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Sample records for defective light water

  1. Defect-engineered GaN:Mg nanowire arrays for overall water splitting under violet light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibria, M. G.; Chowdhury, F. A.; Zhao, S.; Trudeau, M. L.; Guo, H.; Mi, Z.

    2015-03-01

    We report that by engineering the intra-gap defect related energy states in GaN nanowire arrays using Mg dopants, efficient and stable overall neutral water splitting can be achieved under violet light. Overall neutral water splitting on Rh/Cr2O3 co-catalyst decorated Mg doped GaN nanowires is demonstrated with intra-gap excitation up to 450 nm. Through optimized Mg doping, the absorbed photon conversion efficiency of GaN nanowires reaches ˜43% at 375-450 nm, providing a viable approach to extend the solar absorption of oxide and non-oxide photocatalysts.

  2. Defect-engineered GaN:Mg nanowire arrays for overall water splitting under violet light

    SciTech Connect

    Kibria, M. G.; Chowdhury, F. A.; Zhao, S.; Mi, Z.; Trudeau, M. L.; Guo, H.

    2015-03-16

    We report that by engineering the intra-gap defect related energy states in GaN nanowire arrays using Mg dopants, efficient and stable overall neutral water splitting can be achieved under violet light. Overall neutral water splitting on Rh/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} co-catalyst decorated Mg doped GaN nanowires is demonstrated with intra-gap excitation up to 450 nm. Through optimized Mg doping, the absorbed photon conversion efficiency of GaN nanowires reaches ∼43% at 375–450 nm, providing a viable approach to extend the solar absorption of oxide and non-oxide photocatalysts.

  3. Radioactive Fission Product Release from Defective Light Water Reactor Fuel Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Konyashov, Vadim V.; Krasnov, Alexander M.

    2002-04-15

    Results are provided of the experimental investigation of radioactive fission product (RFP) release, i.e., krypton, xenon, and iodine radionuclides from fuel elements with initial defects during long-term (3 to 5 yr) irradiation under low linear power (5 to 12 kW/m) and during special experiments in the VK-50 vessel-type boiling water reactor.The calculation model for the RFP release from the fuel-to-cladding gap of the defective fuel element into coolant was developed. It takes into account the convective transport in the fuel-to-cladding gap and RFP sorption on the internal cladding surface and is in good agreement with the available experimental data. An approximate analytical solution of the transport equation is given. The calculation dependencies of the RFP release coefficients on the main parameters such as defect size, fuel-to-cladding gap, temperature of the internal cladding surface, and radioactive decay constant were analyzed.It is shown that the change of the RFP release from the fuel elements with the initial defects during long-term irradiation is, mainly, caused by fuel swelling followed by reduction of the fuel-to-cladding gap and the fuel temperature. The calculation model for the RFP release from defective fuel elements applicable to light water reactors (LWRs) was developed. It takes into account the change of the defective fuel element parameters during long-term irradiation. The calculation error according to the program does not exceed 30% over all the linear power change range of the LWR fuel elements (from 5 to 26 kW/m)

  4. 3D Simulation of Missing Pellet Surface Defects in Light Water Reactor Fuel Rods

    SciTech Connect

    B.W. Spencer; J.D. Hales; S.R. Novascone; R.L. Williamson

    2012-09-01

    The cladding on light water reactor (LWR) fuel rods provides a stable enclosure for fuel pellets and serves as a first barrier against fission product release. Consequently, it is important to design fuel to prevent cladding failure due to mechanical interactions with fuel pellets. Cladding stresses can be effectively limited by controlling power increase rates. However, it has been shown that local geometric irregularities caused by manufacturing defects known as missing pellet surfaces (MPS) in fuel pellets can lead to elevated cladding stresses that are sufficiently high to cause cladding failure. Accurate modeling of these defects can help prevent these types of failures. Nuclear fuel performance codes commonly use a 1.5D (axisymmetric, axially-stacked, one-dimensional radial) or 2D axisymmetric representation of the fuel rod. To study the effects of MPS defects, results from 1.5D or 2D fuel performance analyses are typically mapped to thermo-mechanical models that consist of a 2D plane-strain slice or a full 3D representation of the geometry of the pellet and clad in the region of the defect. The BISON fuel performance code developed at Idaho National Laboratory employs either a 2D axisymmetric or 3D representation of the full fuel rod. This allows for a computational model of the full fuel rod to include local defects. A 3D thermo-mechanical model is used to simulate the global fuel rod behavior, and includes effects on the thermal and mechanical behavior of the fuel due to accumulation of fission products, fission gas production and release, and the effects of fission gas accumulation on thermal conductivity across the fuel-clad gap. Local defects can be modeled simply by including them in the 3D fuel rod model, without the need for mapping between two separate models. This allows for the complete set of physics used in a fuel performance analysis to be included naturally in the computational representation of the local defect, and for the effects of the

  5. Fission gas release from UO{sub 2+x} in defective light water reactor fuel rods

    SciTech Connect

    Skim, Y. S.

    1999-11-12

    A simplified semi-empirical model predicting fission gas release form UO{sub 2+x} fuel to the fuel rod plenum as a function of stoichiometry excess (x) is developed to apply to the fuel of a defective LWR fuel rod in operation. The effect of fuel oxidation in enhancing gas diffusion is included as a parabolic dependence of the stoichiometry excess. The increase of fission gas release in a defective BWR fuel rod is at the most 3 times higher than in an intact fuel rod because of small extent of UO{sub 2} oxidation. The major enhancement contributor in fission gas release of UO{sub 2+x} fuel is the increased diffusivity due to stoichiometry excess rather than the higher temperature caused by degraded fuel thermal conductivity.

  6. Metastable light induced defects in pentacene

    SciTech Connect

    Liguori, R.; Aprano, S.; Rubino, A.

    2014-02-21

    In this study we analyzed one of the environmental factors that could affect organic materials. Pentacene thin film samples were fabricated and the degradation of their electrical characteristics was measured when the devices were exposed to ultraviolet light irradiation. The results have been reported in terms of a trap density model, which provides a description of the dynamics of light induced electrically active defects in an organic semiconductor.

  7. Defect Depth Measurement Using White Light Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Don; Starr, Stan

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of the White Light Interferometry project are the following: (1) Demonstrate a small hand-held instrument capable of performing inspections of identified defects on Orbiter outer pane window surfaces. (2) Build and field-test a prototype device using miniaturized optical components. (3) Modify the instrument based on field testing and begin the conversion of the unit to become a certified shop-aid.

  8. Agricultural Compounds in Water and Birth Defects.

    PubMed

    Brender, Jean D; Weyer, Peter J

    2016-06-01

    Agricultural compounds have been detected in drinking water, some of which are teratogens in animal models. The most commonly detected agricultural compounds in drinking water include nitrate, atrazine, and desethylatrazine. Arsenic can also be an agricultural contaminant, although arsenic often originates from geologic sources. Nitrate has been the most studied agricultural compound in relation to prenatal exposure and birth defects. In several case-control studies published since 2000, women giving birth to babies with neural tube defects, oral clefts, and limb deficiencies were more likely than control mothers to be exposed to higher concentrations of drinking water nitrate during pregnancy. Higher concentrations of atrazine in drinking water have been associated with abdominal defects, gastroschisis, and other defects. Elevated arsenic in drinking water has also been associated with birth defects. Since these compounds often occur as mixtures, it is suggested that future research focus on the impact of mixtures, such as nitrate and atrazine, on birth defects. PMID:27007730

  9. Light water reactor program

    SciTech Connect

    Franks, S.M.

    1994-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s Light Water Reactor Program is outlined. The scope of the program consists of: design certification of evolutionary plants; design, development, and design certification of simplified passive plants; first-of-a-kind engineering to achieve commercial standardization; plant lifetime improvement; and advanced reactor severe accident program. These program activities of the Office of Nuclear Energy are discussed.

  10. Light manipulation of nanoparticles in arrays of topological defects

    PubMed Central

    Kasyanyuk, D.; Pagliusi, P.; Mazzulla, A.; Reshetnyak, V.; Reznikov, Yu.; Provenzano, C.; Giocondo, M.; Vasnetsov, M.; Yaroshchuk, O.; Cipparrone, G.

    2016-01-01

    We report a strategy to assemble and manipulate nanoparticles arrays. The approach is based on the use of topological defects, namely disclination lines, created in chiral liquid crystals. The control of nanoparticle-loaded topological defects by low power light is demonstrated. Large-scale rotation, translation and deformation of quantum dots light-emitting chains is achieved by homogeneous LED illumination. Full reconfigurability and time stability make this approach attractive for future developments and applications. PMID:26882826

  11. Light water detritiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorchenko, O.A.; Aleksee, I.A.; Bondarenko, S.D.; Vasyanina, T.V.

    2015-03-15

    Hundreds of thousands of tons of tritiated light water have been accumulating from the enterprises of nuclear fuel cycles around the world. The Dual-Temperature Water-Hydrogen (DTWH) process looks like the only practical alternative to Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange (CECE). In DTWH power-consuming lower reflux device (electrolytic cell) is replaced by a so-called 'hot tower' (LPCE column operating at conditions which ensure relatively small value of elementary separation factor α(hot)). In the upper, cold tower, the tritium transfers from hydrogen to water while in the lower, hot tower - in the opposite direction - from water to hydrogen. The DTWH process is much more complicated compared to CECE; it must be thoroughly computed and strictly controlled by an automatic control system. The use of a simulation code for DTWH is absolutely important. The simulation code EVIO-5 deals with 3 flows inside a column (hydrogen gas, water vapour and liquid water) and 2 simultaneous isotope exchange sub-processes (counter-current phase exchange and co-current catalytic exchange). EVIO-5 takes into account the strong dependence of process performance on given conditions (temperature and pressure). It calculates steady-state isotope concentration profiles considering a full set of reversible exchange reactions between different isotope modifications of water and hydrogen (12 molecular species). So the code can be used for simulation of LPCE column operation for detritiation of hydrogen and water feed, which contains H and D not only at low concentrations but above 10 at.% also. EVIO-5 code is used to model a Tritium Removal Facility with a throughput capacity of about 400 m{sup 3}/day. Simulation results show that a huge amount of wet-proofed catalyst is required (about 6000 m{sup 3}), mainly (90%) in the first stage. One reason for these large expenses (apart from a big scale of the problem itself) is the relatively high tritium separation factor in the hot tower

  12. Light-induced defects in hybrid lead halide perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharia, Onise; Schneider, William

    One of the main challenges facing organohalide perovskites for solar application is stability. Solar cells must last decades to be economically viable alternatives to traditional energy sources. While some causes of instability can be avoided through engineering, light-induced defects can be fundamentally limiting factor for practical application of the material. Light creates large numbers of electron and hole pairs that can contribute to degradation processes. Using ab initio theoretical methods, we systematically explore first steps of light induced defect formation in methyl ammonium lead iodide, MAPbI3. In particular, we study charged and neutral Frenkel pair formation involving Pb and I atoms. We find that most of the defects, except negatively charged Pb Frenkel pairs, are reversible, and thus most do not lead to degradation. Negative Pb defects create a mid-gap state and localize the conduction band electron. A minimum energy path study shows that, once the first defect is created, Pb atoms migrate relatively fast. The defects have two detrimental effects on the material. First, they create charge traps below the conduction band. Second, they can lead to degradation of the material by forming Pb clusters.

  13. Handheld White Light Interferometer for Measuring Defect Depth in Windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert; Simmons, Stephen; Cox, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Accurate quantification of defects (scratches and impacts) is vital to the certification of flight hardware and other critical components. The amount of damage to a particular component contributes to the performance, reliability, and safety of a system, which ultimately affects the success or failure of a mission or test. The launch-commit criteria on a Space Shuttle Orbiter window are governed by the depth of the defects that are identified by a visual inspection. This measurement of a defect is not easy to obtain given the environment, size of the defect, and location of the window(s). The determination of depth has typically been performed by taking a mold impression and measuring the impression with an optical profiling instrument. Another method of obtaining an estimate of the depth is by using a refocus microscope. To use a refocus microscope, the surface of the glass and bottom of the defect are, in turn, brought into focus by the operator. The amount of movement between the two points corresponds to the depth of the defect. The refocus microscope requires a skilled operator and has been proven to be unreliable when used on Orbiter windows. White light interferometry was chosen as a candidate to replace the refocus microscope. The White Light Interferometer (WLI) was developed to replace the refocus microscope as the instrument used for measuring the depth of defects in Orbiter windows. The WLI consists of a broadband illumination source, interferometer, detector, motion control, displacement sensor, mechanical housing, and support electronics. The illumination source for the WLI is typically a visible light emitting diode (LED) or a near-infrared superluminescent diode (SLD) with power levels of less than a milliwatt. The interferometer is a Michelson configuration consisting of a 1-in. (2.5-cm) cube beam splitter, a 0.5-in. (1.3-cm) optical window as a movable leg (used to closely match the return intensity of the fixed leg from the window), and a

  14. Electrically pumped single-defect light emitters in WSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, S.; Kozikov, A.; Withers, F.; Maguire, J. K.; Foster, A. P.; Dufferwiel, S.; Hague, L.; Makhonin, M. N.; Wilson, L. R.; Geim, A. K.; Novoselov, K. S.; Tartakovskii, A. I.

    2016-06-01

    Recent developments in fabrication of van der Waals heterostructures enable new type of devices assembled by stacking atomically thin layers of two-dimensional materials. Using this approach, we fabricate light-emitting devices based on a monolayer WSe2, and also comprising boron nitride tunnelling barriers and graphene electrodes, and observe sharp luminescence spectra from individual defects in WSe2 under both optical and electrical excitation. This paves the way towards the realisation of electrically-pumped quantum emitters in atomically thin semiconductors. In addition we demonstrate tuning by more than 1 meV of the emission energy of the defect luminescence by applying a vertical electric field. This provides an estimate of the permanent electric dipole created by the corresponding electron–hole pair. The light-emitting devices investigated in our work can be assembled on a variety of substrates enabling a route to integration of electrically pumped single quantum emitters with existing technologies in nano-photonics and optoelectronics.

  15. Light water reactor health physics.

    PubMed

    Prince, Robert J; Bradley, Scott E

    2004-11-01

    In this article an overview of the historical development of light water reactor health physics programs is presented. Operational health physics programs have developed and matured as experience in operating and maintaining light water reactors has been gained. Initial programs grew quickly in both size and complexity with the number and size of nuclear units under construction and in operation. Operational health physics programs evolved to face various challenges confronted by the nuclear industry, increasing the effectiveness of radiological safety measures. Industry improvements in radiological safety performance have resulted in significant decreases in annual collective exposures from a high value of 790 person-rem in 1980 to 117 person-rem per reactor in 2002. Though significant gains have been made, the continued viability of the nuclear power industry is confronted with an aging workforce, as well as the challenges posed by deregulation and the need to maintain operational excellence. PMID:15551785

  16. Light water reactor health physics.

    PubMed

    Prince, Robert J; Bradley, Scott E

    2005-06-01

    In this article an overview of the historical development of light water reactor health physics programs is presented. Operational health physics programs have developed and matured as experience in operating and maintaining light water reactors has been gained. Initial programs grew quickly in both size and complexity with the number and size of nuclear units under construction and in operation. Operational health physics programs evolved to face various challenges confronted by the nuclear industry, increasing the effectiveness of radiological safety measures. Industry improvements in radiological safety performance have resulted in significant decreases in annual collective exposures from a high value of 790 person-rem in 1980 to 117 person-rem per reactor in 2002. Though significant gains have been made, the continued viability of the nuclear power industry is confronted with an aging workforce, as well as the challenges posed by deregulation and the need to maintain operational excellence. PMID:15891460

  17. LIGHT WATER MODERATED NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Christy, R.F.; Weinberg, A.M.

    1957-09-17

    A uranium fuel reactor designed to utilize light water as a moderator is described. The reactor core is in a tank at the bottom of a substantially cylindrical cross-section pit, the core being supported by an apertured grid member and comprised of hexagonal tubes each containing a pluralily of fuel rods held in a geometrical arrangement between end caps of the tubes. The end caps are apertured to permit passage of the coolant water through the tubes and the fuel elements are aluminum clad to prevent corrosion. The tubes are hexagonally arranged in the center of the tank providing an amulus between the core and tank wall which is filled with water to serve as a reflector. In use, the entire pit and tank are filled with water in which is circulated during operation by coming in at the bottom of the tank, passing upwardly through the grid member and fuel tubes and carried off near the top of the pit, thereby picking up the heat generated by the fuel elements during the fission thereof. With this particular design the light water coolant can also be used as the moderator when the uranium is enriched by fissionable isotope to an abundance of U/sup 235/ between 0.78% and 2%.

  18. Water Calorimetry: A Correction to the Heat Defect Calculations

    PubMed Central

    Klassen, Norman V.; Ross, Carl K.

    2002-01-01

    In a recent publication, we used a reaction model (model III) to calculate the heat defect for the irradiation of aqueous solutions with ionizing radiation at 21 °C. Subsequent work has revealed that the literature value used for one of the rate constants in the model was incorrect. A revised model (model IIIR) incorporates the correct rate constant for 21 °C. Versions of models III and IIIR were created for irradiations at 4 °C. For our current water calorimetry protocol, the values of the heat defect for H2/O2-water (water saturated with a flow of 43 % H2 and 57 % O2, by volume) at 21 °C predicted by model III and model IIIR are similar but the value for 4 °C predicted by III is 30 % smaller than the value predicted by IIIR. Model IIIR predicts that the values of the heat defect at 21 °C and 4 °C lie within the range −0.023±0.002, in agreement with the values obtained from our water calorimetry measurements done using pure water and H2-saturated water at 21 °C and 4 °C. The yields of hydrogen peroxide in H2/O2-water at 21 °C and 4 °C were measured and agree with the predictions of model IIIR. Our water calorimetry measurements made with pure water and H2-saturated water are now of sufficient quality that they can be used to determine the heat defect for H2/O2-water better than can be done by simulations. However, consistency between the three systems continues to be an excellent check on water purity which is crucial, especially for the pure water system.

  19. Light-Water Breeder Reactor

    DOEpatents

    Beaudoin, B. R.; Cohen, J. D.; Jones, D. H.; Marier, Jr, L. J.; Raab, H. F.

    1972-06-20

    Described is a light-water-moderated and -cooled nuclear breeder reactor of the seed-blanket type characterized by core modules comprising loosely packed blanket zones enriched with fissile fuel and axial zoning in the seed and blanket regions within each core module. Reactivity control over lifetime is achieved by axial displacement of movable seed zones without the use of poison rods in the embodiment illustrated. The seed is further characterized by a hydrogen-to-uranium-233 atom ratio in the range 10 to 200 and a uranium-233-to-thorium-232 atom ratio ranging from 0.012 to 0.200. The seed occupies from 10 to 35 percent of the core volume in the form of one or more individual islands or annuli. (NSA 26: 55130)

  20. Thermodynamics of surface defects at the aspirin/water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Julian; Zheng, Chen; Reuter, Karsten

    2014-09-01

    We present a simulation scheme to calculate defect formation free energies at a molecular crystal/water interface based on force-field molecular dynamics simulations. To this end, we adopt and modify existing approaches to calculate binding free energies of biological ligand/receptor complexes to be applicable to common surface defects, such as step edges and kink sites. We obtain statistically accurate and reliable free energy values for the aspirin/water interface, which can be applied to estimate the distribution of defects using well-established thermodynamic relations. As a show case we calculate the free energy upon dissolving molecules from kink sites at the interface. This free energy can be related to the solubility concentration and we obtain solubility values in excellent agreement with experimental results.

  1. Charged and neutral defects in light-soaked a-Si:H

    SciTech Connect

    Kumeda, Minoru; Zhou, J.H.; Shimizu, Tatsuo

    1994-12-31

    The defect density measured by electron spin resonance (ESR) is increased by 50 times by light soaking, while that measured by the Constant Photocurrent Method (CPM) is increased by only 4 times in N-doped a-Si:H. This large discrepancy between the CPM and ESR results is attributed to the presence of charged defects which are detected by the CPM but not by ESR. Light-induced ESR is though to be able to detect the charged defects, but quantitative analysis is difficult because whether an increase or decrease of the neutral defect density is observed under illumination depends on the ratio of charged and neutral defect densities, light intensity and the cross-section for charge trapping.

  2. Characterization of internal geometry / covered surface defects with a visible light sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    Previous work has used visible light scanning to detect and characterize defects in 3D printed objects. This paper focuses on assessing the internal structures and external surfaces (that will be later hidden) of complex objects. These features make in-process defect detection far more important than it would be with an object that can be fully assessed with a post-completion scan, as it is required both for in-process correction and end-product quality assurance. This paper presents work on the use of a multi-camera visible light 3D scanning system to identify defects with printed objects' interior and covered / obscured exterior surfaces.

  3. Surface Defects Enhanced Visible Light Photocatalytic H2 Production for Zn-Cd-S Solid Solution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Zhao; Zhang, Wanwan; Zhang, Guoqiang; Qu, Dan; Miao, Xiang; Sun, Shaorui; Sun, Zaicheng

    2016-02-10

    In order to investigate the defect effect on photocatalytic performance of the visible light photocatalyst, Zn-Cd-S solid solution with surface defects is prepared in the hydrazine hydrate. X-ray photoelectron spectra and photoluminescence results confirm the existence of defects, such as sulfur vacancies, interstitial metal, and Zn and Cd in the low valence state on the top surface of solid solutions. The surface defects can be effectively removed by treating with sulfur vapor. The solid solution with surface defect exhibits a narrower band gap, wider light absorption range, and better photocatalytic perfomance. The optimized solid solution with defects exhibits 571 μmol h(-1) for 50 mg photocatalyst without loading Pt as cocatalyst under visible light irradiation, which is fourfold better than that of sulfur vapor treated samples. The wavelength dependence of photocatalytic activity discloses that the enhancement happens at each wavelength within the whole absorption range. The theoretical calculation shows that the surface defects induce the conduction band minimum and valence band maximum shift downward and upward, respectively. This constructs a type I junction between bulk and surface of solid solution, which promotes the migration of photogenerated charges toward the surface of nanostructure and leads to enhanced photocatalytic activity. Thus a new method to construct highly efficient visible light photocatalysts is opened. PMID:26691211

  4. Fabrication of defects in periodic photonic crystals using a phase only spatial light modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, David; Lutkenhaus, Jeffrey; Arigong, Bayaner; Zhang, Hualiang; Philipose, Usha; Lin, Yuankun

    2014-03-01

    Here we present single exposure holographic fabrication of embedded defects in photonic crystal structures in a negative photoresist using a spatial light modulator (SLM). A phase pattern is engineered to form a desired interference pattern and displayed on a phase-only SLM. The resulting first order beams at the Fourier plane are used to recreate the interference pattern. Negative and positive defects are added to the photonic crystal in the following ways. A void-type defect is produced in two dimensional photonic crystal structures by replacing the phase of the engineered phase pattern with a constant value at the points where the defect is desired. And a positive bump defect can be made by allowing the zeroth order beam to interfere with the first order beams. Through these methods, it is possible to fabricate arbitrary shaped defect structures in photonic crystals through a single exposure process, thus improving cost effectiveness and simplifying the fabrication process of integrated photonics.

  5. Immunoglobulin K light chain deficiency: A rare, but probably underestimated, humoral immune defect.

    PubMed

    Sala, Pierguido; Colatutto, Antonio; Fabbro, Dora; Mariuzzi, Laura; Marzinotto, Stefania; Toffoletto, Barbara; Perosa, Anna R; Damante, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Human immunoglobulin molecules are generated by a pair of identical heavy chains, which identify the immunoglobulin class, and a pair of identical light chains, Kappa or Lambda alternatively, which characterize the immunoglobulin type. In normal conditions, Kappa light chains represent approximately 2/3 of the light chains of total immunoglobulins, both circulating and lymphocyte surface bound. Very few cases of immunoglobulin Kappa or Lambda light chain defects have been reported. Furthermore, the genetic basis of this defect has been extensively explored only in a single case. We report a case of a patient suffering of serious recurrent bacterial infections, which was caused by a very rare form of immunoglobulin disorder, consisting of a pure defect of Kappa light chain. We evaluated major serum immunoglobulin concentrations, as well as total and free Kappa and Lambda light chain concentrations. Lymphocyte phenotyping was also performed and finally we tested the Kappa chain VJ rearrangement as well as the constant Kappa region sequence. Studies performed on VJ rearrangement showed a polyclonal genetic arrangement, whereas the gene sequencing for the constant region of Kappa chain showed a homozygous T to G substitution at the position 1288 (rs200765148). This mutation causes a substitution from Cys to Gly in the protein sequence and, therefore, determines the abnormal folding of the constant region of Kappa chain. We suggest that this defect could lead to an effective reduction of the variability of total antibody repertoire and a consequent defect of an apparently normal immunoglobulin response to common antigens. PMID:26853951

  6. Comprehensive nanostructure and defect analysis using a simple 3D light-scatter sensor.

    PubMed

    Herffurth, Tobias; Schröder, Sven; Trost, Marcus; Duparré, Angela; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2013-05-10

    Light scattering measurement and analysis is a powerful tool for the characterization of optical and nonoptical surfaces. A new 3D scatter measurement system based on a detector matrix is presented. A compact light-scatter sensor is used to characterize the scattering and nanostructures of surfaces and to identify the origins of anisotropic scattering features. The results from the scatter sensor are directly compared with white light interferometry to analyze surface defects as well as surface roughness and the corresponding scattering distributions. The scattering of surface defects is modeled based on the Kirchhoff integral equation and the approach of Beckmann for rough surfaces. PMID:23669841

  7. Multi-Application Small Light Water Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Pierre Babka

    2002-10-31

    The Multi-Application Small Light Water Reactor (MASLWR ) project was conducted under the auspices of the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The primary project objective was to develop the conceptual design for a safe and economic small, natural circulation light water reactor, to address the economic and safety attributes of the concept, and to demonstrate the technical feasibility by testing in an integral test facility.

  8. Study on neutron scattering in light water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotta, Juan Pablo; Marquez Damian, Ignacio; Noguere, Gilles; Bernard, David

    2016-03-01

    It is presented a method to produce covariance matrices of the light water total cross section from thermal scattering laws of the JEFF-3.1.1 nuclear data library and CAB model. The generalized least square method was used to fit the LEAPR module parameters of the processing tool NJOY with light water experimental transmission measurements at 293.6K with CONRAD code. The marginalization technique was applied to account for systematic uncertainties.

  9. Neural Tube Defects In Mice Exposed To Tap Water

    PubMed Central

    Mallela, Murali K; Werre, Stephen R; Hrubec, Terry C

    2010-01-01

    In May of 2006 we suddenly began to observe neural tube defects (NTDs) in embryos of untreated control mice. We hypothesized the mice were being exposed unknowingly to a teratogenic agent and investigated the cause. Our results suggested that NTDs were not resulting from bedding material, feed, strain or source of the mice. Additionally, mice were negative for routine and comprehensive screens of pathogens. To further test whether the NTDs resulted from infectious or genetic cause localized to our facility, we obtained three strains of timed pregnant mice from commercial suppliers located in 4 different states. All strains and sources of mice arrived in our laboratory with NTDs, implying that commercially available mice were possibly exposed to a teratogen prior to purchase. Our investigation eventually concluded that exposure to tap water was causing the NTDs. The incidence of NTDs was greatest in purchased mice provided tap water and lowest in purchased mice provided distilled deionized water (DDI). Providing mice DDI water for two generations (F2-DDI) eliminated the NTDs. When F2-DDI mice were provided tap water from three different urban areas prior to breeding, their offspring again developed NTDs. Increased length of exposure to tap water significantly increased the incidence of NTDs. These results indicate that a contaminant in municipal tap water is likely causing NTDs in mice. The unknown teratogen appears to have a wide geographic distribution but has not yet been identified. Water analysis is currently underway to identify candidate contaminants that might be responsible for the malformations. PMID:20549630

  10. A light-reflecting balloon catheter for atraumatic tissue defect repair.

    PubMed

    Roche, Ellen T; Fabozzo, Assunta; Lee, Yuhan; Polygerinos, Panagiotis; Friehs, Ingeborg; Schuster, Lucia; Whyte, William; Casar Berazaluce, Alejandra Maria; Bueno, Alejandra; Lang, Nora; Pereira, Maria J N; Feins, Eric; Wasserman, Steven; O'Cearbhaill, Eoin D; Vasilyev, Nikolay V; Mooney, David J; Karp, Jeffrey M; Del Nido, Pedro J; Walsh, Conor J

    2015-09-23

    A congenital or iatrogenic tissue defect often requires closure by open surgery or metallic components that can erode tissue. Biodegradable, hydrophobic light-activated adhesives represent an attractive alternative to sutures, but lack a specifically designed minimally invasive delivery tool, which limits their clinical translation. We developed a multifunctional, catheter-based technology with no implantable rigid components that functions by unfolding an adhesive-loaded elastic patch and deploying a double-balloon design to stabilize and apply pressure to the patch against the tissue defect site. The device uses a fiber-optic system and reflective metallic coating to uniformly disperse ultraviolet light for adhesive activation. Using this device, we demonstrate closure on the distal side of a defect in porcine abdominal wall, stomach, and heart tissue ex vivo. The catheter was further evaluated as a potential tool for tissue closure in vivo in rat heart and abdomen and as a perventricular tool for closure of a challenging cardiac septal defect in a large animal (porcine) model. Patches attached to the heart and abdominal wall with the device showed similar inflammatory response as sutures, with 100% small animal survival, indicating safety. In the large animal model, a ventricular septal defect in a beating heart was reduced to <1.6 mm. This new therapeutic platform has utility in a range of clinical scenarios that warrant minimally invasive and atraumatic repair of hard-to-reach defects. PMID:26400910

  11. Light-induced point defect reactions of residual iron in crystalline silicon after aluminum gettering

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelbarey, D.; Kveder, V.; Schroeter, W.; Seibt, M.

    2010-08-15

    Deep level transient spectroscopy is used to study light-induced reactions of residual iron impurities after aluminum gettering (AlG) in crystalline silicon. White-light illumination at room temperature leads to the formation of a defect which is associated with a donor level at 0.33 eV above the valence band. This defect is stable up to about 175 deg. C where it dissociates reversibly in case of small iron concentrations and irreversibly for high iron concentrations. Since marker experiments using gold and platinum diffusion show a high vacancy concentration after AlG a tentative identification of the new defect as the metastable iron-vacancy pair is proposed.

  12. Measurement of defects by measuring of light scattering from surfaces using focused illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Núñez, O.; Bruce, Neil C.

    2016-04-01

    Light scattering has been used as a method of characterizing material or surface roughness in different areas of the science and technology, usually the surface is illuminated with light and the pattern of scattering is measured above the surface. In the literature, the scattered light has been measured using an incident beam with a diameter on the order of a few cm for surfaces with roughness scales of the order of microns, mainly to avoid problems with the speckle pattern of light. However, this kind of measurement does not give information on local variations in roughness or defects present in the sample. Also, it has been reported in many studies that the polarization of the scattered light is affected by the surface material and roughness. In this paper we present a novel experimental device used to identify local defects on surfaces by the measurement of the scattered light pattern using laser light focused onto the surface. We present results of experimental measurements for two surfaces with roughness and defects of the order of 6 to 60 microns using sizes of incident beam of the same order and we compare the results of experimental cases with results of numerical calculation based on the Kirchhoff Approximation of light scattering by rough surfaces. We include preliminary results from the effect on the pattern of light scattering as a function of the polarization state by using focused light to illuminate the surface, we calculate the Mueller matrix for the equivalent period of the surface micro-manufactured experimentally. Finally we conclude about the validity of the method.

  13. Raman study of the effect of LED light on grafted bone defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Luiz G. G. P.; Aciole, Jouber M. S.; Aciole, Gilbeth T. S.; Barbosa, Artur F. S.; Silveira-Júnior, Landulfo; Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.

