.01 ≤ Ua ≤ 0.1 m/s where B is the initial buoyancy transport and N is the ambient stratification, both of which are assumed constant.

  16. Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep-sea basalt

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, David S.; Takahashi, Taro; Slagle, Angela L.

    2008-01-01

    Developing a method for secure sequestration of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in geological formations is one of our most pressing global scientific problems. Injection into deep-sea basalt formations provides unique and significant advantages over other potential geological storage options, including (i) vast reservoir capacities sufficient to accommodate centuries-long U.S. production of fossil fuel CO2 at locations within pipeline distances to populated areas and CO2 sources along the U.S. west coast; (ii) sufficiently closed water-rock circulation pathways for the chemical reaction of CO2 with basalt to produce stable and nontoxic (Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+)CO3 infilling minerals, and (iii) significant risk reduction for post-injection leakage by geological, gravitational, and hydrate-trapping mechanisms. CO2 sequestration in established sediment-covered basalt aquifers on the Juan de Fuca plate offer promising locations to securely accommodate more than a century of future U.S. emissions, warranting energized scientific research, technological assessment, and economic evaluation to establish a viable pilot injection program in the future. PMID:18626013

  17. Resource quality affects carbon cycling in deep-sea sediments.

    PubMed

    Mayor, Daniel J; Thornton, Barry; Hay, Steve; Zuur, Alain F; Nicol, Graeme W; McWilliam, Jenna M; Witte, Ursula F M

    2012-09-01

    Deep-sea sediments cover ~70% of Earth's surface and represent the largest interface between the biological and geological cycles of carbon. Diatoms and zooplankton faecal pellets naturally transport organic material from the upper ocean down to the deep seabed, but how these qualitatively different substrates affect the fate of carbon in this permanently cold environment remains unknown. We added equal quantities of (13)C-labelled diatoms and faecal pellets to a cold water (-0.7 °C) sediment community retrieved from 1080 m in the Faroe-Shetland Channel, Northeast Atlantic, and quantified carbon mineralization and uptake by the resident bacteria and macrofauna over a 6-day period. High-quality, diatom-derived carbon was mineralized >300% faster than that from low-quality faecal pellets, demonstrating that qualitative differences in organic matter drive major changes in the residence time of carbon at the deep seabed. Benthic bacteria dominated biological carbon processing in our experiments, yet showed no evidence of resource quality-limited growth; they displayed lower growth efficiencies when respiring diatoms. These effects were consistent in contrasting months. We contend that respiration and growth in the resident sediment microbial communities were substrate and temperature limited, respectively. Our study has important implications for how future changes in the biochemical makeup of exported organic matter will affect the balance between mineralization and sequestration of organic carbon in the largest ecosystem on Earth. PMID:22378534

  18. Adaptive radiation of chemosymbiotic deep-sea mussels.

    PubMed

    Lorion, Julien; Kiel, Steffen; Faure, Baptiste; Kawato, Masaru; Ho, Simon Y W; Marshall, Bruce; Tsuchida, Shinji; Miyazaki, Jun-Ichi; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro

    2013-11-01

    Adaptive radiations present fascinating opportunities for studying the evolutionary process. Most cases come from isolated lakes or islands, where unoccupied ecological space is filled through novel adaptations. Here, we describe an unusual example of an adaptive radiation: symbiotic mussels that colonized island-like chemosynthetic environments such as hydrothermal vents, cold seeps and sunken organic substrates on the vast deep-sea floor. Our time-calibrated molecular phylogeny suggests that the group originated and acquired sulfur-oxidizing symbionts in the Late Cretaceous, possibly while inhabiting organic substrates and long before its major radiation in the Middle Eocene to Early Oligocene. The first appearance of intracellular and methanotrophic symbionts was detected only after this major radiation. Thus, contrary to expectations, the major radiation may have not been triggered by the evolution of novel types of symbioses. We hypothesize that environmental factors, such as increased habitat availability and/or increased dispersal capabilities, sparked the radiation. Intracellular and methanotrophic symbionts were acquired in several independent lineages and marked the onset of a second wave of diversification at vents and seeps. Changes in habitat type resulted in adaptive trends in shell lengths (related to the availability of space and energy, and physiological trade-offs) and in the successive colonization of greater water depths. PMID:24048154