    2013-03-01

    Benefits of the isolated or combined use light and biomaterials on bone healing have been suggested. Our group has used several models to assess the effects of laser on bone. A Raman spectral analysis on surgical bone defects grafted or not with Hydroxyapatite (HA), treated or not with LED was carried out. 40 rats were divided into 4 groups. On Group I the defect was filled with the clot. On Group II, the defect was filled with the HA. On groups III the defect was filled with Clot and further irradiated with LED and on group IV the defects was filled with the HA and further irradiated with LED. LED (λ850 +/- 10nm, 150mW, A= 0.5cm2, 68s, 20 J/cm2 per session, 140 J/cm2 per treatment) was applied at 48 h intervals during 15 days. Specimens were taken after 15 and 30 days after surgery and kept on liquid nitrogen, and underwent Raman analysis. For this, the peak of hydroxyapatite (~960 cm-1) was used as marker of bone mineralization. Significant difference was observed at both times (p<0.05). When the biomaterial was used higher peaks were observed. Association with LED further improved the intensity. Conclusion: It is concluded that LED light improved the effect of the HA.

  14. Light energy dissipation under water stress conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Stuhlfauth, T.; Scheuermann, R.; Fock, H.P. )

    1990-04-01

    Using {sup 14}CO{sub 2} gas exchange and metabolite analyses, stomatal as well as total internal CO{sub 2} uptake and evolution were estimated. Pulse modulated fluorescence was measured during induction and steady state of photosynthesis. Leaf water potential of Digitalis lanata EHRH. plants decreased to {minus}2.5 megapascals after withholding irrigation. By osmotic adjustment, leaves remained turgid and fully exposed to irradiance even at severe water stress. Due to the stress-induced reduction of stomatal conductance, the stomatal CO{sub 2} exchange was drastically reduced, whereas the total CO{sub 2} uptake and evolution were less affected. Stomatal closure induced an increase in the reassimilation of internally evolved CO{sub 2}. This CO{sub 2}-recycling consumes a significant amount of light energy in the form of ATP and reducing equivalents. As a consequence, the metabolic demand for light energy is only reduced by about 40%, whereas net photosynthesis is diminished by about 70% under severe stress conditions. By CO{sub 2} recycling, carbon flux, enzymatic substrate turnover and consumption of light energy were maintained at high levels, which enabled the plant to recover rapidly after rewatering. In stressed D. lanata plants a variable fluorescence quenching mechanism, termed coefficient of actinic light quenching, was observed. Besides water conservation, light energy dissipation is essential and involves regulated metabolic variations.

  15. Detection of defects on apple using B-spline lighting correction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiangbo; Huang, Wenqian; Guo, Zhiming

    To effectively extract defective areas in fruits, the uneven intensity distribution that was produced by the lighting system or by part of the vision system in the image must be corrected. A methodology was used to convert non-uniform intensity distribution on spherical objects into a uniform intensity distribution. A basically plane image with the defective area having a lower gray level than this plane was obtained by using proposed algorithms. Then, the defective areas can be easily extracted by a global threshold value. The experimental results with a 94.0% classification rate based on 100 apple images showed that the proposed algorithm was simple and effective. This proposed method can be applied to other spherical fruits.

  16. Single Defect Light-Emitting Diode in a van der Waals Heterostructure.

    PubMed

    Clark, Genevieve; Schaibley, John R; Ross, Jason; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Hendrickson, Joshua R; Mou, Shin; Yao, Wang; Xu, Xiaodong

    2016-06-01

    Single defects in monolayer WSe2 have been shown to be a new class of single photon emitters and have potential applications in quantum technologies. Whereas previous work relied on optical excitation of single defects in isolated WSe2 monolayers, in this work we demonstrate electrically driven single defect light emission by using both vertical and lateral van der Waals heterostructure devices. In both device geometries, we use few layer graphene as the source and drain and hexagonal boron nitride as the dielectric spacer layers for engineered tunneling contacts. In addition, the lateral devices utilize a split back gate design to realize an electrostatically defined p-i-n junction. At low current densities and low temperatures (∼5 K), we observe narrow spectral lines in the electroluminescence (EL) whose properties are consistent with optically excited defect bound excitons. We show that the emission originates from spatially localized regions of the sample, and the EL spectrum from single defects has a doublet with the characteristic exchange splitting and linearly polarized selection rules. All are consistent with previously reported single photon-emitters in optical measurements. Our results pave the way for on-chip and electrically driven single photon sources in two-dimensional semiconductors for quantum technology applications. PMID:27213921

  17. Review of light water reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, H.S.

    1980-12-01

    A review of the present status of light water reactor (LWR) safety is presented. The review starts with a brief discussion of the outstanding accident scenarios concerning LWRs. Where possible the areas of present technological uncertainties are stressed. To provide a better perspective of reactor safety, it then reviews the probabilistic assessment of the outstanding LWR accidents considered in the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) and discusses the potential impact of the present technological uncertainties on WASH-1400.

  18. Computational Characterization of Defects in Metal-Organic Frameworks: Spontaneous and Water-Induced Point Defects in ZIF-8.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chenyang; Han, Chu; Sholl, David S; Schmidt, J R

    2016-02-01

    Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) are an important class of porous crystalline metal-organic framework (MOF) materials that have attracted widespread attention for applications ranging from gas adsorption and separation to catalysis. Although the bulk crystal structures of MOFs are typically well-characterized, comparatively little is known regarding MOF defect structures. Drawing on analogies with conventional silicon-based zeolites, we utilize computational methods to examine the structure and stability of putative point-defect structures (including vacancies, substitutions, and "dangling" linkers) within the prototypical ZIF-8 structure. Considering both postsynthetic (gas-phase) and synthetic (solution-phase) conditions, we find that several of the defect structures lie low in energy relative to the defect-free parent crystal, with barriers to defect formation that are large but surmountable under relevant temperatures. These results are consistent with prior experimental observations of ZIF stability and reactivity and suggest that defects may play an important role in influencing the long-term stability of MOFs under conditions that include exposure to water vapor and trace contaminants such as acid gases. PMID:26771275

  19. Pathological scattering by a defect in a slow-light periodic layered medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipman, Stephen P.; Welters, Aaron T.

    2016-02-01

    Scattering of electromagnetic fields by a defect layer embedded in a slow-light periodically layered ambient medium exhibits phenomena markedly different from typical scattering problems. In a slow-light periodic medium, constructed by Figotin and Vitebskiy, the energy velocity of a propagating mode in one direction slows to zero, creating a "frozen mode" at a single frequency within a pass band, where the dispersion relation possesses a flat inflection point. The slow-light regime is characterized by a 3 × 3 Jordan block of the log of the 4 × 4 monodromy matrix for EM fields in a periodic medium at special frequency and parallel wavevector. The scattering problem breaks down as the 2D rightward and leftward mode spaces intersect in the frozen mode and therefore span only a 3D subspace V ˚ of the 4D space of EM fields. Analysis of pathological scattering near the slow-light frequency and wavevector is based on the interaction between the flux-unitary transfer matrix T across the defect layer and the projections to the rightward and leftward spaces, which blow up as Laurent-Puiseux series. Two distinct cases emerge: the generic, non-resonant case when T does not map V ˚ to itself and the quadratically growing mode is excited and the resonant case, when V ˚ is invariant under T and a guided frozen mode is resonantly excited.

  20. Low temperature solution process-based defect-induced orange-red light emitting diode

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Pranab; Baek, Sung-Doo; Hoon Lee, Sang; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Jeong Lee, Su; Il Lee, Tae; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2015-01-01

    We report low-temperature solution-processed p-CuO nanorods (NRs)/n-ZnO NRs heterojunction light emitting diode (LED), exploiting the native point defects of ZnO NRs. ZnO NRs were synthesized at 90 °C by using hydrothermal method while CuO NRs were synthesized at 100 °C by using microwave reaction system. The electrical properties of newly synthesized CuO NRs revealed a promising p-type nature with a hole concentration of 9.64 × 1018 cm−3. The current-voltage characteristic of the heterojunction showed a significantly high rectification ratio of 105 at 4 V with a stable current flow. A broad orange-red emission was obtained from the forward biased LED with a major peak at 610 nm which was attributed to the electron transition from interstitial zinc to interstitial oxygen point defects in ZnO. A minor shoulder peak was also observed at 710 nm, corresponding to red emission which was ascribed to the transition from conduction band of ZnO to oxygen vacancies in ZnO lattice. This study demonstrates a significant progress toward oxide materials based, defect-induced light emitting device with low-cost, low-temperature methods. PMID:26648420

  1. Light-induced metastable defects or light-induced metastable H atoms in a-Si:H films?

    SciTech Connect

    Godet, C.

    1997-07-01

    In hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films, the increase of the metastable defect density under high-intensity illumination is usually described by an empirical two-parameter stretched-exponential time dependence (characteristic time {tau}{sub SE} and dispersion parameter {beta}). In this study, a clearly different (one-parameter) analytic function is obtained from a microscopic model based on the formation of metastable H (MSH) atoms in a-Si:H films. Assuming that MSH atoms are the only mobile species, only three chemical reactions are significant: MSH are produced from doubly hydrogenated (SiH HSi) configurations and trapped either at broken bonds or Si-H bonds, corresponding respectively to light-induced annealing (LIA) and light-induced creation (LIC) of defects. Competition between trapping sites results in a saturation of N(t) at a steady-state value N{sub ss}. A one-parameter fit of this analytical function to experimental data is generally good, indicating that the use of a statistical distribution of trap energies is not necessary.

  2. Accident Performance of Light Water Reactor Cladding Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Andrew T.

    2012-07-24

    During a loss of coolant accident as experienced at Fukushima, inadequate cooling of the reactor core forces component temperatures ever higher where they must withstand aggressive chemical environments. Conventional zirconium cladding alloys will readily oxidize in the presence of water vapor at elevated temperatures, rapidly degrading and likely failing. A cladding breach removes the critical barrier between actinides and fission products and the coolant, greatly increasing the probability of the release of radioactivity in the event of a containment failure. These factors have driven renewed international interest in both study and improvement of the materials used in commercial light water reactors. Characterization of a candidate cladding alloy or oxidation mitigation technique requires understanding of both the oxidation kinetics and hydrogen production as a function of temperature and atmosphere conditions. Researchers in the MST division supported by the DOE-NE Fuel Cycle Research and Development program are working to evaluate and quantify these parameters across a wide range of proposed cladding materials. The primary instrument employed is a simultaneous thermal analyzer (STA) equipped with a specialized water vapor furnace capable of maintaining temperatures above 1200 C in a range of atmospheres and water vapor contents. The STA utilizes thermogravimetric analysis and a coupled mass spectrometer to measure in situ oxidation and hydrogen production of candidate materials. This capability is unprecedented in study of materials under consideration for reactor cladding use, and is currently being expanded to investigate proposed coating techniques as well as the effect of coating defects on corrosion resistance.

  3. Probing Defects and Correlations in the Hydrogen-Bond Network of ab Initio Water.

    PubMed

    Gasparotto, Piero; Hassanali, Ali A; Ceriotti, Michele

    2016-04-12

    The hydrogen-bond network of water is characterized by the presence of coordination defects relative to the ideal tetrahedral network of ice, whose fluctuations determine the static and time-dependent properties of the liquid. Because of topological constraints, such defects do not come alone but are highly correlated coming in a plethora of different pairs. Here we discuss in detail such correlations in the case of ab initio water models and show that they have interesting similarities to regular and defective solid phases of water. Although defect correlations involve deviations from idealized tetrahedrality, they can still be regarded as weaker hydrogen bonds that retain a high degree of directionality. We also investigate how the structure and population of coordination defects is affected by approximations to the interatomic potential, finding that, in most cases, the qualitative features of the hydrogen-bond network are remarkably robust. PMID:26881726

  4. Light-induced defects in hydrogenated amorphous silicon studied by the constant-photocurrent method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, J. A.; Arce, R.; Buitrago, R. H.; Koropecki, R. R.

    1997-04-01

    The light-induced creation of metastable defects in undoped hydrogenated amorphous silicon has been followed using photoconductivity and absorption coefficient measurements. The density of states in the gap was obtained from the deconvolution of the subgap absorption coefficient measured by the constant-photocurrent method. We found that the decay of the photoconductivity and the evolution of the integrated density of subgap states follow the dependence on illumination time (till) predicted by the ``bond-breaking'' model. The density of occupied states obtained from the deconvolution procedure shows the presence of two peaks within the gap. After subtracting the valence band-tail contribution, these peaks can be well fitted with two Gaussians. The areas of both Gaussians increase as t1/3ill while their positions and widths remain unchanged. According to the energy position of these peaks, they are ascribed to the neutral and negatively charged silicon dangling bonds D0 and D-. We found that in this intrinsic sample the density of charged defects exceeds that of neutral defects, their ratio D-/D0 being approximately 2.6. This ratio is independent of the illumination time.

  5. The role of the defect on the adsorption and dissociation of water on graphitic carbon nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hong-Zhang; Liu, Li-Min; Zhao, Shi-Jin

    2015-12-01

    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) as a potential photocatalyst for the water splitting has the focus of numerous experimental and theoretical studies. In the process of water splitting, water/C3N4 interface plays the key role in the process, while the detailed mechanism, such as how water adsorbs and dissociates on the metal-free C3N4, is still unclear. Here how water interacts with the defect g-C3N4 was studied employed both density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics calculations which show that water monomer, dimer, and clusters with three and four molecules at the defect site can form a stable coplanar structure with the g-C3N4 sheet. The clusters help to stabilize the adsorption at the defect site. Molecular dynamics simulations show that on the perfect g-C3N4 sheet water does not dissociate but on the defect g-C3N4 sheet do. There are two reoriented water layers near the g-C3N4 sheet because of the interaction between water and the g-C3N4 sheet. Our findings indicate that the defect within g-C3N4 plays a key role in the adsorption and dissociation of water.

  6. Light water reactor lower head failure analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rempe, J.L.; Chavez, S.A.; Thinnes, G.L.

    1993-10-01

    This document presents the results from a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission-sponsored research program to investigate the mode and timing of vessel lower head failure. Major objectives of the analysis were to identify plausible failure mechanisms and to develop a method for determining which failure mode would occur first in different light water reactor designs and accident conditions. Failure mechanisms, such as tube ejection, tube rupture, global vessel failure, and localized vessel creep rupture, were studied. Newly developed models and existing models were applied to predict which failure mechanism would occur first in various severe accident scenarios. So that a broader range of conditions could be considered simultaneously, calculations relied heavily on models with closed-form or simplified numerical solution techniques. Finite element techniques-were employed for analytical model verification and examining more detailed phenomena. High-temperature creep and tensile data were obtained for predicting vessel and penetration structural response.

  7. Fabrication of light water reactor tritium targets

    SciTech Connect

    Pilger, J.P.

    1991-11-01

    The mission of the Fabrication Development Task of the Tritium Target Development Project is: to produce a documented technology basis, including specifications and procedures for target rod fabrication; to demonstrate that light water tritium targets can be manufactured at a rate consistent with tritium production requirements; and to develop quality control methods to evaluate target rod components and assemblies, and establish correlations between evaluated characteristics and target rod performance. Many of the target rod components: cladding tubes, end caps, plenum springs, etc., have similar counterparts in LWR fuel rods. High production rate manufacture and inspection of these components has been adequately demonstrated by nuclear fuel rod manufacturers. This summary describes the more non-conventional manufacturing processes and inspection techniques developed to fabricate target rod components whose manufacturability at required production rates had not been previously demonstrated.

  8. Commercial Light Water Reactor Tritium Extraction Facility

    SciTech Connect

    McHood, M D

    2000-10-12

    A geotechnical investigation program has been completed for the Commercial Light Water Reactor - Tritium Extraction Facility (CLWR-TEF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The program consisted of reviewing previous geotechnical and geologic data and reports, performing subsurface field exploration, field and laboratory testing, and geologic and engineering analyses. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the subsurface conditions for the CLWR-TEF in terms of subsurface stratigraphy and engineering properties for design and to perform selected engineering analyses. The objectives of the evaluation were to establish site-specific geologic conditions, obtain representative engineering properties of the subsurface and potential fill materials, evaluate the lateral and vertical extent of any soft zones encountered, and perform engineering analyses for slope stability, bearing capacity and settlement, and liquefaction potential. In addition, provide general recommendations for construction and earthwork.

  9. Metastable defect formation at microvoids identified as a source of light-induced degradation in a-Si:H.

    PubMed

    Fehr, M; Schnegg, A; Rech, B; Astakhov, O; Finger, F; Bittl, R; Teutloff, C; Lips, K

    2014-02-14

    Light-induced degradation of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H), known as the Staebler-Wronski effect, has been studied by time-domain pulsed electron-paramagnetic resonance. Electron-spin echo relaxation measurements in the annealed and light-soaked state revealed two types of defects (termed type I and II), which can be discerned by their electron-spin echo relaxation. Type I exhibits a monoexponential decay related to indirect flip-flop processes between dipolar coupled electron spins in defect clusters, while the phase relaxation of type II is dominated by 1H nuclear spin dynamics and is indicative for isolated spins. We propose that defects are either located at internal surfaces of microvoids (type I) or are isolated and uniformly distributed in the bulk (type II). The concentration of both defect type I and II is significantly higher in the light-soaked state compared to the annealed state. Our results indicate that in addition to isolated defects, defects on internal surfaces of microvoids play a role in light-induced degradation of device-quality a-Si:H. PMID:24580698

  10. Metastable Defect Formation at Microvoids Identified as a Source of Light-Induced Degradation in a-Si :H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fehr, M.; Schnegg, A.; Rech, B.; Astakhov, O.; Finger, F.; Bittl, R.; Teutloff, C.; Lips, K.

    2014-02-01

    Light-induced degradation of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si :H), known as the Staebler-Wronski effect, has been studied by time-domain pulsed electron-paramagnetic resonance. Electron-spin echo relaxation measurements in the annealed and light-soaked state revealed two types of defects (termed type I and II), which can be discerned by their electron-spin echo relaxation. Type I exhibits a monoexponential decay related to indirect flip-flop processes between dipolar coupled electron spins in defect clusters, while the phase relaxation of type II is dominated by H1 nuclear spin dynamics and is indicative for isolated spins. We propose that defects are either located at internal surfaces of microvoids (type I) or are isolated and uniformly distributed in the bulk (type II). The concentration of both defect type I and II is significantly higher in the light-soaked state compared to the annealed state. Our results indicate that in addition to isolated defects, defects on internal surfaces of microvoids play a role in light-induced degradation of device-quality a-Si :H.

  11. Environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.; Gruber, E.E.

    1996-07-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in light water reactors (LWRs) from April 1995 to December 1995. Topics that have been investigated include fatigue of carbon and low-alloy steel used in reactor piping and pressure vessels, EAC of Alloy 600 and 690, and irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of Type 304 SS. Fatigue tests were conducted on ferritic steels in water that contained various concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO) to determine whether a slow strain rate applied during different portions of a tensile-loading cycle are equally effective in decreasing fatigue life. Crack-growth-rate tests were conducted on compact-tension specimens from several heats of Alloys 600 and 690 in simulated LWR environments. Effects of fluoride-ion contamination on susceptibility to intergranular cracking of high- and commercial- purity Type 304 SS specimens from control-tensile tests at 288 degrees Centigrade. Microchemical changes in the specimens were studied by Auger electron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy to determine whether trace impurity elements may contribute to IASCC of these materials.

  12. Environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors.

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O. K.; Chung, H. M.; Clark, R. W.; Gruber, E. E.; Shack, W. J.; Soppet, W. K.; Strain, R. V.

    2007-11-06

    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in light water reactors (LWRs) from January to December 2002. Topics that have been investigated include: (a) environmental effects on fatigue crack initiation in carbon and low-alloy steels and austenitic stainless steels (SSs), (b) irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of austenitic SSs in BWRs, (c) evaluation of causes and mechanisms of irradiation-assisted cracking of austenitic SS in PWRs, and (d) cracking in Ni-alloys and welds. A critical review of the ASME Code fatigue design margins and an assessment of the conservation in the current choice of design margins are presented. The existing fatigue {var_epsilon}-N data have been evaluated to define the effects of key material, loading, and environmental parameters on the fatigue lives of carbon and low-alloy steels and austenitic SSs. Experimental data are presented on the effects of surface roughness on fatigue crack initiation in these materials in air and LWR environments. Crack growth tests were performed in BWR environments on SSs irradiated to 0.9 and 2.0 x 10{sup 21} n x cm{sup -2}. The crack growth rates (CGRs) of the irradiated steels are a factor of {approx}5 higher than the disposition curve proposed in NUREG-0313 for thermally sensitized materials. The CGRs decreased by an order of magnitude in low-dissolved oxygen (DO) environments. Slow-strain-rate tensile (SSRT) tests were conducted in high-purity 289 C water on steels irradiated to {approx}3 dpa. The bulk S content correlated well with the susceptibility to intergranular SCC in 289 C water. The IASCC susceptibility of SSs that contain >0.003 wt. % S increased drastically. bend tests in inert environments at 23 C were conducted on broken pieces of SSRT specimens and on unirradiated specimens of the same materials after hydrogen charging. The results of the tests and a review of other data in the literature

  13. Issues concerned with future light-water-reactor designs

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, L.S.

    1982-03-01

    This article discusses some light-water-reactor (LWR) design issues that are based on operating experiences and the results of water-reactor safety research. The impacts of these issues on reactor safety are described, and new engineering concepts are identified to encourage further improvement in future light-water-reactor designs.

  14. Light-induced domain inversion with real-time diagnostics of the defect/domain wall interaction in lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandmann, Christian; Dierolf, Volkmar

    2004-03-01

    Lithium niobate is a mature material which has widely been used in several applications, many of them exploiting the possibility to engineer domains in arbitrary shapes and patterns. Despite this technological driving force, the dramatic role of defects in the domain inversion (reflected e.g.: in a wide variation of coercive fields with stoichiometry) has not be clarified. To this end we will report two major breakthroughs enabling investigation of the dynamics of the domain wall/defect interaction. (1) light-induced domain inversion using visible laser in a confocal microscope, that allows us to directly "write" precise domain patterns, (2) real time observation of the changes occurring in the defect configuration of probe defect ions during domain inversion by probing defect luminescence. The latter can be used as a feedback for the light induced domain inversion. Moreover, we have a new tool to study the correlation between the rearrangement of defects and the occurrence of strain fields, as well as to investigate the origin of the light induced electric fields responsible for (1).

  15. Defect-Enabled Electrical Current Leakage in Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Moseley, Michael William; Allerman, Andrew A.; Crawford, Mary H.; Wierer, Jonathan; Smith, Michael L.; Biedermann, Laura

    2015-04-13

    The AlGaN materials system offers a tunable, ultra-wide bandgap that is exceptionally useful for high-power electronics and deep ultraviolet optoelectronics. Moseley et al. (pp. 723–726) investigate a structural defect known as an open-core threading dislocation or ''nanopipe'' that is particularly detrimental to devices that employ these materials. Furthermore, an AlGaN thin film was synthesized using metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition. Electrical current leakage is detected at a discrete point using a conductive atomic-force microscope (CAFM). However, no physical feature or abnormality at this location was visible by an optical microscope. The AlGaN thin film was then etched in hot phosphoric acid, and the same location that was previously analyzed was revisited with the CAFM. The point that previously exhibited electrical current leakage had been decorated with a 1.1 μm wide hexagonal pit, which identified the site of electrical current leakage as a nanopipe and allows these defects to be easily observed by optical microscopy. Moreover, with this nanopipe identification and quantification strategy, the authors were able to correlate decreasing ultraviolet light-emitting diode optical output power with increasing nanopipe density.

  16. Identification of Mutants of Arabidopsis Defective in Acclimation of Photosynthesis to the Light Environment1

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Robin G.; Shephard, Freya; Rogers, Jennifer J.M.; Rolfe, Stephen A.; Horton, Peter

    2003-01-01

    In common with many other higher plant species, Arabidopsis undergoes photosynthetic acclimation, altering the composition of the photosynthetic apparatus in response to fluctuations in its growth environment. The changes in photosynthetic function that result from acclimation can be detected in a noninvasive manner by monitoring chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence. This technique has been used to develop a screen that enables the rapid identification of plants defective at ACCLIMATION OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS TO THE ENVIRONMENT (APE) loci. The application of this screen to a population of T-DNA-transformed Arabidopsis has successfully led to the identification of a number of mutant lines with altered Chl fluorescence characteristics. Analysis of photosynthesis and pigment composition in leaves from three such mutants showed that they had altered acclimation responses to the growth light environment, each having a distinct acclimation-defective phenotype, demonstrating that screening for mutants using Chl fluorescence is a viable strategy for the investigation of acclimation. Sequencing of the genomic DNA flanking the T-DNA elements showed that in the ape1 mutant, a gene was disrupted that encodes a protein of unknown function but that appears to be specific to photosynthetic organisms, whereas the ape2 mutant carries an insertion in the region of the TPT gene encoding the chloroplast inner envelope triose phosphate/phosphate translocator. PMID:12586872

  17. Defect-Enabled Electrical Current Leakage in Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Moseley, Michael William; Allerman, Andrew A.; Crawford, Mary H.; Wierer, Jonathan; Smith, Michael L.; Biedermann, Laura

    2015-04-13

    The AlGaN materials system offers a tunable, ultra-wide bandgap that is exceptionally useful for high-power electronics and deep ultraviolet optoelectronics. Moseley et al. (pp. 723–726) investigate a structural defect known as an open-core threading dislocation or ''nanopipe'' that is particularly detrimental to devices that employ these materials. Furthermore, an AlGaN thin film was synthesized using metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition. Electrical current leakage is detected at a discrete point using a conductive atomic-force microscope (CAFM). However, no physical feature or abnormality at this location was visible by an optical microscope. The AlGaN thin film was then etched in hot phosphoric acid, andmore » the same location that was previously analyzed was revisited with the CAFM. The point that previously exhibited electrical current leakage had been decorated with a 1.1 μm wide hexagonal pit, which identified the site of electrical current leakage as a nanopipe and allows these defects to be easily observed by optical microscopy. Moreover, with this nanopipe identification and quantification strategy, the authors were able to correlate decreasing ultraviolet light-emitting diode optical output power with increasing nanopipe density.« less

  18. Modulation of defect modes intensity by controlled light scattering in photonic crystal with liquid crystal domain structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunyakov, V. A.; Krakhalev, M. N.; Zyryanov, V. Ya.; Shabanov, V. F.; Loiko, V. A.

    2016-07-01

    A method to modulate the defect modes intensity in a multilayer photonic crystal with a nematic liquid crystal layer arranged midmost has been proposed. The various electrohydrodynamic domain structures (Williams domains, oblique rolls and grid pattern) were formed in the nematic layer under the action of ac electric field. The domains cause a polarization-sensitive light scattering which leads to an anisotropic reduction of the defect modes intensity. Thus by varying the applied voltage, we can tune gradually the transmittance spectrum of photonic crystal. In addition, the spectrum strongly depends on the light polarization direction above threshold voltage.

  19. Water cooled breeder program summary report (LWBR (Light Water Breeder Reactor) development program)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-10-01

    The purpose of the Department of Energy Water Cooled Breeder Program was to demonstrate pratical breeding in a uranium-233/thorium fueled core while producing electrical energy in a commercial water reactor generating station. A demonstration Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) was successfully operated for more than 29,000 effective full power hours in the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The reactor operated with an availability factor of 76% and had a gross electrical output of 2,128,943,470 kilowatt hours. Following operation, the expended core was examined and no evidence of any fuel element defects was found. Nondestructive assay of 524 fuel rods determined that 1.39 percent more fissile fuel was present at the end of core life than at the beginning, proving that breeding had occurred. This demonstrates the existence of a vast source of electrical energy using plentiful domestic thorium potentially capable of supplying the entire national need for many centuries. To build on the successful design and operation of the Shippingport Breeder Core and to provide the technology to implement this concept, several reactor designs of large breeders and prebreeders were developed for commercial-sized plants of 900--1000 Mw(e) net. This report summarizes the Water Cooled Breeder Program from its inception in 1965 to its completion in 1987. Four hundred thirty-six technical reports are referenced which document the work conducted as part of this program. This work demonstrated that the Light Water Breeder Reactor is a viable alternative as a PWR replacement in the next generation of nuclear reactors. This transition would only require a minimum of change in design and fabrication of the reactor and operation of the plant.

  20. Fast phase transition of water molecules in a defective carbon nanotube under an electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xianwen; Huang, Jiping

    2016-02-01

    We utilize molecular dynamics simulations to study the effect of an electric field on the permeation of water molecules through a defective single-walled carbon nanotube (DSWCNT). Compared with a perfect single-walled carbon nanotube (PSWCNT), the behaviors of water molecules respond more quickly under the same electric field in a DSWCNT. Wet-dry phase transition of water molecules occurs when the electric field reaches 0.32 V/nm, which is much lower than the case of the PSWCNT. Besides, the critical electric field is affected by the number of defects. These results pave a way for designing fast wet-dry transition devices and provide a new insight into water permeation through a defective nanochannel.

  1. Characterization of electrically-active defects in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with laser-based failure analysis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Mary A.; Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Cole, Edward I.

    2016-01-01

    Laser-based failure analysis techniques demonstrate the ability to quickly and non-intrusively screen deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for electrically-active defects. In particular, two laser-based techniques, light-induced voltage alteration and thermally-induced voltage alteration, generate applied voltage maps (AVMs) that provide information on electrically-active defect behavior including turn-on bias, density, and spatial location. Here, multiple commercial LEDs were examined and found to have dark defect signals in the AVM indicating a site of reduced resistance or leakage through the diode. The existence of the dark defect signals in the AVM correlates strongly with an increased forward-bias leakage current. This increased leakage is not present in devices without AVM signals. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of a dark defect signal site revealed a dislocation cluster through the pn junction. The cluster included an open core dislocation. Even though LEDs with few dark AVM defect signals did not correlate strongly with power loss, direct association between increased open core dislocation densities and reduced LED device performance has been presented elsewhere [M. W. Moseley et al., J. Appl. Phys. 117, 095301 (2015)].

  2. Characterization of electrically-active defects in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with laser-based failure analysis techniques

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Miller, Mary A.; Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Edward I. Cole, Jr.

    2016-01-12

    In this study, laser-based failure analysis techniques demonstrate the ability to quickly and non-intrusively screen deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes(LEDs) for electrically-active defects. In particular, two laser-based techniques, light-induced voltage alteration and thermally-induced voltage alteration, generate applied voltage maps (AVMs) that provide information on electrically-active defect behavior including turn-on bias, density, and spatial location. Here, multiple commercial LEDs were examined and found to have dark defect signals in the AVM indicating a site of reduced resistance or leakage through the diode. The existence of the dark defect signals in the AVM correlates strongly with an increased forward-bias leakage current. This increasedmore » leakage is not present in devices without AVM signals. Transmission electron microscopyanalysis of a dark defect signal site revealed a dislocation cluster through the pn junction. The cluster included an open core dislocation. Even though LEDs with few dark AVM defect signals did not correlate strongly with power loss, direct association between increased open core dislocation densities and reduced LED device performance has been presented elsewhere [M. W. Moseley et al., J. Appl. Phys. 117, 095301 (2015)].« less

  3. 46 CFR 169.549 - Ring lifebuoys and water lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ring lifebuoys and water lights. 169.549 Section 169.549 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Additional Lifesaving Equipment § 169.549 Ring lifebuoys and water lights. (a)(1) The minimum number...

  4. 46 CFR 169.549 - Ring lifebuoys and water lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ring lifebuoys and water lights. 169.549 Section 169.549 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Additional Lifesaving Equipment § 169.549 Ring lifebuoys and water lights. (a)(1) The minimum number...

  5. 46 CFR 169.549 - Ring lifebuoys and water lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ring lifebuoys and water lights. 169.549 Section 169.549 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Additional Lifesaving Equipment § 169.549 Ring lifebuoys and water lights. (a)(1) The minimum number...

  6. In-situ volumetric topography of IC chips for defect detection using infrared confocal measurement with active structured light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liang-Chia; Le, Manh-Trung; Cong Phuc, Dao; Lin, Shyh-Tsong

    2014-09-01

    The article presents the development of in-situ integrated circuit (IC) chip defect detection techniques for automated clipping detection by proposing infrared imaging and full-field volumetric topography. IC chip inspection, especially held during or post IC packaging, has become an extremely critical procedure in IC fabrication to assure manufacturing quality and reduce production costs. To address this, in the article, microscopic infrared imaging using an electromagnetic light spectrum that ranges from 0.9 to 1.7 µm is developed to perform volumetric inspection of IC chips, in order to identify important defects such as silicon clipping, cracking or peeling. The main difficulty of infrared (IR) volumetric imaging lies in its poor image contrast, which makes it incapable of achieving reliable inspection, as infrared imaging is sensitive to temperature difference but insensitive to geometric variance of materials, resulting in difficulty detecting and quantifying defects precisely. To overcome this, 3D volumetric topography based on 3D infrared confocal measurement with active structured light, as well as light refractive matching principles, is developed to detect defects the size, shape and position of defects in ICs. The experimental results show that the algorithm is effective and suitable for in-situ defect detection of IC semiconductor packaging. The quality of defect detection, such as measurement repeatability and accuracy, is addressed. Confirmed by the experimental results, the depth measurement resolution can reach up to 0.3 µm, and the depth measurement uncertainty with one standard deviation was verified to be less than 1.0% of the full-scale depth-measuring range.

  7. Drinking water treatment is not associated with an observed increase in neural tube defects in mice.

    PubMed

    Melin, Vanessa E; Johnstone, David W; Etzkorn, Felicia A; Hrubec, Terry C

    2014-06-01

    Disinfection by-products (DBPs) arise when natural organic matter in source water reacts with disinfectants used in the water treatment process. Studies have suggested an association between DBPs and birth defects. Neural tube defects (NTDs) in embryos of untreated control mice were first observed in-house in May 2006 and have continued to date. The source of the NTD-inducing agent was previously determined to be a component of drinking water. Tap water samples from a variety of sources were analyzed for trihalomethanes (THMs) to determine if they were causing the malformations. NTDs were observed in CD-1 mice provided with treated and untreated surface water. Occurrence of NTDs varied by water source and treatment regimens. THMs were detected in tap water derived from surface water but not detected in tap water derived from a groundwater source. THMs were absent in untreated river water and laboratory purified waters, yet the percentage of NTDs in untreated river water were similar to the treated water counterpart. These findings indicate that THMs were not the primary cause of NTDs in the mice since the occurrence of NTDs was unrelated to drinking water disinfection. PMID:24497082

  8. Actinic detection of multilayer defects on EUV mask blanks using LPP light source and dark-field imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tezuka, Yoshihiro; Ito, Masaaki; Terasawa, Tsuneo; Tomie, Toshihisa

    2004-05-01

    The development of defect-free mask blanks including inspection is one of the big challenges for the implementation of extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), especially when the introduction of EUVL is rescheduled to a later technology node. Among others, inspection of multilayer coated mask blanks with no oversight of critical defects and with minimal detection of false defects is a challenging issue for providing mask blanks free of defects or with thorough characterization of any existing defects. MIRAI Project has been developing a novel actinic (at-wavelength) inspection tool for detecting critical multilayer defects using a dark-field imaging and a laser-produced plasma (LPP) light source, expecting better sensitivity and better correlation with printability. The first experimental set up is completed for proof-of-concept (POC) demonstration using 20x Schwarzschild imaging optics and a backsideilluminated CCD. An in-house LPP light source is integrated to optimally illuminate the area of interest by EUV with a wavelength of 13.5nm. For its illuminator, a multilayer-coated elliptical mirror is used to illuminate a mask blank with the EUV that is collected within a wide solid angle from the light source. The first EUV dark-field image is obtained from a mask blank with programmed multilayer defects which are manufactured by locating well-defined patterns before depositing Mo/Si multilayer on EUV mask substrate. All the fabricated multilayer defects down to 70nm in width and 3.5nm in height are detected as clear signals that are distinguishable from the background intensity arising from the scattering by the surface roughness of the multilayer-coated mask blank. We have also detected a phase defect as low as 2nm in height. False defect count was not only zero within the area of view but also statistically confirmed to be less than one within the whole area of a mask blank assuming the extrapolation of observed fluctuation of background intensity is applicable

  9. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Accomplishments Report

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, Kathryn A.

    2015-02-01

    Welcome to the 2014 Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program Accomplishments Report, covering research and development highlights from 2014. The LWRS Program is a U.S. Department of Energy research and development program to inform and support the long-term operation of our nation’s commercial nuclear power plants. The research uses the unique facilities and capabilities at the Department of Energy national laboratories in collaboration with industry, academia, and international partners. Extending the operating lifetimes of current plants is essential to supporting our nation’s base load energy infrastructure, as well as reaching the Administration’s goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions to 80% below 1990 levels by the year 2050. The purpose of the LWRS Program is to provide technical results for plant owners to make informed decisions on long-term operation and subsequent license renewal, reducing the uncertainty, and therefore the risk, associated with those decisions. In January 2013, 104 nuclear power plants operated in 31 states. However, since then, five plants have been shut down (several due to economic reasons), with additional shutdowns under consideration. The LWRS Program aims to minimize the number of plants that are shut down, with R&D that supports long-term operation both directly (via data that is needed for subsequent license renewal), as well indirectly (with models and technology that provide economic benefits). The LWRS Program continues to work closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to ensure that the body of information needed to support SLR decisions and actions is available in a timely manner. This report covers selected highlights from the three research pathways in the LWRS Program: Materials Aging and Degradation, Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization, and Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies, as well as a look-ahead at planned activities for 2015. If you

  10. Deep Water Cherenkov Light Scatter Meter

    SciTech Connect

    Pappalardo, L; Petta, C.; Russo, G.V.

    2000-12-31

    The relevant parameters for the site choice of an underwater neutrino's telescope are discussed. The in situ measurement of the scattering distribution of the cherenkov light requires a suitable experimental setup. Its main features are described here.

  11. First principles study on defectives BN nanotubes for water splitting and hydrogen storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevilacqua, Andressa C.; Rupp, Caroline J.; Baierle, Rogério J.

    2016-06-01

    First principles calculations within the spin polarized density functional approximation have been addressed to investigate the energetic stability, electronic and optical properties of defective BN nanotubes. Our results show that the presence of carbon impurities interacting with vacancies gives rise to defective electronic levels inside the nanotube band gap. By calculating the absorbance index, we have obtained a strong inter-band optical absorption in the visible region (around 2.1 eV) showing that defective BN nanotubes could be an efficient catalytic semiconductor material to be used within solar energy for water splitting. In addition, we observe that the adsorption energy for one and two H2 molecules on the defective surface is in the desired window for the system to be useful as a hydrogen storage medium.

  12. Trapping of Water Drops by Line-Shaped Defects on Superhydrophobic Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Olin, Pontus; Lindström, Stefan B; Wågberg, Lars

    2015-06-16

    We have investigated the effect of line-shaped topographical defects on the motion of water drops across superhydrophobic wax surfaces using a high-speed video camera. The defects are introduced onto the superhydrophobic wax surfaces by a scratching procedure. It is demonstrated that the motion of a drop interacting with the defect can be approximated by a damped harmonic oscillator. Whether a drop passes or gets trapped by the defect is determined by the incident speed and the properties of the oscillator, specifically by the damping ratio and a nondimensional forcing constant representing the effects of gravity and pinning forces. We also show that it is possible to predict a critical trapping speed as well as an exit speed in systems with negligible viscous dissipation using a simple work-energy consideration. PMID:26010934

  13. Light propagation inside `cavity' formed between nonlinear defect and interface of two dissimilar one-dimensional linear photonic lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmanović, Slavica; Stojanović Krasić, Marija; Milović, Daniela; Miletić, Marjan; Radosavljević, Ana; Gligorić, Goran; Maluckov, Aleksandra; Stepić, Milutin

    2015-09-01

    Light propagation through composite photonic lattice containing a cavity bounded by the interface between two structurally different linear lattices and on-site nonlinear defect in one of them is investigated numerically. We find conditions under which dynamically stable bounded cavity modes can exist. We observe various cavity localized modes such as: single-hump, multi-hump, and moving breathing modes. Light propagation obstructions are phenomenologically related to the Fano resonances. Presented numerical findings may lead to interesting applications, such as blocking, filtering, and transporting of light beams through the optical medium.

  14. Effects of sulfur-deficient defect and water on rearrangements of formamide on pyrite (100) surface.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huyen Thi; Nguyen, Minh Tho

    2014-06-12

    The efficient formation of HCN/HNC from formamide (FM) combining the advantages of water-assistance, self-catalyzed reactions, and the mineral surfaces was investigated. Periodic density functional theory calculations with plane-wave pseudopotential basis sets were performed to study the interaction of FM with pyrite (100) ideal and defect surfaces. Effects of sulfur vacancy defect and water on tautomerization and rearrangement barriers of FM on the (100) surface were evaluated. Calculated results show that FM adsorbs more strongly on the defect surface than on the ideal surface, with the lowest adsorption energy on the defect surface being -22 kcal/mol. The energy barriers for rearrangements of FM on these two surfaces being close to each other suggests that the adsorptions on the surfaces have small effects on the energy barriers. The energy barriers for formimic acid isomer formations are 44.5 and 46.0 kcal/mol, and those of aminohydroxymethylene formations are 72.6 and 71.9 kcal/mol on the ideal and defect surfaces, respectively. A reduction of ∼30 kcal/mol in tautomerization energy barriers is observed in water-assisted process on the defect surface. Because this reduction is close to that of the gas-phase reactions, the catalytic effect is clearly due to the presence of water molecule instead of the interaction with the surface. In this case, the pyrite surfaces with the ability to accumulate reactive species only play the role of connecting bridges between the two steps of the proposed reaction mechanism: the water-assisted rearrangement and the self-catalyzed dehydration. PMID:24832217

  15. Ethanol photocatalysis on rutile TiO2(110): the role of defects and water

    PubMed Central

    Walenta, Constantin A.; Kollmannsberger, Sebastian L.; Kiermaier, Josef; Winbauer, Andreas; Tschurl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present a stoichiometric reaction mechanism for the photocatalytic ethanol oxidation on TiO2(110). The reaction products are analyzed either under reaction conditions or after irradiation at lower temperatures. Water is identified as a quantitative by-product, which resides in a defect site. These water molecules cause a blocking of the defect sites which results in poisoning of the catalyst. By different preparation techniques of the TiO2(110) surface, the role of surface defects is further elucidated and the role of molecular oxygen is investigated. Based on the investigation, a complete photochemical reaction mechanism is given, which provides insights into general photon driven oxidation mechanisms on TiO2. PMID:26264863

  16. Prenatal Nitrate Intake from Drinking Water and Selected Birth Defects in Offspring of Participants in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    Weyer, Peter J.; Romitti, Paul A.; Mohanty, Binayak P.; Shinde, Mayura U.; Vuong, Ann M.; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Dwivedi, Dipankar; Horel, Scott A.; Kantamneni, Jiji; Huber, John C.; Zheng, Qi; Werler, Martha M.; Kelley, Katherine E.; Griesenbeck, John S.; Zhan, F. Benjamin; Langlois, Peter H.; Suarez, Lucina; Canfield, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous studies of prenatal exposure to drinking-water nitrate and birth defects in offspring have not accounted for water consumption patterns or potential interaction with nitrosatable drugs. Objectives: We examined the relation between prenatal exposure to drinking-water nitrate and selected birth defects, accounting for maternal water consumption patterns and nitrosatable drug exposure. Methods: With data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, we linked addresses of 3,300 case mothers and 1,121 control mothers from the Iowa and Texas sites to public water supplies and respective nitrate measurements. We assigned nitrate levels for bottled water from collection of representative samples and standard laboratory testing. Daily nitrate consumption was estimated from self-reported water consumption at home and work. Results: With the lowest tertile of nitrate intake around conception as the referent group, mothers of babies with spina bifida were 2.0 times more likely (95% CI: 1.3, 3.2) to ingest ≥ 5 mg nitrate daily from drinking water (vs. < 0.91 mg) than control mothers. During 1 month preconception through the first trimester, mothers of limb deficiency, cleft palate, and cleft lip cases were, respectively, 1.8 (95% CI: 1.1, 3.1), 1.9 (95% CI: 1.2, 3.1), and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.1, 3.1) times more likely than control mothers to ingest ≥ 5.42 mg of nitrate daily (vs. < 1.0 mg). Higher water nitrate intake did not increase associations between prenatal nitrosatable drug use and birth defects. Conclusions: Higher water nitrate intake was associated with several birth defects in offspring, but did not strengthen associations between nitrosatable drugs and birth defects. Citation: Brender JD, Weyer PJ, Romitti PA, Mohanty BP, Shinde MU, Vuong AM, Sharkey JR, Dwivedi D, Horel SA, Kantamneni J, Huber JC Jr., Zheng Q, Werler MM, Kelley KE, Griesenbeck JS, Zhan FB, Langlois PH, Suarez L, Canfield MA, and the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

  17. Experimental investigation of defect-assisted and intrinsic water vapor permeation through ultrabarrier films.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyungchul; Singh, Ankit Kumar; Wang, Cheng-Yin; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Kippelen, Bernard; Graham, Samuel

    2016-03-01

    In the development of ultrabarrier films for packaging electronics, the effective water vapor transmission rate is a combination of permeation through pinhole defects and the intrinsic permeation through the actual barrier film. While it is possible to measure the effective permeation rate through barriers, it is important to develop a better understanding of the contribution from defects to the overall effective barrier performance. Here, we demonstrate a method to investigate independently defect-assisted permeation and intrinsic permeation rates by observing the degradation of a calcium layer encapsulated with a hybrid barrier film, that is, prepared using atomic layer deposition (ALD) and plasma enhanced deposition (PECVD). The results are rationalized using an analytical diffusion model to calculate the permeation rate as a function of spatial position within the barrier. It was observed that a barrier film consisting of a PECVD SiN(x) layer combined with an ALD Al2O3/HfO(x) nanolaminate resulted in a defect-assisted water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of 4.84 × 10(-5) g/m(2) day and intrinsic WVTR of 1.41 × 10(-4) g/m(2) day at 50 °C/85% RH. Due to the low defect density of the tested barrier film, the defect-assisted WVTR was found to be three times lower than the intrinsic WVTR, and an effective (or total) WVTR value was 1.89 × 10(-4) g/m(2) day. Thus, improvements of the barrier performance should focus on reducing the number of defects while also improving the intrinsic barrier performance of the hybrid layer. PMID:27036786

  18. End-of-life nondestructive examination of Light Water Breeder Reactor fuel rods (LWBR Development Program)

    SciTech Connect

    Gorscak, D.A.; Campbell, W.R.; Clayton, J.C.

    1987-10-01

    In-bundle and out-of-bundle (single rod) nondestructive examinations of Light Water Breeder Reactor fuel rods were performed. In-bundle examinations included visual examination and measurement of rod bow, rod-to-rod gaps, and rod removal forces. Out-of-bundle examinations included rod visuals and measurement of fuel rod length, diameter and ovality, cladding oxide and crud thickness, support grid induced cladding wear mark depth and volume, and fuel rod free hanging bow. The out-of-bundle examination also included ultrasonic inspection for cladding defects, neutron radiography for pellet integrity and plenum gap measurements, and gamma scans for instack axial gap screening and binary fuel stack length measurements. The measurements confirmed design predictions of fuel rod performance and provided evidence of excellent fuel rod performance for operation of Light Water Breeder Reactor to 29,047 effective full power hours (EFPH).

  19. Nanoimprint lithography for green water-repellent film derived from biomass with high-light transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, Satoshi; Hanabata, Makoto

    2015-03-01

    Newly eco-friendly high light transparency film with plant-based materials was investigated to future development of liquid crystal displays and optical devices with water repellency as a chemical design concept of nanoimprint lithography. This procedure is proven to be suitable for material design and the process conditions of ultraviolet curing nanoimprint lithography for green water-repellent film derived from biomass with high-light transparency. The developed formulation of advanced nanoimprinted materials design derived from lactulose and psicose, and the development of suitable UV nanoimprint conditions produced high resolutions of the conical shaped moth-eye regularly-nanostructure less than approximately 200 nm diameter, and acceptable patterning dimensional accuracy by the replication of 100 times of UV nanoimprint lithography cycles. The newly plant-based materials and the process conditions are expected as one of the defect less nanoimprint lithographic technologies in next generation electronic devices.

  20. Polarization of light in shallow waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilerson, Alexander; Ibrahim, Amir; Stepinski, Jan; Ahmed, Samir

    2013-10-01

    Measurements of the upwelling polarized radiance in relatively shallow waters of varying depths and benthic conditions are compared to simulationsrevealing the depolarizing nature of the seafloor. Significant correlations between simulations and measurements are attained when the appropriate unpolarized, Lambertian bottoms are included in the radiative transfer model. The bottoms used in this study produce realistic upwelling radiance distributions as well as ranges of the degree of linear polarization (DoLP) that peak between 10 and 30%. This study specifically finds that polarization in upwelling radiance is best preserved at long wavelengths in clear waters and also at short wavelengths in phytoplankton- and CDOM-rich waters. These results can thus facilitate the detection of benthic materials as well as future studies of camouflage by benthic biota.The DoLPwas found to be highly sensitive to benthic reflectance, but the angle of polarization (AoLP), which quantifies the orientation of polarization, is independent of it. The AoLP could therefore be used to communicate and sense direction underwater.

  1. Reshaping of Gaussian light pulses transmitted through one-dimensional photonic crystals with two defect layers.

    PubMed

    Dadoenkova, Yu S; Dadoenkova, N N; Lyubchanskii, I L; Sementsov, D I

    2016-05-10

    We present a theoretical study of the reshaping of subpicosecond optical pulses in the vicinity of double-peaked defect-mode frequencies in the spectrum of a one-dimensional photonic crystal with two defect layers and calculate the time delay of the transmitted pulses. We used the transfer matrix method for the evaluation of the transmittivity spectra, and the Fourier transform technique for the calculation of the transmitted pulse envelopes. The most considerable reshaping of the pulses takes place for pulses with a carrier frequency in the defect-mode center and with a spectrum wider than the half-width of the defect mode. For pulses with the carrier frequency at the low- and high-frequency peaks of the defect mode, reshaping is strong for the twice as wide pulses. The maximal time delay of a spectrally narrow pulse is of the order of the pulse duration and demonstrates extrema at the frequencies of the defect-mode peaks. The time delay of a wide pulse does not depend on the carrier frequency, but is one order of magnitude larger than the pulse duration. PMID:27168289

  2. Repair of surgical bone defects grafted with hydroxylapatite + β-TCP and irradiated with λ=850 nm LED light.

    PubMed

    Soares, Luiz Guilherme P; Marques, Aparecida Maria C; Guarda, Milena G; Aciole, Jouber Mateus S; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz B; dos Santos, Jean Nunes

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of bone loss due to different etiologic factors is difficult and many techniques aim to improve the repair, including a wide range of biomaterials and recently, photobioengineering. This work aimed to assess by histological analysis the repair of bone defects grafted with biphasic synthetic micro-granular HA + β-TCP associated with LED phototherapy. Forty rats were divided into 4 groups (Clot, LED, Biomaterial and LED + Biomaterial) each subdivided into 2 subgroups according to the time of animal death (15 and 30 days). Surgical bone defects were prepared on the femur of each animal with a trephine drill. In animals of the Clot group the defect was filled only by blood clot, in the LED group the defect filled with the clot was further irradiated. In the animals of Biomaterial and LED + Biomaterial groups the defect was filled by biomaterial and the last one was further irradiated (λ = 850 ± 10 nm, 150 mW, Φ ~ 0.5 cm2, 20 J/cm2 - session, 140 J/cm2- treatment) at 48-h intervals for 2 weeks. Following animal death, samples were taken and analyzed by light microscopy. Using the degree of maturation of the bone by assessment of the deposition/organization of the basophilic lines in the newly formed bone tissue, the LED + Biomaterial group was the one in a more advanced stage of bone repair process at the end of the experiment. It may be concluded that the use of LED phototherapy was effective in positively modulating the process of bone repair of bone defects in the femur of rats submitted or not to biomaterial grafting. PMID:25672379

  3. Towards intrinsically safe light-water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hannerz, K

    1983-07-01

    Most of the present impediments to the rational use of the nuclear option have their roots in the reactor safety issue. The approach taken to satisfy the escalating safety concerns has resulted in excessively complex and expensive plant designs but has failed to create public confidence. This paper describes a new approach based on the principle of Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS). With the PIUS principle, ultimate safety is obtained by guaranteeing core integrity under all credible conditions. This is accomplished on the basis of the laws of gravity and thermohydraulics alone, interacting with the heat extraction process in an intact or damaged primary circuit, without recourse to engineered safety systems that may fail or dependence on error-prone human intervention. Application of the PIUS principle to the pressurized water reactor involves a substantial redesign of the reactor and primary system but builds on established PWR technology where long-term operation is needed for verification.

  4. Corrosion problems in light water nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, W.E.

    1984-06-01

    The corrosion problems encountered during the author's career are reviewed. Attention is given to the development of Zircaloys and attendant factors that affect corrosion; the caustic and chloride stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of austenitic stainless steel steam generator tubing; the qualification of Inconel Alloy 600 for steam generator tubing and the subsequent corrosion problem of secondary side wastage, caustic SCC, pitting, intergranular attack, denting, and primary side SCC; and SCC in weld and furnace sensitized stainless steel piping and internals in boiling water reactor primary coolants. Also mentioned are corrosion of metallic uranium alloy fuels; corrosion of aluminum and niobium candidate fuel element claddings; crevice corrosion and seizing of stainless steel journal-sleeve combinations; SCC of precipitation hardened and martensitic stainless steels; low temperature SCC of welded austenitic stainless steels by chloride, fluoride, and sulfur oxy-anions; and corrosion problems experienced by condensers.

  5. Enhanced visible light activity of nano-titanium dioxide doped with multiple ions: Effect of crystal defects

    SciTech Connect

    Jaimy, Kanakkanmavudi B.; Ghosh, Swapankumar; Gopakumar Warrier, Krishna

    2012-12-15

    Titanium dioxide photocatalysts co-doped with iron(III) and lanthanum(III) have been prepared through a modified sol-gel method. Doping with Fe{sup 3+} resulted in a relatively lower anatase to rutile phase transformation temperature, while La{sup 3+} addition reduced the crystal growth and thus retarded the phase transformation of titania nanoparticles. The presence of Fe{sup 3+} ions shifted the absorption profile of titania to the longer wavelength side of the spectrum and enhanced the visible light activity. On the other hand, La{sup 3+} addition improved the optical absorption of titania nanoparticles. Both the dopants improved the life time of excitons by proper transferring and trapping of photoexcited charges. In the present work, considerable enhancement in photocatalytic activity under visible light was achieved through synergistic effect of optimum concentrations of the two dopants and associated crystal defects. - Graphical abstract: Photocatalytic activity studies indicate a synergistic effect of dopants and crystal defects leading to an enhanced photochemical activity. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An aqueous sol-gel synthesis of Fe{sup 3+} and La{sup 3+} co-doped TiO{sub 2} is being reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical and microstructural properties of titania were modified by co-doping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced activity of titania by the crystal defects is being reported.

  6. The Role of Crystalline Water in the Interaction of Excimer Laser Light with Brushite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawes, M. L.; Langford, S. C.; Dickinson, J. T.

    1998-03-01

    A number of minerals of environmental interest contain waters of hydration, sometimes called crystalline water. Hydrated crystals often show dramatic changes in optical properties as well as mechanical properties, both influencing the response of the material to radiation. From an analytic point of view, very little is known about the influence of hydration regarding laser desorption and ablation phenomena. We explore the interaction of excimer laser light (KrF 248 nm) with single crystal brushite (CaHPO_4.2H_2O), a model biomineral phosphate containing H_2O. We first show that defects dominate the interactions as revealed by high sensitivity detection of Ca^+ at low fluences and that this ion emission predicts ablation thresholds. The most probable ion energy, which occurs at 11 eV, is much higher than the incident photon energy of 5 eV. The ion intensities also display a highly nonlinear fluence dependence, typically 6-8th order, entirely consistent with ion emission models we have recently presented. We show that laser coupling can be enhanced several orders of magnitude by generation of defects, i.e., by mechanical treatment, heating, or exposure to electron beams and that the consequences of crystalline H_2O and HPO_4^2- decomposition play major and related roles in this defect production.

  7. Abalone water-soluble matrix for self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhenliang; Chen, Jingdi; Wang, Hailiang; Zhong, Shengnan; Hu, Yimin; Wang, Zhili; Zhang, Qiqing

    2016-10-01

    Enamel cannot heal by itself if damaged. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is main component of human enamel. Formation of enamel-like materials for healing enamel defects remains a challenge. In this paper, we successfully isolated the abalone water-soluble matrix (AWSM) with 1.53wt% the abalone water-soluble protein (AWSPro) and 2.04wt% the abalone water-soluble polysaccharide (AWSPs) from abandoned abalone shell, and self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects was successfully achieved in vitro. Based on X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), hot field emission scanning electron microscopy (HFESEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analysis, the results showed that the AWSM can efficiently induce remineralization of HAP. The enamel-like HAP was successfully achieved onto etched enamel's surface due to the presence of the AWSM. Moreover, the remineralized effect of eroded enamel was growing with the increase of the AWSM. This study provides a solution to the resource waste and environmental pollution caused by abandoned abalone shell, and we provides a new method for self-healing remineralization of enamel defects by AWSM and develops a novel dental material for potential clinical dentistry application. PMID:27287112

  8. Evaluation of 660 nm LED light irradiation on the strategies for treating experimental periodontal intrabony defects.

    PubMed

    Tao, Chih-Yun; Lee, Ning; Chang, Hao-Chieh; Yang, Connie; Yu, Xin-Hong; Chang, Po-Chun

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to investigate the therapeutic value of 660 nm light-emitting diode (LED) light irradiation on the strategies for treating experimental periodontal intrabony defects in vivo. Large-sized periodontal intrabony defects were created bilaterally on the mesial aspect of the maxillary second molars of 48 Sprague-Dawley rats, and the rats were equally divided into four treatment groups with primary wound intention (n = 6/treatment/time point), including open flap debridement alone (OD), barrier membrane alone (MB), xenograft alone (BG), and xenograft plus barrier membrane (MG). Each group received daily 0 or 10 J/cm(2) LED light irradiation. The animals were sacrificed after 1 or 4 weeks. The treatment outcome was evaluated by gross observation of wound dehiscence and healing, micro-CT imaging for osteogenesis, and histological assessments for inflammatory cell infiltration and periodontal reattachment. With LED light irradiation, the extent of wound dehiscence was reduced, wound closure was accelerated, epithelial downgrowth was prevented, inflammation was reduced, and periodontal reattachment was promoted in all treatment strategies. Significant reduction of inflammation with LED light irradiation was noted at 1 week in the groups BG and MG (p < 0.05). Osteogenesis was significantly promoted only in the group OD at both time points (p < 0.05). Our study showed that 660 nm LED light accelerates mucoperiosteal flap healing and periodontal reattachment. However, the enhancement of osteogenesis appeared to be limited while simultaneously treating with a barrier membrane or xenograft. PMID:27184157

  9. Carrier-induced transient defect mechanism for non-radiative recombination in InGaN light-emitting devices

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bang, Junhyeok; Sun, Y. Y.; Song, Jung -Hoon; Zhang, S. B.

    2016-04-14

    Non-radiative recombination (NRR) of excited carriers poses a serious challenge to optoelectronic device efficiency. Understanding the mechanism is thus crucial to defect physics and technological applications. Here, by using first-principles calculations, we propose a new NRR mechanism, where excited carriers recombine via a Frenkel-pair (FP) defect formation. While in the ground state the FP is high in energy and is unlikely to form, in the electronic excited states its formation is enabled by a strong electron-phonon coupling of the excited carriers. As a result, this NRR mechanism is expected to be general for wide-gap semiconductors, rather than being limited tomore » InGaN-based light emitting devices.« less

  10. Carrier-induced transient defect mechanism for non-radiative recombination in InGaN light-emitting devices

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Junhyeok; Sun, Y. Y.; Song, Jung-Hoon; Zhang, S. B.

    2016-01-01

    Non-radiative recombination (NRR) of excited carriers poses a serious challenge to optoelectronic device efficiency. Understanding the mechanism is thus crucial to defect physics and technological applications. Here, by using first-principles calculations, we propose a new NRR mechanism, where excited carriers recombine via a Frenkel-pair (FP) defect formation. While in the ground state the FP is high in energy and is unlikely to form, in the electronic excited states its formation is enabled by a strong electron-phonon coupling of the excited carriers. This NRR mechanism is expected to be general for wide-gap semiconductors, rather than being limited to InGaN-based light emitting devices. PMID:27075818

  11. Effect of chip and bonding defects on the junction temperatures of high-brightness light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton E., Jr.

    2005-11-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are a strong candidate for the next-generation general illumination applications. LEDs are making great strides in brightness performance and reliability; however, the barrier to widespread use in general illumination still remains the cost (dollars per lumen). LED packaging designers are pushing the LED performance to its limits. This is resulting in increased drive currents and thus the need for lower-thermal-resistance packaging. The efficiency and reliability of solid-state lighting devices strongly depends on successful thermal management, because the junction temperature of the chip is the prime driver for effective operation. As the power density continues to increase, the integrity of the package electrical and thermal interconnects becomes extremely important. Experimental results with high-brightness LED packages show that chip attachment defects can cause significant thermal gradients across the LED chips, leading to premature failures. Perfect chip and interconnect structures for highly conductive substrates showed only a 2 K temperature variation over a chip area of approximately 1 mm2, while defective chips experienced greater than 40 K temperature variations over an identical area. A further numerical study was also carried out with parametric finite-element models to understand the temperature profile variation of the chip active layer due to the bump defects. Finite-element models were utilized to evaluate the effects of hot spots in the chip active layer. The importance of zero defects in one of the more popular interconnect schemes--the epi-down soldered flip-chip configuration--is investigated and demonstrated.

  12. Residual life assessment of major light water reactor components: Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, V.N.; MacDonald, P.E.; Amar, A.S.; Bakr, M.H.; Beaudoin, B.F.; Buescher, B.J.; Conley, D.A.; Drahos, F.R.; Gardner, J.B.; Garner, R.W.; Kirkwood, B.J.; Meyer, L.C.; Server, W.L.; Shah, V.N.; Siegel, E.A.; Sinha, U.P.; Ware, A.G. )

    1989-11-01

    This report presents an assessment of the aging (time-dependent degradation) of selected major light water reactor components and structures. The stressors, possible degradation sites and mechanisms, potential failure modes, and current inservice inspection requirements are discussed for eleven major light water reactor components: reactor coolant pumps, pressurized water reactor (PWR) pressurizers, PWR pressurizer surge and spray lines, PWR reactor coolant system charging and safety injection nozzles, PWR feedwater lines, PWR control rod drive mechanisms and reactor internals, boiling water reactor (BWR) containments, BWR feedwater and main steam lines, BWR control rod drive mechanisms and reactor internals, electrical cables and connections, and emergency diesel generators. Unresolved technical issues related to understanding and managing the aging of these major components are identified. 575 refs., 148 figs., 96 tabs.