  19. Enhanced seamount location database for the western and central Pacific Ocean: Screening and cross-checking of 20 existing datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allain, Valérie; Kerandel, Julie-Anne; Andréfouët, Serge; Magron, Franck; Clark, Malcolm; Kirby, David S.; Muller-Karger, Frank E.

    2008-08-01

    Seamounts are habitats of considerable interest in terms of conservation and biodiversity, and in terms of fisheries for bentho-pelagic and pelagic species. Twenty previously compiled datasets including seamount/underwater feature lists, bathymetric maps and emerged feature maps from different sources (ship-derived and satellite altimetry-derived) at different spatial scales (from individual cruise to worldwide satellite data) were gathered in order to compile an enhanced list of underwater features for parts of the western and central Pacific Ocean (WCPO). The KL04 dataset [Kitchingman, A., and Lai, S., 2004. Inferences on potential seamount locations from mid-resolution bathymetric data. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 12 (5), 7-12], listing seamount positions and depths as calculated from satellite altimetry-derived bathymetry, provided the baseline data for this study as it covered the entire region of interest and included summit depth information. All KL04 potential seamounts were cross-checked with other datasets to remove any atolls and islands that had been incorrectly classified as seamounts, to add seamounts undetected by KL04, to update the overall database (geolocation, depth, elevation, and name) and to compile a 12-class typology of the different types of underwater features. Of the 4626 potential seamounts identified in KL04, 719 were multiple identifications of the same large underwater features and 373 (10%) were actually emerged banks, atolls and islands, leaving 3534 actual underwater features. Conversely, 487 underwater features were documented in other datasets but not registered by KL04. The screening of all the potential WCPO seamounts produced a final list of 4021 underwater features with agreed upon position and information. This enhanced list should have many applications in oceanography, biodiversity conservation and studies of the influence of seamounts on pelagic ecosystems and fisheries.

  20. The Eratosthenes Seamount - Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, A.; Schnabel, M.; Damm, V.

    2012-04-01

    The Eratosthenes Seamount forms a prominent landmark in the Eastern Mediterranean. It is located south of Cyprus with the Levantine Basin on its eastern side, the Herodotus Basin on its western side and the Nile Cone south of the seamount. The Eratosthenes Seamount rises up to 750 m below sea surface and is about 1200 m higher than the surrounding seafloor of the Levantine Basin and the Nile Cone sediments. The Eratosthenes Seamount is considered as a continental fragment of the former African-Nubian Plate that was rifted to its present position relative to Africa during the formation of the Tethyan Ocean. In 2010 a detailed geophysical survey was carried out in the area of the Eratosthenes Seamount by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources of Germany including multichannel seismic (MCS), refraction seismics, magnetic, gravity and magnetotelluric data acquisition. First results show a highly deformed seamount, with a plateau-like top that is impacted by west-east trending graben formation. The slopes of the seamount are eroded showing deep incised ripple patterns and recent submarine landslides. The Eratosthenes Seamount produces also a prominent magnetic and gravity anomaly, both supporting its uniqueness in the area of the Eastern Mediterranean. Velocity information by refraction seismic modeling, as well as the models of the magnetic and gravity data show evidence for a volcanic core of the seamount with carbonate layers on top of the volcanic core. The slopes of the seamount terminate against a conspicuous rim-like escarpment that forms in addition the northern and western termination of the Messinian Evaporites in the study area. The MCS and refraction seismic data show a very deep Levantine Basin with maximum acoustic basement depths of 12 to 14 km very close to the slope of the Eratosthenes Seamount. The deepest sediments resolved by the MCS data are of Lower Cretaceous to Jurassic age. The refraction seismic model shows a 14 km thick

  1. The ecology of xenophyophores (Protista) on eastern Pacific seamounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Lisa A.; Thomas, Cynthia L.