  13. Solvated ions as defects in liquid water: A first-principles perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwegler, Eric; Pham, Tuan Anh; Govoni, Marco; Galli, Giulia

    Understanding the electronic properties of solvated ions is crucial in order to control and engineer aqueous electrolytes for a wide variety of emerging energy and environmental technologies, including photocatalytic water splitting. In this talk, we present a strategy to evaluate electronic energy levels of simple solvated ions in aqueous solutions, using a combination of first-principles molecular dynamics simulations and many-body perturbation theory within the GW approximation. We considered CO32- , HCO3-,NO3-,NO2-ions and we show that by analogy to defects in semiconductors, these solvated ions may be classified as deep or shallow defects in liquid water. In particular CO32- and NO2-ions behave as shallow defects, while HCO3-and NO3-as deep ones. We also show that the inclusion of many-body corrections constitutes significant improvement over conventional density functional theory calculations, yielding satisfactory agreement with photoemission experiments. Part of this work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy at the LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. T.A.P acknowledge the support from the Lawrence Fellowship. Part of this work was supported by LDRD at ANL.

  14. Light-driven water oxidation for solar fuels

    PubMed Central

    Young, Karin J.; Martini, Lauren A.; Milot, Rebecca L.; III, Robert C. Snoeberger; Batista, Victor S.; Schmuttenmaer, Charles A.; Crabtree, Robert H.; Brudvig, Gary W.

    2014-01-01

    Light-driven water oxidation is an essential step for conversion of sunlight into storable chemical fuels. Fujishima and Honda reported the first example of photoelectrochemical water oxidation in 1972. In their system, TiO2 was irradiated with ultraviolet light, producing oxygen at the anode and hydrogen at a platinum cathode. Inspired by this system, more recent work has focused on functionalizing nanoporous TiO2 or other semiconductor surfaces with molecular adsorbates, including chromophores and catalysts that absorb visible light and generate electricity (i.e., dye-sensitized solar cells) or trigger water oxidation at low overpotentials (i.e., photocatalytic cells). The physics involved in harnessing multiple photochemical events for multielectron reactions, as required in the four-electron water oxidation process, has been the subject of much experimental and computational study. In spite of significant advances with regard to individual components, the development of highly efficient photocatalytic cells for solar water splitting remains an outstanding challenge. This article reviews recent progress in the field with emphasis on water-oxidation photoanodes inspired by the design of functionalized thin film semiconductors of typical dye-sensitized solar cells. PMID:25364029

  15. Patterns and properties of polarized light in air and water

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, Thomas W.; Marshall, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Natural sources of light are at best weakly polarized, but polarization of light is common in natural scenes in the atmosphere, on the surface of the Earth, and underwater. We review the current state of knowledge concerning how polarization and polarization patterns are formed in nature, emphasizing linearly polarized light. Scattering of sunlight or moonlight in the sky often forms a strongly polarized, stable and predictable pattern used by many animals for orientation and navigation throughout the day, at twilight, and on moonlit nights. By contrast, polarization of light in water, while visible in most directions of view, is generally much weaker. In air, the surfaces of natural objects often reflect partially polarized light, but such reflections are rarer underwater, and multiple-path scattering degrades such polarization within metres. Because polarization in both air and water is produced by scattering, visibility through such media can be enhanced using straightforward polarization-based methods of image recovery, and some living visual systems may use similar methods to improve vision in haze or underwater. Although circularly polarized light is rare in nature, it is produced by the surfaces of some animals, where it may be used in specialized systems of communication. PMID:21282165

  16. Simulation of external contamination into water distribution systems through defects in pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, P. A.; Mora, J. J.; García, F. J.; López, G.

    2009-04-01

    Water quality can be defined as a set of properties (physical, biological and chemical) that determine its suitability for human use or for its role in the biosphere. In this contribution we focus on the possible impact on water distribution systems quality of external contaminant fluids entering through defects in pipes. The physical integrity of the distribution system is a primary barrier against the entry of external contaminants and the loss in quality of the treated drinking water, but this integrity can be broken. Deficiencies in physical and hydraulic integrity can lead into water losses, but also into the influx of contaminants through pipes walls, either through breaks coming from external subsoil waters, or via cross connections coming from sewerage or other facilities. These external contamination events (the so called pathogen intrusion phenomenon) can act as a source of income by introducing nutrients and sediments as well as decreasing disinfectant concentrations within the distribution system, thus resulting in a degradation of the distribution water quality. The objective of this contribution is to represent this pathogen intrusion phenomenon. The combination of presence of defects in the infrastructures (equipment failure), suppression and back-siphonage and lack of disinfection is the cause of propagation of contamination in the clean current of water. Intrusion of pathogenic microorganisms has been studied and registered even in well maintained services. Therefore, this situation can happen when negative pressure conditions are achieved in the systems combined with the presence of defects in pipes nearby the suppression. A simulation of the process by which the external fluids can come inside pipes across their defects in a steady-state situation will be considered, by using different techniques to get such a successful modeling, combining numerical and experimental simulations. The proposed modeling process is based on experimental and

  17. Simulation of external contamination into water distribution systems through defects in pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, P. A.; Mora, J. J.; García, F. J.; López, G.

    2009-04-01

    Water quality can be defined as a set of properties (physical, biological and chemical) that determine its suitability for human use or for its role in the biosphere. In this contribution we focus on the possible impact on water distribution systems quality of external contaminant fluids entering through defects in pipes. The physical integrity of the distribution system is a primary barrier against the entry of external contaminants and the loss in quality of the treated drinking water, but this integrity can be broken. Deficiencies in physical and hydraulic integrity can lead into water losses, but also into the influx of contaminants through pipes walls, either through breaks coming from external subsoil waters, or via cross connections coming from sewerage or other facilities. These external contamination events (the so called pathogen intrusion phenomenon) can act as a source of income by introducing nutrients and sediments as well as decreasing disinfectant concentrations within the distribution system, thus resulting in a degradation of the distribution water quality. The objective of this contribution is to represent this pathogen intrusion phenomenon. The combination of presence of defects in the infrastructures (equipment failure), suppression and back-siphonage and lack of disinfection is the cause of propagation of contamination in the clean current of water. Intrusion of pathogenic microorganisms has been studied and registered even in well maintained services. Therefore, this situation can happen when negative pressure conditions are achieved in the systems combined with the presence of defects in pipes nearby the suppression. A simulation of the process by which the external fluids can come inside pipes across their defects in a steady-state situation will be considered, by using different techniques to get such a successful modeling, combining numerical and experimental simulations. The proposed modeling process is based on experimental and

  18. Light Effect on Water Viscosity: Implication for ATP Biosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, Andrei P.; Haddad, Mike Kh.; Fecht, Hans-Jörg

    2015-07-01

    Previous work assumed that ATP synthase, the smallest known rotary motor in nature, operates at 100% efficiency. Calculations which arrive to this result assume that the water viscosity inside mitochondria is constant and corresponds to that of bulk water. In our opinion this assumption is not satisfactory for two reasons: (1) There is evidence that the water in mitochondria prevails to 100% as interfacial water. (2) Laboratory experiments which explore the properties of interfacial water suggest viscosities which exceed those of bulk water, specifically at hydrophilic interfaces. Here, we wish to suggest a physicochemical mechanism which assumes intramitochondrial water viscosity gradients and consistently explains two cellular responses: The decrease and increase in ATP synthesis in response to reactive oxygen species and non-destructive levels of near-infrared (NIR) laser light, respectively. The mechanism is derived from the results of a new experimental method, which combines the technique of nanoindentation with the modulation of interfacial water layers by laser irradiation. Results, including the elucidation of the principle of light-induced ATP production, are expected to have broad implications in all fields of medicine.

  19. Light Effect on Water Viscosity: Implication for ATP Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Andrei P.; Haddad, Mike Kh.; Fecht, Hans-Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Previous work assumed that ATP synthase, the smallest known rotary motor in nature, operates at 100% efficiency. Calculations which arrive to this result assume that the water viscosity inside mitochondria is constant and corresponds to that of bulk water. In our opinion this assumption is not satisfactory for two reasons: (1) There is evidence that the water in mitochondria prevails to 100% as interfacial water. (2) Laboratory experiments which explore the properties of interfacial water suggest viscosities which exceed those of bulk water, specifically at hydrophilic interfaces. Here, we wish to suggest a physicochemical mechanism which assumes intramitochondrial water viscosity gradients and consistently explains two cellular responses: The decrease and increase in ATP synthesis in response to reactive oxygen species and non-destructive levels of near-infrared (NIR) laser light, respectively. The mechanism is derived from the results of a new experimental method, which combines the technique of nanoindentation with the modulation of interfacial water layers by laser irradiation. Results, including the elucidation of the principle of light-induced ATP production, are expected to have broad implications in all fields of medicine. PMID:26154113

  20. 46 CFR 169.549 - Ring lifebuoys and water lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ring lifebuoys and water lights. 169.549 Section 169.549 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Additional Lifesaving Equipment § 169.549 Ring lifebuoys and...

  1. 46 CFR 169.549 - Ring lifebuoys and water lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ring lifebuoys and water lights. 169.549 Section 169.549 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Additional Lifesaving Equipment § 169.549 Ring lifebuoys and...

  2. Risk management and decision rules for light water reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Griesmeyer, J. M.; Okrent, D.

    1981-01-01

    The process of developing and adopting safety objectives in quantitative terms can provide a basis for focusing societal decision making on the suitability of such objectives and upon questions of compliance with those objectives. A preliminary proposal for a light water reactor (LWR) risk management framework is presented as part of that process.

  3. Nanostructure of Metallic Particles in Light Water Reactor Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, Edgar C.; Mausolf, Edward J.; Mcnamara, Bruce K.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2015-03-11

    The extraordinary nano-structure of metallic particles in light water reactor fuels points to possible high reactivity through increased surface area and a high concentration of high energy defect sites. We have analyzed the metallic epsilon particles from a high burn-up fuel from a boiling water reactor using transmission electron microscopy and have observed a much finer nanostructure in these particles than has been reported previously. The individual round particles that varying in size between ~20 and ~50 nm appear to consist of individual crystallites on the order of 2-3 nm in diameter. It is likely that in-reactor irradiation induce displacement cascades results in the formation of the nano-structure. The composition of these metallic phases is variable yet the structure of the material is consistent with the hexagonal close packed structure of epsilon-ruthenium. These findings suggest that unusual catalytic behavior of these materials might be expected, particularly under accident conditions.

  4. Confined Water Dissociation in Microporous Defective Silicates: Mechanism, Dipole Distribution, and Impact on Substrate Properties.

    SciTech Connect

    Manzano, Hegoi; Moeini, Sina; Marinelli, Francis; Van Duin, Adri C. T.; Ulm, Franz-Josef; Pellenq, Roland J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Interest in microporous materials has risen in recent years, as they offer a confined environment that is optimal to enhance chemical reactions. Calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel, the main component of cement, presents a layered structure with sub-nanometer-size disordered pores filled with water and cations. The size of the pores and the hydrophilicity of the environment make C-S-H gel an excellent system to study the possibility of confined water reactions. To investigate it, we have performed molecular dynamics simulations using the ReaxFF force field. The results show that water does dissociate to form hydroxyl groups. We have analyzed the water dissociation mechanism, as well as the changes in the structure and water affinity of the C-S-H matrix and water polarization, comparing the results with the behavior of water in a defective zeolite. Finally, we establish a relationship between water dissociation in C-S-H gel and the increase of hardness due to a transformation from a two- to a three-dimensional structure.

  5. Simultaneous sensing of light and sound velocities of fluids in a two-dimensional phoXonic crystal with defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoudache, Samira; Pennec, Yan; Djafari Rouhani, Bahram; Khater, Antoine; Lucklum, Ralf; Tigrine, Rachid

    2014-04-01

    We theoretically investigate the potentiality of dual phononic-photonic (the so-called phoxonic) crystals for liquid sensing applications. We study the transmission through a two-dimensional (2D) crystal made of infinite cylindrical holes in a silicon substrate, where one row of holes oriented perpendicular to the propagation direction is filled with a liquid. The infiltrated holes may have a different radius than the regular holes. We show, in the defect structure, the existence of well-defined features (peaks or dips) in the transmission spectra of acoustic and optical waves and estimate their sensitivity to the sound and light velocity of the analyte. Some of the geometrical requirements behave in opposite directions when searching for an efficient sensing of either sound or light velocities. Hence, a compromise in the choice of the parameters may become necessary in making the phoxonic sensor.

  6. Simultaneous sensing of light and sound velocities of fluids in a two-dimensional phoXonic crystal with defects

    SciTech Connect

    Amoudache, Samira; Pennec, Yan Djafari Rouhani, Bahram; Khater, Antoine; Lucklum, Ralf; Tigrine, Rachid

    2014-04-07

    We theoretically investigate the potentiality of dual phononic-photonic (the so-called phoxonic) crystals for liquid sensing applications. We study the transmission through a two-dimensional (2D) crystal made of infinite cylindrical holes in a silicon substrate, where one row of holes oriented perpendicular to the propagation direction is filled with a liquid. The infiltrated holes may have a different radius than the regular holes. We show, in the defect structure, the existence of well-defined features (peaks or dips) in the transmission spectra of acoustic and optical waves and estimate their sensitivity to the sound and light velocity of the analyte. Some of the geometrical requirements behave in opposite directions when searching for an efficient sensing of either sound or light velocities. Hence, a compromise in the choice of the parameters may become necessary in making the phoxonic sensor.

  7. Ray-tracing method to analyze and quantify the light enhancement around subsurface defects in transparent materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Rong; Zhao, Dongfeng; Zhang, Lei; Shao, Ping; Hua, Neng; Lin, Zunqi

    2014-11-01

    Laser-induced damage (LID) to optical glass has become a growing problem in high-power laser systems. It is well known that the main reason of glass being damaged is due to defects and impurities in the material. Damage caused by subsurface defects (SSDs) is especially common in actual system running. Accordingly, in the presence of SSDs, a simple and alternative calculation method is developed to evaluate the enhancement of light field around the incident and exit surface. This ray tracing approach, based on the classical optics theory, is very direct and clear to show the optical phenomena of light intensity enhancement. Some basic SSD shapes have been studied and investigated here, which reveals the importance and boundary condition of controlling the size and density of SSDs in grinding and polishing process. Finally, to achieve optimal breadth depth ratio, the least etching amounts by hydrofluoric (HF) acid is investigated. The theoretical analysis and simulation results provide an appropriate range of removal amounts, which is very important in the HF etching process.

  8. Oxygen related recombination defects in Ta3N5 water splitting photoanode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Gao; Yan, Shicheng; Yu, Tao; Zou, Zhigang

    2015-10-01

    A key route to improving the performance of Ta3N5 photoelectrochemical film devices in solar driving water splitting to hydrogen is to understand the nature of the serious recombination of photo-generated carriers. Here, by using the temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectrum, we confirmed that for the Ta3N5 films prepared by nitriding Ta2O5 precursor, one PL peak at 561 nm originates from deep-level defects recombination of the oxygen-enriched Ta3N5 phases, and another one at 580 nm can be assigned to band recombination of Ta3N5 itself. Both of the two bulk recombination processes may decrease the photoelectrochemical performance of Ta3N5. It was difficult to remove the oxygen-enriched impurities in Ta3N5 films by increasing the nitriding temperatures due to their high thermodynamically stability. In addition, a broadening PL peak between 600 and 850 nm resulting from oxygen related surface defects was observed by the low-temperature PL measurement, which may induce the surface recombination of photo-generated carriers and can be removed by increasing the nitridation temperature. Our results provided direct experimental evidence to understand the effect of oxygen-related crystal defects in Ta3N5 films on its photoelectric performance.

  9. The role of defects in light induced domain inversion in lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandmann, Christian; Dierolf, Volkmar

    2005-01-01

    Using the tightly focussed laser beam within a confocal luminescence microscope we were able to induce electric space charge fields through photoionization of trace defects in lithium niobate. These fields are sufficient to selectively induce domain inversion when a additional external field is applied that is below the regular coercive field. Once a domain is nucleated it grows laterally in a direction that can be dictated by the laser. We studied the presence and the range of the space charge fields utilizing the electro-optical effect and the Stark shifts observed in emission spectra of Er3+ ions.

  10. In situ measurement of inelastic light scattering in natural waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chuanmin

    Variation in the shape of solar absorption (Fraunhofer) lines are used to study the inelastic scattering in natural waters. In addition, oxygen absorption lines near 689nm are used to study the solar stimulated chlorophyll fluorescence. The prototype Oceanic Fraunhofer Line Discriminator (OFLD) has been further developed and improved by using a well protected fiber optic - wire conductor cable and underwater electronic housing. A Monte-Carlo code and a simple code have been modified to simulate the Raman scattering, DOM fluorescence and chlorophyll fluorescence. A series of in situ measurements have been conducted in clear ocean waters in the Florida Straits, in the turbid waters of Florida Bay, and in the vicinity of a coral reef in the Dry Tortugas. By comparing the reduced data with the model simulation results, the Raman scattering coefficient, b r with an excitation wavelength at 488nm, has been verified to be 2.6 × 10-4m-1 (Marshall and Smith, 1990), as opposed to 14.4 × 10- 4m-1 (Slusher and Derr, 1975). The wavelength dependence of b r cannot be accurately determined from the data set as the reported values (λ m-4 to λ m- 5) have an insignificant effect in the natural underwater light field. Generally, in clear water, the percentage of inelastic scattered light in the total light field at /lambda < 510nm is negligible for the whole water column, and this percentage increases with depth at /lambda > 510nm. At low concentrations (a y(/lambda = 380nm) less than 0.1m-1), DOM fluorescence plays a small role in the inelastic light field. However, chlorophyll fluorescence is much stronger than Raman scattering at 685nm. In shallow waters where a sea bottom affects the ambient light field, inelastic light is negligible for the whole visible band. Since Raman scattering is now well characterized, the new OFLD can be used to measure the solar stimulated in situ fluorescence. As a result, the fluorescence signals of various bottom surfaces, from coral to

  11. Defects in leaf carbohydrate metabolism compromise acclimation to high light and lead to a high chlorophyll fluorescence phenotype in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We have studied the impact of carbohydrate-starvation on the acclimation response to high light using Arabidopsis thaliana double mutants strongly impaired in the day- and night path of photoassimilate export from the chloroplast. A complete knock-out mutant of the triose phosphate/phosphate translocator (TPT; tpt-2 mutant) was crossed to mutants defective in (i) starch biosynthesis (adg1-1, pgm1 and pgi1-1; knock-outs of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, plastidial phosphoglucomutase and phosphoglucose isomerase) or (ii) starch mobilization (sex1-3, knock-out of glucan water dikinase) as well as in (iii) maltose export from the chloroplast (mex1-2). Results All double mutants were viable and indistinguishable from the wild type when grown under low light conditions, but - except for sex1-3/tpt-2 - developed a high chlorophyll fluorescence (HCF) phenotype and growth retardation when grown in high light. Immunoblots of thylakoid proteins, Blue-Native gel electrophoresis and chlorophyll fluorescence emission analyses at 77 Kelvin with the adg1-1/tpt-2 double mutant revealed that HCF was linked to a specific decrease in plastome-encoded core proteins of both photosystems (with the exception of the PSII component cytochrome b559), whereas nuclear-encoded antennae (LHCs) accumulated normally, but were predominantly not attached to their photosystems. Uncoupled antennae are the major cause for HCF of dark-adapted plants. Feeding of sucrose or glucose to high light-grown adg1-1/tpt-2 plants rescued the HCF- and growth phenotypes. Elevated sugar levels induce the expression of the glucose-6-phosphate/phosphate translocator2 (GPT2), which in principle could compensate for the deficiency in the TPT. A triple mutant with an additional defect in GPT2 (adg1-1/tpt-2/gpt2-1) exhibited an identical rescue of the HCF- and growth phenotype in response to sugar feeding as the adg1-1/tpt-2 double mutant, indicating that this rescue is independent from the sugar

  12. Insights from stable light isotopes on enamel defects and weaning in Pliocene herbivores.

    PubMed

    Franz-Odendaal, Tamara A; Lee-Thorp, Julia A; Chinsamy, Anusuya

    2003-12-01

    A high prevalence of enamel hypoplasia in several herbivores from the early Pliocene Langebaanweg locality, South Africa, indicates general systemic stress during the growing years of life. The presence of several linear enamel hypoplasias per tooth crown in many teeth further suggest that these stress events may be episodic. The delta18O values along tooth crowns of mandibular second molars of Sivatherium hendeyi (Artiodactyla, Giraffidae) were used to investigate the cause of the stress events in this tooth type. Results show that weaning in this fossil giraffid occurred at a similar ontogenetic age to that in extant giraffes, and that the observed enamel hypoplasia towards the base of this tooth type manifested post-weaning. Further, high-resolution oxygen isotope analyses across S. hendeyi third molars suggest that the entire development of defective tooth crowns occurred under conditions of increased aridity in which the cool, rainy part of the seasonal cycle was missing. The high prevalence of this defect in many herbivores suggests that climatic conditions were not favourable. This study reiterates the value of stable isotope analyses in determining both the behaviour of fossil animals and the environmental conditions that prevailed during tooth development. PMID:14660876

  13. Light Enhanced Hydrofluoric Acid Passivation: A Sensitive Technique for Detecting Bulk Silicon Defects.

    PubMed

    Grant, Nicholas E

    2016-01-01

    A procedure to measure the bulk lifetime (>100 µsec) of silicon wafers by temporarily attaining a very high level of surface passivation when immersing the wafers in hydrofluoric acid (HF) is presented. By this procedure three critical steps are required to attain the bulk lifetime. Firstly, prior to immersing silicon wafers into HF, they are chemically cleaned and subsequently etched in 25% tetramethylammonium hydroxide. Secondly, the chemically treated wafers are then placed into a large plastic container filled with a mixture of HF and hydrochloric acid, and then centered over an inductive coil for photoconductance (PC) measurements. Thirdly, to inhibit surface recombination and measure the bulk lifetime, the wafers are illuminated at 0.2 suns for 1 min using a halogen lamp, the illumination is switched off, and a PC measurement is immediately taken. By this procedure, the characteristics of bulk silicon defects can be accurately determined. Furthermore, it is anticipated that a sensitive RT surface passivation technique will be imperative for examining bulk silicon defects when their concentration is low (<10(12) cm(-3)). PMID:26779939

  14. Assessment of light water reactor accident management programs and experience

    SciTech Connect

    Hammersley, R.J.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this report is to provide an assessment of the current light water reactor experience regarding accident management programs and associated technology developments. This assessment for light water reactor (LWR) designs is provided as a resource and reference for the development of accident management capabilities for the production reactors at the Savannah River Site. The specific objectives of this assessment are as follows: 1. Perform a review of the NRC, utility, and industry (NUMARC, EPRI) accident management programs and implementation experience. 2. Provide an assessment of the problems and opportunities in developing an accident management program in conjunction or following the Individual Plant Examination process. 3. Review current NRC, utility, and industry technological developments in the areas of computational tools, severe accident predictive tools, diagnostic aids, and severe accident training and simulation.

  15. Developmental defects of enamel in children of Davangere District and their relationship to fluoride levels in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Gayathri; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Raghunath, Vandana; Manohar, Ram

    2011-05-01

    To assess the prevalence and severity of developmental defects and their relationship to fluoride levels in drinking water. 739 (406 male and 333 female) schoolchildren aged 13 years formed the study population. We used the ion selective electrode method to estimate the fluoride concentration in drinking water. A modified developmental defects of enamel index was used for recording the developmental defects. The Karl Pearson coefficient for correlation and the chi-square test were used for statistical estimation. The fluoride concentration ranged from 0.64 to 2.64 ppm. The prevalence of developmental defects was 88.5%. The most common type of defect was diffuse opacity in 61.2% of the children. There was a significant positive correlation between the type (r=0.85; P<.001) and extent (r=0.92; P<.001) of developmental defects in relation to fluoride levels in drinking water. The observed prevalence demonstrates the need to ascertain factors other than fluoride levels in drinking water that could contribute to its occurrence. PMID:19625325

  16. Analysis and calculation of electronic properties and light absorption of defective sulfur-doped silicon and theoretical photoelectric conversion efficiency.

    PubMed

    Jiang, He; Chen, Changshui

    2015-04-23

    Most material properties can be traced to electronic structures. Black silicon produced from SF6 or sulfur powder via irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses displays decreased infrared absorption after annealing, with almost no corresponding change in visible light absorption. The high-intensity laser pulses destroy the original crystal structure, and the doping element changes the material performance. In this work, the structural and electronic properties of several sulfur-doped silicon systems are investigated using first principle calculations. Depending on the sulfur concentration (level of doping) and the behavior of the sulfur atoms in the silicon lattice, different states or an absence of states are exhibited, compared with the undoped system. Moreover, the visible-infrared light absorption intensities are structure specific. The results of our theoretical calculations show that the conversion efficiency of sulfur-doped silicon solar cells depends on the sulfur concentrations. Additionally, two types of defect configurations exhibit light absorption characteristics that differ from the other configurations. These two structures produce a rapid increase in the theoretical photoelectric conversion efficiency in the range of the specific chemical potential studied. By controlling the positions of the atomic sulfur and the sulfur concentration in the preparation process, an efficient photovoltaic (PV) material may be obtainable. PMID:25798659

  17. Second harmonic light scattering induced by defects in the twist-bend nematic phase of liquid crystal dimers.

    PubMed

    Pardaev, Shokir A; Shamid, S M; Tamba, M G; Welch, C; Mehl, G H; Gleeson, J T; Allender, D W; Selinger, J V; Ellman, B; Jakli, A; Sprunt, S

    2016-05-11

    The nematic twist-bend (NTB) phase, exhibited by certain thermotropic liquid crystalline (LC) dimers, represents a new orientationally ordered mesophase - the first distinct nematic variant discovered in many years. The NTB phase is distinguished by a heliconical winding of the average molecular long axis (director) with a remarkably short (nanoscale) pitch and, in systems of achiral dimers, with an equal probability to form right- and left-handed domains. The NTB structure thus provides another fascinating example of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in nature. The order parameter driving the formation of the heliconical state has been theoretically conjectured to be a polarization field, deriving from the bent conformation of the dimers, that rotates helically with the same nanoscale pitch as the director field. It therefore presents a significant challenge for experimental detection. Here we report a second harmonic light scattering (SHLS) study on two achiral, NTB-forming LCs, which is sensitive to the polarization field due to micron-scale distortion of the helical structure associated with naturally-occurring textural defects. These defects are parabolic focal conics of smectic-like "pseudo-layers", defined by planes of equivalent phase in a coarse-grained description of the NTB state. Our SHLS data are explained by a coarse-grained free energy density that combines a Landau-deGennes expansion of the polarization field, the elastic energy of a nematic, and a linear coupling between the two. PMID:27089236

  18. Efficient Gate-tunable light-emitting device made of defective boron nitride nanotubes: from ultraviolet to the visible

    PubMed Central

    Attaccalite, Claudio; Wirtz, Ludger; Marini, Andrea; Rubio, Angel

    2013-01-01

    Boron nitride is a promising material for nanotechnology applications due to its two-dimensional graphene-like, insulating, and highly-resistant structure. Recently it has received a lot of attention as a substrate to grow and isolate graphene as well as for its intrinsic UV lasing response. Similar to carbon, one-dimensional boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) have been theoretically predicted and later synthesised. Here we use first principles simulations to unambiguously demonstrate that i) BN nanotubes inherit the highly efficient UV luminescence of hexagonal BN; ii) the application of an external perpendicular field closes the electronic gap keeping the UV lasing with lower yield; iii) defects in BNNTS are responsible for tunable light emission from the UV to the visible controlled by a transverse electric field (TEF). Our present findings pave the road towards optoelectronic applications of BN-nanotube-based devices that are simple to implement because they do not require any special doping or complex growth. PMID:24060843

  19. Water nitrates and CNS birth defects: a population-based case-control study

    SciTech Connect

    Arbuckle, T.E.; Sherman, G.J.; Corey, P.N.; Walters, D.; Lo, B.

    1988-03-01

    The relation between maternal exposure to nitrates in drinking water and risk of delivering an infant with a central nervous system (CNS) malformation was examined by means of a case-control study in New Brunswick, Canada. All cases of CNS defects for a high and a low prevalence area of New Brunswick, for the years 1973-1983, were included in the study. Controls were selected randomly from the livebirth files for the province, matched on county of maternal residence and date of birth. One hundred and thirty (130) cases were identified and individually matched with two controls each. Individual water samples were collected from the case and control mother's address given on the birth or stillbirth records. The study revealed that the effect of nitrate exposure in water was modified by whether the source of the drinking water was a private well or a public municipal distribution system. Compared to a baseline nitrate level of 0.1 ppm, exposure to nitrate levels of 26 ppm from private well water sources was associated with a moderate, but not statistically significant, increase in risk (risk odds ratio = 2.30; 95% confidence interval = 0.73-7.29). If the source of drinking water was a municipal distribution system or a private spring, an increase in nitrate exposure was associated with a decrease in risk of delivering a CNS-malformed infant; however, these effect estimates were not statistically significant. The positive increase in risk with nitrate exposure from well water sources requires further study using a larger case series and a larger proportion of exposures to nitrate levels exceeding 5 ppm.

  20. Oxygen related recombination defects in Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} water splitting photoanode

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Gao; Yu, Tao E-mail: yutao@nju.edu.cn; Zou, Zhigang; Yan, Shicheng E-mail: yutao@nju.edu.cn

    2015-10-26

    A key route to improving the performance of Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} photoelectrochemical film devices in solar driving water splitting to hydrogen is to understand the nature of the serious recombination of photo-generated carriers. Here, by using the temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectrum, we confirmed that for the Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} films prepared by nitriding Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} precursor, one PL peak at 561 nm originates from deep-level defects recombination of the oxygen-enriched Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} phases, and another one at 580 nm can be assigned to band recombination of Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} itself. Both of the two bulk recombination processes may decrease the photoelectrochemical performance of Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5}. It was difficult to remove the oxygen-enriched impurities in Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} films by increasing the nitriding temperatures due to their high thermodynamically stability. In addition, a broadening PL peak between 600 and 850 nm resulting from oxygen related surface defects was observed by the low-temperature PL measurement, which may induce the surface recombination of photo-generated carriers and can be removed by increasing the nitridation temperature. Our results provided direct experimental evidence to understand the effect of oxygen-related crystal defects in Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} films on its photoelectric performance.

  1. Fast atrazine photodegradation in water by pulsed light technology.

    PubMed

    Baranda, Ana Beatriz; Barranco, Alejandro; de Marañón, Iñigo Martínez

    2012-03-01

    Pulsed light technology consists of a successive repetition of short duration (325μs) and high power flashes emitted by xenon lamps. These flashlamps radiate a broadband emission light (approx. 200-1000 nm) with a considerable amount of light in the short-wave UV spectrum. In the present work, this technology was tested as a new tool for the degradation of the herbicide atrazine in water. To evaluate the presence and evolution with time of this herbicide, as well as the formation of derivatives, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (electrospray ionization) ion trap operating in positive mode was used. The degradation process followed first-order kinetics. Fluences about 1.8-2.3 J/cm(2) induced 50% reduction of atrazine concentration independently of its initial concentration in the range 1-1000 μg/L. Remaining concentrations of atrazine, below the current legal limit for pesticides, were achieved in a short period of time. While atrazine was degraded, no chlorinated photoproducts were formed and ten dehalogenated derivatives were detected. The molecular structures for some of these derivatives could be suggested, being hydroxyatrazine the main photoproduct identified. The different formation profiles of photoproducts suggested that the degradation pathway may include several successive and competitive steps, with subsequent degradation processes taking part from the already formed degradation products. According to the degradation efficiency, the short treatment time and the lack of chloroderivatives, this new technology could be considered as an alternative for water treatment. PMID:22153354

  2. Colloidal Defect-Free Silicalite-1 Single Crystals: Preparation, Structure Characterization, Adsorption, and Separation Properties for Alcohol/Water Mixtures.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Han; Mouzon, Johanne; Farzaneh, Amirfarrokh; Antzutkin, Oleg N; Grahn, Mattias; Hedlund, Jonas

    2015-08-01

    In this work, colloidal silicalite-1 single crystals are for the first time synthesized using fluoride as mineralizing agent at near neutral pH. SEM, TEM, DLS, XRD, solid-state (29)Si MAS NMR, and adsorption/desorption experiments using nitrogen, water, n-butanol, and ethanol as adsorbates were used to characterize the crystals. The single crystals have a platelike habit with a length of less than 170 nm and an aspect ratio (length/width) of about 1.2, and the thickness of the crystals is less than 40 nm. Compared with silicalite-1 crystals grown using hydroxide as mineralizing agent, the amount of structural defects in the lattice is significantly reduced and the hydrophobicity is increased. Membrane separation and adsorption results show that the synthesized defect-free crystals present high selectivity to alcohols from alcohol/water mixtures. The n-butanol/water adsorption selectivities were ca. 165 and 14 for the defect-free crystals and a reference sample containing defects, respectively, illustrating the improvement in n-butanol/water selectivity by eliminating the polar silanol defects. PMID:26161725

  3. Surface Modification and Planar Defects of Calcium Carbonates by Magnetic Water Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Powdery calcium carbonates, predominantly calcite and aragonite, with planar defects and cation–anion mixed surfaces as deposited on low-carbon steel by magnetic water treatment (MWT) were characterized by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and vibration spectroscopy. Calcite were found to form faceted nanoparticles having 3x () commensurate superstructure and with well-developed {} and {} surfaces to exhibit preferred orientations. Aragonite occurred as laths having 3x () commensurate superstructure and with well-developed () surface extending along [100] direction up to micrometers in length. The (hkil)-specific coalescence of calcite and rapid lath growth of aragonite under the combined effects of Lorentz force and a precondensation event account for a beneficial larger particulate/colony size for the removal of the carbonate scale from the steel substrate. The coexisting magnetite particles have well-developed {011} surfaces regardless of MWT. PMID:21170405

  4. Navigation by light polarization in clear and turbid waters

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, Amit; Sabbah, Shai; Erlick, Carynelisa; Shashar, Nadav

    2011-01-01

    Certain terrestrial animals use sky polarization for navigation. Certain aquatic species have also been shown to orient according to a polarization stimulus, but the correlation between underwater polarization and Sun position and hence the ability to use underwater polarization as a compass for navigation is still under debate. To examine this issue, we use theoretical equations for per cent polarization and electric vector (e-vector) orientation that account for the position of the Sun, refraction at the air–water interface and Rayleigh single scattering. The polarization patterns predicted by these theoretical equations are compared with measurements conducted in clear and semi-turbid coastal sea waters at 2 m and 5 m depth over sea floors of 6 m and 28 m depth. We find that the per cent polarization is correlated with the Sun's elevation only in clear waters. We furthermore find that the maximum value of the e-vector orientation angle equals the angle of refraction only in clear waters, in the horizontal viewing direction, over the deeper sea floor. We conclude that navigation by use of underwater polarization is possible under restricted conditions, i.e. in clear waters, primarily near the horizontal viewing direction, and in locations where the sea floor has limited effects on the light's polarization. PMID:21282170

  5. Water splitting on semiconductor catalysts under visible-light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Navarro Yerga, Rufino M; Alvarez Galván, M Consuelo; del Valle, F; Villoria de la Mano, José A; Fierro, José L G

    2009-01-01

    Sustainable hydrogen production is a key target for the development of alternative, future energy systems that will provide a clean and affordable energy supply. The Sun is a source of silent and precious energy that is distributed fairly all over the Earth daily. However, its tremendous potential as a clean, safe, and economical energy source cannot be exploited unless the energy is accumulated or converted into more useful forms. The conversion of solar energy into hydrogen via the water-splitting process, assisted by photo-semiconductor catalysts, is one of the most promising technologies for the future because large quantities of hydrogen can potentially be generated in a clean and sustainable manner. This Minireview provides an overview of the principles, approaches, and research progress on solar hydrogen production via the water-splitting reaction on photo-semiconductor catalysts. It presents a survey of the advances made over the last decades in the development of catalysts for photochemical water splitting under visible-light irradiation. The Minireview also analyzes the energy requirements and main factors that determine the activity of photocatalysts in the conversion of water into hydrogen and oxygen using sunlight. Remarkable progress has been made since the pioneering work by Fujishima and Honda in 1972, but he development of photocatalysts with improved efficiencies for hydrogen production from water using solar energy still faces major challenges. Research strategies and approaches adopted in the search for active and efficient photocatalysts, for example through new materials and synthesis methods, are presented and analyzed. PMID:19536754

  6. Introducing high-quality planar defects into colloidal crystals via self-assembly at the air/water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Kuo; Demeyer, Pieter-Jan; Zhou, Xingping; Kruglova, Olga; Verellen, Niels; Moshchalkov, Victor V.; Song, Kai; Clays, Koen

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate a facile method for fabrication of colloidal crystals containing a planar defect by using PS@SiO2 core-shell spheres as building blocks. A monolayer of solid spheres was embedded in core-shell colloidal crystals serving as the defect layer, which formed by means of self-assembly at the air/water interface. Compared with previous methods, this fabrication method results in pronounced passbands in the band gaps of the colloidal photonic crystal. The FWHM of the obtained passband is only ~16nm, which is narrower than the previously reported results. The influence of the defect layer thickness on the optical properties of these sandwiched structures was also investigated. No high-cost processes or specific equipment is needed in our approach. Inverse opals with planar defects can be obtained via calcination of the PS cores, without the need of infiltration. The experimental results are in good agreement with simulations performed using the FDTD method.

  7. Fuel Summary Report: Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor - Rev. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Gail Lynn; Mc Cardell, Richard Keith; Illum, Douglas Brent

    2002-09-01

    The Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) was developed by Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory to demonstrate the potential of a water-cooled, thorium oxide fuel cycle breeder reactor. The LWBR core operated from 1977-82 without major incident. The fuel and fuel components suffered minimal damage during operation, and the reactor testing was deemed successful. Extensive destructive and nondestructive postirradiation examinations confirmed that the fuel was in good condition with minimal amounts of cladding deformities and fuel pellet cracks. Fuel was placed in wet storage upon arrival at the Expended Core Facility, then dried and sent to the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center for underground dry storage. It is likely that the fuel remains in good condition at its current underground dry storage location at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. Reports show no indication of damage to the core associated with shipping, loading, or storage.

  8. Method of burning lightly loaded coal-water slurries

    DOEpatents

    Krishna, C.R.

    1984-07-27

    In a preferred arrangement of the method of the invention, a lightly loaded coal-water slurry, containing in the range of approximately 40% to 52% + 2% by weight coal, is atomized to strip water from coal particles in the mixture. Primary combustor air is forced around the atomized spray in a combustion chamber of a combustor to swirl the air in a helical path through the combustion chamber. A flame is established within the combustion chamber to ignite the stripped coal particles, and flame temperature regulating means are provided for maintaining the flame temperature within a desired predetermined range of temperatures that is effective to produce dry, essentially slag-free ash from the combustion process.

  9. The impact of trench defects in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes and implications for the “green gap” problem

    SciTech Connect

    Massabuau, F. C.-P. Oehler, F.; Pamenter, S. K.; Thrush, E. J.; Kappers, M. J.; Humphreys, C. J.; Oliver, R. A.; Davies, M. J.; Dawson, P.; Kovács, A.; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E.; Williams, T.; Etheridge, J.; Hopkins, M. A.; Allsopp, D. W. E.

    2014-09-15

    The impact of trench defects in blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) has been investigated. Two mechanisms responsible for the structural degradation of the multiple quantum well (MQW) active region were identified. It was found that during the growth of the p-type GaN capping layer, loss of part of the active region enclosed within a trench defect occurred, affecting the top-most QWs in the MQW stack. Indium platelets and voids were also found to form preferentially at the bottom of the MQW stack. The presence of high densities of trench defects in the LEDs was found to relate to a significant reduction in photoluminescence and electroluminescence emission efficiency, for a range of excitation power densities and drive currents. This reduction in emission efficiency was attributed to an increase in the density of non-radiative recombination centres within the MQW stack, believed to be associated with the stacking mismatch boundaries which form part of the sub-surface structure of the trench defects. Investigation of the surface of green-emitting QW structures found a two decade increase in the density of trench defects, compared to its blue-emitting counterpart, suggesting that the efficiency of green-emitting LEDs may be strongly affected by the presence of these defects. Our results are therefore consistent with a model that the “green gap” problem might relate to localized strain relaxation occurring through defects.

  10. Fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kassner, T.F.; Ruther, W.E.; Chung, H.M.; Hicks, P.D.; Hins, A.G.; Park, J.Y.; Shack, W.J.

    1991-12-01

    Fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking of piping, pressure vessels, and core components in light water reactors (LWRs) are important concerns as extended reactor lifetimes are envisaged. The degradation processes include intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of austenitic stainless steel (SS) piping in boiling water reactors (BWRs), and propagation of fatigue or SCC cracks (which initiate in sensitized SS cladding) into low-alloy ferritic steels in BWR pressure vessels. Similar cracking has also occurred in upper shell-to-transition cone girth welds in pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator vessels. Another concern is failure of reactor-core internal components after accumulation of relatively high fluence, which has occurred in both BWRs and PWRs. Research during the past year focused on (1) fatigue and SCC of ferritic steels used in piping and in steam generator and reactor pressure vessels, (2) role of chromate and sulfate in simulated BWR water in SCC of sensitized Type 304 SS, and (3) irradiation-assisted SCC in high- and commercial-purity Type 304 SS specimens from control-blade absorber tubes used in two operating BWRs. Failure after accumulation of relatively high fluence has been attributed to radiation-induced segregation (RIS) of elements such as Si, P, Ni, and Cr. This document provides a summary of research progress in these areas.

  11. Silicon carbide composite for light water reactor fuel assembly applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yueh, Ken; Terrani, Kurt A.

    2014-05-01

    The feasibility of using SiCf-SiCm composites in light water reactor (LWR) fuel designs was evaluated. The evaluation was motivated by the desire to improve fuel performance under normal and accident conditions. The Fukushima accident once again highlighted the need for improved fuel materials that can maintain fuel integrity to higher temperatures for longer periods of time. The review identified many benefits as well as issues in using the material. Issues perceived as presenting the biggest challenges to the concept were identified to be flux gradient induced differential volumetric swelling, fragmentation and thermal shock resistance. The oxidation of silicon and its release into the coolant as silica has been identified as an issue because existing plant systems have limited ability for its removal. Detailed evaluation using available literature data and testing as part of this evaluation effort have eliminated most of the major concerns. The evaluation identified Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) channel, BWR fuel water tube, and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) guide tube as feasible applications for SiC composite. A program has been initiated to resolve some of the remaining issues and to generate physical property data to support the design of commercial fuel components.

  12. Blue-light activated rapid polymerization for defect-free bulk Cu(i)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) crosslinked networks.

    PubMed

    Shete, Abhishek U; El-Zaatari, Bassil M; French, Jonathan M; Kloxin, Christopher J

    2016-08-18

    A visible-light (470 nm wavelength) sensitive Type II photoinitiator system is developed for bulk Cu(i)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reactions in crosslinked networks. The accelerated photopolymerization eliminates UV-mediated azide decomposition allowing for the formation of defect-free glassy networks which exhibit a narrow glass transition temperature. PMID:27499057

  13. Multi-Applications Small Light Water Reactor - NERI Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    S. Michale Modro; James E. Fisher; Kevan D. Weaver; Jose N. Reyes, Jr.; John T. Groome; Pierre Babka; Thomas M. Carlson

    2003-12-01

    The Multi-Application Small Light Water Reactor (MASLWR) project was conducted under the auspices of the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The primary project objectives were to develop the conceptual design for a safe and economic small, natural circulation light water reactor, to address the economic and safety attributes of the concept, and to demonstrate the technical feasibility by testing in an integral test facility. This report presents the results of the project. After an initial exploratory and evolutionary process, as documented in the October 2000 report, the project focused on developing a modular reactor design that consists of a self-contained assembly with a reactor vessel, steam generators, and containment. These modular units would be manufactured at a single centralized facility, transported by rail, road, and/or ship, and installed as a series of self-contained units. This approach also allows for staged construction of an NPP and ''pull and replace'' refueling and maintenance during each five-year refueling cycle.

  14. CASL: The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothe, Douglas B.

    2010-11-01

    Like the fusion community, the nuclear engineering community is embarking on a new computational effort to create integrated, multiphysics simulations. The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL), one of 3 newly-funded DOE Energy Innovation Hubs, brings together an exceptionally capable team that will apply existing modeling and simulation capabilities and develop advanced capabilities to create a usable environment for predictive simulation of light water reactors (LWRs). This environment, designated the Virtual Reactor (VR), will: 1) Enable the use of leadership-class computing for engineering design and analysis to improve reactor capabilities, 2) Promote an enhanced scientific basis and understanding by replacing empirically based design and analysis tools with predictive capabilities, 3) Develop a highly integrated multiphysics environment for engineering analysis through increased fidelity methods, and 4) Incorporate UQ as a basis for developing priorities and supporting, application of the VR tools for predictive simulation. In this presentation, we present the plans for CASL and comment on the similarity and differences with the proposed Fusion Simulation Project (FSP).

  15. Issues affecting advanced passive light-water reactor safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Beelman, R.J.; Fletcher, C.D.; Modro, S.M.

    1992-08-01

    Next generation commercial reactor designs emphasize enhanced safety through improved safety system reliability and performance by means of system simplification and reliance on immutable natural forces for system operation. Simulating the performance of these safety systems will be central to analytical safety evaluation of advanced passive reactor designs. Yet the characteristically small driving forces of these safety systems pose challenging computational problems to current thermal-hydraulic systems analysis codes. Additionally, the safety systems generally interact closely with one another, requiring accurate, integrated simulation of the nuclear steam supply system, engineered safeguards and containment. Furthermore, numerical safety analysis of these advanced passive reactor designs wig necessitate simulation of long-duration, slowly-developing transients compared with current reactor designs. The composite effects of small computational inaccuracies on induced system interactions and perturbations over long periods may well lead to predicted results which are significantly different than would otherwise be expected or might actually occur. Comparisons between the engineered safety features of competing US advanced light water reactor designs and analogous present day reactor designs are examined relative to the adequacy of existing thermal-hydraulic safety codes in predicting the mechanisms of passive safety. Areas where existing codes might require modification, extension or assessment relative to passive safety designs are identified. Conclusions concerning the applicability of these codes to advanced passive light water reactor safety analysis are presented.

  16. Issues affecting advanced passive light-water reactor safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Beelman, R.J.; Fletcher, C.D.; Modro, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    Next generation commercial reactor designs emphasize enhanced safety through improved safety system reliability and performance by means of system simplification and reliance on immutable natural forces for system operation. Simulating the performance of these safety systems will be central to analytical safety evaluation of advanced passive reactor designs. Yet the characteristically small driving forces of these safety systems pose challenging computational problems to current thermal-hydraulic systems analysis codes. Additionally, the safety systems generally interact closely with one another, requiring accurate, integrated simulation of the nuclear steam supply system, engineered safeguards and containment. Furthermore, numerical safety analysis of these advanced passive reactor designs wig necessitate simulation of long-duration, slowly-developing transients compared with current reactor designs. The composite effects of small computational inaccuracies on induced system interactions and perturbations over long periods may well lead to predicted results which are significantly different than would otherwise be expected or might actually occur. Comparisons between the engineered safety features of competing US advanced light water reactor designs and analogous present day reactor designs are examined relative to the adequacy of existing thermal-hydraulic safety codes in predicting the mechanisms of passive safety. Areas where existing codes might require modification, extension or assessment relative to passive safety designs are identified. Conclusions concerning the applicability of these codes to advanced passive light water reactor safety analysis are presented.

  17. Mechanical design of a light water breeder reactor

    DOEpatents

    Fauth, Jr., William L.; Jones, Daniel S.; Kolsun, George J.; Erbes, John G.; Brennan, John J.; Weissburg, James A.; Sharbaugh, John E.

    1976-01-01

    In a light water reactor system using the thorium-232 -- uranium-233 fuel system in a seed-blanket modular core configuration having the modules arranged in a symmetrical array surrounded by a reflector blanket region, the seed regions are disposed for a longitudinal movement between the fixed or stationary blanket region which surrounds each seed region. Control of the reactor is obtained by moving the inner seed region thus changing the geometry of the reactor, and thereby changing the leakage of neutrons from the relatively small seed region into the blanket region. The mechanical design of the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core includes means for axially positioning of movable fuel assemblies to achieve the neutron economy required of a breeder reactor, a structure necessary to adequately support the fuel modules without imposing penalties on the breeding capability, a structure necessary to support fuel rods in a closely packed array and a structure necessary to direct and control the flow of coolant to regions in the core in accordance with the heat transfer requirements.

  18. Fuel Summary Report: Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Illum, D.B.; Olson, G.L.; McCardell, R.K.

    1999-01-01

    The Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) was a small water cooled, U-233/Th-232 cycle breeder reactor developed by the Pittsburgh Naval Reactors to improve utilization of the nation's nuclear fuel resources in light water reactors. The LWBR was operated at Shippingport Atomic Power Station (APS), which was a Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly Atomic Energy Commission)-owned reactor plant. Shippingport APS was the first large-scale, central-station nuclear power plant in the United States and the first plant of such size in the world operated solely to produce electric power. The Shippingport LWBR was operated successfully from 1977 to 1982 at the APS. During the five years of operation, the LWBR generated more than 29,000 effective full power hours (EFPH) of energy. After final shutdown, the 39 core modules of the LWBR were shipped to the Expended Core Facility (ECF) at Naval Reactors Facility at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). At ECF, 12 of the 39 modules were dismantled and about 1000 of more than 17,000 rods were removed from the modules of proof-of-breeding and fuel performance testing. Some of the removed rods were kept at ECF, some were sent to Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) in Idaho and some to ANL-East in Chicago for a variety of physical, chemical and radiological examinations. All rods and rod sections remaining after the experiments were shipped back to ECF, where modules and loose rods were repackaged in liners for dry storage. In a series of shipments, the liners were transported from ECF to Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC), formerly the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The 47 liners containing the fully-rodded and partially-derodded core modules, the loose rods, and the rod scraps, are now stored in underground dry wells at CPP-749.

  19. The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ronaldo Szilard; Hongbin Zhang; Doug Kothe; Paul Turinsky

    2011-10-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) is a DOE Energy Innovation Hub for modeling and simulation of nuclear reactors. It brings together an exceptionally capable team from national labs, industry and academia that will apply existing modeling and simulation capabilities and develop advanced capabilities to create a usable environment for predictive simulation of light water reactors (LWRs). This environment, designated as the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications (VERA), will incorporate science-based models, state-of-the-art numerical methods, modern computational science and engineering practices, and uncertainty quantification (UQ) and validation against data from operating pressurized water reactors (PWRs). It will couple state-of-the-art fuel performance, neutronics, thermal-hydraulics (T-H), and structural models with existing tools for systems and safety analysis and will be designed for implementation on both today's leadership-class computers and the advanced architecture platforms now under development by the DOE. CASL focuses on a set of challenge problems such as CRUD induced power shift and localized corrosion, grid-to-rod fretting fuel failures, pellet clad interaction, fuel assembly distortion, etc. that encompass the key phenomena limiting the performance of PWRs. It is expected that much of the capability developed will be applicable to other types of reactors. CASL's mission is to develop and apply modeling and simulation capabilities to address three critical areas of performance for nuclear power plants: (1) reduce capital and operating costs per unit energy by enabling power uprates and plant lifetime extension, (2) reduce nuclear waste volume generated by enabling higher fuel burnup, and (3) enhance nuclear safety by enabling high-fidelity predictive capability for component performance.

  20. Effects of nitrogen-related defects on visible light photocatalytic response in N{sup +} implanted TiO{sub 2}: A first-principles study

    SciTech Connect

    Senga, Junya; Tatsumi, Kazuyoshi Muto, Shunsuke; Yoshida, Tomoko

    2015-09-21

    It was found that the visible-light responsiveness of a nitrogen ion-implanted TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst was attributable to the predominant chemical states of nitrogen, depending on the local nitrogen concentration near the surface. In the present study, we examined the effects of conceivable nitrogen-related defects on the visible light responsiveness, based on electronic structures calculated from first principles. Possible chemical states were proposed by comparing previously reported experiments with the present theoretical N-K X-ray absorption spectra. The theoretically predicted visible light absorption spectra and carrier trap states due to the bandgap states associated with the defects well explained the relationship between the catalytic reactivity and the proposed chemical states.

  1. Effects of nitrogen-related defects on visible light photocatalytic response in N+ implanted TiO2: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senga, Junya; Tatsumi, Kazuyoshi; Muto, Shunsuke; Yoshida, Tomoko

    2015-09-01

    It was found that the visible-light responsiveness of a nitrogen ion-implanted TiO2 photocatalyst was attributable to the predominant chemical states of nitrogen, depending on the local nitrogen concentration near the surface. In the present study, we examined the effects of conceivable nitrogen-related defects on the visible light responsiveness, based on electronic structures calculated from first principles. Possible chemical states were proposed by comparing previously reported experiments with the present theoretical N-K X-ray absorption spectra. The theoretically predicted visible light absorption spectra and carrier trap states due to the bandgap states associated with the defects well explained the relationship between the catalytic reactivity and the proposed chemical states.

  2. Defect-Reduction Mechanism for Improving Radiative Efficiency in InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes using InGaN Underlayers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Armstrong, Andrew M.; Bryant, Benjamin N.; Crawford, Mary H.; Koleske, Daniel D.; Lee, Stephen R.; Wierer, Jr., Jonathan J.

    2015-04-01

    The influence of a dilute InxGa1-xN (x~0.03) underlayer (UL) grown below a single In0.16Ga0.84N quantum well (SQW), within a light-emitting diode(LED), on the radiative efficiency and deep level defect properties was studied using differential carrier lifetime (DCL) measurements and deep level optical spectroscopy (DLOS). DCL measurements found that inclusion of the UL significantly improved LED radiative efficiency. At low current densities, the non-radiative recombination rate of the LED with an UL was found to be 3.9 times lower than theLED without an UL, while the radiative recombination rates were nearly identical. This, then, suggests that the improved radiative efficiency resultedmore » from reduced non-radiative defect concentration within the SQW. DLOS measurement found the same type of defects in the InGaN SQWs with and without ULs. However, lighted capacitance-voltage measurements of the LEDs revealed a 3.4 times reduction in a SQW-related near-mid-gap defect state for the LED with an UL. Furthermore, quantitative agreement in the reduction of both the non-radiative recombination rate (3.9×) and deep level density (3.4×) upon insertion of an UL corroborates deep level defect reduction as the mechanism for improved LED efficiency.« less

  3. Defect-reduction mechanism for improving radiative efficiency in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes using InGaN underlayers

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Andrew M. Bryant, Benjamin N.; Crawford, Mary H.; Koleske, Daniel D.; Lee, Stephen R.; Wierer, Jonathan J.

    2015-04-07

    The influence of a dilute In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N (x ∼ 0.03) underlayer (UL) grown below a single In{sub 0.16}Ga{sub 0.84}N quantum well (SQW), within a light-emitting diode (LED), on the radiative efficiency and deep level defect properties was studied using differential carrier lifetime (DCL) measurements and deep level optical spectroscopy (DLOS). DCL measurements found that inclusion of the UL significantly improved LED radiative efficiency. At low current densities, the non-radiative recombination rate of the LED with an UL was found to be 3.9 times lower than the LED without an UL, while the radiative recombination rates were nearly identical. This suggests that the improved radiative efficiency resulted from reduced non-radiative defect concentration within the SQW. DLOS measurement found the same type of defects in the InGaN SQWs with and without ULs. However, lighted capacitance-voltage measurements of the LEDs revealed a 3.4 times reduction in a SQW-related near-mid-gap defect state for the LED with an UL. Quantitative agreement in the reduction of both the non-radiative recombination rate (3.9×) and deep level density (3.4×) upon insertion of an UL corroborates deep level defect reduction as the mechanism for improved LED efficiency.

  4. Defect-Reduction Mechanism for Improving Radiative Efficiency in InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes using InGaN Underlayers

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Andrew M.; Bryant, Benjamin N.; Crawford, Mary H.; Koleske, Daniel D.; Lee, Stephen R.; Wierer, Jr., Jonathan J.

    2015-04-01

    The influence of a dilute InxGa1-xN (x~0.03) underlayer (UL) grown below a single In0.16Ga0.84N quantum well (SQW), within a light-emitting diode(LED), on the radiative efficiency and deep level defect properties was studied using differential carrier lifetime (DCL) measurements and deep level optical spectroscopy (DLOS). DCL measurements found that inclusion of the UL significantly improved LED radiative efficiency. At low current densities, the non-radiative recombination rate of the LED with an UL was found to be 3.9 times lower than theLED without an UL, while the radiative recombination rates were nearly identical. This, then, suggests that the improved radiative efficiency resulted from reduced non-radiative defect concentration within the SQW. DLOS measurement found the same type of defects in the InGaN SQWs with and without ULs. However, lighted capacitance-voltage measurements of the LEDs revealed a 3.4 times reduction in a SQW-related near-mid-gap defect state for the LED with an UL. Furthermore, quantitative agreement in the reduction of both the non-radiative recombination rate (3.9×) and deep level density (3.4×) upon insertion of an UL corroborates deep level defect reduction as the mechanism for improved LED efficiency.

  5. Defect-reduction mechanism for improving radiative efficiency in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes using InGaN underlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Andrew M.; Bryant, Benjamin N.; Crawford, Mary H.; Koleske, Daniel D.; Lee, Stephen R.; Wierer, Jonathan J.

    2015-04-01

    The influence of a dilute InxGa1-xN (x ˜ 0.03) underlayer (UL) grown below a single In0.16Ga0.84N quantum well (SQW), within a light-emitting diode (LED), on the radiative efficiency and deep level defect properties was studied using differential carrier lifetime (DCL) measurements and deep level optical spectroscopy (DLOS). DCL measurements found that inclusion of the UL significantly improved LED radiative efficiency. At low current densities, the non-radiative recombination rate of the LED with an UL was found to be 3.9 times lower than the LED without an UL, while the radiative recombination rates were nearly identical. This suggests that the improved radiative efficiency resulted from reduced non-radiative defect concentration within the SQW. DLOS measurement found the same type of defects in the InGaN SQWs with and without ULs. However, lighted capacitance-voltage measurements of the LEDs revealed a 3.4 times reduction in a SQW-related near-mid-gap defect state for the LED with an UL. Quantitative agreement in the reduction of both the non-radiative recombination rate (3.9×) and deep level density (3.4×) upon insertion of an UL corroborates deep level defect reduction as the mechanism for improved LED efficiency.

  6. The role of neutral and ionized oxygen defects in the emission of tin oxide nanocrystals for near white light application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Vinod; Swart, H. C.; Gohain, Mukut; Bezuidenhoudt, Barend C. B.; Janse van Vuuren, A.; Lee, M.; Ntwaeaborwa, O. M.

    2015-07-01

    Tin oxide (SnO2) nanocrystals (NCs) based phosphor was synthesized by a green chemistry microwave-assisted hydrothermal method at different reactor pressures. The x-ray diffraction analysis showed that a single rutile SnO2 phase with a tetragonal lattice structure was formed. The photoluminescence emission was measured for He-Cd laser excitation at 325 nm and it showed a broad band emission from 400 to 800 nm for all the synthesized reactor pressures. The broad emission spectra were due to the creation of various oxygen and tin defects as confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data. The origin of the emission in the SnO2 NCs is discussed with the help of an energy band diagram. Analysis suggests that the visible emission of SnO2 NCs is due to a transition of an electron from a level close to the conduction band edge to a deeply trapped hole in the SnO2 NCs. The NCs were found to be suitable for warm near white light emission device applications.

  7. Retrieval of water optical properties using polarization of light underwater: case I and II waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilerson, Alexander; Ibrahim, Amir; Foster, Robert; Carrizo, Carlos; El-Habashi, Ahmed; Ahmed, Samir

    2014-10-01

    The relationship between the degree of linear polarization (DoLP) and attenuation-to-absorption coefficients ratio (c/a) of the water from which the scattering coefficient is readily computed (b = c-a) for two main types of oceanic waters (Case I and II) was investigated using the vector radiative transfer simulation. It is found the for Case I waters that only the green channels of the spectrum can be used to retrieve the scattering coefficient of the water whereas blue and red channels are dominated by the pure water effects of either Rayleigh scattering or high water absorption showing no variability between DoLP and c/a. On the other hand, Case II waters showed a strong relationship between DoLP and c/a for all wavelength of light under study (440, 550, 665 nm). Those relationships have been parameterized for all possible viewing geometries (sensor zenith and azimuth relative to the Sun's principle plane) and for varying Sun zenith angles. That relationship has been tested and validated against a dataset of in-situ measurements using a custom developed underwater polarimeter that measures the DoLP and an in-water package of instruments (WetLabs ac-s) that measure the absorption and the attenuation coefficients. Another polarimeter fixed on a platform in Long Island Sound at the LISCO station measures the DoLP of the light above water while a moored instrument package (WQM and C-star) that measures in-water optical properties have been used for a time serious validation.

  8. Light-water breeder reactor (LWBR Development Program)

    DOEpatents

    Beaudoin, B.R.; Cohen, J.D.; Jones, D.H.; Marier, L.J. Jr.; Raab, H.F.

    1972-06-20

    Described is a light-water-moderated and -cooled nuclear breeder reactor of the seed-blanket type characterized by core modules comprising loosely packed blanket zones enriched with fissile fuel and axial zoning in the seed and blanket regions within each core module. Reactivity control over lifetime is achieved by axial displacement of movable seed zones without the use of poison rods in the embodiment illustrated. The seed is further characterized by a hydrogen-to-uranium-233 atom ratio in the range 10 to 200 and a uranium-233-to-thorium-232 atom ratio ranging from 0.012 to 0.200. The seed occupies from 10 to 35 percent of the core volume in the form of one or more individual islands or annuli. (NSA 26: 55130)

  9. Waste disposal from the light water reactor fuel cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costello, J. M.; Hardy, C. J.

    1981-05-01

    Alternaive nuclear fuel cycles for support of light water reactors are described and wastes containing naturally occurring or artificially produced radioactivity reviewed. General principles and objectives in radioactive waste management are outlined, and methods for their practical application to fuel cycle wastes discussed. Management of wastes from upgrading processes of uranium hexafluoride manufacture and uranium manufacture and enrichment, and, to a lesser extent, nuclear power reactor wastes are discussed. Some estimates of radiological dose commitments and health effects from nuclear power and fuel cycle wastes were made for US conditions. These indicate that the major part of the radiological dose arises from uranium mining and milling, operation of nuclear reactors, and spent fuel reprocessing. However, the total dose from the fuel cycle is estimated to be only a small fraction of that from natural background radiation.

  10. Commercial Light Water Reactor Tritium Extraction Facility Geotechnical Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M R

    2000-01-11

    A geotechnical investigation program has been completed for the Circulating Light Water Reactor - Tritium Extraction Facility (CLWR-TEF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The program consisted of reviewing previous geotechnical and geologic data and reports, performing subsurface field exploration, field and laboratory testing and geologic and engineering analyses. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the subsurface conditions for the CLWR-TEF in terms of subsurface stratigraphy and engineering properties for design and to perform selected engineering analyses. The objectives of the evaluation were to establish site-specific geologic conditions, obtain representative engineering properties of the subsurface and potential fill materials, evaluate the lateral and vertical extent of any soft zones encountered, and perform engineering analyses for slope stability, bearing capacity and settlement, and liquefaction potential. In addition, provide general recommendations for construction and earthwork.