    1988-12-01

    Large, agglutinating protozoans of the class Xenophyophorea are the dominant epifaunal organisms on soft and hard substrates of many bathyal seamounts in the eastern Pacific Ocean off Mexico. Observations made with the submersible Alvin and remotely towed camera sleds on 17 seamounts at 31°, 20°, 13° and 10°N revealed more than ten distinct xenophyophore test morphologies. Most of these appear to represent previously undescribed species. Reticulate forms are numerically dominant at 20°, 13° and 10°N. Xenophyophore abundances increase with decreasing latitude, being rare at 30°N, present at densities of 0.1-1.0 m -2 at 20° and 13°N and often exceeding 1.0 m -2 at 10°N, occasionally reaching 10-18 m -2. Highest concentrations are observed on caldera floors near the base of steep caldera walls, at depths between 1700 and 2500 m. Most individuals select sand-size pelagic foraminiferan tests (63-500 μm) and exclude pebble, silt and clay-size particles for test construction. Xenophyophore on seamounts modify the structure of metazoan communities and may play a role in maintenance of infaunal diversity. Twenty-seven xenophyophore tests were found to provide habitat for 16 major macrofaunal taxa (152 individuals) and three meiofaunal taxa (333 individuals). The presence of xenophyophores also enhances the abundance of isopods, tanaids, ophiuroids, nematodes and harpacticoid copepods dwelling in sediments surrounding the tests. Mobile megafauna are attracted to sediment beneath and adjacent to xenophyophores. We suggest that xenophyophores, which are abundant on many topographic features in deep water (e.g. guyots, trenches, canyons and continental slopes), are a functionally important component of deep-sea benthic communities and require further autecological and synecological investigation.

  2. Molluskan species richness and endemism on New Caledonian seamounts: Are they enhanced compared to adjacent slopes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelin, Magalie; Puillandre, Nicolas; Lozouet, Pierre; Sysoev, Alexander; de Forges, Bertrand Richer; Samadi, Sarah

    2011-06-01

    Seamounts were often considered as 'hotspots of diversity' and 'centers of endemism', but recently this opinion has been challenged. After 25 years of exploration and the work of numerous taxonomists, the Norfolk Ridge (Southwest Pacific) is probably one of the best-studied seamount chains worldwide. However, even in this intensively explored area, the richness and the geographic patterns of diversity are still poorly characterized. Among the benthic organisms, the post-mortem remains of mollusks can supplement live records to comprehensively document geographical distributions. Moreover, the accretionary growth of mollusk shells informs us about the life span of the pelagic larva. To compare diversity and level of endemism between the Norfolk Ridge seamounts and the continental slopes of New Caledonia we used species occurrence data drawn from (i) the taxonomic literature on mollusks and (ii) a raw dataset of mainly undescribed deep-sea species of the hyperdiverse Turridae. Patterns of endemism and species richness were analyzed through quantitative indices of endemism and species richness estimator metrics. To date, 403 gastropods and bivalves species have been recorded on the Norfolk Ridge seamounts. Of these, at least 38 species (˜10%) are potentially endemic to the seamounts and nearly all of 38 species have protoconchs indicating lecithotrophic larval development. Overall, our results suggest that estimates of species richness and endemism, when sampling effort is taken into account, were not significantly different between slopes and seamounts. By including in our analyses 347 undescribed morphospecies from the Norfolk Ridge, our results also demonstrate the influence of taxonomic bias on our estimates of species richness and endemism.

  3. Geochemical, sedimentary and micropaleontological evidence for a Late Maastrichtian oceanic seamount within the Pindos ocean (Arvi Unit, S Crete, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palamakumbura, Romesh N.; Robertson, Alastair H. F.; Dixon, John E.