  11. Benthic effects on the polarization of light in shallow waters.

    PubMed

    Gilerson, Alexander A; Stepinski, Jan; Ibrahim, Amir I; You, Yu; Sullivan, James M; Twardowski, Michael S; Dierssen, Heidi M; Russell, Brandon; Cummings, Molly E; Brady, Parrish; Ahmed, Samir A; Kattawar, George W

    2013-12-20

    Measurements of the upwelling polarized radiance in relatively shallow waters of varying depths and benthic conditions are compared to simulations, revealing the depolarizing nature of the seafloor. The simulations, executed with the software package RayXP, are solutions to the vector radiative transfer equation, which depends on the incident light field and three types of parameters: inherent optical properties, the scattering matrix, and the benthic reflectance. These were measured directly or calculated from measurements with additional assumptions. Specifically, the Lambertian model used to simulate benthic reflectances is something of a simplification of reality, but the bottoms used in this study are found to be crucial for accurate simulations of polarization. Comparisons of simulations with and without bottom contributions show that only the former corroborate measurements of the Stokes components and the degree of linear polarization (DoLP) collected by the polarimeter developed at the City College of New York. Because this polarimeter is multiangular and hyperspectral, errors can be computed point-wise over a large range of scattering angles and wavelengths. Trends also become apparent. DoLP is highly sensitive to the benthic reflectance and to the incident wavelength, peaking in the red band, but the angle of linear polarization is almost spectrally constant and independent of the bottom. These results can thus facilitate the detection of benthic materials as well as future studies of camouflage by benthic biota; to hide underwater successfully, animals must reflect light just as depolarized as that reflected by benthic materials. PMID:24513934

  12. Materials Inventory Database for the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kazi Ahmed; Shannon M. Bragg-Sitton

    2013-08-01

    Scientific research involves the purchasing, processing, characterization, and fabrication of many sample materials. The history of such materials can become complicated over their lifetime – materials might be cut into pieces or moved to various storage locations, for example. A database with built-in functions to track these kinds of processes facilitates well-organized research. The Material Inventory Database Accounting System (MIDAS) is an easy-to-use tracking and reference system for such items. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program (LWRS), which seeks to advance the long-term reliability and productivity of existing nuclear reactors in the United States through multiple research pathways, proposed MIDAS as an efficient way to organize and track all items used in its research. The database software ensures traceability of all items used in research using built-in functions which can emulate actions on tracked items – fabrication, processing, splitting, and more – by performing operations on the data. MIDAS can recover and display the complete history of any item as a simple report. To ensure the database functions suitably for the organization of research, it was developed alongside a specific experiment to test accident tolerant nuclear fuel cladding under the LWRS Advanced Light Water Reactor Nuclear Fuels Pathway. MIDAS kept track of materials used in this experiment from receipt at the laboratory through all processes, test conduct and, ultimately, post-test analysis. By the end of this process, the database proved to be right tool for this program. The database software will help LWRS more efficiently conduct research experiments, from simple characterization tests to in-reactor experiments. Furthermore, MIDAS is a universal tool that any other research team could use to organize their material inventory.

  13. Formation and conversion of defect centers in low water peak single mode optical fiber induced by gamma rays irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, J. X.; Luo, W. Y.; Xiao, Z. Y.; Wang, T. Y.; Chen, Z. Y.; Zeng, X. L.

    2010-02-15

    The formation and conversion processes of defect centers in low water peak single mode optical (LWPSM) fiber irradiated with gamma rays were investigated at room temperature using electron spin resonance. Germanium electron center (GEC) and self-trapped hole center (STH) occur when the fibers are irradiated with 1 and 5 kGy cumulative doses, respectively. With the increase in irradiation doses, the GEC defect centers disappear, and new defect centers such as E{sup '} centers (Si and Ge) and nonbridge oxygen hole centers (NBOHCs) generate. The generation of GEC and STH is attributed to the electron transfer, which is completely balanced. This is the main reason that radiation-induced attenuation (RIA) of the LWPSM fiber is only 10 dB/km at communication window. The new defect centers come from the conversion of GEC and STH to E{sup '} centers and NBOHC, and the conversion processes cause bond cleavage, which is the root cause that the RIA of the LWPSM fiber significantly increases up to 180 dB/km at working window. Furthermore, the concentration of new defect centers is saturated easily even by increasing cumulative doses.

  14. Spontaneous abortions and birth defects related to tap and bottled water use, San Jose, California, 1980-1985

    SciTech Connect

    Wrensch, M.; Swan, S.H.; Lipscomb, J.; Epstein, D.M.; Neutra, R.R.; Fenster, L. )

    1992-03-01

    We recently studied pregnancies occurring during 1980-1985 in four study areas in Santa Clara County, California. Two of the areas were exposed to solvent-contaminated drinking water during 1980 and 1981, and two were unexposed. There was an overall excess of spontaneous abortions among women who reported any tapwater consumption during the first trimester of pregnancy compared with those who reported no tapwater consumption (odds ratio (OR) = 4.0; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.8-9.1), regardless of exposure to the contaminated water. The odds ratio for spontaneous abortion for women reporting any vs no tapwater was 6.9 (95% CI = 2.7-17.7) after adjustment for numerous potential confounders using multiple logistic regression analyses. The elevated odds ratio of spontaneous abortion was seen among tapwater drinkers who used no filters or softener-type filters but not among women who reported use of active filters. Spontaneous abortion rates were reduced in women who reported any vs no bottled water consumption (OR = 0.26; 95% CI = 0.16-0.43). Among women who reported no tapwater consumption, no birth defects occurred among 263 live births; in comparison, among women who reported tapwater consumption, 4% of 908 live births had defects (P = 0.0001). We observed no relation between birth defects and bottled water use.

  15. Water adsorption in SAPO-34: elucidating the role of local heterogeneities and defects using dispersion-corrected DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Michael

    2015-10-14

    The chabazite-type silicoaluminophosphate SAPO-34 is a promising adsorbent for applications in thermal energy storage using water adsorption-desorption cycles. In order to develop a microscopic understanding of the impact of local heterogeneities and defects on the water adsorption properties, the interaction of different models of SAPO-34 with water was studied using dispersion-corrected density-functional theory (DFT-D) calculations. In addition to SAPO-34 with isolated silicon atoms, the calculations considered models incorporating two types of heterogeneities (silicon islands, aluminosilicate domains), and two defect-containing (partially and fully desilicated) systems. DFT-D optimisations were performed for systems with small amounts of adsorbed water, in which all H2O molecules can interact with framework protons, and systems with large amounts of adsorbed water (30 H2O molecules per unit cell). At low loadings, the host-guest interaction energy calculated for SAPO-34 with isolated Si atoms amounts to approximately -90 kJ mol(-1). While the presence of local heterogeneities leads to the creation of some adsorption sites that are energetically slightly more favourable, the interaction strength is drastically reduced in systems with defects. At high water loadings, energies in the range of -70 kJ mol(-1) are obtained for all models. The DFT-D interaction energies are in good agreement with experimentally measured heats of water adsorption. A detailed analysis of the equilibrium structures was used to gain insights into the binding modes at low coverages, and to assess the extent of framework deprotonation and changes in the coordination environment of aluminium atoms at high water loadings. PMID:26352329

  16. Measurements of the speed of light in water using Foucault's technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brody, Jed; Griffin, Laura; Segre, Phil

    2010-06-01

    We describe how to modify an existing speed-of-light apparatus to measure the speed of light in water. We derive the necessary formulas to account for refraction and light's passage through both water and air. We obtain (3.00±0.09)×108 m/s for the speed of light in air and (2.1±0.1)×108 m/s for the speed of the light in water. Both results are within 7% of established values.

  17. Visible-light photodecomposition of acetaldehyde by TiO2-coated gold nanocages: plasmon-mediated hot electron transport via defect states.

    PubMed

    Kodiyath, Rajesh; Manikandan, Maidhily; Liu, Lequan; Ramesh, Gubbala V; Koyasu, Satoshi; Miyauchi, Masahiro; Sakuma, Yoshiki; Tanabe, Toyokazu; Gunji, Takao; Duy Dao, Thang; Ueda, Shigenori; Nagao, Tadaaki; Ye, Jinhua; Abe, Hideki

    2014-12-21

    Skeletal gold nanocages (Au NCs) are synthesized and coated with TiO2 layers (TiO2-Au NCs). The TiO2-Au NCs exhibit enhanced photodecomposition activity toward acetaldehyde under visible light (>400 nm) illumination because hot electrons are generated over the Au NCs by local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and efficiently transported across the metal/semiconductor interface via the defect states of TiO2. PMID:25357137

  18. The role of oxygen and titanium related defects on the emission of TiO2:Tb3+ nano-phosphor for blue lighting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Vinod; Ntwaeaborwa, O. M.; Holsa, J.; Motaung, D. E.; Swart, H. C.

    2015-08-01

    A series of terbium doped TiO2 (TiO2:Tb3+) nanophosphors (NPr) were synthesized by the solution combustion method with varying the concentration of Tb3+. The X-ray diffraction results confirmed that the polycrystalline tetragonal structure of TiO2 NPr was formed. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance measurements confirmed the presence of oxygen and Ti3+ defects. The blue emission from the TiO2:Tb3+ NPr was tuned when the concentration of Tb3+ was varied. These TiO2:Tb3+ NPr have potential applications as sources of blue light in light emitting devices.

  19. Effects of LED Phototherapy on Bone Defects Grafted with MTA in a Rodent Model: A Description of the Bone Repair by Light Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Luiz Guilherme Pinheiro; Santos, Nicole Ribeiro Silva; Correia, Neandder A.; dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Pinheiro, Antônio Luiz Barbosa

    2011-08-01

    We carried out a histological analysis on bone defects grafted (MTA) treated or not with LED, BMPs and GBR. Benefits of the isolated or combined use these techniques on bone repair have been suggested, but there is no report on their association with LED light. 36 rats were divided into 4 groups each subdivided into 3. Defects on G II and I were filled with the blood clot. G II was further irradiated with LED. G III-IV were filled with MTA+Collagen gel; G IV was further irradiated. LED was applied over the defect at 48 h intervals and repeated for 15 days. Specimens were processed, cut and stained with H&E and Sirius red and underwent histological analysis. The results showed that MTA, due to its characteristics seemed not being directly affected by the LED light. But, the use of LED positively affect bone repair similarly to what was observed on different studies by our team using other biomaterials and laser. It is concluded that MTA seems not be directed affected by the LED light due to it characteristics. However, the beneficial results reported with its usage might be improved by the use of LED PT.

  20. Impact of inflow transport approximation on light water reactor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sooyoung; Smith, Kord; Lee, Hyun Chul; Lee, Deokjung

    2015-10-01

    The impact of the inflow transport approximation on light water reactor analysis is investigated, and it is verified that the inflow transport approximation significantly improves the accuracy of the transport and transport/diffusion solutions. A methodology for an inflow transport approximation is implemented in order to generate an accurate transport cross section. The inflow transport approximation is compared to the conventional methods, which are the consistent-PN and the outflow transport approximations. The three transport approximations are implemented in the lattice physics code STREAM, and verification is performed for various verification problems in order to investigate their effects and accuracy. From the verification, it is noted that the consistent-PN and the outflow transport approximations cause significant error in calculating the eigenvalue and the power distribution. The inflow transport approximation shows very accurate and precise results for the verification problems. The inflow transport approximation shows significant improvements not only for the high leakage problem but also for practical large core problem analyses.

  1. Universal Long-Range Nanometric Bending of Water by Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Gopal; Singh, Kamal P.

    2015-10-01

    Resolving mechanical effects of light on fluids has fundamental importance with wide applications. Most experiments to date on optofluidic interface deformation exploited radiation forces exerted by normally incident lasers. However, the intriguing effects of photon momentum for any configuration, including the unique total internal reflection regime, where an evanescent wave leaks above the interface, remain largely unexplored. A major difficulty in resolving nanomechanical effects has been the lack of a sensitive detection technique. Here, we devise a simple setup whereby a probe laser produces high-contrast Newton-ring-like fringes from a sessile water drop. The mechanical action of the photon momentum of a pump beam modulates the fringes, thus allowing us to perform a direct noninvasive measurement of a nanometric bulge with sub-5-nm precision. Remarkably, a <10 nm difference in the height of the bulge due to different laser polarizations and nonlinear enhancement in the bulge near total internal reflection is isolated. In addition, the nanometric bulge is shown to extend far longer, 100 times beyond the pump spot. Our high precision data validate the century-old Minkowski theory for a general angle and offer potential for novel optofluidic devices and noncontact nanomanipulation strategies.

  2. Universal Long-Range Nanometric Bending of Water by Light.

    PubMed

    Verma, Gopal; Singh, Kamal P

    2015-10-01

    Resolving mechanical effects of light on fluids has fundamental importance with wide applications. Most experiments to date on optofluidic interface deformation exploited radiation forces exerted by normally incident lasers. However, the intriguing effects of photon momentum for any configuration, including the unique total internal reflection regime, where an evanescent wave leaks above the interface, remain largely unexplored. A major difficulty in resolving nanomechanical effects has been the lack of a sensitive detection technique. Here, we devise a simple setup whereby a probe laser produces high-contrast Newton-ring-like fringes from a sessile water drop. The mechanical action of the photon momentum of a pump beam modulates the fringes, thus allowing us to perform a direct noninvasive measurement of a nanometric bulge with sub-5-nm precision. Remarkably, a <10  nm difference in the height of the bulge due to different laser polarizations and nonlinear enhancement in the bulge near total internal reflection is isolated. In addition, the nanometric bulge is shown to extend far longer, 100 times beyond the pump spot. Our high precision data validate the century-old Minkowski theory for a general angle and offer potential for novel optofluidic devices and noncontact nanomanipulation strategies. PMID:26551814

  3. Technologies for Upgrading Light Water Reactor Outlet Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel S. Wendt; Piyush Sabharwall; Vivek Utgikar

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear energy could potentially be utilized in hybrid energy systems to produce synthetic fuels and feedstocks from indigenous carbon sources such as coal and biomass. First generation nuclear hybrid energy system (NHES) technology will most likely be based on conventional light water reactors (LWRs). However, these LWRs provide thermal energy at temperatures of approximately 300°C, while the desired temperatures for many chemical processes are much higher. In order to realize the benefits of nuclear hybrid energy systems with the current LWR reactor fleets, selection and development of a complimentary temperature upgrading technology is necessary. This paper provides an initial assessment of technologies that may be well suited toward LWR outlet temperature upgrading for powering elevated temperature industrial and chemical processes during periods of off-peak power demand. Chemical heat transformers (CHTs) are a technology with the potential to meet LWR temperature upgrading requirements for NHESs. CHTs utilize chemical heat of reaction to change the temperature at which selected heat sources supply or consume thermal energy. CHTs could directly utilize LWR heat output without intermediate mechanical or electrical power conversion operations and the associated thermodynamic losses. CHT thermal characteristics are determined by selection of the chemical working pair and operating conditions. This paper discusses the chemical working pairs applicable to LWR outlet temperature upgrading and the CHT operating conditions required for providing process heat in NHES applications.

  4. Seismic margin assessment of evolutionary light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, S.A.; Bagchi, G.

    1996-12-01

    The objectives of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff`s review of the evolutionary light water reactors (ELWR) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) are drawn from 10 CFR Part 52, the Commission`s Severe Reactor Accident Policy Statement regarding future designs and existing plants, the Commission`s Safety Goal Policy Statement, The Commission approved positions concerning the analyses of external and events contained in SECY-93-087, and NRC interest in the use of PRA to help improve future reactor designs. In general, these objectives have been achieved by the ELWR PRAs and the NRC staff`s review. The staff`s applicable regulation for the analysis of external events for the ELWR PRAs is as follows. The probabilistic risk assessment required by 10 CFR 52.47(a)(1)(v) must include an assessment of internal and external events. For external events, simplified probabilistic methods and margins methods may be used to assess the capacity of the standard design to withstand the effects of events such as fires and earthquakes. Traditional probabilistic techniques should be used to evaluate internal floods. For earthquakes, a seismic margin analysis must consider the effects of earthquakes with accelerations approximately one and two-thirds the acceleration of the safe-shutdown earthquake (SSE).

  5. Partial Defect Verification of the Pressurized Water Reactor Spent Fuel Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, Y S; Sitaraman, S

    2010-02-05

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has the responsibility to carry out independent inspections of all nuclear material and facilities subject to safeguards agreements in order to verify compliance with non-proliferation commitments. New technologies have been continuously explored by the IAEA and Member States to improve the verification measures to account for declared inventory of nuclear material and detect clandestine diversion and production of nuclear materials. Even with these efforts, a technical safeguards challenge has remained for decades for the case of developing a method in identifying possible diversion of nuclear fuel pins from the Light Water Reactor (LWR) spent fuel assemblies. We had embarked on this challenging task and successfully developed a novel methodology in detecting partial removal of fuel from pressurized water reactor spent fuel assemblies. The methodology uses multiple tiny neutron and gamma detectors in the form of a cluster and a high precision driving system to obtain underwater radiation measurements inside a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) spent fuel assembly without any movement of the fuel. The data obtained in such a manner can provide spatial distribution of neutron and gamma flux within a spent fuel assembly. The combined information of gamma and neutron signature is used to produce base signatures and they are principally dependent on the geometry of the detector locations, and exhibit little sensitivity to initial enrichment, burn-up or cooling time. A small variation in the fuel bundle such as a few missing pins changes the shape of the signature to enable detection. This resulted in a breakthrough method which can be used to detect pin diversion without relying on the nuclear power plant operator's declared operation data. Presented are the results of various Monte Carlo simulation studies and experiments from actual commercial PWR spent fuel assemblies.

  6. Atomic structure and surface defects at mineral-water interfaces probed by in situ atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siretanu, Igor; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder

    2016-04-01

    Atomic scale details of surface structure play a crucial role for solid-liquid interfaces. While macroscopic characterization techniques provide averaged information about bulk and interfaces, high resolution real space imaging reveals unique insights into the role of defects that are believed to dominate many aspects of surface chemistry and physics. Here, we use high resolution dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to visualize and characterize in ambient water the morphology and atomic scale structure of a variety of nanoparticles of common clay minerals adsorbed to flat solid surfaces. Atomically resolved images of the (001) basal planes are obtained on all materials investigated, namely gibbsite, kaolinite, illite, and Na-montmorillonite of both natural and synthetic origin. Next to regions of perfect crystallinity, we routinely observe extended regions of various types of defects on the surfaces, including vacancies of one or few atoms, vacancy islands, atomic steps, apparently disordered regions, as well as strongly adsorbed seemingly organic and inorganic species. While their exact nature is frequently difficult to identify, our observations clearly highlight the ubiquity of such defects and their relevance for the overall physical and chemical properties of clay nanoparticle-water interfaces.Atomic scale details of surface structure play a crucial role for solid-liquid interfaces. While macroscopic characterization techniques provide averaged information about bulk and interfaces, high resolution real space imaging reveals unique insights into the role of defects that are believed to dominate many aspects of surface chemistry and physics. Here, we use high resolution dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to visualize and characterize in ambient water the morphology and atomic scale structure of a variety of nanoparticles of common clay minerals adsorbed to flat solid surfaces. Atomically resolved images of the (001) basal planes are obtained on all

  7. Nanostructure of metallic particles in light water reactor used nuclear fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Edgar C.; Mausolf, Edward J.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2015-06-01

    An extraordinary nano-structure has been observed in the metallic (Mo-Tc-Ru-Rh-Pd) particles that are known to form during irradiated in light water nuclear reactor fuels. This structure points possible high catalytic reactivity through the occurrence of a very high surface area as well as defect sites. We have analyzed separated metallic particles from dissolved high burn-up spent nuclear fuel using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The larger particles vary in diameter between ∼10 and ∼300 nm and possess a hexagonally close packed epsilon-ruthenium structure. These particles are not always single crystals but often consist of much smaller crystallites on the order of 1-3 nm in diameter with evidence suggesting the occurrence of some amorphous regions. It is possible that neutron irradiation and fission product recoils generated the unusual small crystallite size. The composition of the metallic particles was variable with low levels of uranium present in some of the particles. We hypothesize that the uranium may have induced the formation of the amorphous (or frustrated) metal structure. This unique nano-structure may play an important role in the environmental behavior of nuclear fuels.

  8. Defective ZnFe2O4 nanorods with oxygen vacancy for photoelectrochemical water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ju Hun; Jang, Youn Jeong; Kim, Jin Hyun; Jang, Ji-Wook; Choi, Sun Hee; Lee, Jae Sung

    2015-11-01

    A one-dimensional zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4) nanorod photoanode was prepared by a simple solution method on the F-doped tin oxide glass substrate. Thermal treatment under a hydrogen or vacuum atmosphere improved the photoelectrochemical water oxidation activity up to 20 times. The various physical characterization techniques used revealed that oxygen vacancies were created by the treatments in the near surface region, which increased the donor density and passivated the surface states. Hydrogen treatment was more effective and it was important to find optimum treatment conditions to take advantage of the positive role of oxygen vacancy as a source of electron donors and avoid its negative effect as electron trap sites.A one-dimensional zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4) nanorod photoanode was prepared by a simple solution method on the F-doped tin oxide glass substrate. Thermal treatment under a hydrogen or vacuum atmosphere improved the photoelectrochemical water oxidation activity up to 20 times. The various physical characterization techniques used revealed that oxygen vacancies were created by the treatments in the near surface region, which increased the donor density and passivated the surface states. Hydrogen treatment was more effective and it was important to find optimum treatment conditions to take advantage of the positive role of oxygen vacancy as a source of electron donors and avoid its negative effect as electron trap sites. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XANES and EXAFS spectra, light harvesting efficiency, HR-SEM images, vacuum-treated ZnFe2O4, equivalent circuit model, Nyquist plots, and charge separation efficiencies. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05812k

  9. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Integrated Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn McCarthy; Jeremy Busby; Bruce Hallbert; Shannon Bragg-Sitton; Curtis Smith; Cathy Barnard

    2013-04-01

    Nuclear power has safely, reliably, and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. Domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to experience a 31% growth from 2009 to 2035. At the same time, most of the currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their initial 20-year extension to their original 40-year operating license for a total of 60 years of operation. Figure E-1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline—even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Research and Development Roadmap (Nuclear Energy Roadmap) organizes its activities around four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The four objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration’s energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document summarizes the LWRS Program’s plans.

  10. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Integrated Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, Kathryn A.; Busby, Jeremy; Hallbert, Bruce; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Smith, Curtis; Barnard, Cathy

    2014-04-01

    Nuclear power has safely, reliably, and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. Domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to experience a 31% growth from 2009 to 2035. At the same time, most of the currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their initial 20-year extension to their original 40-year operating license for a total of 60 years of operation. Figure E-1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline—even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Research and Development Roadmap (Nuclear Energy Roadmap) organizes its activities around four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The four objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration’s energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document summarizes the LWRS Program’s plans.

  11. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Integrated Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    George Griffith; Robert Youngblood; Jeremy Busby; Bruce Hallbert; Cathy Barnard; Kathryn McCarthy

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear power has safely, reliably, and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. Domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to experience a 31% growth from 2009 to 2035. At the same time, most of the currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their initial 20-year extension to their original 40-year operating license for a total of 60 years of operation. Figure E-1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline - even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy's Research and Development Roadmap (Nuclear Energy Roadmap) organizes its activities around four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The four objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration's energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document summarizes the LWRS Program's plans.

  12. Revised accident source terms for light-water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Soffer, L.

    1995-02-01

    This paper presents revised accident source terms for light-water reactors incorporating the severe accident research insights gained in this area over the last 15 years. Current LWR reactor accident source terms used for licensing date from 1962 and are contained in Regulatory Guides 1.3 and 1.4. These specify that 100% of the core inventory of noble gases and 25% of the iodine fission products are assumed to be instantaneously available for release from the containment. The chemical form of the iodine fission products is also assumed to be predominantly elemental iodine. These assumptions have strongly affected present nuclear air cleaning requirements by emphasizing rapid actuation of spray systems and filtration systems optimized to retain elemental iodine. A proposed revision of reactor accident source terms and some im implications for nuclear air cleaning requirements was presented at the 22nd DOE/NRC Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference. A draft report was issued by the NRC for comment in July 1992. Extensive comments were received, with the most significant comments involving (a) release fractions for both volatile and non-volatile species in the early in-vessel release phase, (b) gap release fractions of the noble gases, iodine and cesium, and (c) the timing and duration for the release phases. The final source term report is expected to be issued in late 1994. Although the revised source terms are intended primarily for future plants, current nuclear power plants may request use of revised accident source term insights as well in licensing. This paper emphasizes additional information obtained since the 22nd Conference, including studies on fission product removal mechanisms, results obtained from improved severe accident code calculations and resolution of major comments, and their impact upon the revised accident source terms. Revised accident source terms for both BWRS and PWRS are presented.

  13. Technology Implementation Plan. Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated Fuel for Commercial Light Water Reactor Application

    SciTech Connect

    Snead, Lance Lewis; Terrani, Kurt A.; Powers, Jeffrey J.; Worrall, Andrew; Robb, Kevin R.; Snead, Mary A.

    2015-04-01

    This report is an overview of the implementation plan for ORNL's fully ceramic microencapsulated (FCM) light water reactor fuel. The fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel consists of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) particles embedded inside a fully dense SiC matrix and is intended for utilization in commercial light water reactor application.

  14. 76 FR 18753 - City of Springfield, Illinois, City Water, Light and Power; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission City of Springfield, Illinois, City Water, Light and Power; Notice of Filing Take notice that on March 24, 2011, The City of Springfield, Illinois, City Water, Light and...

  15. Estimation of diffuse attenuation of ultraviolet light in optically shallow Florida Keys waters from MODIS measurements

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diffuse attenuation of solar light (Kd, m−1) determines the percentage of light penetrating the water column and available for benthic organisms. Therefore, Kd can be used as an index of water quality for coastal ecosystems that are dependent on photosynthesis, such as the coral ...

  16. New insights in the formation of silanol defects in silicalite-1 by water intrusion under high pressure.

    PubMed

    Karbowiak, Thomas; Saada, Mohamed-Ali; Rigolet, Séverinne; Ballandras, Anthony; Weber, Guy; Bezverkhyy, Igor; Soulard, Michel; Patarin, Joël; Bellat, Jean-Pierre

    2010-10-01

    The "water-silicalite-1" system is known to act as a molecular spring. The successive intrusion-extrusion cycles of liquid water in small crystallites (6 × 3 × 0.5 μm(3)) of hydrophobic silicalite-1 were studied by volumetric and calorimetric techniques. The experiments displayed a decrease of the intrusion pressure between the first intrusion-extrusion cycle and the consecutive ones, whereas the extrusion pressures remained unchanged. However, neither XRD studies nor SEM observations revealed any structural and morphological modifications of silicalite-1 at the long-range order. Such a shift in the value of the intrusion pressure after the first water intrusion-extrusion cycle is attributed to the creation of silanol groups during the first water intrusion. Detailed FTIR and solid-state NMR spectroscopic characterizations provided a molecular evidence of chemical modification of zeolite framework with the formation of local silanol defects created by the breaking of siloxane bonds. PMID:20676454

  17. Atomic structure and surface defects at mineral-water interfaces probed by in situ atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Siretanu, Igor; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder

    2016-04-21

    Atomic scale details of surface structure play a crucial role for solid-liquid interfaces. While macroscopic characterization techniques provide averaged information about bulk and interfaces, high resolution real space imaging reveals unique insights into the role of defects that are believed to dominate many aspects of surface chemistry and physics. Here, we use high resolution dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to visualize and characterize in ambient water the morphology and atomic scale structure of a variety of nanoparticles of common clay minerals adsorbed to flat solid surfaces. Atomically resolved images of the (001) basal planes are obtained on all materials investigated, namely gibbsite, kaolinite, illite, and Na-montmorillonite of both natural and synthetic origin. Next to regions of perfect crystallinity, we routinely observe extended regions of various types of defects on the surfaces, including vacancies of one or few atoms, vacancy islands, atomic steps, apparently disordered regions, as well as strongly adsorbed seemingly organic and inorganic species. While their exact nature is frequently difficult to identify, our observations clearly highlight the ubiquity of such defects and their relevance for the overall physical and chemical properties of clay nanoparticle-water interfaces. PMID:27030282

  18. Light Reflection from Water Surfaces Perturbed by Falling Rain Droplets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molesini, Giuseppe; Vannoni, Maurizio

    2009-01-01

    An account of peculiar light patterns produced by reflection in a pool under falling rain droplets was recently reported by Molesini and Vannoni (2008 Eur. J. Phys. 29 403-11). The mathematical approach, however, only covered the case of a symmetrical location of a light source and the observer's eyes with respect to the vertical of the falling…

  19. Multi-Application Small Light Water Reactor Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Modro, S.M.; Fisher, J.E.; Weaver, K.D.; Reyes, J.N.; Groome, J.T.; Babka, P.; Carlson, T.M.

    2003-12-01

    The Multi-Application Small Light Water Reactor (MASLWR) project was conducted under the auspices of the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The primary project objectives were to develop the conceptual design for a safe and economic small, natural circulation light water reactor, to address the economic and safety attributes of the concept, and to demonstrate the technical feasibility by testing in an integral test facility. This report presents the results of the project. After an initial exploratory and evolutionary process, as documented in the October 2000 report, the project focused on developing a modular reactor design that consists of a self-contained assembly with a reactor vessel, steam generators, and containment. These modular units would be manufactured at a single centralized facility, transported by rail, road, and/or ship, and installed as a series of self-contained units. This approach also allows for staged construction of an NPP and ''pull and replace'' refueling and maintenance during each five-year refueling cycle. Development of the baseline design concept has been sufficiently completed to determine that it complies with the safety requirements and criteria, and satisfies the major goals already noted. The more significant features of the baseline single-unit design concept include: (1) Thermal Power--150 MWt; (2) Net Electrical Output--35 MWe; (3) Steam Generator Type--Vertical, helical tubes; (4) Fuel UO{sub 2}, 8% enriched; (5) Refueling Intervals--5 years; (6) Life-Cycle--60 years. The economic performance was assessed by designing a power plant with an electric generation capacity in the range of current and advanced evolutionary systems. This approach allows for direct comparison of economic performance and forms a basis for further evaluation, economic and technical, of the proposed design and for the design evolution towards a more cost competitive concept. Applications such as

  20. The rise of the photosynthetic rate when light intensity increases is delayed in ndh gene-defective tobacco at high but not at low CO2 concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Mercedes; Noarbe, Dolores M.; Serrot, Patricia H.; Sabater, Bartolomé

    2015-01-01

    The 11 plastid ndh genes have hovered frequently on the edge of dispensability, being absent in the plastid DNA of many algae and certain higher plants. We have compared the photosynthetic activity of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, cv. Petit Havana) with five transgenic lines (ΔndhF, pr-ΔndhF, T181D, T181A, and ndhF FC) and found that photosynthetic performance is impaired in transgenic ndhF-defective tobacco plants at rapidly fluctuating light intensities and higher than ambient CO2 concentrations. In contrast to wild type and ndhF FC, which reach the maximum photosynthetic rate in less than 1 min when light intensity suddenly increases, ndh defective plants (ΔndhF and T181A) show up to a 5 min delay in reaching the maximum photosynthetic rate at CO2 concentrations higher than the ambient 360 ppm. Net photosynthesis was determined at different CO2 concentrations when sequences of 130, 870, 61, 870, and 130 μmol m-2 s-1 PAR sudden light changes were applied to leaves and photosynthetic efficiency and entropy production (Sg) were determined as indicators of photosynthesis performance. The two ndh-defective plants, ΔndhF and T181A, had lower photosynthetic efficiency and higher Sg than wt, ndhF FC and T181D tobacco plants, containing full functional ndh genes, at CO2 concentrations above 400 ppm. We propose that the Ndh complex improves cyclic electron transport by adjusting the redox level of transporters during the low light intensity stage. In ndhF-defective strains, the supply of electrons through the Ndh complex fails, transporters remain over-oxidized (specially at high CO2 concentrations) and the rate of cyclic electron transport is low, impairing the ATP level required to rapidly reach high CO2 fixation rates in the following high light phase. Hence, ndh genes could be dispensable at low but not at high atmospheric concentrations of CO2. PMID:25709611

  1. Kinetics stabilized doping: computational optimization of carbon-doped anatase TiO2 for visible-light driven water splitting.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi-Yang; Zhang, Shengbai

    2016-01-28

    Using density functional theory calculation we investigate the carbon doping of anatase TiO2, a technique widely studied for visible-light driven water splitting. By a detailed analysis of the thermodynamics of C defects in TiO2, we show that any significant concentration of C dopants in the TiO2 lattice must be a result of non-equilibrium doping, which emphasizes the importance of kinetics stabilized C defects. Based on the band gaps calculated using hybrid density functionals, we exclude the possibility of C occupying Ti lattice sites or interstitial sites to enhance visible-light absorption of TiO2, as extensively discussed in the literature. Also, the recently proposed defect with a CO species occupying two O sites yields a too small band gap for water splitting. Two defects that can effectively reduce the band gap for the water splitting application are identified to be: (1) the CO-VO complex, i.e., a C substituting for O (CO) paired with an O vacancy (VO) and (2) the (C2)2O complex with a C dimer (C2) occupying two neighboring O vacancies. Compared with the CO-VO complex, (C2)2O exhibits strong binding (greater than 2.5 eV) between the two C atoms, which could significantly enhance its kinetic stability to survive from high temperature annealing. With a reduced band gap of about 1.4 eV, carbon dimers could be ideal for kinetic doping of anatase TiO2 to enhance its visible-light activity in photocatalytic reactions. Molecular doping using C2H2 or C2H4 as C precursors has been proposed to introduce the carbon dimers into TiO2. PMID:26725589

  2. Facile Synthesis of Defective TiO2−x Nanocrystals with High Surface Area and Tailoring Bandgap for Visible-light Photocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Wajid Shah, Muhammad; Zhu, Yunqing; Fan, Xiaoyun; Zhao, Jie; Li, Yingxuan; Asim, Sumreen; Wang, Chuanyi

    2015-01-01

    A facile hydrothermal approach has been developed to prepare defective TiO2−x nanocrystals using Ti(III)-salt as a precursor and L-ascorbic acid as reductant and structure direction agent. The prepared TiO2−x nanocrystals are composed of a highly crystallized TiO2 core and a disordered TiO2−x outer layer, possessing high surface area, controlled oxygen vacancy concentration and tunable bandgap via simply adjusting the amount of added L-ascorbic acid. The defective TiO2−x shows high photocatalytic efficiency in methylene blue and phenol degradation as well as in hydrogen evolution under visible light, underlining the significance of the present strategy for structural and bandgap manipulation in TiO2-based photocatalysis. PMID:26515503

  3. Facile Synthesis of Defective TiO2-x Nanocrystals with High Surface Area and Tailoring Bandgap for Visible-light Photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wajid Shah, Muhammad; Zhu, Yunqing; Fan, Xiaoyun; Zhao, Jie; Li, Yingxuan; Asim, Sumreen; Wang, Chuanyi

    2015-10-01

    A facile hydrothermal approach has been developed to prepare defective TiO2-x nanocrystals using Ti(III)-salt as a precursor and L-ascorbic acid as reductant and structure direction agent. The prepared TiO2-x nanocrystals are composed of a highly crystallized TiO2 core and a disordered TiO2-x outer layer, possessing high surface area, controlled oxygen vacancy concentration and tunable bandgap via simply adjusting the amount of added L-ascorbic acid. The defective TiO2-x shows high photocatalytic efficiency in methylene blue and phenol degradation as well as in hydrogen evolution under visible light, underlining the significance of the present strategy for structural and bandgap manipulation in TiO2-based photocatalysis.

  4. Facile Synthesis of Defective TiO2-x Nanocrystals with High Surface Area and Tailoring Bandgap for Visible-light Photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Wajid Shah, Muhammad; Zhu, Yunqing; Fan, Xiaoyun; Zhao, Jie; Li, Yingxuan; Asim, Sumreen; Wang, Chuanyi

    2015-01-01

    A facile hydrothermal approach has been developed to prepare defective TiO2-x nanocrystals using Ti(III)-salt as a precursor and L-ascorbic acid as reductant and structure direction agent. The prepared TiO2-x nanocrystals are composed of a highly crystallized TiO2 core and a disordered TiO2-x outer layer, possessing high surface area, controlled oxygen vacancy concentration and tunable bandgap via simply adjusting the amount of added L-ascorbic acid. The defective TiO2-x shows high photocatalytic efficiency in methylene blue and phenol degradation as well as in hydrogen evolution under visible light, underlining the significance of the present strategy for structural and bandgap manipulation in TiO2-based photocatalysis. PMID:26515503

  5. Sustained Recycle in Light Water and Sodium-Cooled Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Steven J. Piet; Samuel E. Bays; Michael A. Pope; Gilles J. Youinou

    2010-11-01

    From a physics standpoint, it is feasible to sustain recycle of used fuel in either thermal or fast reactors. This paper examines multi-recycle potential performance by considering three recycling approaches and calculating several fuel cycle parameters, including heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; radiotoxicity of waste; and uranium utilization. The first recycle approach is homogeneous mixed oxide (MOX) fuel assemblies in a light water reactor (LWR). The transuranic portion of the MOX was varied among Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, or all-TRU. (All-TRU means all isotopes through Cf-252.) The Pu case was allowed to go to 10% Pu in fresh fuel, but when the minor actinides were included, the transuranic enrichment was kept below 8% to satisfy the expected void reactivity constraint. The uranium portion of the MOX was enriched uranium. That enrichment was increased (to as much as 6.5%) to keep the fuel critical for a typical LWR irradiation. The second approach uses heterogeneous inert matrix fuel (IMF) assemblies in an LWR - a mix of IMF and traditional UOX pins. The uranium-free IMF fuel pins were Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, or all-TRU. The UOX pins were limited to 4.95% U-235 enrichment. The number of IMF pins was set so that the amount of TRU in discharged fuel from recycle N (from both IMF and UOX pins) was made into the new IMF pins for recycle N+1. Up to 60 of the 264 pins in a fuel assembly were IMF. The assembly-average TRU content was 1-6%. The third approach uses fast reactor oxide fuel in a sodium-cooled fast reactor with transuranic conversion ratio of 0.50 and 1.00. The transuranic conversion ratio is the production of transuranics divided by destruction of transuranics. The FR at CR=0.50 is similar to the CR for the MOX case. The fast reactor cases had a transuranic content of 33-38%, higher than IMF or MOX.

  6. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. Digital Architecture Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Kenneth; Oxstrand, Johanna

    2015-03-01

    The Digital Architecture effort is a part of the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Light-Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program conducted at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The LWRS program is performed in close collaboration with industry research and development (R&D) programs that provides the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of current nuclear power plants (NPPs). One of the primary missions of the LWRS program is to help the U.S. nuclear industry adopt new technologies and engineering solutions that facilitate the continued safe operation of the plants and extension of the current operating licenses. Therefore, a major objective of the LWRS program is the development of a seamless digital environment for plant operations and support by integrating information from plant systems with plant processes for nuclear workers through an array of interconnected technologies. In order to get the most benefits of the advanced technology suggested by the different research activities in the LWRS program, the nuclear utilities need a digital architecture in place to support the technology. A digital architecture can be defined as a collection of information technology (IT) capabilities needed to support and integrate a wide-spectrum of real-time digital capabilities for nuclear power plant performance improvements. It is not hard to imagine that many processes within the plant can be largely improved from both a system and human performance perspective by utilizing a plant wide (or near plant wide) wireless network. For example, a plant wide wireless network allows for real time plant status information to easily be accessed in the control room, field workers’ computer-based procedures can be updated based on the real time plant status, and status on ongoing procedures can be incorporated into smart schedules in the outage command center to allow for more accurate planning of critical tasks. The goal

  7. Visible Light Responsive Catalyst for Air Water Purification Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Investigate and develop viable approaches to render the normally UV-activated TIO2 catalyst visible light responsive (VLR) and achieve high and sustaining catalytic activity under the visible region of the solar spectrum.

  8. Effects of LED or laser phototherapy on bone defects grafted with MTA and irradiated with laser or LED light: a comparative Raman spectroscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.; Soares, Luiz G. P.; Barbosa, Artur Felipe S.; Silveira, Landulfo, Jr.

    2012-03-01

    We studied peaks of calcium hydroxyapatite - CHA on defects grafted with MTA, treated or not with Light Emitting Diode - LED or IR Laser. 54 rats were divided in 6 groups each subdivided into 3 subgroups (15,21,30d). LED (λ850 +/- 10nm) or IR Laser (λ850 nm) was applied over (LED) or in 4 points around the defect at 48 h intervals for 15 days. Raman readings were taken at the surface of the defect. The smaller overall intensity of the peak was found in Group MTA + Laser (1510.2 +/- 274.1) and the highest on Group LED (2322 +/- 715). There were no statistically significant differences between non-irradiated subjects on regards the CHA peaks. On the other hand, there were statistically significant differences between the Group Clot and LED, Clot and Laser, and Clot and MTA + Laser (p =0.01, p = 0.02, p = 0.003). There were no significant differences between Group MTA and MTA + LED (p=0.2) but significant differences were seen between Groups MTA and MTA + Laser (p=0.01). Significant differences were also observed between Groups LED and Laser (p <0.001) and between Groups MTA + LED and MTA + Laser (p=0.009). MTA, due to its characteristics, seemed to be directly affected by the light. However, the use of either phototherapy positively affected bone healing similarly as observed on different studies using other biomaterials. The overall analysis of our results indicated that the use of either light source resulted in a better, more advanced, and of quality bone repair.

  9. Lighting.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-09-01

    Since lighting accounts for about one-third of the energy used in commercial buildings, there is opportunity to conserve. There are two ways to reduce lighting energy use: modify lighting systems so that they used less electricity and/or reduce the number of hours the lights are used. This booklet presents a number of ways to do both. Topics covered include: reassessing lighting levels, reducing lighting levels, increasing bulb & fixture efficiency, using controls to regulate lighting, and taking advantage of daylight.

  10. Light-induced dynamic changes of NADPH fluorescence in Synechocystis PCC 6803 and its ndhB-defective mutant M55.

    PubMed

    Mi, H; Klughammer, C; Schreiber, U

    2000-10-01

    Blue-green fluorescence emission of intact cells of Synechocystis PCC6803 and of its ndhB-defective mutant M55 was measured with a standard pulse-amplitude-modulation chlorophyll fluorometer equipped with a new type of emitter-detector unit featuring pulse-modulated UV-A measuring light and a photomultiplier detector. A special illumination program of repetitive saturating light pulses with intermittent dark periods (10 s light, 40 s dark) was applied to elicit dynamic fluorescence changes under conditions of quasi-stationary illumination. The observed effects of artificial electron acceptors and inhibitors on the responses of wild-type and mutant M55 cells lead to the conclusion that changes of NAD(P)H fluorescence are measured. In control samples, a rapid phase of light-driven NADP reduction is overlapped by a somewhat slower phase of NADPH oxidation which is suppressed by iodoacetic acid and, hence, appears to reflect NADPH oxidation by the Calvin cycle. Mercury chloride transforms the light-driven positive response into a negative one, suggesting that inhibition of NADP reduction at the acceptor side of PSI leads to reduction of molecular oxygen, with the hydrogen peroxide formed (via superoxide) causing rapid oxidation of NADPH. The new fluorescence approach opens the way for new insights into the complex interactions between photosynthetic and respiratory pathways in cyanobacteria. PMID:11148271

  11. Removal of fluorescence and ultraviolet absorbance of dissolved organic matter in reclaimed water by solar light.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qianyuan; Li, Chao; Wang, Wenlong; He, Tao; Hu, Hongying; Du, Ye; Wang, Ting

    2016-05-01

    Storing reclaimed water in lakes is a widely used method of accommodating changes in the consumption of reclaimed water during wastewater reclamation and reuse. Solar light serves as an important function in degrading pollutants during storage, and its effect on dissolved organic matter (DOM) was investigated in this study. Solar light significantly decreased the UV254 absorbance and fluorescence (FLU) intensity of reclaimed water. However, its effect on the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) value of reclaimed water was very limited. The decrease in the UV254 absorbance intensity and FLU excitation-emission matrix regional integration volume (FLU volume) of reclaimed water during solar light irradiation was fit with pseudo-first order reaction kinetics. The decrease of UV254 absorbance was much slower than that of the FLU volume. Ultraviolet light in solar light had a key role in decreasing the UV254 absorbance and FLU intensity during solar light irradiation. The light fluence-based removal kinetic constants of the UV254 and FLU intensity were independent of light intensity. The peaks of the UV254 absorbance and FLU intensity with an apparent molecular weight (AMW) of 100Da to 2000Da decreased after solar irradiation, whereas the DOC value of the major peaks did not significantly change. PMID:27155416

  12. Light-Initiated Transformation of C60 Clusters in Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although Buckminster fullerene (C60) has an extremely low water solubility (~8 ng/L), the formation of stable clusters (aqu/nC60) not only greatly increases the mass of C60 dispersed in water, but also alters its physicochemical properties. This research focused on investigating ...

  13. Marination effects on water states and water-holding capacity of broiler pectoralis major muscle with different color lightness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of four experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of marination on water states and water-holding capacity (WHC) of broiler pectoralis (p.) major muscle selected based on raw muscle color lightness. Boneless, skinless p. major were collected at 6-8 h postmortem from deboning li...

  14. Marination effects on water states and water-holding capacity of broiler pectoralis major muscle with different color lightness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of marination on water states and water-holding capacity (WHC) of broiler pectoralis (p.) major muscle. Boneless, skinless p. major were collected 6-8 h postmortem from deboning lines at a commercial processing plant, and separated into light, ...

  15. Interplay of point defects, extended defects, and carrier localization in the efficiency droop of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes investigated using spatially resolved electroluminescence and photoluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yue; Zhang, Yong Su, Liqin; Liu, Zhiqiang; Wei, Tongbo; Zhang, Jihong; Chen, Zhong

    2014-01-14

    We perform both spatially resolved electroluminescence (SREL) as a function of injection current and spatially resolved photoluminescence (SRPL) as a function of excitation power on InGaN quantum well blue light-emitting diodes to investigate the underlying physics for the phenomenon of the external quantum efficiency (EQE) droop. SREL allows us to study two most commonly observed but distinctly different droop behaviors on a single device, minimizing the ambiguity trying to compare independently fabricated devices. Two representative devices are studied: one with macroscopic scale material non-uniformity, the other being macroscopically uniform, but both with microscopic scale fluctuations. We suggest that the EQE–current curve reflects the interplay of three effects: nonradiative recombination through point defects, carrier localization due to either In composition or well width fluctuation, and nonradiative recombination of the extended defects, which is common to various optoelectronic devices. By comparing SREL and SRPL, two very different excitation/detection modes, we show that individual singular sites exhibiting either particularly strong or weak emission in SRPL do not usually play any significant and direct role in the EQE droop. We introduce a two-level model that can capture the basic physical processes that dictate the EQE–current dependence and describe the whole operating range of the device from 0.01 to 100 A/cm{sup 2}.

  16. INVESTIGATIONS ON DEFECT STRUCTURE AND LIGHT-INDUCED SCATTERING OF Mg:Ho:LiNbO3 WITH VARIOUS Mg2+ CONCENTRATION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Li; Li, Dayong; Qian, Zhao; Su, Yanqing; Guo, Jingjie; Xu, Chao; Xu, Yuheng

    2012-08-01

    Congruent Ho3+ (1 mol.%): LiNbO3 crystals codoped with MgO (X mol.%, X = 1, 3, 5 and 7) were grown by the Czochralski technique. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) and infrared (IR) spectra were measured in order to analyze the defect structure of the crystals. The concentrations of Mg, Ho, Li and Nb in the crystals were carried out with an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer. Experimental results indicates as Mg2+ doping concentration increases in melt, the distribution coefficients of Mg and Ho ions decrease, the Li/Nb ratio in the crystals decreases first and then increases, and the absorption edge shifts to a shorter wavelength. The light-induced scattering of Mg:Ho:LiNbO3 crystals was quantitatively scaled via the incident exposure energy. The results demonstrated that Mg (7 mol.%): Ho:LiNbO3 crystal had the weakest light-induced scattering and the mechanism related to their defect structures was discussed.

  17. Exciton energy recycling from ZnO defect levels: towards electrically driven hybrid quantum-dot white light-emitting-diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xin; Liu, Weizhen; Chen, Rui; Gao, Yuan; Zhu, Binbin; Demir, Hilmi Volkan; Wang, Shijie; Sun, Handong

    2016-03-01

    An electrically driven quantum-dot hybrid white light-emitting diode is fabricated via spin coating CdSe quantum dots onto a GaN/ZnO nanorod matrix. For the first time, quantum dots are excited by fluorescence resonance energy transfer from the carriers trapped at surface defect levels. The prototype device exhibits achromatic emission, with a chromaticity coordinate of (0.327, 0.330), and correlated color temperature similar to sunlight.An electrically driven quantum-dot hybrid white light-emitting diode is fabricated via spin coating CdSe quantum dots onto a GaN/ZnO nanorod matrix. For the first time, quantum dots are excited by fluorescence resonance energy transfer from the carriers trapped at surface defect levels. The prototype device exhibits achromatic emission, with a chromaticity coordinate of (0.327, 0.330), and correlated color temperature similar to sunlight. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr09261b

  18. PREDICTIVE MODELING OF LIGHT-INDUCED MORTALITY OF ENTEROCOCCI FAECALIS IN RECREATIONAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    One approach to predictive modeling of biological contamination of recreational waters involves the application of process-based approaches that consider microbial sources, hydrodynamic transport, and microbial fate. This presentation focuses on one important fate process, light-...

  19. Growth and physiological responses of tree seedlings to experimental manipulation of light and water

    SciTech Connect

    Huston, M.A.; Holmgren, M.

    1995-06-01

    Seedlings of two tree species with similar tolerance to soil water and nutrient levels, but contrasting tolerance to shade (Acer saccharum and Liriodendron tulipifera) were grown in shade houses under 5 light levels (27%, 17%, 12%, 5%, and 1%) and three soil water regimes (5-9%, 11-15%, and >20%). Soil, light, and water conditions were representative of those in the Walker Branch Throughfall Displacement Experiment, where the same species are being monitored under field conditions. Treatments were maintained from mid-June through October, when all plants were harvested for determination of biomass allocation patterns. The only mortality occurred among the tulip poplars, but there was a significant interaction effect of the treatments on leaf area, total biomass, and allocation patterns. Highest growth rates in both species occurred at 17% light in the highest water treatment, with the 27% treatment showing reduced growth, perhaps due to photoinhibition. Gas exchange measurements indicated that the light compensation point increased under dry conditions.

  20. 77 FR 62270 - Proposed Revision Treatment of Non-Safety Systems for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Revision Treatment of Non-Safety Systems for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors AGENCY... Treatment of Non-Safety Systems (RTNSS) for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors.'' The current SRP does not contain guidance on the proposed RTNSS for Passive Advance Light Water Reactors. DATES:...

  1. A review of light-scattering techniques for the study of colloids in natural waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rees, T.F.

    1987-01-01

    In order to understand the movement of colloidal materials in natural waters, we first need to have a means of quantifying their physical characteristics. This paper reviews three techniques which utilize light-scattering phenomena to measure the translational diffusion coefficient, the rotational diffusion coefficient, and the electrophoretic mobility of colloids suspended in water. Primary emphasis is to provide sufficient theoretical detail so that hydrologists can evaluate the utility of photon correlation spectrometry, electrophoretic light scattering, and electric birefringence analysis. ?? 1987.

  2. Abiotic control of underwater light in a drinking water reservoir: Photon budget analysis and implications for water quality monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Shohei; Laurion, Isabelle; Markager, Stiig; Vincent, Warwick F.

    2015-08-01

    In optically complex inland waters, the underwater attenuation of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) is controlled by a variable combination of absorption and scattering components of the lake or river water. Here we applied a photon budget approach to identify the main optical components affecting PAR attenuation in Lake St. Charles, a drinking water reservoir for Québec City, Canada. This analysis showed the dominant role of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption (average of 44% of total absorption during the sampling period), but with large changes over depth in the absolute and relative contribution of the individual absorption components (water, nonalgal particulates, phytoplankton and CDOM) to PAR attenuation. This pronounced vertical variation occurred because of the large spectral changes in the light field with depth, and it strongly affected the average in situ diffuse absorption coefficients in the water column. For example, the diffuse absorption coefficient for pure-water in the ambient light field was 10-fold higher than the value previously measured in the blue open ocean and erroneously applied to lakes and coastal waters. Photon absorption budget calculations for a range of limnological conditions confirmed that phytoplankton had little direct influence on underwater light, even at chlorophyll a values above those observed during harmful algal blooms in the lake. These results imply that traditional measures of water quality such as Secchi depth and radiometric transparency do not provide a meaningful estimate of the biological state of the water column in CDOM-colored lakes and reservoirs.

  3. Aquatic vision and the modulation transfer properties of unlighted and diffusely lighted natural waters.

    PubMed

    Jagger, W S; Muntz, W R

    1993-09-01

    The modulation transfer function (MTF) of well-mixed unlighted and diffusely lighted samples of clear natural waters for path lengths up to 4 m was measured. The measuring conditions simulated the situation for horizontal aquatic vision. In unlighted water, the MTF decreased relatively slowly with increasing path length and spatial frequency up to 150 c/deg. We interpret this as the result of low-angle forward scattering of light from the target. For diffusely lighted water, the MTF fell much more rapidly with path length, but was nearly independent of spatial frequency. Here, scattering of ambient light into the light path contributes an additional veiling glare or path radiance, which is independent of spatial frequency but degrades the MTF strongly with increasing path length. These scattering processes are independent of wavelength in the visible spectrum. The modulation transfer properties of these waters do not preclude high aquatic visual acuity. However, the useful range of high acuity vision in diffusely lighted water is much less than for unlighted water. This places special requirements upon the design of high-acuity aquatic eyes. PMID:8266631

  4. Transmembrane water-flux through SLC4A11: a route defective in genetic corneal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Vilas, Gonzalo L.; Loganathan, Sampath K.; Liu, Jun; Riau, Andri K.; Young, James D.; Mehta, Jodhbir S.; Vithana, Eranga N.; Casey, Joseph R.

    2013-01-01

    Three genetic corneal dystrophies [congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy type 2 (CHED2), Harboyan syndrome and Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy] arise from mutations of the SLC4a11 gene, which cause blindness from fluid accumulation in the corneal stroma. Selective transmembrane water conductance controls cell size, renal fluid reabsorption and cell division. All known water-channelling proteins belong to the major intrinsic protein family, exemplified by aquaporins (AQPs). Here we identified SLC4A11, a member of the solute carrier family 4 of bicarbonate transporters, as an unexpected addition to known transmembrane water movement facilitators. The rate of osmotic-gradient driven cell-swelling was monitored in Xenopus laevis oocytes and HEK293 cells, expressing human AQP1, NIP5;1 (a water channel protein from plant), hCNT3 (a human nucleoside transporter) and human SLC4A11. hCNT3-expressing cells swelled no faster than control cells, whereas SLC4A11-mediated water permeation at a rate about half that of some AQP proteins. SLC4A11-mediated water movement was: (i) similar to some AQPs in rate; (ii) uncoupled from solute-flux; (iii) inhibited by stilbene disulfonates (classical SLC4 inhibitors); (iv) inactivated in one CHED2 mutant (R125H). Localization of AQP1 and SLC4A11 in human and murine corneal (apical and basolateral, respectively) suggests a cooperative role in mediating trans-endothelial water reabsorption. Slc4a11−/− mice manifest corneal oedema and distorted endothelial cells, consistent with loss of a water-flux. Observed water-flux through SLC4A11 extends the repertoire of known water movement pathways and call for a re-examination of explanations for water movement in human tissues. PMID:23813972

  5. X-Ray Shines Light on Water Mystery

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsson, Anders

    2010-11-17

    Water is the key compound for our existence on this planet and it is involved in many important physical, chemical, biological and geological processes. Although water is the most common molecular substance it is also most unusual with many anomalies in its thermodynamic properties such as compressibility, density variation and heat capacity. The question of the structure of the hydrogen bonding network in water has been discussed intensively for over 100 years and has not yet been resolved. This talk will describe recent x-ray spectroscopy and scattering measurements showing that the liquid can be described as fluctuations between two types of local hydrogen bonded structures driven by in commensurate requirements for minimizing enthalpy and maximizing entropy.

  6. Water repellent spray-type encapsulation of quantum dot light-emitting diodes using super-hydrophobic self-assembled nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Junebeom; Bong, Jihye; Lim, Taekyung; Lee, Ki-Heon; Yang, Heesun; Ju, Sanghyun

    2015-10-01

    We have developed a spray-type encapsulation method for quantum dot light-emitting diode (QD-LED) displays designed to prevent the penetration of oxygen and moisture in ambient air and repel water. The non-wettability and oxygen/moisture repellency afforded by the super-hydrophobic (contact angle of ∼158°) self-assembled Al2O3 nanoparticles (SAM-NP) is attributed to a reduction in the number of defects sites such as pin-holes or cracks during the formation of the thin-film. The QD-LEDs with SAM-NP encapsulation were found to have an effective lifetime in ambient air and a stable light emission in water compared to those of equivalent QD-LEDs without encapsulation.

  7. Mount Gambier drinking water and birth defects. A laboratory study in rats after earlier epidemiological findings.

    PubMed

    Dreosti, I E; McMichael, A J; Bridle, T M

    1984-09-29

    Experimental studies in pregnant rats failed to demonstrate the presence of a teratogenic agent in water from the Mount Gambier Blue Lake or from several local bores, even when the water from each of those two sources was concentrated tenfold and fivefold, respectively, by freeze drying. The experimental data thus failed to corroborate the previously reported epidemiological evidence of an increased risk of human teratogenesis in pregnant women who were drinking water from these sources. The growth of rat embryos in culture on serum taken from pregnant women in the Mount Gambier region was identical, regardless of the source of drinking water consumed by the individual donors. The findings do not suggest the presence of a teratogen in Mount Gambier water supplies; however, they should be regarded with the caution which is necessarily associated with teratology studies conducted across the boundaries of species. PMID:6472176

  8. Confocal luminescence microscopy study of defect-domain wall interaction in lithium niobate and its application to light-induced domain engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandmann, Christian

    Understanding the mutual interaction of extrinsic and intrinsic defects with the ferroelectric domain walls of LiNbO3 is the key to achieve domain patterns on the sub-micron scale. For that reason the influence of domain inversion on the Er3+ defect was investigated in a detailed study, in which energetic shifts and changes in the intensity ratio of individual Er3+ sites were found. The results led to an improved model describing the Er3+ defect in LiNbO3 and to the introduction of a concept of an atomistic probe. This atomistic probe allows the determination of the orientation of the ferroelectric axis by means of optical spectroscopy and allows three-dimensional imaging of domain structures with high spatial resolution without topographic artifacts. For this purpose a confocal luminescence microscope was developed, adapted to allow investigation at low temperature and applied electric fields. Based on the concept of an atomistic probe, the interaction of Er and Ti dopants was investigated, and significant spectral broadening and line shifting were found. Calibrating these changes to the [Ti4+]-concentration allows imaging of [Ti4+]-profiles, as found in integrated optical devices. The [Ti4+]-concentration profile can be imaged without artifacts caused by topology, intensity fluctuations, or variations in the [Er3+]-concentration profile. A novel approach was introduced for directly writing ferroelectric domain patterns into LiNbO3 substrates using the confocal microscope to focus visible light from an argon ion laser to a diffraction limited spot. It was shown that space charge fields, created by light with a wavelength of 488nm, can reduce the external applied field needed for domain inversion by up to 30%. So far, structures with a period down to 8mum have been demonstrated. In-situ experiments during domain inversion demonstrated the possibility to monitor the domain inversion process in-situ with a temporal resolution of up to t = 7ms. It could be

  9. Characterizing Scitillation and Cherenkov Light Yield in Water-Based Liquid Scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Land, B. J.; Caravaca, J.; Descamps, F. B.; Orebi Gann, G. D.

    2016-03-01

    The recent development of Water-based Liquid Scintillator (WbLS) has made it possible to produce scintillating materials with highly tunable light yields and excellent optical clarity. This allows for a straightforward combination of the directional properties of Cherenkov light with the greater energy resolution afforded by the typically brighter scintillation light, which lends itself well to a broad program of neutrino physics. Here we explore the light yields and optical properties of WbLS materials in development for Theia (formerly ASDC) as measured in our benchtop Theia R&D at Berkeley Lab and extrapolate to larger detectors.

  10. [Effects of light on submerged macrophytes in eutrophic water: research progress].

    PubMed

    Li-Sha, Zou; Ze-Yu, Nie; Xiao-Yan, Yao; Ji-Yan, Shi

    2013-07-01

    The restoration of submerged macrophytes is the key to remediate eutrophic water and maintain the health of aquatic ecosystem, while light is the main limiting factor. This paper summarized the factors affecting the light extinction in water and the mechanisms of light intensity affecting the physiology of submerged macrophytes, with the focuses on the metabolic mechanisms of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus, the responses of antioxidant enzyme system, and the feedbacks of pigment composition and concentration in the common submerged macrophytes under low light stress. Several engineering techniques applied in the ecological restoration of submerged macrophytes were presented, and the framework of the restoration of submerged macrophytes in eutrophic water was proposed. Some problems in current research and several suggestions on future research were addressed, which could help the related research and engineering practices. PMID:24175542

  11. On phenomenon of light radiation from miniature balls immersed in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torchigin, V. P.; Torchigin, A. V.

    2010-01-01

    A phenomenon of light radiation from miniature silicon balls produced at arc discharge and immersed in water is described. Video film showing shining balls in a vessel with water is presented. An explanation of this phenomenon is considered. Similarities and differences of this phenomenon with a phenomenon of ball lightning are analyzed.

  12. Birth defects and household water supply. Epidemiological studies in the Mount Gambier region of South Australia.

    PubMed

    Scragg, R K; Dorsch, M M; McMichael, A J; Baghurst, P A

    We report a descriptive study indicating a localised excess of congenital malformations in Mount Gambier, South Australia, and summary results of a subsequent case-control study showing an association between the occurrence of congenital malformations and the consumption of underground water by pregnant women. The internal cohesion of the data analyses, and the plausibility conferred by experimental evidence, suggests that the underground water, and its elevated concentration of nitrates, may warrant further consideration as a source of human teratogens. PMID:7162445

  13. Visualization by light transmission of oil and water contents in transient two-phase flow fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darnault, Christophe J. G.; Throop, James A.; DiCarlo, David A.; Rimmer, Alon; Steenhuis, Tammo S.; Parlange, J.-Yves

    1998-06-01

    The difficulty of determining transient fluid contents in a soil-oil-water system is hampering an understanding of the system's flow characteristics. In this paper, we describe a light transmission method (LTM) which can rapidly obtain oil and water contents throughout a large two-dimensional flow field of silica sand. By appropriately coloring the water with 0.005% FD&C blue #1, the hue of the transmitted light is found to be directly related to the water content within the porous media. The hue provides a high resolution measurement of the water and oil contents in transient flow fields (such as unstable flow). Evaluation of the reliability of LTM was assessed by checking the mass balance for a known water injection and its utility in visualizing a whole flow field was exemplified for unstable fingered flow by comparing fluid contents to those obtained with synchrotron X-ray radiation.