    2013-06-01

    We test the model of Bonneau (1984) who hypothesised that the Arvi Unit in southern Crete represents Upper Cretaceous oceanic crust of a Pindos oceanic basin. The Arvi Unit is dominated by basaltic lava flows, pelagic carbonates and terrigenous sandstone turbidites. The "enriched" within-plate-type geochemistry of the basaltic lavas is consistent with a seamount setting. The subaqueous lava structures and associated pelagic carbonates further justify a seamount origin. Peperites composed of lava-pelagic carbonate mixtures date the Arvi Unit as Late Maastrichtian using diagnostic planktic foraminifera. The lavas are overlain by pelagic carbonates, also of Late Maastrichtian age, that then pass gradationally upwards into sand to pebble-grade gravity flows. The clastic sediments contain grains derived from several sources, namely continental (metamorphic and plutonic), ophiolite-related (e.g. serpentinite, gabbro, diabase), deep-sea (e.g. chert, pelagic carbonate) and shallow-marine (e.g. shell fragments). The terrigenous detritus is inferred to have come from the Pelagonian microcontinent unit (~ Asteroussia nappe) then to the northeast where ophiolites and deep-sea sediments were obducted during Late Jurassic time. The inferred Arvi seamount was accreted at the southeasterly-subducting active margin of the Pelagonian microcontinent after Maastrichtian time, related to closure of the Pindos ocean. The new evidence from the Arvi Unit provides additional evidence for the existence of the Pindos ocean between the Apulian and Pelagonian continental units in the Greece-Albania region.

  4. Historical influences on deep-sea isopod diversity in the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, George D. F.

    1998-01-01

    Most isopod crustaceans in the North Atlantic deep sea belong to the suborder Asellota. In contrast, South Atlantic isopod faunas have a significant component of flabelliferan isopods, a phylogenetic clade that contains suborders derived evolutionarily later than the Asellota. The flabelliferans decrease diversity from shallow water to deep water and on a south-to-north latitudinal gradient. Although many asellote families are endemic to the deep sea, none of the flabelliferan families appear to have evolved in the abyss. Recent colonisations of the deep sea, which may have been limited to the southern hemisphere by oceanographic conditions, have significant consequences for observed regional diversities of some taxa. Instability in oceanographic conditions owing to glaciation and benthic storms may have further limited benthic species richness of the North Atlantic deep-sea benthos.

  5. A Brief Review of Bioactive Metabolites Derived from Deep-Sea Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan-Ting; Xue, Ya-Rong; Liu, Chang-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Deep-sea fungi, the fungi that inhabit the sea and the sediment at depths of over 1000 m below the surface, have become an important source of industrial, agricultural, and nutraceutical compounds based on their diversities in both structure and function. Since the first study of deep-sea fungi in the Atlantic Ocean at a depth of 4450 m was conducted approximately 50 years ago, hundreds of isolates of deep-sea fungi have been reported based on culture-dependent methods. To date more than 180 bioactive secondary metabolites derived from deep-sea fungi have been documented in the literature. These include compounds with anticancer, antimicrobial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, and antiviral activities. In this review, we summarize the structures and bioactivities of these metabolites to provide help for novel drug development. PMID:26213949

  6. A Brief Review of Bioactive Metabolites Derived from Deep-Sea Fungi.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Ting; Xue, Ya-Rong; Liu, Chang-Hong

    2015-08-01

    Deep-sea fungi, the fungi that inhabit the sea and the sediment at depths of over 1000 m below the surface, have become an important source of industrial, agricultural, and nutraceutical compounds based on their diversities in both structure and function. Since the first study of deep-sea fungi in the Atlantic Ocean at a depth of 4450 m was conducted approximately 50 years ago, hundreds of isolates of deep-sea fungi have been reported based on culture-dependent methods. To date more than 180 bioactive secondary metabolites derived from deep-sea fungi have been documented in the literature. These include compounds with anticancer, antimicrobial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, and antiviral activities. In this review, we summarize the structures and bioactivities of these metabolites to provide help for novel drug development. PMID:26213949

  7. Genomic and population genetic analysis of deep-sea vent chemoautotrophs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, S.; Shimamura, S.; Takaki, Y.; Mino, S.; Makita, H.; Sawabe, T.; Takai, K.

    2012-12-01

    Deep-sea vents are the light-independent, highly productive ecosystems driven primarily by chemoautotrophs. Most of the invertebrates thrive there through their relationship with symbiotic chemoautotrophs. Chemoautotrophs are microorganisms that are able to fix inorganic carbon using a chemical energy obtained through the oxidation of reduced compounds. Following the discovery of deep-sea vent ecosystems in 1977, there has been an increasing knowledge that deep-sea vent chemoautotrophs display remarkable physiological and phylogenetic diversity. Recent microbiological studies have led to an emerging view that the majority of deep-sea vent chemoautotrophs have the ability to derive energy from multiple redox couples other than the conventional sulfur-oxygen couple. Genomic, metagenomic and postgenomic studies have considerably accelerated the comprehensive understanding of molecular mechanisms of deep-sea vent chemoautotrophy, even in unculturable endosymbionts of vent fauna. For example, genomic analysis suggested that there were previously unrecognized evolutionary links between deep-sea vent chemoautotrophs and important human/animal pathogens. However, relatively little is known about the genome of horizontally transmitted endosymbionts. In this study, we sequenced whole genomes of the probably horizontally transmitted endosymbionts of two different gastropod species from a deep-sea hydrothermal field, as an effort to address questions about 1) the genome evolution of horizontally transmitted, facultative endosymbionts, 2) their genomic variability, and 3) genetic differences among symbionts of various deep-sea vent invertebrates. Both endosymbiont genomes display features consistent with ongoing genome reduction such as large proportions of pseudogenes and transposable elements. The genomes encode multiple functions for chemoautotrophic respirations, probably reflecting their adaptation to their niches with continuous changes in environmental conditions. When

  8. Deep-sea macrourid fishes scavenge on plant material: Evidence from in situ observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffreys, Rachel M.; Lavaleye, Marc S. S.; Bergman, Magda J. N.; Duineveld, Gerard C. A.; Witbaard, Rob; Linley, Thom

    2010-04-01

    Deep-sea benthic communities primarily rely on an allochthonous food source. This may be in the form of phytodetritus or as food falls e.g. sinking carcasses of nekton or debris of marine macrophyte algae. Deep-sea macrourids are the most abundant demersal fish in the deep ocean. Macrourids are generally considered to be the apex predators/scavengers in deep-sea communities. Baited camera experiments and stable isotope analyses have demonstrated that animal carrion derived from the surface waters is an important component in the diets of macrourids; some macrourid stomachs also contained vegetable/plant material e.g. onion peels, oranges, algae. The latter observations led us to the question: is plant material an attractive food source for deep-sea scavenging fish? We simulated a plant food fall using in situ benthic lander systems equipped with a baited time-lapse camera. Abyssal macrourids and cusk-eels were attracted to the bait, both feeding vigorously on the bait, and the majority of the bait was consumed in <30 h. These observations indicate (1) plant material can produce an odour plume similar to that of animal carrion and attracts deep-sea fish, and (2) deep-sea fish readily eat plant material. This represents to our knowledge the first in situ documentation of deep-sea fish ingesting plant material and highlights the variability in the scavenging nature of deep-sea fishes. This may have implications for food webs in areas where macrophyte/seagrass detritus is abundant at the seafloor e.g. canyon systems and continental shelves close to seagrass meadows (Bahamas and Mediterranean).