  14. Characterization of 14C in Swedish light water reactors.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Asa; Aronsson, Per-Olof; Lundgren, Klas; Stenström, Kristina

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents the results of a 4-y investigation of 14C in different waste streams of both boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Due to the potential impact of 14C on human health, minimizing waste and releases from the nuclear power industry is of considerable interest. The experimental data and conclusions may be implemented to select appropriate waste management strategies and practices at reactor units and disposal facilities. Organic and inorganic 14C in spent ion exchange resins, process water systems, ejector off-gas and replaced steam generator tubes were analyzed using a recently developed extraction method. Separate analysis of the chemical species is of importance in order to model and predict the fate of 14C within process systems as well as in dose calculations for disposal facilities. By combining the results of this investigation with newly calculated production rates, mass balance assessments were made of the 14C originating from production in the coolant. Of the 14C formed in the coolant of BWRs, 0.6-0.8% was found to be accumulated in the ion exchange resins (core-specific production rate in the coolant of a 2,500 MWth BWR calculated to be 580 GBq GW(e)(-1) y(-1)). The corresponding value for PWRs was 6-10% (production rate in a 2,775 MWth PWR calculated to be 350 GBq GW(e)(-1) y(-1)). The 14C released with liquid discharges was found to be insignificant, constituting less than 0.5% of the production in the coolant. The stack releases, routinely measured at the power plants, were found to correspond to 60-155% of the calculated coolant production, with large variations between the BWR units. PMID:18617793

  15. Ion hydration and associated defects in hydrogen bond network of water: Observation of reorientationally slow water molecules beyond first hydration shell in aqueous solutions of MgCl 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baul, Upayan; Vemparala, Satyavani

    2015-01-01

    Effects of the presence of ions, at moderate to high concentrations, on dynamical properties of water molecules are investigated through classical molecular dynamics simulations using two well-known nonpolarizable water models. Simulations reveal that the presence of magnesium chloride (MgCl2) induces perturbations in the hydrogen bond network of water leading to the formation of bulklike domains with ``defect sites'' on boundaries of such domains: water molecules at such defect sites have less number of hydrogen bonds than those in bulk water. Reorientational autocorrelation functions for dipole vectors of such defect water molecules are computed at different concentrations of ions and compared with system of pure water. Earlier experimental and simulation studies indicate significant differences in reorientational dynamics for water molecules in the first hydration shell of many dissolved ions. Results of this study suggest that defect water molecules, which are beyond the first hydration shells of ions, also experience significant slowing of reorientation times as a function of concentration in the case of MgCl2. However, addition of cesium chloride (CsCl) to water does not perturb the hydrogen bond network of water significantly even at higher concentrations. This difference in behavior between MgCl2 and CsCl is consistent with the well-known Hofmeister series.

  16. Elimination of disinfection byproduct formation potential in reclaimed water during solar light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Qian-Yuan, Wu; Chao, Li; Ye, Du; Wen-Long, Wang; Huang, Huang; Hong-Ying, Hu

    2016-05-15

    Ecological storage of reclaimed water in ponds and lakes is widely applied in water reuse. During reclaimed water storage, solar light can degrade pollutants and improve water quality. This study investigated the effects of solar light irradiation on the disinfection byproduct formation potential in reclaimed water, including haloacetonitriles (HANs), trichloronitromethane (TCNM), trihalomethanes (THMs), haloketones (HKs) and chloral hydrate (CH). Natural solar light significantly decreased the formation potential of HANs, TCNM, and HKs in reclaimed water, but had a limited effect on the formation potential of THMs and CH. Ultraviolet (UV) light in solar radiation played a dominant role in the decrease of the formation potential of HANs, TCNM and HKs. Among the disinfection byproducts, the removal kinetic constant of dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN) with irradiation dose was much larger than those for dichloropropanone (1,1-DCP), trichloropropanone (1,1,1-TCP) and TCNM. During solar irradiation, fluorescence spectra intensities of reclaimed water also decreased significantly. The removal of tyrosine (Tyr)-like and tryptophan (Trp)-like protein fluorescence spectra intensity volumes was correlated to the decrease in DCAN formation potential. Solar irradiation was demonstrated to degrade Trp, Tyr and their DCAN formation potential. The photolysis products of Trp after solar irradiation were detected as kynurenine and tryptamine, which had chloroform, CH and DCAN formation potential lower than those of Trp. PMID:27010786

  17. Impact of Pilot Light Modeling on the Predicted Annual Performance of Residential Gas Water Heaters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.

    2013-08-01

    Modeling residential water heaters with dynamic simulation models can provide accurate estimates of their annual energy consumption, if the units? characteristics and use conditions are known. Most gas storage water heaters (GSWHs) include a standing pilot light. It is generally assumed that the pilot light energy will help make up standby losses and have no impact on the predicted annual energy consumption. However, that is not always the case. The gas input rate and conversion efficiency of a pilot light for a GSWH were determined from laboratory data. The data were used in simulations of a typical GSWH with and without a pilot light, for two cases: 1) the GSWH is used alone; and 2) the GSWH is the second tank in a solar water heating (SWH) system. The sensitivity of wasted pilot light energy to annual hot water use, climate, and installation location was examined. The GSWH used alone in unconditioned space in a hot climate had a slight increase in energy consumption. The GSWH with a pilot light used as a backup to an SWH used up to 80% more auxiliary energy than one without in hot, sunny locations, from increased tank losses.

  18. Weight change of various light-cured restorative materials after water immersion.

    PubMed

    Iwami, Y; Yamamoto, H; Sato, W; Kawai, K; Torii, M; Ebisu, S

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated weight changes of various light-cured glass-ionomer cements and other restorative materials during water immersion and compared findings with those of conventional glass-ionomer cement and light-cured resin composites. Three light-cured glass-ionomer cements, two polyacid-modified composite resins, one conventional glass-ionomer cement, and one light-cured composite resin were evaluated in this study. The weight changes of these specimens after water immersion were measured using an electronic analytical balance and adjusted according to water solubility measured at the same time weight change was measured. The results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Scheffé's F test at P < 0.05. The weight change of Photac-Fil Aplicap was the largest, and there were significant differences among the materials (P < 0.05). Weight change after 6 weeks' water immersion was noted in the following order: Fuji Ionomer Type II LC, Vitremer, Fuji Ionomer Type II, VariGlass VLC, Geristore V, and Clearfil AP-X. It is suggested that the amount of water sorption of light-cured glass-ionomer cements is greater than that of polyacid-modified composite resins. PMID:9656924

  19. Simulated solar light irradiation of mesotrione in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Ter Halle, Alexandra; Richard, Claire

    2006-06-15

    Photolysis is expected to be a major degradation process for pollutants in surface waters. We report here the first photodegradation study on mesotrione, a new triketone herbicide for use in maize. In a first step, we investigated the direct photolysis of mesotrione at 365 nm from a kinetic and analytical point of view. Mesotrione sensitizes its own oxidation through singlet oxygen formation and sensitizes the oxidation of H-donors through electron or H-atom transfer. In a second step, irradiation experiments were performed under conditions prevalent in the aqueous environment. Mesotrione in submicromolar concentrations was exposed to simulated sunlight, in addition to Suwannee River natural organic matter and/or nitrates. Suwannee River natural organic matter sensitizes the oxidation of mesotrione through the intermediacy of singlet oxygen, and the rate of mesotrione transformation is significantly enhanced for Suwannee River natural organic matter concentrations equal to or above 10 mg/L. Nitrates played a negligible role in SRNOM solutions. PMID:16830551

  20. COMSORS: A light water reactor chemical core catcher

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Parker, G.W.; Rudolph, J.C.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Kenton, M.A.

    1997-02-24

    The Core-Melt Source Reduction System (COMSORS) is a new approach to terminate lightwater reactor (LWR) core-melt accidents and ensure containment integrity. A special dissolution glass made of lead oxide (PbO) and boron oxide (B{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is placed under the reactor vessel. If molten core debris is released onto the glass, the following sequence happens: (1) the glass absorbs decay heat as its temperature increases and the glass softens; (2) the core debris dissolves into the molten glass; (3) molten glass convective currents create a homogeneous high-level waste (HLW) glass; (4) the molten glass spreads into a wider pool, distributing the heat for removal by radiation to the reactor cavity above or transfer to water on top of the molten glass; and (5) the glass solidifies as increased surface cooling area and decreasing radioactive decay heat generation allows heat removal to exceed heat generation.

  1. Environmentally assisted cracking of light-water reactor materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.; Kassner, T.F.; Shack, W.J.

    1996-02-01

    Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) of lightwater reactor (LWR) materials has affected nuclear reactors from the very introduction of the technology. Corrosion problems have afflicted steam generators from the very introduction of pressurized water reactor (PWR) technology. Shippingport, the first commercial PWR operated in the United States, developed leaking cracks in two Type 304 stainless steel (SS) steam generator tubes as early as 1957, after only 150 h of operation. Stress corrosion cracks were observed in the heat-affected zones of welds in austenitic SS piping and associated components in boiling-water reactors (BRWs) as early as 1965. The degradation of steam generator tubing in PWRs and the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of austenitic SS piping in BWRs have been the most visible and most expensive examples of EAC in LWRs, and the repair and replacement of steam generators and recirculation piping has cost hundreds of millions of dollars. However, other problems associated with the effects of the environment on reactor structures and components am important concerns in operating plants and for extended reactor lifetimes. Cast duplex austenitic-ferritic SSs are used extensively in the nuclear industry to fabricate pump casings and valve bodies for LWRs and primary coolant piping in many PWRs. Embrittlement of the ferrite phase in cast duplex SS may occur after 10 to 20 years at reactor operating temperatures, which could influence the mechanical response and integrity of pressure boundary components during high strain-rate loading (e.g., seismic events). The problem is of most concern in PWRs where slightly higher temperatures are typical and cast SS piping is widely used.

  2. Hydrogen defects in {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and water weakening of sapphire and alumina ceramics between 600 and 1000 C -- 1. Infrared characterization of defects

    SciTech Connect

    Kronenberg, A.K.; Castaing, J.; Mitchell, T.E.; Kirby, S.H.

    2000-04-19

    Hydrogen impurities in materials influence their properties, including flow strength. {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystals and polycrystalline ceramics were annealed in supercritical water between 850 and 1,025 C, under pressures in the range 1,500--2,000 MPa. A few specimens were further subjected to plastic deformation. Hydrogen penetration was examined using infrared absorption measurements of O-H bond vibrations, which revealed two kinds of hydrogen defects. In single crystals, defects are characterized by sharp O-H absorption bands assigned to interstitial protons. Hydrogen impurities of hydrothermally annealed ceramics and of all hydrothermally deformed specimens are characterized by broad O-H bands assigned to molecular water. The grain boundaries of hydrothermally annealed ceramics are severely damaged. The kinetics of hydrogen penetration is consistent with diffusion data.

  3. Hydrogen defects in α-Al2O3 and water weakening of sapphire and alumina ceramics between 600 and 1000°C: I. Infrared characterization of defects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kronenberg, A.K.; Castaing, J.; Mitchell, T.E.; Kirby, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    Hydrogen impurities in materials influence their properties, including flow strength. α-Al2O3 single crystals and polycrystalline ceramics were annealed in supercritical water between 850 and 1025°C, under pressures in the range 1500–2000 MPa. A few specimens were further subjected to plastic deformation. Hydrogen penetration was examined using infrared absorption measurements of O–H bond vibrations, which revealed two kinds of hydrogen defects. In single crystals, defects are characterized by sharp O–H absorption bands assigned to interstitial protons. Hydrogen impurities of hydrothermally annealed ceramics and of all hydrothermally deformed specimens are characterized by broad O–H bands assigned to molecular water. The grain boundaries of hydrothermally annealed ceramics are severely damaged. The kinetics of hydrogen penetration is consistent with diffusion data.

  4. Red spruce gas exchange in response to light, temperature, CO sub 2 and water stress

    SciTech Connect

    Samuelson, L.; Seiler, J. )

    1991-05-01

    The objective of this research was to examine the gas exchange responses of native red spruce seedlings to light, temperature and CO{sub 2} in combination with water stress to determine how red spruce physiologically responds to water stress. Gas exchange responses were examined under well-watered conditions and at an average leaf water potential of {minus}1.6 MPa. Net photosynthesis (Pnet) and leaf conductance (gl) were on average 35% and 53% lower, respectively, during water stress. The nature of the response of Pnet and gl to temperature and CO{sub 2} was similar to the well-watered response. Pnet was lower with water stress at high irradiances only. Water use efficiency was greater during water stress at 15C but not at 25 and 35C. No change in osmotic potential during water stress was observed. The response of red spruce physiology to varying light, temperature and CO{sub 2} does not appear to be greatly modified by water stress.

  5. Role of paramagnetic defects in light emission processes in Y-doped ZrO2 nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korsunska, N.; Baran, M.; Zhuk, A.; Polishchuk, Yu; Stara, T.; Kladko, V.; Bacherikov, Yu; Venger, Ye; Konstantinova, T.; Khomenkova, L.

    2014-12-01

    Luminescence and structural properties of pure and Y-doped ZrO2 nanopowders with different Y content synthesized by co-precipitation of Zr and Y salts were investigated by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and photoluminescence (PL) methods. It was found that at constant calcination temperature (700 °С), the increase of Y content stimulates the transformation of crystalline phase from monoclinic through the tetragonal to the cubic one. Generally, room temperature PL emission was found to be similar for the samples with different Y content, demonstrating the same overlapped PL components in visible spectral range under extrinsic excitation. The relative contribution of each PL component was found to be affected by calcination time. In EPR spectra of as-prepared samples no signals were observed. The annealing in N2 or H2 flow results in the appearance of the signal from surface Zr3+ defects. In the latter the signal assigned to F-center also arises. The anti-correlation observed between the PL intensity and the value of the Zr3+ EPR signal allows us to conclude that the Zr3+ center is the center of fast non-radiative recombination. At the same time, interrelation between the intensity of the EPR signal assigned to F-centers and observed PL bands was not found.

  6. Light-Regulated Molecular Trafficking in a Synthetic Water-Soluble Host.

    PubMed

    Del Barrio, Jesús; Ryan, Seán T J; Jambrina, Pablo G; Rosta, Edina; Scherman, Oren A

    2016-05-11

    Cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8])-mediated complexation of a dicationic azobenzene in water allows for the light-controlled encapsulation of a variety of second guest compounds, including amino acids, dyes, and fragrance molecules. Such controlled guest sequestration inside the cavity of CB[8] enables the regulation of the thermally induced phase transition of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-which is not photosensitive-thus demonstrating the robustness and relevancy of the light-regulated CB[8] complexation. PMID:26876686

  7. Analysis of the light-water flooding of the HFBR thimble tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Carew, J.F.; Aronson, A.L.; Cokinos, D.M.; Prince, A.; Todosow, M.; Tichler, P.R.; Cheng, L.Y.; Karol, R.C. )

    1991-01-01

    The fuel elements surrounding the central vertical thimble tubes in the Brookhaven National Laboratory High-Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) are highly undermoderated, and light-water flooding of these irradiation thimbles results in a positive core reactivity insertion. The light-water contamination of the D{sub 2}O thimble tube coolant is the result of a postulated double-ended guillotine break of a U tube in the experimental facilities heat exchanger during the HFBR light-water flooding (LWF) event. While this event has a low probability (1.3 x 10{sup {minus}4}/yr), the HFBR protection system must ensure adequate thermal margin during the power transient. This paper summarizes the analysis of the HFBR thimble-tube LWF event.

  8. Stray light effects in above-water remote-sensing reflectance from hyperspectral radiometers.

    PubMed

    Talone, Marco; Zibordi, Giuseppe; Ansko, Ilmar; Banks, Andrew Clive; Kuusk, Joel

    2016-05-20

    Stray light perturbations are unwanted distortions of the measured spectrum due to the nonideal performance of optical radiometers. Because of this, stray light characterization and correction is essential when accurate radiometric measurements are a necessity. In agreement with such a need, this study focused on stray light correction of hyperspectral radiometers widely applied for above-water measurements to determine the remote-sensing reflectance (RRS). Stray light of sample radiometers was experimentally characterized and a correction algorithm was developed and applied to field measurements performed in the Mediterranean Sea. Results indicate that mean stray light corrections are appreciable, with values generally varying from -1% to +1% in the 400-700 nm spectral region for downward irradiance and sky radiance, and from -1% to +4% for total radiance from the sea. Mean corrections for data products such as RRS exhibit values that depend on water type varying between -0.5% and +1% in the blue-green spectral region, with peaks up to 9% in the red in eutrophic waters. The possibility of using one common stray light correction matrix for the analyzed class of radiometers was also investigated. Results centered on RRS support such a feasibility at the expense of an increment of the uncertainty typically well below 0.5% in the blue-green and up to 1% in the red, assuming sensors are based on spectrographs from the same production batch. PMID:27411122

  9. Birth Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Birth Defects: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What are birth defects? Birth defects are structural or functional abnormalities present ...

  10. Propagation of modulated light in water: implications for imaging and communications systems.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Linda; Laux, Alan; Cochenour, Brandon

    2009-05-10

    Until recently, little has been done to study the effect of higher modulation frequencies (>100 MHz) or short (<2 ns) pulse durations on forward-scattered light in ocean water. This forward-scattered light limits image resolution and may ultimately limit the bandwidth of a point-to-point optical communications link. The purpose of this work is to study the propagation of modulated light fields at frequencies up to 1 GHz. Results from laboratory tank experiments and their impact on future underwater optical imaging and communications systems are discussed. PMID:19424378

  11. Semihydrogenated BN Sheet: A Promising Visible-light Driven Photocatalyst for Water Splitting

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xingxing; Zhao, Jin; Yang, Jinlong

    2013-01-01

    Based on first principles calculations, we predict semihydrogenated graphitic BN (sh-BN) sheet is a potential metal-free visible-light driven photocatalyst for water splitting. The ground state of sh-BN is a strip-like antiferromagnetic semiconductor with a band gap suitable for visible-light absorption. The redox potentials of water splitting are all located inside the band gap and the probability densities of valence and conduction bands are distributed apart spatially leading to a well-separation of photogenerated electrons and holes. PMID:23681171

  12. Water-plasma-assisted synthesis of black titania spheres with efficient visible-light photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Panomsuwan, Gasidit; Watthanaphanit, Anyarat; Ishizaki, Takahiro; Saito, Nagahiro

    2015-06-01

    Black titania spheres (H-TiO2-x) were synthesized via a simple green method assisted by water plasma at a low temperature and atmospheric pressure. The in situ production of highly energetic hydroxyl and hydrogen species from water plasma are the prominent factors in the oxidation and hydrogenation reactions during the formation of H-TiO2-x, respectively. The visible-light photocatalytic activity toward the dye degradation of H-TiO2-x can be attributed to the synergistic effect of large-surface area, visible-light absorption and the existence of oxygen vacancies and Ti(3+) sites. PMID:25946395

  13. Advanced Nuclear Technology: Advanced Light Water Reactors Utility Requirements Document Small Modular Reactors Inclusion Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Loflin, Leonard; McRimmon, Beth

    2014-12-18

    This report summarizes a project by EPRI to include requirements for small modular light water reactors (smLWR) into the EPRI Utility Requirements Document (URD) for Advanced Light Water Reactors. The project was jointly funded by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The report covers the scope and content of the URD, the process used to revise the URD to include smLWR requirements, a summary of the major changes to the URD to include smLWR, and how to use the URD as revised to achieve value on new plant projects.

  14. Practical Combinations of Light-Water Reactors and Fast-Reactors for Future Actinide Transmutation

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Emory D; Renier, John-Paul

    2007-01-01

    Multicycle partitioning-transmutation (P-T) studies continue to show that use of existing light-water reactors (LWRs) and new advanced light-water reactors (ALWRs) can effectively transmute transuranic (TRU) actinides, enabling initiation of full actinide recycle much earlier than waiting for the development and deployment of sufficient fast reactor (FR) capacity. The combination of initial P-T cycles using LWRs/ALWRs in parallel with economic improvements to FR usage for electricity production, and a follow-on transition period in which FRs are deployed, is a practical approach to near-term closure of the nuclear fuel cycle with full actinide recycle.

  15. Flow-induced vibration for light-water reactors. Progress report, April 1978-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Schardt, J. F.

    1980-03-01

    Flow-Induced vibration for Light Water Reactors (FIV for LWRs) is a four-year program designed to improve the FIV performance of light water reactors through the development of design criteria, analytical models for predicting behavior of components, general scaling laws to improve the accuracy of reduced-scale tests, and the identification of high FIV risk areas. The program commenced December 1, 1976, but was suspended on September 30, 1978, due to a shift in Department of Energy (DOE) priorities away from LWR productivity/availability. It was reinitiated as of August 1, 1979. This progress report summarizes the accomplishments achieved during the period from April 1978 to December 1979.

  16. Nanoscale determinant to brighten up GaN:Eu red light-emitting diode: Local potential of Eu-defect complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, Masashi; Koizumi, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Yasufumi

    2015-04-21

    Emission sites in GaN:Eu red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were investigated using a new spectroscopy technique, namely, site-selective pulse-driven emission spectroscopy (PDES). The PDES, in which the emission intensity of a pulse-driven LED is recorded with respect to the pulse frequency, revealed the charge-trapping dynamics of the Eu emission sites. We found that a determinant of the emission intensity of the sites was not their relative abundance, but rather the spatial extent of the local potential, which determines the effectiveness of the capture of injection charges. Minor sites with wider potentials enhanced the emission intensity of the LED, resulting in emission spectra that differ from those obtained using the photoluminescence of a GaN:Eu thin film. The potential curve is determined by the atomic structure of the complexes, which consist of a Eu dopant and nearby defects in the GaN host. The extent was characterized by a parameter, namely, cutoff frequency, and the emission sites with the wider and narrower potentials in the GaN:Eu LED were found to have cutoff frequencies of 400 kHz and 3 MHz, respectively. The cutoff frequency of 3 MHz was found to be the upper limit for emission sites in the LED. The emission site with the wider potential is useful for slower devices such as light fixtures, while the site with the narrower potential is useful for faster devices such as opto-isolators.

  17. Materials Degradation in Light Water Reactors: Life After 60,???

    SciTech Connect

    Busby, Jeremy T; Nanstad, Randy K; Stoller, Roger E; Feng, Zhili; Naus, Dan J

    2008-04-01

    Nuclear reactors present a very harsh environment for components service. Components within a reactor core must tolerate high temperature water, stress, vibration, and an intense neutron field. Degradation of materials in this environment can lead to reduced performance, and in some cases, sudden failure. A recent EPRI-led study interviewed 47 US nuclear utility executives to gauge perspectives on long-term operation of nuclear reactors. Nearly 90% indicated that extensions of reactor lifetimes to beyond 60 years were likely. When polled on the most challenging issues facing further life extension, two-thirds cited plant reliability as the key issue with materials aging and cable/piping as the top concerns for plant reliability. Materials degradation within a nuclear power plant is very complex. There are many different types of materials within the reactor itself: over 25 different metal alloys can be found with can be found within the primary and secondary systems, not to mention the concrete containment vessel, instrumentation and control, and other support facilities. When this diverse set of materials is placed in the complex and harsh environment coupled with load, degradation over an extended life is indeed quite complicated. To address this issue, the USNRC has developed a Progressive Materials Degradation Approach (NUREG/CR-6923). This approach is intended to develop a foundation for appropriate actions to keep materials degradation from adversely impacting component integrity and safety and identify materials and locations where degradation can reasonably be expected in the future. Clearly, materials degradation will impact reactor reliability, availability, and potentially, safe operation. Routine surveillance and component replacement can mitigate these factors, although failures still occur. With reactor life extensions to 60 years or beyond or power uprates, many components must tolerate the reactor environment for even longer times. This may increase

  18. Defect-Rich Ultrathin ZnAl-Layered Double Hydroxide Nanosheets for Efficient Photoreduction of CO2 to CO with Water.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yufei; Chen, Guangbo; Bian, Tong; Zhou, Chao; Waterhouse, Geoffrey I N; Wu, Li-Zhu; Tung, Chen-Ho; Smith, Lorna J; O'Hare, Dermot; Zhang, Tierui

    2015-12-16

    Defect-rich ultrathin ZnAl-layered double hydroxide nanosheets are successfully prepared. Under UV-vis irradiation, these nanosheets are superior efficient catalysts for the photoreduction of CO2 to CO with water. The formed oxygen vacancies lead to the formation of coordinatively unsaturated Zn(+) centers within the nanosheets, responsible for the very high photocatalytic activities. PMID:26509528

  19. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Constellation Pilot Project FY11 Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    R. Johansen

    2011-09-01

    Summary report for Fiscal Year 2011 activities associated with the Constellation Pilot Project. The project is a joint effor between Constellation Nuclear Energy Group (CENG), EPRI, and the DOE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. The project utilizes two CENG reactor stations: R.E. Ginna and Nine Point Unit 1. Included in the report are activities associate with reactor internals and concrete containments.

  20. Inland Waters Night Lighting Configurations: A Navigation Rules Course for Coast Guard Auxiliarists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Gregory Peter

    A project developed a training program to teach boaters to recognize and interpret properly the lights of other vessels in nighttime or other reduced visibility conditions in the inland waters of the United States. The project followed the Instructional Systems Design model in the development of the course. The target population were members of…

  1. GENERIC, COMPONENT FAILURE DATA BASE FOR LIGHT WATER AND LIQUID SODIUM REACTOR PRAs

    SciTech Connect

    S. A. Eide; S. V. Chmielewski; T. D. Swantz

    1990-02-01

    A comprehensive generic component failure data base has been developed for light water and liquid sodium reactor probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) . The Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR) and the Centralized Reliability Data Organization (CREDO) data bases were used to generate component failure rates . Using this approach, most of the failure rates are based on actual plant data rather than existing estimates .

  2. Grouping of light water reactors for evaluation of decay heat removal capability

    SciTech Connect

    Karol, R.; Fresco, A.; Perkins, K.R.

    1984-06-01

    This grouping report provides a compilation of decay heat removal systems (DHRS) data for operating commercial light water reactors. The reactors have been divided into 12 groups based on similarity of the DHRS and related systems as part of the NRC Task Action Plan on Shutdown Decay Heat Removal Requirements.

  3. BENTHIC AND WATER COLUMN PROCESSES IN A SUBTROPICAL ESTUARY: EFFECTS OF LIGHT ON OXYGEN FLUXES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Murrell, M.C., J.D. Hagy, J.G. Campbell and J.M. Caffrey. In press. Benthic and Water Column Processes in a Subtropical Estuary: Effects of Light on Oxygen Fluxes (Abstract). To be presented at the ASLO 2004 Summer Meeting: The Changing Landscapes of Oceans and Freshwater, 13-18 ...

  4. Time-resolved refractive index and absorption mapping of light-plasma filaments in water.

    PubMed

    Minardi, Stefano; Gopal, Amrutha; Tatarakis, Michael; Couairon, Arnaud; Tamosauskas, Gintaras; Piskarskas, Rimtautas; Dubietis, Audrius; Di Trapani, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    By means of a quantitative shadowgraphic method, we performed a space-time characterization of the refractive index variation and transient absorption induced by a light-plasma filament generated by a 120 fs laser pulse in water. The formation and evolution of the plasma channel in the proximity of the nonlinear focus were observed with a 23 fs time resolution. PMID:18157267

  5. Birth Defects

    MedlinePlus

    A birth defect is a problem that happens while a baby is developing in the mother's body. Most birth defects happen during the first 3 months of ... in the United States is born with a birth defect. A birth defect may affect how the ...

  6. Experience with non-fuel-bearing components in LWR (light-water reactor) fuel systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.; Berting, F.M.

    1990-12-01

    Many non-fuel-bearing components are so closely associated with the spent fuel assemblies that their integrity and behavior must be taken into consideration with the fuel assemblies, when handling spent fuel of planning waste management activities. Presented herein is some of the experience that has been gained over the past two decades from non-fuel-bearing components in light-water reactors (LWRs), both pressurized-water reactors (PWRs) and boiling-water reactors (BWRs). Among the most important of these components are the control rod systems, the absorber and burnable poison rods, and the fuel assembly channels. 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Carbon nitride for the selective oxidation of aromatic alcohols in water under visible light.

    PubMed

    Long, Baihua; Ding, Zhengxin; Wang, Xinchen

    2013-11-01

    The selective oxidation of aromatic alcohols in water is achieved by using a carbon nitride (CN) catalyst, dioxygen, and visible light. The unique electronic structure of CN avoids the direct formation of hydroxyl radicals, which typically cause the total oxidation of organics. The chemical stability of CN allows several chemical protocols for photoredox catalysis in water, as exemplified by cooperative catalysis involving Brønsted acids. This leads to a new, green pathway for diverse organic transformations using sunlight and water. PMID:24039175

  8. Microfluidic reactors for visible-light photocatalytic water purification assisted with thermolysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Tan, Furui; Wan, Li; Wu, Mengchun; Zhang, Xuming

    2014-09-01

    Photocatalytic water purification using visible light is under intense research in the hope to use sunlight efficiently, but the conventional bulk reactors are slow and complicated. This paper presents an integrated microfluidic planar reactor for visible-light photocatalysis with the merits of fine flow control, short reaction time, small sample volume, and long photocatalyst durability. One additional feature is that it enables one to use both the light and the heat energy of the light source simultaneously. The reactor consists of a BiVO4-coated glass as the substrate, a blank glass slide as the cover, and a UV-curable adhesive layer as the spacer and sealant. A blue light emitting diode panel (footprint 10 mm × 10 mm) is mounted on the microreactor to provide uniform irradiation over the whole reactor chamber, ensuring optimal utilization of the photons and easy adjustments of the light intensity and the reaction temperature. This microreactor may provide a versatile platform for studying the photocatalysis under combined conditions such as different temperatures, different light intensities, and different flow rates. Moreover, the microreactor demonstrates significant photodegradation with a reaction time of about 10 s, much shorter than typically a few hours using the bulk reactors, showing its potential as a rapid kit for characterization of photocatalyst performance. PMID:25584117

  9. Coastal and Estuarine Waters: Light Behavior. Coastal and Estuarine Waters: Optical Sensors and Remote Sensing.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article summarizes the use of remote sensing techniques and technology to monitor coastal and estuarine waters. These waters are rich in mineral particles stirred up from the seabed by tides and waves and dissolved organic matter transported by rivers. The majority of the li...

  10. Electric Field-Assisted Photochemical Water Splitting Should Operate with 287 nm Light.

    PubMed

    Bachler, Vinzenz; Gärtner, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    The major photoreaction of water is the homolytic splitting of one O-H bond starting from the 1(1) B1 excited state (λmax = 167 nm). This reaction produces H• and •OH radicals. The combination of two H• atoms leads to the potential energy carrier dihydrogen. However, the energy required to obtain the photoreactive 1(1) B1 electronic state is about 7.4 eV, which cannot be effectively provided by solar radiation. The sun light spectrum on earth comprises the visible and ultraviolet region, but shows vanishing intensity near 7 eV (177.1 nm). This work provides theoretical evidence that the photoreactive 1(1) B1 state of water can be shifted into the ultraviolet (UV-B) light region (≈287 nm) by including explicitly an electric field in the calculations of the water absorption spectrum. To accomplish such bathochromic shift, a large field strength of 3.08 VÅ(-1) is required. The field-dependent excitation energies were calculated by applying the symmetry-adapted cluster configuration interaction (SAC-CI) procedure. Based on this theoretical analysis, we propose that photochemical water splitting can be accomplished by means of 287 nm light provided the water molecule is favorably oriented by an external electric field and is subsequently activated by a reversal of the field orientation. PMID:26876336