  9. Reconnaissance dating: A new radiocarbon method applied to assessing the temporal distribution of Southern Ocean deep-sea corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Andrea; Robinson, Laura F.; McNichol, Ann P.; Jenkins, William J.; Scanlon, Kathryn M.; Gerlach, Dana S.

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a rapid 'reconnaissance' method of preparing graphite for 14C/ 12C analysis. Carbonate (˜15 mg) is combusted using an elemental analyzer and the resulting CO 2 is converted to graphite using a sealed tube zinc reduction method. Over 85% ( n=45 replicates on twenty-one individual corals) of reconnaissance ages measured on corals ranging in age from 500 to 33,000 radiocarbon years (Ryr) are within two standard deviations of ages generated using standard hydrolysis methods on the same corals, and all reconnaissance ages are within 300 Ryr of the standard hydrolysis ages. Replicate measurements on three individual aragonitic corals yielded ages of 1076±35 Ryr (standard deviation; n=5), 10,739±47 Ryr ( n=8), and 40,146±3500 Ryr ( n=9). No systematic biases were found using different cleaning methods or variable sample sizes. Analysis of 13C/ 12C was made concurrently with the 14C/ 12C measurement to correct for natural fractionation and for fractionation during sample processing and analysis. This technique provides a new, rapid method for making accurate, percent-level 14C/ 12C analyses that may be used to establish the rates and chronology of earth system processes where survey-type modes of age estimation are desirable. For example, applications may include creation of sediment core-top maps, preliminary age models for sediment cores, and growth rate studies of marine organisms such as corals or mollusks. We applied the reconnaissance method to more than 100 solitary deep-sea corals collected in the Drake Passage in the Southern Ocean to investigate their temporal and spatial distribution. The corals used in this study are part of a larger sample set, and the subset that was dated was chosen based on species as opposed to preservation state, so as to exclude obvious temporal biases. Similar to studies in other regions, the distribution of deep-sea corals is not constant through time across the Drake Passage. Most of the corals from the Burdwood

  10. Reconnaissance dating: a new radiocarbon method applied to assessing the temporal distribution of Southern Ocean deep-sea corals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burke, Andrea; Robinson, Laura F.; McNichol, Ann P.; Jenkins, William J.; Scanlon, Kathryn M.; Gerlach, Dana S.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a rapid 'reconnaissance' method of preparing graphite for 14C/12C analysis. Carbonate (~15 mg) is combusted using an elemental analyzer and the resulting CO2 is converted to graphite using a sealed tube zinc reduction method. Over 85% (n=45 replicates on twenty-one individual corals) of reconnaissance ages measured on corals ranging in age from 500 to 33,000 radiocarbon years (Ryr) are within two standard deviations of ages generated using standard hydrolysis methods on the same corals, and all reconnaissance ages are within 300 Ryr of the standard hydrolysis ages. Replicate measurements on three individual aragonitic corals yielded ages of 1076±35 Ryr (standard deviation; n=5), 10,739±47 Ryr (n=8), and 40,146±3500 Ryr (n=9). No systematic biases were found using different cleaning methods or variable sample sizes. Analysis of 13C/12C was made concurrently with the 14C/12C measurement to correct for natural fractionation and for fractionation during sample processing and analysis. This technique provides a new, rapid method for making accurate, percent-level 14C/12C analyses that may be used to establish the rates and chronology of earth system processes where survey-type modes of age estimation are desirable. For example, applications may include creation of sediment core-top maps, preliminary age models for sediment cores, and growth rate studies of marine organisms such as corals or mollusks. We applied the reconnaissance method to more than 100 solitary deep-sea corals collected in the Drake Passage in the Southern Ocean to investigate their temporal and spatial distribution. The corals used in this study are part of a larger sample set, and the subset that was dated was chosen based on species as opposed to preservation state, so as to exclude obvious temporal biases. Similar to studies in other regions, the distribution of deep-sea corals is not constant through time across the Drake Passage. Most of the corals from the Burdwood Bank